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Sample records for a1578g lle105val polymorphism

  1. Arsenic-related skin lesions and glutathione S-transferase P1 A1578G (lle105Val) polymorphism in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in one village

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.F.; Du, H.; Chen, J.G.

    A total of 2402 patients with arsenic-related skin lesions, such as hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, or even skin cancer in a few villages in Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture, China represent a unique case of endemic arsenism related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. This study aimed to investigate the cluster of arsenism cases and the possible relevant factors including GSTP1 polymorphism in two clans of different ethnic origin living in one village for generations. Arsenism morbidity in Miao clan P was significantly lower than in the neighbouring Han clan G1 (5.9 vs. 32.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.13, 95% confidence intervalmore » (CI): 0.06-0.27, P < 0.0001). No sex differences were confirmed inside both clans. Analyses of the environmental samples indicated that Miao clan P members were exposed to higher amounts of arsenic via inhalation and food ingestion. Hair and urine samples also proved a higher arsenic body burden in ethnic Miao individuals. No corresponding differences by sex were found. Higher frequencies of combined mutant genotype G/G1578 and A/G1578 (OR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.34-9.54, P < 0.0001) and of mutant allele G1578 (OR=3.22, 95% CI: 2.00-5.18, P < 0.0001) were detected in diagnosed arsenism patients than in non-diseased individuals. The Miao individuals showed a lower percentage of combined mutant genotypes (30.6 vs. 52.7%, OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.19-0.84, P=0.015) as well as of mutant allele G1578 (OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88, P=0.017) than their Han neighbours. Conclusions Genetic predisposition influences dermal arsenism toxicity. The GSTP1 A1578G (IIe105Val) status might be a susceptibility factor for arsenic-related skin lesions.« less

  2. Polymorphic Contracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  3. Polymorphous computing fabric

    DOEpatents

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  4. Polymorphs and polymorphic cocrystals of temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Babu, N Jagadeesh; Reddy, L Sreenivas; Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Nangia, Ashwini

    2008-07-07

    Crystal polymorphism in the antitumor drug temozolomide (TMZ), cocrystals of TMZ with 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (BPNO), and solid-state stability were studied. Apart from a known X-ray crystal structure of TMZ (form 1), two new crystalline modifications, forms 2 and 3, were obtained during attempted cocrystallization with carbamazepine and 3-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide. Conformers A and B of the drug molecule are stabilized by intramolecular amide N--HN(imidazole) and N--HN(tetrazine) interactions. The stable conformer A is present in forms 1 and 2, whereas both conformers crystallized in form 3. Preparation of polymorphic cocrystals I and II (TMZBPNO 1:0.5 and 2:1) were optimized by using solution crystallization and grinding methods. The metastable nature of polymorph 2 and cocrystal II is ascribed to unused hydrogen-bond donors/acceptors in the crystal structure. The intramolecularly bonded amide N-H donor in the less stable structure makes additional intermolecular bonds with the tetrazine C==O group and the imidazole N atom in stable polymorph 1 and cocrystal I, respectively. All available hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors are used to make intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the stable crystalline form. Synthon polymorphism and crystal stability are discussed in terms of hydrogen-bond reorganization.

  5. Disappearing Polymorphs Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Lancaster, Robert W; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Nearly twenty years ago, Dunitz and Bernstein described a selection of intriguing cases of polymorphs that disappear. The inability to obtain a crystal form that has previously been prepared is indeed a frustrating and potentially serious problem for solid-state scientists. This Review discusses recent occurrences and examples of disappearing polymorphs (as well as the emergence of elusive crystal forms) to demonstrate the enduring relevance of this troublesome, but always captivating, phenomenon in solid-state research. A number of these instances have been central issues in patent litigations. This Review, therefore, also highlights the complex relationship between crystal chemistry and the law. PMID:26031248

  6. Enzyme polymorphisms in Canarium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-two accessions of Canarium involving seven species, C. ovatum, C. album, C. megalanthum, C. harveyi, C. indicum, C. mehenbethene, and C. odontophyllum were studied for isozyme polymorphisms. Starch gel electrophoresis with a histidine-citrate buffer system (pH 6.5) was employed to assay six en...

  7. Polymorphism of phosphoric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.L.; Faust, G.T.; Hendricks, S.B.

    1943-01-01

    The melting points and monotropic relationship of three crystalline forms of phosphoric oxide were determined by the method of quenching. Previous vapor pressure data are discussed and interpreted to establish a pressure-temperature diagram (70 to 600??) for the one-component system. The system involves three triple points, at which solid, liquid and vapor (P4O10) coexist in equilibrium, namely: 420?? and 360 cm., 562?? and 43.7 cm. and 580?? and 55.5 cm., corresponding to the hexagonal, orthorhombic and stable polymorphs, respectively, and at least two distinct liquids, one a stable polymer of the other, which are identified with the melting of the stable form and the hexagonal modification, respectively. Indices of refraction of the polymorphs and glasses were determined. The density and the thermal, hygroscopic and structural properties of the several phases are discussed.

  8. Familial polymorphous cold eruption.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Eastern, J; Knox, J M

    1981-02-01

    An erythematous, burning papular eruption, constitutional symptoms, fever, and arthropathy developed in a 65-year-old patient after cold exposure. Involvement of other family members occurred in an autosomal dominant pattern. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen revealed telangiectasia and primarily neutrophilic perivascular inflammation, consistent with earlier biopsy reports of this syndrome. Although previously called "familial cold urticaria," this disease is not characterized by urticaria and may be best descriptively termed, "familial polymorphous cold eruption."

  9. Polymorphism in Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2Department of Chemistry, Howard University Polymorphism often occurs in energetic materials. Differences in the forms range from conformational changes in...these two areas. rayMond J. ButchEr is a professor of inorganic and structural chemistry at Howard University , Washington, DC. He has worked at Howard ... University since 1977 and has been associated with the NRL Laboratory for Structure of Matter since 1989 (primarily during the summer months as an

  10. A polymorph of terephthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2008-07-23

    A new ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of terephthalaldehyde, C(8)H(6)O(2), with a melting point of 372 K, has been obtained by recrystallization from ethanol. At room temperature, the crystals transform into the well known monoclinic form, with a melting point of 389 K. The crystal structure of the monoclinic form involves C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, but no such bonds are observed in the orthorhombic form. The molecule is planar.

  11. The Third Ambient Aspirin Polymorph

    SciTech Connect

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G.; Hu, Chunhua T.; Zhu, Qiang

    Polymorphism in aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), one of the most widely consumed medications, was equivocal until the structure of a second polymorph II, similar in structure to the original form I, was reported in 2005. Here, the third ambient polymorph of aspirin is described. Lastly, it was crystallized from the melt and its structure was determined using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and crystal structure prediction algorithms.

  12. The Third Ambient Aspirin Polymorph

    DOE PAGES

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G.; Hu, Chunhua T.; Zhu, Qiang; ...

    2017-05-17

    Polymorphism in aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), one of the most widely consumed medications, was equivocal until the structure of a second polymorph II, similar in structure to the original form I, was reported in 2005. Here, the third ambient polymorph of aspirin is described. Lastly, it was crystallized from the melt and its structure was determined using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and crystal structure prediction algorithms.

  13. Polymorphic Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphic electronics is a nascent technological discipline that involves, among other things, designing the same circuit to perform different analog and/or digital functions under different conditions. For example, a circuit can be designed to function as an OR gate or an AND gate, depending on the temperature (see figure). Polymorphic electronics can also be considered a subset of polytronics, which is a broader technological discipline in which optical and possibly other information- processing systems could also be designed to perform multiple functions. Polytronics is an outgrowth of evolvable hardware (EHW). The basic concepts and some specific implementations of EHW were described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: The essence of EHW is to design, construct, and test a sequence of populations of circuits that function as incrementally better solutions of a given design problem through the selective, repetitive connection and/or disconnection of capacitors, transistors, amplifiers, inverters, and/or other circuit building blocks. The evolution is guided by a search-and-optimization algorithm (in particular, a genetic algorithm) that operates in the space of possible circuits to find a circuit that exhibits an acceptably close approximation of the desired functionality. The evolved circuits can be tested by computational simulation (in which case the evolution is said to be extrinsic), tested in real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be intrinsic), or tested in random sequences of computational simulation and real hardware (in which case the evolution is said to be mixtrinsic).

  14. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and thereforemore » nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. As a result, these insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.« less

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    PubMed

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  17. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    I want to discuss both the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Consortium and the Human Genome Project. I am afraid most of my presentation will be thin on law and possibly too high on rhetoric. Having been engaged in a personal and direct way with these issues as a trained scientist, I find it quite difficult to be always as objective as I ought to be.

  18. Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M

    2000-12-01

    A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.

  19. New Polymorph Form of Dexamethasone Acetate.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ronaldo Pedro da; Ambrósio, Mateus Felipe Schuchter; Piovesan, Luciana Almeida; Freitas, Maria Clara Ramalho; Aguiar, Daniel Lima Marques de; Horta, Bruno Araújo Cautiero; Epprecht, Eugenio Kahn; San Gil, Rosane Aguiar da Silva; Visentin, Lorenzo do Canto

    2018-02-01

    A new monohydrated polymorph of dexamethasone acetate was crystallized and its crystal structure characterized. The different analytical techniques used for describing its structural and vibrational properties were: single crystal and polycrystal X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy. A Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out through self-arrangement cemented by H-bonds observed in this new polymorph. This new polymorph form appeared because of self-arrangement via classical hydrogen bonds around the water molecule. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate polymorphs: Solid-state characterisation of transition and polymorphic conversion via milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Simon, Alice; Cabral, Lúcio Mendes; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Rivastigmine (RHT) is an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is used for the treatment of mild to moderately severe dementia in Alzheimer's disease, and is known to present two polymorphic forms and to amorphise upon granulation. To date there is no information in the scientific or patent literature on polymorphic transition and stability. Hence, the aim of the current study was to gain a fundamental understanding of the polymorphic forms by (1) evaluating RHT thermodynamic stability (monotropy or enantiotropy) and (2) investigating the potential for polymorphic transformation upon milling. The two polymorphic and amorphous forms were characterised using X-ray powder diffractometry, thermal analyses, infra-red spectroscopy and water sorption analysis. The polymorphic transition was found to be spontaneous (ΔG0 < 0) and exothermic (ΔH0 < 0), indicative of a monotropic polymorph pair. The kinetic studies showed a fast initial polymorphic transition characterised by a heterogeneous nucleation, followed by a slow crystal growth. Ball milling can be used to promote the polymorphic transition and for the production of RHT amorphous form.

  1. Polymorphism at codon 36 of the p53 gene.

    PubMed

    Felix, C A; Brown, D L; Mitsudomi, T; Ikagaki, N; Wong, A; Wasserman, R; Womer, R B; Biegel, J A

    1994-01-01

    A polymorphism at codon 36 in exon 4 of the p53 gene was identified by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing of genomic DNA PCR products. The polymorphic allele, present in the heterozygous state in genomic DNAs of four of 100 individuals (4%), changes the codon 36 CCG to CCA, eliminates a FinI restriction site and creates a BccI site. Including this polymorphism there are four known polymorphisms in the p53 coding sequence.

  2. Persistent hydrogen bonding in polymorphic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Galek, Peter T A; Fábián, László; Allen, Frank H

    2009-02-01

    The significance of hydrogen bonding and its variability in polymorphic crystal structures is explored using new automated structural analysis methods. The concept of a chemically equivalent hydrogen bond is defined, which may be identified in pairs of structures, revealing those types of bonds that may persist, or not, in moving from one polymorphic form to another. Their frequency and nature are investigated in 882 polymorphic structures from the Cambridge Structural Database. A new method to compare conformations of equivalent molecules is introduced and applied to derive distinct subsets of conformational and packing polymorphs. The roles of chemical functionality and hydrogen-bond geometry in persistent interactions are systematically explored. Detailed structural comparisons reveal a large majority of persistent hydrogen bonds that are energetically crucial to structural stability.

  3. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments.

  4. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1988-01-21

    A method for processing related subject and reference macromolecule composed of complementary strand into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 fig.

  5. Purification of polymorphic components of complex genomes

    DOEpatents

    Stodolsky, M.

    1991-07-16

    A method is disclosed for processing related subject and reference macromolecule populations composed of complementary strands into their respective subject and reference populations of representative fragments and effectuating purification of unique polymorphic subject fragments. 1 figure.

  6. DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P.; White, P. Scott; Cai, Hong

    2001-01-01

    DNA polymorphism identity determination using flow cytometry. Primers designed to be immobilized on microspheres are allowed to anneal to the DNA strand under investigation, and are extended by either DNA polymerase using fluorescent dideoxynucleotides or ligated by DNA ligase to fluorescent reporter oligonucleotides. The fluorescence of either the dideoxynucleotide or the reporter oligonucleotide attached to the immobilized primer is measured by flow cytometry, thereby identifying the nucleotide polymorphism on the DNA strand.

  7. Chromosomal polymorphism in mammals: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Robinson, Terence J

    2017-02-01

    Although chromosome rearrangements (CRs) are central to studies of genome evolution, our understanding of the evolutionary consequences of the early stages of karyotypic differentiation (i.e. polymorphism), especially the non-meiotic impacts, is surprisingly limited. We review the available data on chromosomal polymorphisms in mammals so as to identify taxa that hold promise for developing a more comprehensive understanding of chromosomal change. In doing so, we address several key questions: (i) to what extent are mammalian karyotypes polymorphic, and what types of rearrangements are principally involved? (ii) Are some mammalian lineages more prone to chromosomal polymorphism than others? More specifically, do (karyotypically) polymorphic mammalian species belong to lineages that are also characterized by past, extensive karyotype repatterning? (iii) How long can chromosomal polymorphisms persist in mammals? We discuss the evolutionary implications of these questions and propose several research avenues that may shed light on the role of chromosome change in the diversification of mammalian populations and species. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  9. Cloning of polymorphisms (COP): enrichment of polymorphic sequences from complex genomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingfeng; Wang, Fuli; Zabarovska, Veronika; Wahlestedt, Claes; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe a new procedure (cloning of polymorphisms, COP) for enrichment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). COP would be applicable to the isolation of SNPs from particular regions of the genome, e.g. CpG islands, chromosomal bands, YACs or PAC contigs. A combination of digestion with restriction enzymes, treatment with uracil-DNA glycosylase and mung bean nuclease, PCR amplification and purification with streptavidin magnetic beads was used to isolate polymorphic sequences from the genomes of two human samples. After only two cycles of enrichment, 80% of the isolated clones were found to contain RFLPs. A simple method for the PCR detection of these polymorphisms was also developed. PMID:10606669

  10. Evolutionary Determinants of Morphological Polymorphism in Colonial Animals.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Carl; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Herrera-Cubilla, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Colonial animals commonly exhibit morphologically polymorphic modular units that are phenotypically distinct and specialize in specific functional tasks. But how and why these polymorphic modules have evolved is poorly understood. Across colonial invertebrates, there is wide variation in the degree of polymorphism, from none in colonial ascidians to extreme polymorphism in siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war. Bryozoa are a phylum of exclusively colonial invertebrates that uniquely exhibit almost the entire range of polymorphism, from monomorphic species to others that rival siphonophores in their polymorphic complexity. Previous approaches to understanding the evolution of polymorphism have been based on analyses of (1) the functional role of polymorphs or (2) presumed evolutionary costs and benefits based on evolutionary theory that postulates polymorphism should be evolutionarily sustainable only in more stable environments because polymorphism commonly leads to the loss of feeding and sexual competence. Here we use bryozoans from opposite shores of the Isthmus of Panama to revisit the environmental hypothesis by comparison of faunas from distinct oceanographic provinces that differ greatly in environmental variability, and we then examine the correlations between the extent of polymorphism in relation to patterns of ecological succession and variation in life histories. We find no support for the environmental hypothesis. Distributions of the incidence of polymorphism in the oceanographically unstable Eastern Pacific are indistinguishable from those in the more stable Caribbean. In contrast, the temporal position of species in a successional sequence is collinear with the degree of polymorphism because species with fewer types of polymorphs are competitively replaced by species with higher numbers of polymorphs on the same substrata. Competitively dominant species also exhibit patterns of growth that increase their competitive ability. The

  11. Are "functionally related polymorphisms" of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms associated with hypertension?

    PubMed

    Hahntow, Ines N; Mairuhu, Gideon; van Valkengoed, Irene Gm; Koopmans, Richard P; Michel, Martin C

    2010-06-02

    Genotype-phenotype association studies are typically based upon polymorphisms or haplotypes comprised of multiple polymorphisms within a single gene. It has been proposed that combinations of polymorphisms in distinct genes, which functionally impact the same phenotype, may have stronger phenotype associations than those within a single gene. We have tested this hypothesis using genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the high blood pressure phenotype. Our analysis is based on 1379 participants of the cross-sectional SUNSET study randomly selected from the population register of Amsterdam. Each subject was genotyped for the angiotensinogen M235T, the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphism. The phenotype high blood pressure was defined either as a categorical variable comparing hypertension versus normotension as in most previous studies or as a continuous variable using systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in a multiple regression analysis with gender, ethnicity, age, body-mass-index and antihypertensive medication as covariates. Genotype-phenotype relationships were explored for each polymorphism in isolation and for double and triple polymorphism combinations. At the single polymorphism level, only the A allele of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor was associated with a high blood pressure phenotype. Using combinations of polymorphisms of two or all three genes did not yield stronger/more consistent associations. We conclude that combinations of physiologically related polymorphisms of multiple genes, at least with regard to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the hypertensive phenotype, do not necessarily offer additional benefit in analyzing genotype/phenotype associations.

  12. Searching the Cambridge Structural Database for polymorphs.

    PubMed

    van de Streek, Jacco; Motherwell, Sam

    2005-10-01

    In order to identify all pairs of polymorphs in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), a method was devised to automatically compare two crystal structures. The comparison is based on simulated powder diffraction patterns, but with special provisions to deal with differences in unit-cell volumes caused by temperature or pressure. Among the 325,000 crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database, 35,000 pairs of crystal structures of the same chemical compound were identified and compared. A total of 7300 pairs of polymorphs were identified, of which 154 previously were unknown.

  13. Migraine and genetic polymorphisms: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine.

  14. Migraine and Genetic Polymorphisms: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Vincenzo; Agresta, Anella; Agresta, Antonio; Lamaida, Eros; Lamaida, Norman; Infante, Francesco; Capasso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and migraine as a cause of an increased risk of thrombotic disorders development is still debated In this respect, factor V Leiden, factor V (H1299R), prothrombin G20210A, factor XIII (V34L), β-fibrinogen, MTHFR (C677T), MTHFR (A1298C), APO E, PAI-1, HPA-1 and ACE I/D seem to play a determinant role in vascular diseases related to migraine. The present review analyzes both the incidence of the above genetic vascular mutations in migraineurs and the most re-cent developments related to genetic polymorphisms and migraine. PMID:22962564

  15. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in lung disease: bandwagon or breakthrough?

    PubMed Central

    Iannuzzi, Michael C; Maliarik, Mary; Rybicki, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    The study of genetic polymorphisms has touched every aspect of pulmonary and critical care medicine. We review recent progress made using genetic polymorphisms to define pathophysiology, to identify persons at risk for pulmonary disease and to predict treatment response. Several pitfalls are commonly encountered in studying genetic polymorphisms, and this article points out criteria that should be applied to design high-quality genetic polymorphism studies. PMID:11980584

  17. [Polymorphic loci and polymorphism analysis of short tandem repeats within XNP gene].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Ji; Gong, Yao-Qin; Guo, Chen-Hong; Chen, Bing-Xi; Li, Jiang-Xia; Guo, Yi-Shou

    2002-01-01

    To select polymorphic short tandem repeat markers within X-linked nuclear protein (XNP) gene, genomic clones which contain XNP gene were recognized by homologous analysis with XNP cDNA. By comparing the cDNA with genomic DNA, non-exonic sequences were identified, and short tandem repeats were selected from non-exonic sequences by using BCM search Launcher. Polymorphisms of the short tandem repeats in Chinese population were evaluated by PCR amplification and PAGE. Five short tandem repeats were identified from XNP gene, two of which were polymorphic. Four and 11 alleles were observed in Chinese population for XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4, respectively. Heterozygosities were 47% for XNPSTR1 and 70% for XNPSTR4. XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4 localized within 3' end and intron 10, respectively. Two polymorphic short tandem repeats have been identified within XNP gene and will be useful for linkage analysis and gene diagnosis of XNP gene.

  18. Four new polymorphic forms of suplatast tosilate.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keiko; Ushio, Takanori; Miura, Hidenori; Nakamura, Takashi; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-01-02

    We found four new polymorphic forms (γ-, ε-, ζ-, and η-forms) of suplatast tosilate (ST) by recrystallization and seeding with ST-analogous compounds; three polymorphic forms (α-, β-, and δ-forms) of ST have been previously reported. The physicochemical properties of these new forms were investigated using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The presence of hydrogen bonds in the new forms was assessed from the IR and solid-state NMR spectra. The crystal structures of the ε- and η-forms were determined from their powder X-ray diffraction data using the direct space approach and the Monte Carlo method, followed by Rietveld refinement. The structures determined for the ε- and η-forms supported the presence of hydrogen bonds between the ST molecules, as the IR and solid-state NMR spectra indicated. The thermodynamic characteristics of the seven polymorphic forms were evaluated by determining the solubility of each form. The α-form was the most insoluble in 2-propanol at 35°C, and was thus concluded to be the most stable form. The ε-form was the most soluble, and a polymorphic transition from the ε- to the α-form was observed during solubility testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  20. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  1. Polymorphism in a high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Yuan; Lou, Hongbo; ...

    2017-06-01

    Polymorphism, which describes the occurrence of different lattice structures in a crystalline material, is a critical phenomenon in materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, configuration disorder was compositionally engineered into single lattices, leading to the discovery of high-entropy alloys and high-entropy oxides. For these novel entropy-stabilized forms of crystalline matter with extremely high structural stability, is polymorphism still possible? Here by employing in situ high-pressure synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, we reveal a polymorphic transition from face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure to hexagonal-close-packing (hcp) structure in the prototype CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy. The transition is irreversible, and our in situ high-temperature synchrotron radiationmore » X-ray diffraction experiments at different pressures of the retained hcp high-entropy alloy reveal that the fcc phase is a stable polymorph at high temperatures, while the hcp structure is more thermodynamically favourable at lower temperatures. Lastly, as pressure is increased, the critical temperature for the hcp-to-fcc transformation also rises.« less

  2. Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellulose samples are routinely analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal type (polymorph) and crystallinity. However, the connection is seldom made between those efforts and the crystal structures of cellulose that have been determined with synchrotron X-radiation and neutron diffrac...

  3. Renin Gene Polymorphisms in Bangladeshi Hypertensive Population

    PubMed Central

    Afruza, Rownock; Islam, Laila N; Banerjee, Sajal; Hassan, Md. Mahbub; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Nabi, AHM Nurun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Linkages of renin gene polymorphisms with hypertension have been implicated in several populations with contrasting results. Present study aims to assess the pattern of renin gene polymorphisms in Bangladeshi hypertensive individuals. Methodology: Introns 1, 9 of renin gene and 4063 bases upstream of promoter sequence of renin gene were amplified from the genomic DNA of the total 124 (hypertensive and normotensive) subjects using respective primers. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms were performed using BglI, MboI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Results: Homozygosity was common in renin gene regarding BglI (bb=48.4%, Bb=37.9%, BB=13.7%, χ2 =1.91, P>0.05), TaqI (TT=81.5%, Tt=14.5%, tt=4.0%, χ2 =7.50, P<0.01) and MboI (mm=63.7%, Mm=32.3%, MM=4.0%, χ2=0.00, P>0.05) polymorphisms among total study population. For BglI and TaqI genotype distribution, hypertensive subjects (BglI: χ2 =6.66, P<0.05; TaqI: χ2 = 10.28, P<0.005) significantly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium law compared to normotensive subjects (BglI: χ2=0.51, P>0.05; TaqI: χ2=0.20, P>0.05). On the other hand, with respect to MboI polymorphisms of renin gene, only normotensive subjects deviate from the law (patients: χ2=1.28, P>0.05; vs controls: χ2=6.81, P<0.01). In the context of allelic frequency, common T allele was clearly prevalent (T frequency=0.86, t frequency = 0.14) for TaqI, but rare alleles b and m were more frequent for both BglI (b frequency=0.69, B frequency=0.31) and MboI (m frequency=0.80 M frequency=0.20) polymorphisms, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, we report that Bangladeshi hypertensive subjects did not show any distinct pattern of renin gene polymorphisms compared to their healthy control subjects with regard to their genotypic and allelic frequencies. PMID:25057323

  4. Effects of BDNF polymorphisms on antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2010-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the down-regulation of the signaling pathway involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecular element known to regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depression. The restoration of BDNF activity induced by antidepressant treatment has been implicated in the antidepressant therapeutic mechanism. Because there is variability among patients with major depressive disorder in terms of response to antidepressant treatment and since genetic factors may contribute to this inter-individual variability in antidepressant response, pharmacogenetic studies have tested the associations between genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes related to antidepressant therapeutic action. In human BDNF gene, there is a common functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF. Because of the potentially important role of BDNF in the antidepressant mechanism, many pharmacogenetic studies have tested the association between this polymorphism and the antidepressant therapeutic response, but they have produced inconsistent results. A recent meta-analysis of eight studies, which included data from 1,115 subjects, suggested that the Val/Met carriers have increased antidepressant response in comparison to Val/Val homozygotes, particularly in the Asian population. The positive molecular heterosis effect (subjects heterozygous for a specific genetic polymorphism show a significantly greater effect) is compatible with animal studies showing that, although BDNF exerts an antidepressant effect, too much BDNF may have a detrimental effect on mood. Several recommendations are proposed for future antidepressant pharmacogenetic studies of BDNF, including the consideration of multiple polymorphisms and a haplotype approach, gene-gene interaction, a single antidepressant regimen, controlling for age and gender interactions, and pharmacogenetic

  5. LRP5 gene polymorphism and cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Cepollaro, Chiara; Bandinelli, Stefania; Cherubini, Antonio; Gozzini, Alessia; Masi, Laura; Falchetti, Alberto; Del Monte, Francesca; Carbonell-Sala, Silvia; Marini, Francesca; Tanini, Annalisa; Corsi, Anna Maria; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-08-01

    There is evidence that distinct genetic polymorphisms of LRP5 are associated with low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the risk of fracture. However, relationships between LRP5 polymorphisms and micro- and macro architectural bone characteristics assessed by pQCT have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Ala1330Val and Val667Met polymorphisms in LRP5 gene with volumetric BMD (vBMD) and macro-architectural bone parameters in a population-based sample of men and women. We studied 959 participants of the InCHIANTI study (451 men and 508 women, age range: 21-94 yrs). Trabecular vBMD (vBMDt, mg/cm3), cortical vBMD (vBMDc, mg/cm3), cortical bone area (CBA, mm2) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th, mm) at the level of the tibia were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Ala1330Val and Val667Met genotypes were determined on genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In age-adjusted analyses both LRP 1330-valine and LRP 667-metionin variants were associated with lower vBMDt in men (p<0.05), and lower vBMDt (p<0.05), Ct.Th (p<0.05) and CBA (p<0.05) in women. After adjusting for multiple confounders, only the association of LRP5 1330-valine and 667-metionin with CBA remained statistically significant (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) in women. These findings suggest that both Ala1330Val and Val667Met LRP5 polymorphisms may affect the determination of geometric bone parameters in women.

  6. LRP5 gene polymorphism and cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Cepollaro, Chiara; Bandinelli, Stefania; Cherubini, Antonio; Gozzini, Alessia; Masi, Laura; Falchetti, Alberto; Del Monte, Francesca; Carbonell-Sala, Silvia; Marini, Francesca; Tanini, Annalisa; Corsi, Anna Maria; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims There is evidence that distinct genetic polymorphisms of LRP5 are associated with low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the risk of fracture. However, relationships between LRP5 polymorphisms and micro- and macro-architectural bone characteristics assessed by pQCT have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Ala1330Val and Val667Met polymorphisms in LRP5 gene with volumetric BMD (vBMD) and macro-architectural bone parameters in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods We studied 959 participants of the InCHIANTI study (451 men and 508 women, age range: 21–94 yrs). Trabecular vBMD (vBMDt, mg/cm3), cortical vBMD (vBMDc, mg/cm3), cortical bone area (CBA, mm2) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th, mm) at the level of the tibia were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Ala1330Val and Val667Met genotypes were determined on genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results In age-adjusted analyses both LRP 1330-valine and LRP 667-metionin variants were associated with lower vBMDt in men (p<0.05), and lower vBMDt (p<0.05), Ct.Th (p<0.05) and CBA (p<0.05) in women. After adjusting for multiple confounders, only the association of LRP5 1330-valine and 667-metionin with CBA remained statistically significant (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) in women. Conclusion These findings suggest that both Ala1330Val and Val667Met LRP5 polymorphisms may affect the determination of geometric bone parameters in women. PMID:21116122

  7. Thermal, spectroscopic, and ab initio structural characterization of carprofen polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Giovanna; Gozzo, Fabia; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Macchi, Piero; Simoncic, Petra; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefania; Marini, Amedeo

    2011-06-01

    Commercial and recrystallized polycrystalline samples of carprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied by thermal, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Our investigations demonstrated that recrystallized sample, stable at room temperature (RT), is a single polymorphic form of carprofen (polymorph I) that undergoes an isostructural polymorphic transformation by heating (polymorph II). Polymorph II remains then metastable at ambient conditions. Commercial sample is instead a mixture of polymorphs I and II. The thermodynamic relationships between the two polymorphs were determined through the construction of an energy/temperature diagram. The ab initio structural determination performed on synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction patterns recorded at RT on both polymorphs allowed us to elucidate, for the first time, their crystal structure. Both crystallize in the monoclinic space group type P2(1) /c, and the unit cell similarity index and the volumetric isostructurality index indicate that the temperature-induced polymorphic transformation I → II is isostructural. Polymorphs I and II are conformational polymorphs, sharing a very similar hydrogen bond network, but with different conformation of the propanoic skeleton, which produces two different packing. The small conformational change agrees with the low value of transition enthalpy obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements and the small internal energy computed with density functional methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adiponectin gene polymorphisms: Association with childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Vanêssa Gomes; Gomes, Karina Braga

    2014-01-01

    The current childhood obesity epidemic represents a particular challenge for public health. Understanding of the etiological mechanisms of obesity remains integral in treating this complex disorder. In recent years, studies have elucidated the influence of hormones secreted by adipose tissue named adipokines. Adiponectin is a adipokine that exhibits important anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties and it is strongly associated to obesity development. It is well known that adiponectin levels decrease with obesity. Furthermore, studies show that some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding adiponectin, ADIPOQ, may influence the expression of this protein. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in the context of childhood obesity. PMID:27625863

  10. Potential genetic polymorphisms predicting polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Fang, Shu-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous endocrine disorder with typical symptoms of oligomenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Extensive evidence indicates that PCOS is a genetic disease and numerous biochemical pathways have been linked with its pathogenesis. A number of genes from these pathways have been investigated, which include those involved with steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, action of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones, folliculogenesis, obesity and energy regulation, insulin secretion and action and many others. In this review, we summarize the historical and recent findings in genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from the relevant publications and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment platforms for PCOS patients. © 2018 The authors.

  11. Genetic polymorphism and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cunhua; Chang, De; Lu, Guangming; Deng, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease, and its morbidity and mortality are increasing. There are many studies that have tried to explain the pathogenesis of COPD from genetic susceptibility, to identify the susceptibility of COPD factors, which play a role in early prevention, early detection and the early treatment. However, it is well known that COPD is an inflammatory disease characterized by incomplete reversible airflow limitation in which genes interact with the environment. In recent years, many studies have proved gene polymorphisms and COPD correlation. However, there is less research on the relationship between COPD and genome-wide association study (GWAS), epigenetics and apoptosis. In this paper, we summarized the correlation between gene level and COPD from the following four aspects: the GWAS, the gene polymorphism, the epigenetics and the apoptosis, and the relationship between COPD and gene is summarized comprehensively.

  12. Identifying disease polymorphisms from case-control genetic association data.

    PubMed

    Park, L

    2010-12-01

    In case-control association studies, it is typical to observe several associated polymorphisms in a gene region. Often the most significantly associated polymorphism is considered to be the disease polymorphism; however, it is not clear whether it is the disease polymorphism or there is more than one disease polymorphism in the gene region. Currently, there is no method that can handle these problems based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) relationship between polymorphisms. To distinguish real disease polymorphisms from markers in LD, a method that can detect disease polymorphisms in a gene region has been developed. Relying on the LD between polymorphisms in controls, the proposed method utilizes model-based likelihood ratio tests to find disease polymorphisms. This method shows reliable Type I and Type II error rates when sample sizes are large enough, and works better with re-sequenced data. Applying this method to fine mapping using re-sequencing or dense genotyping data would provide important information regarding the genetic architecture of complex traits.

  13. Altering the Polymorphic Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Fluorination

    DOE PAGES

    Hiszpanski, Anna M.; Woll, Arthur R.; Kim, Bumjung; ...

    2017-04-25

    Here, substituting hydrogen with fluorine is an extensively employed strategy to improve the macroscopic properties of compounds for use in fields as diverse as pharmaceutics and optoelectronics. The role fluorine substitution plays on polymorphism—the ability of a compound to adopt more than one crystal structure—has not been previously studied. Yet, this understanding is important as different polymorphs of the same compound can result in drastically different bulk properties (e.g., solubility, absorptivity, and conductivity). Strategies to either promote or suppress the crystallization of particular polymorphs are thus desired. Here, we show that substituting hydrogen with fluorine affects the polymorphic behavior ofmore » contorted hexabenzocoronene (cHBC). A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and molecular semiconductor, cHBC exhibits two polymorphs (i.e., P2 1/c crystal structure which we refer to as polymorph I and a triclinic crystal structure which we refer to as polymorph II) that are accessible through postdeposition processing of amorphous films. While the same two polymorphs remain accessible in fluorinated derivatives of cHBC, fluorination appears to favor the formation of polymorph I, with progressively smaller energy barrier for transformation from polymorph II to polymorph I with fluorination.« less

  14. Altering the Polymorphic Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Fluorination

    SciTech Connect

    Hiszpanski, Anna M.; Woll, Arthur R.; Kim, Bumjung

    Here, substituting hydrogen with fluorine is an extensively employed strategy to improve the macroscopic properties of compounds for use in fields as diverse as pharmaceutics and optoelectronics. The role fluorine substitution plays on polymorphism—the ability of a compound to adopt more than one crystal structure—has not been previously studied. Yet, this understanding is important as different polymorphs of the same compound can result in drastically different bulk properties (e.g., solubility, absorptivity, and conductivity). Strategies to either promote or suppress the crystallization of particular polymorphs are thus desired. Here, we show that substituting hydrogen with fluorine affects the polymorphic behavior ofmore » contorted hexabenzocoronene (cHBC). A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and molecular semiconductor, cHBC exhibits two polymorphs (i.e., P2 1/c crystal structure which we refer to as polymorph I and a triclinic crystal structure which we refer to as polymorph II) that are accessible through postdeposition processing of amorphous films. While the same two polymorphs remain accessible in fluorinated derivatives of cHBC, fluorination appears to favor the formation of polymorph I, with progressively smaller energy barrier for transformation from polymorph II to polymorph I with fluorination.« less

  15. Sexually antagonistic polymorphism in simultaneous hermaphrodites

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Connallon, Tim

    2015-01-01

    In hermaphrodites, pleiotropic genetic tradeoffs between female and male reproductive functions can lead to sexually antagonistic (SA) selection, where individual alleles have conflicting fitness effects on each sex function. While an extensive theory of SA selection exists for dioecious species, these results have not been generalized to hermaphrodites. We develop population genetic models of SA selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, and evaluate effects of dominance, selection on each sex function, self-fertilization, and population size, on the maintenance of polymorphism. Under obligate outcrossing, hermaphrodite model predictions converge exactly with those of dioecious populations. Self-fertilization in hermaphrodites generates three points of divergence with dioecious theory. First, opportunities for stable polymorphism decline sharply and become less sensitive to dominance with increased selfing. Second, selfing introduces an asymmetry in the relative importance of selection through male versus female reproductive functions, expands the parameter space favorable for the evolutionary invasion of female-beneficial alleles, and restricts invasion criteria for male-beneficial alleles. Finally, contrary to models of unconditionally beneficial alleles, selfing decreases genetic hitchhiking effects of invading SA alleles, and should therefore decrease these population genetic signals of SA polymorphisms. We discuss implications of SA selection in hermaphrodites, including its potential role in the evolution of “selfing syndromes”. PMID:25311368

  16. Ploidally antagonistic selection maintains stable genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Immler, Simone; Arnqvist, Göran; Otto, Sarah Perin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the maintenance of genetic variation in the face of selection remains a key issue in evolutionary biology. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation is opposing selection during the diploid and haploid stages of biphasic life cycles universal among eukaryotic sexual organisms. If haploid and diploid gene expression both occur, selection can act in each phase, potentially in opposing directions. In addition, sex-specific selection during haploid phases is likely simply because male and female gametophytes/gametes tend to have contrasting life histories. We explored the potential for the maintenance of a stable polymorphism under ploidally antagonistic as well as sex-specific selection. Furthermore, we examined the role of the chromosomal location of alleles (autosomal or sex-linked). Our analyses show that the most permissible conditions for the maintenance of polymorphism occur under negative ploidy-by-sex interactions, where stronger selection for an allele in female than male diploids is coupled with weaker selection against the allele in female than male haploids. Such ploidy-by-sex interactions also promote allele frequency differences between the sexes. With constant fitness, ploidally antagonistic selection can maintain stable polymorphisms for autosomal and X-linked genes but not for Y-linked genes. We discuss the implications of our results and outline a number of biological settings where the scenarios modeled may apply. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and gender.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Damaskos, Dimitris; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the prevalence and onset of coronary heart disease (CHD) is sex-dependent. CHD prevalence is lower in women than in men at all ages. Furthermore, women's age of CHD onset seems to be 10 yr later. This is widely attributed to the fact that men have less favorable CHD risk factors (eg, plasma lipid profile) compared to women. Mean levels of protective high density lipoprotein cholesterol are lower, while triglyceride levels are higher in men than in women. It is possible that many of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, as well as their polymorphisms, may be expressed in a sexually dimorphic manner. The human Apo E gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common epsilon (epsilon) alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4), with the epsilon 3 allele occurring most frequently (78%) in the Caucasian population. Association studies have shown a protective effect on CHD in epsilon 2 carriers and a harmful effect in epsilon 4 carriers. However, there are conflicting results regarding such allelic effects in respect to gender. This review is focused on the gender-related influence of Apo E polymorphism in respect to plasma lipid levels and the risk of CHD. Additionally, an effort is made to determine if this relation exists and if it can be satisfactorily explained. The studies cited here demonstrate a complex, multifactorial association between these factors, in need of further corroboration in greater population samples.

  18. Gene polymorphisms associated with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kourikou, Anastasia; Karamanolis, George P; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2015-07-07

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a constellation of functional upper abdominal complaints with poorly elucidated pathophysiology. However, there is increasing evidence that susceptibility to FD is influenced by hereditary factors. Genetic association studies in FD have examined genotypes related to gastrointestinal motility or sensation, as well as those related to inflammation or immune response. G-protein b3 subunit gene polymorphisms were first reported as being associated with FD. Thereafter, several gene polymorphisms including serotonin transporter promoter, interlukin-17F, migration inhibitory factor, cholecystocynine-1 intron 1, cyclooxygenase-1, catechol-o-methyltransferase, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, p22PHOX, Toll like receptor 2, SCN10A, CD14 and adrenoreceptors have been investigated in relation to FD; however, the results are contradictory. Several limitations underscore the value of current studies. Among others, inconsistencies in the definitions of FD and controls, subject composition differences regarding FD subtypes, inadequate samples, geographical and ethnical differences, as well as unadjusted environmental factors. Further well-designed studies are necessary to determine how targeted genes polymorphisms, influence the clinical manifestations and potentially the therapeutic response in FD.

  19. Thermally-prepared polymorphic forms of cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Stowell, Grayson W; Behme, Robert J; Denton, Stacy M; Pfeiffer, Inigo; Sancilio, Frederick D; Whittall, Linda B; Whittle, Robert R

    2002-12-01

    Prior to this study, cilostazol, an antithrombotic drug, was thought to exist as a single crystalline phase with a melting point of approximately 159 degrees C (Form A). On cooling, melts often form a glass that, when heated, may crystallize as additional crystalline polymorphic forms. Cilostazol, when reheated, subsequently forms polymorphs that melt at approximately 136 degrees C (Form B) and 146 degrees C (Form C). Free-energy temperature diagrams estimated from calorimetry data reveal that each pair of the cilostazol polymorphs (A-B, B-C, and A-C) is monotropic. Essentially pure samples of suitable crystalline shape and size permitted single crystal structural analysis of Forms A and C. Theoretical solubility ratios calculated using calorimetry data indicate that at 37 degrees C, Form B should be more than four times more soluble and Form C should be more than two times more soluble than Form A. Forms B and C could not be crystallized from solvents. Metastable forms from super cooled melts analyzed by intrinsic dissolution and Fourier transform-Raman experiments demonstrated that Forms B and C undergo a rapid, solvent-mediated recrystallization to Form A, making dissolution rate measurements difficult. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2481-2488, 2002

  20. Colour Polymorphism Protects Prey Individuals and Populations Against Predation

    PubMed Central

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism. PMID:26902799

  1. Colour Polymorphism Protects Prey Individuals and Populations Against Predation.

    PubMed

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2016-02-23

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism.

  2. Conformational flexibility and packing plausibility of repaglinide polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Dimpy; Goyal, Parnika; Chadha, Renu

    2018-04-01

    The present manuscript highlights the structural insight into the repaglinide polymorphs. The experimental screening for the possible crystal forms were carried out using various solvents, which generated three forms. The crystal structure of Form II and III was determined using PXRD pattern whereas structural analysis of Form I has already been reported. Form I, II and II was found to exist in P212121, PNA21 and P21/c space groups respectively. Conformational analysis was performed to account the conformational flexibility of RPG. The obtained conformers were further utilized to obtain the information about the crystal packing pattern of RPG polymorphs by polymorph prediction module. The lattice energy landscape, depicting the relationship between lattice energy and density of the polymorphs has been obtained for various possible polymorphs. The experimentally isolated polymorphs were successfully fitted into lattice energy landscape.

  3. Survey and analysis of crystal polymorphism in organic structures

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramanpreet

    2018-01-01

    With the intention of producing the most comprehensive treatment of the prevalence of crystal polymorphism among structurally characterized materials, all polymorphic compounds flagged as such within the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are analysed and a list of crystallographically characterized organic polymorphic compounds is assembled. Classifying these structures into subclasses of anhydrates, salts, hydrates, non-hydrated solvates and cocrystals reveals that there are significant variations in polymorphism prevalence as a function of crystal type, a fact which has not previously been recognized in the literature. It is also shown that, as a percentage, polymorphic entries are decreasing temporally within the CSD, with the notable exception of cocrystals, which continue to rise at a rate that is a constant fraction of the overall entries. Some phenomena identified that require additional scrutiny include the relative prevalence of temperature-induced phase transitions among organic salts and the paucity of polymorphism in crystals with three or more chemical components. PMID:29765601

  4. The initial (earliest) report of polymorphous ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Jani, Sonal; Schweitzer, Paul

    2006-07-01

    In these short historical notes, we describe the early history of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Polymorphous ventricular tachycardia was probably first noted in 1918 by Wilson and Robinson. In a publication describing complete heart block and ventriculophasic arrhythmia, they noted a tachyarrhythmia characterized by multiple extrasystoles of different types at a rapid rate. Also, we briefly discuss the earliest recognized torsades de pointes by Dessertenes in 1966 and the first description of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, by Reid in 1977.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A

    2007-06-20

    Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45-54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3betaHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women.

  6. Polymorphism in phenobarbital: discovery of a new polymorph and crystal structure of elusive form V.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saikat; Goud, N Rajesh; Matzger, Adam J

    2016-03-21

    This report highlights the discovery of a new polymorph of the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB) using polymer-induced heteronucleation (PIHn) and unravelling the crystal structure of the elusive form V. Both forms are characterized by structural, thermal and VT-Raman spectroscopy methods to elucidate phase transformation behavior and shed light on stability relationships.

  7. Didanosine polymorphism in a supercritical antisolvent process.

    PubMed

    Bettini, R; Menabeni, R; Tozzi, R; Pranzo, M B; Pasquali, I; Chierotti, M R; Gobetto, R; Pellegrino, L

    2010-04-01

    Solid-state properties of active ingredients are crucial in pharmaceutical development owing to their significant clinical and economical implications. In the present work we investigated the solid-state properties and the solubility in water of didanosine, DDI, re-crystallized from a dimethylsulfoxide solution using supercritical CO(2) as an antisolvent (SAS process) for comparison with the commercially available drug product. We also applied modern solid-state NMR (SS NMR) techniques, namely 2D (1)H DQ CRAMPS (Combined Rotation And Multiple Pulse Spectroscopy) and (1)H-(13)C on- and off-resonance CP (cross polarization) FSLG-HETCOR experiments, known for providing reliable information about (1)H-(1)H and (1)H-(13)C intra- and intermolecular proximities, in order to address polymorphism issues arising from the crystallization of a new form in the supercritical process. A new polymorph of didanosine was obtained from the supercritical antisolvent process and characterized by means of 1D and 2D multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, (15)N) SS NMR. The particle size of the new crystal phase was reduced by varying the antisolvent density through a pressure increase. The structural differences between the commercial product and the SAS re-crystallized DDI are highlighted by X-ray diffractometry and well described by solid-state NMR. The carbon C6 (13)C chemical shift suggests that both commercial and re-crystallized didanosine samples are in the enol form. The analysis of homo- and heteronuclear proximities obtained by means of 2D NMR experiments shows that commercial and SAS re-crystallized DDI possess very similar molecular conformation and hydrogen bond network, but different packing. The new polymorph proved to be a metastable form at ambient conditions, showing higher solubility in water and lower stability to mechanical stress. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. [Gene polymorphisms in patients with Down's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, N S; Ushenkova, L I; Shagirova, Zh M; Sheĭkhaev, G O; Mikhaĭlov, V F; Kurbatova, L A; Mazurik, V K; Rubanovich, A V; Zasukhina, G D

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms of glutation-S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTT1 GSTP1) and methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes have been studied in DNA from blood lymphocytes of 18 patients with Down's syndrome and 61 controls. Frequencies of normal alleles of GST genotypes were lower in patients as compared to the controls. A DNA analysis of 11 patients and 17 controls revealed the presence of mutations in region 246-250 of exon 7 of the p53 gene in 4 patients. Mutations were not found in the control group. Due to the small sample size, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution and need replication in larger studies.

  9. Serum protein polymorphisms in a Liberian population.

    PubMed

    Willcox, M; Beckman, G; Beckman, L

    1986-01-01

    Serum protein variations were studied in a Liberian population living in Buchanan town. Of the alpha 1-antitrypsin genes only M1 and M3 were polymorphic. The frequencies of the haptoglobin and Gc genes were in accordance with earlier known estimates in African populations. There was, however, a relatively low frequency of Hp 0 which may be related to the low malarial parasite prevalence in this group. The transferrin C2 gene was found in a significantly lower frequency among Liberians compared to European and Asiatic populations. A new transferrin variant was observed by isoelectric focusing. This variant could not be identified with conventional starch or polyacrylamide electrophoresis.

  10. Taste receptor polymorphisms and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gentiluomo, M; Crifasi, L; Luddi, A; Locci, D; Barale, R; Piomboni, P; Campa, D

    2017-11-01

    Are polymorphisms of taste receptor genes associated with male infertility? This study has showed the associations between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptors genes (TASR) and male infertility. Recent studies showed the expression of taste receptors in the testis and in spermatozoa, suggesting their possible role in infertility. The vast genetic variability in taste genes results in a large degree of diversity in various human phenotypes. In this study, we genotyped 19 SNPs in 12 taste related genes in a total of 494 Caucasian male patients undergoing semen evaluation at the Centre of Couple Sterility of the Siena University Hospital. Consecutive patients were enrolled during infertility investigations from October 2014 to February 2016. Median age of the patients was 36 years (18-58) and 141 were smokers. Genotyping was performed using the allele-specific PCR. The statistical analysis was carried out using generalized linear model (GLM) to explore the association between age, smoking, the genetic polymorphisms and sperm parameters. We observed that the homozygous carriers of the (G) allele of the TAS2R14-rs3741843 polymorphism showed a decreased sperm progressive motility compared to heterozygotes and (A) homozygotes (P = 0.003). Moreover, the homozygous carriers of the (T) allele of the TAS2R3-rs11763979 SNP showed fewer normal acrosome compared with the heterozygous and the homozygous carriers of the (G) allele (P = 0.002). Multiple comparisons correction was applied and the Bonferroni-corrected critical P-value was = 0.003. The analysis is restricted to SNPs within genes and to men of Caucasian ancestry. In silico analyses strongly point towards a functional effect of the two SNPs: TAS2R14-rs3741843 regulates TAS2R43 expression, a gene that is involved in cilia motility and therefore could influences sperm mobility; the (T) allele of TAS2R3-rs11763979 increases the expression of the WEE2 antisense RNA one gene (WEE2-AS1). According

  11. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  12. Effects of functional polymorphisms on beef carcass merit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To develop a resource to identify polymorphisms present in common beef cattle breeds, and relate those polymorphisms to phenotypic differences, low-coverage genomic sequence was obtained on 186 purebred bulls from 15 predominant breeds in the United States, and 84 crossbred sons of these bulls. The...

  13. Microsatellite markers and polymorphism in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

    Treesearch

    Alisa P. Ramakrishnan; Craig E. Coleman; Susan E. Meyer; Daniel J. Fairbanks

    2001-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) individuals were genetically characterized using polymorphic microsatellite markers. Through analysis of alleles of five polymorphic loci, genotypes were constructed of individuals from four populations in Utah and Nevada. There were 15 different genotypes: Whiterocks, UT, had nine genotypes, Hobble Creek, UT, had seven genotypes,...

  14. Infraspecific DNA methylation polymorphism in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Keyte, Anna L; Percifield, Ryan; Liu, Bao; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2006-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is important in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in plants and has been implicated in silencing duplicate genes after polyploid formation in several plant groups. Relatively little information exists, however, on levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism (MP) at homologous loci within species. Here we explored the levels and patterns of methylation-polymorphism diversity at CCGG sites within allotetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, using a methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism screen and a selected set of 20 G. hirsutum accessions for which we have information on genetic polymorphism levels and relationships. Methylation and MP exist at high levels within G. hirsutum: of 150 HpaII/MspI sites surveyed, 48 were methylated at the inner cytosine (32%) and 32 of these were polymorphic (67%). Both these values are higher than comparable measures of genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The high percentage of methylation-polymorphic sites and potential relationship to gene expression underscore the potential significance of MP within and among populations. We speculate that biased correlation of methylation-polymorphic sites and genes in cotton may be a consequence of polyploidy and the attendant doubling of all genes.

  15. SPARCHS: Symbiotic, Polymorphic, Automatic, Resilient, Clean-Slate, Host Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    SPARCHS: SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOMATIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016 FINAL... SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOTOMIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0253 5c. PROGRAM...17 4.2.3 SYMBIOTIC EMBEDDED MACHINES

  16. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  17. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did notmore » lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs.« less

  18. IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Stühmer, Constantin; Z'Graggen, Marcel; Kokemöller, Horst; Rücker, Martin; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2010-01-01

    The most important factor leading to periimplantitis with bone loss appears to be an inflammatory process due to plaque accumulation. The object of this article was to present a review of the literature on a possible correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. Research was carried out in the PUBMED and WEB OF KNOWLEDGE literature databases and 27 relevant articles were found. Of these articles, 4 groups of authors came to the conclusion that no correlation exists between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis. In 5 articles by 4 groups of authors, the influence of IL-1 polymorphism on periimplantitis is unclear. 9 studies prove a correlation between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis, and 6 studies also document a direct linkage between gene polymorphism and periimplantitis, if certain cofactors are present. IL-1 polymorphism is frequently connected with "noninfectious periimplant bone loss". Other studies prove that the inflammatory mediators and IL-1beta were significantly elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of infected implants. Many studies document that IL-1 polymorphism alone cannot be considered a risk factor for bone loss, but in combination with smoking, it is closely associated with periimplant bone loss. More studies are needed to discover possible correlations between IL-1 polymorphism and periimplantitis.

  19. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. XPD polymorphisms: effects on DNA repair proficiency.

    PubMed

    Lunn, R M; Helzlsouer, K J; Parshad, R; Umbach, D M; Harris, E L; Sanford, K K; Bell, D A

    2000-04-01

    XPD codes for a DNA helicase involved in transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Rare XPD mutations diminish nucleotide excision repair resulting in hypersensitivity to UV light and increased risk of skin cancer. Several polymorphisms in this gene have been identified but their impact on DNA repair is not known. We compared XPD genotypes at codons 312 and 751 with DNA repair proficiency in 31 women. XPD genotypes were measured by PCR-RFLP. DNA repair proficiency was assessed using a cytogenetic assay that detects X-ray induced chromatid aberrations (breaks and gaps). Chromatid aberrations were scored per 100 metaphase cells following incubation at 37 degrees C (1.5 h after irradiation) to allow for repair of DNA damage. Individuals with the Lys/Lys codon 751 XPD genotype had a higher number of chromatid aberrations (132/100 metaphase cells) than those having a 751Gln allele (34/100 metaphase cells). Individuals having greater than 60 chromatid breaks plus gaps were categorized as having sub-optimal repair. Possessing a Lys/Lys751 genotype increased the risk of sub-optimal DNA repair (odds ratio = 7.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-87.7). The Asp312Asn XPD polymorphism did not appear to affect DNA repair proficiency. These results suggest that the Lys751 (common) allele may alter the XPD protein product resulting in sub-optimal repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage.

  1. Dynamically Alterable Arrays of Polymorphic Data Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An application library package was developed that represents data packets for Deep Space Network (DSN) message packets as dynamically alterable arrays composed of arbitrary polymorphic data types. The software was to address a limitation of the present state of the practice for having an array directly composed of a single monomorphic data type. This is a severe limitation when one is dealing with science data in that the types of objects one is dealing with are typically not known in advance and, therefore, are dynamic in nature. The unique feature of this approach is that it enables one to define at run-time the dynamic shape of the matrix with the ability to store polymorphic data types in each of its indices. Existing languages such as C and C++ have the restriction that the shape of the array must be known in advance and each of its elements be a monomorphic data type that is strictly defined at compile-time. This program can be executed on a variety of platforms. It can be distributed in either source code or binary code form. It must be run in conjunction with any one of a number of Lisp compilers that are available commercially or as shareware.

  2. The Genealogical Consequences of Fecundity Variance Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jesse E.

    2009-01-01

    The genealogical consequences of within-generation fecundity variance polymorphism are studied using coalescent processes structured by genetic backgrounds. I show that these processes have three distinctive features. The first is that the coalescent rates within backgrounds are not jointly proportional to the infinitesimal variance, but instead depend only on the frequencies and traits of genotypes containing each allele. Second, the coalescent processes at unlinked loci are correlated with the genealogy at the selected locus; i.e., fecundity variance polymorphism has a genomewide impact on genealogies. Third, in diploid models, there are infinitely many combinations of fecundity distributions that have the same diffusion approximation but distinct coalescent processes; i.e., in this class of models, ancestral processes and allele frequency dynamics are not in one-to-one correspondence. Similar properties are expected to hold in models that allow for heritable variation in other traits that affect the coalescent effective population size, such as sex ratio or fecundity and survival schedules. PMID:19433628

  3. IPD—the Immuno Polymorphism Database

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A.; McWilliam, Hamish; Lopez, Rodrigo; Marsh, Steven G. E.

    2013-01-01

    The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD), http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/ is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTDAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell-Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The data is currently available online from the website and FTP directory. This article describes the latest updates and additional tools added to the IPD project. PMID:23180793

  4. Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anders

    2016-06-01

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollins and Griffith (2015) entitled 'The danger within: the role of genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in population persistence of colour polymorphic species' that was recently published as an Opinion under the NEWS AND VIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al. (Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphism may reduce population fitness and increase extinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictions put forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008, 34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87, 2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphs with co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait values may increase the ecological and evolutionary success of polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al. (Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that there is no clear evidence from studies of 'true polymorphic species' that polymorphism promotes population persistence. In response, I (i) challenge their classifications of polymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizing the dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii) review empirical studies that have examined whether and how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk, (iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colour pattern and other phenotypic dimensions for population fitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanisms that influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphisms are different from the consequences of the polymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspects of ecological success and long-term persistence of populations and species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNAs and isozymes in coastal Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; A.M. Reem; J.R. Henifin; N.C. Wheeler; D.B Neale

    1994-01-01

    A total of 225 new genetic loci [151 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and 74 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)] in coastal Douglas- fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] have been identified using a three-generation outbred pedigree. The Mendelian inheritance of 16 RFLP loci and 29...

  6. Cytokine polymorphisms in patients with pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Yanina; Burgos, Elisa; Gagliardi, Julio; Vullo, Carlos Maria; Borosky, Alicia; Pesoa, Susana; Serra, Horacio Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms are among the factors influencing the development of pemphigus. Whole blood from 20 patients with pemphigus and 24 control subjects was taken. Genomic DNA was obtained and cytokine genotyping for IL-10 (-1082 G/A; -819 C/T), TGFB1 (codon 10 C/T, codon 25 G/C) and TNFA (-308 G/A) was performed using the ARMS-PCR method. The distribution of IL-10 (-819) alleles was significantly different between the pemphigus and control groups (P=0.009). In particular, allele T was associated with the disease (OR 3.291, 95% CI 1.350-8.020). Similar results were observed when only pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients were analyzed (P=0.012, OR 3.410, 95% CI 1.346-8.639). An increased frequency of the low producer IL-10 haplotype (-1082/-819 A/T) in patients with pemphigus compared with controls was observed (OR 2.714, 95% CI 1.102-6.685) and this association was also significant when only PV patients were considered (OR 2.667, 95% CI 1.043-6.816). There were no differences between patients and controls in the frequency of any other gene polymorphism analyzed. The increased frequency of the low producer IL-10 haplotype (-1082 /-819 A/T) suggest that the carriage of this haplotype might predispose to pemphigus or the high and intermediate producer haplotypes may be protective factors. The prevalence of the allele IL-10 (-819 T) in pemphigus patients cannot be explained by the current hypothesis, according to which a particular allele of the gene is associated with a different level of cytokine production and therefore affects the predisposition to a particular disease. However, this cytokine polymorphism might be linked to an unknown susceptibility factor.

  7. CO2 packing polymorphism under pressure: Mechanism and thermodynamics of the I-III polymorphic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimondi, Ilaria; Salvalaglio, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we describe the thermodynamics and mechanism of CO2 polymorphic transitions under pressure from form I to form III combining standard molecular dynamics, well-tempered metadynamics, and committor analysis. We find that the phase transformation takes place through a concerted rearrangement of CO2 molecules, which unfolds via an anisotropic expansion of the CO2 supercell. Furthermore, at high pressures, we find that defected form I configurations are thermodynamically more stable with respect to form I without structural defects. Our computational approach shows the capability of simultaneously providing an extensive sampling of the configurational space, estimates of the thermodynamic stability, and a suitable description of a complex, collective polymorphic transition mechanism.

  8. CO2 packing polymorphism under pressure: Mechanism and thermodynamics of the I-III polymorphic transition.

    PubMed

    Gimondi, Ilaria; Salvalaglio, Matteo

    2017-09-21

    In this work, we describe the thermodynamics and mechanism of CO 2 polymorphic transitions under pressure from form I to form III combining standard molecular dynamics, well-tempered metadynamics, and committor analysis. We find that the phase transformation takes place through a concerted rearrangement of CO 2 molecules, which unfolds via an anisotropic expansion of the CO 2 supercell. Furthermore, at high pressures, we find that defected form I configurations are thermodynamically more stable with respect to form I without structural defects. Our computational approach shows the capability of simultaneously providing an extensive sampling of the configurational space, estimates of the thermodynamic stability, and a suitable description of a complex, collective polymorphic transition mechanism.

  9. AMPD1 polymorphism and response to regadenoson.

    PubMed

    Saab, Rayan; Zouk, Aline N; Mastouri, Ronald; Skaar, Todd C; Philips, Santosh; Kreutz, Rolf P

    2015-11-01

     AMPD1 c.34C > T (rs17602729) polymorphism results in AMPD1 deficiency. We examined the association of AMPD1 deficiency and variability of hemodynamic response to regadenoson. Genotyping for c.34C>T was performed in 267 patients undergoing regadenoson cardiac stress testing. Carriers of c.34C >T variant exhibited higher relative changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with wild-type subjects ([%] SBP change to peak: 12 ± 25 vs 5 ± 13%; p = 0.01) ([%] SBP change to nadir: -3 ± 15 vs -7 ± 11%; p = 0.04). Change in heart rate was similar between groups, but side effects were more common in carriers of the variant (+LR = 4.2; p = 0.04). AMPD1 deficiency may be involved in the modulation of regadenoson's systemic effects.

  10. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C

    2007-01-01

    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous.

  11. Theory of polymorphism in bacterial flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella swim using several flagella, each of which consists of a rotary motor, a universal joint known as the hook, and a helical filament which acts a propeller. The filament is normally left-handed in the absence of external stress, but undergoes mechanical phase transitions to other helical states ("polymorphs") in response to external torque. The filament is made of identical flagellin protein subunits which are organized into eleven protofilaments which wind around the filament. We develop an effective theory in which the flagellin subunits and their connections along the protofilaments are modelled with a double-well potential. A helical spring represents the other connections of the subunits, and introduces a twist-stretch coupling and an element of frustration in our model. We solve for the ground states and the phase diagram for filament shapes.

  12. Ecological separation in a polymorphic terrestrial salamander.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Carl D; Venesky, Matthew D; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M

    2008-07-01

    1. When studying speciation, researchers commonly examine reproductive isolation in recently diverged populations. Polymorphic species provide an opportunity to examine the role of reproductive isolation in populations that may be in the process of divergence. 2. We examined a polymorphic population of Plethodon cinereus (red-backed salamanders) for evidence of sympatric ecological separation by colour morphology. Recent studies have correlated temperature and climate with colour morphology in this species, but no studies have looked at differences in diet or mate choice between colour morphs. We used artificial cover objects to assess salamander diet, mating preference and surface activity over a 2-year period at a field site in north-eastern Ohio. 3. We detected differences in diet between two colour morphs, striped and unstriped. The diets of striped individuals were significantly more diverse and were made up of more profitable prey than the diets of unstriped salamanders. 4. Opposite sex pairs were made up of individuals of the same colour morph and striped males were found more often with larger females than were unstriped males. 5. We corroborate findings of earlier studies suggesting that the unstriped form is adapted to warmer conditions. Unstriped individuals were the first to withdraw from the forest floor as temperatures fell in the late fall. We found no evidence that the colour morphs responded differently to abiotic factors such as soil moisture and relative humidity, and responses to surface temperatures were also equivocal. 6. We conclude that the two colour morphs exhibit some degree of ecological separation and tend to mate assortatively, but are unlikely to be undergoing divergence given the observed frequency of intermorph pairings.

  13. Ghrelin gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Metin; Koca, Suleyman Serdar; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Yuce, Huseyin; Aydin, Suleyman; Isik, Ahmet

    2011-07-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous orexigenic peptide, has anti-inflammatory effects, down-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines, and its altered levels are reported in various inflammatory diseases. The human preproghrelin (ghrelin/obestatin) gene shows several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including Arg51Gln, Leu72Met, Gln90Leu, and A-501C. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, and clinical significance, of these four SNPs in a small cohort of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 103 patients with RA and 103 healthy controls. In the RA group, disease activity and disease-related damage were assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28), and the modified Larsen scoring (MLS) methods. In all the participants, genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequencies of ghrelin gene SNPs were 82.5 and 79.6% in the RA and control groups, respectively, and there were no significant differences in terms of genotype distributions and allele frequencies for these four SNPs between the groups. However, the A-501C SNP was found to be associated with early disease onset, and Gln90Leu SNP with less frequent rheumatoid factor positivity, in the RA group. A-501C SNP is associated with earlier onset of RA suggesting that genetic variations in the ghrelin gene may have an impact on RA. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual selection and genetic colour polymorphisms in animals.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Svensson, Erik I; Hansson, Bengt

    2014-11-01

    Genetic colour polymorphisms are widespread across animals and often subjected to complex selection regimes. Traditionally, colour morphs were used as simple visual markers to measure allele frequency changes in nature, selection, population divergence and speciation. With advances in sequencing technology and analysis methods, several model systems are emerging where the molecular targets of selection are being described. Here, we discuss recent studies on the genetics of sexually selected colour polymorphisms, aiming at (i) reviewing the evidence of sexual selection on colour polymorphisms, (ii) highlighting the genetic architecture, molecular and developmental basis underlying phenotypic colour diversification and (iii) discuss how the maintenance of such polymorphisms might be facilitated or constrained by these. Studies of the genetic architecture of colour polymorphism point towards the importance of tight clustering of colour loci with other trait loci, such as in the case of inversions and supergene structures. Other interesting findings include linkage between colour loci and mate preferences or sex determination, and the role of introgression and regulatory variation in fuelling polymorphisms. We highlight that more studies are needed that explicitly integrate fitness consequences of sexual selection on colour with the underlying molecular targets of colour to gain insights into the evolutionary consequences of sexual selection on polymorphism maintenance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Anders; Ahnesjö, Jonas; Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    We summarize direct and indirect effects on fitness components of animal color pattern and present a synthesis of theories concerning the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of chromatic multiple niche polymorphisms. Previous endeavors have aimed primarily at identifying conditions that promote the evolution and maintenance of polymorphisms. We consider in a conceptual model also the reciprocal influence of color polymorphism on population processes and propose that polymorphism entails selective advantages that may promote the ecological success of polymorphic species. The model begins with an evolutionary branching event from mono- to polymorphic condition that, under the influence of correlational selection, is predicted to promote the evolution of physical integration of coloration and other traits (cf. multi-trait coevolution and complex phenotypes). We propose that the coexistence within a population of alternative ecomorphs with coadapted gene complexes promotes utilization of diverse environmental resources, population stability and persistence, colonization success, and range expansions, and enhances the evolutionary potential and speciation. Conversely, we predict polymorphic populations to be less vulnerable to environmental change and at lower risk of range contractions and extinctions compared with monomorphic populations. We offer brief suggestions as to how these falsifiable predictions may be tested.

  16. Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?

    PubMed Central

    Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

    2009-01-01

    That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their ‘survival’. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing ‘giveaway cue’ hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations. PMID:19324729

  17. Preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in obese Korean children.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dae-Sun; Kim, Se-Lim; Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Lee, Kee-Hyoung; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2005-11-01

    Ghrelin is a novel gut-brain peptide that has somatotropic, orexigenic, and adipogenic effects. We examined the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism in 222 obese Korean children to determine whether it is associated with obesity. The frequencies of the Leu72Met polymorphism were 29.3% in obese, 32.3% in overweight, and 32.5% in lean Korean children. No significant difference was found between Met72 carrier and non-carrier obese children with respect to BMI, total body fat, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, or LDL-cholesterol levels. Our data suggest that the preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism is not associated with obesity in children.

  18. Endometriosis and RAS system gene polymorphisms: the association of ACE A2350G polymorphism with endometriosis in Polish individuals.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyńska, Liliana J; Ferenc, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Michał; Mordalska, Anna; Pogoda, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the polymorphisms of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene (insertion/deletion [I/D], A2350G) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (A1166C) in women with endometriosis and to determine the correlation of the identified genotypes with the severity of the disease. Additionally, to estimate the prognostic value of the polymorphisms in patients with endometriosis treated due to infertility. The study group included 241 women, the control group (without endometriosis)-127. The molecular analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. For I/D ACE and A1166C AT1 polymorphisms no significant differences were observed between the study and control groups and between the severity grades of the disease (p>0.05). For A2350G ACE polymorphism the frequency of genotypes for the study and control groups respectively was the following: AA-31.54%, AG-54.36%, GG-14.11% and AA-55.12%, AG-36.22%, GG-8.66% (x(2)=19.36, p<0.0001). Statistically significant differences were found between the frequency of A and G alleles between both groups (x(2)=15.16, p=0.0001), but not when individual grades of the disease severity were compared. There was no association between the investigated polymorphisms and the effect of infertility treatment. A2350G polymorphism (allele G, AG genotype) of ACE gene seems to be associated with the development of endometriosis.

  19. An unusual type of polymorphism in a liquid crystal

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Lin; Salamonczyk, Miroslaw; Shadpour, Sasan; ...

    2018-02-19

    Polymorphism is a remarkable concept in chemistry, materials science, computer science, and biology. Whether it is the ability of a material to exist in two or more crystal structures, a single interface connecting to two different entities, or alternative phenotypes of an organism, polymorphism determines function and properties. In materials science, polymorphism can be found in an impressively wide range of materials, including crystalline materials, minerals, metals, alloys, and polymers. Here in this paper we report on polymorphism in a liquid crystal. A bent-core liquid crystal with a single chiral side chain forms two structurally and morphologically significantly different liquidmore » crystal phases solely depending on the cooling rate from the isotropic liquid state. On slow cooling, the thermodynamically more stable oblique columnar phase forms, and on rapid cooling, a not heretofore reported helical microfilament phase. Since structure determines function and properties, the structural color for these phases also differs.« less

  20. Diabat Interpolation for Polymorph Free-Energy Differences.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Kartik; Peters, Baron

    2017-02-02

    Existing methods to compute free-energy differences between polymorphs use harmonic approximations, advanced non-Boltzmann bias sampling techniques, and/or multistage free-energy perturbations. This work demonstrates how Bennett's diabat interpolation method ( J. Comput. Phys. 1976, 22, 245 ) can be combined with energy gaps from lattice-switch Monte Carlo techniques ( Phys. Rev. E 2000, 61, 906 ) to swiftly estimate polymorph free-energy differences. The new method requires only two unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, one for each polymorph. To illustrate the new method, we compute the free-energy difference between face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic polymorphs for a Gaussian core solid. We discuss the justification for parabolic models of the free-energy diabats and similarities to methods that have been used in studies of electron transfer.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in obesity and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Majer-Łobodzińska, Agnieszka; Adamiec-Mroczek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity plays a significant role in the etiology of obesity and is essential for glucose homeostasis, the development of hyperinsulinaemia and subsequent increased fat deposition. Several polymorphisms in the GR gene have been described, and at least three of them seem to be associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity and changes in glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic parameters. The N363S polymorphism has been associated with increased sensitivity to glucocorticoides, increased insulin response to dexamethasone and increased plasma glucose level. BclI polymorphism is associated with increased abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and increased insulin resistance. Another polymorphism, ER22/23EK, in contrast to the others, is associated with relative resistance to glucocoricides actions and more beneficial metabolic profile-lower insulin resistance level, decreased lower cardiovascular risk and subseuent prolongation of life time. More research is still needed to understand the mechanisms behind these associations at the molecular level.

  2. An unusual type of polymorphism in a liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lin; Salamonczyk, Miroslaw; Shadpour, Sasan

    Polymorphism is a remarkable concept in chemistry, materials science, computer science, and biology. Whether it is the ability of a material to exist in two or more crystal structures, a single interface connecting to two different entities, or alternative phenotypes of an organism, polymorphism determines function and properties. In materials science, polymorphism can be found in an impressively wide range of materials, including crystalline materials, minerals, metals, alloys, and polymers. Here in this paper we report on polymorphism in a liquid crystal. A bent-core liquid crystal with a single chiral side chain forms two structurally and morphologically significantly different liquidmore » crystal phases solely depending on the cooling rate from the isotropic liquid state. On slow cooling, the thermodynamically more stable oblique columnar phase forms, and on rapid cooling, a not heretofore reported helical microfilament phase. Since structure determines function and properties, the structural color for these phases also differs.« less

  3. Angiopoietin-2 polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Detlef; Tempfer, Clemens; Bettendorf, Hertha; Bürkle, Bernd; Nagele, Fritz; Unfried, Gertrud; Keck, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and a polymorphism of the gene encoding for angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), an autochthonous modulator of angiogenesis during pregnancy. Prospective case control study. Academic research institution. One hundred thirty-one women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks' gestation, and 125 healthy, postmenopausal controls with at least two live births and no history of pregnancy loss. Peripheral venous puncture. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed to identify the different ANGPT2 alleles. No association between mutant (mt) allele and the occurrence of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage was found. Between women with primary and secondary idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, no statistically significant differences with respect to allele frequencies were observed. This is the first report on the ANGPT2 gene polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, demonstrating that the investigated polymorphism is not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in a white population.

  4. Colour polymorphism is associated with lower extinction risk in birds.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Simon; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Thébaud, Christophe; Jacquin, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Colour polymorphisms have played a major role in enhancing current understanding of how selection and demography can impact phenotypes. Because different morphs often display alternative strategies and exploit alternative ecological niches, colour polymorphism can be expected to promote adaptability to environmental changes. However, whether and how it could influence populations' and species' response to global changes remains debated. To address this question, we built an up-to-date and complete database on avian colour polymorphism based on the examination of available data from all 10,394 extant bird species. We distinguished between true polymorphism (where different genetically determined morphs co-occur in sympatry within the same population) and geographic variation (parapatric or allopatric colour variation), because these two patterns of variation are expected to have different consequences on populations' persistence. Using the IUCN red list, we then showed that polymorphic bird species are at lesser risk of extinction than nonpolymorphic ones, after controlling for a range of factors such as geographic range size, habitat breadth, life history, and phylogeny. This appears consistent with the idea that high genetic diversity and/or the existence of alternative strategies in polymorphic species promotes the ability to adaptively respond to changing environmental conditions. In contrast, polymorphic species were not less vulnerable than nonpolymorphic ones to specific drivers of extinction such as habitat alteration, direct exploitation, climate change, and invasive species. Thus, our results suggest that colour polymorphism acts as a buffer against environmental changes, although further studies are now needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Developing accurate quantitative indices of sensitivity to specific threats is likely a key step towards a better understanding of species response to environmental changes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relationship of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with renal and cardiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Ragusa, Angela; Martines, G Fabio; Pirri, Clara; Buccheri, Maria Antonietta; Di Nora, Concetta; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of different methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T gene polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia for the development of renal failure and cardiovascular events, which are controversial. METHODS: We challenged the relationship, if any, of MTHFR 677C>T and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms with renal and heart function. The present article is a reappraisal of these concepts, investigating within a larger population, and including a subgroup of dialysis patients, if the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, as homozygous, heterozygous or with a compound heterozygous state, show different association with chronic renal failure requiring hemodialysis. MTHFR polymorphism could be a favorable evolutionary factor, i.e., a protective factor for many ominous conditions, like cancer and renal failure. A similar finding was reported in fatty liver disease in which it is suggested that MTHFR polymorphisms could have maintained and maintain their persistence by an heterozygosis advantage mechanism. We studied a total of 630 Italian Caucasian subject aged 54.60 ± 16.35 years, addressing to the increased hazard of hemodialysis, if any, according to the studied MTHFR genetic polymorphisms. RESULTS: A favorable association with normal renal function of MTHFR polymorphisms, and notably of MTHFR C677T is present independently of the negative effects of left ventricular hypertrophy, increased Intra-Renal arterial Resistance and hyperparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: MTHFR gene polymorphisms could have a protective role on renal function as suggested by their lower frequency among our dialysis patients in end-stage renal failure; differently, the association with left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced left ventricular relaxation suggest some type of indirect, or concurrent mechanism. PMID:25664255

  6. Microstructural study of the polymorphic transformation in pentacene thin films.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yosuke; Tomiya, Shigetaka; Koshitani, Naoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Satori, Kotaro; Itabashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Norihito; Nomoto, Kazumasa

    2009-10-02

    We have observed, by high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, the first direct evidence of polymorphic transformation in pentacene thin films deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Polymorphic transformation from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase occurred preferentially near polycrystalline grain boundaries, which exhibit concave surfaces. This process is thought to be driven by compressive stress caused by the grain boundaries. In addition to this stress, lattice mismatch between the two phases also results in structural defect formation.

  7. Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data [1], utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model [2]. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU) and Yoruba (YRI) HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions previously predicted by

  8. Effect of Cytokine Signaling 3 Gene Polymorphisms in Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Mehmet; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Ezgü, Fatih; Bideci, Aysun; Doğan, Haldun; Ulucan, Korkut; Cinaz, Peyami

    2016-12-01

    Although polymorphisms in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was reported to be related to obesity, Metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus in various adult studies, there is a lack of data in children. In this study, we examined eight reported polymorphisms of SOCS3 in obese Turkish children and adolescent with and without MS and compared the results with that of controls. One hundred and forty eight obese and 63 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. Obesity classification was carried out according to body mass index. World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used for the diagnosis of MS. Genotyping procedure was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing protocol. The frequency of rs2280148 polymorphism was significantly higher in obese subjects with MS than in the control group, whereas the frequency of rs8064821 polymorphism was significantly higher in obese subjects with MS than in obese children without MS. The significant associations of certain SOCS3 polymorphisms with obesity parameters in both MS and MS -related insulin resistance, hypertension, and fatty liver suggest that polymorphisms in this gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of MS and also that they can be potentially used as a marker for attenuated or aggressive disease.

  9. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices.

  10. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N; Keum, Jong K; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-20

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices.

  11. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO2 polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-01-01

    The VO2 polymorphs, i.e., VO2(A), VO2(B), VO2(M1) and VO2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on various perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. Our successful epitaxy of both VO2(A) and VO2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices. PMID:26787259

  12. Functional analysis of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Pampín, Sandra; Rodríguez-Rey, José C

    2007-04-01

    The identification of regulatory polymorphisms has become a key problem in human genetics. In the past few years there has been a conceptual change in the way in which regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms are studied. We revise the new approaches and discuss how gene expression studies can contribute to a better knowledge of the genetics of common diseases. New techniques for the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with changes in gene expression have been recently developed. This, together with a more comprehensive use of the old in-vitro methods, has produced a great amount of genetic information. When added to current databases, it will help to design better tools for the detection of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The identification of functional regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms cannot be done by the simple inspection of DNA sequence. In-vivo techniques, based on primer-extension, and the more recently developed 'haploChIP' allow the association of gene variants to changes in gene expression. Gene expression analysis by conventional in-vitro techniques is the only way to identify the functional consequences of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The amount of information produced in the last few years will help to refine the tools for the future analysis of regulatory gene variants.

  13. Understanding polymorphism in organic semiconductor thin films through nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ying; Lenn, Kristina M; Lee, Wen-Ya; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A; Xu, Jie; Mao, Yisha; Kim, Yeongin; Reinspach, Julia A; Park, Steve; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Xue, Gi; Clancy, Paulette; Bao, Zhenan; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B

    2014-12-10

    Understanding crystal polymorphism is a long-standing challenge relevant to many fields, such as pharmaceuticals, organic semiconductors, pigments, food, and explosives. Controlling polymorphism of organic semiconductors (OSCs) in thin films is particularly important given that such films form the active layer in most organic electronics devices and that dramatic changes in the electronic properties can be induced even by small changes in the molecular packing. However, there are very few polymorphic OSCs for which the structure-property relationships have been elucidated so far. The major challenges lie in the transient nature of metastable forms and the preparation of phase-pure, highly crystalline thin films for resolving the crystal structures and evaluating the charge transport properties. Here we demonstrate that the nanoconfinement effect combined with the flow-enhanced crystal engineering technique is a powerful and likely material-agnostic method to identify existing polymorphs in OSC materials and to prepare the individual pure forms in thin films at ambient conditions. With this method we prepared high quality crystal polymorphs and resolved crystal structures of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), including a new polymorph discovered via in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and confirmed by molecular mechanic simulations. We further correlated molecular packing with charge transport properties using quantum chemical calculations and charge carrier mobility measurements. In addition, we applied our methodology to a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]1benzothiophene (BTBT) derivative and successfully stabilized its metastable form.

  14. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S; Garten, Lauren; Ndione, Paul; Ginley, David; Persson, Kristin A

    2016-05-25

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. We find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO2 substrates, where the VO2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO2 brookite plane while the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. These criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.

  15. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection

    DOE PAGES

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S.; Garten, Lauren; ...

    2016-05-04

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO 2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. Here, we find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO 2 substrates, where the VO 2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO 2 brookite plane whilemore » the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO 2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO 2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. Our criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.« less

  16. Epitaxial stabilization and phase instability of VO 2 polymorphs

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong K.; ...

    2016-01-20

    The VO 2 polymorphs, i.e., VO 2(A), VO 2(B), VO 2(M1) and VO 2(R), have a wide spectrum of functionalities useful for many potential applications in information and energy technologies. However, synthesis of phase pure materials, especially in thin film forms, has been a challenging task due to the fact that the VO 2 polymorphs are closely related to each other in a thermodynamic framework. Here, we report epitaxial stabilization of the VO 2 polymorphs to synthesize high quality single crystalline thin films and study the phase stability of these metastable materials. We selectively deposit all the phases on variousmore » perovskite substrates with different crystallographic orientations. By investigating the phase instability, phonon modes and transport behaviours, not only do we find distinctively contrasting physical properties of the VO 2 polymorphs, but that the polymorphs can be on the verge of phase transitions when heated as low as ~400 °C. In conclusion, our successful epitaxy of both VO 2(A) and VO 2(B) phases, which are rarely studied due to the lack of phase pure materials, will open the door to the fundamental studies of VO 2 polymorphs for potential applications in advanced electronic and energy devices.« less

  17. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S.; Garten, Lauren

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. We find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO2 substrates, where the VO2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO2 brookite plane while the columbite and anatase structuresmore » favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. These criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.« less

  18. Computational Approach for Epitaxial Polymorph Stabilization through Substrate Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Hong; Dwaraknath, Shyam S.; Garten, Lauren

    With the ultimate goal of finding new polymorphs through targeted synthesis conditions and techniques, we outline a computational framework to select optimal substrates for epitaxial growth using first principle calculations of formation energies, elastic strain energy, and topological information. To demonstrate the approach, we study the stabilization of metastable VO 2 compounds which provides a rich chemical and structural polymorph space. Here, we find that common polymorph statistics, lattice matching, and energy above hull considerations recommends homostructural growth on TiO 2 substrates, where the VO 2 brookite phase would be preferentially grown on the a-c TiO 2 brookite plane whilemore » the columbite and anatase structures favor the a-b plane on the respective TiO 2 phases. Overall, we find that a model which incorporates a geometric unit cell area matching between the substrate and the target film as well as the resulting strain energy density of the film provide qualitative agreement with experimental observations for the heterostructural growth of known VO 2 polymorphs: rutile, A and B phases. The minimal interfacial geometry matching and estimated strain energy criteria provide several suggestions for substrates and substrate-film orientations for the heterostructural growth of the hitherto hypothetical anatase, brookite, and columbite polymorphs. Our criteria serve as a preliminary guidance for the experimental efforts stabilizing new materials and/or polymorphs through epitaxy. The current screening algorithm is being integrated within the Materials Project online framework and data and hence publicly available.« less

  19. Gene Polymorphism Studies in a Teaching Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Jeffry

    2009-02-01

    I present a laboratory procedure for illustrating transcription, post-transcriptional modification, gene conservation, and comparative genetics for use in undergraduate biology education. Students are individually assigned genes in a targeted biochemical pathway, for which they design and test polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. In this example, students used genes annotated for the steroid biosynthesis pathway in soybean. The authoritative Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) interactive database and other online resources were used to design primers based first on soybean expressed sequence tags (ESTs), then on ESTs from an alternate organism if soybean sequence was unavailable. Students designed a total of 50 gene-based primer pairs (37 soybean, 13 alternative) and tested these for polymorphism state and similarity between two soybean and two pea lines. Student assessment was based on acquisition of laboratory skills and successful project completion. This simple procedure illustrates conservation of genes and is not limited to soybean or pea. Cost per student estimates are included, along with a detailed protocol and flow diagram of the procedure.

  20. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  2. Structural study of polymorphism in methylprednisolone aceponate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, A. V.; Somov, N. V.; Shipilova, A. S.; Gusarova, E. V.; Knyazeva, S. S.; Stepanova, O. V.; Chuprunov, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    The crystal structures of methylprednisolone aceponate were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis at temperatures 90 K and 150 K: space group P212121, a = 14.8592(2), b = 19.6844(5), c = 26.1626(4) Å, Z = 12; R = 0.0598 (T = 90 K); space group P212121, a = 6.57348(14), b = 14.8295(3), c = 26.2214(5) Å, Z = 4; R = 0.0518 (T = 150 K). Features of structural changes in the phase transition were revealed. The abrupt change in the unit cell parameters in the phase transition was shown by low-temperature X-ray powder. The methods of degree of invariance of crystal electron density and molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra were used for the analysis of polymorphism in methylprednisolone aceponate. The atomic structure at 90 K have a translational pseudosymmetry of electron density η = 0.329(1). The decrease of number of intermolecular contacts in the high-temperature modification due to rupture of intermolecular non-valence contacts C/O was observed.

  3. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types—claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32–38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55–63% higher wing loading, and 32–33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants. PMID:27082115

  4. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Anna; Bergman, Olle; Chrapkowska, Cecilia; Westberg, Lars; Belin, Andrea Carmine; Sydow, Olof; Johnels, Bo; Olson, Lars; Holmberg, Björn; Nissbrandt, Hans

    2007-04-05

    Accumulating evidence indicate that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is of pathophysiological importance for the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). For example, in a large epidemiological study, use of NSAIDs was associated with a lower risk of PD. Genetic variants of the COX-2 gene might therefore influence the risk of developing the disease. The genotype distribution of four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COX-2 gene (rs689466:A496G, rs20417:G926C, rs5277:G3050C, rs5275:C8473T) was analyzed in PD patients and control subjects in a Swedish population. No differences could be seen between the PD-patient and controls regarding the A496G, G926C, and G3050C SNPs, but the allele frequency of the C8473T SNP was found to differ when male patients were compared to controls (P = 0.007). In females no difference could be seen between PD-patients and controls. In conclusion, the results suggest a possible influence of the COX-2 C8473T SNP in PD, although it only seems to be of importance in men. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Polymorphic admixture typing in human ethnic populations

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, M.; Stephens, J.C.; Boaze, R.

    1994-10-01

    A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies ({delta}). The distribution of frequency differences ({delta} values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisitmore » with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high {delta} values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066-.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to {open_quotes}racial{close_quotes} differentiation. The median {delta} values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. 43 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  7. The role of gene polymorphisms in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Matalliotakis, Michail; Zervou, Maria I.; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Koumantakis, George; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Prapas, Ioannis; Zondervan, Krina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Matalliotakis, Ioannis; Goulielmos, George N.

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disorder, affecting up to 10% of women, characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissue at ectopic positions generally within the peritoneum. It is a heritable condition influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors, with an overall heritability estimated at approximately 50%. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7521902, rs10859871 and rs11031006, mapping to WNT4, VEZT and FSHB genetic loci, respectively, are associated with risk for endometriosis in a Greek population. This study included 166 women with histologically confirmed endometriosis diagnosed through surgery and 150 normal controls. Genotyping of the rs7521902, rs10859871 and rs11031006 SNPs was performed with Taqman primer/probe sets. A significant association was detected with the AC genotype of rs7521902 (WNT4) in patients with stage III and IV disease only. Evidence for association with endometriosis was also found for the AC genotype of the rs10859871 of VEZT. Notably, a significant difference in the distribution of the AG genotype and the minor allele A of FSHB rs11031006 SNP was found between the endometriosis patients and controls. We found a genetic association between rs11031006 (FSHB) SNP and endometriosis. WNT4 and VEZT genes constitute the most consistently associated genes with endometriosis. In the present study, an association of rs7521902 (WNT4) and rs10859871 (VEZT) was confirmed in women with endometriosis at the genotypic but not the allelic level. PMID:28901453

  8. Hereditary polymorphic light eruption of American Indians: occurrence in non-Indians with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, R M; Johnson, J A

    1996-04-01

    Hereditary polymorphic light eruption (HPLE) occurs unique ly in the American Indian and Inuit and exhibits autosomal dominant transmission. Because the cutaneous expression of HPLE resembles that of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) and because many non-Indians in the United States have American Indian heritage, some instances of PLE may actually be HPLE. Our purpose was to determine whether non-Indian patients with PLE have characteristics suggestive of HPLE. We surveyed in Nebraska 25 European-Caucasian and 36 African-American patients with PLE for American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives. Nonphotosensitive subjects (52 Caucasians and 40 African Americans) were surveyed for American Indian heritage. American Indian heritage occurred in 11 Caucasian patients (44%); of those, seven (64%) had photosensitive relatives. Likewise, 29 African Americans (81%) had American Indian heritage; 19 (66%) of those had photosensitive relatives. American Indian heritage occurred in 10 Caucasian control subjects (19%) and in 34 African-American control subjects (85%). If American Indian heritage and a family history of photosensitivity are definitive for HPLE, seven (28%) of our Caucasian patients and 19 (53%) of our African-American patients have HPLE rather than PLE. We urge physicians who suspect PLE in non-Indians to ask about American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives and to screen their present patients with PLE for such characteristics.

  9. Evolutionary trade-offs and the structure of polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Sheftel, Hila; Szekely, Pablo; Mayo, Avi; Sella, Guy; Alon, Uri

    2018-05-26

    Populations of organisms show genetic differences called polymorphisms. Understanding the effects of polymorphisms is important for biology and medicine. Here, we ask which polymorphisms occur at high frequency when organisms evolve under trade-offs between multiple tasks. Multiple tasks present a problem, because it is not possible to be optimal at all tasks simultaneously and hence compromises are necessary. Recent work indicates that trade-offs lead to a simple geometry of phenotypes in the space of traits: phenotypes fall on the Pareto front, which is shaped as a polytope: a line, triangle, tetrahedron etc. The vertices of these polytopes are the optimal phenotypes for a single task. Up to now, work on this Pareto approach has not considered its genetic underpinnings. Here, we address this by asking how the polymorphism structure of a population is affected by evolution under trade-offs. We simulate a multi-task selection scenario, in which the population evolves to the Pareto front: the line segment between two archetypes or the triangle between three archetypes. We find that polymorphisms that become prevalent in the population have pleiotropic phenotypic effects that align with the Pareto front. Similarly, epistatic effects between prevalent polymorphisms are parallel to the front. Alignment with the front occurs also for asexual mating. Alignment is reduced when drift or linkage is strong, and is replaced by a more complex structure in which many perpendicular allele effects cancel out. Aligned polymorphism structure allows mating to produce offspring that stand a good chance of being optimal multi-taskers in at least one of the locales available to the species.This article is part of the theme issue 'Self-organization in cell biology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Preprohypocretin polymorphisms in Parkinson disease patients reporting "sleep attacks".

    PubMed

    Rissling, Ida; Körner, Yvonne; Geller, Frank; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Möller, J Carsten

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we found a significant association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism Taq IA and sudden onset of sleep in patients with Parkinson disease. Here we evaluated the association between the preprohypocretin (-909T/C), (-22C/T), and (-20C/A) polymorphisms and sudden onset of sleep in the same population of patients with Parkinson disease. We conducted an association study analyzing the distribution of preprohypocretin polymorphisms in Germanic, caucasian Parkinson disease patients with and without sudden onset of sleep, matched according to drug therapy, disease duration, sex, and age. Movement disorders section at a university hospital. 132 Parkinson disease patients with sudden onset of sleep and 132 Parkinson disease patients without sudden onset of sleep. Blood samples were taken from each participant and used for DNA extraction. Polymorphisms were analyzed by established polymerase chain reaction protocols or direct sequencing. The variant allele T of the (-909T/C) preprohypocretin polymorphism was more commonly found in Parkinson disease patients with sudden onset of sleep. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the genotype (P = .024) and allele (P = .018) distribution between both groups. For heterozygous and homozygous carriers of allele T, the genotype relative-risk estimates for the presence of sudden onset of sleep were 2.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-5.34) and 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-7.25), respectively. Our results show a significant association between the (-909T/C) preprohypocretin polymorphism and sudden onset of sleep in Parkinson disease. However, we could not demonstrate any interaction between the Taq IA and (-909T/C) polymorphisms with respect to the occurrence of sudden onset of sleep, suggesting that multiple genetic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of this phenomenon.

  11. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in bullous pemphigoid in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y T; Liu, H N; Yu, C W; Lin, M W; Huang, C H; Chen, C C; Liu, M T; Lee, D D; Wang, W J; Tsai, S F

    2006-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease mostly associated with autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal BP autoantigens BP180 and BP230. High levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma have been detected in skin lesions or sera of patients with BP. Cytokine gene polymorphisms may affect cytokine production and contribute to susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Until now, no cytokine gene polymorphism study has been conducted on patients with BP. We aimed to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of the cytokine genes might influence the development of BP. DNA samples were obtained from 96 BP patients and 174 control subjects. Using direct sequencing and microsatellite genotyping, we examined 23 polymorphisms in 11 cytokine genes including the IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-4 receptor, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma genes. Although the BP patients were more likely to carry the -511T and -31C alleles of the IL-1beta gene (P = 0.04), the significance disappeared after correction for multiple testing (Pc). There was complete linkage disequilibrium between the -511T and -31C alleles of the IL-1beta gene. In female patients with BP, the associations with IL-1beta (-511T) and (-31C) alleles were much stronger (68% vs. 40.6%, odds ratio = 3.11, Pc = 0.006). No significantly different allelic and genotypic distributions of other cytokine gene polymorphisms could be found between the patients with BP and controls. Moreover, no association with the extent of disease involvement (localized or generalized) was observed. The IL-1beta (-511) and (-31) polymorphisms were significantly associated with BP in women. The other genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes that we analysed do not appear to be associated with BP susceptibility in our Chinese population.

  12. [Clinical polymorphism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kovrazhkina, E A; Razinskaya, O D; Gubsky, L V

    To clarify clinical polymorphism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was based on records of a hospital personalized register. Ninety-four patients, aged from 25 to 81 years, diagnosed with ALS according to El Escorial criteria were included. Electromyography and, if necessary, transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic-resonance tomography were used to confirm the diagnosis. Disease progression was assessed with the ARSFRS. Age at disease onset, progression rate and duration of survival of patients, rare symptoms of ALS ('extramotor'), time for palliative care (gastrostomy, non-invasive and invasive lung ventilation) and provision of the care to the patient, family history were recorded in a specially designed questionnaire. Most of the patients had sporadic ALS, only two familial cases were identified. Spinal onset ALS was found in 66.0% of the patients, bulbar onset in 29.8%, diffuse onset (spinal and bulbar motor neurons were affected simultaneously) in 4.2%. Moderate ALS progression was observed in 42.6% of the patients, mean time till death was 3.0±1.2 years. A slow progression was found in patients with cervical, low back and bulbar onset. A rapid and even 'momentary' type of progression was in diffuse and breast onset. An extremely slow progression with the long-term hospital treatment and survival >5 years was found in 9.7%. Rare ALS symptoms were represented by specific cognitive and psychological impairments, a type of frontal/temporal dysfunction, but only 5 (5.3%) patients were diagnosed with ALS-dementia. Signs of pathological muscle fatigue (myasthenic syndrome) were identified in 18 (19.1%), extrapyramidal disorders in 5 (5.3%), coordination disorders in 4 (4.3%), pain in 12 (12.8%), sensory symptoms in 5 (5.3%) of the patients. ALS is a multisystemic neurodegeneration disease though the progressive motor neuron death determines the fatal outcome.

  13. The polymorphisms of the chromatin fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Mozziconacci, Julien; Lavelle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the genome is packed into chromosomes, each consisting of large polymeric fibers made of DNA bound with proteins (mainly histones) and RNA molecules. The nature and precise 3D organization of this fiber has been a matter of intense speculations and debates. In the emerging picture, the local chromatin state plays a critical role in all fundamental DNA transactions, such as transcriptional control, DNA replication or repair. However, the molecular and structural mechanisms involved remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the tremendous efforts that have been made for almost 40 years to build physiologically relevant models of chromatin structure. The motivation behind building such models was to shift our representation and understanding of DNA transactions from a too simplistic ‘naked DNA’ view to a more realistic ‘coated DNA’ view, as a step towards a better framework in which to interpret mechanistically the control of genetic expression and other DNA metabolic processes. The field has evolved from a speculative point of view towards in vitro biochemistry and in silico modeling, but is still longing for experimental in vivo validations of the proposed structures or even proof of concept experiments demonstrating a clear role of a given structure in a metabolic transaction. The mere existence of a chromatin fiber as a relevant biological entity in vivo has been put into serious questioning. Current research is suggesting a possible reconciliation between theoretical studies and experiments, pointing towards a view where the polymorphic and dynamic nature of the chromatin fiber is essential to support its function in genome metabolism.

  14. TRPA1 gene polymorphisms and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Dijk, F Nicole; Holloway, John W; Ring, Susan M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Strachan, David P; Granell, Raquel; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Shaheen, Seif O

    2017-03-01

    Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. We sought to confirm the most significant associations with comparable outcomes in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) and Generation R birth cohorts. In ALSPAC, we explored interactions with prenatal paracetamol exposure. In ALSPAC, there was strong evidence for association between six SNPs and asthma: rs959974 and rs1384001 (per-allele odds ratio for both: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.15-1.47), p = 0.00001), rs7010969 (OR 1.28 (1.13-1.46), p = 0.00004), rs3735945 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.55), p = 0.003), rs920829 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.54), p = 0.004) and rs4738202 (OR 1.22 (1.07-1.39), p = 0.004). In a meta-analysis across the three cohorts, the pooled effect estimates confirmed that all six SNPs were significantly associated with asthma. In ALSPAC, TRPA1 associations with asthma were not modified by prenatal paracetamol, although associations with IgE concentration were. This study suggests that TRPA1 may play a role in the development of childhood asthma. (249 words). © 2016 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A second triclinic polymorph of azimsulfuron

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jineun; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C13H16N10O5S (systematic name: 1-(4,6-di­meth­oxypyrimidin-2-yl)-3-{[1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-2H-tetra­zol-5-yl)pyrazol-5-yl]sulfonyl}urea), is a second triclinic polymorph of this crystal [for the other, see: Jeon et al., (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. E71, o470–o471]. There are two mol­ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; the dihedral angles between the pyrazole ring and the tetra­zole and di­meth­oxy­pyrimidine ring planes are 72.84 (10) and 37.24 (14)°, respectively (mol­ecule A) and 84.38 (9) and 26.09 (15)°, respectively (mol­ecule B). Each mol­ecule features an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.9871 (16), 3.4487 (14) and 3.5455 (16) Å] link the mol­ecules into [001] chains. In addition, N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds occur, forming a three-dimensional architecture. We propose that the dimorphism results from differences in conformations and packing owing to different inter­molecular inter­actions, especially aromatic π–π stacking. PMID:27746943

  16. [Biomarkers of gentotoxic risk and metabolic polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Pavanello, S; Clonfero, E

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews studies published in the international scientific literature evaluating the influence of genetically based metabolic polymorphisms on biological indicators of genotoxic risk in environmental or occupational exposure. Exposures due to life style (i.e. diet or smoking) were not considered. Indicators are subdivided into internal dose indicators (concentration of the substance or its metabolites in biological fluids, urinary mutagenicity, adducts of hemoglobin, plasma proteins and DNA), and early biological effects (chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, COMET assay, HPRT mutants). The metabolic genotypes (or phenotypes) examined by various authors are: ALDH2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase), CYP (P450 cytochrome) 1AI, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, EPHX (epoxidohydrolase), NAT2 (N-acetyl transferase), NQO1 (NAD(P)H: kinone oxidoreductase), PON1 (paraoxonase), GST (glutathione S-transferase) M1, GSTT1 and GSTP1. In more than half the studies (52 out of 96), no influence of genotype was found in the biological indicator. This may be due either to the poor sensitivity of the indicator used, or to low exposure. In studies examining the effect of genotype on the indicator, the biological plausibility of the result was evaluated, i.e., whether the effect is consistent with the type of enzymatic activity expressed. Four studies reported not very reliable results and suggest either the unfavourable influence of genotype GSTM1 with high detoxifying activity, or enzymatic activity poorly involved in the metabolism of the xenobiotics in question (NAT2 in the case of PAH). As regards urinary metabolites of genotoxic agents, eight studies reported the modulating effect of genotype. The urinary excretion of mercapturic acids was greater in subjects with high GST activity. In exposure to PAH, urinary 1-pyrenol and PAH metabolites turn out to be significantly influenced by genotypes CYP1A1 or GSTM1 null; in exposure to aromatic amines, the influence of

  17. Three reversible polymorphic copper(I) complexes triggered by ligand conformation: insights into polymorphic crystal habit and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wenxiang; Hong, Mingwei; Song, Li; Jia, Guohua; Shi, Hongsheng; Guo, Jiayu; Shu, Kangying; Guo, Bing; Zhang, Yicheng; You, Wenwu; Chen, Xueyuan

    2015-05-04

    Three luminescent polymorphs based on a new copper(I) complex Cu(2-QBO)(PPh3)PF6 (1, PPh3 = triphenylphosphine, 2-QBO = 2-(2'-quinolyl)benzoxazole) have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, elemental analyses, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Each polymorph can reversibly convert from one to another through appropriate procedures. Interestingly, such interconversion can be distinguished by their intrinsic crystal morphologies and colors (namely α, dark yellow plate, β, orange block, γ, light yellow needle) as well as photoluminescent (PL) properties. X-ray crystal structure analyses of these three polymorphs show three different supramolecular structures from 1D to 3D, which are expected to be responsible for the formation of three different crystal morphologies such as needle, plate, and block. Combination of the experimental data with DFT calculations on these three polymorphs reveals that the polymorphic interconversion is triggered by the conformation isomerization of the 2-QBO ligand and can be successfully controlled by the polarity of the process solvents (affecting the molecular dipole moment) and thermodynamics (affecting the molecular total energy). It is also found that the different crystal colors of polymorphs and their PL properties are derived from different θ values (dihedral angle between benzoxazolyl and quinolyl group of the 2-QBO ligand) and P-Cu-P angles based on TD-DFT calculations. Moreover, an interesting phase interconversion between γ and β has also been found under different temperature, and this result is consistent with the DFT calculations in which the total energy of β is larger than that of γ. This polymorphism provides a good model to study the relationship between the structure and the physical properties in luminescent copper(I) complexes as well as some profound insights into their PL properties.

  18. Glucocorticoid Receptor Polymorphisms and Outcomes in Pediatric Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Anas, Nick; Allen, Geoffrey L; Thomas, Neal J; Bigham, Michael T; Weiss, Scott L; Fitzgerald, Julie; Checchia, Paul A; Meyer, Keith; Quasney, Michael; Gedeit, Rainer; Freishtat, Robert J; Nowak, Jeffrey; Raj, Shekhar S; Gertz, Shira; Grunwell, Jocelyn R; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-04-01

    Polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with outcome and corticosteroid responsiveness among patients with inflammatory disorders. We conducted a candidate gene association study to test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms are associated with outcome and corticosteroid responsiveness among children with septic shock. We genotyped 482 children with septic shock for the presence of two glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms (rs56149945 and rs41423247) associated with increased sensitivity and one glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism (rs6198) associated with decreased sensitivity to corticosteroids. The primary outcome variable was complicated course, defined as 28-day mortality or the persistence of two or more organ failures 7 days after a septic shock diagnosis. We used logistic regression to test for an association between corticosteroid exposure and outcome, within genotype group, and adjusted for illness severity. Multiple PICUs in the United States. Standard care. There were no differences in outcome when comparing the various genotype groups. Among patients homozygous for the wild-type glucocorticoid receptor allele, corticosteroids were independently associated with increased odds of complicated course (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.01-5.21; p = 0.047). Based on these glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms, we could not detect a beneficial effect of corticosteroids among any genotype group. Among children homozygous for the wild-type allele, corticosteroids were independently associated with increased odds of poor outcome.

  19. Negative-pressure polymorphs made by heterostructural alloying

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, John D.

    2018-01-01

    The ability of a material to adopt multiple structures, known as polymorphism, is a fascinating natural phenomenon. Various polymorphs with unusual properties are routinely synthesized by compression under positive pressure. However, changing a material’s structure by applying tension under negative pressure is much more difficult. We show how negative-pressure polymorphs can be synthesized by mixing materials with different crystal structures—a general approach that should be applicable to many materials. Theoretical calculations suggest that it costs less energy to mix low-density structures than high-density structures, due to less competition for space between the atoms. Proof-of-concept experiments confirm that mixing two different high-density forms of MnSe and MnTe stabilizes a Mn(Se,Te) alloy with a low-density wurtzite structure. This Mn(Se,Te) negative-pressure polymorph has 2× to 4× lower electron effective mass compared to MnSe and MnTe parent compounds and has a piezoelectric response that none of the parent compounds have. This example shows how heterostructural alloying can lead to negative-pressure polymorphs with useful properties—materials that are otherwise nearly impossible to make. PMID:29725620

  20. Spatial and temporal drivers of phenotypic diversity in polymorphic snakes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christian L; Davis Rabosky, Alison R

    2013-08-01

    Color polymorphism in natural populations presents an ideal opportunity to study the evolutionary drivers of phenotypic diversity. Systems with striking spatial, temporal, and qualitative variation in color can be leveraged to study the mechanisms promoting the distribution of different types of variation in nature. We used the highly polymorphic ground snake (Sonora semiannulata), a putative coral snake mimic with both cryptic and conspicuous morphs, to compare patterns of neutral genetic variation and variation over space and time in color polymorphism to investigate the mechanistic drivers of phenotypic variation across scales. We found that strong selection promotes color polymorphism across spatial and temporal scales, with morph frequencies differing markedly between juvenile and adult age classes within a single population, oscillating over time within multiple populations, and varying drastically over the landscape despite minimal population genetic structure. However, we found no evidence that conspicuousness of morphs was related to which color pattern was favored by selection or to any geographic factors, including sympatry with coral snakes. We suggest that complex patterns of phenotypic variation in polymorphic systems may be a fundamental outcome of the conspicuousness of morphs and that explicit tests of temporal and geographic variation are critical to the interpretation of conspicuousness and mimicry.

  1. Negative-pressure polymorphs made by heterostructural alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Siol, Sebastian; Holder, Aaron; Steffes, James

    The ability of a material to adopt multiple structures, known as polymorphism, is a fascinating natural phenomenon. Various polymorphs with unusual properties are routinely synthesized by compression under positive pressure. However, changing a material's structure by applying tension under negative pressure is much more difficult. We show how negative-pressure polymorphs can be synthesized by mixing materials with different crystal structures - a general approach that should be applicable to many materials. Theoretical calculations suggest that it costs less energy to mix low-density structures than high-density structures, due to less competition for space between the atoms. Proof-of-concept experiments confirm that mixingmore » two different high-density forms of MnSe and MnTe stabilizes a Mn(Se,Te) alloy with a low-density wurtzite structure. This Mn(Se,Te) negative-pressure polymorph has 2x to 4x lower electron effective mass compared to MnSe and MnTe parent compounds and has a piezoelectric response that none of the parent compounds have. Lastly, this example shows how heterostructural alloying can lead to negative-pressure polymorphs with useful properties - materials that are otherwise nearly impossible to make.« less

  2. Investigation of polymorphic transitions of piracetam induced during wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Catherine B; Kollamaram, Gayathri; Zeglinski, Jacek; Whitaker, Darren A; Croker, Denise M; Walker, Gavin M

    2017-10-01

    Piracetam was investigated as a model API which is known to exhibit a number of different polymorphic forms. It is freely soluble in water so the possibility exists for polymorphic transformations to occur during wet granulation. Analysis of the polymorphic form present during lab-scale wet granulation, using water as a granulation liquid, was studied with powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as off-line and inline analysis tools respectively. Different excipients with a range of hydrophilicities, aqueous solubilities and molecular weights were investigated to examine their influence on these solution-mediated polymorphic transitions and experimental results were rationalised using molecular modelling. Our results indicated that as an increasing amount of water was added to the as-received piracetam FIII, a greater amount of the API dissolved which recrystallised upon drying to the metastable FII(6.403) via a monohydrate intermediary. Molecular level analysis revealed that the observed preferential transformation of monohydrate to FII is linked with a greater structural similarity between the monohydrate and FII polymorph in comparison to FIII. The application of Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool to monitor the granulation process for the production of the monohydrate intermediate as a precursor to the undesirable metastable form was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    2015-01-01

    To present the main results of the literature on genetic polymorphisms in Turner Syndrome and their association with the clinical signs and the etiology of this chromosomal disorder. The review was conducted in the PubMed database without any time limit, using the terms Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism. A total of 116 articles were found, and based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 were selected for the review. The polymorphisms investigated in patients with Turner Syndrome were associated with growth deficit, causing short stature, low bone mineral density, autoimmunity and cardiac abnormalities, which are frequently found in patients with Turner Syndrome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the etiology of Turner syndrome, i.e., in chromosomal nondisjunction, was also confirmed. Genetic polymorphisms appear to be associated with Turner Syndrome. However, in view of the small number of published studies and their contradictory findings, further studies in different populations are needed in order to clarify the role of genetic variants in the clinical signs and etiology of the Turner Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete Trovó

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present the main results of the literature on genetic polymorphisms in Turner syndrome and their association with the clinical signs and the etiology of this chromosomal disorder. Data sources: The review was conducted in the PubMed database without any time limit, using the terms Turner syndrome and genetic polymorphism. A total of 116 articles were found, and based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria 17 were selected for the review. Data synthesis: The polymorphisms investigated in patients with Turner syndrome were associated with growth deficit, causing short stature, low bone mineral density, autoimmunity and cardiac abnormalities, which are frequently found in patients with Turner syndrome. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the etiology of Turner syndrome, i.e., in chromosomal nondisjunction, was also confirmed. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms appear to be associated with Turner syndrome. However, in view of the small number of published studies and their contradictory findings, further studies in different populations are needed in order to clarify the role of genetic variants in the clinical signs and etiology of the Turner syndrome. PMID:25765448

  5. Negative-pressure polymorphs made by heterostructural alloying.

    PubMed

    Siol, Sebastian; Holder, Aaron; Steffes, James; Schelhas, Laura T; Stone, Kevin H; Garten, Lauren; Perkins, John D; Parilla, Philip A; Toney, Michael F; Huey, Bryan D; Tumas, William; Lany, Stephan; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2018-04-01

    The ability of a material to adopt multiple structures, known as polymorphism, is a fascinating natural phenomenon. Various polymorphs with unusual properties are routinely synthesized by compression under positive pressure. However, changing a material's structure by applying tension under negative pressure is much more difficult. We show how negative-pressure polymorphs can be synthesized by mixing materials with different crystal structures-a general approach that should be applicable to many materials. Theoretical calculations suggest that it costs less energy to mix low-density structures than high-density structures, due to less competition for space between the atoms. Proof-of-concept experiments confirm that mixing two different high-density forms of MnSe and MnTe stabilizes a Mn(Se,Te) alloy with a low-density wurtzite structure. This Mn(Se,Te) negative-pressure polymorph has 2× to 4× lower electron effective mass compared to MnSe and MnTe parent compounds and has a piezoelectric response that none of the parent compounds have. This example shows how heterostructural alloying can lead to negative-pressure polymorphs with useful properties-materials that are otherwise nearly impossible to make.

  6. Micro-evolution in grasshoppers mediated by polymorphic Robertsonian translocations.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed.

  7. Association between DNA methyltransferase gene polymorphism and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Julio Carlos; de Bem, Cintia Monique Boschmann Ens; da Rocha, Tatiane Jacobsen; Schumacher-Schuh, Artur F; Chaves, Marcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos Roberto; Hutz, Mara H; Fiegenbaum, Marilu; Camozzato, Ana Luiza

    2017-02-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and complex neurodegenerative disorder, the second most prevalent, only behind Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that environmental factors may contribute for neurodegeneration through induction of epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, that is carried out by enzymes, such as DNMT1 and DNMT3B. This present study targeted to investigate the association among DNMT1 and DNMT3B polymorphisms with PD. Five hundred and twenty-two participants (214 PD patients following UK Brain Bank criteria and 308 healthy individuals) were evaluated. DNA was obtained from whole blood and genotypes were detected by an allelic discrimination assay using TaqMan ® MGB probes on a real-time PCR system. The polymorphisms studied were rs2162560 and rs759920 (DNMT1) and rs2424913, rs998382 and rs2424932 (DNMT3B). Was found association between DNMT3B rs2424913 in T allele carriers with PD. The presence of the T allele was associated with PD (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.16-2.81, p=0.009). No significant difference was observed for others DNMT3B SNPs. Also, no association between PD and the control group were observed for DNMT1 polymorphisms. This is the first study addressing an association between DNMT3B polymorphism and PD. The polymorphism may play a role in the pathogenesis of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative-pressure polymorphs made by heterostructural alloying

    DOE PAGES

    Siol, Sebastian; Holder, Aaron; Steffes, James; ...

    2018-04-20

    The ability of a material to adopt multiple structures, known as polymorphism, is a fascinating natural phenomenon. Various polymorphs with unusual properties are routinely synthesized by compression under positive pressure. However, changing a material's structure by applying tension under negative pressure is much more difficult. We show how negative-pressure polymorphs can be synthesized by mixing materials with different crystal structures - a general approach that should be applicable to many materials. Theoretical calculations suggest that it costs less energy to mix low-density structures than high-density structures, due to less competition for space between the atoms. Proof-of-concept experiments confirm that mixingmore » two different high-density forms of MnSe and MnTe stabilizes a Mn(Se,Te) alloy with a low-density wurtzite structure. This Mn(Se,Te) negative-pressure polymorph has 2x to 4x lower electron effective mass compared to MnSe and MnTe parent compounds and has a piezoelectric response that none of the parent compounds have. Lastly, this example shows how heterostructural alloying can lead to negative-pressure polymorphs with useful properties - materials that are otherwise nearly impossible to make.« less

  9. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms in mutant figs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Bertoni, B W; Figueira, A; Giuliatti, S

    2013-07-08

    Fig (Ficus carica) breeding programs that use conventional approaches to develop new cultivars are rare, owing to limited genetic variability and the difficulty in obtaining plants via gamete fusion. Cytosine methylation in plants leads to gene repression, thereby affecting transcription without changing the DNA sequence. Previous studies using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers revealed no polymorphisms among select fig mutants that originated from gamma-irradiated buds. Therefore, we conducted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis to verify the existence of variability due to epigenetic DNA methylation among these mutant selections compared to the main cultivar 'Roxo-de-Valinhos'. Samples of genomic DNA were double-digested with either HpaII (methylation sensitive) or MspI (methylation insensitive) and with EcoRI. Fourteen primer combinations were tested, and on an average, non-methylated CCGG, symmetrically methylated CmCGG, and hemimethylated hmCCGG sites accounted for 87.9, 10.1, and 2.0%, respectively. MSAP analysis was effective in detecting differentially methylated sites in the genomic DNA of fig mutants, and methylation may be responsible for the phenotypic variation between treatments. Further analyses such as polymorphic DNA sequencing are necessary to validate these differences, standardize the regions of methylation, and analyze reads using bioinformatic tools.

  10. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  11. Opsin gene polymorphism predicts trichromacy in a cathemeral lemur.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Bolnick, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has identified polymorphic trichromacy in three diurnal strepsirrhines: Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), and red ruffed lemurs (V. rubra). Current hypotheses suggest that the transitions to diurnality experienced by Propithecus and Varecia were necessary precursors to their independent acquisitions of trichromacy. Accordingly, cathemeral lemurs are thought to lack the M/L opsin gene polymorphism necessary for trichromacy. In this study, the M/L opsin gene was sequenced in ten cathemeral blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). This analysis identified a polymorphism identical to that of other trichromatic strepsirrhines at the critical amino acid position 285 in exon 5 of the M/L opsin gene. Thus, polymorphic trichromacy is likely present in at least one cathemeral Eulemur species, suggesting that strict diurnality is not necessary for trichromacy. The presence of trichromacy in E. m. flavifrons suggests that a re-evaluation of current hypotheses regarding the evolution of strepsirrhine trichromacy may be necessary. Although the M/L opsin polymorphism may have been independently acquired three times in the lemurid-indriid clade, the distribution of opsin alleles in lemurids and indriids may also be consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in the last common ancestor of either the lemurids or the lemurid-indriid clade. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Rotigotine: Unexpected Polymorphism with Predictable Overall Monotropic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Céolin, René

    2015-12-01

    Crystallization of polymorphs still has a touch of art, as even prior observations of polymorphs do not guarantee their crystallization. However, once crystals of various polymorphs have been obtained, their relative stabilities can be established with a straightforward thermodynamic approach even if the conclusion will depend on the quality of the experimental data. Rotigotine is an active pharmaceutical ingredient, which has suffered the same setback as Ritonavir: a sudden appearance of a more stable crystalline polymorph than the one used for the formulation. Although the cause of the defect in the formulation was quickly established, the interpretation of the phase behavior of rotigotine has been lacking in clarity. In the present paper, data published in the patents resulting from the discovery of the new polymorph have been used to establish the pressure-temperature phase diagram of the two known solid forms of rotigotine. The analysis clearly demonstrates that form II is the stable solid phase and form I is metastable in the entire pressure-temperature domain: form I is overall monotropic in relation to form II. Thus, it was a sensible decision of European Medicines Agency to ask for a reformulation, as the first formulation was metastable even if crystallization appeared to be very slow. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Fitness consequences of polymorphic inversions in the zebra finch genome.

    PubMed

    Knief, Ulrich; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Wittig, Michael; Franke, Andre; Griffith, Simon C; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2016-09-29

    Inversion polymorphisms constitute an evolutionary puzzle: they should increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic individuals but still they are widespread in some taxa. Some insect species have evolved mechanisms to reduce the cost of embryo mortality but humans have not. In birds, a detailed analysis is missing although intraspecific inversion polymorphisms are regarded as common. In Australian zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), two polymorphic inversions are known cytogenetically and we set out to detect these two and potentially additional inversions using genomic tools and study their effects on embryo mortality and other fitness-related and morphological traits. Using whole-genome SNP data, we screened 948 wild zebra finches for polymorphic inversions and describe four large (12-63 Mb) intraspecific inversion polymorphisms with allele frequencies close to 50 %. Using additional data from 5229 birds and 9764 eggs from wild and three captive zebra finch populations, we show that only the largest inversions increase embryo mortality in heterokaryotypic males, with surprisingly small effect sizes. We test for a heterozygote advantage on other fitness components but find no evidence for heterosis for any of the inversions. Yet, we find strong additive effects on several morphological traits. The mechanism that has carried the derived inversion haplotypes to such high allele frequencies remains elusive. It appears that selection has effectively minimized the costs associated with inversions in zebra finches. The highly skewed distribution of recombination events towards the chromosome ends in zebra finches and other estrildid species may function to minimize crossovers in the inverted regions.

  14. PPARγ2Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an important transcription factor regulating adipocyte differentiation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity. Numerous genetic mutations of PPARγ have been identified and these mutations positively or negatively regulate insulin sensitivity. Among these, a relatively common polymorphism of PPARγ, Pro12Ala of PPARγ2, the isoform expressed only in adipose tissue has been shown to be associated with lower body mass index, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and resistance to the risk of type 2 diabetes in human subjects carrying this mutation. Subsequent studies in different ethnic populations, however, have revealed conflicting results, suggesting a complex interaction between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and environmental factors such as the ratio of dietary unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and/or between the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and genetic factors such as polymorphic mutations in other genes. In addition, this polymorphic mutation in PPARγ2 is associated with other aspects of human diseases, including cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer disease and aging. This review will highlight findings from recent studies. PMID:19390629

  15. Moisture induced polymorphic transition of mannitol and its morphological transformation.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Tomohiro; Forbes, Robert T; York, Peter; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2002-10-24

    The effects of moisture on the polymorphic transition of crystalline mannitol were investigated. Mannitol has three polymorphic forms, and was classified as alpha, beta, and delta form, respectively, by Walter-Lévy (C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris Ser. C (1968) 267, 1779). The water uptake of delta form crystalline was greater than that of the beta form when each crystalline form was stored at 97%RH (25 degrees C). The different powder X-ray diffraction patterns obtained before and after humidification confirmed that a moisture induced polymorphic transition from the delta to beta form had occurred. Morphological changes were also observed with an increase in the specific surface area of the delta sample from 0.4 to 2.3 m(2)/g being found on exposure to humidity. Thus it was suggested that the observed higher hygroscopicity of the newly formed beta form arose from the gradual increase in the surface area with the polymorphic transition from the delta to beta form. When considering the mechanism of this polymorphic transition, the results from molecular modelling, cross-polarisation/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) solid-state NMR spectra and scanning electron-micrographs suggest that water molecules act as a molecular loosener to facilitate conversion from delta to the beta form as a result of multi-nucleation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Association of TNF, MBL, and VDR Polymorphisms with Leprosy Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Bishwa R.; Macdonald, Murdo; Berrington, William R.; Misch, E. Ann; Ranjit, Chaman; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kaplan, Gilla; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although genetic variants in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mannose binding lectin (MBL), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been associated with leprosy clinical outcomes these findings have not been extensively validated. Methods We used a case-control study design with 933 patients in Nepal, which included 240 patients with type I reversal reaction (RR), and 124 patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reactions. We compared genotype frequencies in 933 cases and 101 controls of 7 polymorphisms, including a promoter region variant in TNF (G−308A), three polymorphisms in MBL (C154T, G161A and G170A), and three variants in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI). Results We observed an association between TNF −308A and protection from leprosy with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.95, P = 0.016). MBL polymorphism G161A was associated with protection from lepromatous leprosy (OR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.12–0.85), P = 0.010). VDR polymorphisms were not associated with leprosy phenotypes. Conclusion These results confirm previous findings of an association of TNF −308A with protection from leprosy and MBL polymorphisms with protection from lepromatous leprosy. The statistical significance was modest and will require further study for conclusive validation. PMID:20650301

  17. PD-1 gene polymorphism in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Calık, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Celik, Sevim Karakas; Iscan, Akın

    2013-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Several factors influence the risk of chronic brain infection with the mutant measles virus. However, to date, no pathogenic mechanism that may predispose to SSPE has been determined. Studies have indicated that specific polymorphisms in certain host genes are probably involved in impairing the ability of host immune cells to eradicate the measles virus in SSPE patients. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 family, is a negative regulator of the immune system. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether PD-1 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to the development of SSPE in Turkish children. In total, 109 subjects (54 SSPE patients and 55 healthy controls) were genotyped for the PD-1.9 C/T (rs2227982) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distributions of T alleles in the PD-1.9 polymorphism in SSPE patients and healthy controls were 2.8 and 10.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups; the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.06 to 0.85 and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.23 (χ(2) test). Thus, we identified an association between SSPE and the PD-1 rs2227982 gene polymorphism; the frequency of T alleles was higher in controls than in SSPE patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A low-temperature polymorph of m-quinquephenyl.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Howie, R Alan; Low, John Nicolson; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2012-12-01

    A low-temperature polymorph of 1,1':3',1'':3'',1''':3''',1''''-quinquephenyl (m-quinquephenyl), C(30)H(22), crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystal is a three-component nonmerohedral twin. A previously reported room-temperature polymorph [Rabideau, Sygula, Dhar & Fronczek (1993). Chem. Commun. pp. 1795-1797] also crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit in the space group P-1. The unit-cell volume for the low-temperature polymorph is 4120.5 (4) Å(3), almost twice that of the room-temperature polymorph which is 2102.3 (6) Å(3). The molecules in both structures adopt a U-shaped conformation with similar geometric parameters. The structural packing is similar in both compounds, with the molecules lying in layers which stack perpendicular to the longest unit-cell axis. The molecules pack alternately in the layers and in the stacked columns. In both polymorphs, the only interactions between the molecules which can stabilize the packing are very weak C-H...π interactions.

  19. BDNF and TNF-α polymorphisms in memory.

    PubMed

    Yogeetha, B S; Haupt, L M; McKenzie, K; Sutherland, H G; Okolicsyani, R K; Lea, R A; Maher, B H; Chan, R C K; Shum, D H K; Griffiths, L R

    2013-09-01

    Here, we investigate the genetic basis of human memory in healthy individuals and the potential role of two polymorphisms, previously implicated in memory function. We have explored aspects of retrospective and prospective memory including semantic, short term, working and long-term memory in conjunction with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The memory scores for healthy individuals in the population were obtained for each memory type and the population was genotyped via restriction fragment length polymorphism for the BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) SNP and via pyrosequencing for the TNF-α rs113325588 SNP. Using univariate ANOVA, a significant association of the BDNF polymorphism with visual and spatial memory retention and a significant association of the TNF-α polymorphism was observed with spatial memory retention. In addition, a significant interactive effect between BDNF and TNF-α polymorphisms was observed in spatial memory retention. In practice visual memory involves spatial information and the two memory systems work together, however our data demonstrate that individuals with the Val/Val BDNF genotype have poorer visual memory but higher spatial memory retention, indicating a level of interaction between TNF-α and BDNF in spatial memory retention. This is the first study to use genetic analysis to determine the interaction between BDNF and TNF-α in relation to memory in normal adults and provides important information regarding the effect of genetic determinants and gene interactions on human memory.

  20. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in Italian preterm infants: association between interleukin-10 -1082 G/A polymorphism and respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Mario; Avvisati, Rosa Anna; Piscopo, Carmelo; Laforgia, Nicola; Raimondi, Francesco; de Angelis, Filomena; Iolascon, Achille

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we determined the genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of cytokine genes and investigated their association with the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Genetic polymorphisms in the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, were studied in 342 white Italian newborns (112 without RDS, 66 prematurely born with RDS, and 164 infants born at term who were included as healthy controls). The polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The IL-10 mRNA levels were analyzed according to genotype by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCLs) of 42 full-term healthy infants. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated the risk of RDS to be significantly lower in preterm infants with an IL-10 -1082 GG/GA genotype than in those with an AA genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95, p = 0.03]. QRT-PCR analyses showed that the IL-10 mRNA levels were significantly higher in 27 IL-10 -1082 GG/GA carriers compared with 15 IL-10 -1082 AA carriers (p = 0.03). We conclude that the IL-10 -1082 GG/GA polymorphism may have a role in RDS development in premature infants.

  1. HERC1 polymorphisms: population-specific variations in haplotype composition.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Isao; Umetsu, Kazuo; Nishimukai, Hiroaki; Fukumori, Yasuo; Harihara, Shinji; Saitou, Naruya; Jin, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Prasanta K; Henke, Lotte; Henke, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Human HERC1 is one of six HERC proteins and may play an important role in intracellular membrane trafficking. The human HERC1 gene is suggested to have been affected by local positive selection. To assess the global frequency distributions of coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HERC1 gene, we developed a new simultaneous genotyping method for four SNPs, and applied this method to investigate 1213 individuals from 12 global populations. The results confirmed remarked differences in the allele and haplotype frequencies between East Asian and non-East Asian populations. One of the three common haplotypes observed was found to be characteristic of East Asians, who showed a relatively uniform distribution of haplotypes. Information on haplotypes would be useful for testing the function of polymorphisms in the HERC1 gene. This is the first study to investigate the distribution of HERC1 polymorphisms in various populations. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. NQR investigation and characterization of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko; Asaji, Tetsuo

    2013-05-01

    The application of 14N NQR to the study of cocrystals and crystal polymorphs is reviewed. In ferroelectric and antiferroelectric organic cocrystals 14N NQR is used to determine proton position in an N-H...O hydrogen bond and proton displacement below TC. In cocrystal isonicitinamide - oxalic acid (2:1) 14N NQR is used to distinguish between two polymorphs and to determine the type of the hydrogen bond (N-...H-O). The difference in the 14N NQR spectra of cocrystal formers and cocrystal is investigated in case of carbamazepine, saccharin and carbamazepine - saccharin (1:1). The experimental resolution allows an unambiguous distinction between the 14N NQR spectrum of the cocrystal and the 14N NQR spectra of the cocrystal formers. The possibility of application of NQR and double resonance for the determination of the inhomogeneity of the sample and for the study of the life time of an unstable polymorph is discussed.

  3. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  4. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  5. Stability of polymorphic forms of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D J

    2000-07-01

    Ranitidine-HCl can exist in two different polymorphic forms: form I (m.p. 134-140 degrees C) and form II (m.p. 140-144 degrees C). In the present study the stability of form I of ranitidine-HCl to a selection of powder pretreatments, to reflect conditions which might occur in manufacturing procedures, and also to a limited range of storage conditions was investigated. The original samples of form I and form II used were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A quantitative XRPD method for determining the fraction of form II in the presence of form I was used. XRPD data were analysed using regression techniques and artificial neural networks (ANN). The quantitative XRPD technique was then used to monitor the relative proportion of form II in each treated sample. Pretreatments of form I included (i) mixing with form II or with common excipients (ii) compression and grinding (iii) contact with solvents (followed by drying) before storage. Storage conditions involved three temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 42 degrees C) and three relative humidities (45% RH; 55% RH; 75% RH). Samples were stored for a period of 6 months. A limited factorial design was used. No increase in the form II:form I ratio was observed in the following pretreatment processes: introduction of form II nuclei into form I; introduction of excipients to form I; compression of form I powder at 5 and 15 tons; normal mixing and grinding processes; addition of isopropanol (IPA) or water/IPA mix followed by drying. In the pretreatment process where water was added to form I powder (with most or all of the powder dissolving), drying of the liquefied mass led to a mix of form I and form II. On storage at room temperature (20-30 degrees C), low relative humidity (45-55% RH), and in an air-tight container there was no increase in the form II:form I ratio. Storage of form I/form II mixes, particularly at high humidity

  6. Mismatch repair polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Platz, Elizabeth A; Fallin, M Daniele; Thuita, Lucy W; Hoffman, Sandra C; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2007-04-01

    Rare germline variants in mismatch repair genes have been linked to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; however, it is unknown whether common polymorphisms in these genes alter the risk of colorectal cancer. To examine the association between common variants in mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-cohort study within the CLUE II cohort. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in 3 mismatch repair genes (MSH3 R940Q, MSH3 T1036A, MSH6 G39E and MLH1 I219V) were genotyped in 237 colorectal cancer cases and a subcohort of 2,189 participants. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each polymorphism were estimated. The MSH3 1036A variant was found to be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.94-1.74 and RR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.01-2.70 for the AT and TT genotypes, respectively, with p(trend)=0.02), particularly proximal colon cancer. Although the MSH3 940Q variant was only weakly associated with colorectal cancer overall (p(trend)=0.07), it was associated with a significant increased risk of proximal colon cancer (RR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.61 and RR=2.68, 95% CI: 0.96-7.47 for the RQ and QQ genotypes, respectively with p(trend)=0.005). Processed meat intake appeared to modify the association between the MSH3 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (p(interaction) < 0.10 for both). No association was observed with the MSH6 and MLH1 polymorphisms overall. This study suggests that common polymorphisms in the mismatch repair gene, MSH3, may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, especially proximal colon cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Jennifer A; Moormann, Ann M; Vulule, John; Bockarie, Moses J; Zimmerman, Peter A; Kazura, James W

    2009-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLR) and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA) was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic) or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and Hemoglobin S (HbS) in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective pressure from malaria or any

  8. The relationship between ACE polymorphism and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gulec-Yılmaz, Seda; Gulec, Huseyın; Dalan, Altay Burak; Cetın, Bugra; Tımırcı-Kahraman, Ozlem; Ogut, Dıcle Bılge; Atasoy, Hande; Dırımen, Gulız Arikan; Gultekın, Guldal Inal; Isbır, Turgay

    2014-01-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, which has been found to have an insertion and deletion polymorphism (I/D), is of increasing interest in etiology and treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ACE polymorphism and panic disorder. In this study, 43 patients diagnosed with panic disorder at the Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul and 41 healthy controls were enrolled. The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism of exon 16 was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction method. There was a significant association between I/D genotype and panic disorder (p=0.003). However, the frequency of the I allele was found to be significantly higher in patients compared to controls (p=0.002). In addition, we recognized a significant association between I/D polymorphism and respiratory-type panic disorder in patients. Carriers of the D allele also had an increased risk of respiratory type panic disorder patients (p=0.034). Moreover, the result of Spearman correlation analysis showed an association with ACE D allele and severity of panic disorder (p<0.001). We suggest that the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with panic disorder and particularly respiratory-type panic disorder in patients. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene seems to influence therapeutic outcome in patients suffering from panic disorder. Our results indicate that ACE D allele is associated with the severity of panic disorder. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of -330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Gupta, Rajni; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the development of cancer. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been reported to be associated with the development and severity of inflammatory diseases and cancer predisposition. This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible association of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (- 330A>C) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to oral cancer. The SNP in IL-2 (-330A>C) gene was genotyped in 300 oral cancer patients and in similar number of healthy volunteers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the association of the gene with the disease was evaluated. IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR): 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.20; P<0.001]. The C allele frequency was also significantly associated with oral cancer (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.39-2.33; P<0.001). IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  11. Catalog of MicroRNA Seed Polymorphisms in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Calin, George Adrian; Horvat, Simon; Jiang, Zhihua; Dovc, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNA that plays an important role in posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA. Evidence has shown that miRNA gene variability might interfere with its function resulting in phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. A major role in miRNA target recognition is ascribed to complementarity with the miRNA seed region that can be affected by polymorphisms. In the present study, we developed an online tool for the detection of miRNA polymorphisms (miRNA SNiPer) in vertebrates (http://www.integratomics-time.com/miRNA-SNiPer) and generated a catalog of miRNA seed region polymorphisms (miR-seed-SNPs) consisting of 149 SNPs in six species. Although a majority of detected polymorphisms were due to point mutations, two consecutive nucleotide substitutions (double nucleotide polymorphisms, DNPs) were also identified in nine miRNAs. We determined that miR-SNPs are frequently located within the quantitative trait loci (QTL), chromosome fragile sites, and cancer susceptibility loci, indicating their potential role in the genetic control of various complex traits. To test this further, we performed an association analysis between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP rs30372501, which is polymorphic in a large number of standard inbred strains, and all phenotypic traits in these strains deposited in the Mouse Phenome Database. Analysis showed a significant association between the mmu-miR-717 seed SNP and a diverse array of traits including behavior, blood-clinical chemistry, body weight size and growth, and immune system suggesting that seed SNPs can indeed have major pleiotropic effects. The bioinformatics analyses, data and tools developed in the present study can serve researchers as a starting point in testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments using optimal species or strains for further mechanistic studies. PMID:22303453

  12. Asymmetric Dispersal Can Maintain Larval Polymorphism: A Model Motivated by Streblospio benedicti

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818

  13. Genomic and genotyping characterization of haplotype-based polymorphic microsatellites in Prunus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient utilization of microsatellites in genetic studies remains impeded largely due to the unknown status of their primer reliability, chromosomal location, and allele polymorphism. Discovery and characterization of microsatellite polymorphisms in a taxon will disclose the unknowns and gain new ...

  14. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  15. The Pressure-Induced Polymorphic Transformations in Fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Gorkovenko, Ekaterina A; Kichanov, Sergey E; Kozlenko, Denis P; Belushkin, Alexandr V; Wąsicki, Jan; Nawrocik, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S; Lathe, Christian; Savenko, Boris N

    2015-12-01

    The structural properties and Raman spectra of fluconazole have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at pressures up to 2.5 and 5.5 GPa, respectively. At a pressure of 0.8 GPa, a polymorphic phase transition from the initial form I to a new triclinic form VIII has been observed. At higher pressure of P = 3.2 GPa, possible transformation into another new polymorphic form IX has been detected. The unit cell parameters and volumes, and vibration modes as functions of pressure have been obtained for the different forms of fluconazole. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Novel polymorphs of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug benznidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honorato, Sara Braga; Mendonça, Jorge Souza; Boechat, Nubia; Oliveira, Alcemira Conceição; Mendes Filho, Josué; Ellena, Javier; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Benznidazole (N-benzyl-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetamide), is a nitro-heterocyclic drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease. Despite the fact that this drug was released more than 30 years ago, little information about its solid state properties is available in the literature. In this study, it was verified that this drug exhibits three polymorphs, which were characterized in situ by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, hot stage microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The thermodynamic relationships among these polymorphs were also discussed.

  17. Single-feature polymorphism discovery in the barley transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Rostoks, Nils; Borevitz, Justin O; Hedley, Peter E; Russell, Joanne; Mudie, Sharon; Morris, Jenny; Cardle, Linda; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie

    2005-01-01

    A probe-level model for analysis of GeneChip gene-expression data is presented which identified more than 10,000 single-feature polymorphisms (SFP) between two barley genotypes. The method has good sensitivity, as 67% of known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were called as SFPs. This method is applicable to all oligonucleotide microarray data, accounts for SNP effects in gene-expression data and represents an efficient and versatile approach for highly parallel marker identification in large genomes. PMID:15960806

  18. Discovery, Validation and Characterization of 1039 Cattle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified approximately 13000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by comparison of repeat-masked BAC-end sequences from the cattle RPCI-42 BAC library with whole-genome shotgun contigs of cattle genome assembly Btau 1.0. Genotyping of a subset of these SNPs was performed on a panel ...

  19. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and hyperserotonemia in autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Betancur, C; Corbex, M; Spielewoy, C; Philippe, A; Laplanche, J L; Launay, J M; Gillberg, C; Mouren-Siméoni, M C; Hamon, M; Giros, B; Nosten-Bertrand, M; Leboyer, M

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with autism. Two polymorphisms have been identified in the human 5-HTT gene, a VNTR in intron 2 and a functional deletion/insertion in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) with short and long variants. Positive associations of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with autism have been reported by two family-based studies, but one found preferential transmission of the short allele and the other of the long allele. Two subsequent studies failed to find evidence of transmission disequilibrium at the 5-HTTLPR locus. These conflicting results could be due to heterogeneity of clinical samples with regard to serotonin (5-HT) blood levels, which have been found to be elevated in some autistic subjects. Thus, we examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR and VNTR polymorphisms of the 5-HTT gene with autism, and we investigated the relationship between 5-HTT variants and whole-blood 5-HT. The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) revealed no linkage disequilibrium at either loci in a sample of 96 families comprising 43 trios and 53 sib pairs. Furthermore, no significant relationship between 5-HT blood levels and 5-HTT gene polymorphisms was found. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is unlikely to play a major role as a susceptibility factor in autism.

  20. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and hyperserotonemia in autistic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Betancur, Catalina; Corbex, Marylis; Spielewoy, Cécile; Philippe, Anne; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gillberg, Christopher; Mouren-Simeoni, Marie-Christine; Hamon, Michel; Giros, Bruno; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Leboyer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with autism. Two polymorphisms have been identified in the human 5-HTT gene, a VNTR in intron 21 and a functional deletion/insertion in the promoter region (5-HTTLPR) with short and long variants.2 Positive associations of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with autism have been reported by two family-based studies, but one found preferential transmission of the short allele3 and the other of the long allele.4 Two subsequent studies failed to find evidence of transmission disequilibrium at the 5-HTTLPR locus.5,6 These conflicting results could be due to heterogeneity of clinical samples with regard to serotonin (5-HT) blood levels, which have been found to be elevated in some autistic subjects.7–9 Thus, we examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR and VNTR polymorphisms of the 5-HTT gene with autism, and we investigated the relationship between 5-HTT variants and whole-blood 5-HT. The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) revealed no linkage disequilibrium at either loci in a sample of 96 families comprising 43 trios and 53 sib pairs. Furthermore, no significant relationship between 5-HT blood levels and 5-HTT gene polymorphisms was found. Our results suggest that the 5-HTT gene is unlikely to play a major role as a susceptibility factor in autism. PMID:11803447

  1. Association of MTHFR polymorphisms and chromosomal abnormalities in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sinthuwiwat, Thivaratana; Poowasanpetch, Phanasit; Wongngamrungroj, Angsana; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Promso, Somying; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Tocharoentanaphol, Chintana

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in MTHFR gene might explain the interindividual differences in the reduction of DNA repaired and the increase of chromosome breakage and damage. Nowadays, chromosomal rearrangement is recognized as a major cause of lymphoid malignancies. In addition, the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with aneuploidy was found in several studies, making the MTHFR gene as a good candidate for leukemia etiology. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the common sequence variation, 677C>T and 1298A>C in the MTHFR gene of 350 fixed cell specimens archived after chromosome analysis. The distribution of the MTHFR polymorphisms frequency was compared in leukemic patients with structural chromosome abnormality and chromosome aneuploidy, as well as in those with no evidence of chromosome abnormalities. We observed a significant decrease in the distribution of T allele in 677C>T polymorphisms among patients with chromosomal abnormalities including both structural aberration and aneuploidy. The same significance result also found in patients with structural aberration when compare with the normal karyotype patients. Suggesting that polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was involved in chromosome abnormalities of leukemia. However, further investigation on the correlation with the specific types of chromosomal aberrations is needed.

  2. Sleep and COMT Polymorphism in ADHD Children: Preliminary Actigraphic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Reut; Grizenko, Natalie; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Gauthier, Julie; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) polymorphism modulates aspects of sleep in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study (1 week of 0.5 mg/kg MPH; 1 week of placebo) were…

  3. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in inflammatory…

  4. Acquisition of plumage polymorphism in white-throated sparrows

    Treesearch

    Carter T. Atkinson; C. John Ralph

    1980-01-01

    The White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) was thought to be polymorphic in breeding plumage, having distinct white and tan phases that are bimodal in distribution and independent of sex. Vardy (1971), however, submitted evidence that plumage type is determined primarily by age, sex, and molt cycle. We reexamined this question by measuring plumage...

  5. Thrombophilic gene polymorphisms and recurrent pregnancy loss in Greek women.

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, M; Chatzidimitriou, D; Mavridou, M; Anetakis, C; Chatzopoulou, F; Lialiaris, T; Mitka, S

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder. The aim of this study was the detection of various genetic polymorphisms and their correlation to RPL, in Greek women. The impact of 12 thrombophilic polymorphisms was evaluated, among 48 Greek women with a history of RPL, vs 27 healthy parous women. Multiplex PCR and in situ hybridization on nitrocellulose films were performed, to investigate 12 genetic polymorphisms previously reported as risk factors for RPL. Heterozygous FV Leiden, homozygous PAI-1 4G/4G, heterozygous MTHFR C677T, homozygous MTHFR A1298C, as much as the combined thrombophilic genotypes MTHFR 677T + ACE Ι/D, MTHFR 677T/1298C + ACE D/D, ACE I/D + b-fibrinogen -455 G/A, FV HR2 + b-fibrinogen -455 G/A showed a correlation as risk factors for RPL, whereas the rest of the investigated polymorphisms and their combinations did not render statistically significant differences between the two groups in study. The results of this study, as well as those of similar studies, concerning the detection of genetic, environmental, and physiological factors underlying RPL, will prove of critical significance in the investigation and treatment of thrombophilic predisposition, in cases of RPL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Associated with IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuder, Patricia; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of 100 DNA markers examined in an allelic association study, only 1 showed a replicated association with IQ in samples totaling 107 children. How the gene marked by the particular restriction fragment length polymorphism was tracked and its mitochondrial origin identified is described. (SLD)

  7. Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with gout.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) promoter and exon 5 gene polymorphisms are markers of susceptibility or clinical manifestations in Taiwanese patients with gout. The study included 196 patients in addition to 103 unrelated healthy control subjects living in central Taiwan. From genomic DNA, polymorphisms of the gene for IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 were typed. Allelic frequencies were compared between the two groups, and the relationship between allelic frequencies and clinical manifestations of gout was evaluated. No significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the IL-1beta promoter between patients with gout and healthy control subjects. Additionally, we did not detect any association of the IL-1beta promoter genotype with the clinical and laboratory profiles of gout patients. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.0004, chi(2)=12.52, OR 7.14, 95%CI 0.012-0.22). There was also a significant difference in the genotype of IL-1beta exon 5 polymorphism between patients with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Results of the present study suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-1beta promoter and IL-1beta exon 5 are not related to gout patients in central Taiwan.

  8. Effect of genetic polymorphisms on development of gout.

    PubMed

    Urano, Wako; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sekita, Chieko; Ichikawa, Naomi; Koseki, Yumi; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2013-08-01

    To validate the association between genetic polymorphisms and gout in Japanese patients, and to investigate the cumulative effects of multiple genetic factors on the development of gout. Subjects were 153 Japanese male patients with gout and 532 male controls. The genotypes of 11 polymorphisms in the 10 genes that have been indicated to be associated with serum uric acid levels or gout were determined. The cumulative effects of the genetic polymorphisms were investigated using a weighted genotype risk score (wGRS) based on the number of risk alleles and the OR for gout. A model to discriminate between patients with gout and controls was constructed by incorporating the wGRS and clinical factors. C statistics method was applied to evaluate the capability of the model to discriminate gout patients from controls. Seven polymorphisms were shown to be associated with gout. The mean wGRS was significantly higher in patients with gout (15.2 ± 2.01) compared to controls (13.4 ± 2.10; p < 0.0001). The C statistic for the model using genetic information alone was 0.72, while the C statistic was 0.81 for the full model that incorporated all genetic and clinical factors. Accumulation of multiple genetic factors is associated with the development of gout. A prediction model for gout that incorporates genetic and clinical factors may be useful for identifying individuals who are at risk of gout.

  9. Association of MTHFR polymorphism and periodontitis’ severity in Indonesian males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerkari, E. I.; Purwandhita, R.; Kim, K. R.; Djamal, N.; Masulili, S. L. C.; Suryandari, D. A.; Talbot, C.

    2018-05-01

    Periodontitis is an oral disease with a complex etiology and pathogenesis, but with a suspected contribution by genetic factors. This study aimed to assess the association of polymorphism in MTHFR (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, C677T) gene and the severity of periodontitis in Indonesian males. Severity of periodontitis was classified as mild, moderate or severe for 100 consenting, 25 to 60 years old male Indonesians. Using PCR amplification for DNA extracted from blood serum samples, the variation at the SNP polymorphism of the MTHFR (C677T) gene was evaluated by using RFLP, cutting by the restriction enzyme HinfI and subjecting the fragments to electrophoresis on agarose gel. Chi-square testing was mainly used for statistical assessment of the results. The CC genotype (wild type) of the tested polymorphism was the most common variant (78%) and TT (mutant) genotype relatively rare (2%), so that C-allele appeared in 88% of the cases and T-allele in 12% of the cases. The results suggest that there is no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the severity of periodontitis in the tested Indonesian males.

  10. MicroRNA polymorphisms: a giant leap towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prasun J

    2010-01-01

    “An individual’s genetic inheritance of microRNA polymorphisms associated with disease progression, prognosis and treatment holds the key to create safer and more personalized drugs and can be a giant leap towards personalized medicine.” PMID:20428464

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

  12. Vitiligo susceptibility and catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms in sicilian population.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Valentina; Niceta, Marcello; Fiorella, Santi; La Vecchia, Marco; Bastonini, Emanuela; Bongiorno, Maria R; Pistone, Giuseppe

    2017-02-15

    Catalase gene (CAT) polymorphisms were analyzed as responsible for the deficiency of catalase enzyme activity and concomitant accumulation of excessive hydrogen peroxide in Vitiligo patients. Catalase is a well known oxidative stress regulator that could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo. This study was conducted to evaluate three CAT gene polymorphisms (-89A/T, 389C/T, 419C/T) and their association with Vitiligo susceptibility in Sicilian population. 60 out of 73 Sicilian patients with Vitiligo were enrolled and submitted to CAT gene analysis. Contrary to the Northern part of Europe but likewise to the Mediterranean area, the frequency of the CAT genotypes in Sicily is equally distributed. Out of all CAT genotypes, only CAT -89 T/T frequency was found to be significantly higher amongst Vitiligo patients than controls. Despite the involvement of the CAT enzyme in the pathogenesis of Vitiligo, the biological significance of CAT gene polymorphisms is still controversial. With the only exception for CAT variant -89A/T, the other studied CAT gene polymorphisms (389C/T and 419C/T) might not to be associated with Vitiligo in Sicilian population.

  13. Association study of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Rueda, B; Gonzalez-Gay, M A; Fernández, B; Lamas, J R; Balsa, A; Pascual-Salcedo, D; García, A; Raya, E; Martín, J

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is a newly characterised growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide widely distributed that may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic balance in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by decreasing the pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. In this study we investigated the possible contribution of several polymorphisms in the functional Ghrelin receptor to RA susceptibility. A screening of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in a total of 950 RA patients and 990 healthy controls of Spanish Caucasian origin. Genotyping of all 3 SNPs was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, using the TaqMan 5'-allele discrimination assay. We observed no statistically significant deviation between RA patients and controls for the GHSR SNPs analysed. In addition, we performed a haplotype analysis that did not reveal an association with RA susceptibility. The stratification analysis for the presence of shared epitope (SE), rheumatoid factor (RF) or antibodies anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) did not detect significant association of the GHSR polymorphisms with RA. These findings suggest that the GHSR gene polymorphisms do not appear to play a major role in RA genetic predisposition in our population.

  14. Characterization of six human disease-associated inversion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Francesca; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Ventura, Mario; Siswara, Priscillia; Jiang, Zhaoshi; Eichler, Evan E

    2009-07-15

    The human genome is a highly dynamic structure that shows a wide range of genetic polymorphic variation. Unlike other types of structural variation, little is known about inversion variants within normal individuals because such events are typically balanced and are difficult to detect and analyze by standard molecular approaches. Using sequence-based, cytogenetic and genotyping approaches, we characterized six large inversion polymorphisms that map to regions associated with genomic disorders with complex segmental duplications mapping at the breakpoints. We developed a metaphase FISH-based assay to genotype inversions and analyzed the chromosomes of 27 individuals from three HapMap populations. In this subset, we find that these inversions are less frequent or absent in Asians when compared with European and Yoruban populations. Analyzing multiple individuals from outgroup species of great apes, we show that most of these large inversion polymorphisms are specific to the human lineage with two exceptions, 17q21.31 and 8p23 inversions, which are found to be similarly polymorphic in other great ape species and where the inverted allele represents the ancestral state. Investigating linkage disequilibrium relationships with genotyped SNPs, we provide evidence that most of these inversions appear to have arisen on at least two different haplotype backgrounds. In these cases, discovery and genotyping methods based on SNPs may be confounded and molecular cytogenetics remains the only method to genotype these inversions.

  15. Why don't we find more polymorphs?

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L

    2013-08-01

    Crystal structure prediction (CSP) studies are not limited to being a search for the most thermodynamically stable crystal structure, but play a valuable role in understanding polymorphism, as shown by interdisciplinary studies where the crystal energy landscape has been explored experimentally and computationally. CSP usually produces more thermodynamically plausible crystal structures than known polymorphs. This article illustrates some reasons why: because (i) of approximations in the calculations, particularly the neglect of thermal effects (see §1.1); (ii) of the molecular rearrangement during nucleation and growth (see §1.2); (iii) the solid-state structures observed show dynamic or static disorder, stacking faults, other defects or are not crystalline and so represent more than one calculated structure (see §1.3); (iv) the structures are metastable relative to other molecular compositions (see §1.4); (v) the right crystallization experiment has not yet been performed (see §1.5) or (vi) cannot be performed (see §1.6) and the possibility (vii) that the polymorphs are not detected or structurally characterized (see §1.7). Thus, we can only aspire to a general predictive theory for polymorphism, as this appears to require a quantitative understanding of the kinetic factors involved in all possible multi-component crystallizations. For a specific molecule, analysis of the crystal energy landscape shows the potential complexity of its crystallization behaviour.

  16. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghong; Shiffman, Dov; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variants in the human genome. SNPs are known to modify susceptibility to complex diseases. We describe and discuss methods used to identify SNPs associated with disease in case-control studies. An outline on study population selection, sample collection and genotyping platforms is presented, complemented by SNP selection, data preprocessing and analysis.

  17. Susceptibility to breast cancer and three polymorphisms of GSTZ1.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Iraj; Khalili, Maryam; Nafissi, Samane; Omidvari, Shahpour; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases class zeta (GSTζ) is involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and catalyzes the biotransformation of a variety of α-haloacids including dichloroacetic acid and chlorofluoroacetic acid. It has been reported that, in mice, deficiency of Gstz1 (a member of GSTζ) resulted in the generation of a constant level of oxidative stress. The present study was carried out to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of GSTZ1 (in promoter site G-1002A and in coding sites Glu32Lys and Gly42Arg) and risk of breast cancer. We included 106 females with breast cancer and 106 healthy females frequency matched for age. The study polymorphisms were not associated with risk of breast cancer (p>0.05). The polymorphisms of GSTZ1 showed strong linkage disequilibrium among cancer patients and control subjects (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference between cancer patients and controls for frequencies of the GSTZ1 haplotypes (p>0.05). It seems there is no meaningful relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of GSTZ1 and risk of breast cancer.

  18. Prospects for inferring pairwise relationships with single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Treesearch

    Jeffery C. Glaubitz; O. Eugene, Jr. Rhodes; J. Andrew DeWoody

    2003-01-01

    An extraordinarily large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now available in humans as well as in other model organisms. Technological advancements may soon make it feasible to assay hundreds of SNPs in virtually any organism of interest. One potential application of SNPs is the determination of pairwise genetic relationships in populations without...

  19. Polymorphism complexity and handedness inversion in serum albumin amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-12-23

    Protein-based amyloid fibrils can show a great variety of polymorphic structures within the same protein precursor, although the origins of these structural homologues remain poorly understood. In this work we investigate the fibrillation of bovine serum albumin--a model globular protein--and we follow the polymorphic evolution by a statistical analysis of high-resolution atomic force microscopy images, complemented, at larger length scales, by concepts based on polymer physics formalism. We identify six distinct classes of coexisting amyloid fibrils, including flexible left-handed twisted ribbons, rigid right-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes. We show that the rigid fibrils originate from flexible fibrils through two diverse polymorphic transitions, first, via a single-fibril transformation when the flexible left-handed twisted ribbons turn into the helical left-handed ribbons, to finally evolve into nanotube-like structures, and second, via a double-fibril transformation when two flexible left-handed twisted ribbons wind together resulting in a right-handed twisted ribbon, followed by a rigid right-handed helical ribbon polymorphic conformation. Hence, the change in handedness occurs with an increase in the level of the fibril's structural organization.

  20. New thermoresistant polymorph from CO2 recrystallization of minocycline hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Tiago, João M; Padrela, Luis; Matos, Henrique A; Nunes, Teresa G; Pinheiro, Lídia; Almeida, António J; de Azevedo, Edmundo Gomes

    2014-11-01

    To prepare and thoroughly characterize a new polymorph of the broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline from its hydrochloride dehydrate salts. The new minocycline hydrochloride polymorph was prepared by means of the antisolvent effect caused by carbon dioxide. Minocycline recrystallized as a red crystalline hydrochloride salt, starting from solutions or suspensions containing CO2 and ethanol under defined conditions of temperature, pressure and composition. This novel polymorph (β-minocycline) revealed characteristic PXRD and FTIR patterns and a high melting point (of 247 ºC) compared to the initial minocycline hydrochloride hydrates (α-minocycline). Upon dissolution the new polymorph showed full anti-microbial activity. Solid-state NMR and DSC studies evidenced the higher chemical stability and crystalline homogeneity of β-minocycline compared to the commercial chlorohydrate powders. Molecular structures of both minocyclines present relevant differences as shown by multinuclear solid-state NMR. This work describes a new crystalline structure of minocycline and evidences the ability of ethanol-CO2 system in removing water molecules from the crystalline structure of this API, at modest pressure, temperature and relatively short time (2 h), while controlling the crystal habit. This process has therefore the potential to become a consistent alternative towards the control of the solid form of APIs.

  1. Characterization of nicergoline polymorphs crystallized in several organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Malaj, Ledjan; Censi, Roberta; Capsoni, Doretta; Pellegrino, Luca; Bini, Marcella; Ferrari, Stefania; Gobetto, Roberto; Massarotti, Vincenzo; Di Martino, Piera

    2011-07-01

    Nicergoline (NIC), a poorly water-soluble semisynthetic ergot derivative, was crystallized from several organic solvents, obtaining two different polymorphic forms, the triclinic form I and the orthorhombic form II. NIC samples were then characterized by several techniques such as (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state spectroscopy, room-temperature and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and by analysis of weight loss, solvent content, powder density, morphology, and particle size. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rates determined for the two polymorphic forms in water and hydrochloride solutions (HCl 0.1 N) were always higher for form II than for form I, which is actually the form used for the industrial preparation of NIC medicinal products. Preformulation studies might encourage industry for the evaluation of polymorph II, as it is more suitable for pharmaceutical applications. Results in drug delivery, as well as those obtained by the above-mentioned techniques, and the application of Burger-Ramberger's rules make it possible to conclude that there is a thermodynamic relation of monotropy between the two polymorphs. This last assumption may help formulators in predicting the relative stability of the two forms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  2. Solubility and conversion of carbamazepine polymorphs in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bettini, R; Bonassi, L; Castoro, V; Rossi, A; Zema, L; Gazzaniga, A; Giordano, F

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether mixtures of carbamazepine polymorphs could be processed in supercritical (SC) CO(2) in order to obtain the pure stable crystalline phase. To accomplish this goal the solubility of carbamazepine polymorphs I and III in supercritical CO(2) was first assessed using a low solvent flux dynamic method. Mixtures of Form I and Form III were processed in dynamic or static conditions in SC-CO(2). Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffractometry were used to analyse solid samples in terms of polymorph composition. It was found that Form I and Form III of carbamazepine have different solubility in supercritical CO(2) at 55 degrees C above 300 bar. Due to the transformation of the metastable form, conversion of Form I into Form III can be carried out on a binary mixture of the two polymorphs by treating the mixture at 55 degrees C and 350 bar, under both static and dynamic conditions, via its solubilization in supercritical CO(2).

  3. Influence of BDNF and COMT polymorphisms on emotional decision making.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Ha, Ra Yeon; Jhung, Kyungun; Kim, Yang Tae; Kim, Se Joo

    2010-06-01

    Decision making is an important brain function. Although little is known about the genetic basis of decision making, it has been suggested that it is mediated by the modulation of neurotransmitter systems. We investigated how the BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms affect emotional decision making using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). One hundred sixty-eight healthy Korean college students (93 males, 75 females) with a complete dataset were included in the data analysis. The IGT and genotyping for the polymorphisms of BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met were performed. Both Met/Met and Val/Met of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism were significantly associated with a lower mean score of blocks 3-5 of the IGT and with less improvement from block 1 to block 3-5 than the Val/Val. However, the BDNF was not significantly associated with the score of block 1, and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism produced no significant effect on IGT performance. No interaction effect was observed between the BDNF and the COMT for the IGT. These findings suggest the BDNF Val66Met may affect the emotional decision making performance. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymorphism of the renalase gene in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Jamil, Zehra; Alam, Faiza; Malik, Hajira Zafar; Madhani, Sarosh Irfan; Ahmad, Muhammad Saad; Shabbir, Tayyab; Rehmani, Muhammed Noman; Rabbani, Amna

    2017-01-01

    Renalase is considered as a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase and two single nucleotide polymorphisms with gestational diabetes mellitus. One hundred and ninety-eight normotensive pregnant females (n = 99 gestational diabetes mellitus; n = 99 euglycemic pregnant controls) were classified according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study criteria. Fasting and 2-h post glucose load blood levels and anthropometric assessment was performed. Serum renalase was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas DNA samples were genotyped for renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2576178 and rs10887800 using Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In an age-matched case control study, no difference was observed in the serum levels of renalase (p > 0.05). The variant rs10887800 showed an association with gestational diabetes mellitus and remained significant after multiple adjustments (p < 0.05), whereas rs2576178 showed weak association (p = 0.030) that was lost after multiple adjustments (p = 0.09). We inferred a modest association of the rs10887800 polymorphism with gestational diabetes. Although gestational diabetes mellitus is self-reversible, yet presence of this minor G allele might predispose to metabolic syndrome phenotypes in near the future.

  5. A Laboratory Exercise for Genotyping Two Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, James; Carlson, Bradley; LeBard, Timothy; McCarthy, Michael; Umali, Finianne; Ashton, Bryce; Rose, Ferrill F., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic decrease in the cost of sequencing a human genome is leading to an era in which a wide range of students will benefit from having an understanding of human genetic variation. Since over 90% of sequence variation between humans is in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a laboratory exercise has been devised in order to…

  6. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Methods: Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. Results: We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D3 concentration in serum of ASD children. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D3 metabolism, while vitamin D3 levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children. PMID:28891930

  7. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism.

    PubMed

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2017-09-09

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D₃ has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D₃ concentration in serum of ASD children. Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D₃ metabolism, while vitamin D₃ levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children.

  8. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  9. Gene polymorphisms and sport attitude in Italian athletes.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Francesco; Chetta, Massimiliano; Petito, Annamaria; Franzetti, Mauro; Bafunno, Valeria; Pisanelli, Daniela; Sarno, Michelina; Iuso, Salvatore; Margaglione, Maurizio

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the distribution of polymorphisms in the ACE, ACTN3, NOS3, UCP2, and UCP3 genes, which has been reported to be correlated with different physiological parameters, played a role in sport performance. We focused on a cohort of 82 Italian athletes: first of all, athletes were divided according to type of sport: team (n=72) versus individual (n=10), and subsequently, according to the performance, into "power" sports (n=29; sprinters, short distance swimmers, and volleyball players) and "intermittent" sports (n=53; football, basketball, and hockey players). All the populations studied were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the following polymorphisms: ACE (I/D), ACTN3 (R577X), NOS3 (-786 T/C), UCP2 (A55V), and UCP3 (-55 C/T). We observed that the frequency of NOS3-786 T and UCP2 C alleles was higher among power athletes compared with controls (p=0.011 and p=0.012, respectively); these alleles were also overrepresented in individual athletes (p=0.02 and p=0.045, respectively), although a small sample was analyzed. The frequency of NOS3 298G allele was higher among power athletes compared with controls (p=0.015); these data remained suggestive after correction for multiple testing. We found a suggestive association between NOS3 (-786 T/C; G298A) and UCP2 (A55V) polymorphisms and power athletes, whereas no significant correlation was found with UCP3 (-55C/T), ACE (I/D), and ACTN3 (R577X) polymorphisms, in contrast to previous studies. Analysis of multiple performance-associated genetic polymorphisms needs further examination to explain the relationship between genetic background and potential success in sport performance.

  10. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. The effect of polymorphic metabolism enzymes on serum phenytoin level.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynakci, Aydan; Gulcebi, Medine Idrizoglu; Ergeç, Deniz; Ulucan, Korkut; Uzan, Mustafa; Ozkara, Cigdem; Guney, Ilter; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2015-03-01

    Phenytoin has a widespread use in epilepsy treatment and is mainly metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). We have investigated CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 allelic variants in a Turkish population of patients on phenytoin therapy. Patients on phenytoin therapy (n = 102) for the prevention of epileptic seizures were included. Polymorphic alleles were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum concentrations of phenytoin were measured by fluorescence polarization immune assay method. The most frequent genotype was detected for CYP2C9 wild-type alleles (78.43 %), whereas CYP2C19*2/*2 (5.88 %) was the least frequent genotype group. According to the classification made with both enzyme polymorphisms, CYP2C9*1/*1-CYP2C19*1/*1 (G1: 41.17 %) genotype group was the most frequent whereas CYP2C9*1/*2-CYP2C19*1/*3 (G7: 0.98 %) was the least frequent one. The highest mean phenytoin level (27.95 ± 1.85 µg/ml) was detected in the G8 genotype group (CYP2C9*1/*3-CYP2C19*2/*3) and the G1 genotype group showed the lowest mean phenytoin level (7.43 ± 0.73 µg/ml). The mean serum concentration of phenytoin of the polymorphic patients with epilepsy was higher than that for the wild-type alleles both in the monotherapy and polytherapy patients. These results show the importance of the genetic polymorphism analysis of the main metabolizing enzyme groups of phenytoin for the dose adjustment.

  12. Molecular nucleation mechanisms and control strategies for crystal polymorph selection.

    PubMed

    Van Driessche, Alexander E S; Van Gerven, Nani; Bomans, Paul H H; Joosten, Rick R M; Friedrich, Heiner; Gil-Carton, David; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Sleutel, Mike

    2018-04-04

    The formation of condensed (compacted) protein phases is associated with a wide range of human disorders, such as eye cataracts, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sickle cell anaemia and Alzheimer's disease. However, condensed protein phases have their uses: as crystals, they are harnessed by structural biologists to elucidate protein structures, or are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical applications. The physiochemical properties of crystals can vary substantially between different forms or structures ('polymorphs') of the same macromolecule, and dictate their usability in a scientific or industrial context. To gain control over an emerging polymorph, one needs a molecular-level understanding of the pathways that lead to the various macroscopic states and of the mechanisms that govern pathway selection. However, it is still not clear how the embryonic seeds of a macromolecular phase are formed, or how these nuclei affect polymorph selection. Here we use time-resolved cryo-transmission electron microscopy to image the nucleation of crystals of the protein glucose isomerase, and to uncover at molecular resolution the nucleation pathways that lead to two crystalline states and one gelled state. We show that polymorph selection takes place at the earliest stages of structure formation and is based on specific building blocks for each space group. Moreover, we demonstrate control over the system by selectively forming desired polymorphs through site-directed mutagenesis, specifically tuning intermolecular bonding or gel seeding. Our results differ from the present picture of protein nucleation, in that we do not identify a metastable dense liquid as the precursor to the crystalline state. Rather, we observe nucleation events that are driven by oriented attachments between subcritical clusters that already exhibit a degree of crystallinity. These insights suggest ways of controlling macromolecular phase transitions, aiding the development of protein-based drug

  13. Association between rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic Parkinson's disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Huo, Qiang; Li, Tao; Zhao, Peiqing; Wang, Lianqing

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs6812193 C/T with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility has been widely evaluated, but the results remained inconsistent. This association should be clarified because of the importance of it on human health and quality of life. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic PD. PubMed was used to retrieve articles published up to June 2014 for all studies evaluating the rs6812193 polymorphism and PD in humans. Ethnicity-specific subgroup analysis was also performed based on ethnicity susceptibility. A total of 17 independent study samples (15 Caucasians and 2 Asians) including 17,956 cases and 52,751 controls were used in the presented study. The MAFT (minor allele T frequency) in PD patients of European descent is obviously higher than Asian cases (p < 0.01). The results suggested the rs6812193 polymorphism (allele T vs. C) is significantly associated with PD susceptibility among overall samples (OR 0.882, 95 % CI 0.856-0.908) and Caucasian population (OR 0.881, 95 % CI 0.856-0.907), but not in Asian samples (OR 0.918, 95 % CI 0.721-1.168). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Throughout our analysis, the rs6812193 polymorphism is significantly associated with sporadic PD susceptibility in Caucasian samples, and ethnicity might be the key point of inconsistency in rs6812193 studies. Further studies are warranted to re-examine the observed associations, especially in different ethnicities.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G promoter polymorphism and coagulation factor VII Arg353-->Gln polymorphism in Korean patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Song, J.; Yoon, Y. M.; Jung, H. J.; Hong, S. H.; Park, H.; Kim, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    An increased risk for arterial thrombosis is associated with high plasma levels of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors such as PAI-1 and FVII. In this study, the 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter of PAI-1 gene and Arg353-->Gln polymorphism in the FVII gene were analysed in 139 normal adults and 158 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and their association with plasma lipid traits was investigated. There were no significant differences in the allele frequencies of PAI-1 and FVII polymorphisms between control and patient groups. The allelic distributions of both polymorphisms in Koreans were similar to those in Japanese but significantly different from those in Caucasians. In the CAD group, the 4G homozygotes of PAI-1 polymorphism showed significantly higher levels of total (p=0.0250) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.0335) with individuals having other genotypes. However, FVII polymorphism showed no association with lipid levels. In conclusion, the 4G/5G PAI-1 promoter polymorphism and Arg353-->Gln FVII polymorphism are not major genetic risk factors for CAD in Koreans. However, 4G allele of PAI-1 polymorphism revealed to be associated with the levels of cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol levels in CAD patients. PMID:10803689

  15. Toward optimal set of single nucleotide polymorphism investigation before IVF.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Dedul, A G; Fedotov, Y N; Komlichenko, E V

    2016-10-01

    At present, the patient preparation for IVF needs to undergo a series of planned tests, including the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles of some genes. In former USSR countries, such investigation was not included in overwhelming majority of health insurance programs and paid by patient. In common, there are prerequisites to the study of more than 50 polymorphisms. An important faced task is to determine the optimal panel for SNP genotyping in terms of price/number of SNP. During 2009-2015 in the University Hospital of St. Petersburg State University, blood samples were analyzed from 550 women with different reproductive system disorders preparing for IVF and 46 healthy women in control group. In total, 28 SNP were analyzed in the genes of thrombophilia factors, folic acid cycle, detoxification system, and the renin-angiotensin system. The method used was real-time PCR. A significant increase in the frequency of pathological alleles of some polymorphisms in patients with habitual failure of IVF was shown, compared with the control group. As a result, two options defined panels for optimal typing SNP before IVF were composed. Standard panel includes 8 SNP, 5 in thromborhilic factors, and 3 in folic acid cycle genes. They are 20210 G > A of FII gene, R506Q G > A of FV gene (mutation Leiden), -675 5G > 4G of PAI-I gene, L33P T > C of ITGB3 gene, -455 G > A of FGB gene, 667 C > T of MTHFR gene, 2756 A > G of MTR gene, and 66 A > G of MTRR gene. Extended panel of 15 SNP also includes 807 C > T of ITGA2 gene, T154M C > T of GP1BA gene, second polymorphism 1298 A > C in MTHFR gene, polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin gene AGT M235T T > C and -1166 A > C of AGTR1 gene, polymorphisms I105V A > G and A114V C > T of detoxification system gene GSTP. The results of SNP genotyping can be adjusted for treatment tactics and IVF, and also medical support getting pregnant. The success rate of

  16. Polymorphic phase transitions: Macroscopic theory and molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Jamshed; Zahn, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Transformations in the solid state are of considerable interest, both for fundamental reasons and because they underpin important technological applications. The interest spans a wide spectrum of disciplines and application domains. For pharmaceuticals, a common issue is unexpected polymorphic transformation of the drug or excipient during processing or on storage, which can result in product failure. A more ambitious goal is that of exploiting the advantages of metastable polymorphs (e.g. higher solubility and dissolution rate) while ensuring their stability with respect to solid state transformation. To address these issues and to advance technology, there is an urgent need for significant insights that can only come from a detailed molecular level understanding of the involved processes. Whilst experimental approaches at best yield time- and space-averaged structural information, molecular simulation offers unprecedented, time-resolved molecular-level resolution of the processes taking place. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and critical account of state-of-the-art methods for modelling polymorph stability and transitions between solid phases. This is flanked by revisiting the associated macroscopic theoretical framework for phase transitions, including their classification, proposed molecular mechanisms, and kinetics. The simulation methods are presented in tutorial form, focusing on their application to phase transition phenomena. We describe molecular simulation studies for crystal structure prediction and polymorph screening, phase coexistence and phase diagrams, simulations of crystal-crystal transitions of various types (displacive/martensitic, reconstructive and diffusive), effects of defects, and phase stability and transitions at the nanoscale. Our selection of literature is intended to illustrate significant insights, concepts and understanding, as well as the current scope of using molecular simulations for understanding polymorphic

  17. LPA gene: interaction between the apolipoprotein(a) size ('kringle IV' repeat) polymorphism and a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism influences Lp(a) lipoprotein level.

    PubMed

    Røsby, O; Berg, K

    2000-01-01

    In order to search for factors influencing the Lp(a) lipoprotein level, we have examined the apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) size polymorphism as well as a pentanucleotide (TTTTA) repeat polymorphism in the 5' control region of the LPA gene. Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were compared between individuals with different genotypes as defined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of DNA plugs, and PCR of DNA samples followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA plugs and DNA were prepared from blood samples collected from blood donors. Twenty-seven different K IV repeat alleles were observed in the 71 women and 92 men from which apo(a) size polymorphism results were obtained. Alleles encoding 26-32 Kringle IV repeats were the most frequent. Alleles encoding seven to 11 TTTTA repeats were detected in the 84 women and 122 men included in the pentanucleotide polymorphism study, and homozygosity for eight TTTTA repeats was the most common genotype. The eight TTTTA repeat allele occurred with almost any apo(a) allele. An inverse relationship between number of K IV repeats and Lp(a) concentration was confirmed. The contributions of the apo(a) size polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism to the interindividual variance of Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations were 9.7 and 3.5%, respectively (type IV sum of squares). Nineteen per cent of the variance in Lp(a) lipoprotein level appeared to be the result of the multiplication product (interaction) between the apo(a) size polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism. The contribution of the apo(a) size polymorphism alone to the variation in Lp(a) lipoprotein level was lower than previously reported. However, the multiplicative interaction effect between the K IV repeat polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism may be an important factor explaining the variation in Lp(a) lipoprotein levels among the populations.

  18. Polymorphism in molecular solids: an extraordinary system of red, orange, and yellow crystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lian

    2010-09-21

    Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of each other: they have the same composition but different structures and properties. Many other substances exhibit polymorphism: inorganic and organic, natural and manmade. Polymorphs are encountered in studies of crystallization, phase transition, materials synthesis, and biomineralization and in the manufacture of specialty chemicals. Polymorphs can provide valuable insights into crystal packing and structure-property relationships. 5-Methyl-2-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-3-thiophenecarbonitrile, known as ROY for its red, orange, and yellow crystals, has seven polymorphs with solved structures, the largest number in the Cambridge Structural Database. First synthesized by medicinal chemists, ROY has attracted attention from solid-state chemists because it demonstrates the remarkable diversity possible in organic solids. Many structures of ROY polymorphs and their thermodynamic properties are known, making ROY an important model system for testing computational models. Though not the most polymorphic substance on record, ROY is extraordinary in that many of its polymorphs can crystallize simultaneously from the same liquid and are kinetically stable under the same conditions. Studies of ROY polymorphs have revealed a new crystallization mechanism that invalidates the common view that nucleation defines the polymorph of crystallization. A slow-nucleating polymorph can still dominate the product if it grows rapidly and nucleates on another polymorph. Studies of ROY have also helped understand a new, surprisingly fast mode of crystal growth in organic liquids cooled to the glass transition temperature. This growth mode exists only for those polymorphs that have more isotropic, and perhaps more liquid-like, packing. The rich polymorphism of ROY results from a combination of favorable thermodynamics and kinetics. Not only must there be many polymorphs of comparable energies or free energies, many polymorphs must be kinetically stable and

  19. Polymorphism in magic-sized Au144(SR)60 clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Kirsten M. O.; Juhas, Pavol; Tofanelli, Marcus A.; ...

    2016-06-14

    Ultra-small, magic-sized metal nanoclusters represent an important new class of materials with properties between molecules and particles. However, their small size challenges the conventional methods for structure characterization. We present the structure of ultra-stable Au144(SR)60 magic-sized nanoclusters obtained from atomic pair distribution function analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. Our study reveals structural polymorphism in these archetypal nanoclusters. Additionally, in order to confirm the theoretically predicted icosahedral-cored cluster, we also find samples with a truncated decahedral core structure, with some samples exhibiting a coexistence of both cluster structures. Although the clusters are monodisperse in size, structural diversity is apparent. Finally,more » the discovery of polymorphism may open up a new dimension in nanoscale engineering.« less

  20. Anomalous heat transfer in two polymorphs of para-bromobenzophenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, O. O.; Horbatenko, Yu. V.; Krivchikov, A. I.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Vdovichenko, G. A.; Zloba, D. I.; Pyshkin, O. S.

    2017-03-01

    The thermal conductivity of a polycrystalline sample of monoclinic polymorph of para-bromobenzophenone in the T = 3-320 K temperature range was measured using steady-state linear heat flow. The temperature dependences of thermal conductivity are presented as the sum of two independent contributions: a contribution that corresponds to the thermal conductivity of an orientationally ordered crystal structure, and a new additional thermally activated contribution that manifests itself above 130 K. A comparison is made with the data on the thermal conductivity of a single crystal triclinic polymorph of para-bromobenzophenone. It is established that the contribution corresponding to the thermal conductivity of the orientationally ordered crystal structure depends on the molecular crystal packing, and the characteristic activation energy of the thermal activation contribution, which is caused by the intramolecular vibrations of the C-Br bond, does not depend on the grain size or on the structure of the sample.

  1. New Melting Data of the Two Polymorphs of Prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Corvis, Yohann; Négrier, Philippe; Soulestin, Jérémie; Espeau, Philippe

    2016-10-04

    Prednisolone is known to exist in two anhydrous solid polymorphic forms. The substance is known to degrade upon melting, resulting in erroneous melting data, as shown by the widely scattered results reported in the literature. In this article, thermal analyses carried out at different scan rates show that the onset temperature and the enthalpy value of the signal increase with the scan rate and reach plateau values for high scan rates. Owing to flash scanning calorimetry, the plateau value for the temperature has been identified as the "true" temperature of melting of both polymorphs. This consistent set of new thermodynamic data on the two solid forms leads to the conclusion that both forms are unambiguously enantiotropes of each other. The solid-solid transition has been observed experimentally for the first time and has been confirmed by calculation.

  2. '1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    We used data on the polymorphic status of '1-antitrypsin ('1AT) to study the relationship of Minnesota wolves to the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which was thought to have evolved in Eurasia, and to red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans), which putatively evolved in North America. Recent evidence had indicated that Minnesota wolves might be more closely related to red wolves and coyotes. Samples from wild-caught Minnesota wolves and from captive wolves, at least some of which originated in Alaska and western Canada, were similarly polymorphic for '1AT, whereas coyote and red wolf samples were all monomorphic. Our findings, in conjunction with earlier results, are consistent with the Minnesota wolf being a gray wolf of Eurasian origin or possibly a hybrid between the gray wolf of Eurasian origin and the proposed North American wolf.

  3. Manifestation of Molecular Chromophore Polymorphism in Diffuse Vibronic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolkachev, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The location of the purely electronic 0-0-transition v0 for homomorphic chromophores is defined in the transition cross-section spectrum σ(ν) by the extremum ( ∂φ/ ∂v = 0) of the function [σ(ν)/ν] exp ((∓ hv/2 kT) = φ(| v - v 0|) and "-" for absorption, ν < ν0 and "+" for emission) for the dipole Frank-Condon transition with thermal distribution among the initial-state sublevels. The observed effective cross section and spectrum with polymorphism are formed by partial contributions of electronic transitions of the separate species with different ν i0. In this instance, the homomorphic extremum is distorted, i.e., broadened, weakened, or absent, which is also indicative of a polymorphic chromophore. Examples of these distortions of the functions calculated from the experimental spectra are given.

  4. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  5. Manifestation of Molecular Chromophore Polymorphism in Diffuse Vibronic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolkachev, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The location of the purely electronic 0-0-transition v0 for homomorphic chromophores is defined in the transition cross-section spectrum σ(ν) by the extremum (∂φ/∂v = 0) of the function [σ(ν)/ν] exp ((∓hv/2kT) = φ(|v - v 0|) and "-" for absorption, ν < ν0 and "+" for emission) for the dipole Frank-Condon transition with thermal distribution among the initial-state sublevels. The observed effective cross section and spectrum with polymorphism are formed by partial contributions of electronic transitions of the separate species with different ν i0. In this instance, the homomorphic extremum is distorted, i.e., broadened, weakened, or absent, which is also indicative of a polymorphic chromophore. Examples of these distortions of the functions calculated from the experimental spectra are given.

  6. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma presenting an uncommon radiographic aspect.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, M H C G; de Magalhães, R P; de Araújo, V C; de Sousa, S O M

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present clinical, histological and immunohistochemical aspects of a polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma occurring in the mandible. A radiolucent tumour, located in the right mandible, was removed from a 40-year-old woman. Radiographic and CT exams revealed that the lesion expanded bucco-lingual cortical plates and presented an irregular scalloping of the bone. The surrounding lining mucosa was intact. The patient underwent total surgical removal of the lesion with an intraoperative biopsy. Histological diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemical study. One-year follow up was uneventful. The accurate diagnosis of lesions presenting unusual clinical aspects, as the one presented here, is critical for correctly handling treatment.

  7. Polymorphic human somatostatin gene is located on chromosome 3.

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, S L; Sakaguchi, A Y; Shen, L P; Bell, G I; Rutter, W J; Shows, T B

    1983-01-01

    Somatostatin is a 14-amino-acid neuropeptide and hormone that inhibits the secretion of several peptide hormones. The human gene for somatostatin SST has been cloned, and the sequence has been determined. This clone was used as a probe in chromosome mapping studies to detect the human somatostatin sequence in human-rodent hybrids. Southern blot analysis of 41 hybrids, including some containing translocations of human chromosomes, placed SST in the q21 leads to qter region of chromosome 3. Human DNAs from unrelated individuals were screened for restriction fragment polymorphisms detectable by the somatostatin gene probe. Two polymorphisms were found: (i) an EcoRI variant located at the 3' end of the gene, found in Caucasian, U.S. Black, and Asian populations with a frequency of approximately 0.10 and (ii) a BamHI variant in the intron, which occurs in Caucasians at a frequency of 0.13. Images PMID:6133281

  8. Genotyping of presenilin-1 polymorphism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Panas, M; Karadima, G; Kalfakis, N; Psarrou, O; Floroskoufi, P; Kladi, A; Petersen, M B; Vassilopoulos, D

    2000-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are not fully understood. Recent studies suggest that apoptosis is involved in the abnormal neural death that occurs in this devastating disease. Presenilin-1, a transmembrane protein, seems to be implicated in apoptosis. To determine whether presenilin-1 intron 8 polymorphism has an influence in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, we examined this polymorphism genotypes in a large group of patients (n = 72) with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a random sample of 213 healthy individuals. The results showed a significant difference in genotype (P < 0.04) and allele (P < 0.03) distribution between patients controls. These results suggest a possible intervention of presenilin-1 in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  9. Amyloid Polymorphism in the Protein Folding and Aggregation Energy Landscape.

    PubMed

    Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2018-02-15

    Protein folding involves a large number of steps and conformations in which the folding protein samples different thermodynamic states characterized by local minima. Kinetically trapped on- or off-pathway intermediates are metastable folding intermediates towards the lowest absolute energy minima, which have been postulated to be the natively folded state where intramolecular interactions dominate, and the amyloid state where intermolecular interactions dominate. However, this view largely neglects the rich polymorphism found within amyloid species. We review the protein folding energy landscape in view of recent findings identifying specific transition routes among different amyloid polymorphs. Observed transitions such as twisted ribbon→crystal or helical ribbon→nanotube, and forbidden transitions such helical ribbon↛crystal, are discussed and positioned within the protein folding and aggregation energy landscape. Finally, amyloid crystals are identified as the ground state of the protein folding and aggregation energy landscape. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Polymorphic mimicry, microhabitat use, and sex-specific behaviour.

    PubMed

    Joron, M

    2005-05-01

    In order to assess the adaptive importance of microhabitat segregation for the maintenance of mimetic diversity, I explore how flight height varies between the sympatric forms of the polymorphic butterfly Heliconius numata and their respective models in the genus Melinaea. There is no evidence for vertical stratification of mimicry rings in these tiger-patterned butterflies, but males of H. numata tend to fly significantly higher than females and the Melinaea models. This difference in microhabitat preference likely results from females searching for host plants whereas males are patrolling for mates. I then present an extension of Muller's mimicry model for the case of partial behavioural or spatial segregation of sexes. The analysis suggests that sex-specific behaviours can make mimicry more beneficial, simply by reducing the effective population size participating in mimicry. The interaction between mimicry and sex-specific behaviours may therefore facilitate the evolution of polymorphism via enhanced, fine-scale local adaptation.

  11. Cytochrome P450 2D6 polymorphism and character traits.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Eiji; Kitao, Yoshie; Ono, Yutaka; Iijima, Yoshimi; Inada, Toshiya

    2003-06-01

    It has been suggested that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in dopamine metabolism within the brain. The dopamine system is suggested to play a role in determining normal character. The purpose of this study was to examine whether character traits are dependent on cytochrome P450 2D6 activity. We investigated the association between temperament and CYP2D6 gene polymorphism. The subjects were all Japanese and the polymorphism genotyped in the present study was CYP2D6*10. Character traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. There was no overall or specific association between personality traits and the CYP2D6*10 allele and genotype frequencies. The present results do not support the hypothesis that CYP2D6 activity affects temperament and character.

  12. Polymorphism in Bi2(SO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subban, Chinmayee V.; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Courty, Matthieu; Barboux, Philippe; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    A new polymorph of Bi2(SO4)3 was prepared by reaction of LiBiO2 with H2SO4 and its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder diffraction. This new polymorph crystallizes in C2/c space group with lattice parameters a = 17.3383(3) Å, b = 6.77803(12) Å, c = 8.30978(13) Å, β = 101.4300(12)°. Bi2(SO4)3 presents a layered structure made of SO4 sulfate groups and signs of stereochemically active Bi3+ lone pairs. The new Bi2(SO4)3 absorbs water to form Bi2(H2O)2(SO4)2(OH)2 through an intermediate Bi2O(OH)2SO4 phase, and the transition is reversible when heated under vacuum.

  13. Crystal structure of minoxidil at low temperature and polymorph prediction.

    PubMed

    Martín-Islán, Africa P; Martín-Ramos, Daniel; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio

    2008-02-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation on crystal forms of the popular and ubiquitous pharmaceutical Minoxidil is presented here. A new crystallization method is presented for Minoxidil (6-(1-piperidinyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamide 3-oxide) in ethanol-poly(ethylene glycol), yielding crystals with good quality. The crystal structure is determined at low temperature, with a final R value of 0.035, corresponding to space group P2(1) (monoclinic) with cell dimensions a = 9.357(1) A, b = 8.231(1) A, c = 12.931(2) A, and beta = 90.353(4) degrees . Theoretical calculations of the molecular structure of Minoxidil are set forward using empirical force fields and quantum-mechanical methods. A theoretical prediction for Minoxidil crystal structure shows many possible polymorphs. The predicted crystal structures are compared with X-ray experimental data obtained in our laboratory, and the experimental crystal form is found to be one of the lowest energy polymorphs.

  14. Polymorphism in magic-sized Au144(SR)60 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Juhas, Pavol; Tofanelli, Marcus A.; Heinecke, Christine L.; Vaughan, Gavin; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-small, magic-sized metal nanoclusters represent an important new class of materials with properties between molecules and particles. However, their small size challenges the conventional methods for structure characterization. Here we present the structure of ultra-stable Au144(SR)60 magic-sized nanoclusters obtained from atomic pair distribution function analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The study reveals structural polymorphism in these archetypal nanoclusters. In addition to confirming the theoretically predicted icosahedral-cored cluster, we also find samples with a truncated decahedral core structure, with some samples exhibiting a coexistence of both cluster structures. Although the clusters are monodisperse in size, structural diversity is apparent. The discovery of polymorphism may open up a new dimension in nanoscale engineering.

  15. New polymorphisms of Xeroderma Pigmentosum DNA repair genes in myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina Pinheiro; Junior, Howard Lopes Ribeiro; de Sousa, Juliana Cordeiro; de Paula Borges, Daniela; de Oliveira, Roberta Taiane Germano; Farias, Izabelle Rocha; Costa, Marília Braga; Maia, Allan Rodrigo Soares; da Nóbrega Ito, Mayumi; Magalhães, Silvia Maria Meira; Pinheiro, Ronald Feitosa

    2017-07-01

    The association between Xeroderma Pigmentosum DNA repair genes (XPA rs1800975, XPC rs2228000, XPD rs1799793 and XPF rs1800067) polymorphisms and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have not been reported. To assess the functional role between these polymorphisms and MDS, we evaluated 189 samples stratified in two groups: 95 bone marrow samples from MDS patients and 94 from healthy elderly volunteers used as controls. Genotypes for all polymorphisms were identified in DNA samples in an allelic discrimination experiment by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We also studied the mRNA expression of XPA and XPC genes to evaluate if its polymorphisms were functional in 53 RNAm MDS patients by qPCR methodologies. To the rs2228000 polymorphism, the CT and TT polymorphic genotype were associated with increased odds ratio (OR) of more profound cytopenia (hemoglobin and neutrophils count). To the rs1799793 polymorphism, we found that the GG homozygous wild-type genotype was associated with a decreased chance of developing MDS. We observed low expression of XPA in younger patients, in hypoplastic MDS and patients with abnormal karyotype when presented AG or AA polymorphic genotypes. We also found that there was a statistically significant interaction between the presence of micromegakaryocyte on down regulation of XPC regarding the CT heterozygous genotype of the rs1800975 polymorphism. Our results suggest that new functional polymorphisms of Xeroderma Pigmentosum DNA repair genes in MDS are related to its pathogenesis and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ni; Zhu, Xishan; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xinna; Gu, Jiezhun; Chen, Baoan; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the key enzyme for folate metabolism. Previous studies suggest a relationship between its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of C677T and A1298C with a variety of tumor susceptibility including hematological malignancy. SNP frequency distribution in different ethnic populations might lead to differences in disease susceptibility. There has been little research in Chinese people on the MTHFR SNP with the susceptibility of the hematological malignancy. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between MTHFR SNPs and hematological malignancy in Jiangsu province in China. Gene microarray was used to detect MTHFR C677T and A1298C single nucleotide polymorphism loci on 157 healthy controls and 127 patients from Jiangsu province with hematological malignancies (30 with multiple myeloma, 28 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 22 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 40 with acute myeloid leukemia, and seven with chronic myeloid leukemia). The allele frequency of 677T was 41.3% in patients and 33.1% in controls, showed significant difference (chi2 = 4.08, p = 0.043); 677TT genotype with a high susceptibility to hematological malignancy (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01 - 4.45, p = 0.041). In subgroup analyses, the genotypes 677TT and 1298CC were associated with significantly increased multiple myeloma risk (TT vs. CC: OR 8.92, 95% CI 1.06 - 75.24, p = 0.006; CC vs. AA: OR = 4.80, 95% CI 1.56 - 14.73, p = 0.044). No associations were found between polymorphisms and susceptibilities to acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MTHFRC677T polymorphisms influence the risk of hematological malignancy among the population in Jiangsu province. Both MTHFR 677TT and MTHFR 1298CC genotypes increase susceptibility to myeloid leukemia.

  17. Salting out the polar polymorph: analysis by alchemical solvent transformation.

    PubMed

    Duff, Nathan; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D; Peters, Baron

    2014-01-07

    We computationally examine how adding NaCl to an aqueous solution with α- and γ-glycine nuclei alters the structure and interfacial energy of the nuclei. The polar γ-glycine nucleus in pure aqueous solution develops a melted layer of amorphous glycine around the nucleus. When NaCl is added, a double layer is formed that stabilizes the polar glycine polymorph and eliminates the surface melted layer. In contrast, the non-polar α-glycine nucleus is largely unaffected by the addition of NaCl. To quantify the stabilizing effect of NaCl on γ-glycine nuclei, we alchemically transform the aqueous glycine solution into a brine solution of glycine. The alchemical transformation is performed both with and without a nucleus in solution and for nuclei of α-glycine and γ-glycine polymorphs. The calculations show that adding 80 mg/ml NaCl reduces the interfacial free energy of a γ-glycine nucleus by 7.7 mJ/m(2) and increases the interfacial free energy of an α-glycine nucleus by 3.1 mJ/m(2). Both results are consistent with experimental reports on nucleation rates which suggest: J(α, brine) < J(γ, brine) < J(α, water). For γ-glycine nuclei, Debye-Hückel theory qualitatively, but not quantitatively, captures the effect of salt addition. Only the alchemical solvent transformation approach can predict the results for both polar and non-polar polymorphs. The results suggest a general "salting out" strategy for obtaining polar polymorphs and also a general approach to computationally estimate the effects of solvent additives on interfacial free energies for nucleation.

  18. Rationale for the crystallization of titania polymorphs in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kränzlin, N.; Staniuk, M.; Heiligtag, F. J.; Luo, L.; Emerich, H.; van Beek, W.; Niederberger, M.; Koziej, D.

    2014-11-01

    We use in situ X-ray absorption and diffraction studies to directly monitor the crystallization of different titania polymorphs in one and the same solution. We find that, despite the commonly accepted polymorphic-crossover from anatase to rutile triggered by the critical size of nanoparticles, in the solution their respective nucleation and growth are independent processes. Moreover, we find that 5.9 nm rutile nanoparticles are formed prior to the formation of 8.4 nm anatase nanoparticles. Our results suggest that the origins of this crystallization mechanism lie in the formation of an intermediate non-crystalline phase and in time-dependent changes in the chemical environment.We use in situ X-ray absorption and diffraction studies to directly monitor the crystallization of different titania polymorphs in one and the same solution. We find that, despite the commonly accepted polymorphic-crossover from anatase to rutile triggered by the critical size of nanoparticles, in the solution their respective nucleation and growth are independent processes. Moreover, we find that 5.9 nm rutile nanoparticles are formed prior to the formation of 8.4 nm anatase nanoparticles. Our results suggest that the origins of this crystallization mechanism lie in the formation of an intermediate non-crystalline phase and in time-dependent changes in the chemical environment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed instructions on the experimental part including set-up, recorded XAS and PXRD raw data and their details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04346d

  19. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, Mohsen; Addad, Faouzi; Chauffert, Maryline; Myara, Anne; Gerhardt, Marie; Chevenne, Didier; Trivin, François; Farhat, Mohamed Ben; Miled, Abdelhedi; Maaroufi, Khira

    2006-05-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent, graded risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism is associated with hyperhomcysteinaemia and may therefore influence individual susceptibility to CAD. We have investigated this risk factor in a Tunisian Arab population. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect the C677T and A1298C variants of the MTHFR gene in 100 patients with CAD and 120 healthy controls. The severity of CAD was expressed as the number of affected vessels. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration was determined using a direct chemiluminescence assay. MTHFR CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies in the CAD group were significantly different from those observed in the control group (49%, 35% and 16% versus 48.3%, 45.8% and 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.031). However, MTHFR AA, AC and CC genotypes frequencies in the CAD group were not significantly different from the control group ( P = 0.568). Patients with CAD showed higher plasma tHcy concentrations than patients without CAD (15.86 +/- 8.63 micromol/L versus 11.90 +/- 3.25 micromol/L, P < 0.001). There was no association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and the number of stenosed vessels. Patients with the MTHFR TT genotype had higher plasma tHcy, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations than patients with the MTHFR CC genotype. The C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, lipid dysregulation and the presence of CAD in this Tunisian Arab population.

  20. Use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms for Typing Corynebacterium diphtheriae

    PubMed Central

    De Zoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2000-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was investigated for the differentiation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates. Analysis using Taxotron revealed 10 distinct AFLP profiles among 57 isolates. Strains with ribotype patterns D1, D4, and D12 could not be distinguished; however, the technique discriminated isolates of ribotype patterns D3, D6, and D7 further. AFLP was rapid, fairly inexpensive, and reproducible and could be used as an alternative to ribotyping. PMID:11015416

  1. Interleukin-6 level and gene polymorphism in spontaneous miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, M; Szlarb, N; Kurzawski, M

    2013-09-01

    The aetiology of spontaneous miscarriage, the most common pregnancy complication, remains undefined. One of postulated factors involved in miscarriage pathology is interleukin 6 (IL-6). Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate IL-6 and interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) gene polymorphisms in patients with spontaneous miscarriage. One hundred fifty-seven patients diagnosed with spontaneous miscarriage and age and gestational time matched controls were included in the case-control study. In all study participants circulating IL-6 levels (chemiluminescent immunoassay) and IL6-174G>C as well as IL6R rs2228145:A>C polymorphisms were evaluated. The distribution of IL6 as well as IL6R alleles and genotypes were similar in the controls and patients with miscarriage. Only a trend of more frequent appearance of -174GC+CC and C allele in the patients with miscarriage was noted. Blood serum concentrations of IL-6 were significantly elevated in patients with miscarriage vs those with physiological pregnancy. Likewise, IL-6 concentrations differ significantly with the types of miscarriage. The highest concentrations of the cytokine was seen in subjects with incomplete miscarriage (4.28 ± 4.88 pg/ml) followed by imminent miscarriage (2.97 ± 2.42 pg/ml), and then missed miscarriage (2.07 ± 1.90 pg/ml), being significantly the lowest in missed miscarriage group. No association between the IL6 genotype and IL-6 serum concentration were noted, both in the miscarriage group and in the control group. The findings of the study support the role of IL-6 in spontaneous miscarriage irrespectively of its type. However, no correlation between circulating IL-6 and IL6 gene polymorphism, as well as IL-6 and IL-6R polymorphisms associations with spontaneous miscarriage were revealed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ethnicity and lipoprotein(a) polymorphism in Native Mexican populations.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Saldaña, G; De La Peña-Díaz, A; Zamora-González, J; Gomez-Ortega, R; Posadas-Romero, C; Izaguirre-Avila, R; Malvido-Miranda, E; Morales-Anduaga, M E; Anglés-Cano, E

    2006-01-01

    Lp(a) is a lipoparticle of unknown function mainly present in primates and humans. It consists of a low-density lipoprotein and apo(a), a polymorphic glycoprotein. Apo(a) shares sequence homology and fibrin binding with plasminogen, inhibiting its fibrinolytic properties. Lp(a) is considered a link between atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Marked inter-ethnic differences in Lp(a) concentration related to the genetic polymorphism of apo(a) have been reported in several populations. The study examined the structural and functional features of Lp(a) in three Native Mexican populations (Mayos, Mazahuas and Mayas) and in Mestizo subjects. We determined the plasma concentration of Lp(a) by immunonephelometry, apo(a) isoforms by Western blot, Lp(a) fibrin binding by immuno-enzymatic assay and short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphic marker genetic analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Mestizos presented the less skewed distribution and the highest median Lp(a) concentration (13.25 mg dL(-1)) relative to Mazahuas (8.2 mg dL(-1)), Mayas (8.25 mg dL(-1)) and Mayos (6.5 mg dL(-1)). Phenotype distribution was different in Mayas and Mazahuas as compared with the Mestizo group. The higher Lp(a) fibrin-binding capacity was found in the Maya population. There was an inverse relationship between the size of apo(a) polymorphs and both Lp(a) levels and Lp(a) fibrin binding. There is evidence of significative differences in Lp(a) plasma concentration and phenotype distribution in the Native Mexican and the Mestizo group.

  3. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Orlow, Irene; Roy, Pampa; Reiner, Anne S; Yoo, Sarah; Patel, Himali; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D; Millikan, Robert C; Thomas, Nancy E; Gruber, Stephen B; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Rosso, Stefano; Gallagher, Richard P; Dwyer, Terence; Kanetsky, Peter A; Busam, Klaus; From, Lynn; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2012-01-15

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been associated with cancer risk, but only a few polymorphisms have been studied in relation to melanoma risk and the results have been inconsistent. We examined 38 VDR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large international multicenter population-based case-control study of melanoma. Buccal DNAs were obtained from 1,207 people with incident multiple primary melanoma and 2,469 with incident single primary melanoma. SNPs with known or suspected impact on VDR activity, haplotype tagging SNPs with ≥ 10% minor allele frequency in Caucasians, and SNPs reported as significant in other association studies were examined. Logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risks conferred by the individual SNP. Eight of 38 SNPs in the promoter, coding, and 3' gene regions were individually significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma after adjusting for covariates. The estimated increase in risk for individuals who were homozygous for the minor allele ranged from 25 to 33% for six polymorphisms: rs10875712 (odds ratios [OR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.62), rs4760674 (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.67), rs7139166 (OR 1.26; 95%CI, 1.02-1.56), rs4516035 (OR 1.25; 95%CI, 1.01-1.55), rs11168287 (OR 1.27; 95%CI, 1.03-1.57) and rs1544410 (OR 1.30; 95%CI, 1.04-1.63); for two polymorphisms, homozygous carriers had a decreased risk: rs7305032 (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.65-1.02) and rs7965281 (OR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.62-0.99). We recognize the potential false positive findings because of multiple comparisons; however, the eight significant SNPs in our study outnumbered the two significant tests expected to occur by chance. The VDR may play a role in melanomagenesis. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  4. BDNF Polymorphism Predicts General Intelligence after Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Elham; Krueger, Frank; Zoubak, Serguei; Dal Monte, Olga; Raymont, Vanessa; Pardini, Matteo; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; Risling, Mårten; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental factor in cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, plays an important role in this process. While there are many ways to measure cognitive outcome, general cognitive intelligence is a strong predictor of everyday decision-making, occupational attainment, social mobility and job performance. Thus it is an excellent measure of cognitive outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the importance of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms polymorphism on cognitive function has been previously addressed, its role in recovery of general intelligence following TBI is unknown. We genotyped male Caucasian Vietnam combat veterans with focal penetrating TBI (pTBI) (n = 109) and non-head injured controls (n = 38) for 7 BDNF single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Subjects were administrated the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) at three different time periods: pre-injury on induction into the military, Phase II (10–15 years post-injury, and Phase III (30–35 years post-injury). Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs7124442 and rs1519480, were significantly associated with post-injury recovery of general cognitive intelligence with the most pronounced effect at the Phase II time point, indicating lesion-induced plasticity. The genotypes accounted for 5% of the variance of the AFQT scores, independently of other significant predictors such as pre-injury intelligence and percentage of brain volume loss. These data indicate that genetic variations in BDNF play a significant role in lesion-induced recovery following pTBI. Identifying the underlying mechanism of this brain-derived neurotrophic factor effect could provide insight into an important aspect of post-traumatic cognitive recovery. PMID:22087305

  5. Molecular nucleation mechanisms and control strategies for crystal polymorph selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driessche, Alexander E. S.; van Gerven, Nani; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Joosten, Rick R. M.; Friedrich, Heiner; Gil-Carton, David; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Sleutel, Mike

    2018-04-01

    The formation of condensed (compacted) protein phases is associated with a wide range of human disorders, such as eye cataracts, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sickle cell anaemia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, condensed protein phases have their uses: as crystals, they are harnessed by structural biologists to elucidate protein structures, or are used as delivery vehicles for pharmaceutical applications. The physiochemical properties of crystals can vary substantially between different forms or structures (‘polymorphs’) of the same macromolecule, and dictate their usability in a scientific or industrial context. To gain control over an emerging polymorph, one needs a molecular-level understanding of the pathways that lead to the various macroscopic states and of the mechanisms that govern pathway selection. However, it is still not clear how the embryonic seeds of a macromolecular phase are formed, or how these nuclei affect polymorph selection. Here we use time-resolved cryo-transmission electron microscopy to image the nucleation of crystals of the protein glucose isomerase, and to uncover at molecular resolution the nucleation pathways that lead to two crystalline states and one gelled state. We show that polymorph selection takes place at the earliest stages of structure formation and is based on specific building blocks for each space group. Moreover, we demonstrate control over the system by selectively forming desired polymorphs through site-directed mutagenesis, specifically tuning intermolecular bonding or gel seeding. Our results differ from the present picture of protein nucleation, in that we do not identify a metastable dense liquid as the precursor to the crystalline state. Rather, we observe nucleation events that are driven by oriented attachments between subcritical clusters that already exhibit a degree of crystallinity. These insights suggest ways of controlling macromolecular phase transitions, aiding the development of protein

  6. Uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene polymorphisms have been reported as genetic risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the association of commonly observed UCP2 G(−866)A (rs659366) and Ala55Val (C > T) (rs660339) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, high fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids in a Balinese population. Methods A total of 603 participants (278 urban and 325 rural subjects) were recruited from Bali Island, Indonesia. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Obesity was determined based on WHO classifications for adult Asians. Participants were genotyped for G(−866)A and Ala55Val polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene. Results Obesity prevalence was higher in urban subjects (51%) as compared to rural subjects (23%). The genotype, minor allele (MAF), and heterozygosity frequencies were similar between urban and rural subjects for both SNPs. All genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A combined analysis of genotypes and environment revealed that the urban subjects carrying the A/A genotype of the G(−866)A SNP have higher BMI than the rural subjects with the same genotype. Since the two SNPs showed strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.946, r2 = 0.657), a haplotype analysis was performed. We found that the AT haplotype was associated with high BMI only when the urban environment was taken into account. Conclusions We have demonstrated the importance of environmental settings in studying the influence of the common UCP2 gene polymorphisms in the development of obesity in a Balinese population. PMID:22533685

  7. Association between IL-1β polymorphisms and gastritis risk

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods: Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case–control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Conclusion: Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups. PMID:28151895

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and the risk of stroke after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Grocott, Hilary P; White, William D; Morris, Richard W; Podgoreanu, Mihai V; Mathew, Joseph P; Nielsen, Dahlia M; Schwinn, Debra A; Newman, Mark F

    2005-09-01

    Stroke represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Although the risk of stroke varies according to both patient and procedural factors, the impact of genetic variants on stroke risk is not well understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that specific genetic polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of stroke after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were studied. DNA was isolated from preoperative blood and analyzed for 26 different single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association of clinical and genetic characteristics with stroke. Permutation analysis was used to adjust for multiple comparisons inherent in genetic association studies. A total of 1635 patients experiencing 28 strokes (1.7%) were included in the final genetic model. The combination of the 2 minor alleles of C-reactive protein (CRP; 3'UTR 1846C/T) and interleukin-6 (IL-6; -174G/C) polymorphisms, occurring in 583 (35.7%) patients, was significantly associated with stroke (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4 to 8.1; P=0.0023). In a multivariable logistic model adjusting for age, the CRP and IL-6 single-nucleotide polymorphism combination remained significantly associated with stroke (P=0.0020). We demonstrate that common genetic variants of CRP (3'UTR 1846C/T) and IL-6 (-174G/C) are significantly associated with the risk of stroke after cardiac surgery, suggesting a pivotal role of inflammation in post-cardiac surgery stroke.

  9. Large Scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Study of PD Susceptibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    identification of eight genetic loci in the familial PD, the results of intensive investigations of polymorphisms in dozens of genes related to sporadic, late...1) investigate the association between classical, sporadic PD and 2386 SNPs in 23 genes implicated in the pathogenesis of PD; (2) construct...addition, experiences derived from this study may be applied in other complex disorders for the identification of susceptibility genes , as well as in genome

  10. Large Scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Study of PD Susceptibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    familial PD, the results of intensive investigations of polymorphisms in dozens of genes related to sporadic, late onset, typical PD have not shown...association between classical, sporadic PD and 2386 SNPs in 23 genes implicated in the pathogenesis of PD; (2) construct haplotypes based on the SNP...derived from this study may be applied in other complex disorders for the identification of susceptibility genes , as well as in genome-wide SNP

  11. XRCC1 Polymorphisms and Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-dong; Chen, Hong-lin; Liu, Peng-fei

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between X-ray repair cross-complementating group 1 (XRCC1) polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and HuGE Navigator at June 2010, and then quantitatively summarized associations of the XRCC1 polymorphisms with pancreatic cancer risk using meta-analysis. Results Four studies with 1343 cases and 2302 controls were included. Our analysis found: at codon 194, the Trp allele did not decrease pancreatic cancer risk (Arg/Arg versus Trp/Trp: OR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.48-1.96; P=0.97; Arg/Arg versus Arg/Trp: OR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.70-1.13; P=0.55; Arg/Trp versus Trp/Trp: OR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.52-2.16; P=0.90); at codon 280, only a study showed a nonsignificant association between single nucleotide polymorphism with pancreatic cancer risk; at codon 399, the Gln allele also showed no significant effect on pancreatic cancer compared to Arg allele (Arg/Arg versus Gln/Gln: OR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.74-1.18; Arg/Arg versus Arg/Gln: OR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.83-1.13; Arg/Gln versus Gln/Gln: OR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.22). The shape of the funnel plot and the Egger’s test did not detect any publication bias. Conclusion There is no evidence that XRCC1 polymorphisms (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln) are associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:23467456

  12. Polymorphisms in inflammation pathway genes and endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Delahanty, Ryan J.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Spurdle, Amanda; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Long, Jirong; Thompson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Ian; Yu, Herbert; Lambrechts, Diether; Dörk, Thilo; Goodman, Marc T.; Zheng, Ying; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bao, Ping-Ping; Amant, Frederic; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Coosemans, An; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Dunning, Alison; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Easton, Douglas; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Halle, Mari K.; Hein, Alexander; Howarth, Kimberly; Gorman, Maggie; Kaydarova, Dylyara; Krakstad, Camilla; Lose, Felicity; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; O’Mara, Tracy; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Pharoah, Paul; Risch, Harvey; Corssen, Madeleine; Trovik, Jone; Turmanov, Nurzhan; Wen, Wanqing; Lu, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental and epidemiological evidence have suggested that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in endometrial carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate this hypothesis, a two-stage study was carried out to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammatory pathway genes in association with endometrial cancer risk. In stage 1, 64 candidate pathway genes were identified and 4,542 directly genotyped or imputed SNPs were analyzed among 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls, using data from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study. Linkage disequilibrium of stage 1 SNPs significantly associated with endometrial cancer (P<0.05) indicated that the majority of associations could be linked to one of 24 distinct loci. One SNP from each of the 24 loci was then selected for follow-up genotyping. Of these, 21 SNPs were successfully designed and genotyped in stage 2, which consisted of ten additional studies including 6,604 endometrial cancer cases and 8,511 controls. Results Five of the 21 SNPs had significant allelic odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as follows: FABP1, 0.92 (0.85-0.99); CXCL3, 1.16 (1.05-1.29); IL6, 1.08 (1.00-1.17); MSR1, 0.90 (0.82-0.98); and MMP9, 0.91 (0.87-0.97). Two of these polymorphisms were independently significant in the replication sample (rs352038 in CXCL3 and rs3918249 in MMP9). The association for the MMP9 polymorphism remained significant after Bonferroni correction and showed a significant association with endometrial cancer in both Asian- and European-ancestry samples. Conclusions These findings lend support to the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory pathway may contribute to genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer. Impact Statement This study adds to the growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:23221126

  13. Ethnicity and lipoprotein(a) polymorphism in Native Mexican populations

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; De La Peña-Díaz, Aurora; Zamora-González, José; Gomez-Ortega, Rocio; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Izaguirre-Avila, Raul; Malvido-Miranda, Elsa; Morales-Anduaga, Maria Elena; Angles-Cano, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Background Lp(a) is a lipoparticle of unknown function mainly present in primates and humans. It consists of a low-density lipoprotein and apo(a), a polymorphic glycoprotein. Apo(a) shares sequence homology and fibrin-binding with plasminogen inhibiting its fibrinolytic properties. Lp(a) is considered a link between atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Marked inter-ethnic differences in Lp(a) concentration related to the genetic polymorphism of apo(a), have been reported in several populations. Aim To study the structural and functional features of Lp(a) in three Native Mexican populations (Mayos, Mazahuas and Mayas) and in Mestizo subjects. Methods We determined the plasma concentration of Lp(a) by immunonephelometry, apo(a) isoforms by Western blot, Lp(a) fibrin-binding by immuno-enzymatic assay and STR polymorphic markers genetic analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Results Mestizos presented the less skewed distribution and the highest median Lp(a) concentration (13.25 mg/dL) relative to Mazahuas (8.2 mg/dL), Mayas (8.25 mg/dL) and Mayos (6.5 mg/dL). Phenotype distribution was different in Mayas and Mazahuas as compared to the Mestizo group. The higher Lp(a) fibrin-binding capacity was found in the Maya population. There was an inverse relationship between the size of apo(a) polymorphs and both Lp(a) levels and Lp(a) fibrin binding. Conclusion There is evidence of significative differences in Lp(a) plasma concentration and phenotype distribution in Native Mexican and the Mestizo group. PMID:16684693

  14. Sigint Application for Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA): Wideband DF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA) program as stated by Robert Graybill is to Develop the computing foundation for agile systems by establishing...ubiquitous MUSIC algorithm rely upon an underlying narrowband signal model [8]. In this case, narrowband means that the signal bandwidth is less than...a wideband DF algorithm is needed to compensate for this model inadequacy. Among the various wideband DF techniques available, the coherent signal

  15. Interleukin 17 receptor gene polymorphism in periimplantitis and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Ebadian, Ahmad Reza; Amid, Reza; Youssefi, Navid; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza

    2013-07-13

    Gene polymorphism of cytokines influencing their function has been known as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the tooth and implant supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-17R gene polymorphism (rs879576) with chronic periodontitis and periimplantitis in an Iranian population. 73 patients with chronic periodontitis, 37 patients with periimplantitis and 83 periodontally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. 5cc blood was obtained from each subject's arm vein and transferred to tubes containing EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted using Miller's Salting Out technique. The DNA was transferred into 96 division plates, transported to Kbioscience Institute in United Kingdom and analyzed using the Kbioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique. Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to analyze differences in the expression of genotypes and frequency of alleles in disease and control groups (P-Value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant). There were no significant differences between periodontitis, periimplantitis with AA, GG, GA genotype of IL-17R gene (P=0.8239). Also comparison of frequency of alleles in SNP rs879576 of IL-17R gene between the chronic periodontitis group and periimplantitis group did not revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.8239). The enigma of IL-17 and its polymorphism-role in periodontitis and periimplantitis is yet to be investigated more carefully throughout further research but this article demonstrates that polymorphism of IL-17R plays no significant role in incidence of chronic periodontitis and Periimplantitis.

  16. MICA polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mengyao; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Jixiang; Dong, Weiguo; Peng, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the MICA-TM polymorphisms and cancer risk. All eligible case-control studies published up to August 20, 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases. The cancer risk associated with the MICA polymorphism was estimated for each study by odds ratios (OR) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively. 21 studies from 19 publications with 3620 cases and 4903 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations between the MICA-TM polymorphism and cancer risk were found (A4 allele: OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88-1.07; A5 allele: OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.04; A5.1 allele: OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89-1.18; A6 allele: OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.15; A9 allele: OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80-1.14; A10 allele: OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.43-1.79; del: OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 0.73-8.58; A7 allele: OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.43-2.00). When stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed among Asians; however, there were significant association in Caucasian population for A5 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87) and A9 allele (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.66-0.85). This meta-analysis suggests that the MICA-TM A5 and A9 alleles may be an important protective factor for cancer in Caucasian populations. PMID:25785062

  17. Genetic Association Study of KCNQ5 Polymorphisms with High Myopia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xuan; Yap, Maurice K H; Leung, Kim Hung; Kao, Patrick Y P; Liu, Long Qian; Yip, Shea Ping

    2017-01-01

    Identification of genetic variations related to high myopia may advance our knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of refractive error. This study investigated the role of potassium channel gene (KCNQ5) polymorphisms in high myopia. We performed a case-control study of 1563 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (809 cases of high myopia and 754 emmetropic controls). Five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KCNQ5 were genotyped, and association testing with high myopia was conducted using logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex and age to give P asym values, and multiple comparisons were corrected by permutation test to give P emp values. All five noncoding SNPs were associated with high myopia. The SNP rs7744813, previously shown to be associated with refractive error and myopia in two GWAS, showed an odds ratio of 0.75 (95% CI 0.63-0.90; P emp = 0.0058) for the minor allele. The top SNP rs9342979 showed an odds ratio of 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.89; P emp = 0.0045) for the minor allele. Both SNPs are located within enhancer histone marks and DNase-hypersensitive sites. Our data support the involvement of KCNQ5 gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to high myopia and further exploration of KCNQ5 as a risk factor for high myopia.

  18. Polymorphisms for ghrelin with consequences on satiety and metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Perret, Jason; De Vriese, Carine; Delporte, Christine

    2014-07-01

    To understand the current trend of ghrelin genetic variations on the control of satiety, eating behaviours, obesity, and metabolic alterations, and its development over the last 18 months. Several polymorphisms of the ghrelin gene, its receptor gene and ghrelin's acylating enzyme, ghrelin O-acyl transferase, have been identified and studied over the last decade in relation to control of satiety, obesity, eating behaviours, metabolic syndrome, glucose homeostasis, and type 2 diabetes. However, the effects described are either small or nonsignificant and often subjected to contradictory conclusions between studies. In the last 18 months, several of these areas of investigations have been revisited under more controlled conditions or have been subjected to meta-analysis. The effects of ghrelin gene polymorphism, is a complex area of investigation, due to ghrelin's interplay with a host of various factors part of an integrative network. However, taken together, results suggest that there are no or nonsignificant effects of the common genetic variants. A better understanding of the network, probably by a systems biology type approach, will be necessary to assign the exact role played by gene polymorphism of the component of the ghrelin axis.

  19. Agouti sequence polymorphisms in coyotes, wolves and dogs suggest hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Sheila M; Berryere, Thomas G; Barta, Jodi L; Reddick, Kimberley D; Schmutz, Josef K

    2007-01-01

    Domestic dogs have been shown to have multiple alleles of the Agouti Signal Peptide (ASIP) in exon 4 and we wished to determine the level of polymorphism in the common wild canids of Canada, wolves and coyotes, in comparison. All Canadian coyotes and most wolves have banded hairs. The ASIP coding sequence of the wolf did not vary from the domestic dog but one variant was detected in exon 4 of coyotes that did not alter the arginine at this position. Two other differences were found in the sequence flanking exon 4 of coyotes compared with the 45 dogs and 1 wolf. The coyotes also demonstrated a relatively common polymorphism in the 3' UTR sequence that could be used for population studies. One of the ASIP alleles (R96C) in domestic dogs causes a solid black coat color in homozygotes. Although some wolves are melanistic, this phenotype does not appear to be caused by this same mutation. However, one wolf, potentially a dog-wolf hybrid or descendant thereof, was heterozygous for this allele. Likewise 2 coyotes, potentially dog-coyote or wolf-coyote hybrid descendants, were heterozygous for the several polymorphisms in and flanking exon 4. We could conclude that these were coyote-dog hybrids because both were heterozygous for 2 mutations causing fawn coat color in dogs.

  20. Haptoglobin gene polymorphisms in peri-implantitis and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ebadian, Ahmad R; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Naghavi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini; Torshabi, Maryam; Tamizi, Mahmood

    2014-05-01

    The haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complex plays a significant role in regulating immune responses and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. Haptoglobin polymorphisms result in different Hb binding affinities. This study sought to assess whether Hp 2-2 could be a genetic determinant for increasing the risk of peri-implantitis and chronic periodontitis. Of the Iranian subjects referred to the Department of Periodontics, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, 203 were entered into the study, including 117 patients and 86 periodontally healthy individuals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for genotyping. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test using the SPSS statistics software package. The prevalence of Hp 2-2, 2-1, and 1-1 did not differ significantly between patients and healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The highest frequencies of Hp 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 genotypes were seen in the control (7%), peri-implantitis (51%) and periodontitis (64%) groups, respectively. Haptoglobin polymorphisms may not play a role in development of peri-implantitis or chronic periodontitis among Iranians but we strongly suggest researchers to evaluate this polymorphism in further studies on larger sample sizes, different populations, and other types of periodontitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16-19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption.

  2. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption. PMID:24382995

  3. Potential of carrageenans to protect drugs from polymorphic transformation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrea G; Wartewig, Siegfried; Picker, Katharina M

    2003-07-01

    Carrageenans were analysed in mixture with polymorphic drugs to test their potential for minimising polymorphic or pseudopolymorphic transitions, which are induced by the tableting process. The kappa-carrageenans Gelcarin GP-812 NF and Gelcarin GP-911 NF and the iota-carrageenan Gelcarin GP-379 NF were tested in comparison to the well-known tableting excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Amorphous indomethacin was chosen as model drug since its well-known recrystallisation behaviour can be mechanically stimulated. Further on, theophylline monohydrate was used. Its dehydration is induced by tableting. Pure materials and mixtures containing 20% (w/w) drug were compressed up to different maximum relative densities. The data obtained during tableting were analysed by three-dimensional (3D) modelling. Afterwards tablets were broken and examined by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in order to determine the degree of transformation inside the tablet. For quantitative interpretation, the intensities of representative bands were used. Thermal analysis was used additionally. Using 3D modelling a decrease of plastic deformation can be noticed in the order HPMC>MCC>carrageenans, whereas DCPD represents an exception because of brittle fracture. Best hindrance of polymorphic transformation showed the carrageenans, the hindrance was slightly worse for HPMC. MCC and DCPD could not hinder transformation. A complete protection of the amorphous form could not be achieved. For theophylline monohydrate, the results were similar.

  4. Polymorphism influences singlet fission rates in tetracene thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Arias, Dylan H.; Ryerson, Joseph L.; Cook, Jasper D.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Here, we report the effect of crystal structure and crystallite grain size on singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline tetracene, one of the most widely studied SF and organic semiconductor materials. SF has been comprehensively studied in one polymoprh (Tc I), but not in the other, less stable polymorph (Tc II). Using carefully controlled thermal evaporation deposition conditions and high sensitivity ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we found that for large crystallite size samples, SF in nearly pure Tc II films is significantly faster than SF in Tc I films. We also discovered that crystallite size has a minimal impact on themore » SF rate in Tc II films, but a significant influence in Tc I films. Large crystallites exhibit SF times of 125 ps and 22 ps in Tc I and Tc II, respectively, whereas small crystallites have SF times of 31 ps and 33 ps. Our results demonstrate first, that attention must be paid to polymorphism in obtaining a self-consistent rate picture for SF in tetracene and second, that control of polymorphism can play a significant role towards achieving a mechanistic understanding of SF in polycrystalline systems. In this latter context we show that conventional theory based on non-covalent tetracene couplings is insufficient, thus highlighting the need for models that capture the delocalized and highly mobile nature of excited states in elucidating the full photophysical picture.« less

  5. Color polymorphic lures target different visual channels in prey.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas E; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-06-01

    Selection for signal efficacy in variable environments may favor color polymorphism, but little is known about this possibility outside of sexual systems. Here we used the color polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-banded dorsal signal attracts dipteran prey, to test the hypothesis that morphs may be tuned to optimize either chromatic or achromatic conspicuousness in their visually noisy forest environments. We used data from extensive observations of naturally existing spiders and precise assessments of visual environments to model signal conspicuousness according to dipteran vision. Modeling supported a distinct bias in the chromatic (yellow morph) or achromatic (white morph) contrast presented by spiders at the times when they caught prey, as opposed to all other times at which they may be viewed. Hence, yellow spiders were most successful when their signal produced maximum color contrast against viewing backgrounds, whereas white spiders were most successful when they presented relatively greatest luminance contrast. Further modeling across a hypothetical range of lure variation confirmed that yellow versus white signals should, respectively, enhance chromatic versus achromatic conspicuousness to flies, in G. fornicata's visual environments. These findings suggest that color polymorphism may be adaptively maintained by selection for conspicuousness within different visual channels in receivers. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Guillén, María del Rosario; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Chen, Jia; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Anaya, Miriam Aracely; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Hernández-Valero, María A; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6). Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins.

  7. [Liver cirrhosis patogenetics: polymorphism of glutation S-transferase genes].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, I A; Rachkovskiĭ, M I; Beloborodova, E V; Gamal' Abd El'-Aziz Nasar, Kh; Puzyrev, V P

    2010-01-01

    Association of deletion polymorphism in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and polymorphic variant A313G of GSTP1 gene with cirrhosis diseases and 4-year survival rate for the Tomsk region (West Siberia) patients were tested. Homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (null genotype) was a protective factor for alcoholic and mixed (HCV, HBV and alcohol) liver cirrhosis development. The patients from the joint group (all etiology forms) as well as having alcoholic and mixed cirrhosis had lower frequency of GSTM1 null genotype (39.2, 39.0, and 34.2%, respectively) in comparison with the control group (64.6%). The GSTM1 null genotype and GSTP1 gene A313G polymorphic variant correlated with the patients' survival rate. The patients survived in comparison with the dead had higher frequency of a GSTM1 null genotype (46.6 vs. 30.2%) and GSTP1 AA genotype (63.1 vs. 40.5%), and lower frequency of GSTP1 AG (A313G) genotype (31.1 vs. 51.2%). A survival rate was 2.5 times higher for patients having GSTP1 AA genotype in comparison with the GG and AG genotype carriers and 2 times higher for patients having GSTM1 null genotype than the gene carriers. A 4-year fatal case probability was 2.3 times higher among the patients having heterozygous AG GSTP1 genotype in comparison with homozygous AA and GG genotype carriers.

  8. DFT-Assisted Polymorph Identification from Lattice Raman Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach, consisting of lattice phonon Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, is proposed as a tool for lattice dynamics characterization and polymorph phase identification. To illustrate the reliability of the method, the lattice phonon Raman spectra of two polymorphs of the molecule 2,7-dioctyloxy[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene are investigated. We show that DFT calculations of the lattice vibrations based on the known crystal structures, including many-body dispersion van der Waals (MBD-vdW) corrections, predict experimental data within an accuracy of ≪5 cm–1 (≪0.6 meV). Due to the high accuracy of the simulations, they can be used to unambiguously identify different polymorphs and to characterize the nature of the lattice vibrations and their relationship to the structural properties. More generally, this work implies that DFT-MBD-vdW is a promising method to describe also other physical properties that depend on lattice dynamics like charge transport. PMID:28731723

  9. Preterm birth and inflammation-The role of genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Holst, Daniela; Garnier, Yves

    2008-11-01

    Spontaneous preterm labour and preterm births are still the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Previous efforts to prevent preterm birth have been hampered by a poor understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, inadequate diagnostic tools and generally ineffective therapies. Clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that genito-urinary tract infections play a critical role in the pathogenesis of preterm birth. Moreover, intrauterine infection increases perinatal mortality and morbidity, such as cerebral palsy and chronic lung disease, significantly. It has recently been suggested that gene-environment interactions play a significant role in determining the risk of preterm birth. Polymorphisms of certain critical genes may be responsible for a harmful inflammatory response in those who possess them. Accordingly, polymorphisms that increase the magnitude or the duration of the inflammatory response were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. In contrast polymorphisms that decrease the inflammatory response were associated with a lower risk of preterm birth. This article will review the current understanding of pathogenetic pathways in the aetiology of preterm birth.

  10. [Genetic polymorphisms of 21 non-CODIS STR loci].

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei-bo; Zhang, Su-hua; Li, Li

    2011-02-01

    To investigate genetic polymorphisms of 21 non-CODIS STR loci in Han population from the east of China and to explore their forensic application value. Twenty-one non-CODIS STR loci, were amplified with AGCU 21+1 STR kit and DNA samples were obtained from 225 unrelated individuals of the Han population from the east of China. The PCR products were analyzed with 3130 Genetic Analyzer and genotyped with GeneMapper ID v3.2 software. The genetic data were statistically analyzed with PowerStats v12.xls and Cervus 2.0 software. The distributions of 21 non-CODIS STR loci satisfied the Hardy-Weinberg equilibration. The heterozygosity (H) distributions were 0.596-0.804, the discrimination power (DP) were 0.764-0.948, the probability of exclusion of duo-testing (PEduo) were 0.176-0.492, the probability of exclusion of trios-testing (PEtrio) were 0.334-0.663, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.522-0.807. The cumulative probability of exclusion (CPE) of duo-testing was 0.999707, the CPE of trios-testing was 0.9999994, and the cumulated discrimination power (CDP) was 0.99999999999999999994. Twenty-one non-CODIS STR loci are highly polymorphic. They can be effectively used in personal identification and paternity testing in trios cases. They can also be used as supplement in the difficult cases of diad paternity testing.

  11. Contribution of ALDH2 polymorphism to alcoholism-associated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Zhang, Yingmei; Nair, Sreejayan; Culver, Bruce W; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is considered as an independent lifestyle factor that may influence the risk of a number of cardiovascular anomalies including hypertension. In healthy adults, binge drinking and chronic alcohol ingestion lead to the onset and development of hypertension although the precise mechanism(s) remains obscure. Although oxidative stress and endothelial injury have been postulated to play a major contributing role to alcoholism-induced hypertension, recent evidence depicted a rather unique role for the genotype of the acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), which is mainly responsible for detoxifying ethanol consumed, in alcoholism-induced elevation of blood pressure. Genetic polymorphism of ALDH2 in human results in altered ethanol pharmacokinetic properties and ethanol metabolism, leading to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde following alcohol intake. The unfavorable consequence of the ALDH2 variants is believed to be governed by the accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. Presence of the mutant or inactive ALDH2*2 gene often results in an increased risk of hypertension in human. Such association between blood pressure and ALDH2 enzymatic activity may be affected by the interplay between gene and environment, such as life style and ethnicity. The aim of this mini-review is to summarize the possible contribution of ALDH2 genetic polymorphism in the onset and development of alcoholism-related development of hypertension. Furthermore, the double-edged sword of ALDH2 gene and genetic polymorphism in alcoholism and alcoholic tissue damage and relevant patents will be discussed.

  12. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  13. Y-STR INRA189 polymorphisms in Chinese yak breeds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Z J; Chen, S M; Sun, Y G; Xi, Y L; Li, R Z; Xu, J T; Lei, C Z

    2015-12-29

    To further explore Y-STR INRA189 polymorphisms in the yak, and to determine the genetic differences among yak breeds, genotyping analysis of INRA189 in 102 male yak individuals from three yak breeds in Qinghai Province of China was performed. Genotyping revealed the presence of four alleles, with sizes of 149, 155, 157, and 159 bp, respectively. Of these, the 157-bp allele, which was found with the highest frequency in the three yak breeds, was the dominant allele. Interestingly, the 149-bp allele was only detected in the Gaoyuan breed, and the 159-bp allele was only found in the Huanhu and Datong breeds. Only the 157- and 155-bp alleles were found in all three yak breeds. Taking the three yak breeds as a single population, the frequency of these four alleles was 0.0294, 0.0686, 0.8628, and 0.0392, respectively. The average polymorphism information content in the three yak breeds was 0.2379, indicating that the INRA189 was a low polymorphic Y-STR marker in yak.

  14. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese.

  16. Count on dopamine: influences of COMT polymorphisms on numerical cognition

    PubMed Central

    Júlio-Costa, Annelise; Antunes, Andressa M.; Lopes-Silva, Júlia B.; Moreira, Bárbara C.; Vianna, Gabrielle S.; Wood, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R. S.; Haase, Vitor G.

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that is particularly important for the metabolism of dopamine. Functional polymorphisms of COMT have been implicated in working memory and numerical cognition. This is an exploratory study that aims at investigating associations between COMT polymorphisms, working memory, and numerical cognition. Elementary school children from 2th to 6th grades were divided into two groups according to their COMT val158met polymorphism [homozygous for valine allele (n = 61) vs. heterozygous plus methionine homozygous children or met+ group (n = 94)]. Both groups were matched for age and intelligence. Working memory was assessed through digit span and Corsi blocks. Symbolic numerical processing was assessed through transcoding and single-digit word problem tasks. Non-symbolic magnitude comparison and estimation tasks were used to assess number sense. Between-group differences were found in symbolic and non-symbolic numerical tasks, but not in working memory tasks. Children in the met+ group showed better performance in all numerical tasks while val homozygous children presented slower development of non-symbolic magnitude representations. These results suggest COMT-related dopaminergic modulation may be related not only to working memory, as found in previous studies, but also to the development of magnitude processing and magnitude representations. PMID:23966969

  17. Polymorphic robotic system controlled by an observing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçer, Bilge; Yüksel, Tugçe; Yümer, M. Ersin; Özen, C. Alper; Yaman, Ulas

    2010-02-01

    Polymorphic robotic systems, which are composed of many modular robots that act in coordination to achieve a goal defined on the system level, have been drawing attention of industrial and research communities since they bring additional flexibility in many applications. This paper introduces a new polymorphic robotic system, in which the detection and control of the modules are attained by a stationary observing camera. The modules do not have any sensory equipment for positioning or detecting each other. They are self-powered, geared with means of wireless communication and locking mechanisms, and are marked to enable the image processing algorithm detect the position and orientation of each of them in a two dimensional space. Since the system does not depend on the modules for positioning and commanding others, in a circumstance where one or more of the modules malfunction, the system will be able to continue operating with the rest of the modules. Moreover, to enhance the compatibility and robustness of the system under different illumination conditions, stationary reference markers are employed together with global positioning markers, and an adaptive filtering parameter decision methodology is enclosed. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study to introduce a remote camera observer to control modules of a polymorphic robotic system.

  18. NLRC5 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Zupin, Luisa; Navarra, Chiara Ottavia; Robino, Antonietta; Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Gasparini, Paolo; Crovella, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic oral pathology caused by impaired immune response against oral bacteria resulting in tissue inflammation and damage. Among the members of innate immune response, the first line of defence against pathogens, inflammasomes are macro-molecular protein complexes that can be activated by different stimuli, comprised bacteria infections. Different proteins are involved in inflammasoma formation; the most important are molecules belonging from the family of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). In this study, polymorphisms within 20 NLRs related genes were analysed in order to investigate their possible association with periodontitis susceptibility in a population from North-East Italy. One polymorphism, namely rs289723, in NLRC5 gene resulted associated with chronic slight and chronic localized periodontitis susceptibility, specifically A/A genotype was correlated with increased risk of disease development. Our study, for the first time, identified the possible involvement of a polymorphism within NLRC5 gene as a possible biomarker for periodontitis condition susceptibility among Italian individuals from genetic isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Androgen receptor and monoamine oxidase polymorphism in wild bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Garai, Cintia; Furuichi, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Ryu, Heungjin; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor gene (AR), monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) have been found to have associations with behavioral traits, such as aggressiveness, and disorders in humans. However, the extent to which similar genetic effects might influence the behavior of wild apes is unclear. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ), AR glycine repeat (ARG), MAOA intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MAin2) and MAOB intron 2 dinucleotide repeat (MBin2) in 32 wild bonobos, Pan paniscus, and compared them with those of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, and humans. We found that bonobos were polymorphic on the four loci examined. Both loci MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos showed a higher diversity than in chimpanzees. Because monoamine oxidase influences aggressiveness, the differences between the polymorphisms of MAin2 and MBin2 in bonobos and chimpanzees may be associated with the differences in aggression between the two species. In order to understand the evolution of these loci and AR, MAOA and MAOB in humans and non-human primates, it would be useful to conduct future studies focusing on the potential association between aggressiveness, and other personality traits, and polymorphisms documented in bonobos. PMID:25606465

  20. Origin of the polymorphism of the involucrin gene in Asians.

    PubMed Central

    Djian, P; Delhomme, B; Green, H

    1995-01-01

    The involucrin gene, encoding a protein of the terminally differentiated keratinocyte, is polymorphic in the human. There is polymorphism of marker nucleotides a two positions in the coding region, and there are over eight polymorphic forms based on the number and kind of 10-codon tandem repeats in that part of the coding region most recently added in the human lineage. The involucrin alleles of Caucasians and Africans differ in both nucleotides and repeat patterns. We show that the involucrin alleles of East Asians (Chinese and Japanese) can be divided into two populations according to whether they possess the two marker nucleotides typical of Africans or Caucasians. The Asian population bearing Caucasian-type marker nucleotides has repeat patterns similar to those of Caucasians, whereas Asians bearing African-type marker nucleotides have repeat patterns that resemble those of Africans more than those of Caucasians. The existence of two populations of East Asian involucrin alleles gives support for the existence of a Eurasian stem lineage from which Caucasians and a part of the Asian population originated. PMID:7762559

  1. Gene polymorphisms of fibrinolytic enzymes in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.; Tseng, J.C.; Hua, C.C.

    2006-03-15

    The authors assessed the gene polymorphisms of missense C/T polymorphism in exon 6 of the urokinase-plasminogen activator (PLAU) gene (PLAU P141L), A/u-repeat in intron 8 of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (PLAT) gene (PLAT TPA25 Alu insertion), and 4G/5G in the promoter region of the serine proteinase inhibitor, clade E (SERPINE) or plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene (SERPINE1 -675 4G/5G) in 153 healthy volunteers and 154 retired coal miners with coal miners' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The CWP subjects included 94 individuals with simple pneumoconiosis and 60 individuals with progressive massive fibrosis presenting with worse pulmonary function. The distributions of genotypes ofmore » these three genes did not differ between the control and CWP subjects or between subjects with simple pneumoconiosis and those with progressive massive fibrosis. However, by assessing duration of work and its interaction with genotypes by means of logistic regression, the authors found the missense C/T polymorphism in exon 6 of the PLAU gene to be an effect modifier of the association between work duration and the development of progressive massive fibrosis.« less

  2. Granzyme B gene polymorphism associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yentur, Sibel P; Aydin, Hatice Nur; Gurses, Candan; Demirbilek, Veysi; Kuru, Umit; Uysal, Serap; Yapici, Zuhal; Baris, Safa; Yilmaz, Gülden; Cokar, Ozlem; Onal, Emel; Gokyigit, Ayşen; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2014-10-01

     Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late complication of measles infection. Immune dysfunction related to genetic susceptibility has been considered in disease pathogenesis. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of granzyme B gene (GZMB) reported in several pathologies may also be involved in susceptibility to SSPE.  An SNP (rs8192917, G → A, R→Q) was screened in 118 SSPE patients and 221 healthy controls (HC) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequencies were compared between groups. In vitro production of GZMB was measured in controls with different genotypes.  The SNP had a minor allele (G) frequency of 0.22 in patients and 0.31 in controls. GG genotype was significantly less frequent in patients (odds ratio, 0.23). G allele carriers produced relatively higher levels of GZMB, when stimulated in vitro.  These findings implicate possible effect of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to SSPE which needs to be confirmed in bigger populations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2015-12-01

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and <011> rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin (<11> rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  4. Inferring thermodynamic stability relationship of polymorphs from melting data.

    PubMed

    Yu, L

    1995-08-01

    This study investigates the possibility of inferring the thermodynamic stability relationship of polymorphs from their melting data. Thermodynamic formulas are derived for calculating the Gibbs free energy difference (delta G) between two polymorphs and its temperature slope from mainly the temperatures and heats of melting. This information is then used to estimate delta G, thus relative stability, at other temperatures by extrapolation. Both linear and nonlinear extrapolations are considered. Extrapolating delta G to zero gives an estimation of the transition (or virtual transition) temperature, from which the presence of monotropy or enantiotropy is inferred. This procedure is analogous to the use of solubility data measured near the ambient temperature to estimate a transition point at higher temperature. For several systems examined, the two methods are in good agreement. The qualitative rule introduced this way for inferring the presence of monotropy or enantiotropy is approximately the same as The Heat of Fusion Rule introduced previously on a statistical mechanical basis. This method is applied to 96 pairs of polymorphs from the literature. In most cases, the result agrees with the previous determination. The deviation of the calculated transition temperatures from their previous values (n = 18) is 2% on average and 7% at maximum.

  5. Malassezia Yeast and Cytokine Gene Polymorphism in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V.G.; Saha, Rumpa; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Dar, Sajad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent chronic condition associated with microorganism and their interaction with the susceptible host. Malassezia yeast is a known commensal which is thought to provoke the recurrent episodes of symptoms in atopic dermatitis patients. Malassezia immunomodulatory properties along with defective skin barrier in such host, results in disease manifestation. Here, we studied Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in IL10 and IFN γ genes of the host and its relation with susceptibility to Malassezia infection. Aim To isolate Malassezia yeast from AD patients and compare the genetic susceptibility of the host by correlating the cytokine gene polymorphism with the control subjects. Materials and Methods Study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. It was a prospective observational study done in Department of Microbiology and Department of Dermatology and Venereology in University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi. Sample size comprised of 38 cases each of AD. Skin scrapings were used for fungal culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and Modified Dixon Agar (MDA) and isolated were identified as per conventional phenotypic methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from all study subjects. Cytokine genotyping was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutations System- Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) with sequence specific primers. Three SNPs (IL10-1082A/G; IL10-819/592C/T; IFN-γ+874A/T) in two cytokine genes were assessed in all the patients and healthy controls. Statistical Analysis Chi-Square Test or Fisher’s-Exact Test and Bonferroni’s correction. Results In AD group, Malassezia yeasts were cultured in 24 out of 38 samples and thus the identification rate was 63.1 percent as compared to healthy group, 52.6 percent (20/38). Significant difference in allele, or genotype distribution were observed in IL10-819/592C/T and IFN-γ+874A/T gene polymorphism in AD group

  6. Color plumage polymorphism and predator mimicry in brood parasites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host responses to adult cuckoos comprehensive tests of the “hawk mimicry” and “kestrel mimicry” hypotheses are lacking so far. Results We tested these hypotheses by examining host responses to stuffed dummies of the sparrowhawk, kestrel, cuckoo and the innocuous turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) as a control at the nest. Our experimental data from an aggressive cuckoo host, the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), showed low effectiveness of cuckoo-predator mimicry against more aggressive hosts regardless of the type of model and the degree of perfection of the mimic. Specifically, warblers discriminated gray cuckoos from sparrowhawks but did not discriminate rufous cuckoos from kestrels. However, both gray and rufous cuckoos were attacked vigorously and much more than control doves. The ratio of aggression to gray vs. rufous cuckoo was very similar to the ratio between frequencies of gray vs. rufous cuckoo morphs in our study population. Conclusions Overall, our data combined with previous results from other localities suggest polymorphism dynamics are not strongly affected by local predator model frequencies. Instead, hosts responses and discrimination abilities are proportional, other things being equal, to the frequency with which hosts encounter various cuckoo morphs near their nests. This suggests that female cuckoo polymorphism is a counter-adaptation to thwart a specific host adaptation, namely an ability to not be fooled by predator mimicry. We

  7. Two polymorphs of safinamide, a selective and reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Krishnan; Sridhar, Balasubramanian

    2010-06-01

    Two polymorphs of safinamide {systematic name: (2S)-2-[4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino]propionamide}, C(17)H(19)FN(2)O(2), a potent selective and reversible monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, are described. Both forms are orthorhombic and regarded as conformational polymorphs due to the differences in the orientation of the 3-fluorobenzyloxy and propanamide groups. Both structures pack with layers in the ac plane. In polymorph (I), the layers have discrete wide and narrow regions which are complementary when located next to adjacent layers. In polymorph (II), the layer has long flanges protruding from each side, which interdigitate when packed with the adjacent layers. N-H...O hydrogen bonds are present in both structures, whereas N-H...F hydrogen bonding is seen in polymorph (I), while N-H...N hydrogen bonding is seen in polymorph (II).

  8. Detection of DNA methylation changes in micropropagated banana plants using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    PubMed

    Peraza-Echeverria, S; Herrera-Valencia, V A.; Kay, A -J.

    2001-07-01

    The extent of DNA methylation polymorphisms was evaluated in micropropagated banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Grand Naine') derived from either the vegetative apex of the sucker or the floral apex of the male inflorescence using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. In all, 465 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers were amplified using eight combinations of primers. A total of 107 sites (23%) were found to be methylated at cytosine in the genome of micropropagated banana plants. In plants micropropagated from the male inflorescence explant 14 (3%) DNA methylation events were polymorphic, while plants micropropagated from the sucker explant produced 8 (1.7%) polymorphisms. No DNA methylation polymorphisms were detected in conventionally propagated banana plants. These results demonstrated the usefulness of MSAP to detect DNA methylation events in micropropagated banana plants and indicate that DNA methylation polymorphisms are associated with micropropagation.

  9. Selection with Gene-Cytoplasm Interactions. I. Maintenance of Cytoplasm Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gregorius, H. R.; Ross, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    General conditions for the protectedness of gene-cytoplasm polymorphisms are considered for a biallelic model with two cytoplasm types and under the assumption that nuclear polymorphisms cannot be maintained in the presence of only one cytoplasm type. Analytical results involving male fertilities, female fertilities, viabilities and selfing rates are obtained, and numerical results show spiral and cyclic behavior of population trajectories. It is shown that a maternally inherited cytoplasmic polymorphism cannot be maintained in the absence of a nuclear polymorphism, and that a gene-cytoplasm polymorphism can only be maintained if the population shows sexual asymmetry, i.e. , if the ratio of male to female fertility varies among genotypes. Thus, the classical viability selection model does not allow gene-cytoplasm polymorphisms. PMID:17246213

  10. Diffuse Scattering as an Aid to the Understanding of Polymorphism in Pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welberry, T. R.; Chan, E. J.; Goossens, D. J.; Heerdegen, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    Polymorphism occurs when the same molecular compound can crystallize in more than one distinct crystal structure. Its study is a field of great interest and activity. This is largely driven by its importance in the pharmaceutical industry, but polymorphism is also an issue in the pigments, dyes, and explosives industries. The polymorph formed by a compound generally exerts a strong influence on its solid-state properties. The polymorphic form of a drug molecule may affect the ease of manufacture and processing, shelf life, and most significantly the rate of uptake of the molecule by the human body. They can even vary in toxicity; one polymorph may be safe, while a second may be toxic. In this review of recently published work, we show how diffuse scattering experiments coupled with Monte Carlo (MC) computer modeling can aid in the understanding of polymorphism. Examples of the two common pharmaceuticals, benzocaine and aspirin, both of which are bimorphic, at ambient temperatures, are discussed.

  11. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    polymorphisms . The specific aims are 1) methodological training in the analysis of gene - gene and gene -environment interactions by studying folate...evaluation of folate intake, plasma folate, and metabolic gene polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk: Months 1-19. b. Prepare blood samples...isolated for the folate and gene polymorphism assays among the 184 cases and matched controls. The folate assays are on-going at this time and over

  12. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    folate, and metabolic gene polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk: Months 1-19. b. Prepare blood samples for relevant assays: Months 1-19... gene polymorphism assays among the 184 cases and matched controls. The folate assays are on-going at this time. DNA assays will commence in the... methotrexate . Ann Oncol 13: 1915–1918, 2002 13. Toffoli G, Veronesi A, Boiocchi M, Crivellari D: MTHFR gene polymorphism and severe toxicity during

  13. Potential for Incorporation of Genetic Polymorphism Data in Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview summarizes several EPA assessment publications evaluating the potential impact of genetic polymorphisms in ten metabolizing enzymes on the variability in enzyme function across ethnically diverse populations.

  14. Characterization and compilation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of peanut from public database

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are several reports describing thousands of SSR markers in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genome. There is a need to integrate various research reports of peanut DNA polymorphism into a single platform. Further, because of lack of uniformity in the labeling of these markers across the publications, there is some confusion on the identities of many markers. We describe below an effort to develop a central comprehensive database of polymorphic SSR markers in peanut. Findings We compiled 1,343 SSR markers as detecting polymorphism (14.5%) within a total of 9,274 markers. Amongst all polymorphic SSRs examined, we found that AG motif (36.5%) was the most abundant followed by AAG (12.1%), AAT (10.9%), and AT (10.3%).The mean length of SSR repeats in dinucleotide SSRs was significantly longer than that in trinucleotide SSRs. Dinucleotide SSRs showed higher polymorphism frequency for genomic SSRs when compared to trinucleotide SSRs, while for EST-SSRs, the frequency of polymorphic SSRs was higher in trinucleotide SSRs than in dinucleotide SSRs. The correlation of the length of SSR and the frequency of polymorphism revealed that the frequency of polymorphism was decreased as motif repeat number increased. Conclusions The assembled polymorphic SSRs would enhance the density of the existing genetic maps of peanut, which could also be a useful source of DNA markers suitable for high-throughput QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection in peanut improvement and thus would be of value to breeders. PMID:22818284

  15. The Joint Effects of Body Mass Index and MAOA Gene Polymorphism on Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the joint effects of the body mass index and the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms. In two independent Chinese samples, we measured adolescents' depressive symptoms and body mass index and collected their DNA. The results indicated that the main effects of the MAOA gene polymorphism on depressive symptoms were significant. However, the main effects of body mass index and the interaction of the MAOA gene polymorphism and body mass index on depressive symptoms were not significant. By using Chinese adolescents, this study confirmed that the MAOA gene polymorphism directly influenced adolescents' depressive symptoms.

  16. Nucleation control and separation of paracetamol polymorphs through swift cooling crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, C.; Srinivasan, K.

    2014-09-01

    Polymorphic nucleation behavior of pharmaceutical solid paracetamol has been investigated by performing swift cooling crystallization process. Saturated aqueous solution prepared at 318 K was swiftly cooled to 274 K in steps of every 1 K in the temperature range from 274 K to 313 K with uniform stirring of 100 rpm. The resultant supersaturation generated in the mother solution favours the nucleation of three different polymorphs of paracetamol. Lower supersaturation region σ=0.10-0.83 favours stable mono form I; the intermediate supersaturation region σ=0.92-1.28 favours metastable ortho form II and the higher supersaturation region σ=1.33-1.58 favours unstable form III polymorphic nucleation. Depending upon the level of supersaturation generated during swift cooling process and the corresponding solubility limit and metastable zone width (MSZW) of each polymorph, the nucleation of a particular polymorph occurs in the system. The type of polymorphs was identified by in-situ optical microscopy and the internal structure was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) study. By this novel approach, the preferred nucleation regions of all the three polymorphs of paracetamol are optimized in terms of different cooling ranges employed during the swift cooling process. Also solution mediated polymorphic transformations from unstable to mono and ortho to mono polymorphs have been studied by in-situ.

  17. Restriction fragment length polymorphism among Israeli Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, J S; Kashi, Y; Hallerman, E M; Nave, A; Soller, M

    1986-01-01

    Israeli Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphisms by hybridizing cloned DNA probes for bovine growth hormone, for chymosin, and for rat muscle beta-actin to restriction endonuclease-digested DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters. The population proved to be polymorphic at the growth hormone locus, with evidence consistent with the phenotypes being inherited in allelic fashion. A low level of polymorphism was also observed at one of the beta-actin gene family loci. The chymosin locus was monomorphic with the restriction enzymes utilized. The results illustrate the power of restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology in visualizing genetic variability in dairy cattle populations.

  18. [Single nucleotide polymorphism and its application in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation--review].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Xia

    2004-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the third genetic marker after restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and short tandem repeat. It represents the most density genetic variability in the human genome and has been widely used in gene location, cloning, and research of heredity variation, as well as parenthood identification in forensic medicine. As steady heredity polymorphism, single nucleotide polymorphism is becoming the focus of attention in monitoring chimerism and minimal residual disease in the patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The article reviews SNP heredity characterization, analysis techniques and its applications in allogeneic stem cell transplantation and other fields.

  19. Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Joron, Mathieu; Frezal, Lise; Jones, Robert T.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Lee, Siu F.; Haag, Christoph R.; Whibley, Annabel; Becuwe, Michel; Baxter, Simon W.; Ferguson, Laura; Wilkinson, Paul A.; Salazar, Camilo; Davidson, Claire; Clark, Richard; Quail, Michael A.; Beasley, Helen; Glithero, Rebecca; Lloyd, Christine; Sims, Sarah; Jones, Matthew C.; Rogers, Jane; Jiggins, Chris D.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Supergenes are tight clusters of loci that facilitate the co-segregation of adaptive variation, providing integrated control of complex adaptive phenotypes1. Polymorphic supergenes, in which specific combinations of traits are maintained within a single population, were first described for ‘pin’ and ‘thrum’ floral types in Primula1 and Fagopyrum2, but classic examples are also found in insect mimicry3–5 and snail morphology6. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that generate these co-adapted gene sets, as well as the mode of limiting the production of unfit recombinant forms, remains a substantial challenge7–10. Here we show that individual wing-pattern morphs in the polymorphic mimetic butterfly Heliconius numata are associated with different genomic rearrangements at the supergene locus P. These rearrangements tighten the genetic linkage between at least two colour-pattern loci that are known to recombine in closely related species9–11, with complete suppression of recombination being observed in experimental crosses across a 400-kilobase interval containing at least 18 genes. In natural populations, notable patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) are observed across the entire P region. The resulting divergent haplotype clades and inversion breakpoints are found in complete association with wing-pattern morphs. Our results indicate that allelic combinations at known wing-patterning loci have become locked together in a polymorphic rearrangement at the Plocus, forming a supergene that acts as a simple switch between complex adaptive phenotypes found in sympatry. These findings highlight how genomic rearrangements can have a central role in the coexistence of adaptive phenotypes involving several genes acting in concert, by locally limiting recombination and gene flow. PMID:21841803

  20. Water flow and fin shape polymorphism in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G

    2015-03-01

    Water flow gradients have been linked to phenotypic differences and swimming performance across a variety of fish assemblages. However, the extent to which water motion shapes patterns of phenotypic divergence within species remains unknown. We tested the generality of the functional relationship between swimming morphology and water flow by exploring the extent of fin and body shape polymorphism in 12 widespread species from three families (Acanthuridae, Labridae, Pomacentridae) of pectoral-fin swimming (labriform) fishes living across localized wave exposure gradients. The pectoral fin shape of Labridae and Acanthuridae species was strongly related to wave exposure: individuals with more tapered, higher aspect ratio (AR) fins were found on windward reef crests, whereas individuals with rounder, lower AR fins were found on leeward, sheltered reefs. Three of seven Pomacentridae species showed similar trends, and pectoral fin shape was also strongly related to wave exposure in pomacentrids when fin aspect ratios of three species were compared across flow habitats at very small spatial scales (<100 m) along a reef profile (reef slope, crest, and back lagoon). Unlike fin shape, there were no intraspecific differences in fish body fineless ratio across habitats or depths. Contrary to our predictions, there was no pattern relating species' abundances to polymorphism across habitats (i.e., abundance was not higher at sites where morphology is better adapted to the environment). This suggests that there are behavioral and/or physiological mechanisms enabling some species to persist across flow habitats in the absence of morphological differences. We suggest that functional relationships between swimming morphology and water flow not only structure species assemblages, but are yet another important variable contributing to phenotypic differences within species. The close links between fin shape polymorphism and local water flow conditions appear to be important for

  1. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orlow, Irene; Roy, Pampa; Reiner, Anne S.; Yoo, Sarah; Patel, Himali; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D.; Millikan, Robert C.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Rosso, Stefano; Gallagher, Richard P.; Dwyer, Terence; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Busam, Klaus; From, Lynn; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been associated with cancer risk, but only a few polymorphisms have been studied in relation to melanoma risk and the results have been inconsistent. We examined 38 VDR gene SNPs in a large international multi-center population-based case-control study of melanoma. Buccal DNAs were obtained from 1207 people with incident multiple primary melanoma and 2469 with incident single primary melanoma. SNPs with known or suspected impact on VDR activity, htSNPs with ≥10% MAF in Caucasians, and SNPs reported as significant in other association studies were examined. Logistic regression was used to calculate the relative risks conferred by the individual SNP. Eight of 38 SNPs in the promoter, coding, and 3’ gene regions were individually significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma after adjusting for covariates. The estimated increase in risk for individuals who were homozygous for the minor allele ranged from 25% to 33% for 6 polymorphisms: rs10875712 (OR 1.28; 95%CI, 1.01–1.62), rs4760674 (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06–1.67), rs7139166 (OR 1.26; 95%CI, 1.02–1.56), rs4516035 (OR 1.25; 95%CI, 1.01–1.55), rs11168287 (OR 1.27; 95%CI, 1.03–1.57), rs1544410 (OR 1.30; 95%CI, 1.04–1.63); for 2 polymorphisms, homozygous carriers had a decreased risk: rs7305032 (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.65–1.02), rs7965281 (OR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.62–0.99). We recognize the potential false positive findings due to multiple comparisons; however the 8 significant SNPs in this study outnumbered the 2 significant tests expected to occur by chance. The vitamin D receptor may play a role in melanomagenesis. PMID:21365644

  2. Assessment of Azorean ancestry by Alu insertion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Branco, Claudia C; Palla, Raquel; Lino, Sílvia; Pacheco, Paula R; Cabral, Rita; De Fez, Laura; Peixoto, Bernardo R; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of population ancestry from genetic markers is essential, for example, to understand the history of human migration and to carry out admixture and association studies. Here we assess the genome ancestry of the Azorean population through analysis of six Alu polymorphic sites (TPA-25, ACE, APO, B65, PV92, and D1) in 65 Azoreans and 30 Portuguese unrelated blood donors and compare data for the Y-chromosome and mtDNA. Allele frequencies were calculated by direct counting. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin 2.0. Nei's genetic distance was calculated with DISPAN software, and trees were constructed by neighbor joining (NJ) using PHYLIP 3.63. The results show that all Alu insertions were polymorphic. APO is the closest to fixation. The less frequent insertions are PV92 and D1 in the Azores and Portugal, respectively. ACE and TPA-25 show the highest values of heterozygosity in both populations. Allele frequencies are very similar to those obtained in European populations. These results are validated by the Y-chromosome and mtDNA data, where the majority of the maternal and paternal lineages are European. Overall, these data are reflected in the phylogenetic tree, in which the Azoreans and the Portuguese branch with Catalans, Andalusians, Moroccans, and Algerians. We conclude that the population of the Azores shows no significant genetic differences from that of mainland Portugal and that it is an outbred population. Moreover, the data validate the use of Alu insertion polymorphisms to assess the origin and history of human populations. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:223-226, 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. TNF-α -238, -308, -863 polymorphisms, and brucellosis infection.

    PubMed

    Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Moghadampour, Mehdi; Sepanj-Nia, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that affects humans and domestic animals. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been shown as a key player in the induction of cell-mediated resistance against Brucella infection. We aimed to evaluate the possible influence of the TNF-α promoter polymorphisms (-308 G/A, -238 G/A, and -863 C/A) on the susceptibility of human brucellosis. A total of 153 patients with active brucellosis and 128 healthy individuals were recruited. All subjects were genotyped for the polymorphisms in the TNF-α gene by Allele-Specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our results showed that the TNF-α -308 GG genotype was significantly more frequently present in controls than in brucellosis patients (91% vs. 75%), thus was a protective factor against developing brucellosis (OR=0.313, p=0.001). In contrast, the -308 GA genotype (OR=3.026, p=0.002) and minor allele (A) (OR=3.058, p=0.001) as well as AAG haplotype (OR=4.014, p=0.001) conferred an increased risk of brucellosis. However, the -238 G/A and -863 C/A polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of brucellosis at both allelic and genotypic levels (p>0.05). Our study revealed that the TNF-α -308 A allele or GA heterozygosity or AAG haplotype were associated with an increased risk of brucellosis in our population. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphisms in canine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-L; L'Eplattenier, H; van den Ham, R; Verseijden, F; Jagtenberg, A; Mol, J A; Teske, E

    2008-01-01

    Relatively shorter lengths of the polymorphic polyglutamine repeat-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PC) in humans. In the dog, there are 2 polymorphic CAG repeat (CAGr) regions. To investigate the relationship of CAGr length of the canine AR-gene and the development of PC. Thirty-two dogs with PC and 172 control dogs were used. DNA was extracted from blood. Both CAG repeats were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR products were sequenced. In dogs with PC, CAG-1 repeat length was shorter (P = .001) by an increased proportion of 10 repeats (P = .011) and no 12 repeats (P = .0017) than in the control dogs. No significant changes were found in CAG-3 length distribution. CAG-1 and CAG-3 polymorphisms proved not to be in linkage disequilibrium. Breed difference in allelic distribution was found in the control group. Of the prostate-disease sensitive breeds, a high percentage (64.5%) of the shortest haplotype 10/11 was found in the Doberman, whereas Beagles and German Pointers had higher haplotype 12/11 (47.1 and 50%). Bernese Mountain dogs and Bouvier dogs both shared a high percentage of 11 CAG-1 repeats and 13 CAG-3 repeats. Differences in (combined) allelic distributions among breeds were not significant. In this preliminary study, short CAG-1 repeats in the AR-gene were associated with an increased risk of developing canine PC. Although breed-specific differences in allelic distribution of CAG-1 and CAG-3 repeats were found, these could not be related to PC risk.

  5. Association between microRNA polymorphisms and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Li, Diangeng; Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Qianshou; Zhao, Shuangqin; Bai, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in the development and progression of many human diseases. mir-146a could significantly suppress the induction of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB and chemokine MCP-1, which might play important roles in chronic pancreatitis. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between mir-146a rs2910164, a functional polymorphism in the pre-mir-146a, and chronic pancreatitis risk. The rs2910164 genotypes were determined in 165 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 200 healthy controls who were frequency matched for age and gender. One single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2910164) was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RLFP). The frequency of individuals who carried [G] allele was significantly higher in cases (62.7%) than in controls (53.7%, p = 0.015), which resulted in a statistically significant pathogenic effect associated with this variant allele (OR: 1.448, CI: 1.076-1.950; p = 0.015). The GC and GG genotypes showed strong and significant increased risk for complication of chronic pancreatitis (OR = 3.668, 95%CI = 1.233-10.916, p = 0.019; OR = 5.667, 95%CI = 1.852-17.336, p = 0.002). The individuals carrying G allele confer a lower expression level of mature mir-146a. These findings suggest that the mir-146a rs2910164 may contribute to genetic susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis, and that mir-146a might be involved in chronic pancreatitis development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  6. Red Blood Cell Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fya antigen, compared to Fyb, is associated with lower binding to the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein and reduced susceptibility to vivax malaria. Additionally, it is interesting that numerous studies have now shown that P. vivax can infect RBCs and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people. This suggests that the relationship between P. vivax and the Duffy antigen is more complex than customarily described. Evidence of P. vivax Duffy-independent red cell invasion indicates that the parasite must be evolving alternative red cell invasion pathways. In this chapter, we review the evidence for P. vivax Duffy-dependent and Duffy-independent red cell invasion. We also consider the influence of further host gene polymorphism associated with malaria endemicity on susceptibility to vivax malaria. The interaction between the parasite and the RBC has significant potential to influence the effectiveness of P. vivax-specific vaccines and drug treatments. Ultimately, the relationships between red cell polymorphisms and P. vivax blood-stage infection will influence our estimates on the population at risk and efforts to eliminate vivax malaria. PMID:23384621

  7. Genome skimming identifies polymorphism in tern populations and species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Terns (Charadriiformes: Sterninae) are a lineage of cosmopolitan shorebirds with a disputed evolutionary history that comprises several species of conservation concern. As a non-model system in genetics, previous study has left most of the nuclear genome unexplored, and population-level studies are limited to only 15% of the world's species of terns and noddies. Screening of polymorphic nuclear sequence markers is needed to enhance genetic resolution because of supposed low mitochondrial mutation rate, documentation of nuclear insertion of hypervariable mitochondrial regions, and limited success of microsatellite enrichment in terns. Here, we investigated the phylogenetic and population genetic utility for terns and relatives of a variety of nuclear markers previously developed for other birds and spanning the nuclear genome. Markers displaying a variety of mutation rates from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genome were tested and prioritized according to optimal cross-species amplification and extent of genetic polymorphism between (1) the main tern clades and (2) individual Royal Terns (Thalasseus maxima) breeding on the US East Coast. Results Results from this genome skimming effort yielded four new nuclear sequence-based markers for tern phylogenetics and 11 intra-specific polymorphic markers. Further, comparison between the two genomes indicated a phylogenetic conflict at the base of terns, involving the inclusion (mitochondrial) or exclusion (nuclear) of the Angel Tern (Gygis alba). Although limited mitochondrial variation was confirmed, both nuclear markers and a short tandem repeat in the mitochondrial control region indicated the presence of considerable genetic variation in Royal Terns at a regional scale. Conclusions These data document the value of intronic markers to the study of terns and allies. We expect that these and additional markers attained through next-generation sequencing methods will accurately map the genetic origin and

  8. Association between adiponectin polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Liuping; Li, Gang; Huang, Yuenan; Li, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the association between adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene rs2241766 and rs1501299 polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer, and to analyze the role of the interaction between these two loci and environmental factors in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. The case-control study was performed with a 1:1 match. A self-designed questionnaire was used to perform a face-to-face survey with 600 new primary colorectal cancer cases confirmed by histopathology as well as 600 cases of people receiving a physical examination at the same time. The general information, lifestyle, and diet habits, etc. were collected from two groups of study subjects. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 genotypes. After adjusting for factors such as colorectal cancer family history, body-mass index (BMI), daily sedentary time, weekly red meat intake frequency, as well regular tea drinking, conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that rs2241766 TG+GG carriers had a higher risk of colorectal cancer than TT carriers (OR=1.433, 95% CI: 1.014-1.985); rs1501299 GT+TT carriers had a lower risk of colorectal cancer than GG carriers (OR=0.723, 95% CI: 0.531-0.902). Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed that ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 could have interaction with red meat intake (p=0.001). ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs1501299 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be associated with colorectal pathogenesis and could have interactions with red meat intake. Both factors impact colorectal cancer occurrence.

  9. RAAS gene polymorphisms influence progression of pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Beth D; Auerbach, Scott; Reddy, Sushma; Manlhiot, Cedric; Deng, Liyong; Prakash, Ashwin; Printz, Beth F; Gruber, Dorota; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios P; Hsu, Daphne T; Sehnert, Amy J; Chung, Wendy K; Mital, Seema

    2007-12-01

    Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease with variable rate of progression. Young age is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in HCM. The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) genotype on the progression of HCM in children is unknown. Children with HCM (n = 65) were enrolled prospectively across two centers (2001-2005). All subjects were genotyped for five RAAS gene polymorphisms previously associated with LV hypertrophy (pro-LVH): AGT M235T, ACE DD, CMA-1903 A/G, AGTR1 1666 A/C and CYP11B2-344 C/T. Linear regression models, based on maximum likelihood estimates, were created to assess the independent effect of RAAS genotype on LV hypertrophy (LVH). Forty-six subjects were homozygous for <2 and 19 were homozygous for > or =2 pro-LVH RAAS polymorphisms. Mean age at presentation was 9.6 +/- 6 years. Forty children had follow-up echocardiograms after a median of 1.5 years. Indexed LV mass (LVMI) and LV mass z-scores were higher at presentation and follow-up in subjects with > or =2 pro-LVH genotypes compared to those with <2 (P < 0.05). Subjects with > or =2 pro-LVH genotypes also demonstrated a greater increase in septal thickness (IVST) and in LV outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction on follow-up (P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, a higher number of pro-LVH genotypes was associated with a larger effect size (P < 0.05). Pro-LVH RAAS gene polymorphisms are associated with progressive septal hypertrophy and LVOT obstruction in children with HCM. Identification of RAAS modifier genes may help to risk-stratify patients with HCM.

  10. Serum amyloid A1: Structure, function and gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lei; Ye, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Inducible expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a hallmark of the acute-phase response, which is a conserved reaction of vertebrates to environmental challenges such as tissue injury, infection and surgery. Human SAA1 is encoded by one of the four SAA genes and is the best-characterized SAA protein. Initially known as a major precursor of amyloid A (AA), SAA1 has been found to play an important role in lipid metabolism and contributes to bacterial clearance, the regulation of inflammation and tumor pathogenesis. SAA1 has five polymorphic coding alleles (SAA1.1 – SAA1.5) that encode distinct proteins with minor amino acid substitutions. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified in both the coding and non-coding regions of human SAA1. Despite high levels of sequence homology among these variants, SAA1 polymorphisms have been reported as risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and several types of cancer. A recently solved crystal structure of SAA1.1 reveals a hexameric bundle with each of the SAA1 subunits assuming a 4-helix structure stabilized by the C-terminal tail. Analysis of the native SAA1.1 structure has led to the identification of a competing site for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and heparin, thus providing the structural basis for a role of heparin and heparan sulfate in the conversion of SAA1 to AA. In this brief review, we compares human SAA1 with other forms of human and mouse SAAs, and discuss how structural and genetic studies of SAA1 have advanced our understanding of the physiological functions of the SAA proteins. PMID:26945629

  11. Population Genomics of Inversion Polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been an enduring interest of population geneticists since their discovery in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous lines of evidence suggest powerful selective pressures govern the distributions of polymorphic inversions, and these observations have spurred the development of many explanatory models. However, due to a paucity of nucleotide data, little progress has been made towards investigating selective hypotheses or towards inferring the genealogical histories of inversions, which can inform models of inversion evolution and suggest selective mechanisms. Here, we utilize population genomic data to address persisting gaps in our knowledge of D. melanogaster's inversions. We develop a method, termed Reference-Assisted Reassembly, to assemble unbiased, highly accurate sequences near inversion breakpoints, which we use to estimate the age and the geographic origins of polymorphic inversions. We find that inversions are young, and most are African in origin, which is consistent with the demography of the species. The data suggest that inversions interact with polymorphism not only in breakpoint regions but also chromosome-wide. Inversions remain differentiated at low levels from standard haplotypes even in regions that are distant from breakpoints. Although genetic exchange appears fairly extensive, we identify numerous regions that are qualitatively consistent with selective hypotheses. Finally, we show that In(1)Be, which we estimate to be ∼60 years old (95% CI 5.9 to 372.8 years), has likely achieved high frequency via sex-ratio segregation distortion in males. With deeper sampling, it will be possible to build on our inferences of inversion histories to rigorously test selective models—particularly those that postulate that inversions achieve a selective advantage through the maintenance of co-adapted allele complexes. PMID:23284285

  12. Landscape of Insertion Polymorphisms in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Goldberg, Liat; Aplan, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide substitutions, small (<50 bp) insertions or deletions (indels), and large (>50 bp) deletions are well-known causes of genetic variation within the human genome. We recently reported a previously unrecognized form of polymorphic insertions, termed templated sequence insertion polymorphism (TSIP), in which the inserted sequence was templated from a distant genomic region, and was inserted in the genome through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; class 1 TSIPs show target site duplication, polyadenylation, and preference for insertion at a 5′-TTTT/A-3′ sequence, suggesting a LINE-1 based insertion mechanism, whereas class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double strand break by nonhomologous end joining. To gain a more complete picture of TSIPs throughout the human population, we evaluated whole-genome sequence from 52 individuals, and identified 171 TSIPs. Most individuals had 25–30 TSIPs, and common (present in >20% of individuals) TSIPs were found in individuals throughout the world, whereas rare TSIPs tended to cluster in specific geographic regions. The number of rare TSIPs was greater than the number of common TSIPs, suggesting that TSIP generation is an ongoing process. Intriguingly, mitochondrial sequences were a frequent template for class 2 insertions, used more commonly than any nuclear chromosome. Similar to single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases, and can be useful in tracking historical migration of populations. PMID:25745018

  13. Association of SSTR2 Polymorphisms and Glucose Homeostasis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Beth S.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Xue, Bingzhong; Proctor, Alexandria; Ziegler, Julie T.; Haffner, Steven M.; Norris, Jill M.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the influence of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) polymorphisms on measures of glucose homeostasis in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). SSTR2 is a G-protein–coupled receptor that, in response to somatostatin, mediates inhibition of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone release and thus may affect glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the gene were chosen using a SNP density selection algorithm and genotyped on 1,425 Hispanic-American individuals from 90 families in the IRASFS. These families comprised two samples (set 1 and set 2), which were analyzed individually and as a combined set. Single SNP tests of association were performed for four glucose homeostasis measures—insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)—using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The SSTR2 locus was encompassed by a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block (D′ = 0.91–1.00; r2 = 0.09–0.97) that contained four of the ten SNPs evaluated. Within the SSTR2-containing LD block, evidence of association was observed in each of the two sets and in a combined analysis with decreased SI(βhomozygous = −0.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0024–0.0030), decreased DI (βhomozygous = −0.35 to −5.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0075–0.027), and increased FBG (βhomozygous = 2.30; Pmeta-analysis = 0.045). SNPs outside the SSTR2-containing LD block were not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS We observed evidence for association of SSTR2 polymorphisms with measures of glucose homeostasis. Thus, variants in SSTR2 may influence pathways of SIto modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:19324939

  14. Association of GSTs polymorphisms with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Shaoru; Zhai, Qianqian; Hai, Jie; Wang, Di; Cao, Meng; Zhang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms and development of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. A total of 320 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and 358 pregnancy subjects were consecutively collected between January 2013 and December 2014. Genotyping for detection of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 IIe105Val was conducted by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms) method. By Fisher's exact test, we found that the genotype distributions of GSTP1 IIe105Val were in line with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in control subjects (P=0.57). By Chi-square test, we found significant differences in the genotype distributions of GSTM1 (χ(2)=11.49, P=0.001) and GSTT1 (χ(2)=18.50, P<0.001). Using unconditional logistic analysis, individuals carrying the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus when compared with the present genotype, and the adjusted Ors (95% CI) were 1.71 (1.24-2.36) and 2.00 (1.44-2.79), respectively. However, the GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphism was not associated with an elevated risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, we suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 null genotype are correlated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

  15. Serum paraoxonase level and paraoxonase polymorphism in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Arpaci, Dilek; Karakas Celik, Sevim; Can, Murat; Ermiş, Esra; Kuzu, Fatih; Kokturk, Furuzan; Hamamcioglu, Ayse Ceylan; Dursun, Ahmet; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-11-01

    Acromegalic patients have increased cardiometabolic risk factors due to an elevation of growth hormone (GH) levels. Human serum paraoxonase (PON), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-related enzyme, is one of the major bioscavengers and decreases the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a key regulator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated a potential relationship between serum PON levels or PON polymorphisms and acromegaly. A total of 48 acromegalic patients and 44 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum GH levels, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and lipid profiles were measured. Serum PON levels, as well as PON 1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms, were examined. No significant differences were found in terms of age, gender, presence of diabetes, serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglyceride levels between the case and control groups (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in serum PON levels between the cases and controls (P = 0.007). The median serum PON level was 101 ± 63.36 U/l in the case group and 63 ± 60.50 U/l in the control group. There was a significant correlation between serum PON levels and IGF-1 levels (P = 0.004, r = 0.319); however, no significant differences were found in PON1 L55M and PON Q192R polymorphisms between the patients and controls (P = 0.607 and P = 0.308, respectively). In addition, no significant differences were found in serum PON levels in acromegalic patients who were and were not in remission (P = 0.385), nor between those with PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms (P = 0.161 and P = 0.336, respectively). Elevated serum PON levels were detected in acromegalic patients, independently of their remission status. This suggests protective effects for cardiometabolic risk parameters.

  16. Fibronectin gene polymorphism in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Siemianowicz, K; Gminski, J; Francuz, T; Syzdol, M; Polanska, D; Machalski, M; Brulinski, K; Magiera-Molendowska, H

    2001-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a glycoprotein component of connective tissue. It is involved in cancer progression. FN plays a role in non-neoplasmatic lung pathology in which fibronectin gene polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been studied. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency of two of fibronectin RFLPs: genotypes AB, AA, BB (HaeIII) and CD, CC, DD (MspI) in patients with lung cancer. The studied group consisted of 63 patients with squamous cell lung cancer and 53 controls without any malignant or proliferative disease. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes between lung cancer patients and controls.

  17. Shell color polymorphism in the marine gastropod Mitrella fusiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Gastropod mollusks are extremely important in marine ecosystems as predators and prey, especially in coral reefs. It is important to understand where and how these benthic organisms interact with their communities and with the physical aspects of their ecosystems. Our project is to study polymorphism among shallow water columbellids, a common and diverse family of marine neogastropod snail. Columbellids are small (most are less than 10 mm in length) and can be very common epibenthic carnivores in shallow marine systems. A number of nearshore species in this group are polymorphic for shell color and pattern, a factor that may correlate to their individual survival by making them more or less visible to predators and prey. Our objective is to investigate correlations between polymorphism, environment and sex in common local epibenthic marine gastropods. This study will focus on Mitrella fusiformis (Pease, 1868), one of the most common local columbellid species. Last year, we determined that there were trends for different morphs on the leeward and windward sides of Hawaii Island but our sample size was not large enough to show statistical significance. Thus, this year our project focuses on increasing sample size to better elucidate trends. In addition, further emphasis will be placed on collecting environmental data with the hopes of correlating environmental factors with certain polymorphisms. Common environmental factors to be recorded are salinity, temperature, food source and habitat. To study these organisms, we will make collections in several locations around the Island of Hawai`i, where they are found typically in 1m depth or less. Individual adult animals will be sexed, measured, and their shell color and pattern documented photographically using a dissecting stereomicroscope with camera. Most animals will be returned alive to their original habitat after data are collected. The resulting data set will allow us to investigate correlations between shell

  18. Association between polymorphisms in interleukins and oral lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Zhang, Tong; Huo, Na; Huang, Yang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hongchen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: More and more studies have suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL) genes are correlated with an increased risk of developing oral lichen planus (OLP). However, these results were inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to retrieve and comprehensively analyze all related clinical studies to investigate the association of ILs gene polymorphisms with the OLP risk. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies to evaluate the association between IL polymorphisms and the OLP. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from each study were pooled to estimate the strength of the association. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA software. Results: In all 6 studies, including 4 SNPs (IL6-174G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A), 362 OLP patients and 622 non-OLP control subjects from five different countries were investigated. As for the IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A, no evidence was found to support the association between SNP and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, as for IL10-592C/A, a significant relationship between them was identified in all of comparison models (C vs A: OR = 0.724, 95% CI = 0.585–0.897, P = 0.003; CC vs AA: OR = 0.447, 95% CI = 0.276–0.722, P = 0.001; AC vs AA: OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.387–0.883, P = 0.011; CC+AC vs AA: OR = 0.544, 95% CI = 0.365–0.809, P = 0.003; CC vs AA+AC: OR = 0.715, 95% CI = 0.515–0.994, P = 0.046). Conclusion: With the presently available evidence, this meta-analysis fails to show the statistical associations between IL6-174G/C, IL10-819C/T, and IL10-1082G/A and OLP susceptibility in any genetic models. However, the A allele and AA genotype in IL10-592C/A polymorphism may increase the risk of OLP. In the future, more well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are needed. PMID

  19. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephan R; Hurford, Matthew T; Miettinen, Markku M; Aronoff, Stephen C; Delvecchio, Michael; Grewal, Harsh; Tuluc, Madalina

    2008-03-01

    Polymorphous hemangioendotheliomas (PH) are rare and borderline malignant tumors that are among the wide range of vascular tumors. We report here a 13-year-old male presenting with a history of weight loss, opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. He was determined to be HIV positive and to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A biopsy of a femoral node was diagnostic of PH. His systemic lymphadenopathy appeared to resolve with anti-retroviral therapy. This tumor should be considered within the differential diagnoses of pediatric and immunocompromised patients. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms associated with heart failure: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mengqi; Guo, Guanlun; Ji, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    To review possible associations reported between genetic variants and the risk, therapeutic response and prognosis of heart failure. Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and CNKI) were systematically searched for relevant papers, published between January 1995 and February 2015. Eighty-two articles covering 29 genes and 39 polymorphisms were identified. Genetic association studies of heart failure have been highly controversial. There may be interaction or synergism of several genetic variants that together result in the ultimate pathological phenotype for heart failure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The polymorphic and mesomorphic behavior of four esters of cholesterol.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, W. G.; Cole, G. D.; Walker, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    The techniques of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, and positron annihilation have been used to study the polymorphic and mesomorphic behavior of the following esters of cholesterol: cholesteryl formate, cholesteryl butyrate, cholesteryl benzoate, and cholesteryl cinnamate. Each of these compounds exhibits a single mesophase of the cholesteric type. The solid phase formed from the melt for each ester was observed to be structurally different from the solid phase obtained from solution. Solvents from which the solution-grown samples were crystallized were as follows: cholesteryl formate and cholesteryl butyrate from acetone, cholesteryl benzoate from benzene, and cholesteryl cinnamate from 2-butanone.

  2. Polymorphisms in endothelin system genes, arsenic levels and obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; de Marco, Griselda; Martínez-Hervas, Sergio; Rentero, Pilar; Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Blesa, Sebastian; Morchon, David; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Rojo, Gemma; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to morbidity and mortality through increased risk for many chronic diseases. Endothelin (EDN) system has been related to endothelial function but it can be involved in lipid metabolism regulation: Receptor type A (EDNRA) activates lipolysis in adipocytes, the two endothelin receptors mediate arsenic-stimulated adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelin system can regulate adiposity by modulating adiponectin activity in different situations and, therefore, influence obesity development. The aim of the present study was to analyze if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EDN system could be associated with human obesity. We analyzed two samples of general-population-based studies from two different regions of Spain: the VALCAR Study, 468 subjects from the area of Valencia, and the Hortega Study, 1502 subjects from the area of Valladolid. Eighteen SNPs throughout five genes were analyzed using SNPlex. We found associations for two polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene which codifies for EDN receptor type B. Genotypes AG and AA of the rs5351 were associated with a lower risk for obesity in the VALCAR sample (p=0.048, OR=0.63) and in the Hortega sample (p=0.001, OR=0.62). Moreover, in the rs3759475 polymorphism, genotypes CT and TT were also associated with lower risk for obesity in the Hortega sample (p=0.0037, OR=0.66) and in the VALCAR sample we found the same tendency (p=0.12, OR=0.70). Furthermore, upon studying the pooled population, we found a stronger association with obesity (p=0.0001, OR=0.61 and p=0.0008, OR=0.66 for rs5351 and rs3759475, respectively). Regarding plasma arsenic levels, we have found a positive association for the two SNPs studied with obesity risk in individuals with higher arsenic levels in plasma: rs5351 (p=0.0054, OR=0.51) and rs3759475 (p=0.009, OR=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene may influence the susceptibility to obesity and can interact with plasma arsenic levels.

  3. AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP polymorphisms: impact on arsenic methylation and implications for disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Ray; Shao, Kan; Thomas, David J; Sams, Reeder; Cowden, John

    2014-07-01

    Oral exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies suggest differences in susceptibility to these health effects, possibly due to genotypic variation. Genetic polymorphisms in iAs metabolism could lead to increased susceptibility by altering urinary iAs metabolite concentrations. To examine the impact of genotypic polymorphisms on iAs metabolism. We screened 360 publications from PubMed and Web of Science for data on urinary mono- and dimethylated arsenic (MMA and DMA) percentages and polymorphic genes encoding proteins that are hypothesized to play roles in arsenic metabolism. The genes we examined were arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-s-transferase omega (GSTO), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Relevant data were pooled to determine which polymorphisms are associated across studies with changes in urinary metabolite concentration. In our review, AS3MT polymorphisms rs3740390, rs11191439, and rs11191453 were associated with statistically significant changes in percent urinary MMA. Studies of GSTO polymorphisms did not indicate statistically significant associations with methylation, and there are insufficient data on PNP polymorphisms to evaluate their impact on metabolism. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that AS3MT polymorphisms alter in vivo metabolite concentrations. Preliminary evidence suggests that AS3MT genetic polymorphisms may impact disease susceptibility. GSTO polymorphisms were not associated with iAs-associated health outcomes. Additional data are needed to evaluate the association between PNP polymorphisms and iAs-associated health outcomes. Delineation of these relationships may inform iAs mode(s) of action and the approach for evaluating low-dose health effects for iAs. Genotype impacts urinary iAs metabolite concentrations and may be a potential mechanism for iAs-related disease susceptibility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98–1.04; 95% CI, 0.86–0.92 to 1.09–1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis. PMID:24586405

  5. Association between MTHFR polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Fang; Su, Yan; Lu, Ge-Ning; Wang, Ren-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous observational studies investigating the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk (AML) have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to derive a more precise estimation of the association between MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms and acute myeloid leukemia risk. PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies from their inception to August 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the metric of choice. Thirteen studies were selected for C677T polymorphism (1838 cases and 5318 controls) and 9 studies (1335 patients and 4295 controls) for A1298C polymorphism. Overall, pooled results showed that C677T polymorphism was not significant associated with AML risk(OR, 0.98-1.04; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92 to 1.09-1.25). Similar results were observed for the A1298C polymorphism and in subgroup analysis. All comparisons revealed no substantial heterogeneity nor did we detect evidence of publication bias. In summary, this meta-analysis provides evidence that MTHFR polymorphisms were not associated with AML risk. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into the role of these polymorphisms in AML carcinogenesis.

  6. A Genetic Linkage Map of Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs

    Treesearch

    C.D. Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. Stine; W.L. Nance

    1994-01-01

    Eight megagametophyte DNA samples from a single longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) tree were used to screen 576 oligonucleotide primers for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments. Primers amplifying repeatable polymorphic fragments were further characterized within a sample of 72 megagametophytes from the same tree. Fragments...

  7. Study of polymorphic control in an ethanol-water binary solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Takayuki; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2017-07-01

    Three polymorphs of L-Citrulline crystals, anhydrate (Form α, γ and δ) and pseudo polymorph (dihydrate), were confirmed. In this study, polymorphic control of L-Citrulline was attempted by changing the ethanol concentration in ethanol-water binary solvents. First, each polymorph of L-Citrulline crystals was added to the prepared ethanol-water binary solvents and samples which were obtained chronologically were measured by XRD. Also, the crystal sizes and shapes in transformation were observed by microscope. Then, polymorphs of the crystals after transformation were determined by XRD pattern. As a result, the transformation from dihydrate to anhydrate was observed by adding dihydrate crystals to the ethanol-water binary solvent. Similarly, the transformation from anhydrate to another anhydrate was observed. Especially in the case of adding dihydrate, the existences of all polymorphs were confirmed by adjusting ethanol-water binary solvent. According to the results, it was revealed that polymorphic transformation was affected by the trace amount of water contained in ethanol-water binary solvent. Moreover, transformation from dihydrate to anhydrate was constructed with three phases, dissolution of dihydrate, nucleation and growth of anhydrate. Therefore, the solution-mediated polymorphic transformation was supposed to be a key mechanism for this transformation.

  8. Genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Wu, Yuquan; Li, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene promoter region polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The genotyping of COX2 gene polymorphisms was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 122 patients with PD and 120 healthy persons. The association strength of gene polymorphism with disease was measured by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) calculated using χ(2) test which also evaluated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of gene polymorphism in controls. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were also analyzed as evidence in the analysis of association. On condition that the genotypes distributions of COX2 -1290A>G, -1195G>A, -765G>C in the control group all conformed to HWE, however, only the homozygous genotype AA of -1195G>A polymorphism showed an association with PD (OR=0.432, 95% CI=0.196-0.950). In addition, in haplotype analysis, G-A-C haplotype frequency in cases was significantly lower than the controls, compared with the common haplotype A-G-G (P=0.031, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.149-0.940). COX2 -1195G>A polymorphism might play a protective role in the onset of PD and G-A-C haplotype in this three promoter region polymorphisms also showed a negative association.

  9. Association study of interleukin-4 polymorphisms with paranoid schizophrenia in the Polish population: a critical approach.

    PubMed

    Fila-Danilow, Anna; Kucia, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Owczarek, Aleksander; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Borkowska, Paulina; Suchanek, Renata; Kowalski, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Changes in immunological system are one of dysfunctions reported in schizophrenia. Some changes based on an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results from cytokine gene polymorphisms. Interleukin-4 gene (IL4) is considered as a potential candidate gene in schizophrenia association studies. The aim of the current case-control study was to examine whether the -590C/T (rs2243250) and -33C/T (rs2070874) IL4 gene polymorphisms are implicated in paranoid schizophrenia development in the Polish population. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by using PCR-RFLP technique. The genotypes and alleles distribution of both SNPs were analysed in patients (n = 182) and healthy individuals constituted the control group (n = 215). The connection between some clinical variables and studied polymorphisms has been examined as well. We did not revealed any association between the -590C/T and -33C/T polymorphisms and paranoid schizophrenia. In case of both SNPs the homozygous TT genotype was extremely rare. Both polymorphic sites of the IL4 gene were found to be in a very strong linkage disequilibrium. However we did not identify a haplotype predispose to paranoid schizophrenia. No associations were also observed between the clinical course and psychopathology of the disease and the genotypes of both analysed polymorphisms. Our results suggest that the polymorphisms -590C/T in IL4 gene promoter region and -33C/T in the 5'-UTR are not involved in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia in Polish residents.

  10. Study of the HFE gene common polymorphisms in French patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Praline, Julien; Blasco, Hélène; Vourc'h, Patrick; Rat, Valérian; Gendrot, Chantal; Camu, William; Andres, Christian R

    2012-06-15

    Our objective was to investigate whether the C282Y (p.Cys 282 Tyr) and H63D (p. His 63 Asp) HFE polymorphisms were associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) in the French population. We searched for a relation of HFE polymorphisms with the clinical characteristics of the disease. The HFE polymorphisms were studied in 824 patients with SALS and 583 controls. We compared the frequency of the polymorphisms between SALS and controls groups by univariate and multivariate statistics, taking into account gender, site, age-at-onset and survival. We did not observe significant difference in the frequency of H63D polymorphism between SALS and control group. We observed a significant difference for C282Y between patients and controls with a low frequency of the Y allele in patients (3.2%) compared to our control group (5.9%). Disease duration, distribution of gender, site-of-onset, age-at-onset did not differ between groups taking into account genotypes of each polymorphism. Our results in this large cohort of ALS patients indicate that H63D polymorphism is not associated with SALS in the French population. This conclusion does not exclude a weak effect of the HFE gene polymorphisms in certain ALS populations, or an effect of other rare HFE gene variants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. HFE p.H63D polymorphism does not influence ALS phenotype and survival.

    PubMed

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Caponnetto, Claudia; Lunetta, Christian; Traynor, Bryan J; Johnson, Janel O; Nalls, Mike A; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Borghero, Giuseppe; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; La Bella, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Simone, Isabella; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O; Nilo, Riva; Giannini, Fabio; Mandrioli, Jessica; Tanel, Raffaella; Murru, Maria Rita; Mandich, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Conforti, Francesca L; Penco, Silvana; Brunetti, Maura; Barberis, Marco; Restagno, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    It has been recently reported that the p.His63Asp polymorphism of the HFE gene accelerates disease progression both in the SOD1 transgenic mouse and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We have evaluated the effect of HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism on the phenotype in 1351 Italian ALS patients (232 of Sardinian ancestry). Patients were genotyped for the HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism (CC, GC, and GG). All patients were also assessed for C9ORF72, TARDBP, SOD1, and FUS mutations. Of the 1351 ALS patients, 363 (29.2%) were heterozygous (GC) for the p.His63Asp polymorphism and 30 (2.2%) were homozygous for the minor allele (GG). Patients with CC, GC, and GG polymorphisms did not significantly differ by age at onset, site of onset of symptoms, and survival; however, in SOD1 patients with CG or GG polymorphism had a significantly longer survival than those with a CC polymorphism. Differently from what observed in the mouse model of ALS, the HFE p.His63Asp polymorphism has no effect on ALS phenotype in this large series of Italian ALS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymorphisms in Dopamine System Genes Are Associated with Individual Differences in Attention in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmboe, Karla; Nemoda, Zsofia; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Csibra, Gergely; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Johnson, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the functional status of the frontal cortex in infancy is limited. This study investigated the effects of polymorphisms in four dopamine system genes on performance in a task developed to assess such functioning, the Freeze-Frame task, at 9 months of age. Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase ("COMT") and the…

  13. Combined crystal structure prediction and high-pressure crystallization in rational pharmaceutical polymorph screening

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, M. A.; van de Streek, J.; Fabbiani, F. P. A.; Hidber, P.; Grassmann, O.

    2015-01-01

    Organic molecules, such as pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals and pigments, frequently form several crystal polymorphs with different physicochemical properties. Finding polymorphs has long been a purely experimental game of trial-and-error. Here we utilize in silico polymorph screening in combination with rationally planned crystallization experiments to study the polymorphism of the pharmaceutical compound Dalcetrapib, with 10 torsional degrees of freedom one of the most flexible molecules ever studied computationally. The experimental crystal polymorphs are found at the bottom of the calculated lattice energy landscape, and two predicted structures are identified as candidates for a missing, thermodynamically more stable polymorph. Pressure-dependent stability calculations suggested high pressure as a means to bring these polymorphs into existence. Subsequently, one of them could indeed be crystallized in the 0.02 to 0.50 GPa pressure range and was found to be metastable at ambient pressure, effectively derisking the appearance of a more stable polymorph during late-stage development of Dalcetrapib. PMID:26198974

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in common bean: their discovery and genotyping using a multiplex detection system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Single-nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are by far the most common form of DNA polymorphism in a genome. The objectives of this study were to discover SNPs in common bean comparing sequences from coding and non-coding regions obtained from Genbank and genomic DNA and to compare sequencing resu...

  15. Controlling the crystal polymorph by exploiting the time dependence of nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Little, Laurie J; King, Alice A K; Sear, Richard P; Keddie, Joseph L

    2017-10-14

    Most substances can crystallise into two or more different crystal lattices called polymorphs. Despite this, there are no systems in which we can quantitatively predict the probability of one competing polymorph forming instead of the other. We address this problem using large scale (hundreds of events) studies of the competing nucleation of the alpha and gamma polymorphs of glycine. In situ Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the polymorph of each crystal. We find that the nucleation kinetics of the two polymorphs is very different. Nucleation of the alpha polymorph starts off slowly but accelerates, while nucleation of the gamma polymorph starts off fast but then slows. We exploit this difference to increase the purity with which we obtain the gamma polymorph by a factor of ten. The statistics of the nucleation of crystals is analogous to that of human mortality, and using a result from medical statistics, we show that conventional nucleation data can say nothing about what, if any, are the correlations between competing nucleation processes. Thus we can show that with data of our form it is impossible to disentangle the competing nucleation processes. We also find that the growth rate and the shape of a crystal depend on it when nucleated. This is new evidence that nucleation and growth are linked.

  16. Environmental Adaptation Contributes to Gene Polymorphism across the Arabidopsis thaliana Genome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Ruei

    2012-01-01

    The level of within-species polymorphism differs greatly among genes in a genome. Many genomic studies have investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and factors such as recombination rate or expression pattern. However, the polymorphism of a gene is affected not only by its physical properties or functional constraints but also by natural selection on organisms in their environments. Specifically, if functionally divergent alleles enable adaptation to different environments, locus-specific polymorphism may be maintained by spatially heterogeneous natural selection. To test this hypothesis and estimate the extent to which environmental selection shapes the pattern of genome-wide polymorphism, we define the "environmental relevance" of a gene as the proportion of genetic variation explained by environmental factors, after controlling for population structure. We found substantial effects of environmental relevance on patterns of polymorphism among genes. In addition, the correlation between environmental relevance and gene polymorphism is positive, consistent with the expectation that balancing selection among heterogeneous environments maintains genetic variation at ecologically important genes. Comparison of the gene ontology annotations shows that genes with high environmental relevance are enriched in unknown function categories. These results suggest an important role for environmental factors in shaping genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and indicate another direction of genomic study. PMID:22798389

  17. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Treesearch

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  18. Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during morphic speciation.

    PubMed

    Corl, Ammon; Davis, Alison R; Kuchta, Shawn R; Sinervo, Barry

    2010-03-02

    Polymorphism may play an important role in speciation because new species could originate from the distinctive morphs observed in polymorphic populations. However, much remains to be understood about the process by which morphs found new species. To detail the steps of this mode of speciation, we studied the geographic variation and evolutionary history of a throat color polymorphism that distinguishes the "rock-paper-scissors" mating strategies of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. We found that the polymorphism is geographically widespread and has been maintained for millions of years. However, there are many populations with reduced numbers of throat color morphs. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the polymorphism is ancestral, but it has been independently lost eight times, often giving rise to morphologically distinct subspecies/species. Changes to the polymorphism likely involved selection because the allele for one particular male strategy, the "sneaker" morph, has been lost in all cases. Polymorphism loss was associated with accelerated evolution of male size, female size, and sexual dimorphism, which suggests that polymorphism loss can promote rapid divergence among populations and aid species formation.

  19. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms using RNA expression data from a rice genome array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A large number of genetic variations have been identified in rice. Such variations must in many cases control phenotypic differences in abiotic stress tolerance and other traits. A single feature polymorphism (SFP) is an oligonucleotide array-based polymorphism which can be used for identification o...

  20. Functional polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall; Seip, Richard; Price, Thomas; Clarkson, Priscilla; Angelopoulos, Theodore; Gordon, Paul; Pescatello, Linda; Visich, Paul; Zoeller, Robert; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish, Heather; Bilbie, Stephen; Hoffman, Eric P

    2004-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health, but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size, strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength, or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after resistance exercise training. One thousand men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic agents capable of preserving muscle size and function.

  1. TNF-alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Behniafard, Nasrin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Farhadi, Elham; Khaledi, Mojdeh; Sotoudeh, Soheila; Darabi, Behzad; Fathi, Seid Mohammad; Gholizadeh Moghaddam, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Rezaei, Nima

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) could be considered as potential biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD), while its level could be influenced by cytokine single gene polymorphisms (SNP). This study was performed in 89 pediatric patients with AD and 137 controls to assess polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene at positions -308 and -238, using the polymerase chain reaction and the sequence-specific primers method. The highest positive allelic association that made the patients susceptible to AD was seen for TNF-α -238/G (p<0.001) and TNF-α -308/G (p = 0.003). The GG genotypes at TNF-α -238 and TNF-α -308, were both significantly higher in the patients with AD, compared to the controls (p<0.01). The GG haplotype at TNF-α (-308,-238) was seen in 92.7% of the patients, which was significantly higher than the controls (p<0.001), while a negative haplotypic association with AD was seen for TNF-α (-308, -238) AG and GA (p<0.01). This study showed that the AG genotype of TNF-α -308, associated with a high production of cytokines, was significantly decreased in patients with AD, while the low-producing GG genotype, which could lead to low production of TNF-α, was over-expressed in the atopic patients.

  2. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in a maternal lineage of Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, W W; Laipis, P J

    1982-01-01

    Two mitochondrial genotypes are shown to exist within one Holstein cow maternal lineage. They were detected by the appearance of an extra Hae III recognition site in one genotype. The nucleotide sequence of this region has been determined and the genotypes are distinguished by an adenine/guanine base transition which creates the new Hae III site. This point mutation occurs within an open reading frame at the third position of a glycine codon and therefore does not alter the amino acid sequence. The present pattern of genotypes within the lineage demands that multiple shifts between genotypes must have occurred within the past 20 years with the most rapid shift taking place in no more than 4 years and indicates that mitochondrial DNA polymorphism can occur between maternally related mammals. The process that gave rise to different genotypes in one lineage is clearly of fundamental importance in understanding intraspecific mitochondrial polymorphism and evolution in mammals. Several potential mechanisms for rapid mitochondrial DNA variation are discussed in light of these results. Images PMID:6289312

  4. Human Alu insertion polymorphisms in North African populations.

    PubMed

    Cherni, Loth; Frigi, Sabeh; Ennafaa, Hajer; Mtiraoui, Nabil; Mahjoub, Touhami; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-10-01

    Several features make Alu insertions a powerful tool used in population genetic studies: the polymorphic nature of many Alu insertions, the stability of an Alu insertion event and, furthermore, the ancestral state of an Alu insertion is known to be the absence of the Alu element at a particular locus and the presence of an Alu insertion at the site that forward mutational change. This study analyses seven Alu insertion polymorphisms in a sample of 297 individuals from the autochthonous population of Tunisia (Thala, Smar, Zarzis, and Bou Salem) and Libya with the aim of studying their genetic structure with respect to the populations of North Africa, Western, Eastern and Central Europe. The comparative analyses carried out using the MDS and AMOVA methods reveal the existence of spatial heterogeneity, and identify four population groups. Study populations (Libya, Smar, Zarzis, and Bou Salem) are closest to North African populations whereas Thala is isolated and is closest to Western European populations. In conclusion, Results of the present study support the important role that migratory movements have played in the North African gene pool, at least since the Neolithic period.

  5. Precise definition of anonymization in genetic polymorphism studies.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    Anonymization is an essential tool to protect privacy of participants in epidemiological studies. This paper classifies types of anonymization in genetic polymorphism studies, providing precise definitions. They are: 1) unlinkable anonymization at enrollment without a participant list; 2) unlinkable anonymization before genotyping with a participant list; 3) linkable anonymization; 4) unlinkable anonymization for outsiders; and 5) linkable anonymization for outsiders. The classification in view of accessibility to a table including genotype data with directly identifiable data such as names is important; if such tables exist, staff may obtain genotype information about participants. The first three modes are defined here as anonymization unaccessible to genotype data with directly identifiable information for research staff. Anonymization with a key code held by participants is possible with any of the above anonymization modes, by which participants can access to their own genotypes through telephone or internet. A guideline issued on March 29, 2001 with collaboration of three Ministries in Japan defines "anonymization in a linkable fashion" and "anonymization in an unlinkable fashion", "for the purpose of preventing the personal information from being divulged externally in violation of law, the present guidelines or a research protocol", but the contents are not clear in practice. The proposed definitions will be useful when we describe and discuss the preferable mode of anonymization for a given polymorphism study.

  6. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism and progressive liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Donati, Benedetta; Fares, Roberta; Lombardi, Rosa; Mancina, Rosellina Margherita; Romeo, Stefano; Valenti, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The 148 Isoleucine to Methionine protein variant (I148M) of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3), a protein is expressed in the liver and is involved in lipid metabolism, has recently been identified as a major determinant of liver fat content. Several studies confirmed that the I148M variant predisposes towards the full spectrum of liver damage associated with fatty liver: from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis. Furthermore, the I148M variant represents a major determinant of progression of alcohol related steatohepatitis to cirrhosis, and to influence fibrogenesis and related clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis C virus hepatitis, and possibly chronic hepatitis B virus hepatitis, hereditary hemochromatosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. All in all, studies suggest that the I148M polymorphism may represent a general modifier of fibrogenesis in liver diseases. Remarkably, the effect of the I148M variant on fibrosis was independent of that on hepatic steatosis and inflammation, suggesting that it may affect both the quantity and quality of hepatic lipids and the biology of non-parenchymal liver cells besides hepatocytes, directly promoting fibrogenesis. Therefore, PNPLA3 is a key player in liver disease progression. Assessment of the I148M polymorphism will possibly inform clinical practice in the future, whereas the determination of the effect of the 148M variant will reveal mechanisms involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:24222941

  7. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms associated with longevity in a Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Karhunen, Pekka J; Jylhä, Marja; Majamaa, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Sequence variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may cause slight differences both in the functioning of the respiratory chain and in free radical production, and an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups and longevity has been suggested. In order to determine further the role of mtDNA in longevity, we studied the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters among elderly subjects and controls in a Finnish population. Samples were obtained from 225 persons aged 90-91 years (Vitality 90+) and from 400 middle-aged controls and 257 infants. MtDNA haplogroups were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The haplogroup frequencies of the Vitality 90+ group differed from both those of the middle-aged controls ( P=0.01) and the infants ( P=0.00005), haplogroup H being less frequent than among the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.001) and infants ( P=0.00001), whereas haplogroups U and J were more frequent. Haplogroup clusters also differed between Vitality 90+ and both the middle-aged subjects ( P=0.002) and infants ( P=0.00001), the frequency of haplogroup cluster HV being lower in the former and that of UK and WIX being higher. These data suggest an association between certain mtDNA haplogroups or haplogroup clusters and longevity. Furthermore, our data appear to favour the presence of advantageous polymorphisms and support a role for mitochondria and mtDNA in the degenerative processes involved in ageing.

  9. The evolutionary history of colour polymorphism in Ischnura damselflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Rivas-Torres, Anais; Wellenreuther, Maren; Bybee, Seth; Hansson, Bengt; Velasquez-Vélez, María I; Realpe, Emilio; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús R; Villalobos, Fabricio; Dumont, Henri

    2018-05-10

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a colouration that is similar to the male, and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific colouration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time, and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system. We found that the ances tral female colour of Ischnura was monomorphic and aurantiaca and that colour morph status changed over time; characterised by many gains and losses across the species tree. Our results further showed that colour polymorphism is significantly more frequent among polyandric species, whereas monandric species tend to be monomorphic. Research on some Ischnura species has shown that colour morphs have evolved to reduce male mating harassment, and our finding that the same phenotypic morphs have evolved multiple times (convergent evolution) suggests that several species in this genus might be experiencing similar selective pressures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. TAP polymorphism in patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed Central

    González-Escribano, M F; Morales, J; García-Lozano, J R; Castillo, M J; Sánchez-Román, J; Núñez-Roldán, A; Sánchez, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine if susceptibility to Behçet's disease (BD) is associated with polymorphism of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, DQB1, and TAP1 and TAP2 genes. METHODS--Fifty eight Spanish BD patients and 116 ethnically matched unrelated healthy subjects were typed at the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci using polymerase chain reaction/sequence specific oligotyping (PCR/SSO). TAP1 and TAP2 alleles were assigned using amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. RESULTS--TAP1C was absent in BD patients, but was found in 12.1% of control subjects (pcorr < 0.05; relative risk = 0.06). Additionally, a linkage disequilibrium between HLA-DQB1*0501 and TAP2B was observed in BD patients (delta = 0.095, pcorr < 0.02), but not in the control group (delta = -0.0031, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--The complete absence of TAP1C alleles in BD patients may indicate that TAP1 polymorphism is not without some significance in the development of BD. Furthermore, the existence of a linkage disequilibrium between HLA-DQB1*0501 and TAP2B in our patients suggests that the gene conferring susceptibility for BD is inherited as an extended haplotype in the population studied. PMID:7794046

  11. Association between AMELX polymorphisms and dental caries in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Yoon, I; Lee, H W; Cho, J

    2011-05-01

    Dental caries is greatly influenced disease by environmental factors, but recently there are increasing evidences for a genetic component in caries susceptibility. AMELX is the gene coding amelogenin, which is the most important factor for normal enamel development. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dental caries and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMELX. For this study, we used DNA samples collected from 120 unrelated individuals older than 12 years of age. All of them were examined for their oral and dental status under the WHO recommended criteria, and clinical information such as DMFT and DMFS were evaluated. Individuals whose DMFT and DMFS index lower than 2 were designated 'very low caries experience' and higher than 3 were designated 'higher caries experience'. Genomic DNA was extracted from hair samples, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of AMELX were genotyped. Genotyping of three SNPs (rs17878486, rs5933871, rs5934997, intron) in AMELX gene was determined by direct sequencing and analyzed with SNPStats. There were significant associations between rs5933871 and rs5934997 SNP and caries susceptibility in the water fluoridation group. These results suggest that SNPs of AMELX might be associated with dental caries susceptibility in Korean population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of European Archaeological M. leprae DNA

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Claire L.; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. Methods and Findings Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia) and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.). we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3). Conclusions These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide. PMID:19847306

  13. Detoxification genes polymorphisms in SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Filonzi, Laura; Magnani, Cinzia; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Vaghi, Marina; Nosetti, Luana; Nonnis Marzano, Francesco

    2018-03-30

    The best hypothesis to explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) pathogenesis is offered by the "triple risk model", which suggests that an interaction of different variables related to exogenous stressors and infant vulnerability may lead to the syndrome. Environmental factors are triggers that act during a particular sensible period, modulated by intrinsic genetic characteristics. Although literature data show that one of the major SIDS risk factors is smoking exposure, a specific involvement of molecular components has never been highlighted. Starting from these observations and considering the role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes functional polymorphisms in the detoxification process, we analyzed GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies in 47 SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke and 75 healthy individuals. A significant association (p < .0001) between the GSTM1 null genotype and SIDS exposed to smoke was found. On the contrary, no association between GSTT1 polymorphism and SIDS was determined. Results indicated the contribution of the GSTM1 -/- genotype resulting in null detoxification activity in SIDS cases, and led to a better comprehension of the triple risk model, highlighting smoking exposure as a real SIDS risk factor on a biochemical basis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders

    2010-05-28

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  15. DGAT1 K232A polymorphism in Brazilian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Lacorte, G A; Machado, M A; Martinez, M L; Campos, A L; Maciel, R P; Verneque, R S; Teodoro, R L; Peixoto, M G C D; Carvalho, M R S; Fonseca, C G

    2006-08-31

    Recent reports identified DGAT1 (EC 2.3.1.20) harboring a lysine to alanine substitution (K232A) as a candidate gene with a strong effect on milk production traits. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism in the main Zebu and Taurine breeds in Brazil as well as in Zebu x Taurine crossbreds as a potential QTL for marker-assisted selection. Samples of 331 animals from the main Brazilian breeds, Nellore, Guzerat, Red Sindhi, Gyr, Holstein, and Gyr x Holstein F1 were genotyped for DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (A and K alleles) using the PCR-RFLP technique. The highest frequency of the A allele was found in the Holstein sample (73%) followed by Gyr x Holstein F1 (39%). Gyr and Red Sindhi showed low frequencies of A alleles (4 and 2.5%, respectively). The A allele was not found in the Nellore and Guzerat samples. Our results could be used to guide association studies between this locus and milk traits in these breeds.

  16. Associations between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Maron, Eduard; Lang, Aavo; Tasa, Gunnar; Liivlaid, Liivi; Tõru, Innar; Must, Anne; Vasar, Veiko; Shlik, Jakov

    2005-06-01

    Studies suggest that vulnerability to panic attacks and panic disorder (PD) may be related to a deficient serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. In the present case-control study we investigated possible associations between PD phenotype and five candidate polymorphisms including 5-HT transporter (5-HTTLPR and VNTR), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA promoter region), tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1 218A/C) and 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR 861G/C) genes. The study sample consisted of 158 patients with PD and 215 healthy control subjects. The analysis showed higher frequencies of LL genotype (p = 0.016) and L allele variant (p = 0.007) of 5-HTTLPR in the patients. No significant associations were observed between PD and other candidate gene polymorphisms. However, a higher frequency of longer allele genotypes of the MAOA promoter region was observed in female PD patients with agoraphobia than in female controls (p = 0.016). These findings indicate that genetic variants conceivably related to lower 5-HT neurotransmission may be involved in the development of PD.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Teitcher, Michael; Weinerman, Sarah; Whybra, Catharina; Beck, Michael; Sharon, Nir; Elstein, Deborah; Altarescu, Gheona

    2008-11-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked inborn error of metabolism, is characterized by multi-organ involvement including cardiac signs of left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormal intima-medial (IMT) thickening of arteries, progressive renal failure, neurological involvement, and more. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and an enzyme producing vitamin D3 result in an autocrine loop with direct effects on blood vessels. The purpose of this study is to assess VDR polymorphisms (BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI) relative to clinically important disease parameters using a disease-specific severity score (MSSI) and haplotype analysis. There were statistically significant differences between females (43% of 74 patients) and males in MSSI total scores, and in general and neurologic sub-scores. There appears to be a protective effect of the TaqI tt genotype so that there were significantly lower scores in clinical categories between those with the tt genotype versus those with the TT genotype. Multivariate models of haplotypes with MSSI scores reveal that T-A-f-B and t-a-F-b haplotypes of the VDR gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with variation in the Fabry phenotype. Despite the limitations of using the MSSI score as a clinical correlate, these results are provocative and further studies in larger cohorts with more males are recommended.

  18. Structural characterization of polymorphs and molecular complexes of finasteride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzycka, Irena; Stȩpniak, Krystyna; Matyjaszczyk, Sławomir; Kozioł, Anna E.; Lis, Tadeusz; Abboud, Khalil A.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular structure of finasteride, 17 β-( N-tert-butylcarbamoyl)-4-aza-5 α-androst-1-en-3-one, and structures of three related crystalline forms have been determined by X-ray analysis. The rigid steroid skeleton of the molecule adopts a half-chair/chair/chair/half-chair conformation. Two peptide groups, one cyclic (lactam) in the ring A and a second being a part of the substituent at C17, are the main factors influencing intermolecular contacts. Different hydrogen-bond interactions of these hydrophilic groups are observed in the crystal structures. An infinite ribbon of finasteride molecules is formed between lactam groups in the orthorhombic homomolecular crystal ( 1) obtained from an ethanol solution. The linear molecular complex finasteride-acetic acid ( 1a) is connected by hydrogen bonds between the lactam of finasteride and the carboxyl group of acetic acid. The crystallization from an ethyl acetate solution gives a complex structure of bis-finasteride monohydrate ethyl acetate clathrate ( 1b) with guest molecule disordered in channels. Crystals of a second (monoclinic) finasteride polymorph ( 2) were obtained during thermal decomposition of 1a, and sublimation of 1, 1a and 1b. Two polymorphic forms show different IR spectra.

  19. ACE and AGTR1 polymorphisms in elite rhythmic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Alessandra; Sapere, Nadia; Piazza, Marina; Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; Intrieri, Mariano; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    In the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, Alu deletion, in intron 16, is associated with higher concentrations of ACE serum activity and this may be associated with elite sprint and power performance. The Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE levels and this could lead to endurance performance. Moreover, recent studies have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the angiotensin type 1 receptor gene AGTR1, which seems to be related to ACE activity. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the ACE and the AGTR1 gene polymorphisms in 28 Italian elite rhythmic gymnasts (age range 21 ± 7.6 years), and compare them to 23 middle level rhythmic gymnasts (age range 17 ± 10.9 years). The ACE D allele was significantly more frequent in elite athletes than in the control population (χ(2)=4.07, p=0.04). Comparisons between the middle level and elite athletes revealed significant differences (p<0.0001) for the ACE DD genotype (OR=6.48, 95% confidence interval=1.48-28.34), which was more frequent in elite athletes. There were no significant differences in the AGTR1 A/C genotype or allele distributions between the middle level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the ACE D allele genotype could be a contributing factor to high-performance rhythmic gymnastics that should be considered in athlete development and could help to identify which skills should be trained for talent promotion.

  20. Polymorphism of prion protein gene in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiayu; Bai, Xue; Liu, Wensen; Xu, Jing; Xu, Ming; Gao, Hongwei

    2009-07-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and certain other mammals. Prion protein gene (Prnp) is associated with susceptibility and species barrier to prion diseases. No natural and experimental prion diseases have been documented to date in Arctic fox. In the present study, coding region of Prnp from 135 Arctic foxes were cloned and screened for polymorphisms. Our results indicated that the Arctic fox Prnp open reading frame (ORF) contains 771 nucleotides encoding 257 amino acids. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (G312C, A337G, C541T, and A723G) were identified. SNPs G312C and A723G produced silent mutations, but SNPs A337G and C541T resulted in a M-V change at codon 113 and R-C at codon 181, respectively. The Arctic fox Prnp amino acid sequence was similar to that of the dog (XM 542906). In short, this study provides preliminary information about genotypes of Prnp in Arctic fox.

  1. Association of ADRB2 polymorphism with triglyceride levels in Tongans.

    PubMed

    Naka, Izumi; Ohashi, Jun; Kimura, Ryosuke; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2013-07-23

    Our previous study demonstrated that the A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs34623097 located in the upstream region of the β2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is significantly associated with risk for obesity in Oceanic populations. To investigate whether the ADRB2 polymorphisms explain part of the individual differences in lipid mobilization, energy expenditure and glycogen breakdown, the associations of 10 ADRB2 SNPs with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were examined in 128 adults in Tonga. A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index revealed that rs34623097 was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P-value = 0.037). A copy of the rs34623097-A allele increased serum triglyceride levels by 70.1 mg/dL (0.791 mmol/L). None of the ADRB2 SNPs showed a significant association with total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In a Tongan population, a SNP located in the upstream region of ADRB2 is associated with triglyceride levels independent of body mass index.

  2. Association of ADRB2 polymorphism with triglyceride levels in Tongans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous study demonstrated that the A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs34623097 located in the upstream region of the β2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is significantly associated with risk for obesity in Oceanic populations. Methods To investigate whether the ADRB2 polymorphisms explain part of the individual differences in lipid mobilization, energy expenditure and glycogen breakdown, the associations of 10 ADRB2 SNPs with total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were examined in 128 adults in Tonga. Results A multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index revealed that rs34623097 was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (P-value = 0.037). A copy of the rs34623097-A allele increased serum triglyceride levels by 70.1 mg/dL (0.791 mmol/L). None of the ADRB2 SNPs showed a significant association with total-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions In a Tongan population, a SNP located in the upstream region of ADRB2 is associated with triglyceride levels independent of body mass index. PMID:23875540

  3. Association of PTPN22 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Aflatounian, Majid; Rezaei, Arezou; Sadr, Maryam; Saghazadeh, Amene; Elhamian, Nazanin; Sadeghi, Hengameh; Motevasselian, Fatemeh; Farahmand, Fatemeh; Fallahi, Gholamhossein; Motamed, Farzaneh; Najafi, Mehri; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-06-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease in which gene-environment interactions cause the immune system to unfavorably react to naturally gluten-containing foods. PTPN22 plays a crucial role in regulating the function of various cells of the immune system, particularly T cells. Polymorphisms of the PTPN22 gene have been associated with many autoimmune diseases. The present genetic association study was conducted to investigate the possible associations between PTPNTT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and celiac disease in an Iranian population. The study population consisted of 45 patients with celiac disease and 93 healthy controls. The study genotyped five SNPs of the PTPN22 gene: rs12760457, rs1310182, rs1217414, rs33996649, and rs2476601. Control and patient groups did not differ on the genotype distribution of four of five investigated SNPs in the PTPN22 gene, for example, rs12760457, rs2476601, rs1217414, and rs33996649. The only investigated PTPN22 variant, which could be associated with CD, was rs1310182. A significant increase in the carriage of the T allele of rs1310182 in CD patients was observed (OR (95% CI) = 11.42 (5.41, 24.1), p value < 0.0001). The TT genotype of this SNP was significantly associated with celiac disease. Our study suggests that the rs1310182 SNP of PTPN22 gene may be a predisposing factor of celiac disease in the Iranian population. Further studies are required to investigate the issue in other racial and ethnic subgroups.

  4. TPH2 polymorphisms and alcohol-related suicide.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan; Paska, Alja Videtič

    2011-02-18

    Substantial evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies corroborates implication of genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, on suicidal behavior and alcoholism risk. Serotonergic disfunction seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behavior. Recent studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 showed mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide. We performed SNP and alcohol analysis on 388 suicide victims and 227 controls. The results showed association between suicide (Pχ²=0.043) and alcohol-related suicide (Pχ²=0.021) for SNP Rs1843809. A tendency for association was determined also for polymorphism Rs1386493 (Pχ²=0.055) and alcohol-related suicide. Data acquired from psychological autopsies in a subsample of suicide victims (n=79) determined more impulsive behavior (Pχ²=0.016) and verbal aggressive behavior (Pχ²=0.025) in the subgroup with alcohol misuse or dependency. In conclusion, our results suggest implication of polymorphisms in suicide and alcohol-related suicide, but further studies are needed to clarify the interplay among serotonergic system disfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Polymorphism and Expression of CXCR4 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariza, Carolina Batista; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Banin Hirata, Bruna Karina; Vitiello, Glauco Akelinghton Freire; Campos, Clodoaldo Zago; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4 genetic polymorphisms, as well as their expression level, have been associated with cancer development and prognosis. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of CXCR4 rs2228014 polymorphism on its mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer samples. It was observed that patients presented higher CXCR4 mRNA relative expression (5.7-fold) than normal mammary gland, but this expression was not correlated with patients clinicopathological features (nuclear grade, nodal status, ER status, PR status, p53 staining, Ki67 index, and HER-2 status). Moreover, CXCR4 mRNA relative expression also did not differ regarding the presence or absence of T allele (p = 0.301). In the immunohistochemical assay, no difference was observed for CXCR4 cytoplasmic protein staining in relation to different genotypes (p = 0.757); however, high cytoplasmic CXCR4 staining was verified in invasive breast carcinoma (p < 0.01). All in all, the results from present study indicated that rs2228014 genetic variant does not alter CXCR4 mRNA or protein expression. However, this receptor was more expressed in tumor compared to normal tissue, in both RNA and protein levels, suggesting its promising applicability in the general context of mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:26576337

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monisha; Saxena, Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a combined metabolic disorder which includes hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, stroke and several other complications. Various groups all over the world are relentlessly working out the possible role of a vast number of genes associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Inflammation is an important outcome of any kind of imbalance in the body and is therefore an indicator of several diseases, including T2DM. Various ethnic populations around the world show different levels of variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present review was undertaken to explore the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with T2DM in populations of different ethnicities. This will lead to the understanding of the role of cytokine genes in T2DM risk and development. Association studies of genotypes of SNPs present in cytokine genes will help to identify risk haplotype(s) for disease susceptibility by developing prognostic markers and alter treatment strategies for T2DM and related complications. This will enable individuals at risk to take prior precautionary measures and avoid or delay the onset of the disease. Future challenges will be to understand the genotypic interactions between SNPs in one cytokine gene or several genes at different loci and study their association with T2DM. PMID:25126395

  7. Chemokine gene polymorphisms associate with gender in patients with uveitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Vaughan, R W; Kondeatis, E; Fortune, F; Graham, E M; Stanford, M R; Wallace, G R

    2004-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammatory condition of ocular tissue characterized by leukocyte infiltration, tissue damage, and decreased visual acuity. Chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of uveitis. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding chemokines have been described as affecting chemokine production or function. We analyzed the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding CCL2 (-2518 and -2076) and CCL5 (-403 and -28) in patients with Behçet's disease (BD), a systemic form of uveitis, and patients with retinal vasculitis (RV), an organ-specific form of disease. We report that there was no association between any SNP and disease. However, when segregated on the basis of gender the CCR5 -403 AA genotype was only found in male patients with BD. Similarly, CCL2 genotypes 1/2 were predominant in males, while genotype 4 was significantly associated with disease in female patients with BD. Differences in disease symptoms and severity between males and females have been described in BD and gender-specific genetic differences in chemokine gene function may be involved.

  8. Thermal vibrations and polymorphic β → γ transition in cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, S. S.; Blanter, M. S.; Glazkov, V. P.; Somenkov, V. A.; Shushunov, M. N.

    2010-10-01

    Method of neutron diffraction was used to determine the temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor and the related thermal atomic displacements for two polymorphic modifications of cerium, namely, for β-Ce with a double hexagonal closed-packed (dhcp) structure and for γ-Ce with a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. It has been shown that the phase transition does not lead to substantial changes in the root-mean-square thermal atomic displacements and that the Debye temperatures of the two modifications are close: 131 K for β-Ce and 127 K for γ-Ce. However, the relative (with respect to the lattice parameters) displacements along the axes change considerably. The transition from the anisotropic hexagonal to the isotropic cubic modification leads, because of a redistribution of thermal atomic displacements along the crystallographic axes, to a decrease in the maximum values of these quantities and to a weakening of their temperature dependence. It has also been shown that a change in the thermal atomic vibrations and in the vibrational contribution to the entropy of the polymorphic transformations is connected with the sign of the volume effect of the transformation (stronger upon a positive effect and weaker, upon a negative one). The reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  9. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L.

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq regionmore » or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.« less

  10. Comprehensive analysis of Arabidopsis expression level polymorphisms with simple inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Plantegenet, Stephanie; Weber, Johann; Goldstein, Darlene R; Zeller, Georg; Nussbaumer, Cindy; Thomas, Jérôme; Weigel, Detlef; Harshman, Keith; Hardtke, Christian S

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, gene expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) between natural accessions that exhibit simple, single locus inheritance are promising quantitative trait locus (QTL) candidates to explain phenotypic variability. It is assumed that such ELPs overwhelmingly represent regulatory element polymorphisms. However, comprehensive genome-wide analyses linking expression level, regulatory sequence and gene structure variation are missing, preventing definite verification of this assumption. Here, we analyzed ELPs observed between the Eil-0 and Lc-0 accessions. Compared with non-variable controls, 5′ regulatory sequence variation in the corresponding genes is indeed increased. However, ∼42% of all the ELP genes also carry major transcription unit deletions in one parent as revealed by genome tiling arrays, representing a >4-fold enrichment over controls. Within the subset of ELPs with simple inheritance, this proportion is even higher and deletions are generally more severe. Similar results were obtained from analyses of the Bay-0 and Sha accessions, using alternative technical approaches. Collectively, our results suggest that drastic structural changes are a major cause for ELPs with simple inheritance, corroborating experimentally observed indel preponderance in cloned Arabidopsis QTL. PMID:19225455

  11. Characterization of the COL2A1 VNTR polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, E.S.; Olaisen, B.

    1993-05-01

    The variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region 3{prime} to the collagen type II gene (COL2A1) was amplified in vitro by the polymerase chain reaction. Subsequent high-resolution gel electrophoresis showed that the five earlier reported alleles could be further subtyped. A total of 17 allelic variants with a heterozygosity of 73.0% were found in 202 unrelated Norwegians. DNA sequencing of 19 COL2A1 alleles has been performed. The internal organization of the VNTR was common for all alleles, as previously shown for a few alleles. Moreover, the polymorphism in the COL2A1 locus is mainly due to variation in the numbers ofmore » copies of two repeat units, containing 34 and 31 bp, respectively, and/or to small deletions in either of the two units. DNA sequencing of alleles with the same electrophoretic size revealed no heterogeneity such as an alternating order of the different units, a feature that might have been expected to be the result of unequal crossing-over events. The observed ordered structure of the VNTR and the possibility of single-stranded DNA from the cores in the VNTR forming hairpins and loops suggest that the COL2A1 polymorphism may have evolved mainly by replication slippage mechanisms. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  12. Proposal for the nomenclature of human plasminogen (PLG) polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Skoda, U; Bertrams, J; Dykes, D; Eiberg, H; Hobart, M; Hummel, K; Kühnl, P; Mauff, G; Nakamura, S; Nishimukai, H

    1986-01-01

    Since its discovery, human plasminogen (PLG) polymorphism has received widespread acceptance in population genetics and forensic haematology. Due to the large number of variant alleles described, a PLG reference typing and Plasminogen Symposium was held, at which a nomenclature proposal was inaugurated. The technology of comparing PLG variants was based on isoelectric focusing and subsequent detection by caseinolytic overlay and 'Western' blotting. Typing results permitted comparison of so far described variant designations and resulted in a new nomenclature proposal for PLG polymorphism. It is recommended that the two most common alleles found in all investigated races be called: PLG*A (previously also PLG*1) and PLG*B (previously also PLG*2), the known variants with acidic pI: PLG*A1 to *A3, intermediate variants: PLG*M1 to *M5, PLG*M5 being functionally inactive, and basic variants: PLG*B1 to *B3. For future classification of newly discovered variants, samples should be compared at any of the laboratories participating in the reference typing.

  13. A new soluble and bioactive polymorph of praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Zanolla, Debora; Perissutti, Beatrice; Passerini, Nadia; Chierotti, Michele R; Hasa, Dritan; Voinovich, Dario; Gigli, Lara; Demitri, Nicola; Geremia, Silvano; Keiser, Jennifer; Cerreia Vioglio, Paolo; Albertini, Beatrice

    2018-06-01

    Praziquantel is the only available drug to treat Schistosomiasis. However, its utilization is limited by many drawbacks, including the high therapeutic dose needed, resulting in large tablets and capsules difficult to be swallowed, especially from pediatric patients. In this study, an alternative option to overcome these disadvantages is proposed: to switch to a novel crystalline polymorph of racemic compound praziquantel. The preparation of the crystalline polymorph was realized via a neat grinding process in a vibrational mill. The new phase (Form B) was chemically identical to the starting material (as proved by HPLC, 1 H NMR, and polarimetry), but showed different physical properties (as evaluated by SEM, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and solid-state NMR). Furthermore, the crystal structure of the new phase was solved from the powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction pattern, resulting in a monoclinic C2/c cell and validated by DFT-D calculation. Moreover the simulated solid-state NMR 13 C chemical shifts were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The conversion of original praziquantel into Form B showed to affect positively the water solubility and the intrinsic dissolution rate of praziquantel. Both the in vitro and in vivo activity against Schistosoma mansoni were maintained. Our findings suggest that the new phase, that proved to be physically stable for at least one year, is a promising product for designing a new praziquantel formulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paraoxonase 1 192 and 55 polymorphisms in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ergen, Arzu; Kılıcoglu, Onder; Ozger, Harzem; Agachan, Bedia; Isbir, Turgay

    2011-08-01

    Paraoxonase is an HDL-associated enzyme that plays a preventive role against oxidative stres. Previous studies suggested that involved an amino acid substitution at position 192 gives rise to two alloenzymes with a low activity (Q allele) and a high activity (R allele) towards paraoxon. There also exists a second polymorphism of the human PON1 gene affecting amino acid 55, giving rise to a leucine (L-allele) substitution for methionine (M-allele). PON1 gene polymorphisms were studied in 50 patients with osteosarcoma and 50 healthy controls. Paraoxonase genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. We found a reduction in the frequency of PON1 192 R allele in patients (P=0.015). Besides, PON1 192 wild type QQ genotype (P=0.015) and PON1 55 wild type L allele (P=0.001) were higher in patients compared to healthy controls. PON1 192 QQ genotype was associated with osteosarcoma in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Our findings have suggested that PON1 192 wild type genotypes may be associated with a risk of developing osteosarcoma.

  15. Phosphorous dimerization in GaP high-pressure polymorph

    SciTech Connect

    Lavina, Barbara; Kim, Eunja; Cynn, Hyunchae

    We report on the experimental and theoretical characterization of a novel GaP polymorph formed by laser heating of a single crystal of GaP-II in its stable region near 43 GPa. Thereby formed unstrained multigrain sample at 43 GPa and 1300 K, allowed high-resolution crystallographic analysis. We find an oS24 as an energetically optimized crystal structure contrary to oS8 reported by Nelmes et al. (1997). Our DFT calculation confirms a stable existence of oS24 between 18 – 50 GPa. The emergence of the oS24 structure is related to the differentiation of phosphorous atoms between those forming P-P dimers and those formingmore » P-Ga bonds only. Bonding anisotropy explains the symmetry lowering with respect to what is generally expected for semiconductors high-pressure polymorphs. The metallization of GaP does not occur through a uniform change of the nature of its bonds but through the formation of an anisotropic phase containing different bond types.« less

  16. Telomerase reverse transcriptase locus polymorphisms and cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A; Landi, Maria T; Egan, Kathleen M; Baird, Duncan M; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-06-06

    Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as "strong," "moderate," and "weak" according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three polymorphisms (TERT rs2736100, intergenic

  17. Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Locus Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk: A Field Synopsis and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A.; Landi, Maria T.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Baird, Duncan M.; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Background Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as “strong,” “moderate,” and “weak” according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Results Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three

  18. Association of ghrelin polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Hong-Ding; Qiu, Chang-Chun; Xu, Qun

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association of ghrelin gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese. A total of 240 patients with metabolic syndrome and 427 adults aged above forty years were recruited. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The allelic frequency of the Leu72Met polymorphism was 17.3% in the patient group and 11.9% in the control group (chi2 = 7.36, P = 0.007). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among carriers of the Met72 variant (43.8 vs 33.1%, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, P = 0.01). No Arg51Gln variants were found in our study subjects. Rather than being associated with its individual components, Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Han Nationality Chinese. Arg51Gln polymorphism is rare in the Han Nationality Chinese.

  19. Investigation of the L-Glutamic acid polymorphism: Comparison between stirred and stagnant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahri, Yousra; Gagnière, Emilie; Chabanon, Elodie; Bounahmidi, Tijani; Mangin, Denis

    2016-02-01

    This work highlights the effect of the stirring, the temperature and the supersaturation on the cooling crystallization of L-Glutamic acid (LGlu) polymorphs. First, solubility measurements of the metastable polymorph α and the stable polymorph β were performed. Then, crystallization experiments were carried out in stirred vessel and in stagnant cell. All these experiments were monitored by in situ devices. The effect of the temperature on the LGlu polymorphs was found to be more relevant than the supersaturation in the stirred crystallizer. In the stagnant cell, only the stable form β crystallized regardless of the operating conditions. Moreover, an unexpected and new habit of the β form was discovered and confirmed. These results suggest that the temperature and the stirring can strongly affect the nucleation and the growth kinetics of polymorphic forms.

  20. Molecular Identification of Date Palm Cultivars Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalifah, Nasser S; Shanavaskhan, A E

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguity in the total number of date palm cultivars across the world is pointing toward the necessity for an enumerative study using standard morphological and molecular markers. Among molecular markers, DNA markers are more suitable and ubiquitous to most applications. They are highly polymorphic in nature, frequently occurring in genomes, easy to access, and highly reproducible. Various molecular markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), simple sequence repeats (SSR), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been successfully used as efficient tools for analysis of genetic variation in date palm. This chapter explains a stepwise protocol for extracting total genomic DNA from date palm leaves. A user-friendly protocol for RAPD analysis and a table showing the primers used in different molecular techniques that produce polymorphisms in date palm are also provided.

  1. Inaccurate Color Discrimination by Pollinators Promotes Evolution of Discrete Color Polymorphism in Food-Deceptive Flowers.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kotaro; Takimoto, Gaku

    2016-02-01

    Many plant species employing a food-deceptive pollination strategy show discrete or continuous floral polymorphism within their populations. Previous studies have suggested that negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) caused by the learning behavior of pollinators was responsible for the maintenance of floral polymorphism. However, NFDS alone does not explain why and when discrete or continuous polymorphism evolves. In this study, we use an evolutionary simulation model to propose that inaccurate discrimination of flower colors by pollinators results in evolution of discrete flower color polymorphism. Simulations showed that associative learning based on inaccurate discrimination in pollinators caused disruptive selection of flower colors. The degree of inaccuracy determined the number of discrete flower colors that evolved. Our results suggest that animal behavior based on inaccurate discrimination may be a general cause of disruptive selection that promotes discrete trait polymorphism.

  2. Lack of association of the two polymorphisms in alpha-2 macroglobulin with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poduslo, S E; Shook, B; Drigalenko, E; Yin, X

    2002-06-01

    Alzheimer disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive decline and distinct neuropathology. The gene for alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) on chromosome 12 has two polymorphisms that, in some cases, are associated with Alzheimer disease. We examined these two polymorphisms in our families in the DNA Bank (a collection of DNA samples from families with Alzheimer disease in Texas). Using both association studies and sib transmission/disequilibrium tests, we found no association of the two polymorphisms with the disease in our collection. In addition, we did not find an association of the disease with the two polymorphisms in A2M in a small subset of National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) families. Thus, our studies do not support the A2M polymorphisms as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Impact of genomic polymorphisms on the repertoire of human MHC class I-associated peptides

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Diana Paola; Sriranganadane, Dev; Daouda, Tariq; Zieger, Antoine; Laumont, Céline M.; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Boucher, Geneviève; Hardy, Marie-Pierre; Gendron, Patrick; Côté, Caroline; Lemieux, Sébastien; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the global impact of genomic polymorphisms on the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has remained a matter of speculation. Here we present a novel approach that enables high-throughput discovery of polymorphic MHC class I-associated peptides (MIPs), which play a major role in allorecognition. On the basis of comprehensive analyses of the genomic landscape of MIPs eluted from B lymphoblasts of two MHC-identical siblings, we show that 0.5% of non-synonymous single nucleotide variations are represented in the MIP repertoire. The 34 polymorphic MIPs found in our subjects are encoded by bi-allelic loci with dominant and recessive alleles. Our analyses show that, at the population level, 12% of the MIP-coding exome is polymorphic. Our method provides fundamental insights into the relationship between the genomic self and the immune self and accelerates the discovery of polymorphic MIPs (also known as minor histocompatibility antigens). PMID:24714562

  4. SdsA polymorph isolation and improvement of their crystal quality using nonconventional crystallization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Flores-Hernández, Edith; Jakoncic, Jean

    SdsA, a sodium dodecyl sulfate hydrolase, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was crystallized in three different crystal polymorphs and their three-dimensional structure was determined. The different polymorphs present different crystal packing habits. One of the polymorphs suggests the existence of a tetramer, an oligomeric state not observed previously, while the crystal packing of the remaining two polymorphs obstructs the active site entrance but stabilizes flexible regions of the protein. Nonconventional crystallization methods that minimize convection, such as counterdiffusion in polyvinyl alcohol gel coupled with the influence of a 500 MHz (10.2 T) magnetic field, were necessary to isolate the poorest diffracting polymorphmore » and increase its internal order to determine its structure by X-ray diffraction. In conclusion, the results obtained show the effectiveness of nonconventional crystallographic methods to isolate different crystal polymorphs.« less

  5. HOTAIR gene polymorphisms contribute to increased neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; He, Jing; Chang, Yitian; Luo, Annie; Luo, Ailing; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Ruizhong; Xia, Huimin; Xu, Ling

    2018-06-15

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequently diagnosed extracranial solid tumor in children. Previous studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in some genes are associated with the risk of multiple cancers, including neuroblastoma. Although Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) gene polymorphisms have been investigated in a variety of cancers, to the authors' knowledge the relationships between HOTAIR gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility have not been reported to date. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between HOTAIR gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk in Chinese children. The authors genotyped 6 polymorphisms (rs920778 A>G, rs12826786 C>T, rs4759314 A>G, rs7958904 G>C, rs874945 C>T, and rs1899663 C>A) of the HOTAIR gene in 2 Chinese populations including 393 neuroblastoma cases and 812 healthy controls. The strength of the associations was evaluated using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Further stratification analyses were conducted to explore the association between the HOTAIR gene polymorphisms rs12826786 C>T, rs874945 C>T, and rs1899663 C>A with neuroblastoma susceptibility in terms of age, sex, clinical stage of disease, and sites of origin. The authors found that the rs12826786 C>T (P =.013), rs874945 C>T (P =.020), and rs1899663 C>A (P =.029) polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased neuroblastoma risk. In stratification analyses, these associations were more predominant in females and among patients with tumor in the retroperitoneal region or mediastinum. The remaining 3 polymorphisms were not found to be related to neuroblastoma susceptibility. The results of the current study verified that HOTAIR gene polymorphisms are associated with increased neuroblastoma risk and suggest that HOTAIR gene polymorphisms might be a potential biomarker for neuroblastoma susceptibility. Cancer 2018;124:2599-606. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. Association of COL1A1 polymorphisms with osteoporosis: a meta-analysis of clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Peigen; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Liangming; Chen, Ruiqiang; Yang, Bu; Dong, Jianwen; Rong, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of all association studies on two of the collagen 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) gene polymorphisms, the -1997G/T (rs1107946) and the -1663indelT (rs2412298) polymorphisms and osteoporosis/BMD and fracture. Methods: PubMed/Medline and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant association studies published in English. Pooled OR and its corresponding 95% CI or pooled MD and its corresponding 95% CI was calculated with the Cochrane Review Manager (Revman, version 5.2) using a random-effect or a fixed effect model. Results: No significant association between the -1997G/T polymorphism and Lumbar Spine (LS) and Femoral Neck (FN) BMD except for the Caucasian subpopulation wherein subjects with the T allele of the -1997G/T polymorphism was associated with significantly higher LS BMD. Our analysis did reveal that women, especially postmenopausal or perimenopausal women with the GG genotype, had significantly higher Total Hip (TH) BMD than those with the GT. Additionally, our meta-analysis did not show significant association between the -1997G/T polymorphism and risk of fracture, between the -1663indelT polymorphism and LS BMD in postmenopausal or perimenopausal women, or between the -1663indelT polymorphism and the risk of fracture. Conclusions: Our results suggested the possibility of the COL1A1 -1997G/T and the -1663indelT polymorphisms individually playing very little role in osteoporosis and fracture, although more studies are needed especially for the analysis of association between these two polymorphisms and fracture. Haplotype studies may become one important future direction of study to further elucidate whether and how various COL1A1 polymorphisms affect bone health, osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:26628959

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms and adaptation of parasympathetic modulation to exercise training.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Negrão, Marcelo V; Alves, Cleber R; Dias, Rodrigo G; Alves, Guilherme B; Pereira, Alexandre C; Rondon, Maria U; Krieger, José E; Negrão, Carlos E; DA Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2011-09-01

    There is a large interindividual variation in the parasympathetic adaptation induced by aerobic exercise training, which may be partially attributed to genetic polymorphisms. Therefore, we investigated the association among three polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide gene (-786T>C, 4b4a, and 894G>T), analyzed individually and as haplotypes, and the parasympathetic adaptation induced by exercise training. Eighty healthy males, age 20-35 yr, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and haplotypes were inferred using the software PHASE 2.1. Autonomic modulation (i.e., HR variability and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity) and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) were measured before and after training (running, moderate to severe intensity, three times per week, 60 min·day(-1), during 18 wk). Training increased VO(2peak) (P < 0.05) and decreased mean arterial pressure (P < 0.05) in the whole sample. Subjects with the -786C polymorphic allele had a significant reduction in baroreflex sensitivity after training (change: wild type (-786TT) = 2% ± 89% vs polymorphic (-786TC/CC) = -28% ± 60%, median ± quartile range, P = 0.03), and parasympathetic modulation was marginally reduced in subjects with the 894T polymorphic allele (change: wild type (894GG) = 8% ± 67% vs polymorphic (894GT/TT) = -18% ± 59%, median ± quartile range, P = 0.06). Furthermore, parasympathetic modulation percent change was different between the haplotypes containing wild-type alleles (-786T/4b/894G) and polymorphic alleles at positions -786 and 894 (-786C/4b/894T) (-6% ± 56% vs -41% ± 50%, median ± quartile range, P = 0.04). The polymorphic allele at position -786 and the haplotype containing polymorphic alleles at positions -786 and 894 in the endothelial nitric oxide gene were associated with decreased parasympathetic modulation after exercise training.

  8. Association of interleukins genes polymorphisms with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Ukrainian population.

    PubMed

    Butov, Dmytro O; Kuzhko, Mykhaylo M; Makeeva, Natalia I; Butova, Tetyana S; Stepanenko, Hanna L; Dudnyk, Andrii B

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a significant health problem in some parts of the world. Three major cytokines involved in TB immunopathogenesis include IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The susceptibility to MDR TB may be genetically determined. The aim of the study was to assess the association of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 gene polymorphisms with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Ukrainian population. We observed 140 patients suffering from infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) and 30 apparently healthy subjects. The patients were assigned to two groups whether they suffer or do not suffer from pulmonary MDR TB. Interleukin gene (IL) polymorphisms, particularly T330G polymorphism in the IL-2 gene, C589T polymorphism in the IL-4 gene and G1082A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene were studied through polymerase chain reaction. Circulating levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in venous blood were estimated using ELISA. Prior to treatment, patients with PT showed significant increase of IL-2 levels and decrease of IL-4 and IL-10 levels compared to apparently healthy subjects. Circulating IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly decreased whilst serum IL-2 level was significantly increased in patients with MDR TB compared to non-MDR TB. Low IL-4 and IL-10 secretion and considerable IL-2 alterations were shown to be significantly associated with mutations of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes affecting C589T polymorphism in the IL-4 gene, G1082A polymorphism in the IL-10 gene and T330G polymorphism in the IL-2 gene in patients with PT. Heterozygous genotype and mutations homozygous genotypes gene in polymorphisms determining specified cytokines' production is a PT risk factor and may lead to disease progression into chronic phase. Heterozygous genotype of aforementioned cytokine genetic polymorphisms was significantly the most frequent in patients with MDR TB.

  9. The Role of Lattice Matching Techniques in the Characterization of Polymorphic Forms.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    An inspection of the recent literature reveals that polymorphism is a frequently encountered phenomenon. The recognition of polymorphic forms plays a vital role in the materials sciences because such structures are characterized by different crystal packing and accordingly have different physical properties. In the pharmaceutical industry, recognition of polymorphic forms can be critical for, in certain cases, a polymorphic form of a drug may be an ineffective therapeutic agent due to its unfavorable physical properties. A check of the recent literature has revealed that in some cases new polymorphic forms are not recognized. In other instances, a supposedly new polymeric form is actually the result of an incorrect structure determination. Fortunately, lattice-matching techniques, which have proved invaluable in the identification and characterization of crystal structures, represent a powerful tool for analyzing polymorphic forms. These lattice-matching methods are based on either of two strategies: (a) the reduced cell strategy-the matching of reduced cells of the respective lattices or (b) the matrix strategy-the determination of a matrix or matrices relating the two lattices coupled with an analysis of the matrix elements. Herein, these techniques are applied to three typical cases-(a) the identification of a new polymorphic form, (b) the demonstration that a substance may not be a new polymorphic form due to missed symmetry, and (c) the evaluation of pseudo polymorphism because of a missed lattice. To identify new polymorphic forms and to prevent errors, it is recommended that these lattice matching techniques become an integral part of the editorial review process of crystallography journals.

  10. Clinical relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphism in severely injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeremić, Vasilije; Alempijević, Tamara; Mijatović, Srđan; Šijački, Ana; Dragašević, Sanja; Pavlović, Sonja; Miličić, Biljana; Krstić, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    In polytrauma, injuries that may be surgically treated under regular circumstances due to a systemic inflammatory response become life-threatening. The inflammatory response involves a complex pattern of humoral and cellular responses and the expression of related factors is thought to be governed by genetic variations. This aim of this paper is to examine the influence of interleukin (IL) 6 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -174C/G and -596G/A on the treatment outcome in severely injured patients. Forty-seven severely injured patients were included in this study. Patients were assigned an Injury Severity Score. Blood samples were drawn within 24 h after admission (designated day 1) and on subsequent days (24, 48, 72 hours and 7days) of hospitalization. The IL-6 levels were determined through ELISA technique. Polymorphisms were analyzed by a method of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR). Among subjects with different outcomes, no statistically relevant difference was found with regards to the gene IL-6 SNP-174G/C polymorphism. More than a half of subjects who died had the SNP-174G/C polymorphism, while this polymorphism was represented in a slightly lower number in survivors. The incidence of subjects without polymorphism and those with heterozygous and homozygous gene IL-6 SNP-596G/A polymorphism did not present statistically significant variations between survivors and those who died. The levels of IL-6 over the observation period did not present any statistically relevant difference among subjects without the IL-6 SNP-174 or IL-6 SNP -596 gene polymorphism and those who had either a heterozygous or a homozygous polymorphism. PMID:24856384

  11. Apolipoprotein E genetic polymorphism, serum lipoproteins, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Moysich, K B; Freudenheim, J L; Baker, J A; Ambrosone, C B; Bowman, E D; Schisterman, E F; Vena, J E; Shields, P G

    2000-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a polymorphic gene involved in lipid metabolism with three common variant alleles (epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4). The epsilon4 allele has been associated with elevated levels of cholesterol as well as greater risk of coronary heart disease and Alzheimer's disease. In this case-control study we examined whether apoE genotype affected the association between serum lipids and breast cancer risk. In a subset of a study in western New York, 260 women with incident, primary breast cancer and 332 community controls were interviewed and provided blood samples. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the apoE polymorphism were performed. Participants were classified as apoE2 (epsilon2, epsilon2 or epsilon2, epsilon3), apoE3 (epsilon3, epsilon3), or apoE4 (epsilon4, epsilon4 or epsilon4, epsilon3). No unconditional logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with women with the apoE3 genotype, there were no associations with risk for women with the apoE2 (OR=1.0; 95% CI=0. 91-1.64) or apoE4 genotype (OR=0.97; 95% CI=0.63-1.54). Higher serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were not associated with risk, either in the total sample or among subgroups of women defined by apoE genotype. Women with the highest serum triglyceride levels had an increase in risk (OR=1.63; 95% CI=1. 03-2.59) compared to women with the lowest levels. This effect was not apparent among women with the apoE2 or apoE3 genotype, but much stronger among women with the apoE4 genotype (OR=4.69; 95% CI=1. 49-14.7). These data suggest that the apoE4 genotype may modify the association between serum triglycerides and breast cancer risk. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Polymorphism, mesomorphism, and metastability of monoelaidin in excess water.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Caffrey, M

    1995-11-01

    The polymorphic and metastable phase behavior of monoelaidin dry and in excess water was studied by using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and time-resolved x-ray diffraction in the temperature range of 4 degrees C to 60 degrees C. To overcome problems associated with a pronounced thermal history-dependent phase behavior, simultaneous calorimetry and time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements were performed on individual samples. Monoelaidin/water samples were prepared at room temperature and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 1 week before measurement. The initial heating scan from 4 degrees C to 60 degrees C showed complex phase behavior with the sample in the lamellar crystalline (Lc0) and cubic (Im3m, Q229) phases at low and high temperatures, respectively. The Lc0 phase transforms to the lamellar liquid crystalline (L alpha) phase at 38 degrees C. At 45 degrees C, multiple unresolved lines appeared that coexisted with those from the L alpha phase in the low-angle region of the diffraction pattern that have been assigned previously to the so-called X phase (Caffrey, 1987, 1989). With further heating the X phase converts to the Im3m cubic phase. Regardless of previous thermal history, cooling calorimetric scans revealed a single exotherm at 22 degrees C, which was assigned to an L alpha+cubic (Im3m, Q229)-to-lamellar gel (L beta) phase transition. The response of the sample to a cooling followed by a reheating or isothermal protocol depended on the length of time the sample was incubated at 4 degrees C. A model is proposed that reconciles the complex polymorphic, mesomorphic, and metastability interrelationships observed with this lipid/water system. Dry monoelaidin exists in the lamellar crystalline (beta) phase in the 4 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. The beta phase transforms to a second lamellar crystalline polymorph identified as beta* at 45 degrees C that subsequently melts at 57 degrees C. The beta phase observed with dry monoelaidin is

  13. Polymorphism, mesomorphism, and metastability of monoelaidin in excess water.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H; Caffrey, M

    1995-01-01

    The polymorphic and metastable phase behavior of monoelaidin dry and in excess water was studied by using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry and time-resolved x-ray diffraction in the temperature range of 4 degrees C to 60 degrees C. To overcome problems associated with a pronounced thermal history-dependent phase behavior, simultaneous calorimetry and time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements were performed on individual samples. Monoelaidin/water samples were prepared at room temperature and stored at 4 degrees C for up to 1 week before measurement. The initial heating scan from 4 degrees C to 60 degrees C showed complex phase behavior with the sample in the lamellar crystalline (Lc0) and cubic (Im3m, Q229) phases at low and high temperatures, respectively. The Lc0 phase transforms to the lamellar liquid crystalline (L alpha) phase at 38 degrees C. At 45 degrees C, multiple unresolved lines appeared that coexisted with those from the L alpha phase in the low-angle region of the diffraction pattern that have been assigned previously to the so-called X phase (Caffrey, 1987, 1989). With further heating the X phase converts to the Im3m cubic phase. Regardless of previous thermal history, cooling calorimetric scans revealed a single exotherm at 22 degrees C, which was assigned to an L alpha+cubic (Im3m, Q229)-to-lamellar gel (L beta) phase transition. The response of the sample to a cooling followed by a reheating or isothermal protocol depended on the length of time the sample was incubated at 4 degrees C. A model is proposed that reconciles the complex polymorphic, mesomorphic, and metastability interrelationships observed with this lipid/water system. Dry monoelaidin exists in the lamellar crystalline (beta) phase in the 4 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. The beta phase transforms to a second lamellar crystalline polymorph identified as beta* at 45 degrees C that subsequently melts at 57 degrees C. The beta phase observed with dry monoelaidin is

  14. Insertion and deletion polymorphisms of the ancient AluS family in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Kryatova, Maria S; Steranka, Jared P; Burns, Kathleen H; Payer, Lindsay M

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphic Alu elements account for 17% of structural variants in the human genome. The majority of these belong to the youngest AluY subfamilies, and most structural variant discovery efforts have focused on identifying Alu polymorphisms from these currently retrotranspositionally active subfamilies. In this report we analyze polymorphisms from the evolutionarily older AluS subfamily, whose peak activity was tens of millions of years ago. We annotate the AluS polymorphisms, assess their likely mechanism of origin, and evaluate their contribution to structural variation in the human genome. Of 52 previously reported polymorphic AluS elements ascertained for this study, 48 were confirmed to belong to the AluS subfamily using high stringency subfamily classification criteria. Of these, the majority (77%, 37/48) appear to be deletion polymorphisms. Two polymorphic AluS elements (4%) have features of non-classical Alu insertions and one polymorphic AluS element (2%) likely inserted by a mechanism involving internal priming. Seven AluS polymorphisms (15%) appear to have arisen by the classical target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT) retrotransposition mechanism. These seven TPRT products are 3' intact with 3' poly-A tails, and are flanked by target site duplications; L1 ORF2p endonuclease cleavage sites were also observed, providing additional evidence that these are L1 ORF2p endonuclease-mediated TPRT insertions. Further sequence analysis showed strong conservation of both the RNA polymerase III promoter and SRP9/14 binding sites, important for mediating transcription and interaction with retrotransposition machinery, respectively. This conservation of functional features implies that some of these are fairly recent insertions since they have not diverged significantly from their respective retrotranspositionally competent source elements. Of the polymorphic AluS elements evaluated in this report, 15% (7/48) have features consistent with TPRT-mediated insertion

  15. Shock induced polymorphic transition in quartz, carbon, and boron nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Hua; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    The model proposed by Ahrens (1988) to explain the mechanism of the polymorphism in silicates is revised, and the revised model is applied to the quartz/stishovite, graphite/diamond, and graphite-boron nitride (g-BN) phase transformations. In this model, a key assumption is that transformation to a high-density amorphous or possibly liquid phase which rapidly crystallized to the high-pressure phase is triggered by the high temperatures in the shear band and upon crossing the metastable extension of a melting curve. Good agreement between the calcualted results and published data is obtained. The present theory predicts the standard entropy for cubic BN to be 0.4-0.5 J/g K.

  16. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  17. Polymorphic transition of tin under shock wave compression: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, C.; Petit, J.; Sinatti, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the β-bct polymorphic transition in tin is investigated by means of plate impact experiments. The Sn target surface is observed in a partially released state obtained thanks to a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF) anvil. We report both measurements of interface velocity and temperature obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and IR optical pyrometer on shock-loaded tin from 8 to 16 GPa. We show that the Mabire Model EOS associated to the SCG plasticity model provides an overall good estimate of the velocity profiles. However, depnding on the shock amplitude, its prediction of the temperature profile may be less satisfactory, hence underlining the need for future improvements in terms of phase transition kinetics description.

  18. [Posterior polymorphous dystrophy, case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Adam, G; Hernandez-Camarena, J C; Valdez-García, J E

    2015-09-01

    Posterior Polymorphous Dystrophy (DPP) is a rare posterior corneal dystrophy that is genetically transmitted as autosomal dominant. Corneal structures affected in this dystrophy are Descemet membrane and the endothelium. A case is presented on a 47 years old woman with no relevant history, with typical findings of DPP (vesicular and band lesions at the endothelium and posterior Descemet). To our knowledge there are no reported cases of DPP in Latin-American patients in the literature. The clinical manifestations in our patient were found to be very similar to the cases reported in other populations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphic butterfly reveals the missing link in ecological speciation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Nicola L; Hill, Ryan I; Kapan, Durrell D; Gilbert, Lawrence E; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2009-11-06

    Ecological speciation occurs when ecologically based, divergent selection causes the evolution of reproductive isolation. There are many empirical examples of this process; however, there exists a poorly characterized stage during which the traits that distinguish species ecologically and reproductively segregate in a single population. By using a combination of genetic mapping, mate-choice experiments, field observations, and population genetics, we studied a butterfly population with a mimetic wing color polymorphism and found that the butterflies exhibited partial, color-based, assortative mate preference. These traits represent the divergent, ecologically based signal and preference components of sexual isolation that usually distinguish incipient and sibling species. The association between behavior and recognition trait in a single population may enhance the probability of speciation and provides an example of the missing link between an interbreeding population and isolated species.

  20. A variety of gene polymorphisms associated with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic inflammatory disorder. IGM mimics breast cancer regarding its clinical and radiological features. Etiology of IGM remains unclarified. Our patient was 37-year-old and 14 weeks pregnant. There was pain, redness and swelling in the right breast. The mass suggestive of malignancy was detected in sonography. Serum CA 125 and CA 15-3 levels were high. Genetic analysis was performed for the etiology. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C 677 TT, β-fibrinogen-455 G>A, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 5 G/5 G, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D mutation was found. IGM was diagnosed by cor biopsy. An association was also reported between breast cancer and mutations in MTHFR-C 677 T, PAI-1, ACE genes. Genetic polymorphisms may involve in the development of IGM as it was seen in our case. Further studies should be conducted to better clarify this plausible association. PMID:27619324

  1. Identification of Legionella Species by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Lo Presti, François; Riffard, Serge; Vandenesch, François; Etienne, Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for the identification of Legionella species. Primer SK2 (5′-CGGCGGCGGCGG-3′) and standardized RAPD conditions gave the technique a reproducibility of 93 to 100%, depending on the species tested. Species-specific patterns corresponding to the 42 Legionella species were consequently defined by this method; the patterns were dependent on the recognition of a core of common bands for each species. This specificity was demonstrated by testing 65 type strains and 265 environmental and clinical isolates. No serogroup-specific profiles were obtained. A number of unidentified Legionella isolates potentially corresponding to new species were clustered in four groups. RAPD analysis appears to be a rapid and reproducible technique for identification of Legionella isolates to the species level without further restriction or hybridization. PMID:9774564

  2. Genetic Polymorphism in Extracellular Regulators of Wnt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Seo, Eun-Min; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is mediated by a family of secreted glycoproteins through canonical and noncanonical mechanism. The signaling pathways are regulated by various modulators, which are classified into two classes on the basis of their interaction with either Wnt or its receptors. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) are the member of class that binds to Wnt protein and antagonizes Wnt signaling pathway. The other class consists of Dickkopf (DKK) proteins family that binds to Wnt receptor complex. The present review discusses the disease related association of various polymorphisms in Wnt signaling modulators. Furthermore, this review also highlights that some of the sFRPs and DKKs are unable to act as an antagonist for Wnt signaling pathway and thus their function needs to be explored more extensively. PMID:25945348

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis using different colored dye dimer probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmé, Nicole; Friedrich, Achim; Denapaite, Dalia; Hakenbeck, Regine; Knemeyer, Jens-Peter

    2006-09-01

    Fluorescence quenching by dye dimer formation has been utilized to develop hairpin-structured DNA probes for the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the penicillin target gene pbp2x, which is implicated in the penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We designed two specific DNA probes for the identification of the pbp2x genes from a penicillin susceptible strain R6 and a resistant strain Streptococcus mitis 661 using green-fluorescent tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) and red-fluorescent DY-636, respectively. Hybridization of each of the probes to its respective target DNA sequence opened the DNA hairpin probes, consequently breaking the nonfluorescent dye dimers into fluorescent species. This hybridization of the target with the hairpin probe achieved single nucleotide specific detection at nanomolar concentrations via increased fluorescence.

  4. Influence of amorphous structure on polymorphism in vanadia

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Kevin H.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Garten, Lauren M.

    Normally we think of the glassy state as a single phase and therefore crystallization from chemically identical amorphous precursors should be identical. Here we show that the local structure of an amorphous precursor is distinct depending on the initial deposition conditions, resulting in significant differences in the final state material. Using grazing incidence total x-ray scattering, we have determined the local structure in amorphous thin films of vanadium oxide grown under different conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Here we show that the subsequent crystallization of films deposited using different initial PLD conditions result in the formation of different polymorphsmore » of VO 2. Ultimately this suggests the possibility of controlling the formation of metastable polymorphs by tuning the initial amorphous structure to different formation pathways.« less

  5. Influence of amorphous structure on polymorphism in vanadia

    DOE PAGES

    Stone, Kevin H.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Garten, Lauren M.; ...

    2016-07-13

    Normally we think of the glassy state as a single phase and therefore crystallization from chemically identical amorphous precursors should be identical. Here we show that the local structure of an amorphous precursor is distinct depending on the initial deposition conditions, resulting in significant differences in the final state material. Using grazing incidence total x-ray scattering, we have determined the local structure in amorphous thin films of vanadium oxide grown under different conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Here we show that the subsequent crystallization of films deposited using different initial PLD conditions result in the formation of different polymorphsmore » of VO 2. Ultimately this suggests the possibility of controlling the formation of metastable polymorphs by tuning the initial amorphous structure to different formation pathways.« less

  6. Modeling antigen-antibody nanoparticle bioconjugates and their polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    The integration of nanomaterials with biomolecules has recently led to the development of new ways of designing biosensors, and through their assembly, to new hybrid structures for novel and exciting applications. In this work, we develop a coarse-grained model for nanoparticles grafted with antibody molecules and their binding with antigens. In particular, we isolate two possible states for antigen-antibody pairs during the binding process, termed as recognition and anchoring states. Using molecular simulation, we calculate the thermodynamic and structural features of three possible crystal structures or polymorphs, the body-centered cubic, simple cubic, and face-centered cubic phases, and of the melt. This leads us to determine the domain of stability of the three solid phases. In particular, the role played by the switching process between anchoring and recognition states during melting is identified, shedding light on the complex microscopic mechanisms in these systems.

  7. Gene polymorphisms and increased DNA damage in morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Luperini, B C O; Almeida, D C; Porto, M P; Marcondes, J P C; Prado, R P; Rasera, I; Oliveira, M R M; Salvadori, D M F

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased adipose tissue mass resulting from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Furthermore, there is a clearly defined relationship among fat mass expansion, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; leading to ROS-related pathological events. In the past years, genome-wide association studies have generated convincing evidence associating genetic variation at multiple regions of the genome with traits that reflect obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the relationships among the gene polymorphisms ghrelin (GHRL-rs26802), ghrelin receptor (GHSR-rs572169), leptin (LEP-rs7799039), leptin receptor (LEPR-rs1137101) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO-rs9939609) and obesity. The relationships among these gene variants and the amount of DNA damage were also investigated. Three hundred Caucasian morbidly obese and 300 eutrophic (controls) women were recruited. In summary, the results demonstrated that the frequencies of the GHRL, GHSR, LEP and LEPR polymorphisms were not different between Brazilian white morbidly obese and eutrophic women. Exceptions were the AA-FTO genotype and allele A, which were significantly more frequent in obese women than in the controls (0.23% vs. 0.10%; 0.46 vs. 0.36, respectively), and the TT-FTO genotype and the T allele, which were less frequent in morbidly obese women (p<0.01). Furthermore, significant differences in the amount of genetic lesions associated with FTO variants were observed only in obese women. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the analyzed SNPs were not closely associated with morbid obesity, suggesting they are not the major contributors to obesity. Therefore, our data indicated that these gene variants are not good biomarkers for predicting risk susceptibility for obesity, whereas ROS generated by the inflammatory status might be one of the causes of DNA damage in obese women, favoring

  8. AMPD1 gene polymorphism and the vasodilatory response to ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hand, Brian D; Roth, Stephen M; Roltsch, Mark H; Park, Jung-Jun; Kostek, Matthew C; Ferrell, Robert E; Brown, Michael D

    2006-09-05

    Peripheral vasculature resistance can play an important role in affecting blood pressure and the development of cardiovascular disease. A better understanding of the genes that encode vasodilators, such as adenosine, will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. We tested whether the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 (AMPD1) C34T gene polymorphism was associated with the vasodilatory response to ischemia in Caucasian females aged 18-35 years. Blood samples (n = 58) were analyzed for the C34T variant and resulted in the following genotype groups: CC (n = 45) and CT (n = 13). Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate, and forearm blood flow (FBF) measured by venous occlusion plethysmography were measured at baseline and at 1 (peak FBF), 2 and 3 min of vasodilation during reactive hyperemia following 5 min of arm ischemia. To control for interindividual variability in baseline FBF and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) the percent change in FBF and FVR were calculated for each min. The percent decrease in FVR was significantly greater in the CT compared to the CC genotype group (-40+/-4% vs. -24+/-3%, P = 0.01) during the 2nd min of reactive hyperemia. The percent increase in FBF tended to be greater in the CT compared to the CC genotype group (+69+/-9% vs. +42+/-9%, P = 0.07) during the 2nd min of reactive hyperemia after adjustment for percent body fat. Consistent with previous findings of increased production of adenosine during exercise in individuals carrying a T allele, our findings suggest that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is associated with vasodilatory response to ischemia in the peripheral vasculature because individuals with the T allele had a greater vasodilatory response to ischemia.

  9. Interleukin 18 receptor 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guohua; Whyte, Moira K B; Vestbo, Jorgen; Carlsen, Karin; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lenney, Warren; Silverman, Michael; Helms, Peter; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-09-01

    The interleukin 18 receptor (IL18R1) gene is a strong candidate gene for asthma. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and maps to an asthma susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q12. The possibility of association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma was examined by genotyping seven SNPs in 294, 342 and 100 families from Denmark, United Kingdom and Norway and conducting family-based association analyses for asthma, atopic asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) phenotypes. Three SNPs in IL18R1 were associated with asthma (0.01131 < or = P < or = 0.01377), five with atopic asthma (0.00066 < or = P < or = 0.00405) and two with BHR (0.01450 < or = P < or = 0.03203) in the Danish population; two SNPs were associated with atopic asthma (0.00397 < or = P < or = 0.01481) and four with BHR (0.00435 < or = P < or = 0.03544) in the UK population; four SNPs showed associations with asthma (0.00015 < or = P < or = 0.03062), two with atopic asthma (0.01269 < or = P < or = 0.04042) and three with BHR (0.00259 < or = P < or = 0.01401) in the Norwegian population; five SNPs showed associations with asthma (0.00005 < or = P < or = 0.03744), five with atopic asthma (0.00001 < or = P < or = 0.04491) and three with BHR (0.03568 < or = P < or = 0.04778) in the combined population. Three intronic SNPs (rs1420099, rs1362348 and rs1974675) showed replicated association for at least one asthma-related phenotype. These results demonstrate significant association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma.

  10. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism: analysis in South African autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Gameeldien, Hajirah; van der Merwe, Lize; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  11. Genetic analysis of interleukin 18 gene polymorphisms in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Celik, Sumeyya Deniz; Ates, Omer

    2018-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA), which appears as nonscarring hair shedding on any hair-bearing area, is a common organ-specific autoimmune condition. Cytokines have important roles in the development of AA. Interleukin (IL) 18 is a significant proinflammatory cytokine that was found higher in the patients with AA. We aimed to investigate whether the IL-18 (rs187238 and rs1946518) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with AA and/or clinical outcome of patients with AA in Turkish population. Genotyping of rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs were detected using sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) method in 200 patients with AA and 200 control subjects. The genotype distribution of rs1946518 (-607C>A) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and controls (P = .0008). Distribution of CC+CA genotypes and frequency of -607/allele C of rs1946518 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .001, P = .001, respectively). The genotype distribution of rs187238 (-137G>C) SNP was found to be statistically significantly different among patients with AA and control subjects (P = .0014). Distribution of GG genotype and frequency of -137/allele G of rs187238 SNP were higher in patients with AA (P = .0003, P = .001, respectively). The rs1946518 (-607C>A) and rs187238 (-137G>C) polymorphisms were found associated with alopecia areata disease. The study suggests that IL-18 rs187238 and rs1946518 SNPs may be the cause of the AA susceptibility. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms as cause of cholesterol QTLs in mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2005-06-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of plasma cholesterol levels were carried out in three sets of F(2) mice that were formed in a 'round-robin' manner from C57BL/6J, KK (-A(y)), and RR strains. Six QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 (Cq1, Cq2, and Cq6), 3 (Cq3), and 9 (Cq4 and Cq5); of these, Cq2 colocalized with Cq6, and Cq4 colocalized with Cq5. The major candidate gene for Cq2 and Cq6 is Apoa2, and that for Cq4 and Cq5 is Apoa4. The adequacy of polymorphisms in candidate genes as cause of QTLs was investigated in this study. For Apoa2, three different alleles (Apoa2(a), Apoa2(b), and Apoa2(c)) are known. Since there was no significant physiologic difference between Apoa2(a) and Apoa2(c) alleles, previous hypothesis that Apoa2(b) was different from Apoa2(a) and Apoa2(c) in the ability to increase cholesterol levels was further supported. Presumably, G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 84 and/or C-to-T substitution at nucleotide 182 are crucial to make the Apoa2(b) unique. On the other hand, for Apoa4, the most striking polymorphism was the number of Glu-Gln-Ala/Val-Gln repeats in carboxyl end; however, this might not be responsible for QTLs. Instead, a silent mutation, C-to-T substitution at nucleotide 771, was shown to be completely correlated with the occurrence of QTLs in a total of six F(2) intercrosses. Provisionally, but reasonably, these base substitutions are qualified as primary causes that constitute QTL effect. The potential strategy for identifying genes and base substitutions underlying QTLs is discussed.

  13. Polymorphic trial in oxidative damage of arsenic exposed Vietnamese.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Junko; Soejima, Mikiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Koda, Yoshiro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic causes DNA damage and changes the cellular capacity for DNA repair. Genes in the base excision repair (BER) pathway influence the generation and repair of oxidative lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) Ser326Cys; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) Asp148Glu; X-ray and repair and cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg280His and Arg399Gln in the BER genes were analyzed, and the relationship between these 4 SNPs and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations of 100 Vietnamese population exposed to arsenic was investigated. Individuals with hOGG1 326Cys/Cys showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those with 326 Ser/Cys and Ser/Ser. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, heterozygous subjects showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those homozygous for Asp/Asp. Moreover, global ethnic comparison of the allelic frequencies of the 4SNPs was performed in 10 population and previous reported data. The mutant allele frequencies of hOGG1 Ser326Cys in the Asian populations were higher than those in the African and Caucasian populations. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, Caucasians showed higher mutant frequencies than those shown by African and Asian populations. Among Asian populations, the Bangladeshi population showed relatively higher mutant allele frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism. This study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a worldwide distribution of SNPs (hOGG1 Ser326Cys, APE1 Asp148Glu, XRCC1 Arg280His, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) in the BER genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. PCR-based polymorphisms in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NFI)

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, P.S.; Chee, S.; Low, P.S.

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders in humans with an incidence of 1 in 3,000. The NF1 gene is located on chromosome 17q 11.2 and encodes an ubiquitously expressed transcript of about 13kb. Direct mutation detection is difficult in this disorder due to the large gene size, high mutation rate and variety of mutations. We have studied the allele frequencies of seven PCR-based polymorphisms. Six of the probes used flank the NF1 gene, namely p11.3C4.2/Msp I (proximal), pEW206/Msp I (distal), p2.f9.8/Rsa I (distal), pEW207/Bgl II (distal), pEW207/Hind III (distal) and pHHH202/Rsa I (proximal). Anmore » intragenic RFLP, pEvi 2B-B/Eco R1 polymorphism in intron 27, was also analyzed by PCR. Allele frequencies for 48 normal unrelated individuals were obtained as follows: A1 = 0.40, A2 = 0.6 (p11.3C4.2/Msp I), A1 = 0.44, A2 = 0.56 (pEW206/Msp I), A1 = 0.17, A2 = 0.83 (p2.F9.8/Rsa I), A1 = 0.64, A2 = 0.36 (pEW207/Bgl I), A1 = 0.45, A2 = 0.55 (pEvi 2B-B/Eco RI). Heterozygosity rates of the alleles ranged from 20.8% to 51.7%. Using a combination of these markers, seven local families with NF1 were studied. Normal Mendelian segregation of alleles was observed in these families and no recombination was detected so far. These PCR-based markers were found to be useful for linkage analysis in our families.« less

  15. Early Life Stress, FKBP5 Polymorphisms, and Quantitative Glycemic Traits.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Anna; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to influence health later in life. Functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulated partly by FKBP5 gene, may moderate these effects. We examined whether FKBP5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with ELS on Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and quantitative glycemic traits. A total of 1728 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants born from 1934 to 1944 were genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs (rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080) and were administered a 2-hour (75 g) oral glucose tolerance test and a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed and medication use for chronic diseases at a mean age of 61.5 years. Of the participants, 273 had been exposed to ELS, operationalized as separation from their parents, at a mean age of 4.7 years due to evacuations during World War II. ELS interacted with FKBP5 SNPs in the analyses of fasting (rs1360780, p = .015), 30-minute (rs1360780, p = .031; rs9394309, p = .041) and incremental insulin (rs1360780, p = .032; rs9394309, p = .028; rs9470080, p = .043), insulin area under the curve (rs1360780, p = .044), and impaired fasting glucose (rs9470080, p = .049); among carriers of at least one copy of minor allele, but not among major allele homozygotes, insulin values were higher, as were the odds for impaired fasting glucose if they had been separated compared with if they had not. Corresponding associations were found with a haplotype formed by minor alleles in all three SNPs for fasting, 30-minute, and incremental insulin (p < .05). FKBP5 polymorphisms in combination with ELS exposure predict higher insulin and glucose values in midlife. Our findings support the role for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in health-related metabolic outcomes.

  16. Investigation of Interleukin-1β Polymorphisms in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yencilek, Faruk; Yildirim, Asif; Yilmaz, Seda Gulec; Altinkilic, Emre Murat; Dalan, Altay Burak; Bastug, Yavuz; Isbir, Turgay

    2015-11-01

    Cytokine-mediated immune and inflammatory responses are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. The present study investigated certain interleukin-1β (IL1β) polymorphisms and their association with prostate cancer. Genotyping of the IL1B-31(rs 1143627 G>A) and IL1B-511(rs 16944 Apolymorphisms were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction for blood samples from a group of patients with prostate cancer (n=71) and controls (n=76). The frequency of the IL1B-31(rs1143627) AG heterozygote genotype was found to be significantly lower in patients compared to controls (odds ratio=0.648, 95% confidence interval=0.463-0.908; p=0.036). The genotypic frequencies of IL1B-511(rs16944) between prostate cancer patients and controls were statistically significantly different (p=0.001). The frequency of AG genotype for IL1B-511(rs16944) was 0.5-fold lower in patients with prostate cancer than in the controls (odds ratio=0.546; 95% confidence interval=0.377-0.791; p=0.001). Our data show that individuals carrying the IL1B-31(rs1143627) and IL1B-511(rs16944) AG genotypes had a decreased risk for developing prostate cancer. Out of all the possible combinations analyzed, IL1B-31(rs1143627) G with IL1B-511(rs16944) G combination had a protective association with prostate cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamics of HMX Polymorphs and HMX/RDX Mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    Myint, Philip C.; Nichols, Albert L.

    2016-12-09

    In this paper, we present thermodynamic models for the five most commonly studied phases of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX): liquid HMX and four solid polymorphs (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HMX). We show results for the density, heat capacity, bulk modulus, and sound speed, as well as a phase diagram that illustrates the temperature and pressure regions over which the various HMX phases are most thermodynamically stable. The models are based on the same equation of state presented in our recently published paper [Myint et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2016, 55, 2252] on another energetic material, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Wemore » combine our HMX and RDX models together so that the equation of state can also be applied to liquid and solid mixtures of HMX/RDX. This allows us to generate an HMX/RDX phase diagram and calculate the enthalpy change associated with a few different kinds of phase transitions that these mixtures may undergo. Our paper is the first to present a single equation of state that is capable of modeling both pure HMX and HMX/RDX mixtures. A distinct feature of HMX is the strongly metastable nature of its polymorphs. This has caused some ambiguity in the literature regarding the thermodynamic stability of α-HMX. Finally, by examining possible arrangements for the relative order of the six different solid-solid transition (α–β, α–γ, α–δ, β–γ, β–δ, and γ–δ) temperatures, we conclude that α-HMX must be thermodynamically stable so that the HMX phase diagram must have an α phase region.« less

  18. Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance-1 gene polymorphism in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Faway, Emilie; Musset, Lise; Pelleau, Stéphane; Volney, Béatrice; Casteras, Jessica; Caro, Valérie; Menard, Didier; Briolant, Sébastien; Legrand, Eric

    2016-11-08

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana. Some cases of resistance to chloroquine, the first-line treatment used against P. vivax malaria, have been described in the Brazilian Amazon region. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible dispersion of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax isolates in French Guiana. The genotype, polymorphism and copy number variation, of the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene-1 (pvmdr1) have been previously associated with modification of the susceptibility to chloroquine. The pvmdr1 gene polymorphism was evaluated by sequencing and copy number variation was assessed by real-time PCR, in P. vivax isolates obtained from 591 symptomatic patients from 1997 to 2013. The results reveal that 1.0% [95% CI 0.4-2.2] of French Guiana isolates carry the mutations Y976F and F1076L, and that the proportion of isolates with multiple copies of pvmdr1 has significantly decreased over time, from 71.3% (OR = 6.2 [95% CI 62.9-78.7], p < 0.0001) in 1997-2004 to 12.8% (OR = 0.03 [95% CI 9.4-16.9], p < 0.0001) in 2009-2013. A statistically significant relationship was found between Guf-A (harboring the single mutation T958M) and Sal-1 (wild type) alleles and pvmdr1 copy number. Few P. vivax isolates harboring chloroquine-resistant mutations in the pvmdr1 gene are circulating in French Guiana. However, the decrease in the prevalence of isolates carrying multiple copies of pvmdr1 might indicate that the P. vivax population in French Guiana is evolving towards a decreased susceptibility to chloroquine.

  19. Predictive polymorphisms for breast cancer in postmenopausal Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Martinez, Mónica; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; García-Sánchez, José Rubén; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Palacios-Reyes, Carmen; Alonso-Themann, Patricia García; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Reyes-Hernández, Octavio Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the increase in breast cancer (BC) incidence, such as lifetime exposure to estrogen, early menarche and older ages at first birth, menopause, and the increased prevalence of postmenopausal obesity. In fact, there is an association between an increased BC risk and elevated estrogen levels, which may be involved in carcinogenesis via the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) encoded by the ESR1 gene. Interestingly, there is an antagonistic relationship between ERα and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in BC cells. Herein, we explore the combined effects of the ESR1 (XbaI, PvuII) and AhR polymorphisms on BC development in Mexican women according to their menopausal status. Investigation was performed using a cases and controls design. In a group of 96 cases diagnosed with BC and 111 healthy women, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms ESR1 (XbaI, PvuII) and AhR gene were identified by qPCR. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used. Statistical analyses were conducted using the STATA statistical package (Version 10.1, STATA Corp., College Station, TX, USA). The G/G XbaI genotype was more prevalent in the cases than in the controls (P = 0.008). Moreover, Mexican women carrying the XbaI (wild type [WT]/G or G/G) ESR1 genotype have higher risk (12.26-fold) for developing postmenopausal BC than individuals carrying the WT/WT genotype. The presence of the G/G genotype of XbaI may be considered a susceptibility allele in Mexican women. Due to increased postmenopausal BC risk, the XbaI (WT/G or G/G) alleles may be used as a postmenopausal predictive factor for BC in Mexican women.

  20. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Based on Capsular Genes Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Frédéric; Boucher, Nancy; Allary, Robin; Robitaille, Lynda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype epidemiology is essential since serotype replacement is a concern when introducing new polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. A novel PCR-based automated microarray assay was developed to assist in the tracking of the serotypes. Autolysin, pneumolysin and eight genes located in the capsular operon were amplified using multiplex PCR. This step was followed by a tagged fluorescent primer extension step targeting serotype-specific polymorphisms. The tagged primers were then hybridized to a microarray. Results were exported to an expert system to identify capsular serotypes. The assay was validated on 166 cultured S. pneumoniae samples from 63 different serotypes as determined by the Quellung method. We show that typing only 12 polymorphisms located in the capsular operon allows the identification at the serotype level of 22 serotypes and the assignation of 24 other serotypes to a subgroup of serotypes. Overall, 126 samples (75.9%) were correctly serotyped, 14 were assigned to a member of the same serogroup, 8 rare serotypes were erroneously serotyped, and 18 gave negative serotyping results. Most of the discrepancies involved rare serotypes or serotypes that are difficult to discriminate using a DNA-based approach, for example 6A and 6B. The assay was also tested on clinical specimens including 43 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with meningitis and 59 nasopharyngeal aspirates from bacterial pneumonia patients. Overall, 89% of specimens positive for pneumolysin were serotyped, demonstrating that this method does not require culture to serotype clinical specimens. The assay showed no cross-reactivity for 24 relevant bacterial species found in these types of samples. The limit of detection for serotyping and S. pneumoniae detection was 100 genome equivalent per reaction. This automated assay is amenable to clinical testing and does not require any culturing of the samples. The assay will be useful for the evaluation of serotype

  1. Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

  2. Polymorphism in 2-X-adamantane derivatives (X = Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Negrier, Philippe; Barrio, María; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Mondieig, Denise

    2014-08-14

    The polymorphism of two 2-X-adamantane derivatives, X = Cl, X = Br, has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction and normal- and high-pressure (up to 300 MPa) differential scanning calorimetry. 2-Br-adamantane displays a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (space group P212121, Z = 4) and a high-temperature plastic phase (Fm3̅m, Z = 4) from 277.9 ± 1.0 K to the melting point at 413.4 ± 1.0 K. 2-Cl-adamantane presents a richer polymorphic behavior through the temperature range studied. At low temperature it displays a triclinic phase (P1̅, Z = 2), which transforms to a monoclinic phase (C2/c, Z = 8) at 224.4 ± 1.0 K, both phases being ordered. Two high-temperature orientationally disordered are found for this compound, one hexagonal (P63/mcm, Z = 6) at ca. 241 K and the highest one, cubic (Fm3̅m, Z = 4), being stable from 244 ± 1.0 K up to the melting point at 467.5 ± 1.0 K. No additional phase appears due to the increase in pressure within the studied range. The intermolecular interactions are found to be weak, especially for the 2-Br-adamantane compound for which the Br···Br as well as C-Br···H distances are larger than the addition of the van der Waals radii, thus confirming the availability of this compound for building up diamondoid blocks.

  3. ADRB2 Polymorphisms and Budesonide/Formoterol Responses in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Deborah A.; Bailey, William C.; Sims, Anne-Marie; Bujac, Sarah R.; Goldman, Mitch; Martin, Ubaldo J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effects of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) polymorphism on therapeutic responses to long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists have not been evaluated in long-term COPD trials. We aimed to investigate the effects of the ADRB2 Gly16Arg polymorphism on response to formoterol alone or in combination with the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide in patients with COPD. Methods: Patients ≥ 40 years of age with moderate to very severe COPD from the 12-month trial I (NCT00206167) or the 6-month trial II (NCT00206154) were randomly assigned to bid budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) 320/9 μg or 160/9 μg, budesonide pMDI 320 μg + formoterol dry powder inhaler 9 μg (trial II), budesonide pMDI 320 μg (trial II), formoterol dry powder inhaler 9 μg, or placebo. The effect of Gly16Arg on predose FEV1 and 1-h postdose FEV1, exacerbations, diary variables, and adverse events were analyzed. Results: No significant interaction between genotype and treatment response was observed for predose (P ≥ .197) or postdose FEV1 (P ≥ .125) in either pharmacogenetic study (n = 2,866). The number of COPD exacerbations per patient-treatment year was low and similar across genotypes for the active treatment groups (both studies). Percentages of patients with adverse events were similar across Gly16Arg genotype groups for each treatment. Conclusion: Therapeutic response and tolerability to long-term treatment with formoterol alone or in combination with budesonide was not modified by ADRB2 Gly16Arg genotype in two large independent pharmacogenetic studies in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Nos.: NCT00206167, NCT00206154; URL: clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:22383665

  4. PD-1 and cancer: molecular mechanisms and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Salmaninejad, Arash; Khoramshahi, Vahid; Azani, Alireza; Soltaninejad, Ehsan; Aslani, Saeed; Zamani, Mohammad Reza; Zal, Masoud; Nesaei, Abolfazl; Hosseini, Sayed Mostafa

    2018-02-01

    The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is expressed by activated T cells that act as an immunoregulatory molecule, and are responsible for the negative regulation of T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. The PD-1 gene also encodes an inhibitory cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of T cell functions during immune responses/tolerance. Beyond potent inhibitory effects on T cells, PD-1 also has a role in regulating B cell and monocyte responses. An overexpression of PD-1 has been reported to contribute to immune system avoidance in different cancers. In particular, PD-1 over-expression influences tumor-specific T cell immunity in a cancer microenvironment. Blocking the PD-1/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) pathway could potentially augment endogenous antitumor responses. Along these lines, the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has been applied in clinical trials against diverse forms of cancer. It was believed that antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 might synergize with other treatments that enhance endogenous antitumor immunity by blocking inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions. However, in all cases, the host genetic status (as well as that of the tumor) is likely to have an impact on the expected outcomes. Various investigations have evaluated the association between PD-1 polymorphisms and the risk of various types of cancer. Frequently studied PD-1 polymorphisms, PD-1.1 (rs36084323), PD-1.3 (rs11568821), PD-1.5 (rs2227981), PD-1.9 (rs2227982), and PD-1 rs7421861, and their associations in the risk of susceptibility to different types of cancer are mentioned in this review, as are studies highlighting the significance of conducting genetic association studies in different ethnic populations.

  5. The role of IL-16 gene polymorphisms in endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Eliopoulos, Elias; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Zondervan, Krina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Matalliotakis, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecological diseases affecting up to 10% of the female population of childbearing age and a major cause of pain and infertility. It is influenced by multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is a proinflammatory cytokine playing a pivotal role in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as well as in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of two IL-16 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4072111 and rs11556218, with the risk of endometriosis in women from Greece as well as to gain insight about the structural consequences of these two exonic SNPs regarding development of the disease. A total of 159 women with endometriosis (stages I–IV) hospitalized for endometriosis, diagnosed by laparoscopic intervention and histologically confirmed, and 146 normal controls were recruited and genotyped. Subjects were genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy. A significant association was detected regarding the GG and GT genotype as well as 'G' allele of rs11556218 in patients with endometriosis. The rs4072111 SNP of the IL-16 gene was not found to be associated with an increased susceptibility to endometriosis either for all patients (stages I–IV) or for stage III and IV of the disease only. Our results demonstrated that rs11556218 is associated with endometriosis in Greek women, probably by resulting in the aberrant expression of IL-16, as suggested by the bioinformatics analysis conducted on the SNP-derived protein sequences, which indicated a possible association between mutation and functional modification of Pro-IL-16. PMID:29328375

  6. The 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs

    The Zintl phase CaSi{sub 2} commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA′BB′CC′ fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi{sub 2} in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi{sub 2} quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2}. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi{sub 2}. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi{sub 2} aremore » energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi{sub 2} stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi{sub 2} should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi{sub 2} may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. - Graphical abstract: The common 6R form of CaSi{sub 2} can be transformed quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2} upon sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}. • Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. • 3R-CaSi{sub 2} is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.« less

  7. Association of BIM Deletion Polymorphism and BIM-γ RNA Expression in NSCLC with EGFR Mutation.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Kakimoto, Atsushi; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kaburaki, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Takahiro; Makino, Takashi; Otsuka, Hajime; Sano, G O; Sugino, Keishi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Takai, Yujiro; Tochigi, Naobumi; Iyoda, Akira; Homma, Sakae

    This pilot study assessed the association of BIM deletion polymorphism and BIM RNA isoform in patients with EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study included 33 patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC treated with gefitinib. BIM deletion polymorphism and BIM RNA isoform (EL/L/S/γ) were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BIM-γ expression was significantly higher in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism than among those without BIM deletion polymorphism inside tumors (p=0.038) and around tumors (p=0.0024). Relative BIM-γ expression was significantly higher in patients with BIM deletion polymorphism than among those without BIM deletion polymorphism (p=0.0017). Patients with BIM-γ had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those without BIM-γ (median: 304 vs. 732 days; p=0.023). Expression of BIM-γ mRNA and BIM deletion polymorphism were strongly associated. BIM-γ overexpression may have a role in apoptosis related to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of association between alpha2-macroglobulin polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Luedecking, E K; Minster, R L; Ganguli, M; DeKosky, S T; Kamboh, M I

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of two alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) polymorphisms, an intronic 5-bp deletion and Ile1000Val, in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the interaction between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) and A2M polymorphisms. The A2M polymorphisms were screened by using polymerase-chain-reaction-based assays in 555 white late-onset AD cases and 446 controls. The gentoype distributions of the 5-bp deletion and Ile1000Val polymorphisms were comparable between cases and controls (P = 0.158 and P = 0.148, respectively). Likewise, there was no significant difference in allele frequencies of each polymorphism among cases and controls (P = 0.361 and P = 0.062, respectively). The stratification of data by APOE*4 status also did not yield any significant association. In conclusion, we observed no association between either the intronic deletion polymorphism or the Ile1000Val polymorphism of A2M and AD in our case-control cohort.

  9. Regulatory considerations of pharmaceutical solid polymorphism in Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs).

    PubMed

    Raw, Andre S; Furness, M Scott; Gill, Devinder S; Adams, Richard C; Holcombe, Frank O; Yu, Lawrence X

    2004-02-23

    A sponsor of an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) must have information to show that the proposed generic product and the innovator product are both pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, and therefore, therapeutically equivalent. Many pharmaceutical solids exist in several crystalline forms and thus exhibit polymorphism. Polymorphism may result in differences in the physico-chemical properties of the active ingredient and variations in these properties may render a generic drug product to be bioinequivalent to the innovator brand. For this reason, in ANDAs, careful attention is paid to the effect of polymorphism in the context of generic drug product equivalency. This review discusses the impact of polymorphism on drug product manufacturability, quality, and performance. Conclusions from this analysis demonstrate that pharmaceutical solid polymorphism has no relevance to the determination of drug substance "sameness" in ANDAs. Three decision trees for solid oral dosage forms or liquid suspensions are provided for evaluating when and how polymorphs of drug substances should be monitored and controlled in ANDA submissions. Case studies from ANDAs are provided which demonstrate the irrelevance of polymorphism to the determination of drug substance "sameness". These case studies also illustrate the conceptual framework from these decision trees and illustrate how their general principles are sufficient to assure both the quality and the therapeutic equivalence of marketed generic drug products.

  10. DRD2/ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in forensic autopsies of methamphetamine intoxication fatalities.

    PubMed

    Matsusue, Aya; Ishikawa, Takaki; Ikeda, Tomoya; Tani, Naoto; Arima, Hisatomi; Waters, Brian; Hara, Kenji; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Takayama, Mio; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-22

    Dopamine D2 receptor/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (DRD2/ANKK1) gene polymorphisms have been associated with responses to psychotropic drugs and addiction. We analyzed two DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms, Taq1A and -141C Ins/Del, in 37 fatal methamphetamine (MA) intoxication cases and 235 control cases in which MA and psychotropic drugs were not detected. The association among polymorphism, cause of death, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dopamine concentration was evaluated. The Taq1A polymorphism distribution in the fatal MA intoxication cases differed from in the controls (P = 0.030) with a significantly high A1/A1 + A1/A2 genotype frequency. No significant associations were observed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphisms and MA intoxication cases or between DRD2/ANKK1 polymorphisms and CSF dopamine concentrations. Our findings suggest that the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to fatal MA intoxication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional polymorphisms in the sigma1 receptor gene associated with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Aizo; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Sigma1 receptors are involved in the pathogenesis of drug abuse. Two polymorphisms (GC-241-240TT and Gln2Pro) in the sigma1 receptor gene (SIGMAR1) have been identified. To investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in conveying susceptibility to alcoholism, we performed a functional analysis of polymorphisms in the SIGMAR1 and a case-control study. We initially screened for polymorphisms in the 5'-upstream region. The effects of the polymorphisms on transcriptional activity were determined using a gene reporter assay. The distribution of SIGMAR1 polymorphisms was analyzed in 307 alcoholic and 302 control subjects. A novel T-485A polymorphism was identified. The transcriptional activity of the A-485 allele and the TT-241-240 allele was significantly reduced compared with that of the T-485 allele and the GC-241-240 allele. The frequencies of the A-485 allele (chi2=5.575, df=1, p=.0205) and the TT-241-240/Pro2 haplotype (chi2=21.464, df=1, p<.0001) were significantly higher in control subjects compared with alcoholic subjects. The T-485A and the GC-241-240TT may be functional polymorphisms, and the A-485 allele and TT-241-240/Pro2 haplotype are possible protective factors for the development of alcoholism.

  12. Population-based Study of Risk Polymorphisms Associated with Vascular Disorders and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Teijido, Óscar; Carril, Juan Carlos; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders are among the major causes of mortality in the developed countries. Population studies evaluate the genetic risk, i.e. the probability of an individual carrying a specific disease-associated polymorphism. Identification of risk polymorphisms is essential for an accurate diagnosis or prognosis of a number of pathologies. Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of risk polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism, hypertension, thrombosis, and dementia, in a large population of Spanish individuals affected by a variety of brain and vascular disorders as well as metabolic syndrome. Material & Method: We performed a cross-sectional study on 4415 individuals from a widespread regional distribution in Spain (48.15% males and 51.85% females), with mental, neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular, and metabolic disorders. We evaluated polymorphisms in 20 genes involved in obesity, vascular and cardiovascular risk, and dementia in our population and compared it with representative Spanish and European populations. Risk polymorphisms in ACE, AGT(235), IL6(573), PSEN1, and APOE (specially the APOE-ε4 allele) are representative of our population as compared to the reference data of Spanish and European individuals. Conclusion: The significantly higher distribution of risk polymorphisms in PSEN1 and APOE-ε4 is characteristic of a representative number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease; whereas polymorphisms in ACE, AGT(235), and IL6(573), are most probably related with the high number of patients with metabolic syndrome or cerebrovascular damage. PMID:29081698

  13. Conformational polymorphs of a novel TCNQ derivative carrying an acetylene group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Yuki; Kataoka, Makoto; Okuno, Tsunehisa

    2018-01-01

    TCNQ is one of the most important organic acceptors and lots of its derivatives have been prepared. However the reports on their crystal polymorphs are limited to their complexes, and simple polymorphs of TCNQ derivatives are uncommon. We succeeded in preparation of a novel TCNQ derivative, 2,2'-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diylidene)dimalononitrile, having a propynyloxy group on a substituent. This compound was found to have two crystal polymorphs depending on a solvent for recrystallization. In polymorph I, dimeric hydrogen bonds are formed between acetylenic hydrogens and cyano nitrogens with the molecule in an inversion symmetry. While, in polymorph II, the molecules make intermolecular hydrogen bonds between acetylenic hydrogens and cyano nitrogens with the molecule in 21 symmetry, forming a hydrogen bonded molecular helix along the b axis. Besides patterns of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds, difference was recognized in conformation of propynyloxy group. The molecule has an anti conformation in polymorph I and a gauche conformation in polymorph II. DFT calculation indicates that the anti conformer is less stable than the gauche one. But a solvation model suggests the anti conformer is estimated to be more stable in a toluene solution.

  14. Association of ACE Gene I/D polymorphism with migraine in Kashmiri population.

    PubMed

    Wani, Irfan Yousuf; Sheikh, Saleem; Shah, Zafar Amin; Pandith, Arshid A; Wani, Mushtaq; Asimi, Ravouf; Wani, Maqbool; Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Mehraj, Iqra

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a complex, recurrent headache disorder that is one of the most common complaints in neurology practice. The role of various genes in its pathogenesis is being studied. We did this study to see whether an association exists between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and migraine in our region. The study included 100 patients diagnosed with migraine and 121 healthy controls. The study subject were age and gender matched. The analysis was based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and included following steps: DNA extraction from blood, PCR and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Out of 100 cases, 69 were females and 31 were males. Fifty-seven were having migraine without aura and 43 had migraine with aura. 45 of the cases had II polymorphism, 40 had ID polymorphism and 15 had DD polymorphism in ACE gene. We were not able to find a statistically significant association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism with migraine. The reason for difference in results between our study and other studies could be because of different ethnicity in study populations. So a continuous research is needed in this regard in order to find the genes and different polymorphism that increase the susceptibility of Kashmiri population to migraine.

  15. Polymorphisms of interleukin-1β and MUC7 genes in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Jong; Kim, Jihoon; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are to compare polymorphisms of the IL-1β and MUC7 genes between patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and controls and to investigate relationships between these polymorphisms and clinical characteristics in BMS patients. Forty female BMS patients and 40 gender- and age-matched controls were included. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-1β -511 and +3954 and variation in number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of MUC7 were analyzed. Relationships between genotypic polymorphism data and clinical characteristics in BMS patients were also analyzed. There were no significant differences in the genotypes of IL-1β -511 and +3954 and of MUC7 between the groups. There were no significant differences in symptom duration and intensity of BMS patients according to their IL-1β and MUC7 genotypes. The T allele of IL-1β -511 showed associations with psychometry results in BMS patients: paranoid ideation (P = 0.014), Global Severity Index (P = 0.025), and Positive Symptom Total (P = 0.008). The genotypic polymorphisms of IL-1β -511 and +3954, and of MUC7 VNTR, had no direct associations with the development of BMS. However, the T allele of IL-1β -511 may increase the risk of BMS by increasing psychological asthenia. The genotypic polymorphisms of IL-1β -511 may increase the risk for the development of BMS by increasing psychological asthenia.

  16. Do estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms have any impact on the outcome in an ART program?

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Elli; Malamas, Fotodotis; Mavrogianni, Despina; Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate two of the most studied estrogen receptor alpha polymorphisms (PvuII and XbaI) in combination, in order to evaluate their impact on an ART program outcome. 203 normally ovulating women who underwent IVF or ICSI treatment were genotyped for PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ESR1 intron 1 using Real-Time PCR. The relationship between the presence of polymorphic alleles and the ovulation induction parameters and outcome was examined. Women were grouped according to the number of polymorphic alleles they carried in two groups (0-2 versus 3-4 polymorphic alleles). The presence of 3 or more polymorphic alleles was associated with significantly lower E2 levels on the day of hCG administration and a significantly lower rate of good quality embryos. There is an association between ESR1 polymorphisms and some ART parameters such as the level of E2 on the day of hCG administration and the quality of the embryos. These results underline the importance of ESR1 as a candidate gene for the prediction of ovarian response to IVF/ICSI protocols. Future research work concerning several more genes is necessary for a better evaluation of patients before entering an IVF/ICSI program.

  17. Selecting the spin crossover profile with controlled crystallization of mononuclear Fe(iii) polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Ana I; Ferreira, Liliana P; Carvalho, Maria de Deus; Rodrigues, Vítor H N; Dîrtu, Marinela M; Garcia, Yann; Calhorda, Maria José; Martinho, Paulo N

    2018-05-08

    Two polymorphic species of the [Fe(5-Br-salEen)2]ClO4 compound were obtained, each of them being selectively recovered after evaporation of the solvent at a controlled rate. While polymorph 1a is formed during slow evaporation, fast evaporation favors polymorph 1b. The importance of the evaporation rate was recognized after detailed studies of the reaction temperature, solvent evaporation rate and crystallization temperature effects. The complex in the new polymorphic form 1a showed an abrupt spin crossover at 172 K with a small 1 K hysteresis window and over a narrow 10 K range. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, complemented by X-ray studies for both the high-spin and low-spin forms, were used to further characterize the new polymorphic phase 1a. Both polymorphs are based on the same Fe(iii) complex cation hydrogen bonded to the perchlorate anion. These units are loosely bound in the crystals via weak interactions. In the new polymorph 1a, the hydrogen bonds are stronger, while the weak hydrogen and halogen bonds, as well as π-π stacking, create a cooperative network, not present in 1b, responsible for the spin transition profile.

  18. Polymorphic Protein Crystal Growth: Influence of Hydration and Ions in Glucose Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, C. M.; Asthagiri, D.; Lenhoff, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Crystal polymorphs of glucose isomerase were examined to characterize the properties and to quantify the energetics of protein crystal growth. Transitions of polymorph stability were measured in poly(ethylene glycol)/NaCl solutions, and one transition point was singled out for more detailed quantitative analysis. Single crystal x-ray diffraction was used to confirm space groups and identify complementary crystal structures. Crystal polymorph stability was found to depend on the NaCl concentration, with stability transitions requiring > 1 M NaCl combined with a low concentration of PEG. Both salting-in and salting-out behavior was observed and was found to differ for the two polymorphs. For NaCl concentrations above the observed polymorph transition, the increase in solubility of the less stable polymorph together with an increase in the osmotic second virial coefficient suggests that changes in protein hydration upon addition of salt may explain the experimental trends. A combination of atomistic and continuum models was employed to dissect this behavior. Molecular dynamics simulations of the solvent environment were interpreted using quasi-chemical theory to understand changes in protein hydration as a function of NaCl concentration. The results suggest that protein surface hydration and Na+ binding may introduce steric barriers to contact formation, resulting in polymorph selection. PMID:24955067

  19. Is M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene involved in the development of endometriosis?

    PubMed

    Kowalczyńska, Liliana J; Ferenc, Tomasz; Wojciechowski, Michał; Mordalska, Anna; Pogoda, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene in women with endometriosis and to identify correlations between identified genotypes and the disease progression, its stage and clinical course as well as to evaluate the prognostic value of the investigated polymorphism in patients with endometriosis treated for infertility. The study group consisted of 241 women with minimal to severe stage of endometriosis, the control group (without endometriosis) - 127. The molecular analysis was performed by PCR-RFLP technique. The analysis of the frequency of genotypes and alleles of M235T polymorphism showed no significant differences between the study and the control groups and between the severity grades of the disease (p > 0.05). No such differences were reported in the case of different localizations of the disease lesions, either. Evaluation of the correlations related to pain accompanying endometriosis did not demonstrate association with any genotypes of the analyzed AGT gene poly-morphism. Comparison of the results obtained in the group in which infertility treatment was successful (n = 54) and in those who failed to conceive (n = 73) did not show the correlation between the investigated polymorphism and the effect of infertility treatment. M235T polymorphism of the AGT gene seems unrelated to the development or the clinical course of en-dometriosis. No prognostic value has been found of the investigated polymorphism in predicting the effects of infertility treatment in women with endometriosis.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  1. Uterine leiomyoma is associated with a polymorphism in the interleukin 1-beta gene.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Detlef; Thewes, Roberta; Sator, Michael; Denschlag, Dominik; Keck, Christoph; Tempfer, Clemens

    2009-08-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene are associated with uterine leiomyoma. Case-control study in a collective of 131 patients and 280 controls. Genotyping of the IL-1beta-511 and IL-1beta-3954 polymorphism was performed by PCR amplification and subsequent RFLP analysis. A significant difference in the allele frequencies of the IL-1beta-511 Cpolymorphism was found. Allele frequencies of the IL-1beta-511 Cpolymorphism were 70.6% (C allele) in the patient group and 57.1% in the control group [P < 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.47]. The genotype distributions showed also differences using a dominant genotype model (C/C vs. C/T+T/T; P < 0.0002; OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.77-4.2). No difference was found in the IL-1beta-3954 polymorphism. The IL-1beta-511 promoter polymorphism is related to an increased susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma, suggesting that this polymorphism does contribute to the development of this disease.

  2. Polymorphisms of IL-17 and ICAM-1 and their expression in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kharwar, N K; Prasad, K N; Singh, K; Paliwal, V K; Modi, D R

    2017-08-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of peripheral nervous system. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) polymorphisms with higher expression levels have already been studied in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the possible role of IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms in GBS remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigated IL-17 (His161Arg and Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms. In this study, total 80 GBS patients and 75 normal healthy controls were included. IL-17 (His161Arg and Glu126Gly) and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Further, the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-17 was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-17 (Glu126Gly) mutant and ICAM-1 (Gly241Arg) heterozygous genotypes were strongly associated with increased risk of GBS (p < 0.016; OR = 3.706, 95% CI = 1.28-10.67; p < 0.001; OR = 4.148, 95% CI = 2.119-8.119, respectively). IL-17 and ICAM-1 genes showed significantly higher expression in GBS when compared with healthy controls. IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms showed significant association with GBS and their enhanced expressions have possible role in GBS development. IL-17 and ICAM-1 polymorphisms could be genetic markers to GBS susceptibility.

  3. Investigation of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms in relation to metabolic parameters in Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Merwe, L; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Dandara, C; Pillay, T S; Blom, D J

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty exists whether glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) polymorphisms play a role in steroid-related side effects in Addison's disease (AD) patients on hydrocortisone. The polymorphisms Bcll and N363S appear to increase sensitivity to cortisol, while the ER22/23EK polymorphism has been associated with resistance to cortisol. One hundred and forty seven AD patients, and gender, and ethnicity-matched controls were recruited in South Africa. Three polymorphisms in the GCR were studied, using PCR followed by restriction fragment length analysis. Associations with BMI, lipids, glucose and inflammatory markers were investigated. In both patients and controls, the Bcll polymorphism occurred more frequently in whites than in other ethnic groups studied but was not associated with any of the metabolic parameters tested. The ER22/23EK polymorphism was associated with an increased BMI in both patients (29.4 vs 24.7  kg/m²) and control subjects (26.3 vs 24.2  kg/m²). The ER22/23EK polymorphism was also associated with lower LDL cholesterol in control subjects (3.46 vs 3.93  mmol/l) and in patients (3.52 vs 4.10  mmol/l). N363S was associated with increased BMI in controls 29.9  kg/m² vs wild type 24.8  kg/m². Median hydrocortisone doses were greater in patients heterozygous for either ER22/23EK 30.0  mg or N363S 25.0  mg polymorphisms than in wild type patients 20.0  mg (both comparisons). Alterations in lipids, BMI and hydrocortisone dose were associated with two polymorphisms. Further larger studies are warranted to corroborate these findings.

  4. Association of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis with myeloid differentiation-2 and GM2 activator protein genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Weiming; Huang, Longguang; Wang, Ping; Rong, Xiao; Tang, Juan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) with myeloid differentiation-(MD-2) and GM2 activator protein (GM2A) genetic polymorphisms. Gene resequencing of the MD-2 and GM2A gene exons was performed on 42 neonates, diagnosed with NEC (NEC group), as well as in the rs11465996 locus, located in the MD-2 gene promoter region. The aim was to detect the genetic polymorphisms present in the neonates with NEC and compare the functional polymorphic loci with 83 neonates without NEC (control group), who had been born during the same period. A polymorphic locus with abnormal frequency was detected in the exon region of the MD-2 gene. In the NEC group, the frequency of genotypes carrying the low frequency allele (G) in the rs11465996 locus (MD-2 promoter region) was significantly higher compared with the control group (χ(2)=4.388, P=0.036). Furthermore, the frequencies of genotypes carrying the low frequency A and C alleles in the rs1048719 (GM2A gene exon 1) and rs2075783 loci (GM2A intron), respectively, were significantly higher in the NEC group compared with the control group (χ(2)=4.316, P=0.038; and χ(2)=13.717, P=0.000, respectively). In addition, the rs11465996 polymorphism in the MD-2 gene promoter region was found to be associated with the severity of NEC. Furthermore, the rs2075783 polymorphism in the GM2A gene exon 1 and the rs1048719 polymorphism in the intron region of this gene, were associated with the occurrence of NEC. The present study demonstrated that gene polymorphisms of MD-2 and GM2A were associated with the occurrence or severity of NEC; however, further in-depth exploration is required to clarify the associations between genetic predispositions to polymorphisms, and NEC.

  5. TLR-4 polymorphisms and leukocyte TLR-4 expression in febrile UTI and renal scarring.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Meral Torun; Soylu, Alper; Ateş, Halil; Kızıldağ, Sefa; Kavukçu, Salih

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the relation of TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression to febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scar development in children. The study was performed in children with a history of febrile UTI. Patients with and without renal scarring were classified as group 1 and group 2, respectively, while the control cases in our previous study were used as the control group (group 3). All three groups were compared for the rate of TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms, and for basal and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression levels. There were 168 patients (86 in group 1, 82 in group 2) and 120 control cases. Monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression levels were similar in groups 1 and 2. However, both groups had lower TLR-4 expression than group 3. The rate of TLR-4 Asp299Gly polymorphism was not different in all groups. TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3 (14.0, 12.2, and 2.0 %, respectively), while group 1 and group 2 were not different. Furthermore, monocyte TLR-4 expression level was lower in those having TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism than in those without this polymorphism. Patients with febrile UTI had more frequent TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism and lower monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression. These findings indicate that children carrying TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism and/or having low level of monocyte/neutrophil TLR-4 expression have a tendency to develop febrile UTI. However, we could not show the association of TLR-4 polymorphisms and of TLR-4 expression level to renal scarring.

  6. An innovative way to highlight the power of each polymorphism on elite athletes phenotype expression.

    PubMed

    Contrò, Valentina; Schiera, Gabriella; Abbruzzo, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Amato, Alessandra; Sacco, Alessia; Macchiarella, Alessandra; Palma, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2018-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPARα, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 ± 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21.2± 2.3) were enrolled. Samples of venous blood was used to prepare genomic DNA. The polymorphic sites were scanned using PCR-RFLP protocols with different enzyme. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis to demonstrate an association between the five PEPs and elite phenotype. We found statistical significance in NRF2 (AG/GG genotype) polymorphism/soccer players association (p < 0.05) as well as a stronger association in ACE polymorphism (p =0.02). Particularly, we noticed that the ACE ID genotype and even more the II genotype are associated with soccer player phenotype. Although the other PEPs had no statistical significance, we proved that some of these may work indirectly, amplifying the effect of another polymorphism; for example, seems that PPARα could acts on NRF2 (GG) enhancing the effect of the latter, notwithstanding it had not shown a statistical significance. In conclusion, to establish if a polymorphism can influence the performance, it is necessary to understand how they act and interact, directly and indirectly, on each other.

  7. Structural and computational analysis of intermolecular interactions in a new 2-thiouracil polymorph.

    PubMed

    Fabijanić, Ivana; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Pilepić, Viktor; Sanković, Krešimir

    2017-12-01

    The crystallization and characterization of a new polymorph of 2-thiouracil by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Hirshfeld surface analysis and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are described. The previously published polymorph (A) crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\\overline{1}, while that described herein (B) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c. Periodic DFT calculations showed that the energies of polymorphs A and B, compared to the gas-phase geometry, were -108.8 and -29.4 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The two polymorphs have different intermolecular contacts that were analyzed and are discussed in detail. Significant differences in the molecular structure were found only in the bond lengths and angles involving heteroatoms that are involved in hydrogen bonds. Decomposition of the Hirshfeld fingerprint plots revealed that O...H and S...H contacts cover over 50% of the noncovalent contacts in both of the polymorphs; however, they are quite different in strength. Hydrogen bonds of the N-H...O and N-H...S types were found in polymorph A, whereas in polymorph B, only those of the N-H...O type are present, resulting in a different packing in the unit cell. QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) computational analysis showed that the interaction energies for these weak-to-medium strength hydrogen bonds with a noncovalent or mixed interaction character were estimated to fall within the ranges 5.4-10.2 and 4.9-9.2 kJ mol -1 for polymorphs A and B, respectively. Also, the NCI (noncovalent interaction) plots revealed weak stacking interactions. The interaction energies for these interactions were in the ranges 3.5-4.1 and 3.1-5.5 kJ mol -1 for polymorphs A and B, respectively, as shown by QTAIM analysis.

  8. Lack of association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer with and without EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Hiromichi; Oze, Isao; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Meiko; Takeuchi, Shinji; Sakao, Yukinori; Hida, Toyoaki; Faber, Anthony C; Tanaka, Hideo; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yano, Seiji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2015-01-01

    The BIM deletion polymorphism in intron 2 was found in a significant percent of the Asian population. Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung cancers harboring this BIM polymorphism have shorter progression free survival and overall response rates to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, the association between the BIM deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk is unknown. The BIM deletion polymorphism was screened by polymerase chain reaction in 765 lung cancer cases and 942 healthy individuals. Carriers possessing one allele of the BIM polymorphism were observed in 13.0% of control cases and 12.8% of lung cancer cases, similar to incidence rates reported earlier in healthy individuals. Homozygote for the BIM polymorphism was observed in four of 942 healthy controls and three of 765 lung cancer cases. The frequency of the BIM deletion polymorphism in lung cancer patients was not related to age, sex, smoking history, or family history of lung cancer. The BIM deletion polymorphism was found in 30 of 212 patients with EGFR wild type lung cancers and 16 of 120 patients with EGFR mutant lung cancers. The frequency of the BIM polymorphism is similar between cancers with wild type EGFR and mutated EGFR (p = 0.78). The BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, the BIM polymorphism is not associated with EGFR mutant lung cancer.

  9. [Prevalence of gene polymorphisms associated with immune-dependent diseases in the populations of North Eurasia].

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, A A; Trifonova, E A; Vagaitseva, K V; Bocharova, A V; Varzari, A M; Radzhabov, M O; Stepanov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The data on distribution of genetic diversity in gene polymorphisms associated with autoimmune and allergic diseases and with regulation of immunoglobulin E and cytokines levels in 26 populations of the Northern Eurasia is presented. Substantial correlation between the values of average expected heterozygosity by 44 gene polymorphisms with climatic and geographical factors has not been revealed. Clustering of population groups in correspondence with their geographic locations is observed. The degree of gene differentiation among populations and the selective neutrality of gene polymorphisms have been assessed. The results of our work evidence the substantial genetic diversity and differentiation of human populations by studied genes.

  10. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism.

  11. Azathioprine-induced alopecia and leukopenia associated with NUDT15 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Nomura, H; Kurihara, Y; Saito, M; Fukushima, A; Shintani, Y; Shiiyama, R; Toshima, S; Kamata, A; Yamagami, J; Funakoshi, T; Kameyama, K; Amagai, M; Kubo, A; Umegaki-Arao, N

    2018-04-28

    Azathioprine (AZA), a widely used immunosuppressant, can induce cytotoxic effects including myelosuppression and alopecia. 1 Recent studies revealed that polymorphisms of NUDT15 are associated with thiopurine-induced alopecia and leukopenia. 2-5 The frequency of NUDT15 polymorphisms in East and South Asians is high (22.6% and 13.6%, respectively). 5 Thus, adverse event management during AZA treatment is essential for Asian populations with these polymorphisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. No association between catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms and neurotic disorders among mainland Chinese university students.

    PubMed

    Kou, Changgui; Meng, Xiangfei; Xie, Bing; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Qiong; Yu, Yaqin; D'Arcy, Carl

    2012-07-30

    This study investigates the genetic association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms and neurotic disorders. Data were derived from a case-control association study of 255 undergraduates affected by neurotic disorders and 269 matched healthy undergraduate controls. The polymorphisms of eight tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the COMT gene were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based Ligase Detection Reaction (PCR-LDR). The eight tag SNPs on the COMT gene assessed were not associated with neurotic disorders. Our finding suggests that the COMT gene may not be a susceptibility gene for neurotic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single crystal growth in spin-coated films of polymorphic phthalocyanine derivative under solvent vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, T.; Ohmori, M.; Ramananarivo, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of solvent vapor on spin-coated films of a polymorphic phthalocyanine derivative were investigated. Growth of single crystal films via redissolving organic films under solvent vapor was revealed by in situ microscopic observations of the films. X-ray diffraction measurement of the films after exposing to solvent vapor revealed the phase transition of polymorphs under solvent vapor. The direction of crystal growth was clarified by measuring the crystal orientation in a grown monodomain film. The mechanism of crystal growth based on redissolving organic films under solvent vapor was discussed in terms of the different solubilities of the polymorphs.

  14. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellitemarkers for the crested caracara, Caracara cheriway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughn, Erin E.; Dwyer, James F.; Morrison, Joan L.; Culver, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We isolated novel microsatellites from the crested caracara (Caracara cheriway) with a shotgun pyrosequencing approach. We tested 80 loci for polymorphism among 20 individuals from the threatened Florida population. Fourteen loci were polymorphic. The mean number of alleles was 2.21 (range 2–3) and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.41 (range 0.15–0.65). None of the 14 polymorphic loci exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium nor did they deviate significantly from Hardy–Weinberg expectations. We also report 16 monomorphic loci.

  15. [Influence of leptin receptor gene K109R polymorphism on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its interaction with PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism].

    PubMed

    An, B Q; Jiang, M; Cheng, Y T; Yuan, C; Lu, L L; Xin, Y N; Xuan, S Y

    2016-05-20

    To investigate the influence of leptin receptor (LEPR) gene K109R polymorphism on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its interaction with PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism in the Han Chinese population in Qingdao, China. Blood samples were collected from 296 NAFLD patients and 321 healthy controls, and the genotypes of these patients were determined by PCR and genotyping. Related statistical analyses were performed to compare genotypes, alleles, and clinical data between the two groups. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to investigate the interaction between LEPR K109R and PNPLA3 I148M genes. The distribution of LEPR K109R genotypes and alleles showed no significant differences between the NAFLD group and the control group (P > 0.05). PNPLA3 I148M gene polymorphisms were closely associated with the risk of NAFLD, and the risk of NAFLD in G mutant gene carriers was 2.07 times that in patients who did not carry this gene (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.423-3.013, P < 0.001). The joint action of LEPR K109R and PNPLA3 I148M significantly increased the risk of NAFL (OR = 3.393, 95% CI 1.856-6.201, P < 0.001). In the Han Chinese population in Qingdao, LEPR K109R gene polymorphism is not associated with the risk of NAFLD, but its interaction with PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism can significantly increase the risk of NAFLD.

  16. PERB11 (MIC): a polymorphic MHC gene is expressed in skin and single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Tay, G K; Hui, J; Gaudieri, S; Schmitt-Egenolf, M; Martinez, O P; Leelayuwat, C; Williamson, J F; Eiermann, T H; Dawkins, R L

    2000-01-01

    The susceptibility genes for psoriasis remain to be identified. At least one of these must be in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to explain associations with alleles at human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and C4. In fact, most of these alleles are components of just two ancestral haplotypes (AHs) designated 13.1 and 57.1. Although relevant MHC gene(s) could be within a region of at least 4 Mb, most studies have favoured the area near HLA-B and -C. This region contains a large number of non-HLA genes, many of which are duplicated and polymorphic. Members of one such gene family, PERB11.1 and PERB11.2, are expressed in the skin and are encoded in the region between tumour necrosis factor and HLA-B. To investigate the relationship of PERB11.1 alleles to psoriasis, sequence based typing was performed on 97 patients classified according to age of onset and family history. The frequency of the PERB11.1*06 allele is 44% in type I psoriasis but only 7% in controls (Pc = 0.003 by Fisher's exact test, two-tailed). The major determinant of this association is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within intron 4. In normal and affected skin, expression of PERB11 is mainly in the basal layer of the epidermis including ducts and follicles. PERB11 is also present in the upper keratin layers but there is relative deficiency in the intermediate layers. These findings suggest a possible role for PERB11 and other MHC genes in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:10691930

  17. TERT rs2736098 polymorphism and cancer risk: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hao-Yu; Zou, Peng; Zhao, Lin; Zhu, Jue; Gu, Ai-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated associations between the TERT rs2736098 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to cancer development. However, there are conflicting results. A systematic meta-analysis was therefore performed to establish the cancer risk associated with the polymorphism. In this meta-analysis, a total of 6 case-control studies, including 5,567 cases and 6,191 controls, were included. Crude odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of associations in several genetic models. Our results showed no association reaching the level of statistical significance for overall risk. Interestingly, in the stratified analyses (subdivided by ethnicity), significantly increased risks were found in the Asian subgroup which indicates the TERT rs2736098 polymorphism may have controversial involvement in cancer susceptibility. Overall, this meta-analysis indicates that the TERT rs2736098 polymorphism may have little involvement in cancer susceptibility.

  18. Lack of associations between AURKA gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jue; Qian, Yuanmin; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zeng, Jia-Hang; Liang, Jiang-Hua; Wang, Hui; Xia, Huimin; He, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2018-05-29

    Previous studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the AURKA gene are associated with various types of cancer. In neuroblastoma, AURKA protein product regulates N-myc protein levels and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the association between three AURKA polymorphisms (rs1047972 C>T, rs2273535 T>A, and rs8173 G>C) and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese populations, we performed this two-center case-control study including 393 neuroblastoma cases and 812 controls. Two study populations were recruited from two different regions in China. No significant associations were identified amongst any of the three AURKA polymorphisms and the risk of neuroblastoma. Similar observations were found in the stratified analysis. In conclusion, our results indicate that none of the AURKA polymorphisms are associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility in two distinct Chinese populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are warranted to validate our results. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Perilipin polymorphism interacts with dietary carbohydrates to modulate anthropometric traits in Hispanics of Caribbean origin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perilipin (PLIN) is the major protein surrounding lipid droplets in adipocytes and regulates adipocyte metabolism by modulating the interaction between lipases and triacylglycerol stores. Associations between PLIN gene polymorphisms and obesity risk have been described, but interactions with die...

  20. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gokcen, Cem; Kocak, Nadir; Pekgor, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Turkish children. Study Design: MTHFR gene polymorphisms were assessed in 40 patients with ADHD and 30 healty controls. Two mutations in the MTHFR gene were investigated using polymerase chain reactions and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Results: Although there were no statistically significant differences in genotype distributions of the C677T alleles between the ADHD and the control groups (p=0,678) but the genotypic pattern of the distributions of the A1298C alleles was different between the ADHD patients and the controls (p=0,033). Conclusions: Preliminary data imply a possible relationship between A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and the ADHD. PMID:21897766

  1. Polymorph selection: the role of nucleation, crystal growth and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Deniz; Lee, Alfred Y; Myerson, Allan S

    2007-11-01

    Solution crystallization is an important separation and purification process used in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The quality of a crystalline product is generally judged by four main criteria: purity, crystal habit, particle size and solid form. Consistent production of the desired polymorph is crucial as the unanticipated emergence of a different crystal form may have severe consequences. Thus, the selection of a solid-state form for a crystalline product is vital and is ultimately based on knowledge of the properties of the other polymorphs. This review discusses the role of nucleation, crystal growth and molecular modeling on polymorphism in molecular crystals. Examples are presented demonstrating how the first two factors can govern the appearance of a particular crystalline form, and how the latter factor can be used as a tool for understanding polymorphism.

  2. Some new forms of pyemotes (Acarina:pyemotidae) from forest insects, with remarks on polymorphism

    Treesearch

    Earle A. Cross; John C. Moser; Gisela Rack

    1981-01-01

    Three new species of Pyemotes, P. giganticus, P. tuberculatus and P. emarginatus are described, as is the male of P. dryas (Vitzthum, 1923). Male P. dryas and both sexes of P. giganticus are polymorphic. A short, general discussion of...

  3. Some new forms of Pysmotes (Acarina: Pyemotidae) from forest insects with remarks on polymorphism

    Treesearch

    Earle A. Cross; John C. Moser; Gisela Rack

    1981-01-01

    Three new species of Pyemotes, P. giganticus, P. tuberculatus and P. emarginatus are described, as is the male of P. dryas (Vitzthum, 1923). Male P. dryas and both sexes of P. giganticus are polymorphic. A short, general discussion of...

  4. AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprintin...

  5. Investigation on the association between NLRP3 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to primary gout.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Ding, Y J; Zhao, Q; Zhang, X L

    2015-12-09

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between 3 common NALP3 polymorphisms (rs10754558, rs7512998, and rs12137901) and the susceptibility to primary gout. A total of 320 patients with primary gout and 320 controls were included in this study. The genotyping of NALP3 rs10754558, rs7512998, and rs12137901 were conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Comparison analysis showed that primary gout patients were more likely to have higher body mass index, prevalence of hypertension, blood glucose, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and uric acid (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the NALP3 rs10754558, rs7512998, and rs12137901 polymorphisms and the risk of gouty arthritis. In conclusion, we found no significant association between NALP3 gene polymorphisms and the risk of primary gout.

  6. Estrogen Receptor 1 ( ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity Phenotypes in a Population of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is considered an increasingly serious health problem determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Estrogens have been found to play a major role in body weight and adiposity regulation through estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1). The aim of this study was to determine whether genotype and haplotype frequencies of ESR1 polymorphisms are associated with body composition measures in a population of 572 young adults. A lack of significant association between genotypes of ESR1 gene polymorphisms and obesity phenotypes was seen after adjustment for confounding factors. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis identified a single LD block for the ESR1 gene including PvuII and XbaI single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (pairwise r 2 = .66). None of the haplotypes identified revealed statistically significant associations with any of the obesity phenotypes. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene do not contribute significantly to the genetic risk for obesity phenotypes in a population of young Caucasian adults.

  7. [Analysis on genetic polymorphism of 5 STR loci selected from X chromosome].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-ji; Gong, Yao-qin; Zhang, Xi-yu; Gao, Gui-min; Li, Jiang-xia; Guo, Yi-shou

    2005-02-01

    To select short tandem repeats(STR) from X chromosome. STR is a universal genetic marker that has changeable polymorphism and stable heredity in human genome. It is a specific DNA segment composed of 2-6 base pairs as its core sequence. It is an ideal DNA marker used in linkage analysis and gene mapping. In this study, 8 short tandem repeats were selected from two genomic clones on X chromosome by using BCM Search Launcher. Primers amplifying the STR loci were designed by using Primer 3.0 according to the unique sequence flanking the STRs. Polymorphisms of the short tandem repeats in Chinese population were evaluated by PCR amplification and PAGE. Five of these STRs were polymorphic. Chi-square test indicated that the distribution of genotypes agreed with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Five polymorphic short tandem repeats have been identified on chromosome X and will be useful for linkage analysis and gene mapping.

  8. Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: Two cases, two different gene polymorphisms and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Turan, Özden; Anuk-İnce, Deniz; Olcay, Lale; Sezer, Taner; Gülleroğlu, Kaan; Yılmaz-Çelik, Zerrin; Ecevit, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    Turan Ö, Anuk-İnce D, Olcay L, Sezer T, Gülleroğlu K, Yılmaz-Çelik Z, Ecevit A. Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: Two cases, two different gene polymorphisms and risk factors. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 71-75. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare disease in the neonatal period and also the greatest risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In this report, we presented two cases with CSVT and different risk factors. One of these cases had methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T homozygous polymorphism and the other case had both MTHFR A1298C homozygous polymorphism, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/ 5G polymorphism and elevated lipoprotein a. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy of neonatal CSVT may prevent neonatal mortality and poor long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  9. Association study between XRCC1 gene polymorphisms and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Fabbrizi, Maria Rita; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Corti, Stefania; Mezzina, Nicoletta; del Bo, Roberto; Comi, Giacomo P; Siciliano, Gabriele; Migliore, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible contribution of three common functional polymorphisms in the DNA repair protein X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), namely Arg194Trp (rs1799782), Arg280His (rs25489) and Arg399Gln (rs25487), to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). We genotyped 206 Italian SALS patients and 203 matched controls for XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln polymorphisms by means of PCR/RFLP technique, searching for association between any of the studied polymorphisms and disease risk, age and site of onset. We observed a statistically significant difference in XRCC1 Gln399 allele frequencies between SALS cases and controls (0.39/0.28; p=0.001). The present study suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might contribute to SALS risk.

  10. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphism, but not concentrations, is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...

  11. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  12. Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Contu, Simone S; Agnes, Grasiela; Damin, Andrea P; Contu, Paulo C; Rosito, Mário A; Alexandre, Claudio O; Damin, Daniel C

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of anal cancer. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive anal carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with anal cancer, and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls. No significant differences in distribution of the codon 72 genotypes between patients and controls were found. CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in anal carcinogenesis. PMID:19777616

  13. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  14. An ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bedu-Addo, George; Meese, Stefanie; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2013-05-15

    Polymorphisms of ATP2B4 encoding an ubiquitous Ca(2+) pump protect against severe childhood malaria. We assessed the influence of a main polymorphism (rs10900585) on malaria among 834 delivering Ghanaian women. In homozygous primiparae, the odds of placental Plasmodium falciparum infection were reduced by 64%. No influence of the polymorphism on parasite density, low birth weight, or preterm delivery was discernible. However, malarial anemia was greatly reduced in primiparous carriers of the variant allele, paralleling the reduced impact of malaria on hemoglobin levels in this group. A common ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy and related maternal anemia, suggesting ATP2B4 variant associated protection not to be limited to severe childhood malaria.

  15. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie-hong; Zhang, Ji-shun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ren-gang; Wu, Chun; Fan, Long-jiang; Ren, Xue-liang

    2011-11-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth, development, and polyploidization. However, there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics. We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions, among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic. A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups. In addition, three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored. This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits.

  16. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie-hong; Zhang, Ji-shun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Ren-gang; Wu, Chun; Fan, Long-jiang; Ren, Xue-liang

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth, development, and polyploidization. However, there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics. We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions, among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic. A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups. In addition, three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored. This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits. PMID:22042659

  17. Intrapopulation polymorphism in Anopheles messeae (An. maculipennis complex) inferred by molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Marco; Boccolini, Daniela; Marinuccil, Marino; Romi, Roberto

    2004-07-01

    We evaluated the internal transcribed spacer two (ITS2) sequence to detect intraspecific polymorphism in the Palearctic Anopheles maculipennis complex, analyzing 52 populations from 12 countries and representing six species. For An. messene, two fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were also evaluated. The results were compared with GenBank sequences and data from the literature. ITS2 analysis revealed evident intraspecific polymorphism for An. messeae and a slightly less evident polymorphism for An. melanoon, whereas for each of the other species, 100% identity was found among populations. ITS2 analysis of An. messeae identified five haplotypes that were consistent with the geographical origin of the populations. ITS2 seems to be a reliable marker of intraspecific polymorphism for this complex, whereas the COI gene is apparently uninformative.

  18. A comparative study of two polymorphs of L-aspartic acid hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Benali-Cherif, Rim; Takouachet, Radhwane; Bendeif, El-Eulmi; Benali-Cherif, Nourredine

    2014-07-01

    Two polymorphs of L-aspartic acid hydrochloride, C4H8NO4(+)·Cl(-), were obtained from the same aqueous solution. Their crystal structures have been determined from single-crystal data collected at 100 K. The crystal structures revealed three- and two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks for the triclinic and orthorhombic polymorphs, respectively. The cations and anions are connected to one another via N-H···Cl and O-H···Cl interactions and form alternating cation-anion layer-like structures. The two polymorphs share common structural features; however, the conformations of the L-aspartate cations and the crystal packings are different. Furthermore, the molecular packing of the orthorhombic polymorph contains more interesting interactions which seems to be a favourable factor for more efficient charge transfer within the crystal.

  19. Differentiation of animal fats from different origins: use of polymorphic features detected by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Michiyo; Ando, Masahiro; Sasaki, Keisuke; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O

    2010-11-01

    Food safety requires the development of reliable techniques that ensure the origin of animal fats. In the present work, we try to verify the efficacy of using the polymorphic features of fats for discriminating animal-fat origins. We use Raman spectroscopy to collect the structural information of fat crystals. It is shown that a single Raman band at 1417 cm(-1) successfully differentiates pork fats from beef fats. This band is known to be characteristic of the β'-polymorph of fats. Pork fats show this band because they contain the β'-polymorph after rapid cooling to 0 °C. In beef-pork-fat mixtures, this band is not detected even in the presence of 50% pork fat; an addition of beef fat to pork fat is likely to produce a mixed fat with a completely different polymorphic behavior. This method seems to have the potential to detect beef products contaminated with pork-adipose tissue.

  20. No association between polymorphisms in the DDC gene and paranoid schizophrenia in a northern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boyu; Jia, Yanbin; Yuan, Yanbo; Yu, Xin; Xu, Qi; Shen, Yucun; Shen, Yan

    2004-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that dysfunctions of neurotransmitters are associated with schizophrenia. DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is an enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin, and indirectly in the synthesis of noradrenaline. Therefore, the DDC gene can be considered a candidate gene for schizophrenia. We performed an association study between three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DDC gene and paranoid schizophrenia. However, in our study no significant differences were found in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies between 80 paranoid schizophrenics and 108 controls for any of the polymorphisms. Neither did the haplotypes of the single nucleotide polymorphisms show any association with paranoid schizophrenia. Therefore, we conclude that the polymorphisms studied do not play a major role in paranoid schizophrenia pathogenesis in the population investigated.

  1. Fragment length polymorphisms among independent isolates of Epstein-Barr virus from immunocompromised and normal hosts.

    PubMed

    Katz, B Z; Niederman, J C; Olson, B A; Miller, G

    1988-02-01

    DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA were used as a molecular epidemiological tool to study multiple isolates of virus from the same and different individuals. We studied 35 EBV isolates: 19 from seven immunocompromised children and 16 from seven college students with mononucleosis. Analysis of the fragment length polymorphisms in this collection of isolates permitted several conclusions. Sites of polymorphism were most often encountered in regions with repetitive DNA. Epidemiologically unrelated patients harbored viruses that could be readily distinguished; by contrast, two infants and their mothers harbored similar viruses. Isolates from different sites in the same patient were similar. Variations between different clinical isolates of EBV mimic those found between different laboratory strains of the virus. Fragment length polymorphisms thus provide a useful marker for studying transmission and pathogenesis of EBV infections.

  2. APOE, MTHFR, LDLR and ACE polymorphisms among Angami and Lotha Naga populations of Nagaland, India.

    PubMed

    Murry, Benrithung; Vakha, Neikethono; Achoubi, Nongthombam; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2011-12-01

    Several common polymorphisms in the ApoE, ACE, MTHFR and LDLR genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of common complex diseases across world populations. This study investigates the prevalence of five known and clinically important common polymorphisms in Angami and Lotha Naga populations. A total of 112 unrelated healthy volunteers (52 Lotha Nagas and 60 Angami Nagas) participated in the study. All the five genes were found to be polymorphic in the studied populations. The Lotha Nagas displayed higher mutant allele frequencies than the Angami Nagas except for the T allele frequency of the AvaII polymorphism of the LDLR gene, though chi square did not reveal any significant population differences by genotypes. In view of the relatively high mutant allele frequencies in both the populations, they are likely to be at a high risk of developing various complex diseases as they shift from an active and rigorous lifestyle to a more sedentary one.

  3. Characterization of polymorphic chloroplast microsatellites in Prunus species and maternal lineages in peach genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several available Prunus chloroplast genomes have not been exploited to develop polymorphic chloroplast microsatellites that could be useful in Prunus maternal lineage and phylogenetic analysis. In this study, using available bioinformatics tools, 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites were identified from ...

  4. First principles study of pressure induced polymorphic phase transition in KNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-06-01

    We report the structural, elastic, electronic, and vibrational properties of polymorphic phases II and III of KNO3 based on density functional theory (DFT). Using semi-empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D2) method, we predicted the correct thermodynamic ground state of KNO3 and the obtained ground state properties of the polymorphs are in good agreement with the experiments. We further used this method to calculate the elastic constants, IR and Raman spectra, vibrational frequencies and their assignment of these polymorphs. The calculated Tran Blaha-modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) electronic structure shows that both the polymorphic phases are direct band gap insulators with mixed ionic and covalent bonding. Also the TB-mBJ band gaps are improved over standard DFT functionals which are comparable with the available experiments.

  5. Solid-state NMR and IR for the analysis of pharmaceutical solids: polymorphs of fosinopril sodium.

    PubMed

    Brittain, H G; Morris, K R; Bugay, D E; Thakur, A B; Serajuddin, A T

    1993-01-01

    The two polymorphic modifications of fosinopril sodium have been characterized as to their differences in melting behaviour, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and solid-state 31P- and 13C-NMR spectra. The polymorphs were found to be enantiotropically related based upon melting point, heat of fusion, and solution mediated transformation data. Analysis of the solid-state FTIR and 13C-NMR data indicated that the environment of the acetal side chain of fosinopril sodium differed in two polymorphs, and that there might be cis-trans isomerization about the C6-N peptide bond. These conformational differences are postulated as the origin of the observed polymorphism.

  6. Genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Keles, Erol; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Ozercan, Ibrahim; Akyol, Hatice; Sakallioglu, Oner; Karlidag, Turgut; Polat, Cahit; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Yalcin, Sinasi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses, and its pathophysiology is not yet precisely known. It is suggested that oxygen free radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. This study aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase (SOD 2), catalase (CAT), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP patients; the study also aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes on CRSwNP etiopathogenesis. One hundred thirty patients, who received endoscopic sinus surgery due to CRSwNP, and 188 control individuals were included in this study. Nasal polyp tissues were divided into two groups histopathologically as eosinophilic CRSwNP and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP. Venous blood samples were taken from the patient and control groups. Polymorphisms in the Ala16Va1 gene, which is the most common variation of SOD-2 gene, and 21 A/T polymorphisms in catalase gene were evaluated with the restriction fragment length polymorphism method and -277 C/T polymorphism in the iNOS gene was evaluated with the DNA sequencing method. The GG genotype distribution for the (-277) A/G polymorphism in the iNOS gene was a statistically significant difference between eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p < 0.05). The CC genotype distribution for the SOD2 A16V (C/T) polymorphism was not statistically significant in all groups (p > 0.05). The TT genotype distribution for the A/T polymorphism in catalase gene at position -21 was statistically significant differences in eosinophilic CRSwNP and control groups (p < 0.05). Increased free oxygen radical levels, which are considered effective factors in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, can occur due to genetic polymorphism of enzymes in the antioxidant system and genetic polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes in eosinophilic CRSwNP patients might contribute to the

  7. G Allele of the IGF2 ApaI Polymorphism Is Associated With Judo Status.

    PubMed

    Itaka, Toshio; Agemizu, Kenichiro; Aruga, Seiji; Machida, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Itaka, T, Agemizu, K, Aruga, S, and Machida, S. G allele of the IGF2 ApaI polymorphism is associated with judo status. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2043-2048, 2016-Previous studies have reported that the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) ApaI polymorphism is associated with body mass index, fat mass, and grip strength. Competitive judo requires high levels of strength and power. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the IGF2 ApaI and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and judo status. The subjects were 156 male judo athletes from a top-level university in Japan. They were divided into 3 groups based on their competitive history: international-level athletes, national-level athletes, and others. Genomic DNA was extracted from the saliva of each athlete, and the maximal isometric strength of the trunk muscles and handgrip strength were measured. Genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect IGF2 (rs680) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) (rs1815739) gene polymorphisms. The genotype frequencies of the 2 gene polymorphisms were compared among the 3 groups of judo athletes and controls. International-level judo athletes showed a higher frequency of the GG + GA genotype of the IGF2 gene than that of the national-level athletes and others. There was an inverse linear correlation between the frequency of the IGF2 AA genotype and level of judo performance (p = 0.041). Back muscle strength relative to height and weight was higher in subjects with the GG + GA genotype than in those with the AA genotype. Conversely, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with judo status. Additionally, no differences were found in back muscle or handgrip strength among the ACTN3 genotypes. In conclusion, the results indicate that the IGF2 gene polymorphism may be associated with judo status.

  8. Mismatch repair gene MSH3 polymorphism is associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Hinoda, Yuji; Kawamoto, Ken; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Suehiro, Yutaka; Okayama, Naoko; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2008-05-01

    The mismatch repair system is a DNA repair mechanism that corrects mispaired bases during DNA replication errors. Cancer cells deficient in MMR proteins have a 10(2) to 10(3)-fold increase in the mutation rate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of mismatch repair genes have been shown to cause a decrease in DNA repair activity. We hypothesized that mismatch repair gene polymorphism could be a risk factor for prostate cancer and p53 Pro/Pro genotype carriers could influence MSH3 and MSH6 polymorphisms. DNA samples from 110 patients with prostate cancer and 110 healthy controls were analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to determine the genotypic frequency of 5 polymorphic loci on 2 MMR genes (MSH3 and MSH6) and p53 codon72. The chi-square test was applied to compare genotype frequency between patients and controls. A significant increase in the G/A+A/A genotype of MSH3 Pro222Pro was observed in patients compared to controls (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.0-3.5). The frequency of A/G + G/G genotypes of MSH3 exon23 Thr1036Ala also tended to increase in patients (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.92-2.72). In p53 codon72 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro carriers the frequency of the AG + GG genotype of MSH3 exon23 was significantly increased in patients compared to controls (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.05-4.34). To our knowledge this is the first report of the association of MSH3 gene polymorphisms in prostate cancer. These results suggest that the MSH3 polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer.

  9. Gender-related survival differences associated with EGFR polymorphisms in metastatic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Press, Oliver A; Zhang, Wu; Gordon, Michael A; Yang, Dongyun; Lurje, Georg; Iqbal, Syma; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2008-04-15

    Evidence is accumulating supporting gender-related differences in the development of colonic carcinomas. Sex steroid hormone receptors are expressed in the colon and interact with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene widely expressed in colonic tissue. Increased EGFR expression is linked with poor prognosis in colon cancer. Within the EGFR gene there are two functional polymorphisms of interest: a polymorphism located at codon 497 (HER-1 R497K) and a dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat polymorphism located within intron 1. These germ-line polymorphisms of EGFR were analyzed in genomic DNA from 318 metastatic colon cancer patients, 177 males and 141 females, collected from 1992 to 2003. Gender-related survival differences were associated with the HER-1 R497K polymorphism (P(interaction) = 0.003). Females with the HER-1 497 Arg/Arg variant had better overall survival (OS) when compared with the Lys/Lys and/or Lys/Arg variants. In males the opposite was true. The EGFR dinucleotide (CA)(n) repeat also trended with a gender-related OS difference (P(interaction) = 0.11). Females with both short <20 (CA)(n) repeat alleles had better OS than those with any long >or=20 (CA)(n) repeats. In males the opposite was true. Combination analysis of the two polymorphisms taken together also revealed the same gender-related survival difference (P(interaction) = 0.002). These associations were observed using multivariable analysis. The two polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium and are independent of one another. This study supports the role of functional EGFR polymorphisms as independent prognostic markers in metastatic colon cancer. As a prognostic factor, these variants had opposite prognostic implications based on gender.

  10. A meta-analysis of data associating DRD4 gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-Ling; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Bao-Jie; Yao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To explore the association between DRD4 polymorphisms and schizophrenia risk, a meta-analysis was carried out with 41 case-control articles. Specifically, we included 28 articles (5,735 cases and 5,278 controls) that pertained to the 48 bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism, nine articles (1,517 cases and 1,746 controls) that corresponded to the 12 bp tandem repeat (TR), six articles (1,912 cases and 1,836 controls) that addressed the 120 bp TR, 10 articles (2,927 cases and 2,938 controls) that entailed the -521 C>T polymorphism, six articles (1,735 cases and 1,724 controls) that pertained to the -616 C>G polymorphism, and four articles (1,191 cases and 1,215 controls) that involved the -376 C>T polymorphism. Pooled analysis, subgroup analysis, and sensitivity analysis were performed, and the data were visualized by means of forest and funnel plots. Results of pooled analysis indicated that the -521 CC variant ( P z =0.009, odds ratio [OR] =1.218, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.050-1.413) and genotype L/L (ie, long allele) of the 120 bp TR were risk factors of schizophrenia ( P z =0.004, OR =1.275, 95% CI =1.081-1.504). The 48 bp VNTR, the 12 bp TR, the -616 C>G polymorphism, and the -376 C>T polymorphism were not associated with schizophrenia. Additional research is warranted to explore the association between polymorphisms of DRD4 and schizophrenia risk.

  11. To evaluate the effect of various magnesium stearate polymorphs using powder rheology and thermal analysis.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Patrick; Wu, Stephen H; Dave, Rutesh H

    2012-12-01

    The effects of magnesium stearate (MgSt) polymorphs-anhydrate (MgSt-A), monohydrate (MgSt-M), and dihydrate (MgSt-D)-on rheological properties of powders were evaluated using techniques such as atomic analysis and powder rheometry. Additional evaluation was conducted using thermal analysis, micromeritics, and tableting forces. In this study, binary ratios of neat MgSt polymorphs were employed as lubricants in powder blends containing acetaminophen (APAP), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose monohydrate (LAC-M). Powder rheometry was studied using permeability, basic flow energy (BFE), density, and porosity analysis. Thermal conductivity and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of MgSt polymorphs were employed to elucidate MgSt effect on powder blends. The impact of MgSt polymorphs on compaction characteristics were analyzed via tablet compression forces. Finally, the distribution of atomized magnesium (Mg) ions as a function of intensity was evaluated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on tablets. The results from LIBS analysis indicated the dependency of the MgSt polymorphic forms on the atomized Mg ion intensity, with higher Mg ion intensity suggesting higher lubricity index (i.e. greater propensity to over-lubricate). The results from lubricity index suggested the tendency of blends to over-lubricate based on the MgSt polymorphic forms. Finally, tableting forces suggested that MgSt-D and MgSt-A offered processing benefits such as lower ejection and compression forces, and that MgSt-M showed the most stable compression force in single or combined polymorphic ratios. These results suggested that the initial moisture content, crystal arrangement, intra- and inter-molecular packing of the polymorphs defined their effects on the rheology of lubricated powders.

  12. Unsupportive social interactions and affective states: examining associations of two oxytocin-related polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Opal A; McQuaid, Robyn J; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2017-01-01

    Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on oxytocin-related genes, specifically the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs53576 and the CD38 rs3796863 variants, have been associated with alterations in prosocial behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate students (N = 476) to examine associations between the OXTR and CD38 polymorphisms and unsupportive social interactions and mood states. Results revealed no association between perceived levels of unsupportive social interactions and the OXTR polymorphism. However, A carriers of the CD38 polymorphism, a variant previously associated with elevated oxytocin, reported greater perceived peer unsupportive interactions compared to CC carriers. As expected, perceived unsupportive interactions from peers was associated with greater negative affect, which was moderated by the CD38 polymorphism. Specifically, this relation was stronger among CC carriers of the CD38 polymorphism (a variant thought to be linked to lower oxytocin). When examining whether the OXTR polymorphism moderated the relation between unsupportive social interactions from peers and negative affect there was a trend toward significance, however, this did not withstand multiple testing corrections. These findings are consistent with the perspective that a variant on an oxytocin polymorphism that may be tied to lower oxytocin is related to poor mood outcomes in association with negative social interactions. At the same time, having a genetic constitution presumed to be associated with higher oxytocin was related to increased perceptions of unsupportive social interactions. These seemingly paradoxical findings could be related to previous reports in which variants associated with prosocial behaviors were also tied to relatively more effective coping styles to deal with challenges.

  13. Association of Gene Polymorphisms in Interleukin 6 in Infantile Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Babusikova, Eva; Jurecekova, Jana; Jesenak, Milos; Evinova, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The genetic background of bronchial asthma is complex, and it is likely that multiple genes contribute to its development both directly and through gene-gene interactions. Cytokines contribute to different aspects of asthma, as they determine the type, severity and outcomes of asthma pathogenesis. Allergic asthmatics undergoing an asthmatic attack exhibit significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins and chemokines. In recent years, cytokines and their receptors have been shown to be highly polymorphic, and this prompted us to investigate interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms at position -174G/C (rs1800795) and at -572G/C (rs1800796) in relation to asthma in children. Interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms were analyzed in bronchial asthma patients and healthy children using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We observed a significant association between polymorphism at -174G/C and bronchial asthma (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 2.045-5.638, P<.001). Higher associations between polymorphism at IL-6 -174G/C and bronchial asthma were observed in atopic patients (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 2.308-7.280, P<8.10 -7 ). Interleukin 6 polymorphism is associated with bronchial asthma, particularly its atopic phenotype. Expression and secretion of interleukins in asthmatic patients may be affected by genetic polymorphisms, and could have a disease-modifying effect in the asthmatic airway and modify the therapeutic response. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Excess amino acid polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA: contrasts among genes from Drosophila, mice, and humans.

    PubMed

    Rand, D M; Kann, L M

    1996-07-01

    Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in mammals and Drosophila have shown an excess of amino acid variation within species (replacement polymorphism) relative to the number of silent and replacement differences fixed between species. To examine further this pattern of nonneutral mtDNA evolution, we present sequence data for the ND3 and ND5 genes from 59 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and 29 lines of D. simulans. Of interest are the frequency spectra of silent and replacement polymorphisms, and potential variation among genes and taxa in the departures from neutral expectations. The Drosophila ND3 and ND5 data show no significant excess of replacement polymorphism using the McDonald-Kreitman test. These data are in contrast to significant departures from neutrality for the ND3 gene in mammals and other genes in Drosophila mtDNA (cytochrome b and ATPase 6). Pooled across genes, however, both Drosophila and human mtDNA show very significant excesses of amino acid polymorphism. Silent polymorphisms at ND5 show a significantly higher variance in frequency than replacement polymorphisms, and the latter show a significant skew toward low frequencies (Tajima's D = -1.954). These patterns are interpreted in light of the nearly neutral theory where mildly deleterious amino acid haplotypes are observed as ephemeral variants within species but do not contribute to divergence. The patterns of polymorphism and divergence at charge-altering amino acid sites are presented for the Drosophila ND5 gene to examine the evolution of functionally distinct mutations. Excess charge-altering polymorphism is observed at the carboxyl terminal and excess charge-altering divergence is detected at the amino terminal. While the mildly deleterious model fits as a net effect in the evolution of nonrecombining mitochondrial genomes, these data suggest that opposing evolutionary pressures may act on different regions of mitochondrial genes and genomes.

  15. Genetic polymorphism in postoperative sepsis after open heart surgery in infants.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Dicky; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Murni, Tri Wahyu; Rachmat, Jusuf; Harahap, Alida Roswita; Rahayuningsih, Sri Endah; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Santoso, Anwar

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis is one of the complications following open heart surgery. Toll-like receptor 2 and toll-interacting protein polymorphism influence the immune response after open heart surgery. This study aimed to assess the genetic distribution of toll-like receptor 2 N199N and toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism in the development of postoperative sepsis. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 108 children <1-year old who underwent open heart surgery with a Basic Aristotle score ≥6. Patients with an accompanying congenital anomaly, human immunodeficiency virus infection, or history of previous open heart surgery were excluded. The patients' nutritional status and genetic polymorphism were assessed prior to surgery. The results of genetic polymorphism were obtained through genotyping. Patients' ages on the day of surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass times were recorded. The diagnosis of sepsis was established according to Surviving Sepsis Campaign criteria. Postoperative sepsis was observed in 21% of patients. There were 92.6% patients with toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism and 52.8% with toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism. Toll-like receptor 2 N199N polymorphism tends to increase the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 1.974; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-16.92; p = 0.504), while toll-interacting protein rs5743867 polymorphism tends to decrease the risk of sepsis (odds ratio = 0.496; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.27; p = 0.139) in infants <1-year old undergoing complex open heart surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphism modulates phenotypic expression in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre; Hersberger, Martin; Truninger, Kaspar; Müllhaupt, Beat; Maly, Friedrich E; Bargetzi, Mario; Schulthess, Georg

    2010-07-01

    Clinical penetrance of hereditary hemochromatosis is highly variable. We hypothesized that it might be modified by factors involved in the cellular immune response, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) or nucleotide oligomerization domain proteins (NODs). Clinical expression of hemochromatosis was assessed as a function of TLR4, TLR9, and NOD2 polymorphisms in 99 homozygous carriers of the HFE C282Y mutation with mild-to-severe iron overload. Thirteen (13%) of the 99 hemochromatosis patients were heterozygous for a TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism and 86 (87%) were TLR4 wild-type-only carriers. Clinical expression of hemochromatosis was observed more frequently in carriers of the TLR4 polymorphism (100%) than in TLR4 wild-type carriers (56%, P = 0.002). This was based on higher prevalences of liver disease (92 vs. 45%, P = 0.002) and arthropathy of metacarpophalangeal joints (69 vs. 35%, P = 0.018) in TLR4 polymorphism carriers. The finding was strengthened by the strong association of TLR4 polymorphism with liver fibrosis in the subgroup of 52 patients who underwent a liver biopsy (P = 0.011). The TLR4 polymorphism did, however, not correlate with body iron overload. The study results remained significant in multiple regression analyses after excluding possible confounding effects, such as age, sex, alcohol, or meat intake, and in the subgroup of 84 patients presenting as the first members of their families. TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism modulates clinical expression in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis. The polymorphism does not correlate with iron overload suggesting that TLR4 plays a role in an inflammatory process arising from toxic effects of iron accumulation.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene and cerebral infarction risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Hua; Gao, Lian-Bo; Wen, Jia-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A number of studies have documented that estrogen receptor α (ESR1) may play an important role in the development and progression of cerebral infarction, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ESR1 genetic polymorphisms and cerebral infarction risk. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before October 1, 2013, without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Seven case-control studies were included with a total of 1471 patients with cerebral infarction and 4688 healthy control subjects. Two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene (rs2234693 T>C and rs9340799 A>G) were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ESR1 genetic polymorphisms might increase the risk of cerebral infarction. Subgroup analysis by SNP type indicated that both rs2234693 and rs9340799 polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene were strongly associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction. Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significant associations between ESR1 genetic polymorphisms and increased risk of ce