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Sample records for a1at deficiency compared

  1. Proteomic and comparative genomic analysis reveals adaptability of Brassica napus to phosphorus-deficient stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuisen; Ding, Guangda; Wang, Zhenhua; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2015-03-18

    Given low solubility and immobility in many soils of the world, phosphorus (P) may be the most widely studied macronutrient for plants. In an attempt to gain an insight into the adaptability of Brassica napus to P deficiency, proteome alterations of roots and leaves in two B. napus contrasting genotypes, P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' and P-inefficient 'B104-2', under long-term low P stress and short-term P-free starvation conditions were investigated, and proteomic combined with comparative genomic analyses were conducted to interpret the interrelation of differential abundance protein species (DAPs) responding to P deficiency with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P deficiency tolerance. P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' had higher dry weight and P content, and showed high tolerance to low P stress compared with P-inefficient 'B104-2'. A total of 146 DAPs were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, which were categorized into several groups including defense and stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, signaling and regulation, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, protein process, biogenesis and cellular component, and function unknown. 94 of 146 DAPs were mapped to a linkage map constructed by a B. napus population derived from a cross between the two genotypes, and 72 DAPs were located in the confidence intervals of QTLs for P efficiency related traits. We conclude that the identification of these DAPs and the co-location of DAPs with QTLs in the B. napus linkage genetic map provide us novel information in understanding the adaptability of B. napus to P deficiency, and helpful to isolate P-efficient genes in B. napus. Low P seriously limits the production and quality of B. napus. Proteomics and genetic linkage map were widely used to study the adaptive strategies of B. napus response to P deficiency, proteomic combined with comparative genetic analysis to investigate the correlations between DAPs and QTLs are scarce. Thus, we herein investigated

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Symbiotic Efficiency of Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa under Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P)-deficiency is a major abiotic stress that limits legume growth in many types of soils. The relationship between Medicago and Sinorhizobium, is known to be affected by different environmental conditions. Recent reports have shown that, in combination with S. meliloti 2011, Medicago truncatula had a lower symbiotic efficiency than Medicago sativa. However, little is known about how Medicago–Sinorhizobium is affected by P-deficiency at the whole-plant level. The objective of the present study was to compare and characterize the symbiotic efficiency of N2 fixation of M. truncatula and M. sativa grown in sand under P-limitation. Under this condition, M. truncatula exhibited a significantly higher rate of N2 fixation. The specific activity of the nodules was much higher in M. truncatula in comparison to M. sativa, partially as a result of an increase in electron allocation to N2versus H+. Although the main organic acid, succinate, exhibited a strong tendency to decrease under P-deficiency, the more efficient symbiotic ability observed in M. truncatula coincided with an apparent increase in the content of malate in its nodules. Our results indicate that the higher efficiency of the M. truncatula symbiotic system is related to the ability to increase malate content under limited P-conditions. PMID:23459233

  3. Deficiency of liver Comparative Gene Identification-58 causes steatohepatitis and fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Kadegowda, Anil K. G.; Betters, Jenna L.; Xie, Ping; Liu, George; Liu, Xiuli; Miao, Hongming; Ou, Juanjuan; Su, Xiong; Zheng, Zhenlin; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yu, Liqing

    2013-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes (hepatic steatosis) preludes the development of advanced nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLDs) such as steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Mutations in human Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) cause cytosolic TG-rich lipid droplets to accumulate in almost all cell types including hepatocytes. However, it is unclear if CGI-58 mutation causes hepatic steatosis locally or via altering lipid metabolism in other tissues. To directly address this question, we created liver-specific CGI-58 knockout (LivKO) mice. LivKO mice on standard chow diet displayed microvesicular and macrovesicular panlobular steatosis, and progressed to advanced NAFLD stages over time, including lobular inflammation and centrilobular fibrosis. Compared with CGI-58 floxed control littermates, LivKO mice showed 8-fold and 52-fold increases in hepatic TG content, which was associated with 40% and 58% decreases in hepatic TG hydrolase activity at 16 and 42 weeks, respectively. Hepatic cholesterol also increased significantly in LivKO mice. At 42 weeks, LivKO mice showed increased hepatic oxidative stress, plasma aminotransferases, and hepatic mRNAs for genes involved in fibrosis and inflammation, such as α-smooth muscle actin, collagen type 1 α1, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-1β. In conclusion, CGI-58 deficiency in the liver directly causes not only hepatic steatosis but also steatohepatitis and fibrosis. PMID:23733885

  4. Comparative study of Zn deficiency in L. sativa and B. oleracea plants: NH4(+) assimilation and nitrogen derived protective compounds.

    PubMed

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem in agricultural crops of many world regions. N metabolism plays an essential role in plants and changes in their availability and their metabolism could seriously affect crop productivity. The main objective of the present work was to perform a comparative analysis of different strategies against Zn deficiency between two plant species of great agronomic interest such as Lactuca sativa cv. Phillipus and Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. For this, both species were grown in hydroponic culture with different Zn doses: 10μM Zn as control and 0.01μM Zn as deficiency treatment. Zn deficiency treatment decreased foliar Zn concentration, although in greater extent in B. oleracea plants, and caused similar biomass reduction in both species. Zn deficiency negatively affected NO3(-) reduction and NH4(+) assimilation and enhanced photorespiration in both species. Pro and GB concentrations were reduced in L. sativa but they were increased in B. oleracea. Finally, the AAs profile changed in both species, highlighting a great increase in glycine (Gly) concentration in L. sativa plants. We conclude that L. sativa would be more suitable than B. oleracea for growing in soils with low availability of Zn since it is able to accumulate a higher Zn concentration in leaves with similar biomass reduction. However, B. oleracea is able to accumulate N derived protective compounds to cope with Zn deficiency stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Epidemic Vitamin D Deficiency in Prisoners Compared to the German Population: An Analysis Based on Laboratory Results].

    PubMed

    Pürner, Friedrich; Böhmer, Merle M; Wildner, Manfred

    2018-04-20

    Effects of long-term imprisonment on the vitamin D (vitD) status of prison inmates in Germany have not been systematically assessed so far. Special circumstances in prisons - little sunlight exposure combined with restricted outdoor activities - may lead to vitD deficiency among prisoners. The aim of this study was to assess the vitD status of prisoners and the general population in order to quantify the extent of vitD deficiency in both groups. VitD status (25(OH)D in blood serum samples) was assessed in female inmates of a prison in southern Germany between May 2012-June 2013. Suboptimal vitD status was defined as levels of 10-<20 µg/l, severe deficiency as<10 µg/l. A systematic literature search in PubMed was conducted in order to compare study results with vitD levels in the general population. Blood sera of 84 inmates (median age: 43 years; range: 19-75) were analyzed. Thirty women (36%) showed severe vitD deficiency, 47 (56%) suboptimal vitD levels. The literature search identified 10 studies which reported considerable vitD deficiency in the general population in Germany. VitD deficiency is very common in both prison inmates and the general population. Unlike prison inmates, the population is able to decide whether, when and how long they want to exposure to sunlight. Moreover, they can counteract deficiency via a nutrition rich in vitD. This is not possible for inmates. To prevent long-term effects of vitD deficiency, intake of vitD supplements during duration of imprisonment seems reasonable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Comparative Study of Antimalarial and Other Drugs on G6PD Deficient Red Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    33063 (1600 mg x day for 6 days) and WR 30090 (690 mg x day for 3- 6 days) demonstrated that these drugs were not hemolytic for G6PD deficient red cells...The studies concerning the effects of DFD on G6PD deficient red cells of the A- and B- variants were completed during the course of this contract...DFD is especially hemolytic even at low single dosages for G6PD deficient red cells of the B- type. The investigations on the new antimalarials WR

  7. Insulin deficiency with and without glucagon: A comparative study between total pancreatectomy and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Niwano, Fumimaru; Hiromine, Yoshihisa; Noso, Shinsuke; Babaya, Naru; Ito, Hiroyuki; Yasutake, Sara; Matsumoto, Ippei; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Kawabata, Yumiko; Ikegami, Hiroshi

    2017-12-30

    Patients with a total pancreatectomy and type 1 diabetes are similar in regard to absolute insulin deficiency, but different in regard to glucagon, providing a unique opportunity to study the contribution of glucagon to glucose metabolism in an insulin-dependent state. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of glucagon to glucose homeostasis in complete insulin deficiency in vivo. A total of 38 individuals with a complete lack of endogenous insulin (fasting C-peptide <0.0066 nmol/L) and whose glycemic control was optimized with an insulin pump during hospitalization were retrospectively studied. The basal insulin requirement, time-to-time adjustment of the basal insulin infusion rate, prandial insulin requirement and fasting plasma glucagon were compared between patients with a total pancreatectomy (n = 10) and those with type 1 diabetes (n = 28) after achievement of optimal glycemic control. Total daily insulin (P = 0.03) and basal insulin (P = 0.000006), but not prandial insulin requirements, were significantly lower in total pancreatectomy patients than in type 1 diabetes patients. The basal percentage (basal insulin/total daily insulin) was also significantly lower in total pancreatectomy patients than in type 1 diabetes patients (15.8 ± 7.8 vs 32.9 ± 10.1%, P = 0.00003). An increase in the insulin infusion rate early in the morning was not necessary in most patients with a pancreatectomy. The fasting plasma glucagon concentration was significantly lower in total pancreatectomy patients than in type 1 diabetes patients (P = 0.00007), and was positively correlated with the basal insulin requirement (P = 0.038). The difference in insulin requirements between total pancreatectomy and type 1 diabetes patients suggests a contribution of glucagon to the basal insulin requirement and dawn phenomenon. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and

  8. Comparative safety of intravenous ferumoxytol versus ferric carboxymaltose in iron deficiency anemia: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, N Franklin; Strauss, William E; Macdougall, Iain C; Bernard, Kristine E; Auerbach, Michael; Kaper, Robert F; Chertow, Glenn M; Krop, Julie S

    2018-05-01

    Few trials have examined rates of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) with intravenous iron formulations used to treat iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial compared the safety, and efficacy of ferumoxytol versus ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), focusing on rates of HSRs and hypotension as the primary end point. Patients with IDA of any etiology in whom oral iron was unsatisfactory or intolerable received ferumoxytol (n = 997) or FCM (n = 1000) intravenously over ≥15 minutes on days 1 and 8 or 9 for total respective doses of 1.02 g and 1.50 g. Composite incidences of moderate-to-severe HSRs, including anaphylaxis, or moderate-to-severe hypotension from baseline to week 5 (primary safety end point) were 0.6% and 0.7% in the ferumoxytol and FCM groups, respectively, with ferumoxytol noninferior to FCM. No anaphylaxis was reported in either group. The secondary safety end point of incidences of moderate-to-severe HSRs, including anaphylaxis, serious cardiovascular events, and death from baseline to week 5 were 1.3% and 2.0% in the ferumoxytol and FCM groups, respectively (noninferiority test P < .0001). Least-squares mean changes in hemoglobin at week 5 were 1.4 g/dL and 1.6 g/dL in the ferumoxytol and FCM groups, respectively (noninferiority test P < .0001). Incidence of hypophosphatemia was 0.4% for ferumoxytol and 38.7% for FCM. © 2018 The Authors American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dysregulation of glucocorticoid metabolism in murine obesity: comparable effects of leptin resistance and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Dawn E W; Grassick, Sarah L; Currie, Gillian L; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2009-05-01

    In obese humans, metabolism of glucocorticoids by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1) and A-ring reduction (by 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases) is dysregulated in a tissue specific manner. These changes have been recapitulated in leptin resistant obese Zucker rats but were not observed in high-fat fed Wistar rats. Recent data from mouse models suggest that such discrepancies may reflect differences in leptin signalling. We therefore compared glucocorticoid metabolism in murine models of leptin deficiency and resistance. Male ob/ob and db/db mice and their respective littermate controls (n=10-12/group) were studied at the age of 12 weeks. Enzyme activities and mRNA expression were quantified in snap-frozen tissues. The patterns of altered pathways of steroid metabolism in obesity were similar in ob/ob and db/db mice. In liver, 5 beta-reductase activity and mRNA were increased and 11 beta-HSD1 decreased in obese mice, whereas 5 alpha-reductase 1 (5 alpha R1) mRNA was not altered. In visceral adipose depots, 5 beta-reductase was not expressed, 11 beta-HSD1 activity was increased and 5 alpha R1 mRNA was not altered in obesity. By contrast, in subcutaneous adipose tissue 11 beta-HSD1 and 5 alpha R1 mRNA were decreased. Systematic differences were not found between ob/ob and db/db murine models of obesity, suggesting that variations in leptin signalling through the short splice variant of the Ob receptor do not contribute to dysregulation of glucocorticoid metabolism.

  10. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Zama, Syed Y; Nagarajarao, Vadiraja; Khan, Mudassir A

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore).

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L was highly prevalent in South Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  12. Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint 3D-kinematics in patients with posterior cruciate ligament deficiency compared to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Lenze, Ulrich; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Pohlig, Florian; Graichen, Heiko; Stein, Thomas; Welsch, Frederic; Burgkart, Rainer

    2012-11-26

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) plays an important role in maintaining physiological kinematics and function of the knee joint. To date mainly in-vitro models or combined magnetic resonance and fluoroscopic systems have been used for quantifying the importance of the PCL. We hypothesized, that both tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematic patterns are changed in PCL-deficient knees, which is increased by isometric muscle flexion. Therefore the aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate tibiofemoral and patellofemoral 3D kinematics in patients suffering from PCL deficiency during different knee flexion angles and under neuromuscular activation. We enrolled 12 patients with isolated PCL-insufficiency as well as 20 healthy volunteers. Sagittal MR-images of the knee joint were acquired in different positions of the knee joint (0°, 30°, 90° flexion, with and without flexing isometric muscle activity) on a 0.2 Tesla open MR-scanner. After segmentation of the patella, femur and tibia local coordinate systems were established to define the spatial position of these structures in relation to each other. At full extension and 30° flexion no significant difference was observed in PCL-deficient knee joints neither for tibiofemoral nor for patellofemoral kinematics. At 90° flexion the femur of PCL-deficient patients was positioned significantly more anteriorly in relation to the tibia and both, the patellar tilt and the patellar shift to the lateral side, significantly increased compared to healthy knee joints. While no significant effect of isometric flexing muscle activity was observed in healthy individuals, in PCL-deficient knee joints an increased paradoxical anterior translation of the femur was observed at 90° flexion compared to the status of muscle relaxation. Significant changes in tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint kinematics occur in patients with isolated PCL-insufficiency above 30 degrees of flexion compared to healthy volunteers. Since

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane protein 43 (omp43)-deficient Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Lee, Hee-Woo; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2018-01-31

    Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria constitute the first line of defense protecting cells against environmental stresses including chemical, biophysical, and biological attacks. Although the 43-kDa OMP (OMP43) is major porin protein among Bartonella henselae -derived OMPs, its function remains unreported. In this study, OMP43-deficient mutant B. henselae (Δomp43) was generated to investigate OMP43 function. Interestingly, Δ omp 43 exhibited weaker proliferative ability than that of wild-type (WT) B. henselae . To study the differences in proteomic expression between WT and Δ omp 43, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis was performed. Based on Clusters of Orthologus Groups functional assignments, 12 proteins were associated with metabolism, 7 proteins associated with information storage and processing, and 3 proteins associated with cellular processing and signaling. By semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, increases in tld D, efp, ntr X, pdh A, pur B, and ATPA mRNA expression and decreases in Rho and yfe A mRNA expression were confirmed in Δ omp 43. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that a loss of OMP43 expression in B. henselae leads to retarded proliferation. Furthermore, our proteomic data provide useful information for the further investigation of mechanisms related to the growth of B. henselae.

  14. More hypothyroidism and less hyperthyroidism with sufficient iodine nutrition compared to mild iodine deficiency--a comparative population-based study of older people.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stig; Iversen, Finn; Terpling, Steen; Pedersen, Klaus Michael; Gustenhoff, Peter; Laurberg, Peter

    2009-10-20

    To assess the occurrence of thyroid disorders and autoimmunity in a geriatric population with long-standing recommended iodine intake of natural origin compared to mild iodine deficiency. Cross-sectional, comparative, population-based study in two areas with different iodine intakes due to different tap water iodine contents. Residents of Randers (n=212) or Skagen (n=218), Denmark, aged 75-80 years. Blood samples were collected for measuring thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), thyroglobulin (TG); iodine excretion estimated from iodine and creatinine measured in spot urine samples; questionnaire on history of thyroid disease, medication and vitamin use; clinical examination of the neck. Median urinary iodine excretion was 50 microg/24h in Randers and 177 microg/24h in Skagen (p<0.001). A history of thyroid disease was reported by 40 (9.3%) dominated by goitre (n=22) in Randers and hypothyroidism and Graves Disease (n=15) in Skagen (p<0.001). We found visible goitre in 26% of Randers dwellers and none in Skagen (p<0.001). Hyperthyroidism with TSH below the reference range was present in 26% of Randers and 6% of Skagen dwellers while 6% and 13%, respectively, were hypothyroid with TSH above the reference range (p<0.001). More Randers than Skagen participants harboured a thyroid antibody (42% vs. 32%, p=0.006). Recommended iodine intake associated with more hypothyroidism, less hyperthyroidism and goiters, low TGAb prevalence and lower TG level in serum than did iodine deficiency. TPOAb was similar in the iodine replete and deficient geriatric populations.

  15. Comparative 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient, l-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    l-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by 13C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an l-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for l-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP. PMID:21784914

  16. A1AT polymorphisms may be associated with clinical characteristics of retrovirus infections in a mixed ethnic population from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thalita Camêlo da Silva; Queiroz, Maria Alice Freitas; Argañaraz, Gustavo Adolfo; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Argañaraz, Enrique Roberto

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the association of alpha-1-antrypsin deficiency (A1AT; S and Z polymorphisms) with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infection. Blood samples from 201 HIV-1-infected and 115 HTLV-1-infected individuals were examined and compared with those from 300 healthy controls. Genotyping of A1AT (S and Z) and quantification of plasma viral load were performed using RT-PCR, and the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell count was determined by flow cytometry. The wild-type MM genotype showed the highest frequency in each of the three groups investigated. SS and ZZ homozygous genotypes (variants) were observed only among HTLV-1 patients and controls, respectively. Genotype MS was significantly less frequent in HTLV-1-positive persons than in controls. Statistically significant differences were observed when comparing genotype frequencies between symptomatic and asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected persons. The distribution of plasma HIV-1 viral load among individuals with different genotypes of A1AT polymorphism also differed significantly. The results suggest that A1AT polymorphisms may be associated with human retrovirus infections when dealing with an ethnically mixed population from the Amazon region of Brazil. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Abalation of Ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis compared to Ghrelin-abalated Leptin-deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin is produced predominantly in stomach and is known to be the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin is a GH stimulator and an orexigenic hormone. In contrast, leptin is an anorexic hormone, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are obese and diabetic. To study...

  18. Comparative response to single or divided doses of parenteral iron for functional iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients receiving erythropoietin (EPO).

    PubMed

    Saltissi, D; Sauvage, D; Westhuyzen, J

    1998-01-01

    EPO treatment rapidly corrects anemia in patients with end-stage renal failure treated with hemodialysis, as long as sufficient iron is available. Absolute and relative (to demand) iron deficiency blunts the erythropoietic response and parenteral iron is frequently required during the course of therapy to restore EPO efficacy. Since the optimum time course of iron administration to restore EPO response in the short term is unknown, we compared three protocols of i.v. iron dextran administration in apparent functionally iron-deficient HD patients on oral iron therapy (hemoglobin < 10.0 g/dl plus ferritin < 100 micrograms/l and/or transferrin saturation < 20%). Intravenous iron (Imferon; Fisons Pty Ltd.) was given either as a single 600 mg dose (n = 15, Group I) or in divided doses of 100 mg administered on 6 successive dialyses (n = 14, Group II) or weekly for 6 weeks (n = 14, Group III). Response was monitored for 8 weeks. No adverse effects were observed. Collectively, mean hemoglobin increased (p < 0.01) by 0.4-0.5 g/dl plateauing at 4 weeks (between group comparison, p = 0.92). Mean ferritin concentrations changed with time (p < 0.01), peaking at 2 weeks in Groups I and II and at 4 weeks in Group III. Mean transferrin saturation levels also increased during the study (p < 0.001). The between group comparisons for the trends in iron indices were significant (p < 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). As there were no clinically significant differences in hemoglobin response at 4 weeks, single dose iron infusion would seem to be the most expedient in the short term, however frequent small doses are similarly effective.

  19. Safety of Live Liver Donation by Individuals With G6PD Deficiency: Initial Results and Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu S; Shrivastav, Manoj; Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Kota, Venugopal; Dabora, Abderrhaim; Govil, Sanjay; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) is the commonest genetic enzyme defect in the world. However, baring a single case report, there is no published literature regarding the safety of donor hepatectomy in G6PDd individuals. Potential donors with World Health Organization class III or class IV G6PDd without evidence of hemolysis were evaluated for donation, if there was no other suitable donor. Postoperatively, donors were closely monitored for hemolysis and medications, which can induce hemolysis, were avoided. Outcomes of our first 14 G6PDd donors are presented. Postoperative course of these donors was also compared with a matched cohort of 30 non-G6PDd donors. There were 9 left lateral segment, 2 left lobe, and 3 right lobe donors. Two G6PDd donors had biochemical evidence of postoperative hemolysis not needing any specific treatment. Postoperative liver function tests, intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and morbidity (greater than Clavien II) were similar in the G6PDd and non-G6PDd donor cohorts. Donors in the G6PDd group had lower trough hemoglobin in postoperative period (P = 0.006), greater drop in postoperative hemoglobin (P = 0.007), and a higher need for postoperative blood transfusion (4/14 vs 2/30, P = 0.071). This is the first case series reporting the safety of liver resection in G6PDd individuals. Hepatectomy in G6PD-deficient donors is associated with a greater drop in postoperative hemoglobin and a marginally increased need for postoperative transfusion. Use of these donors can be considered with caution, and it should not be an absolute contraindication for live liver donation.

  20. Fibromyalgia, mood disorders, and intense creative energy: A1AT polymorphisms are not always silent.

    PubMed

    Schmechel, Donald E; Edwards, Christopher L

    2012-12-01

    Persons with single copies of common alpha-1-antitrypsin polymorphisms such as S and Z are often considered "silent carriers". Published evidence however supports a complex behavioral phenotype or trait - intense creative energy ("ICE")-associated with A1AT polymorphisms. We now confirm that phenotype and present an association of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and A1AT in a consecutive series of neurological patients. This is a retrospective case control series of 3176 consecutive patients presenting to Duke University Memory Clinic (747 patients) and to regional community-based Caldwell Hospital Neurology and Memory center (2429 patients). Work-up included medical history and examination, psychological evaluation, and genetic analysis. Chronic widespread pain (CWP) or FMS were diagnosed according to clinical guidelines, mostly as secondary diagnoses. Neurological patients carrying A1AT polymorphisms were common (ca 16% prevalence) and carriers had significantly higher use of inhaler and anxiolytic medications. Patients with ICE phenotype had a significantly higher proportion of A1AT polymorphisms (42%) compared to non-ICE patients (13%). Presence of CWP or FMS was common (14-22%) with average age at presentation of 56 years old and mostly female gender (82%). Patients with CWP/FMS had again significantly higher proportion of A1AT polymorphisms (38%) compared to other neurological patients (13%). Patients with anxiety disorders, bipolar I or bipolar II disorders or PTSD also had increased proportion of A1AT polymorphisms and significant overlap with ICE and FMS phenotype. Significant reductions in CWP/FMS prevalence are seen in apolipoprotein E4 carriers and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation homozygotes. Since ICE phenotype is reported as a lifelong behavioral attribute, the presumption is that A1AT carriers have fundamental differences in brain development and inflammatory response. In support of this concept is finding those persons reporting a

  1. Comparative shoot proteome analysis of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes contrasting in nitrogen deficiency responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meise, Philipp; Jozefowicz, Anna Maria; Uptmoor, Ralf; Mock, Hans-Peter; Ordon, Frank; Schum, Annegret

    2017-08-23

    Aiming at a better understanding of the physiological and biochemical background of nitrogen use efficiency, alterations in the shoot proteome under N-deficiency were investigated in two contrasting potato genotypes grown in vitro with 60 and 7.5mM N, respectively. A gel based proteomic approach was applied to identify candidate proteins associated with genotype specific responses to N-deficiency. 21% of the detected proteins differed in abundance between the two genotypes. Between control and N-deficiency conditions 19.5% were differentially accumulated in the sensitive and 15% in the tolerant genotype. 93% of the highly N-deficiency responsive proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The major part was associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response and regulation. Differential accumulation of enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis suggest activation of alternative carbohydrate pathways. In the tolerant genotype, increased abundance under N-deficiency was also found for enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis and stability of enzymes, which increase photosynthetic carbon fixation efficiency. Out of a total of 106 differentially abundant proteins, only eight were detected in both genotypes. Our findings suggest that mutually responsive proteins reflect universal stress responses while adaptation to N-deficiency in metabolic pathways is more genotype specific. Nitrogen losses from arable farm land considerably contribute to environmental pollution. In potato, this is a special problem due cultivation on light soils, irrigation and the shallow root system. Therefore, breeding of cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency and stable yields under reduced N fertilization is an important issue. Knowledge of genotype dependent adaptation to N-deficiency at the proteome level can help to understand regulation of N efficiency and development of N-efficient cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of nodules of two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations with differential symbiotic efficiency under phosphate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Inoue, Komaki; Chu, Ha Duc; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Van Ha, Chien; Watanabe, Yasuko; Burritt, David J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mochida, Keiichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a major limitation for symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), and hence legume crop productivity globally. However, very little information is available on the adaptive mechanisms, particularly in the important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), which enable nodules to respond to low-Pi availability. Thus, to elucidate these mechanisms in chickpea nodules at molecular level, we used an RNA sequencing approach to investigate transcriptomes of the nodules in Mesorhizobium mediterraneum SWRI9-(MmSWRI9)-chickpea and M. ciceri CP-31-(McCP-31)-chickpea associations under Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient conditions, of which the McCP-31-chickpea association has a better SNF capacity than the MmSWRI9-chickpea association during Pi starvation. Our investigation revealed that more genes showed altered expression patterns in MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in McCP-31-induced nodules (540 vs. 225) under Pi deficiency, suggesting that the Pi-starvation-more-sensitive MmSWRI9-induced nodules required expression change in a larger number of genes to cope with low-Pi stress than the Pi-starvation-less-sensitive McCP-31-induced nodules. The functional classification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was examined to gain an understanding of how chickpea nodules respond to Pi starvation, caused by soil Pi deficiency. As a result, more DEGs involved in nodulation, detoxification, nutrient/ion transport, transcriptional factors, key metabolic pathways, Pi remobilization and signalling were found in Pi-starved MmSWRI9-induced nodules than in Pi-starved McCP-31-induced nodules. Our findings have enabled the identification of molecular processes that play important roles in the acclimation of nodules to Pi deficiency, ultimately leading to the development of Pi-efficient chickpea symbiotic associations suitable for Pi-deficient soils. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Allergic transfusion reactions from blood components donated by IgA-deficient donors with and without anti-IgA: a comparative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, N; Delage, G; Long, A; Thibault, L; Robillard, P

    2010-08-01

    IgA deficiency is common (1/500) and up to 40% of affected individuals will develop anti-IgA. A few studies suggested that passive transfusion of anti-IgA was not associated with an increased risk of allergic reactions. This study was designed to assess the safety of transfusing blood components containing anti-IgA. IgA-deficient blood donors with and without anti-IgA were identified from Héma-Québec's (HQ) computerized database. IgA deficiency was confirmed by an ELISA method and the presence of anti-IgA by a passive hemagglutination assay. Blood donations from IgA-deficient donors issued to hospitals between March 1999 and December 2004 were retrieved. Medical charts of recipients were reviewed for the occurrence of a suspected transfusion reaction. Presence and nature of transfusion reactions were assessed blindly by an adjudicating committee. A total of 323 IgA-deficient blood products were issued by HQ to 55 hospitals. Of these, 48 agreed to participate [315 blood products (97.5%)]. A total of 272 products were transfused: 174 contained anti-IgA, and 98 did not. Only two minor allergic reactions occurred in each group. Incidence of allergic reactions was 1.15% in the anti-IgA group and 2.04% in the group without anti-IgA (P = 0.91). There was no anaphylactic reaction in either group. This study indicates that the proportion of allergic reactions does not appear to be greater in recipients of blood components containing anti-IgA compared to recipients of non-anti-IgA-containing components. Allowing donations from IgA-deficient donors with anti-IgA may therefore be contemplated.

  4. Insights into Resistance to Fe Deficiency Stress from a Comparative Study of In Vitro-Selected Novel Fe-Efficient and Fe-Inefficient Potato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boamponsem, Georgina A.; Leung, David W. M.; Lister, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC) in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. ‘Iwa’) callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0–5 μM Fe). Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR), 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF) and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN) plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions. Stem height was found to be highly correlated with internodal distance, leaf and root lengths in the EF plant lines grown under Fe deficiency conditions. In addition, compared to the IFN plant lines and control parental biotype, the EF plants including the lines named A1, B2, and B9, exhibited enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs as well as increased expression of ferritin (fer3) in the leaf and iron-regulated transporter (irt1) in the root. These morphological adaptations and changes in expression the fer3 and irt1 genes of the selected EF potato lines suggest that they are associated with resistance to low Fe supply stress. PMID:28955367

  5. Detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in erythrocytes: a spectrophotometric assay and a fluorescent spot test compared with a cytochemical method.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B H; Weening, R S; Schutgens, R B; van Noorden, C J; Vogels, I M; Nagelkerke, N J

    1987-09-30

    The results of a quantitative spectrophotometric enzyme assay, a fluorescent spot test and a cytochemical assay for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency were compared systematically. The high sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay and the fluorescent spot test in the detection of severely deficient individuals was confirmed. For the detection of heterozygote females, however both tests were unreliable; the sensitivities of the fluorescent spot test and the spectrophotometric assay being 32% and 11% respectively. Specificities for both tests were high (99%). Introduction of the ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase (G-6-PD/PK ratio) activities increased the sensitivity of the spectrophotometric assay to nearly 100%. It is concluded that the fluorescent spot test should be used for the diagnosis of G-6-PD deficiency in developing countries; whereas if spectrophotometric enzyme assays are available, the G-6-PD/PK ratio should always be performed. In cases where the ratio is less than 0.70, cytochemical analysis is indicated.

  6. Comparative effects of wild type Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and its indole acetic acid-deficient mutants on wheat.

    PubMed

    Hassan, T U; Bano, A

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation evaluated the role of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and its IAA-deficient mutant on soil health and plant growth under salinity stress in the presence of tryptophan. In the first phase, S. maltophilia isolated from roots of the halo- phytic herb, Cenchrus ciliaris was used as bio-inoculant on wheat grown in saline sodic soil. A field experiment was conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute during 2010-2011. Treatments included seed inoculation with S. maltophilia with or without tryptophan; uninoculated untreated plants were taken as control. An aqueous solution of tryptophan was added to rhizosphere soil at 1 μg l(_1) after seed germination. Inoculation with S. maltophilia significantly increased soil organic matter, enhanced (20-30%) availability of P, K, Ca and NO3 -N and decreased Na content and electrical conductivity of rhizosphere soil. Plant height, fresh weight, proline and phytohormone content of leaves were increased 30-40% over the control. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were 40-50% higher than control. Addition of tryptophan further augmented (10-15%) growth parameters, whereas NO3 -N, P, K and Ca content, proline content and SOD and POD increased 20-30%. In a second phase, indoleacetic acid (IAA)-deficient mutants of S. maltophilia were constructed and evaluated for conversion of tryptophan to IAA at the University of Calgary, Canada, during 2013-2014. About 1800 trans-conjugants were constructed that were unable to produce IAA in the presence of tryptophan. The results suggest that tryptophan assisted S. maltophilia in the amelioration of salt stress, and that IAA played positive role in induction of salt tolerance. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Martin; Velez-Carrasco, Wanda; Hudgins, Lisa C.; Breslow, Jan L.

    2001-01-01

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway. PMID:11606787

  8. Compared with saturated fatty acids, dietary monounsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates increase atherosclerosis and VLDL cholesterol levels in LDL receptor-deficient, but not apolipoprotein E-deficient, mice.

    PubMed

    Merkel, M; Velez-Carrasco, W; Hudgins, L C; Breslow, J L

    2001-11-06

    Heart-healthy dietary recommendations include decreasing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). However, the relative benefit of replacing SFA with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or carbohydrates (CARB) is still being debated. We have used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRKO) and apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoEKO) mice to measure the effects of four isocaloric diets enriched with either SFA, MUFA, PUFA, or CARB on atherosclerotic lesion area and lipoprotein levels. In LDLRKO mice, compared with the SFA diet, the MUFA and CARB diets significantly increased atherosclerosis in both sexes, but the PUFA diet had no effect. The MUFA and CARB diets also increased very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and VLDL-C levels in females. Analysis of data from LDLRKO mice on all diets showed that atherosclerotic lesion area correlated positively with VLDL-C levels (males: r = 0.47, P < 0.005; females: r = 0.52, P < 0.001). In contrast, in apoEKO mice there were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerosis in either sex. Compared with the SFA diet, the CARB diet significantly decreased VLDL-C in males and the MUFA, PUFA, and CARB diets decreased VLDL-C and the CARB diet decreased LDL-C in females. In summary, in LDLRKO mice the replacement of dietary SFA by either MUFA or CARB causes a proportionate increase in both atherosclerotic lesion area and VLDL-C. There were no significant dietary effects on atherosclerotic lesion area in apoEKO mice. These results are surprising and suggest that, depending on the underlying genotype, dietary MUFA and CARB can actually increase atherosclerosis susceptibility, probably by raising VLDL-C levels through a non-LDL receptor, apoE-dependent pathway.

  9. Iodine Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... public health problem globally. Approximately 40% of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency ... common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities in the world. Even mild iodine ... deficiency is seen in an entire population, it is best managed by ensuring that common ...

  10. The Comparative Efficacy of the Masquelet versus Titanium Mesh Cage Reconstruction Techniques for the Treatment of Large Long Bone Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0492 TITLE: The Comparative Efficacy of the Masquelet versus Titanium Mesh Cage Reconstruction Techniques for the...decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this...DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30Sept2016 - 29Sept2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Comparative Efficacy of the Masquelet versus

  11. The Comparative Efficacy of the Masquelet versus Titanium Mesh Cage Reconstruction Techniques for the Treatment of Large Long Bone Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Branch; Galveston, TX 77555 REPORT DATE: October, 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...1October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Comparative Efficacy of the Masquelet versus...necrosis. During the course of infection treatment which included intravenous antibiotics and several surgical wound irrigation and debridement

  12. ER stress responses in the absence of apoptosome: a comparative study in CASP9 proficient vs deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gupta, Sanjeev; MacDonald, David C; Samali, Afshin

    2014-08-29

    Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and cell death. In this study we utilized casp9(+/+) and casp9(-/-) MEFs to determine the effect of inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway on ER stress-induced-cell death, UPR and autophagy. We observed prolonged activation of UPR and autophagy in casp9(-/-) cells as compared with casp9(+/+) MEFs, which displayed transient activation of both pathways. Furthermore we showed that while casp9(-/-) MEFs were resistant to ER stress, prolonged exposure led to the activation of a non-canonical, caspase-mediated mode of cell death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative transcriptomics with a motility-deficient mutant leads to identification of a novel polysaccharide secretion system in Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Meeks, John C

    2013-02-01

    Many filamentous cyanobacteria are capable of gliding motility by an undefined mechanism. Within the heterocyst-forming clades, some strains, such as the Nostoc spp. and Fisherella spp., are motile only as specialized filaments termed hormogonia. Here we report on the phenotype of inactivation of a methyl-accepting chemotaxis-like protein in Nostoc punctiforme, designated HmpD. The gene hmpD was found to be essential for hormogonium development, motility and polysaccharide secretion. Comparative global transcriptional profiling of the ΔhmpD strain demonstrated that HmpD has a profound effect on the transcriptional programme of hormogonium development, influencing approximately half of the genes differentially transcribed during differentiation. Utilizing this transcriptomic data, we identified a gene locus, designated here as hps, that appears to encode for a novel polysaccharide secretion system. Transcripts for the genes in the hps locus are upregulated in two steps, with the second step dependent on HmpD. Deletion of hpsA, hpsBCD or hpsEFG resulted in the complete loss of motility and polysaccharide secretion, similar to deletion of hmpD. Genes in the hps locus are highly conserved in the filamentous cyanobacteria, but generally absent in unicellular strains, implying a common mechanism of motility unique to the filamentous cyanobacteria. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Deficient prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in Hooded-Wistar rats compared with Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    van den Buuse, Maarten

    2003-04-01

    1. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle has been suggested as a model of sensorimotor gating and central sensory information processing. Prepulse inhibition is impaired in patients with schizophrenia and responses can be restored by antipsychotic drug treatment. In the present study, startle and prepulse inhibition of startle were compared in different rat strains. 2. Sprague-Dawley rats showed robust inhibition of startle responses by increasing intensities of prepulse delivered just before the startle stimulus. In contrast, at both 4 and 10 weeks of age, rats of the Hooded-Wistar line had markedly reduced prepulse inhibition, although startle responses were not different. 3. Treatment with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine (0.1 mg/kg) or the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) caused disruption of prepulse inhibition in Sprague-Dawley rats. In Hooded-Wistar rats, apomorphine further reduced the already low level of prepulse inhibition, but MK-801 treatment had no significant effect. This suggests that the impaired prepulse inhibition in Hooded-Wistar rats could be caused by changes in glutamatergic activity and/or NMDA receptors in these rats. 4. In photocell cages, spontaneous exploratory activity and inner zone activity were significantly lower in Hooded-Wistar rats than in Sprague-Dawley rats. Similarly, on the elevated plus-maze, Hooded-Wistar rats showed a lower propensity to visit the open arms. In contrast, amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg)-induced locomotor hyperactivity, an animal model of psychosis, was enhanced in Hooded-Wistar rats. 5. These data suggest that the Hooded-Wistar line could be a useful genetic animal model to study the interaction of glutamatergic and dopaminergic mechanisms in anxiety and schizophrenia.

  15. A comparative study of EPA-enriched ethanolamine plasmalogen and EPA-enriched phosphatidylethanolamine on Aβ42 induced cognitive deficiency in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Che, Hongxia; Li, Qian; Zhang, Tiantian; Ding, Lin; Zhang, Lingyu; Shi, Haohao; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Yuming

    2018-05-23

    Ethanolamine plasmalogen (pPE), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes, is specifically reduced in postmortem brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of EPA-enriched ethanolamine plasmalogen (EPA-pPE) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylethanolamine (EPA-PE) on cognitive deficiency and illustrate the possible underlying mechanisms. SD rats were divided into four groups including the sham group injected with 0.9% saline and three amyloid-β (Aβ) infusion groups, Aβ42 group, EPA-pPE group and EPA-PE group. EPA-pPE and EPA-PE were administered by gavage (150 mg kg-1 day-1), respectively, once a day for 26 days. Administration of EPA-pPE exerted better effects than EPA-PE in improving Aβ-induced cognitive deficiency in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Further mechanical research indicated that EPA-pPE was superior to EPA-PE in regulating oxidative stress via increasing SOD activity and decreasing MDA level, as well as reducing GSK-3β and tau phosphorylation. Moreover, EPA-PE was more effective than EPA-pPE at inhibiting the protein expressions of Bax and caspase 9. The results of neuro-inflammation and inflammasome activation showed that EPA-pPE exerted more significant effects than EPA-PE in inhibiting the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β, and decreasing NLRP3, pro-caspase 1 and caspase 1 levels. EPA-pPE alleviated Aβ-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress, neuronal injury, apoptosis and neuro-inflammation, which might depend on the vinyl ether linkage at the sn-1 position.

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of the gingiva with periodontitis of type I plasminogen deficiency compared to gingiva with gingivitis and periodontitis and healthy gingiva.

    PubMed

    Kurtulus Waschulewski, Idil; Gökbuget, Aslan Y; Christiansen, Nina M; Ziegler, Maike; Schuster, Volker; Wahl, Gerhard; Götz, Werner

    2016-12-01

    Type I plasminogen deficiency (Plgdef) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of mucous membranes. Gingival enlargements usually proceed with progressive periodontal destruction and tooth-loss. Plasmin(ogen)-independent enzymatic mechanisms for fibrin clearance have already been discussed in the literature. Our primary objective was to verify, immunohistochemically, the occurrence of different enzymatic factors involved in tissue breakdown of inflamed compared to healthy gingiva. Secondly, we tried to find out, if these patients have a similar microbiological profile to the patients with known gingivitis and periodontitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of enzymes elastase, plasminogen (plg), cathepsin G, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-7 and of glycoprotein fibrinogen were performed with gingival tissues from 3 healthy controls, 8 patients with Plgdef and 3 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Furthermore, plaque from 5 patients with plasminogen deficiency were also obtained to determine the microbiological profile. Significantly high numbers of elastase positive leukocytes were detected in all samples. Staining for MMP-3 and MMP-7 was seen in samples with gingivitis and periodontitis with a stronger staining in samples with periodontitis by Plgdef. Fibrinogen was detectable in all samples. Staining for plg was stronger in samples with periodontitis than in other samples. Staining for cathepsin G was weak in gingivitis and periodontitis. Subgingival microbial flora showed elevated colony forming units of Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium spp., Eikenella corrodens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and viridans streptococci. Strong staining of elastase, MMP-3 and MMP-7 and weak staining of plg in Plgdef samples supports the plasmin(ogen) - independent fibrin clearance. Similar subgingival microbiological flora was observed in periodontitis with Plgdef as in other periodontal diseases. Further investigations should determine the exact pathomechanism

  17. [Comparative analysis on the biological basis of blood stasis syndrome induced by qi-stagnation and qi-deficiency in patients with unstable angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-xun; Liu, Jian-xun; Lin, Cheng-ren

    2010-04-01

    To comparatively analyse the objective characteristics of different syndrome types of qi-disturbance-induced blood stasis syndrome (QDBS) in the pathogenetic evolution of unstable angina coronary heart disease (UA-CHD). Seventy-eight patients with UA-CHD of QDBS were differentiated into 2 groups: 55 in the qi-deficiency-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (A) and 23 in the qi-stagnation-induced blood-stasis syndrome group (B). The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing their blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolisms, coagulation function, thyroid function and inflammation reaction changes, etc. In the pathogenetic process of qi-disturbance induced blood stasis, the initiating age, levels of HbA1c, TSH, PT and APTT between the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.05). Levels of TNF-alpha and LN were higher and levels of sIgA lower in patients than those in healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Inflammation immune reaction may play an important role in the pathogenetic process of blood-stasis syndrome, and the functional disturbance of hypothalamus, pituitary and endocrinal secretion induced by emotional stress is possibly the essence of qi-stagnation induced blood stasis syndrome.

  18. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, functional dyspepsia (FD) can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA) and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS). The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group) in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT). Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78) for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR) for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills containing IFCA was superior

  19. Folate deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) Eating an unhealthy diet that does not include enough fruits and vegetables Kidney dialysis Symptoms Folic acid deficiency may cause: Fatigue, irritability, or diarrhea Poor growth Smooth and ...

  20. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  2. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant System in Fish Hepatopancreas and Intestine Affected by Choline Deficiency: Different Change Patterns of Varied Antioxidant Enzyme Genes and Nrf2 Signaling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The liver and intestine are susceptible to the oxidative damage which could result in several diseases. Choline deficiency induced oxidative damage in rat liver cells. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms responsible for choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage. Juvenile Jian carp were fed diets differing in choline content [165 (deficient group), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg/kg diet] respectively for 65 days. Oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activities and related gene expressions in the hepatopancreas and intestine were measured. Choline deficiency decreased choline and phosphatidylcholine contents, and induced oxidative damage in both organs, as evidenced by increased levels of oxidative-stress markers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), coupled with decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes [Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)]. However, choline deficiency increased glutathione contents in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Furthermore, dietary choline deficiency downregulated mRNA levels of MnSOD, GPx1b, GST-rho, mGST3 and Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1b) in the hepatopancreas, MnSOD, GPx1b, GPx4a, GPx4b, GST-rho, GST-theta, GST-mu, GST-alpha, GST-pi and GST-kappa in the intestine, as well as intestinal Nrf2 protein levels. In contrast, choline deficiency upregulated the mRNA levels of GPx4a, GPx4b, mGST1, mGST2, GST-theta, GST-mu, Keap1a and PKC in the hepatopancreas, mGST3, nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Keap1a in the intestine, as well as hepatopancreatic Nrf2 protein levels. This study provides new evidence that choline deficiency-induced oxidative damage is associated with changes in the transcription of antioxidant enzyme and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling molecules in the hepatopancreas and intestine. Additionally, this study firstly

  3. Comparatively evaluating the pharmacokinetic of fifteen constituents in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Xin-Sheng-Hua Granule by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Pang, Han-Qing; Tang, Yu-Ping; Cao, Yu-Jie; Tan, Ya-Jie; Jin, Yi; Shi, Xu-Qin; Huang, Sheng-Liang; Sun, Da-Zheng; Sun, Jin; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2017-09-01

    Xin-Sheng-Hua Granule (XSHG), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription, are clinically applied for the treatment of postpartum disease through nourishing blood and promoting blood circulation. In this investigation, a multi-constituents (trigonelline, stachydrine hydrochloride, hydroxysafflor yellow A, chlorogenic acid, amygdalin, leonurine, liquiritin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, glycyrrhizic acid, senkyunolide A, ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and glycyrrhetinic acid) pharmacokinetic study of XSHG was conducted for the first time. These fifteen constituents in both normal and blood deficiency rat plasma were monitored by using the established and validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) method. The samples were prepared through removing protein from plasma with three volumes of methanol. Sufficient separation of target constituents and internal standards (chloramphenicol and clarithromycin) was obtained on a Thermo Scientific Hypersil GOLD column (100mm×3mm, 1.9μm) within a 20min gradient elution (0.1% formic acid aqueous - acetonitrile). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied to monitor target analytes in both positive and negative electrospray ionization. For the fifteen selected target analytes, this method was fully validated with excellent linearity (r≥0.9925), satisfactory intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD≤11.87%), as well as good accuracies (RE, between -12.84 and 11.69). And the stabilities, matrix effects and extraction recoveries of the rat plasma samples were also within acceptable limits (RSD<15%). Compared to normal group, the pharmacokinetics of major active constituents (except liquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid) had significant differences (P<0.05) in the model rats, indicated that several metabolite enzymes activities could be altered at disease condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  5. Is Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin a Better Single Screening Test for Iron Deficiency Compared to Hemoglobin or Mean Cell Volume in Children and Women?

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M; Brittenham, Gary M

    2017-05-31

    Hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV), and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency (ID), but systematic evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of these tests is limited. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Hb, MCV, and EP measurements in screening for ID in preschool children, non-pregnant women 15-49 years of age, and pregnant women. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (NHANES 2003-2006: n = 861, children three to five years of age; n = 3112, non-pregnant women 15 to 49 years of age. NHANES 1999-2006: n = 1150, pregnant women) were examined for this purpose. Children or women with blood lead ≥10 µg/dL or C-reactive protein (CRP) >5.0 mg/L were excluded. ID was defined as total body iron stores <0 mg/kg body weight, calculated from the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) to serum ferritin (SF). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of Hb, MCV, and EP measurements in screening for ID. In detecting ID in children three to five years of age, EP (Area under the Curve (AUC) 0.80) was superior to Hb (AUC 0.62) ( p < 0.01) but not statistically different from MCV (AUC 0.73). In women, EP and Hb were comparable (non-pregnant AUC 0.86 and 0.84, respectively; pregnant 0.77 and 0.74, respectively), and both were better than MCV (non-pregnant AUC 0.80; pregnant 0.70) ( p < 0.01). We concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of EP in screening for ID were consistently superior to or at least as effective as those of Hb and MCV in each population examined. For children three to five years of age, EP screening for ID was significantly better than Hb and similar to MCV. For both non-pregnant and pregnant women, the performance of EP and Hb were comparable; both were significantly superior to MCV.

  6. Bioequivalence of a Liquid Formulation of Alpha1-Proteinase Inhibitor Compared with Prolastin®-C (Lyophilized Alpha1-PI) in Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barker, Alan F; Campos, Michael A; Brantly, Mark L; Stocks, James M; Sandhaus, Robert A; Lee, Douglas; Steinmann, Kimberly; Lin, Jiang; Sorrells, Susan

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the bioequivalence, safety, and immunogenicity of a new liquid formulation of human plasma-derived alpha 1 -proteinase inhibitor, Liquid Alpha 1 -PI, compared with the Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI formulation (Prolastin®-C), for augmentation therapy in patients with alpha 1 -antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). In this double-blind, randomized, 20-week crossover study, 32 subjects with AATD were randomized to receive 8 weekly infusions of 60 mg/kg of Liquid Alpha 1 -PI or Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI. Serial blood samples were drawn for 7 days after the last dose followed by 8 weeks of the alternative treatment. The primary endpoint was bioequivalence at steady state, as measured by area under the concentration versus time curve from 0 to 7 days (AUC 0-7 days ) postdose using an antigenic content assay. Bioequivalence was defined as 90% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of the geometric least squares (LS) mean of AUC 0-7 days for both products within the limits of 0.80 and 1.25. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Mean alpha 1 -PI concentration versus time curves for both formulations were superimposable. Mean AUC 0-7 days was 20 320 versus 19 838 mg × h/dl for Liquid Alpha 1 -PI and Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI, respectively. The LS mean ratio of AUC 0-7 days (90% CI) for Liquid Alpha 1 -PI versus Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI was 1.05 (1.03-1.08), indicating bioequivalence. Liquid Alpha 1 -PI was well tolerated and adverse events were consistent with Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI. Immunogenicity to either product was not detected. In conclusion, Liquid Alpha 1 -PI is bioequivalent to Lyophilized Alpha 1 -PI, with a similar safety profile. The liquid formulation would eliminate the need for reconstitution and shorten preparation time for patients receiving augmentation therapy for AATD.

  7. [Development of a laboratory test on dried blood spots for facilitating early diagnosis of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency].

    PubMed

    Balduyck, Malika; Chapuis Cellier, Colette; Roche, Denis; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Joly, Philippe; Madelain, Vincent; Vergne, Anita; Nouadje, Georges; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Porchet, Nicole; Beaune, Philippe; Zerimech, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Alpha- 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency is a hereditary autosomal codominant genetic disorder resulting in low circulating levels of A1AT and leading to lung and/or liver disease. It remains underdiagnosed and only 5 to 10% of PIZZ patients, the most common form of severe A1AT deficiency, would be actually identified in France. Facilitating early diagnosis of A1AT deficiency would allow a better management of this disease; therefore we have developed and standardized in three laboratories involved in this study, a diagnostic test on dried blood spots (DBS) including quantitative A1AT measurement, phenotyping by IEF electrophoresis and, if necessary, genotyping by SERPINA1 gene sequencing. We performed a quantitative assay on 90 DBS samples by immunoturbidimetric or immunonephelometric methods. We demonstrated that both methods were suitable for this type of sampling and the results obtained were highly correlated (R(2)>0.9) between the three laboratories: for a target value of 1.00 g/L, the results obtained from the three laboratories were between 1.00 and 1.02 g/L. Phenotyping and genotyping were performed under redefined operating conditions and adapted to the analysis of DBS samples. The results were comparable with those obtained for venous blood samples. Following this work, it becomes possible to provide pulmonologists with a reliable kit to perform a capillary blood sampling on filter paper which would allow a large-scale screening of A1AT deficiency in the population particularly affected by this genetic condition.

  8. The co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation has the opposite effects on mood compared with either condition alone due to changes in the central norepinephrine system.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Hironori; Omata, Naoto; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Mita, Kayo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional and social environmental problems during the early stages of life are closely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression. Disruption or dysfunction of the central norepinephrine (NE) system is also considered to play a role in mood disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of zinc deficiency and/or social isolation on mood and changes in the central NE system using rats. Compared with the controls, the rats subjected to zinc deficiency or social isolation alone exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and greater depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. However, the co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation resulted in decreased anxiety-related behavior and control levels of depression-like behavior. Social isolation alone decreased the rats' cerebral NE concentrations. The expression of the NE transporter was not affected by social isolation alone, but its expression in the locus coeruleus was markedly decreased by the co-occurrence of social isolation and zinc deficiency, and this change was accompanied by an increase in the blood concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, which is a marker of central NE system activity. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency or social isolation alone induce anxious or depressive symptoms, but the presence of both conditions has anxiolytic or antidepressive effects. Furthermore, these opposing effects of mood-related behaviors were found to be associated with changes in the central NE system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults comparing replenishment with oral vitamin D3 with narrow-band UV type B light: effects on cholesterol and the transcriptional profiles of skin and blood.

    PubMed

    Ponda, Manish P; Liang, Yupu; Kim, Jaehwan; Hutt, Richard; Dowd, Kathleen; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary M; Rodrick, Tori; Kim, Dong Joo; Barash, Irina; Lowes, Michelle A; Breslow, Jan L

    2017-05-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <20 ng/mL, is correlated with a more atherogenic lipid profile. However, oral vitamin D supplementation does not lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations or raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations. This uncoupling between association and causation may result from a failure of oral vitamin D to mimic the effect of dermally synthesized vitamin D in response to ultraviolet type B (UVB) light. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, in vitamin D-deficient adults, the replenishment of vitamin D with UVB exposure would lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effect of oral vitamin D 3 supplementation. Design: We performed a randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults and compared vitamin D replenishment between subjects who received oral vitamin D 3 ( n = 60) and those who received narrow-band UVB exposure ( n = 58) ≤6 mo. Results: There was no difference in the change from baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations between oral vitamin D 3 and UVB groups (difference in median of oral vitamin D 3 minus that of UVB: 1.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.0, 7.0 mg/dL). There were also no differences within groups or between groups for changes in total or HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Transcriptional profiling of skin and blood, however, revealed significant upregulation of immune pathway signaling with oral vitamin D 3 but significant downregulation with UVB. Conclusions: Correcting vitamin D deficiency with either oral vitamin D 3 or UVB does not improve the lipid profile. Beyond cholesterol, these 2 modalities of raising 25(OH)D have disparate effects on gene transcription. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01688102. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Does Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia Decrease the Morbidity of Iliac Block Bone Grafting for Deficient Alveolar Ridges Compared With General Anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Cansiz, Erol; Gultekin, B Alper; Sitilci, Tolga; Isler, S Cemil

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the morbidity of iliac block bone grafting performed under general anesthesia (GA) or combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). We implemented a retrospective study including patients who underwent anterior iliac block bone grafting for deficient maxillary alveolar ridges. The anesthetic technique (GA or CSEA) was the primary predictor variable. The outcome variables were pain, gait disturbance, neurosensory disturbance (0 to 5 weeks), vomiting tendency (0 to 7 days), and postoperative hospitalization period (0 to 2 days). The sample comprised 22 patients, with 10 in the GA group and 12 in the CSEA group. No surgical complications except sensory disturbance in 2 patients were observed during the study period. Pain during initial healing (P < .001), the gait disturbance rate at 3 weeks after surgery (P = .003), and the vomiting tendency on the day of surgery (P < .001) were significantly higher in the GA group than in the CSEA group; all variables showed significant improvement with time in both groups. The postoperative hospitalization period was also significantly longer for the GA group than for the CSEA group (P < .001). No significant difference was observed between groups with regard to neurosensory disturbance. Iliac block bone grafting for deficient maxillary ridges can be successful under both GA and CSEA, although CSEA results in less pain and vomiting and early recovery, thus increasing patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Apolipoprotein A1 at Solid/Liquid and Liquid/Gas Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Susanne; Paulus, Michael; Forov, Yury; Weis, Christopher; Kampmann, Matthias; Cewe, Christopher; Kiesel, Irena; Degen, Patrick; Salmen, Paul; Rehage, Heinz; Tolan, Metin

    2018-04-12

    An X-ray reflectivity study on the adsorption behavior of human apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) at hydrophilic and hydrophobic interfaces is presented. It is shown that the protein interacts via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the interfaces, resulting in the absorption of the protein. pH dependent measurements at the solid/liquid interface between silicon dioxide and aqueous protein solution show that in a small pH range between pH 4 and 6, adsorption is increased due to electrostatic attraction. Here, the native shape of the protein seems to be conserved. In contrast, the adsorption at the liquid/gas interface is mainly driven by hydrophobic effects, presumably by extending the hydrophobic regions of the amphipathic helices, and results in a conformational change of the protein during adsorption. However, the addition of differently charged membrane-forming lipids at the liquid/gas interface illustrates the ability of apoA1 to include lipids, resulting in a depletion of the lipids from the interface.

  12. Phase III randomized trial comparing intravenous to oral iron in patients with cancer-related iron deficiency anemia not on erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Patil, Vijay Maruti; Banavali, Shripad D; Gupta, Sudeep; Parikh, Purvish M; Marfatia, Shalaka; Punatar, Sachin; More, Sucheta; Goud, Supriya; Nakti, Dipti; Prabhash, Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to find the optimal route of iron supplementation in patients with malignancy and iron deficiency (true or functional) anemia not receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA). Adult patients with malignancy requiring chemotherapy, hemoglobin (Hb) <12 g/dL and serum ferritin <100 mcg/mL, transferrin saturation <20% or hypochromic red blood cells >10% were randomized to intravenous (IV) iron sucrose or oral ferrous sulfate. The primary endpoint was change in Hb from baseline to 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included blood transfusion, quality of life (QoL), toxicity, response and overall survival. A total of 192 patients were enrolled over 5 years: 98 on IV arm and 94 on oral arm. Median age was 51 years; over 95% patients had solid tumors. The mean absolute increase in Hb at 6 weeks was 0.11 g/dL (standard deviation [SD]: 1.48) in IV arm and -0.16 g/dL (SD: 1.36) in oral arm, P = 0.23. Twenty-three percent patients on IV iron and 18% patients on oral iron had a rise in Hb of ≥1 g/dL at 6 weeks, P = 0.45. Thirteen patients (13.3%) on the IV iron arm and 14 patients (14.9%) on the oral arm required blood transfusion, P = 1.0. Gastrointestinal toxicity (any grade) developed in 41% patients on IV iron and 44% patients on oral iron, P = 1.0. 5 patients on IV iron and none on oral iron had hypersensitivity, P = 0.06. QoL was not significantly different between the two arms. IV iron was not superior to oral iron in patients with malignancy on chemotherapy and iron deficiency anemia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Comparative Study of Different Polar Groups of EPA-Enriched Phospholipids on Ameliorating Memory Loss and Cognitive Deficiency in Aged SAMP8 Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miao-Miao; Che, Hong-Xia; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Xu, Jie; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that omega-3 PUFAs enriched phospholipids (n-3 PUFA-PLs) have beneficial effects on memory and cognition. However, most reports only attribute the benefit to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and pay little attention to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We investigate the effect of EPA-enriched phospholipids on cognitive deficiency in senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse. Ten-month-old SAMP8 mice are fed with 2% (w/w) EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidyl ethanolamine (EPA-PC/PE; EPA:DHA = 46.8:3.01) or 2% EPA-enriched phosphatidylserine (EPA-PS; biosynthesized from EPA-PC/PE) for 8 weeks; we then test the behavioral performances in the Barnes maze test and Morris maze test; the changes of oxidative stress, apoptosis, neurotrophic factors, tau phosphorylation, and Aβ pathology are also measured. The results of behavior tests indicate that both EPA-PC/PE and EPA-PS significantly improve memory and cognitive deficiency. It is found that remarkable amelioration of oxidative stress and apoptosis occurs in both EPA-PC/PE and EPA-PS groups. EPA-PS shows more ameliorative effects than EPA-PC/PE on neurotrophic activity by decreasing hyper-phosphorylation of tau and depressing the generation and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). These data suggest that EPA-PS exhibits better effects than EPA-PC/PE on ameliorating memory and cognitive function, which might be attributed to the phospholipid polar groups. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The accuracy of the glucagon test compared to the insulin tolerance test in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in young children with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    di Iorgi, Natascia; Napoli, Flavia; Allegri, Anna; Secco, Andrea; Calandra, Erika; Calcagno, AnnaLisa; Frassinetti, Costanza; Ghezzi, Michele; Ambrosini, Linda; Parodi, Stefano; Gastaldi, Roberto; Loche, Sandro; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2010-05-01

    The accuracy of the glucagon test in the diagnosis of central adrenal insufficiency in young children has not yet been definitively established. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the glucagon test as an alternative to the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in children with GH deficiency under 6 yr of age. This was a prospective study conducted in two Pediatric Endocrinology Centers. Forty-eight children (median age, 4.2 yr) with GH deficiency confirmed by a peak GH to ITT and arginine less than 10 microg/liter were enrolled: 24 with normal hypothalamic-pituitary anatomy, seven with isolated anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and 17 with structural hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities at magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve subjects had central adrenal insufficiency defined by a peak cortisol response of less than 20 microg/dl to ITT. All children underwent a glucagon stimulation test with blood sampling for cortisol and glucose (time 0 to 180 min) after the im administration of 30 microg/kg of glucagon. The mean peak cortisol after glucagon was not significantly different from that obtained after ITT in the whole cohort (25.9 vs. 26.0 microg/dl; P = 0.908), and it was significantly reduced in patients with structural hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the best diagnostic accuracy was obtained with a peak cortisol cutoff to glucagon of 14.6 microg/dl (sensitivity, 66.67%; specificity, 100%; area under the curve = 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.99). Using this cutoff, 91.67% of the patients were correctly classified. This study shows that glucagon is an accurate and safe diagnostic test for adrenal function in young children who are at risk for adrenal insufficiency.

  15. Compared effects of missense mutations in Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency: Combined analysis by structural, functional and pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Gobin-Limballe, Stéphanie; McAndrew, Ryan P; Djouadi, Fatima; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bastin, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common ss-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells, however, some mutations affecting FAD binding or monomer-monomer interactions allowed a partial response to bezafibrate. On the other hand, bezafibrate restored near-normal FAO rates in some mutations predicted to have milder consequences on enzyme structure. Overall, combination of structural, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis allowed assessment of the relative severity of individual mutations, with possible applications for disease management and therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  17. Neurological Disease associated with Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, E. H.; Rothfeld, P.; Pincus, Jonathen H.

    1973-01-01

    In a general medical hospital population the neurological status of 24 patients with severe folate deficiency was compared with that of a control group of 21 patients with normal serum folate. A significant increase of organic brain syndrome and pyramidal tract damage was found in the folate-deficient group. These findings were independent of the degree of anaemia or the presence of alcoholism. These data are consistent with the view that severe folate deficiency may cause neurological deficits. PMID:4703098

  18. Serum retinol concentrations demonstrate high specificity after correcting for inflammation but questionable sensitivity compared with liver stores calculated from isotope dilution in determining vitamin A deficiency in Thai and Zambian children.

    PubMed

    Suri, Devika J; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Gannon, Bryan M; Pinkaew, Siwaporn; Kaliwile, Chisela; Chileshe, Justin; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2015-11-01

    The WHO estimates that 190 million preschool children have vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Serum retinol (SR) concentration is a common indicator of vitamin A (VA) status, but SR is homeostatically controlled and suppressed during inflammation, which may lead to misdiagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of SR compared with VA total liver reserves (TLRs) were evaluated for VAD in children from Thailand (n = 37) and Zambia (n = 128). SR was adjusted for inflammation in the Zambian children. Each child was classified as VA-deficient or not based on cutoffs of <0.1 μmol VA/g liver with the use of retinol isotope dilution and <0.7 μmol/L for SR concentrations. Four categories of infection status in the Zambian children were based on elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with the use of unadjusted and inflammation marker-adjusted SR cutoffs. VAD was 65% and 0% according to TLRs and SR, respectively, in Thai children and 0% and 17%, respectively, in Zambian children. No true positive VAD cases occurred; thus, sensitivity was 0% and indeterminable, respectively; specificity was 100% and 82.8%, respectively. CRP was elevated in 26.6% of Zambian children, whereas 97.7% had elevated AGP, categorizing them as having no infection (2.3%) or in early (26.6%) or late (58.6%) convalescence. With the use of marker-adjusted SR cutoffs of 0.6 μmol/L for late convalescence and 0.5 μmol/L for early convalescence, the adjusted prevalence of SR deficiency was 2.3%, increasing specificity to 97.3%. No cases of VAD were identified by both TLRs and SR (true positives) in Thai or Zambian children. Specificity of SR to evaluate VAD was high, but additional research is needed to investigate sensitivity. Adjusting SR cutoffs for inflammation improved specificity by reducing false positives. SR as a VAD indicator may depend on infection rates, which should be taken into consideration. These studies were registered at

  19. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Anouk; Jacquemyn, Yves; Kinget, Kristof; Eyskens, François

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations. PMID:26113999

  20. Cross sectional, comparative study of serum erythropoietin, transferrin receptor, ferritin levels and other hematological indices in normal pregnancies and iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai B; Bumma, Sirisha D; Saxena, Renu; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Vanamail, P

    2016-08-01

    To test the correlation of the serum erythropoietin levels, serum transferrrin receptor levels and serum ferritin levels along with other hematological parameters in normal pregnant and anemic pregnant patients. In a prospective study, 120 pregnant women were recruited between 18 and 36 weeks of gestation; 53 normal pregnant patients, 67 anemic pregnant patients, in which, 17 had mild, 30 had moderate anemia, 20 had severe anemia. A blood sample was taken. The various hematological parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, percentage saturation of iron, serum erythropoietin (SEPO) levels, serum transferrin receptors (STfRS) were performed. For statistics, Student's 't' test, Pearson's Chi test, Mann Whitney test and Bartlett test were used as per data. MCV was significantly reduced in anemic pregnancies as compared to non-anemic pregnancies (80.2±9.6 vs 94.12±9.8fl, p=0.001), MCHC was also reduced in them (30.2±3.38% vs 34.2±2.33%, p=0.176), TIBC was significantly increased in anemic pregnancies (343.31±28.54% vs 322.88±23.84%, p=0.001), serum ferritin was significantly reduced (24.9±10.48μg/L vs 31.03±9.98μg/L, p=0.001), percentage saturation of iron was also reduced (53.85±13.21% vs 62.04±15.79%, p=0.0024), serum erythropoietin levels were significantly higher in anemic women (26.24±26.61mU/ml vs 18.12±19.08mU/ml, p=0.064). The levels were significantly higher in severe anemia (46.5±46.8mU/ml than in moderate anemia 27.4±28.1mU/ml and mild anemia 22.8±22.8mU/ml. Serum transferrin receptors were significantly higher in anemic pregnancies than in non-anemic pregnancies (1.40±0.0802μg/ml vs 1.08±0.641μg/ml, p=0.019) with rise being higher in severe anemia (2.28±0.986μg/ml) than in moderate (1.4±0.816μg/ml) and mild anemia (1.16±0.702μg/ml). Various hematological parameters especially sTfR, serum erythropoietin, serum

  1. Comparative safety of intravenous Ferumoxytol versus Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia: rationale and study design of a randomized double-blind study with a focus on acute hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, N Franklin; Strauss, William E; Bernard, Kristine; Kaper, Robert F; Macdougall, Iain C; Krop, Julie S

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron is often used to treat iron deficiency anemia in patients who are unable to tolerate or are inadequately managed with oral iron. However, IV iron treatment has been associated with acute hypersensitivity reactions. The comparative risk of adverse events (AEs) with IV iron preparations has been assessed by a few randomized controlled trials, which are most often limited by small patient numbers, which lack statistical power to identify differences in low-frequency AE such as hypersensitivity reactions. Ferumoxytol versus Ferric Carboxymaltose for the Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia (FIRM) is a randomized, double-blind, international, multicenter, Phase III study designed to compare the safety of ferumoxytol and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM). The study includes adults with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL (females) or <14.0 g/dL (males), transferrin saturation ≤20% or ferritin ≤100 ng/mL within 60 days of dosing, and a history of unsatisfactory or nontolerated oral iron therapy or in whom oral iron therapy is inappropriate. Patients are randomized (1:1) to ferumoxytol 510 mg or FCM 750 mg, each given intravenously on days 1 and 8. Primary end points are the incidence of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, and moderate-to-severe hypotension. All potential hypersensitivity and hypotensive reactions will be adjudicated by a blinded, independent Clinical Events Committee. A secondary safety end point is the composite frequency of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, serious cardiovascular events, and death. Secondary efficacy end points include mean change in hemoglobin and mean change in hemoglobin per milligram of iron administered from baseline to week 5. Urinary excretion of phosphorus and the occurrence of hypophosphatemia after IV iron administration will be examined as well as the mechanisms of such hypophosphatemia in a substudy. FIRM will provide data on the comparative safety of

  2. Competitive Protein-binding assay-based Enzyme-immunoassay Method, Compared to High-pressure Liquid Chromatography, Has a Very Lower Diagnostic Value to Detect Vitamin D Deficiency in 9–12 Years Children

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi Rad, Maliheh; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Khalaji, Niloufar; Gharavi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most reliable indicator of Vitamin D status is circulating concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH) D) routinely determined by enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) methods. This study was performed to compare commonly used competitive protein-binding assays (CPBA)-based EIA with the gold standard, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Concentrations of 25(OH) D in sera from 257 randomly selected school children aged 9–11 years were determined by two methods of CPBA and HPLC. Results: Mean 25(OH) D concentration was 22 ± 18.8 and 21.9 ± 15.6 nmol/L by CPBA and HPLC, respectively. However, mean 25(OH) D concentrations of the two methods became different after excluding undetectable samples (25.1 ± 18.9 vs. 29 ± 14.5 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.04). Based on predefined Vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH) D < 12.5 nmol/L, CPBA sensitivity and specificity were 44.2% and 60.6%, respectively, compared to HPLC. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-offs for CPBA was 5.8 nmol/L, which gave 82% sensitivity, but specificity was 17%. Conclusions: Though CPBA may be used as a screening tool, more reliable methods are needed for diagnostic purposes. PMID:26330983

  3. Competitive Protein-binding assay-based Enzyme-immunoassay Method, Compared to High-pressure Liquid Chromatography, Has a Very Lower Diagnostic Value to Detect Vitamin D Deficiency in 9-12 Years Children.

    PubMed

    Zahedi Rad, Maliheh; Neyestani, Tirang Reza; Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Shariatzadeh, Nastaran; Kalayi, Ali; Khalaji, Niloufar; Gharavi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    The most reliable indicator of Vitamin D status is circulating concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH) D) routinely determined by enzyme-immunoassays (EIA) methods. This study was performed to compare commonly used competitive protein-binding assays (CPBA)-based EIA with the gold standard, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentrations of 25(OH) D in sera from 257 randomly selected school children aged 9-11 years were determined by two methods of CPBA and HPLC. Mean 25(OH) D concentration was 22 ± 18.8 and 21.9 ± 15.6 nmol/L by CPBA and HPLC, respectively. However, mean 25(OH) D concentrations of the two methods became different after excluding undetectable samples (25.1 ± 18.9 vs. 29 ± 14.5 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.04). Based on predefined Vitamin D deficiency as 25(OH) D < 12.5 nmol/L, CPBA sensitivity and specificity were 44.2% and 60.6%, respectively, compared to HPLC. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-offs for CPBA was 5.8 nmol/L, which gave 82% sensitivity, but specificity was 17%. Though CPBA may be used as a screening tool, more reliable methods are needed for diagnostic purposes.

  4. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  5. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  7. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  8. Factor X deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  9. Factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  10. The response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency in Japan: Comparing three consecutive years of treatment data of The Foundation for Growth Science in Japan between the 1990s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-09-30

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.

  11. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  12. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  13. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  14. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Aksan, A; Işık, H; Radeke, H H; Dignass, A; Stein, J

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565. In June 2016, we systematically searched for studies analysing efficacy and safety of intravenous iron for IDA therapy in IBD. Primary outcome was therapy response, defined as Hb normalisation or increase ≥2 g/dL. Five randomised, controlled trials (n = 1143 patients) were included in a network meta-analysis. Only ferric carboxymaltose was significantly more effective than oral iron [OR=1.9, 95% CrI: (1.1;3.2)]. Rank probabilities showed ferric carboxymaltose to be most effective, followed by iron sucrose, iron isomaltose and oral iron. Pooled data from the systematic review (n = 1746 patients) revealed adverse event rates of 12.0%, 15.3%, 12.0%, 17.0% for ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran and iron isomaltose respectively. One drug-related serious adverse event (SAE) each was reported for ferric carboxymaltose and iron isomaltoside, and one possibly drug-related SAE for iron sucrose. Ferric carboxymaltose was the most effective intravenous iron formulation, followed by iron sucrose. In addition, ferric carboxymaltose tended to be better tolerated. Thus, nanocolloidal IV iron products exhibit differing therapeutic and safety characteristics and are not interchangeable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Foot length before and during insulin-like growth factor-I treatment of children with laron syndrome compared to human growth hormone treatment of children with isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Aviva; Lilos, Pearl; Laron, Zvi

    2007-12-01

    To compare foot length deficits between patients with Laron syndrome (LS) (primary growth hormone [GH] insensitivity) and congenital isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) and their response to replacement therapy with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and hGH, respectively. Data for the study were collected from the records of nine children with LS (3 M, 6 F) 7.8 +/- 4.8 years old (mean +/- SD), and nine children with IGHD (3 M, 6 F), 3.8 +/- 3.3 years old. Fifteen non-treated adult patients with LS were also included in the study. Measurements of foot length were recorded without treatment and monitored during 9 years of treatment in the children and in the untreated adult patients. For statistical analysis the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used. With almost similar basal values in growth deficit and pre-treatment growth velocities, the achievements towards norms after 9 years of treatment were greater in the patients with IGHD than in the patients with LS: foot length reached -1.4 +/- 0.8 vs. -3.3 +/- 1.0 SDS (mean +/- SD), and body height -2.2 +/- 1.0 vs. -3.9 +/- 0.5 SDS. The difference between the two groups could be due to the initiation of replacement therapy in the patients with IGHD at a younger age. Adult foot size of untreated patients with LS is small but less retarded than the height deficit. Both IGF-I and hGH are potent growth stimulating hormones of linear growth and acrae as exemplified by foot growth.

  16. Betaine deficiency in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Lerma, C.; Rich, P.J.; Ju, G.C.

    1991-04-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency. This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positivemore » and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline {r arrow} betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde.« less

  17. Factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm Factor V deficiency To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. Autism and Folate Deficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    social interaction that remains to be characterized more fully. Conclusion Ablation of genes in the folate pathway may result in abnormal adult...W81XWH-09-1-0246 TITLE: Autism and Folate Deficiency PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard H. Finnell, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0246 Autism and Folate Deficiency 5b. GRANT NUMBER AR080064-Concept Award 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  19. [Iron deficiency and pica].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L

    1998-02-01

    To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.

  20. Ablation of ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis when compared with ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is important in diabetes because it has an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Ghrelin ablation in leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ghrelin(-/-):ob/ob) mice increases insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. The physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor is the growth ...

  1. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prevalence of iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C

    2017-05-01

    Studies of prévalence in iron deficiency separate iron depletion (defined as decreased blood ferritin) and iron deficiency anemia (defined as blood decrease in both ferritin and hemoglobin). In Europe, most studies are outdated. Prevalence of iron depletion varies from 7 to 18 % and 24 to 36% in toddlers and adolescents, respectively. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia varies from 2 to 8.5% and 7 to 10% in toddlers and adolescents. In French speaking African countries, Demography Health Surveys show that 80% of children aged 0 to 2 years are anemic, severely for 5 to 9% of them. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  3. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  4. What Is Combined Deficiency of Vitamin K-Dependent Clotting Factors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  5. [Protein deficiency - a rare nutrient deficiency].

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gunnar

    2018-05-21

    There is a widespread myth that we have to be careful about what we eat so that we do not cause protein deficiency. We know today that it is virtually impossible to design a calorie-sufficient diet, whether it is based on meat, fish, eggs, various vegetarian diets or even unprocessed whole natural plant foods, which is lacking in protein and any of the amino acids. The body is capable of taking incomplete proteins and making them complete by utilizing the amino acid recycling mechanism. The majority of amino acids absorbed from the intestinal tract are derived from recycled body protein. Research shows that high levels of animal protein intake may significantly increase the risk of premature mortality from all causes, among them cardiovascular diseases, cancer and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes.

  7. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical–chemical–biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’. PMID:29035255

  8. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done include: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 ( ... C, et al. Guidelines for growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I treatment in children and adolescents: growth hormone deficiency, ...

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  10. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  11. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. Mark

    2016-11-01

    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  12. Ablation of ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis when compared with ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Lin, Yuezhen; Lin, Ligen; Qin, Guijun; Pereira, Fred A; Haymond, Morey W; Butte, Nancy F; Sun, Yuxiang

    2012-08-01

    The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is important in diabetes because it has an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Ghrelin ablation in leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ghrelin(-/-):ob/ob) mice increases insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. The physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor is the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), and GHS-R antagonists are thought to be an effective strategy for treating diabetes. However, since some of ghrelin's effects are independent of GHS-R, we have utilized genetic approaches to determine whether ghrelin's effect on insulin secretion is mediated through GHS-R and whether GHS-R antagonism indeed inhibits insulin secretion. We investigated the effects of GHS-R on glucose homeostasis in Ghsr-ablated ob/ob mice (Ghsr(-/-):ob/ob). Ghsr ablation did not rescue the hyperphagia, obesity, or insulin resistance of ob/ob mice. Surprisingly, Ghsr ablation worsened the hyperglycemia, decreased insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance. Consistently, Ghsr ablation in ob/ob mice upregulated negative β-cell regulators (such as UCP-2, SREBP-1c, ChREBP, and MIF-1) and downregulated positive β-cell regulators (such as HIF-1α, FGF-21, and PDX-1) in whole pancreas; this suggests that Ghsr ablation impairs pancreatic β-cell function in leptin deficiency. Of note, Ghsr ablation in ob/ob mice did not affect the islet size; the average islet size of Ghsr(-/-):ob/ob mice is similar to that of ob/ob mice. In summary, because Ghsr ablation in leptin deficiency impairs insulin secretion and worsens hyperglycemia, this suggests that GHS-R antagonists may actually aggravate diabetes under certain conditions. The paradoxical effects of ghrelin ablation and Ghsr ablation in ob/ob mice highlight the complexity of the ghrelin-signaling pathway.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: fumarase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, Knape M, Zierz S, Gellerich FN. Molecular and biochemical investigations in fumarase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 ... Y, Toulhoat H, de Lonlay P. Clinical and biochemical heterogeneity associated with fumarase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2011 ...

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz ...

  15. Behavior of Infants with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozoff, Betsy; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared behavior of 52 Costa Rican 12- to 23-month-olds with iron-deficiency anemia to that of 139 infants with better iron status. Found that iron-deficient infants maintained closer contact with caregivers; showed less pleasure and playfulness; were more wary, hesitant, and easily tired; made fewer attempts at test items; and attended less to…

  16. Epidemiology of SHOX deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, A; Caruso-Nicoletti, M

    2010-06-01

    Deletion of short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene, in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes, is an important cause of short stature. Homozygous loss of SHOX results in the more severe Langer mesomelic dysplasia, while SHOX haploinsufficiency cause a wide spectrum of short stature phenotypes, including patients with Turner syndrome, Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and idiopathic short stature (ISS). In Turner syndrome, haploinsufficiency of SHOX gene, as well as short stature, are present in 100%; nevertheless, SHOX deficiency accounts for only two-thirds of Turner patients' short stature. In LWD the prevalence of SHOX gene anomalies varies from 56% to 100%. This wide range might be due to different factors such as selection criteria of patients, sample size, and method used for screening SHOX mutations. The real challenge is to establish the prevalence of SHOX deficiency in ISS children given that published studies have reported this association with a very broad frequency range varying from 1.5% to 15%. An important variable in these studies is represented by the method used for screening SHOX mutations and sometimes by differences in patient selection. Short stature is present by definition in 3 out of 100 subjects; if we consider a frequency of SHOX defects of 3% among ISS, we should expect a population prevalence of 1 in 1000. This prevalence would be higher than that of GH deficiency (1:3,500) and of Turner syndrome (1:2,500 females), suggesting that SHOX deficiency could be one of the most frequent monogenetic causes of short stature.

  17. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S B; Pedersen, K M; Hreidarsson, A B; Andersen, S; Bülow Pedersen, I; Knudsen, N; Perrild, H; Jørgensen, T; Ovesen, L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The hyperthyroidism is caused by autonomous nodular growth and function of the thyroid gland and it is accompanied by a high frequency of goiter. Pregnant women and small children are not immediately endangered but the consequences of severe iodine deficiency for brain development are grave and a considerable safety margin is advisable. Moreover, a shift toward less malignant types of thyroid cancer and a lower radiation dose to the thyroid in case of nuclear fallout support that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency should be corrected. However, there is evidence that a high iodine intake may be associated with more autoimmune hypothyroidism, and that Graves' disease may manifest at a younger age and be more difficult to treat. Hence, the iodine intake should be brought to a level at which iodine deficiency disorders are avoided but not higher. Iodine supplementation programs should aim at relatively uniform iodine intake, avoiding deficient or excessive iodine intake in subpopulations. To adopt such a strategy, surveillance programs are needed.

  18. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%-6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (<20 ng/mL), insufficient (20-32 ng/mL), and sufficient (>32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77

  20. Combined vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency worsens early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Babaev, Vladimir R; Li, Liying; Shah, Sanket; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F; May, James M

    2010-09-01

    To assess the role of combined deficiencies of vitamins C and E on the earliest stages of atherosclerosis (an inflammatory condition associated with oxidative stress), 4 combinations of vitamin supplementation (low C/low E, low C/high E, high C/low E, and high C/high E) were studied in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient mice also unable to synthesize their own vitamin C (gulonolactone oxidase(-/-)); and to evaluate the effect of a more severe depletion of vitamin C alone in a second experiment using gulonolactone oxidase(-/-) mice carrying the hemizygous deletion of SVCT2 (the vitamin C transporter). After 8 weeks of a high-fat diet (16% lard and 0.2% cholesterol), atherosclerosis developed in the aortic sinus areas of mice in all diet groups. Each vitamin-deficient diet significantly decreased liver and brain contents of the corresponding vitamin. Combined deficiency of both vitamins increased lipid peroxidation, doubled plaque size, and increased plaque macrophage content by 2- to 3-fold in male mice, although only plaque macrophage content was increased in female mice. A more severe deficiency of vitamin C in gulonolactone oxidase(-/-) mice with defective cellular uptake of vitamin C increased both oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice compared with littermates receiving a diet replete in vitamin C, again most clearly in males. Combined deficiencies of vitamins E and C are required to worsen early atherosclerosis in an apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model. However, a more severe cellular deficiency of vitamin C alone promotes atherosclerosis when vitamin E is replete.

  1. Combined Vitamin C and Vitamin E Deficiency Worsens Early Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Babaev, Vladimir R.; Li, Liying; Shah, Sanket; Fazio, Sergio; Linton, MacRae F.; May, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition associated with oxidative stress, but controversy persists regarding whether antioxidants such as vitamins C and E are preventative. To assess the role of combined deficiencies of vitamins C and E on the earliest stages of atherosclerosis, four combinations of vitamin supplementation (Low C/Low E, Low C/High E, High C/Low E, High C/High E) were studied in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice also unable to synthesize their own vitamin C (gulo−/−). The effect of a more severe depletion of vitamin C alone was evaluated in a second experiment using gulo−/− mice carrying the hemizygous deletion of SVCT2, the vitamin C transporter. Methods and Results After 8 weeks on a high-fat diet (16% lard, 0.2% cholesterol), atherosclerosis developed in the aortic sinus areas of mice in all diet groups. Each vitamin-deficient diet significantly decreased liver and brain contents of the corresponding vitamin. Combined deficiency of both vitamins increased lipid peroxidation, doubled plaque size, and increased plaque macrophage content by 2-3-fold in males, although only plaque macrophage content was increased in females. A more severe deficiency of vitamin C in gulo−/− mice with defective cellular uptake of vitamin C increased both oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice compared to littermates on a diet replete in vitamin C, again most clearly in males. Conclusion Combined vitamin E and C deficiencies are required to worsen early atherosclerosis in an apoE-deficient mouse model. However, a more severe cellular deficiency of vitamin C alone promotes atherosclerosis when vitamin E is replete. PMID:20558818

  2. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  3. A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. Methods One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we used immuno-competent and immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models as well as hemoglobin as a marker of iron status in young BC patients to demonstrate whether host iron deficiency plays a pro-metastatic role. Results We showed that mice fed an iron-deficient diet had significantly higher tumor volumes and lung metastasis compared to those fed normal iron diets. Iron deficiency mainly altered Notch but not TGF-β and Wnt signaling in the primary tumor, leading to the activation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was revealed by increased expression of Snai1 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Importantly, correcting iron deficiency by iron therapy reduced primary tumor volume, lung metastasis, and reversed EMT markers in mice. Furthermore, we found that mild iron deficiency was significantly associated with lymph node invasion in young BC patients (p<0.002). Conclusions Together, our finding indicates that host iron deficiency could be a contributor of poor prognosis in young BC patients. PMID:23800380

  4. Creatine deficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The lack of creatine in the central nervous system causes a severe but treatable neurological disease. Three inherited defects, AGAT, GAMT, and CrT deficiency, compromising synthesis and transport of creatine have been discovered recently. Together these so-called creatine deficiency syndromes (CDS) might represent the most frequent metabolic disorders with a primarily neurological phenotype. Patients with CDS present with global developmental delays, mental retardation, speech impairment especially affecting active language, seizures, extrapyramidal movement disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The two defects in the creatine synthesis, AGAT and GAMT, are autosomal recessive disorders. They can be diagnosed by analysis of the creatine, guanidinoacetate, and creatinine in body fluids. Treatment is available and, especially when introduced in infancy, has a good outcome. The defect of creatine transport, CrT, is an X-linked condition and perhaps the most frequent reasons for X-linked mental retardation. Diagnosis is made by an increased ratio of creatine to creatinine in urine, but successful treatment still needs to be explored. CDS are under-diagnosed because easy to miss in standard diagnostic workup. Because CDS represent a frequent cause of cognitive and neurological impairment that is treatable they warrant consideration in the workup for genetic mental retardation syndromes, for intractable seizure disorders, and for neurological diseases with a predominant lack of active speech. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Iodine deficiency and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, F; Lo Presti, V P; Vermiglio, F

    1998-01-01

    Iodine availability for maternal thyroid during pregnancy results from a combination of specific factors (increased urinary iodine loss, fetal-placental unit competition) and is critically reduced by the nutritional deficiency. Hyperestrogenism is associated with increased circulating thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) levels and a higher binding capacity for T4 and T3, because of a reduced clearance rate of the protein. Our study carried out in a moderately iodine deficiency area from North-Eastern Sicily in pregnant women showed a inadequate synthesis of T4 not proportional to the increased TBG levels. The progressive decrease T4/TBG molar ratio implies the reduction of serum FT4 and the consequently increase of serum TSH. At delivery, about 70% of women showed a critical and transient biochemical hypothyroidism. Mental impairment and neurosensorial and neuromuscular disorders were observed in children born from those women. Therefore, short-term iodine prophylaxis with iodized salt in pregnant women does not correct nor prevent maternal hypothyroxinemia. L-T4 treatment is thus often required.

  6. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders: coagulation factor deficiencies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  7. The Nature of Foot Ray Deficiency in Congenital Fibular Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bryan A; Birch, John G; Hootnick, David R; Cherkashin, Alex M; Samchukov, Mikhail L

    Absent lateral osseous structures in congenital fibular deficiency, including the distal femur and fibula, have led some authors to refer to the nature of foot ray deficiency as "lateral" as well. Others have suggested that the ray deficiency is in the central portion of the midfoot and forefoot.We sought to determine whether cuboid preservation and/or cuneiform deficiency in the feet of patients with congenital fibular deficiency implied that the ray deficiency is central rather than lateral in patients with congenital fibular deficiency. We identified all patients with a clinical morphologic diagnosis of congenital fibular deficiency at our institution over a 15-year period. We reviewed the records and radiographs of patients who had radiographs of the feet to allow determination of the number of metatarsals, the presence or absence of a cuboid or calcaneocuboid fusion, the number of cuneiforms present (if possible), and any other osseous abnormalities of the foot. We excluded patients with 5-rayed feet, those who had not had radiographs of the feet, or whose radiographs were not adequate to allow accurate assessment of these radiographic features. We defined the characteristic "lateral (fifth) ray present" if there was a well-developed cuboid or calcaneocuboid coalition with which the lateral-most preserved metatarsal articulated. Twenty-six patients with 28 affected feet met radiographic criteria for inclusion in the study. All affected feet had a well-developed cuboid or calcaneocuboid coalition. The lateral-most ray of 25 patients with 26 affected feet articulated with the cuboid or calcaneocuboid coalition. One patient with bilateral fibular deficiency had bilateral partially deficient cuboids, and the lateral-most metatarsal articulated with the medial remnant of the deformed cuboids. Twenty-one of 28 feet with visible cuneiforms had 2 or 1 cuneiform. Although the embryology and pathogenesis of congenital fibular deficiency remain unknown, based on the

  8. Micronutrient deficiencies and gender: social and economic costs.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Webb, Patrick; Harvey, Philip W J; Hunt, Joseph M; Dalmiya, Nita; Chopra, Mickey; Ball, Madeleine J; Bloem, Martin W; de Benoist, Bruno

    2005-05-01

    Vitamin and mineral deficiencies adversely affect a third of the world's people. Consequently, a series of global goals and a serious amount of donor and national resources have been directed at such micronutrient deficiencies. Drawing on the extensive experience of the authors in a variety of institutional settings, the article used a computer search of the published scientific literature of the topic, supplemented by reports and published and unpublished work from the various agencies. In examining the effect of sex on the economic and social costs of micronutrient deficiencies, the paper found that: (1) micronutrient deficiencies affect global health outcomes; (2) micronutrient deficiencies incur substantial economic costs; (3) health and nutrition outcomes are affected by sex; (4) micronutrient deficiencies are affected by sex, but this is often culturally specific; and finally, (5) the social and economic costs of micronutrient deficiencies, with particular reference to women and female adolescents and children, are likely to be considerable but are not well quantified. Given the potential impact on reducing infant and child mortality, reducing maternal mortality, and enhancing neuro-intellectual development and growth, the right of women and children to adequate food and nutrition should more explicitly reflect their special requirements in terms of micronutrients. The positive impact of alleviating micronutrient malnutrition on physical activity, education and productivity, and hence on national economies suggests that there is also an urgent need for increased effort to demonstrate the cost of these deficiencies, as well as the benefits of addressing them, especially compared with other health and nutrition interventions.

  9. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hagmeyer, Simone; Haderspeck, Jasmin Carmen; Grabrucker, Andreas Martin

    2015-01-01

    Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies. PMID:25610379

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  11. Monocyte esterase deficiency in malignant neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, G M; McCormick, J A; Morris, T C; Alexander, H D; Nolan, L; Morgan, L M; Reynolds, M E; Edgar, S; Bell, A L; McCaigue, M D

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency in 4000 inpatients (including 808 with malignant neoplastic disease) and 474 normal controls was performed using an automated esterase method. A highly significant excess of patients with malignant disease and the deficiency was evident when compared with normal controls or all other patients. Within the group of patients with malignant disease the demonstrable excess occurred in B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. There was also a significant excess of patients with the deficiency attending the renal unit, both among patients who had had renal transplants and those who had not. A familial incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency was found in 19 (35%) of first degree relatives of those patients in whom family studies were done. It is suggested that the reason for the increased prevalence of the anomaly in these disorders might be that the diminution of esterase activity has a role in their development. PMID:2341564

  12. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    PubMed

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study on 2,2′,4,5,5′-pentachlorobiphenyl-mediated decrease in serum thyroxine level between C57BL/6 and its transthyretin-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yoshihisa, E-mail: kato@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Tamaki, Sekihiro; Haraguchi, Koichi

    The relationships between the changes in the levels of serum total thyroxine (T{sub 4}), serum T{sub 4}-transthyretin (TTR) complex, and accumulation of T{sub 4} in tissues by 2,2′,4,5,5′-pentachlorobiphenyl (PentaCB) were examined using wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and its TTR-deficient (TTR-null) mice. The constitutive level of serum total T{sub 4} was much higher in WT mice than in TTR-null mice. In WT mice 4 days after a single intraperitoneal injection with PentaCB (112 mg/kg), serum total T{sub 4} level was significantly decreased along with a decrease in serum T{sub 4}–TTR complex, and the levels of serum total T{sub 4} in the PentaCB-treatedmore » WT mice were almost the same to those in PentaCB-untreated (control) TTR-null mice. In addition, a slight decrease in serum total T{sub 4} by PentaCB treatment was observed in TTR-null mice. Furthermore, clearance of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} from the serum after [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4}-administration was promoted by the PentaCB-pretreatment in either strain of mice, especially WT mice. On the other hand, accumulation level of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} in the liver, but not in extrahepatic tissues, was strikingly enhanced in the PentaCB-pretreated WT and TTR-null mice. Furthermore, in both strains of mice, PentaCB-pretreatment led to significant increases in the steady-state distribution volume of [{sup 125}I]T{sub 4} and the concentration ratio of the liver to serum. The present findings demonstrate that PentaCB-mediated decrease in serum T{sub 4} level occurs mainly through increase in accumulation level of T{sub 4} in the liver and further indicate that the increased accumulation of T{sub 4} in the liver of WT mice is primarily dependent on the PentaCB-mediated inhibition of serum T{sub 4}–TTR complex formation.« less

  14. Selective IgA Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunoglobulins. Videos: Choosing Wisely » Selective IgA Deficiency Treatment & Management The underlying cause for Selective IgA Deficiency is ... the Evidence » Practice Parameter for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Immunodefiency » 2017 Non-CME Recordings » Vaccination ...

  15. Molecular characterization of FXI deficiency.

    PubMed

    Berber, Ergul

    2011-02-01

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the FXI gene. It is a heterogeneous disorder with variable tendency in bleeding and variable causative FXI gene mutations. It is characterized as a cross-reacting material-negative (CRM-) FXI deficiency due to decreased FXI levels or cross-reacting material-positive (CRM+) FXI deficiency due to impaired FXI function. Increasing number of mutations has been reported in FXI mutation database, and most of the mutations are affecting serine protease (SP) domain of the protein. Functional characterization for the mutations helps to better understand the molecular basis of FXI deficiency. Prevalence of the disease is higher in certain populations such as Ashkenazi Jews. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the molecular basis of congenital FXI deficiency.

  16. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Chitra; Rupar, Tony; Prasad, Asuri N

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is a mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex that provides the link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. PDHc deficiency is one of the commoner metabolic disorders of lactic acidosis presenting with neurological phenotypes that vary with age and gender. In this mini-review, we postulate mechanisms of epilepsy in the setting of PDHc deficiency using two illustrative cases (one with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-alpha polypeptide (PDHA1) deficiency and the second one with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-beta subunit (PDHB) deficiency (a rare subtype of PDHc deficiency)) and a selected review of published case series. PDHc plays a critical role in the pathway of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. In severe deficiency states the resulting energy deficit impacts on brain development in utero resulting in structural brain anomalies and epilepsy. Milder deficiency states present with variable manifestations that include cognitive delay, ataxia, and seizures. Epileptogenesis in PDHc deficiency is linked to energy failure, development of structural brain anomalies and abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism. The use of the ketogenic diet bypasses the metabolic block, by providing a direct source of acetyl-CoA, leading to amelioration of some symptoms. Genetic counseling is essential as PDHA1 deficiency (commonest defect) is X-linked although females can be affected due to unfavorable lyonization, while PDHB and PDH phosphatase (PDP) deficiencies (much rarer defects) are of autosomal recessive inheritance. Research is in progress for looking into animal models to better understand pathogenesis and management of this challenging disorder. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromatic VEP in children with congenital colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tekavčič Pompe, Manca; Stirn Kranjc, Branka; Brecelj, Jelka

    2010-09-01

    Visual evoked potentials to chromatic stimulus (cVEP) are believed to selectively test the parvocellular visual pathway which is responsible for processing information about colour. The aim was to evaluate cVEP in children with red-green congenital colour vision deficiency. VEP responses of 15 colour deficient children were compared to 31 children with normal colour vision. An isoluminant red-green stimulus composed of horizontal gratings was presented in an onset-offset manner. The shape of the waveform was studied, as well as the latency and amplitude of positive (P) and negative (N) waves. cVEP response did not change much with increased age in colour deficient children, whereas normative data showed changes from a predominantly positive to a negative response with increased age. A P wave was present in 87% of colour deficient children (and in 100% of children with normal colour vision), whereas the N wave was absent in a great majority of colour deficient children and was present in 80% of children with normal colour vision. Therefore, the amplitude of the whole response (N-P) decreased linearly with age in colour deficient children, whereas in children with normal colour vision it increased linearly. P wave latency shortened with increased age in both groups. cVEP responses differ in children with congenital colour vision deficiency compared to children with normal colour vision. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pao, Mritunjay; Kulkarni, Anjali; Gupta, Vidya; Kaul, Sushma; Balan, Saroja

    2005-10-01

    This study was carried out to detect the incidence of erythrocytic Glucose-6 -Phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, to compare the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in G-6-PD deficient neonates as compared to G-6-PD normal neonates and to asses the usefulness of neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency. In a retrospective hospital based study 2,479 male and female neonates consecutively born at Indraprastha Apollo hospital between July 1998 to June 2003 who were screened for G-6-PD levels were evaluated for the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency. Incidence of G-6-PD deficiency was found to be 2.0%. Incidence in males was 283% and female was 1.05%. The incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was found to be 32% in G-6-PD deficient neonates which was significantly higher than the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with normal G-6-PD, which was 12.3% (P< 0.001). Our data suggests that neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency is a useful test for preventing and early treatment of complications associated with it.

  19. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    PubMed Central

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  1. Further Molecular Analysis of G6PD Deficiency Variants in Southern Vietnam and a Novel Variant Designated as G6PD Ho Chi Minh (173 A>G; 58 Asp>Gly): Frequency Distributions of Variants Compared with Those in Other Southeast Asian Countries.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Hayashi, Taeko; Kasahara, Yuichi; Dung, Nguyen The; Kido, Yasutoshi; Kanbe, Toshio; Tantular, Indah S

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a survey of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among newborn babies at Tu Du Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, southern Vietnam. A total of 90 deficient babies were detected, including 85 in the Kinh ethnic group, 4 Chinese, and 1 in the K'Ho minority group. In the Kinh ethnic group, G6PD variants such as G6PD Viangchan (n=32), Kaiping (n=11), Canton (n=8), Chinese-5 (n=7), Union (n=5) and Quing Yuan (n=4) were detected. A variant with silent mutations at 1311 C>T and IVS11 nt 93 T>C was also detected in 17 cases. A novel mutation (173 A>G) in exon 4 with a predicted amino acid change of 58 Asp>Gly was also found in a Kinh newborn girl and her father, and it was designated as G6PD Ho Chi Minh. These findings demonstrated that the Kinh ethnic group in southern Vietnam has 8 different G6PD variants, indicating that the members of this group have many ancestors in terms of G6PD variants from Southeast Asia, China, and Oceania. We compared the frequency distribution of G6PD variants in the Kinh population with those of other Southeast Asian populations, and the Kinh population's distribution was quite similar to that in the Thai population, but differed from it by the absence of G6PD Mahidol.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor VII deficiency Factor VII deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor VII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor V deficiency Factor V deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor V deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. The signs ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: factor X deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Factor X deficiency Factor X deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Factor X deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that varies ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Protein C deficiency Protein C deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases the risk ...

  6. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  7. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  8. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-08

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  9. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states. PMID:26154191

  10. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: prekallikrein deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a role in a process called the intrinsic coagulation pathway (also called the contact activation pathway). This ... functional plasma kallikrein, which likely impairs the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Researchers suggest that this lack (deficiency) of ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: transcobalamin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... also have a shortage of white blood cells (neutropenia), which can lead to reduced immune system function. ... deficiency Seattle Children's Hospital: Anemia Seattle Children's Hospital: Neutropenia Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Vitamin ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in liver cells. This cycle processes excess nitrogen, generated when protein is used by the body, ... the urea cycle, which produces urea by removing nitrogen from arginine. In people with arginase deficiency , arginase ...

  14. Selective IgA Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about PIDDs visit the Immune Deficiency Foundation website . Look to the experts The AAAAI’s Find an Allergist / Immunologist service is a trusted resource to help you find a specialist close ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: proopiomelanocortin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... POMC deficiency, but they may have an increased risk of obesity. Related Information ... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: How are Obesity and Overweight ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... to impaired female sexual development, unusual bone growth, insulin resistance, and other signs and symptoms of aromatase deficiency . In women who are pregnant with an affected fetus, excess androgens in the ...

  17. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... or the brain, and can rule out a brain tumor. Did you know? Most children with growth hormone deficiency grow less than two inches (5 centimeters) each year. How is a child with GHD treated? Children with GHD receive treatment ...

  18. Vitamin B12-Loaded Buccoadhesive Films as a Noninvasive Supplement in Vitamin B12 Deficiency: In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Comparative Study With Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Soad A; Sarhan, Hatem A; Abdelkader, Hamdy; Mansour, Heba F

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to formulate and evaluate vitamin B12-loaded buccal mucoadhesive hydrogel films. Various film formulations were prepared using chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The prepared films were characterized for thickness, weight variation, drug content, percentage moisture uptake and moisture content, surface pH, mechanical properties, in vitro release, and mucoadhesion. Vitamin B12 bioavailability from the optimized formulation was studied on rabbits by the aid of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuroton ® I.M. injection was used for comparison. The films had acceptable mechanical and mucoadhesion properties. The percentages of moisture content of the optimized formulation were 3.2 ± 0.95, whereas the percentage drug released was 98.59 ± 1.41% at the end of 40 min. FTIR revealed the incidence of drug/polymer interaction. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed the possibility of the dispersion of cyanocobalamin in a molecular state with complete amorphization in the polymers. The estimated AUC 0-8h showed 1.5-fold increases in the bioavailability of cyanocobalamin from the optimized formulation compared with the marketed I.M. injection. These findings warrant that vitamin B12 buccal film formulation can be considered as an effective alternative portal with noninvasive and more convenient characteristics compared with the I.M. injection dosage form. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic basis of human complement C8[beta] deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, T.; Rittner, C.; Schneider, P.M.

    1993-06-01

    The eighth component of human complement (c8) is a serum protein consisting of three chains ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]) and encoded by three different genes, C8A, C8B, and C8G. C8A and C8B are closely linked on chromosome 1p, whereas C8G is located on chromosome 9q. In the serum the [beta] subunit is non-covalently bound to the disulfide-linked [alpha]-[gamma] subunit. Patients with C8[beta] deficiency suffer from recurrent neisserial infections such as meningitis. Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primer pairs from the flanking intron sequences was used to amplify all 12 C8B exons separately. No difference regarding the exon sizesmore » was observed in a C8[beta]-deficient patient compared with a normal person. Therefore, direct sequence analysis of all exon-specific PCR products from normal and C8[beta]-deficient individuals was carried out. As a cause for C8[beta] deficiency, we found a single C-T exchange in exon 9 leading to a stop codon. An allele-specific PCR system was designed to detect the normal and the deficiency allele simultaneously. Using this approach as well as PCR typing of the Taql polymorphism located in intron 11, five families with 7 C8[beta]-deficient members were investigated. The mutation was not found to be restricted to one of the two Taql RFLP alleles. The mutant allele was observed in all families investigated and can therefore be regarded as a major cause of C8[beta] deficiency in the Caucasian population. In addition, two C8[beta]-deficient patients were found to be heterozygous for the C-T exchange. The molecular basis of the alleles without this point mutation also causing deficiency has not yet been defined. 23 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Iron-Deficiency Anemia What's in ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  2. Ensuring Effective Prevention of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Völzke, Henry; Caron, Philippe; Dahl, Lisbeth; de Castro, João J; Erlund, Iris; Gaberšček, Simona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Ittermann, Till; Ivanova, Ludmila; Karanfilski, Borislav; Khattak, Rehman M; Kusić, Zvonko; Laurberg, Peter; Lazarus, John H; Markou, Kostas B; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Nagy, Endre V; Peeters, Robin P; Pīrāgs, Valdis; Podoba, Ján; Rayman, Margaret P; Rochau, Ursula; Siebert, Uwe; Smyth, Peter P; Thuesen, Betina H; Troen, Aron; Vila, Lluís; Vitti, Paolo; Zamrazil, Vaclav; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2016-02-01

    Programs initiated to prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) may not remain effective due to changes in government policies, commercial factors, and human behavior that may affect the efficacy of IDD prevention programs in unpredictable directions. Monitoring and outcome studies are needed to optimize the effectiveness of IDD prevention. Although the need for monitoring is compelling, the current reality in Europe is less than optimal. Regular and systematic monitoring surveys have only been established in a few countries, and comparability across the studies is hampered by the lack of centralized standardization procedures. In addition, data on outcomes and the cost of achieving them are needed in order to provide evidence of the beneficial effects of IDD prevention in countries with mild iodine deficiency. Monitoring studies can be optimized by including centralized standardization procedures that improve the comparison between studies. No study of iodine consumption can replace the direct measurement of health outcomes and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of the program. It is particularly important that health economic evaluation should be conducted in mildly iodine-deficient areas and that it should include populations from regions with different environmental, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds.

  3. Mouse Model for Human Arginase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ramaswamy K.; Yoo, Paul K.; Kern, Rita M.; Rozengurt, Nora; Tsoa, Rosemarie; O'Brien, William E.; Yu, Hong; Grody, Wayne W.; Cederbaum, Stephen D.

    2002-01-01

    Deficiency of liver arginase (AI) causes hyperargininemia (OMIM 207800), a disorder characterized by progressive mental impairment, growth retardation, and spasticity and punctuated by sometimes fatal episodes of hyperammonemia. We constructed a knockout mouse strain carrying a nonfunctional AI gene by homologous recombination. Arginase AI knockout mice completely lacked liver arginase (AI) activity, exhibited severe symptoms of hyperammonemia, and died between postnatal days 10 and 14. During hyperammonemic crisis, plasma ammonia levels of these mice increased >10-fold compared to those for normal animals. Livers of AI-deficient animals showed hepatocyte abnormalities, including cell swelling and inclusions. Plasma amino acid analysis showed the mean arginine level in knockouts to be approximately fourfold greater than that for the wild type and threefold greater than that for heterozygotes; the mean proline level was approximately one-third and the ornithine level was one-half of the proline and ornithine levels, respectively, for wild-type or heterozygote mice—understandable biochemical consequences of arginase deficiency. Glutamic acid, citrulline, and histidine levels were about 1.5-fold higher than those seen in the phenotypically normal animals. Concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine were 0.4 to 0.5 times the concentrations seen in phenotypically normal animals. In summary, the AI-deficient mouse duplicates several pathobiological aspects of the human condition and should prove to be a useful model for further study of the disease mechanism(s) and to explore treatment options, such as pharmaceutical administration of sodium phenylbutyrate and/or ornithine and development of gene therapy protocols. PMID:12052859

  4. Excess adiposity, inflammation, and iron-deficiency in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Liang, Huifang; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Freels, Sally; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2009-02-01

    Iron deficiency is more prevalent in overweight children and adolescents but the mechanisms that underlie this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between iron status and excess adiposity, inflammation, menarche, diet, physical activity, and poverty status in female adolescents included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 dataset. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics (t test, chi(2)) were used to assess differences between normal-weight (5th < or = body mass index [BMI] percentile <85th) and heavier-weight girls (< or = 85th percentile for BMI) for demographic, biochemical, dietary, and physical activity variables. In addition, logistic regression analyses predicting iron deficiency and linear regression predicting serum iron levels were performed. Heavier-weight girls had an increased prevalence of iron deficiency compared to those with normal weight. Dietary iron, age of and time since first menarche, poverty status, and physical activity were similar between the two groups and were not independent predictors of iron deficiency or log serum iron levels. Logistic modeling predicting iron deficiency revealed having a BMI > or = 85th percentile and for each 1 mg/dL increase in C-reactive protein the odds ratio for iron deficiency more than doubled. The best-fit linear model to predict serum iron levels included both serum transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein following log-transformation for normalization of these variables. Findings indicate that heavier-weight female adolescents are at greater risk for iron deficiency and that inflammation stemming from excess adipose tissue contributes to this phenomenon. Food and nutrition professionals should consider elevated BMI as an additional risk factor for iron deficiency in female adolescents.

  5. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4±3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p = 0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p = 0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p = 0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection. PMID:23874768

  6. Obesity and iron deficiency: a quantitative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Zhang, X; Shen, Y; Fang, X; Wang, Y; Wang, F

    2015-12-01

    Hypoferraemia (i.e. iron deficiency) was initially reported among obese individuals several decades ago; however, whether obesity and iron deficiency are correlated remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the putative association between obesity and iron deficiency by assessing the concentration of haematological iron markers and the risks associated with iron deficiency in both obese (including overweight) subjects and non-overweight participants. We performed a systematic search in the databases PubMed and Embase for relevant research articles published through December 2014. A total of 26 cross-sectional and case-control studies were analysed, comprising 13,393 overweight/obese individuals and 26,621 non-overweight participants. Weighted or standardized mean differences of blood iron markers and odds ratio (OR) of iron deficiency were compared between the overweight/obese participants and the non-overweight participants using a random-effects model. Compared with the non-overweight participants, the overweight/obese participants had lower serum iron concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -8.37 μg dL(-1) ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.38 to -5.36 μg dL(-1) ) and lower transferrin saturation percentages (WMD: 2.34%, 95% CI: -3.29% to -1.40%). Consistent with this finding, the overweight/obese participants had a significantly increased risk of iron deficiency (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01-1.68). Moreover, subgroup analyses revealed that the method used to diagnose iron deficiency can have a critical effect on the results of the association test; specifically, we found a significant correlation between iron deficiency and obesity in studies without a ferritin-based diagnosis, but not in studies that used a ferritin-based diagnosis. Based upon these findings, we concluded that obesity is significantly associated with iron deficiency, and we recommend early monitoring and treatment of iron deficiency in overweight and obese individuals. Future

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  8. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  10. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; O'Loan, Jonathan C; Alexander, Suzanne; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J

    2012-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for developing schizophrenia in humans. In rodents DVD deficiency induces subtle changes in the way the brain develops. This early developmental insult leads to select behavioural changes in the adult, such as an enhanced response to amphetamine-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats but not in male DVD-deficient rats and an enhanced locomotor response to the N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, in male DVD-deficient rats. However, the response to MK-801-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further examine this behavioural finding in male and female rats and assess NMDA receptor density. DVD-deficient Sprague Dawley rats were assessed for locomotion, ataxia, acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR to multiple doses of MK-801. The NMDA receptor density in relevant brain regions was assessed in a drug-naive cohort. DVD deficiency increased locomotion in response to MK-801 in both sexes. DVD-deficient rats also showed an enhanced ASR compared with control rats, but PPI was normal. Moreover, DVD deficiency decreased NMDA receptor density in the caudate putamen of both sexes. These results suggest that a transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency has a long-lasting effect on NMDA-mediated signalling in the rodent brain and may be a plausible candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shadab; Basak, Trayambak; Anand Kumar, K; Bhardwaj, Gourav; Lalitha, A; Yadav, Dilip K; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2015-09-08

    Maternal nutritional deficiency significantly perturbs the offspring's physiology predisposing them to metabolic diseases during adulthood. Vitamin B12 and folate are two such micronutrients, whose deficiency leads to elevated homocysteine levels. We earlier generated B12 and/or folate deficient rat models and using high-throughput proteomic approach, showed that maternal vitamin B12 deficiency modulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver of pups through regulation of PPAR signaling pathway. In this study, using similar approach, we identified 26 differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of pups born to mothers fed with vitamin B12 deficient diet while only four proteins were identified in the folate deficient group. Importantly, proteins like calreticulin, cofilin 1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B that are involved in the functioning of the kidney were upregulated in B12 deficient group. Our results hint towards a larger effect of vitamin B12 deficiency compared to that of folate presumably due to greater elevation of homocysteine in vitamin B12 deficient group. In view of widespread vitamin B12 and folate deficiency and its association with several diseases like anemia, cardiovascular and renal diseases, our results may have large implications for kidney diseases in populations deficient in vitamin B12 especially in vegetarians and the elderly people.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Symmetry structure in neutron deficient xenon nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    1998-12-01

    The paper describes the measurements of the lifetimes of the excited states in the ground state band of the Neutron deficient Xe nuclei (122,124Xe) by recoil Distance Method (RDM). The lifetimes of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the RDM measurements but for 124Xe it does not agree the RDM measurements but agrees with the earlier Coulomb-excitation experiment. The experimental results are compared with the existing theories to understand the changes in the symmetry structure of the Xe-nuclei as the Neutron number decreases from N=76(130Xe) to N=64(118Xe).

  14. Low nitric oxide: a key factor underlying copper deficiency teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Keen, Carl L.; Lanoue, Louise; Rucker, Robert B.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) deficiency-induced teratogenicity is characterized by major cardiac, brain and vascular anomalies, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cu deficiency decreases superoxide dismutase activity, and increases superoxide anions which can interact with nitric oxide (NO), reducing the NO pool size. Given the role of NO as a developmental signaling molecule, we tested the hypothesis that low NO levels, secondary to Cu deficiency, represent a developmental challenge. Gestation day 8.5 embryos from Cu adequate (Cu+) or Cu deficient (Cu−) dams were cultured for 48 h in Cu+ or Cu− medium, respectively. We report that NO levels were low in conditioned media from Cu−/Cu− embryos and yolk sacs, compared to Cu+/Cu+ controls under basal conditions, and with NO synthase (NOS) agonists. The low NO production was associated with low endothelial NOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 and cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations in the Cu−/Cu− group. The altered NO levels in Cu deficient embryos are functionally significant, as the administration of the NO donor, DETA/NONOate, increased cGMP and ameliorated embryo and yolk sac abnormalities. These data support the concept that Cu deficiency limits NO availability and alters NO-dependent signaling which contributes to abnormal embryo and yolk sac development. PMID:18037129

  15. GABAB-ergic motor cortex dysfunction in SSADH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Leonardo G.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Fritsch, Brita; Jung, Nikolai H.; Dustin, Irene; Theodore, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of GABA degradation leading to elevations in brain GABA and γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). The effect of chronically elevated GABA and GHB on cortical excitability is unknown. We hypothesized that use-dependent downregulation of GABA receptor expression would promote cortical disinhibition rather than inhibition, predominantly via presynaptic GABAergic mechanisms. Methods: We quantified the magnitude of excitation and inhibition in primary motor cortex (M1) in patients with SSADH deficiency, their parents (obligate heterozygotes), age-matched healthy young controls, and healthy adults using single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Long interval intracortical inhibition was significantly reduced and the cortical silent period was significantly shortened in patients with SSADH deficiency compared to heterozygous parents and control groups. Conclusions: Since long interval intracortical inhibition and cortical silent period are thought to reflect GABAB receptor–mediated inhibitory circuits, our results point to a particularly GABAB-ergic motor cortex dysfunction in patients with SSADH deficiency. This human phenotype is consistent with the proposed mechanism of use-dependent downregulation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors in SSADH deficiency animal models. Additionally, the results suggest autoinhibition of GABAergic neurons. This first demonstration of altered GABAB-ergic function in patients with SSADH deficiency may help to explain clinical features of the disease, and suggest pathophysiologic mechanisms in other neurotransmitter-related disorders. Neurology® 2012;79:47–54 PMID:22722631

  16. Anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (P<.01). Younger patients and patients with greater weight loss had a higher incidence of anemia. Female gender was a variable associated with a greater incidence of iron deficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Affects Skin Wound Healing in Plasminogen Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rønø, Birgitte; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Lund, Leif Røge; Hald, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The fibrinolytic activity of plasmin plays a fundamental role in resolution of blood clots and clearance of extravascular deposited fibrin in damaged tissues. These vital functions of plasmin are exploited by malignant cells to accelerate tumor growth and facilitate metastases. Mice lacking functional plasmin thus display decreased tumor growth in a variety of cancer models. Interestingly, this role of plasmin has, in regard to skin cancer, been shown to be restricted to male mice. It remains to be clarified whether gender also affects other phenotypic characteristics of plasmin deficiency or if this gender effect is restricted to skin cancer. To investigate this, we tested the effect of gender on plasmin dependent immune cell migration, accumulation of hepatic fibrin depositions, skin composition, and skin wound healing. Gender did not affect immune cell migration or hepatic fibrin accumulation in neither wildtype nor plasmin deficient mice, and the existing differences in skin composition between males and females were unaffected by plasmin deficiency. In contrast, gender had a marked effect on the ability of plasmin deficient mice to heal skin wounds, which was seen as an accelerated wound closure in female versus male plasmin deficient mice. Further studies showed that this gender effect could not be reversed by ovariectomy, suggesting that female sex-hormones did not mediate the accelerated skin wound healing in plasmin deficient female mice. Histological examination of healed wounds revealed larger amounts of fibrotic scars in the provisional matrix of plasmin deficient male mice compared to female mice. These fibrotic scars correlated to an obstruction of cell infiltration of the granulation tissue, which is a prerequisite for wound healing. In conclusion, the presented data show that the gender dependent effect of plasmin deficiency is tissue specific and may be secondary to already established differences between genders, such as skin thickness and

  18. Stress-related arterial hypertension in Gper-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ping; Wu, Mei-Mei; Gao, Po; Gao, Ting; Dong, Li; Ding, Xiao-Wei; Meng, You-Qiang; Qian, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Rong, Wei-Fang

    2017-10-25

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that estrogens may exert multifaceted effects on the cardiovascular system via activating the classical nuclear receptors ERα or ERβ and the novel G protein coupled estrogen receptor (Gper). However, some studies have reported inconsistent cardiovascular phenotypes in Gper-deficient mice. The current study was aimed to reveal the effects of genetic deletion of Gper on the arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate in rats. Gper-deficient Sprague-Dawley rats were generated by utilizing the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technique. ABP of 10-week old male (n = 6) and 12-week old female (n = 6) Gper-deficient rats and age-matched wild type (WT) rats (6 females and 6 males) were measured under awake and restrained conditions through the non-invasive tail-cuff method daily for 8 (females) or 9 days (males). In the male WT rats, ABP and heart rate were slightly higher in day 1 to 4 than those in day 5 to 9, indicative of stress-related sympathoexcitation in the first few days and gradual adaptation to the restrained stress in later days. Gper-deficient rats had significantly higher ABP initially (male: day 1 to day 5; female: day 1 to day 3) and similar ABP in later days of measurement compared with the WT rats. The heart rate of male Gper-deficient rats was consistently higher than that of the male WT rats from day 1 to day 8. Both male and female Gper-deficient rats appeared to show slower body weight gain than the WT counterparts during the study period. Under anesthesia, ABP of Gper-deficient rats was not significantly different from their WT counterparts. These results indicate that Gper-deficient rats may be more sensitive to stress-induced sympathoexcitation and highlight the importance of Gper in the regulation of the cardiovascular function in stressful conditions.

  19. Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Iodine Deficiency among Nepalese School Children.

    PubMed

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-07-01

    To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion <100 μg/L) were present in 34.5 %, 43.4 % and 12.6 % children respectively. Insufficient urinary iodine excretion (urinary iodine excretion <100 μg/L) was common in anemic and iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.

  20. Deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins in chronic pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moneo, Emma; Stigliano, Serena; Hedström, Aleksandra; Kaczka, Aleksandra; Malvik, Marko; Waldthaler, Alexander; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Simon, Peter; Capurso, Gabriele

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients are at risk for fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) deficiency, but available studies are small and heterogeneous. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamins deficiency in CP patients. Medline was searched up to January 2016 for case series and case-control studies reporting prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in CP patients. The prevalent deficiency rate was pooled for included studies, and deficiency rate between CP and controls, with relative odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated for case-control studies. Twelve studies including 548 patients included. With a random-effect model, the pooled prevalence rate of vitamin A, D and E deficiency were 16.8% (95%CI 6.9-35.7), 57.6% (95%CI 43.9-70.4) and 29.2% (95%CI 8.6-64.5) respectively, with considerable heterogeneity (I 2  = 75%, 87.1% and 92%). Only one study evaluated vitamin K deficiency. The pooled OR for vitamin D deficiency in CP cases compared with controls was 1.17 (95% CI 0.77-1.78). Sensitivity analyses showed lower prevalence of vitamin A and E, and higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in high-quality studies. The rate of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency did not seem affect the deficiency rates, while the use of different cut-offs influences results and heterogeneity for vitamin E, but not A. Fat-soluble vitamins deficiency is frequent in CP patients, with considerable heterogeneity. There is, however, no apparent increased risk of vitamin D deficiency in CP compared to controls. Larger, high-quality studies are necessary to better estimate the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamins deficiency, including vitamin K. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: pseudocholinesterase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... choline ester drugs. It is likely that the enzyme has other functions in the body, but these functions are not ... cause pseudocholinesterase deficiency result in an abnormal pseudocholinesterase enzyme that does not function properly. Other mutations prevent the production of the ...

  2. VISUAL DEFICIENCIES AND READING DISABILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSEN, CARL L.

    THE ROLE OF VISUAL SENSORY DEFICIENCIES IN THE CAUSATION READING DISABILITY IS DISCUSSED. PREVIOUS AND CURRENT RESEARCH STUDIES DEALING WITH SPECIFIC VISUAL PROBLEMS WHICH HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL READING ACHIEVEMENT ARE LISTED--(1) FARSIGHTEDNESS, (2) ASTIGMATISM, (3) BINOCULAR INCOORDINATIONS, AND (4) FUSIONAL…

  3. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications.

  4. Psychological Problems in Mental Deficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.; Doris, John

    A statement of goals and the rationale for organization precede a historical discussion of mental deficiency and society. The problem of labels like IQ and brain injured and the consequences of the diagnostic process are illustrated by case histories; case studies are also used to examine the criteria used to decide who is retarded and to discuss…

  5. [Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency].

    PubMed

    Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.

  6. Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596

  7. Neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Masooma S; Mohamed, Afaf M; Abdulla, Adel; Abdulla, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among infants with neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia (NIH); compare G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal patients regarding hyperbilirubinemia and need for exchange transfusions (ET); and assess risk factors for ET and kernicterus. This is a case-control retrospective study. Medical records of NIH patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed. Data on sex, age at presentation, hospitalization duration, need for ET, hemoglobin (Hb) level, reticulocyte count, direct Coombs test, serum total and indirect bilirubin levels, thyroid function, blood and urine cultures, G6PD status, and blood groups were collected and compared between the G6PD-deficent and G6PD-normal patients. Of 1,159 NIH patients admitted, 1,129 were included, of whom 646 (57%) were male. Among 1,046 patients tested, 442 (42%) were G6PD deficient, 49 (4%) needed ET, and 11 (1%) had suspected Kernicterus. The G6PD-deficient patients were mainly male ( P <0.0001), and had lower Hb levels ( P <0.0001) and higher maximum bilirubin levels ( P =0.001). More G6PD-deficient patients needed ET ( P <0.0001). G6PD deficiency ( P =0.006), lower Hb level ( P =0.002), lower hematocrit count ( P =0.02), higher bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), higher maximal bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), and positive blood culture result ( P <0.0001) were significant risk factors for ET. Maximal bilirubin level was a significant risk factor for kernicterus ( P =0.021) and independently related to ET ( P =0.03). G6PD deficiency is an important risk factor for severe NIH. In G6PD-deficent neonates, management of NIH should be hastened to avoid irreversible neurological complications.

  8. Short stature before puberty: which children should be screened for SHOX deficiency?

    PubMed

    Wolters, Barbara; Lass, Nina; Wunsch, Rainer; Böckmann, Beatrix; Austrup, Frank; Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of deficiency in the short stature homeobox containing gene (SHOX) in prepubertal short-statured children and analyzed the clinical and radiological signs. Screening for SHOX deficiency was performed in 449 prepubertal short-statured children (54% females, aged 4-10 years) by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation probe-dependent amplification. Children with SHOX deficiency were compared to 1:2 age- and gender-matched prepubertal children without SHOX deficiency with respect to left-hand radiographs and anthropometrics including different ratios to height and proposed scores. We identified 22 (4.9%) patients with SHOX deficiency (64% point mutations). Children with SHOX deficiency demonstrated a mesomelic shortening of extremities. Lower leg lengths but not forearm length was reduced in children <8 years with SHOX deficiency. 36% of all children and none of the children <8 years with SHOX deficiency demonstrated any typical radiologic sign. Increased sitting height-to-height ratio and decreased extremities-to-trunk ratio demonstrated the best positive and negative predictive values to identify SHOX deficiency. Screening for SHOX deficiency seems rational, especially in children with increased sitting height-to-height ratio or decreased extremities-to-trunk ratio. These criteria were also valid in young children. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Primary vs. Secondary Antibody Deficiency: Clinical Features and Infection Outcomes of Immunoglobulin Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingham, Sai S.; Buckland, Matthew; Dempster, John; Lorenzo, Lorena; Grigoriadou, Sofia; Longhurst, Hilary J.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary antibody deficiency can occur as a result of haematological malignancies or certain medications, but not much is known about the clinical and immunological features of this group of patients as a whole. Here we describe a cohort of 167 patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiencies on immunoglobulin (Ig)-replacement treatment. The demographics, causes of immunodeficiency, diagnostic delay, clinical and laboratory features, and infection frequency were analysed retrospectively. Chemotherapy for B cell lymphoma and the use of Rituximab, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive medications were the most common causes of secondary antibody deficiency in this cohort. There was no difference in diagnostic delay or bronchiectasis between primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients, and both groups experienced disorders associated with immune dysregulation. Secondary antibody deficiency patients had similar baseline levels of serum IgG, but higher IgM and IgA, and a higher frequency of switched memory B cells than primary antibody deficiency patients. Serious and non-serious infections before and after Ig-replacement were also compared in both groups. Although secondary antibody deficiency patients had more serious infections before initiation of Ig-replacement, treatment resulted in a significant reduction of serious and non-serious infections in both primary and secondary antibody deficiency patients. Patients with secondary antibody deficiency experience similar delays in diagnosis as primary antibody deficiency patients and can also benefit from immunoglobulin-replacement treatment. PMID:24971644

  10. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency is a condition that can affect ... for movement ( skeletal muscles ). In many affected individuals, AMP deaminase deficiency does not cause any symptoms. People ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus (nuclear DNA). It is not clear why the severity ... deficiency Genetic Testing Registry: Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 2 Genetic Testing Registry: Mitochondrial complex III ...

  12. Iron deficiency--facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Oski, F A

    1985-04-01

    Iron deficiency occurs in all strata of society, is primarily a result of postnatal feeding practices and not due to congenital deficiencies of iron, can be prevented by appropriate dietary guidance, and, when present, produces important nonhematologic manifestations.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency Orphanet: Multiple carboxylase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases Organic Acidemia Association ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ketothiolase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Beta Ketothiolase Deficiency Orphanet: Beta-ketothiolase deficiency Screening, Technology And Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases Organic Acidemia Association ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein deficiency Orphanet: Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) Children's Mitochondrial ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1 lead to defective trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. J ... short stature, and natural killer cell deficiency in humans. J Clin Invest. 2012 Mar;122(3):814- ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zierz S. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: clinical and molecular genetic features and diagnostic aspects. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan; ... K, Hermann T, Zierz S. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency: molecular and biochemical analysis of 32 ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  18. hiPSC hepatocyte model demonstrates the role of unfolded protein response and inflammatory networks in α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Rashid, Sheikh Tamir; Cardoso de Brito, Miguel; Paola, Maria Serra; Ordonez, Adriana; Morell, Carola Maria; Kaserman, Joseph E; Madrigal, Pedro; Hannan, Nicholas; Gatto, Laurent; Tan, Lu; Wilson, Andrew A; Lilley, Kathryn; Marciniak, Stefan J; Gooptu, Bibekbrata; Lomas, David A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2018-06-04

    α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. Individuals with the Z variant (Gly342Lys) retain polymerised protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of their hepatocytes, predisposing them to liver disease. The concomitant lack of circulating A1AT also causes lung emphysema. Greater insight into the mechanisms that link protein misfolding to liver injury will facilitate the design of novel therapies. hiPSC-derived hepatocytes provide a novel approach to interrogate the molecular mechanisms of A1ATD because of their patient-specific genetic architecture and reflection of human physiology. To that end, we utilised patient-specific hiPSC hepatocytes (ZZ-HLCs) derived from an A1ATD (ZZ) patient, which faithfully recapitulated key aspects of the disease at the molecular and cellular level. Subsequent functional and "omics" comparisons of these cells with their genetically corrected isogenic-line (RR-HLCs) and primary hepatocytes/human tissue allowed the identification of new molecular markers and disease signatures. Our studies showed that abnormal A1AT polymer processing (immobilized ER components, reduced luminal protein mobility and disrupted ER cisternae) occurred heterogeneously within hepatocyte populations and was associated with disrupted mitochondrial structure, presence of the oncogenic protein AKR1B10 and two upregulated molecular clusters centred on members of inflammatory (IL-18 and Caspase-4) and unfolded protein response (Calnexin and Calreticulin) pathways. These results were validated in a second patient-specific hiPSC line. Our data identified novel pathways that potentially link the expression of Z A1AT polymers to liver disease. These findings could help pave the way towards identification of new therapeutic targets for treatment of A1ATD. This study compared the gene expression and protein profiles of healthy liver cells and those affected by the inherited disease α 1 -antitrypsin

  19. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women.

    PubMed

    Percy, Laura; Mansour, Diana; Fraser, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide with >20% of women experiencing it during their reproductive lives. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone mostly produced by the liver, controls the absorption and regulation of iron. Understanding iron metabolism is pivotal in the successful management of ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) using oral preparations, parenteral iron or blood transfusion. Oral preparations vary in their iron content and can result in gastrointestinal side effects. Parenteral iron is indicated when there are compliance/tolerance issues with oral iron, comorbidities which may affect absorption or ongoing iron losses that exceed absorptive capacity. It may also be the preferred option when rapid iron repletion is required to prevent physiological decompensation or given preoperatively for non-deferrable surgery. As gynaecologists, we focus on managing women's heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and assume that primary care clinicians are treating the associated ID/IDA. We now need to take the lead in diagnosing, managing and initiating treatment for ID/IDA and treating HMB simultaneously. This dual management will significantly improve their quality of life. In this chapter we will summarise the importance of iron in cellular functioning, describe how to diagnose ID/IDA and help clinicians choose between the available treatment options. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Interactions among micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Florentino, R F; Tanchoco, C C; Rodriguez, M P; Cruz, A J; Molano, W L

    1996-09-01

    Data gathered from the 1987 National Nutrition Survey in the Philippines provided the opportunity to study the interactions among micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition in different age groups as basis for program targeting. A randomly selected set of 50% of the households (3,200) covered by the national survey served as source of subjects. Results showed that there was a greater proportion of anemia among the undernourished (as judged by weight for age in children and weight for height in adults) (66.0%) than among the adequately nourished (54.6%) (P < 0.01). However, the observed differences in the proportion of serum vitamin A deficiency and of goiter among the undernourished compared to the adequately nourished were not significant. Also not significant were the observed higher prevalence of anemia among subjects with acceptable serum vitamin A levels for both adequately nourished and undernourished, and the higher prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among the non-anemics. Again there were no significant differences in the prevalence of anemia among goitrous and non-goitrous subjects, as well as the prevalence of goiter among anemic and non-anemic subjects. Neither were there significant differences in the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among goitrous and non-goitrous subjects, but there were significant differences in the prevalence of goiter among vitamin A deficient and non-vitamin A deficient subjects among the 7-14 years old and among pregnant and lactating women. The study concludes that at the national level, there is apparently an interaction between anemia and protein-energy undernutrition and possibly also between goiter and vitamin A deficiency in the high-risk age groups, but between anemia on the one hand and goiter and vitamin A deficiency in the other, perhaps because of clustering in the latter conditions not found in anemia and general undernutrition. These findings may be useful in targeting communities with high prevalence of

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Women.

    PubMed

    Aydogmus, H; Demirdal, U S

    2018-06-09

    The association of vitamin D deficiency and pelvic floor dysfunction has been examined by numerous studies. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with bladder filling and voiding functions are common in both sexes. A recent study reports a higher incidence of LTUS in men over 50 years old with vitamin D deficiency. The aim of the study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms frequency between women with vitamin D deficiency and the control group or not. In this case control study, a total of 150 women who had a measured vitamin D level within a month were divided into two groups, one with a serum vitamin D deficiency and the other with a normal vitamin D level. Both groups were evaluated in terms of menopausal status, numbers of pregnancy and delivery, pelvic examination findings, pelvic floor muscle strength, level of pelvic organ prolapse, LUTS scores, and the findings were recorded. Both groups were compared for the presence of lower urinary system symptoms. The BFLUTS validated for Turkish-speaking populations was used to assess lower urinary system symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed via IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0. The results were considered significant at p < 0.05 and a confidence interval of 95%. Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 67.3% of the participants. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding variables that could affect lower urinary system symptoms such as menopausal status, presence of pelvic organ prolapse and neonatal weight (fetal macrosomia) The Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength was significantly lower in the group with vitamin D deficiency than the control group. BFLUTS scores of premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency were found to be similar to the control group, likewise no significant differences in the BFLUTS scores were detected in postmenopausal women. Although vitamin D deficiency causes a significant reduction in pelvic floor muscle strength

  2. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity.

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2002-01-01

    Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth hormone (IGF)1 deficiency on ageing and lifespan are reviewed. Evidence is presented that isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) including GH, as well as primary IGE1 deficiency (GH resistance, Laron syndrome) present signs of early ageing such as thin and wrinkled skin, obesity, hyperglycemia and osteoporosis. These changes do not seem to affect the lifespan, as patients reach old age. Animal models of genetic MPHD (Ames and Snell mice) and GH receptor knockout mice (primary IGF1 deficiency) also have a statistically significant higher longevity compared to normal controls. On the contrary, mice transgenic for GH and acromegalic patients secreting large amounts of GH have premature death. In conclusion longstanding GH/IGF1 deficiency affects several parameters of the ageing process without impairing lifespan, and as shown in animal models prolongs longevity. In contrast high GH/IGF1 levels accelerate death.

  3. A question mark on iron deficiency in 185 million people of Pakistan: its outcomes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Khalid, Nauman; David, Angel; Sandhu, Mansoor Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency especially the iron deficiency is the bane of our lives, affecting all strata of society. Unfortunately, the women during pregnancy, adolescence, and children are under this curse particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is one of the biggest reasons of complications during pregnancy and malnourished children under five years of age. Maternal death, still-births, and underweight births are most common consequences of iron deficiency and these outbreaks as iron-deficiency anemia in Pakistan. Disastrous nature of iron deficiency requires an urgent call to eradicate it. Hence, the solution should not be frail comparing with the huge economic loss and other incompatibilities. Flour fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification, and especially maternal education are possible solutions for combating this micronutrient deficiency.

  4. Iron Deficiency in Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, A.; Heinz, P.; Cook, R.

    2002-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the full blood count and, when available, serum ferritin measurements of 96 children (52 with autism and 44 with Asperger syndrome) found six autistic children had iron deficiency and 12 of the 23 autistic children with serum ferritin measures were iron deficient. Far fewer Asperger children were iron deficient. Results…

  5. Unicondylar arthroplasty in knees with deficient anterior cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Engh, Gerard A; Ammeen, Deborah J

    2014-01-01

    Historically, a functional ACL has been a prerequisite for patients undergoing unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, this premise has not been rigorously tested. We compared (1) the survivorship free from revision and (2) the failure mechanisms of UKAs in ACL-deficient knees and UKAs in ACL-intact knees performed over the same time interval. Between November 2000 and July 2008, a fixed bearing UKA was performed in 72 patients (81 knees) with intraoperatively confirmed ACL deficiency. Five patients (five knees) with preoperative instability underwent ACL reconstruction and were excluded from analysis. Of the remaining 67 patients (76 knees) without preoperative instability, implant status was known for 68 UKAs in 60 patients. Survivorship and failure mechanisms for these knees were compared to those of 706 UKAs in ACL-intact knees performed during the same time interval by the same surgeon using the same implant system. Minimum followup for the ACL-deficient group was 2.9 years (mean, 6 years; range, 2.9-10 years). Revision rates between UKAs with and without intact ACLs were similar in the absence of clinical instability (p = 0.58). Six-year UKA survivorship was 94% (95% CI: 88%-100%) in ACL-deficient knees and 93% (95% CI: 91%-96%) in ACL-intact knees (p = 0.89). Five knees (7%) in the ACL-deficient group were revised: disease progression (two), loose tibia (one), persistent pain (one), and revised elsewhere/reason unknown (one). Thirty-six knees in the ACL-intact group underwent revision (5%): aseptic loosening (13), revised elsewhere/reason unknown (11), disease progression (three), tibial subsidence/fracture (four), infection (three), pain (one), and lateral compartment overload (one). At 6 years, deficiency of the ACL in patients without clinical knee instability did not impact the survivorship of UKAs compared to UKAs performed in knees with intact ACLs.

  6. Response of the iron-deficient erythrocyte in the rat to hyperoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.

    1978-01-01

    Normal and iron-deficient rats were exposed to 90% O2 at 760 Torr for 24 or 48 h. Erythrocyte response to hyperoxia was monitored by potassium (rubidium) influx studies, by storage stress, and by ultrastructural studies. Normal rat erythrocytes exhibited morphological changes and decrease of ouabain-sensitive potassium influx compared to unexposed controls. Both components of erythrocyte potassium influx were affected by iron deficiency. Erythrocytes from unexposed iron-deficient rats showed a 50% increase in ouabain-sensitive potassium influx compared to controls. Iron-deficient rats exposed to hyperoxia for 24 or 48 h, had erythrocytes with morphological changes. Erythrocytes of iron-deficient rats exposed for 24 h showned no influx change; those exposed for 48 h showed a decrease of ouabain-sensitive influx compared to erythrocytes of controls.

  7. Hematopoietic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL-Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Martine; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Johnson, Jason; Nijstad, Niels; Van Santbrink, Peter J.; Westra, Marijke M.; Van Der Hoeven, Gerd; Gijbels, Marion J.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Varga, Georg; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2013-01-01

    Aims Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1−/−) deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. Methods and Results LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1−/− bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1−/− chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. Conclusions Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution. PMID:23700419

  8. Central nervous system magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Langley, W F; Mann, D

    1991-03-01

    The central nervous system concentration of magnesium (Mg++) appears to have a critical level below which neurologic dysfunction occurs. Observations presented suggest that the interchange of the Mg++ ion between the cerebrospinal fluid, extracellular fluid, and bone is more rapid and dynamic than is usually believed. This is especially so when the hypertrophied parathyroid gland is associated with significant skeletal depletion of Mg++ as judged by history rather than serum level. Magnesium, much like calcium, has a large presence in bone and has a negative feedback relationship with the parathyroid gland. A decline in central nervous system Mg++ may occur when the skeletal buffer system orchestrated largely by the parathyroid glands is activated by an increase in serum calcium. Observations in veterinary medicine and obstetrics suggest that the transfer of Mg++ from the extracellular fluid into bone during mineralization processes may be extensive. If the inhibition of the hypertrophied parathyroid gland is prolonged and the skeletal depletion of Mg++ extreme, serious neurologic symptoms, including seizures, coma, and death, may occur. Noise, excitement, and bodily contact appear to precipitate neurologic symptoms in Mg+(+)-deficient human subjects as it has been documented to occur in Mg+(+)-deficient experimental animals. The similarity of the acute central nervous system demyelinating syndromes with reactive central nervous system Mg++ deficiency is reviewed.

  9. Adenosine deaminase deficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Aisling M; Gennery, Andrew R

    2018-04-24

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to an accumulation of toxic purine degradation by-products, most potently affecting lymphocytes, leading to adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency. Whilst most notable affects are on lymphocytes, other manifestations include skeletal abnormalities, neurodevelopmental affects and pulmonary manifestations associated with pulmonary-alveolar proteinosis. Affected patients present in early infancy, usually with persistent infection, or with pulmonary insufficiency. Three treatment options are currently available. Initial treatment with enzyme replacement therapy may alleviate acute symptoms and enable partial immunological reconstitution, but treatment is life-long, immune reconstitution is incomplete, and the reconstituted immune system may nullify the effects of the enzyme replacement. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant has long been established as the treatment of choice, particularly where a matched sibling or well matched unrelated donor is available. More recently, the use of gene addition techniques to correct the genetic defect in autologous haematopoietic stem cells treatment has demonstrated immunological and clinical efficacy. This article reviews the biology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of ADA-deficiency.

  10. Diagnosing human blood clotting deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chong Cheen; Gopinath, Subash C B; Rebecca, Leong Wei Xian; Perumal, Veeradasan; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed

    2018-05-15

    There are different clotting factors present in blood, carries the clotting cascade and excessive bleeding may cause a deficiency in the clotting Diagnosis of this deficiency in clotting drastically reduces the potential fatality. For enabling a sensor to detect the clotting factors, suitable probes such as antibody and aptamer have been used to capture these targets on the sensing surface. Two major clotting factors were widely studied for the diagnosis of clotting deficiency, which includes factor IX and thrombin. In addition, factor IX is considered as the substitute for heparin and the prothrombotic associated with the increased thrombin generation are taking into account their prevalence. The biosensors, surface plasmon resonance, evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensor, metal-enhanced PicoGreen fluorescence and electrochemical aptasensor were well-documented and improvements have been made for high-performance sensing. We overviewed detecting factor IX and thrombin using these biosensors, for the potential application in medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Meniscus-Deficient Knee

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Allison J.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Yanke, Adam B.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injury, and partial meniscectomies are the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure. The injured meniscus has an impaired ability to distribute load and resist tibial translation. Partial or complete loss of the meniscus promotes early development of chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The primary goal of treatment for meniscus-deficient knees is to provide symptomatic relief, ideally to delay advanced joint space narrowing, and ultimately, joint replacement. Surgical treatments, including meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), are options that attempt to decrease the loads on the articular cartilage of the meniscus-deficient compartment by replacing meniscal tissue or altering joint alignment. Clinical and biomechanical studies have reported promising outcomes for MAT, HTO, and DFO in the postmeniscectomized knee. These procedures can be performed alone or in conjunction with ligament reconstruction or chondral procedures (reparative, restorative, or reconstructive) to optimize stability and longevity of the knee. Complications can include fracture, nonunion, patella baja, compartment syndrome, infection, and deep venous thrombosis. MAT, HTO, and DFO are effective options for young patients suffering from pain and functional limitations secondary to meniscal deficiency. PMID:26779547

  12. Neonatal nucleated red blood cells in G6PD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yeruchimovich, Mark; Shapira, Boris; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study is to study the absolute number of nucleated red blood cells (RBC) at birth, an index of active fetal erythropoiesis, in infants with G6PD deficiency and in controls. We tested the hypothesis that hematocrit and hemoglobin would be lower, and absolute nucleated RBC counts higher, in the G6PD deficient and that these changes would be more prominent in infants exposed passively to fava bean through maternal diet. Thirty-two term infants with G6PD deficiency were compared with 30 term controls. Complete blood counts with manual differential counts were obtained within 12 hours of life. Absolute nucleated RBC and corrected leukocyte counts were computed from the Coulter results and the differential count. G6PD deficient patients did not differ from controls in terms of gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores or in any of the hematologic parameters studied, whether or not the mother reported fava beans consumption in the days prior to delivery. Although intrauterine hemolysis is possible in G6PD deficient fetuses exposed passively to fava beans, our study supports that such events must be very rare.

  13. Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Eliana M; Barina, Alexis E; Raju, Sharat; Li, Aihua; Kinney, Hannah C; Commons, Kathryn G; Nattie, Eugene E

    2011-02-01

    Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects postnatal forebrain development; its effect upon brain stem development is less certain. To evaluate the role of tryptophan [critical for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis] on brain stem 5-HT and the development of cardiorespiratory function, we fed dams a diet ∼45% deficient in tryptophan during gestation and early postnatal life and studied cardiorespiratory variables in the developing pups. Deficient pups were of normal weight at postnatal day (P)5 but weighed less than control pups at P15 and P25 (P < 0.001) and had lower body temperatures at P15 (P < 0.001) and P25 (P < 0.05; females only). Oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) was unaffected. At P15, deficient pups had an altered breathing pattern and slower heart rates. At P25, they had significantly lower ventilation (Ve) and Ve-to-Vo(2) ratios in both air and 7% CO(2). The ventilatory response to CO(2) (% increase in Ve/Vo(2)) was significantly increased at P5 (males) and reduced at P15 and P25 (males and females). Deficient pups had 41-56% less medullary 5-HT (P < 0.01) compared with control pups, without a difference in 5-HT neuronal number. These data indicate important interactions between nutrition, brain stem physiology, and age that are potentially relevant to understanding 5-HT deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome.

  14. Informing disinvestment with limited evidence: cobalamin deficiency in the fatigued.

    PubMed

    Mnatzaganian, George; Karnon, Jonathan; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G; Metz, Michael; Frank, Oliver R; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Health technology reassessment and disinvestment can be difficult due to uncertainties regarding available evidence. Pathology testing to investigate cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency is a strong case in point. We conducted a 3-month economic evaluation of five strategies for diagnosing and treating cobalamin deficiency in adult patients hypothetically presenting with new unexplained fatigue in the primary care setting. The first consultation per patient was considered. Screening tests other than serum cobalamin were not included. A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken using a decision tree to represent the diagnostic / treatment pathways, with relevant cost and utility scores assigned to different stages in the evaluation process. Input parameter values were estimated from published evidence, supplemented by expert opinion, with sensitivity analysis undertaken to represent parameter uncertainty. Ordering serum vitamin B12 to assess cobalamin deficiency among patients with unexplained fatigue was not cost-effective in any patient population, irrespective of pretest prevalence of this deficiency. For patients with a pretest prevalence above 1 percent, treating all with oral vitamin B12 supplements without testing was most cost-effective, whereas watchful waiting with symptoms monitoring was most cost-effective for patients with lower pretest prevalence probabilities. Substantial evidence gaps exist for parameter estimation: questionable cobalamin deficiency levels in the fatigued; debatable treatment methods; unknown natural history of the condition. Despite this, we reveal a robust path for disinvestment decision making in the face of a paradox between the evidence required to inform disinvestment compared with its paucity in informing initial funding decisions.

  15. Reduced bone density in androgen-deficient women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting.

    PubMed

    Huang, J S; Wilkie, S J; Sullivan, M P; Grinspoon, S

    2001-08-01

    Women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting are at an increased risk of osteopenia because of low weight, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. Although women comprise an increasing proportion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, prior studies have not investigated bone loss in this expanding population of patients. In this study we investigated bone density, bone turnover, and hormonal parameters in 28 women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting and relative androgen deficiency (defined as free testosterone < or =3.0 pg/ml, weight < or =90% ideal body weight, weight loss > or =10% from preillness maximum weight, or weight <100% ideal body weight with weight loss > or =5% from preillness maximum weight). Total body (1.04 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.10 +/- 0.07 g/cm2, human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control respectively; P < 0.01), anteroposterior lumbar spine (0.94 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.09 g/cm2; P = 0.005), lateral lumbar spine (0.71 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.09 g/cm2; P = 0.02), and hip (Ward's triangle; 0.68 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.12 g/cm2; P = 0.05) bone density were reduced in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected compared with control subjects. Serum N-telopeptide, a measure of bone resorption, was increased in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, compared with control subjects (14.6 +/- 5.8 vs. 11.3 +/- 3.8 nmol/liter bone collagen equivalents, human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control respectively; P = 0.03). Although body mass index was similar between the groups, muscle mass was significantly reduced in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control subjects (16 +/- 4 vs. 21 +/- 4 kg, human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control, respectively; P < 0.0001). In univariate regression analysis, muscle mass (r = 0.53; P = 0.004) and estrogen (r = 0.51; P = 0.008), but not free testosterone (r = -0.05, P = 0.81), were strongly associated with lumbar spine bone density in the

  16. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  17. Comparison of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P < 0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/l) was 70% in women, compared with 40% in men (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified male gender, physical activity and the intake of milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.

  18. Toothguide Trainer tests with color vision deficiency simulation monitor.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Judit; Varsányi, Balázs; Fejérdy, Pál; Hermann, Péter; Jakstat, Holger A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether simulated severe red and green color vision deficiency (CVD) influenced color matching results and to investigate whether training with Toothguide Trainer (TT) computer program enabled better color matching results. A total of 31 color normal dental students participated in the study. Every participant had to pass the Ishihara Test. Participants with a red/green color vision deficiency were excluded. A lecture on tooth color matching was given, and individual training with TT was performed. To measure the individual tooth color matching results in normal and color deficient display modes, the TT final exam was displayed on a calibrated monitor that served as a hardware-based method of simulating protanopy and deuteranopy. Data from the TT final exams were collected in normal and in severe red and green CVD-simulating monitor display modes. Color difference values for each participant in each display mode were computed (∑ΔE(ab)(*)), and the respective means and standard deviations were calculated. The Student's t-test was used in statistical evaluation. Participants made larger ΔE(ab)(*) errors in severe color vision deficient display modes than in the normal monitor mode. TT tests showed significant (p<0.05) difference in the tooth color matching results of severe green color vision deficiency simulation mode compared to normal vision mode. Students' shade matching results were significantly better after training (p=0.009). Computer-simulated severe color vision deficiency mode resulted in significantly worse color matching quality compared to normal color vision mode. Toothguide Trainer computer program improved color matching results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deficiency in Nrf2 transcription factor decreases adipose tissue mass and hepatic lipid accumulation in leptin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Donepudi, Ajay C; More, Vijay R; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Li, Liya; Guo, Liangran; Yan, Bingfang; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal; Slitt, Angela L

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate whether Nrf2 deficiency impacts insulin resistance and lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. Lep(ob/ob) mice (OB) with targeted Nrf2 deletion (OB-Nrf2KO) were generated. Pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes was measured in C57BL/6J, Nrf2KO, OB, and OB-Nrf2KO mice. Hepatic lipid content, lipid clearance, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion were determined between OB and OB-Nrf2KO mice. OB-Nrf2KO mice exhibited decreased white adipose tissue mass and decreased adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression compared with OB mice. Nrf2 deficiency prolonged hyperglycemia in response to glucose challenge, which was paralleled by reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. In OB mice, Nrf2 deficiency decreased hepatic lipid accumulation, decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) content, and enhanced VLDL secretion. However, this observation was opposite in lean mice. Additionally, OB-Nrf2KO mice exhibited increased plasma triglyceride content, decreased HDL-cholesterol content, and enhanced apolipoprotein B expression, suggesting Nrf2 deficiency caused dyslipidemia in these mice. Nrf2 deficiency in Lep(ob/ob) mice reduced white adipose tissue mass and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation but induced insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. This study indicates a dual role of Nrf2 during metabolic dysregulation-increasing lipid accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue but preventing lipid accumulation in obese mice. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Prevalence of anaemia, deficiencies of iron and folic acid and their determinants in Ethiopian women.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Jemal

    2010-08-01

    A cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Ethiopian women during June-July 2005 to assess the magnitude of anaemia and deficiencies of iron and folic acid and to compare the factors responsible for anaemia among anaemic and non-anaemic cases. In total, 970 women, aged 15-19 years, were selected systematically for haematological and other important parameters. The overall prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia, deficiency of folic acid, and parasitic infestations was 30.4%, 50.1%, 18.1%, 31.3%, and 13.7% respectively. Women who had more children aged less than five years but above two years, open-field toilet habits, chronic illnesses, and having intestinal parasites were positively associated with anaemia. Women who had no formal education and who did not use contraceptives were negatively associated with anaemia. The major determinants identified for anaemia were chronic illnesses [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.55), deficiency of iron (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.35-0.64), and deficiency of folic acid (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.50-0.90). The odds for developing anaemia was 1.1 times more likely among women with chronic illnesses, 60% more likely in the iron-deficient and 40% more likely in the folic acid-deficient than their counterparts. One in every three women had anaemia and deficiency of folic acid while one in every two had iron deficiency, suggesting that deficiencies of both folic acid and iron constitute the major micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopian women. The risk imposed by anaemia to the health of women ranging from impediment of daily activities and poor pregnancy outcome calls for effective public-health measures, such as improved nutrient supplementation, health education, and timely treatment of illnesses.

  1. DNA Repair Deficiency in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Stevnsner, Tinna

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby causing Huntington’s disease. Single-strand breaks are common DNA lesions and are associated with the neurodegenerative diseases, ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-1 and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy-1. DNA double-strand breaks are toxic lesions and two main pathways exist for their repair: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage may be linked with the age-associated neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutation in the WRN protein leads to the premature aging disease Werner syndrome, a disorder that features neurodegeneration. In this article we review the evidence linking deficiencies in the DNA repair pathways with neurodegeneration. PMID:21550379

  2. Infrared observations of metal-deficient stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, S.; Martinez Roger, C.

    1987-09-01

    Infrared magnitudes in the J, H, K and L bands for 64 metal-deficient stars spanning a wide range in effective temperature, luminosity and metal content are presented. An accuracy of 0.02 magnitude is obtained for the JHK bands and 0.03 for the L filter. Infrared-infrared and optical-infrared colour-colour diagrams are discussed and compared with the mean intrinsic tracks for Population I stars. It is concluded that infrared colours are not notably dependent on metallicity, with some exceptions for the reddest giants, which can be also interpreted by residual effects in the transformation equations between different systems. The authors also discuss briefly the near infrared photometric system of the Observatorio del Teide, from the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  3. Toward reassessing data-deficient species.

    PubMed

    Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben

    2017-06-01

    One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Impact of Fetal-Neonatal Iron Deficiency on Recognition Memory at 2 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fengji; Mai, Xiaoqin; Zhan, Jianying; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhengyan; Georgieff, Michael; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory in early infancy. Perinatal iron deficiency delays or disrupts hippocampal development in animal models and thus may impair related neural functions in human infants, such as recognition memory. Event-related potentials were used in an auditory recognition memory task to compare 2-month-old Chinese infants with iron sufficiency or deficiency at birth. Fetal-neonatal iron deficiency was defined 2 ways: high zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) or low serum ferritin (<75 μg/L) in cord blood. Late slow wave was used to measure infant recognition of mother's voice. Event related potentials patterns differed significantly for fetal-neonatal iron deficiency as defined by high cord ZPP/H but not low ferritin. Comparing 35 infants with iron deficiency (ZPP/H > 118 μmol/mol) to 92 with lower ZPP/H (iron-sufficient), only infants with iron sufficiency showed larger late slow wave amplitude for stranger's voice than mother's voice in frontal-central and parietal-occipital locations, indicating the recognition of mother's voice. Infants with iron sufficiency showed electrophysiological evidence of recognizing their mother's voice, whereas infants with fetal-neonatal iron deficiency did not. Their poorer auditory recognition memory at 2 months of age is consistent with effects of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on the developing hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral consequences of developmental iron deficiency in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Germann, Stacey L.; Capitanio, John P.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants are associated with behavioral impairment, but the periods of brain development most susceptible to iron deficiency have not been established. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were deprived of iron by dietary iron restriction during prenatal (n = 14, 10 μg Fe/g diet) or early postnatal (n = 12, 1.5 mg Fe/L formula) brain development and compared to controls (n = 12, 100 μg Fe/g diet, 12 mg Fe/L formula) in behavioral evaluations conducted during the first four months of life in the nonhuman primate nursery. Iron deficiency anemia was detected in the pregnant dams in the third trimester and compromised iron status was seen in the prenatally iron-deprived infants at birth, but no iron deficiency was seen in either the prenatally or postnatally iron-deprived infants during the period of behavioral evaluation. Neither prenatal nor postnatal iron deprivation led to significant delays in growth, or gross or fine motor development. Prenatally deprived infants demonstrated a 20% reduced spontaneous activity level, lower inhibitory response to novel environments, and more changes from one behavior to another in weekly observation sessions. Postnatally deprived infants demonstrated poorer performance of an object concept task, and greater emotionality relative to controls. This study indicates that different syndromes of behavioral effects are associated with prenatal and postnatal iron deprivation in rhesus monkey infants and that these effects can occur in the absence of concurrent iron deficiency as reflected in hematological measures. PMID:16343844

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ≤ 250 pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P < 0.05), language (P < 0.01), orientation (P < 0.01), and mental manipulation (P < 0.05). The patients also showed a greater frontal horn ratio than the controls (P < 0.05). Bicaudate ratio, fronto-occipital ratio, uncotemporal index, and normalized interuncal distance all showed a strong correlation with the total score of MMSE and CASI (all P < 0.01). Among these psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P < 0.01). Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying

  7. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and art].

    PubMed

    Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Collado-Vazquez, Susana

    2010-07-16

    Disability is a complex phenomenon, and the ways it has been conceived, explained and treated have varied notably throughout history. As the years go by, human beings have evolved and, at the same time, so have medicine and art. And therein lies the extraordinary value, from the ontological point of view, of many works of art, which would never have been produced without the intervention of disease and the practice of the medical art. The aim of this work is to address the study of some deficiencies, disabilities and neurological pathologies that have been represented in paintings at different times in history. This article begins with the study of pictures that deal with dwarves and other misnamed freaks of nature that have been represented by painters from Velazquez to Titian or Rubens. The study looks at paintings of cripples, pictures containing the mentally disabled, with examples by Bruegel the Elder or Munch, as well as certain neurological disorders that have been portrayed in paintings, such as Escaping criticism by Pere Borrell or Sad inheritance by Sorolla. Likewise, we also reflect on the trite concept of disease and artistic creativity. The artistic representation of deficiency and disability has evolved in parallel to the feelings of men and women in each period of history and, at the same time, their social evolution. Nowadays, this concept continues to advance and some artists no longer represent the sick person, but instead the illness itself.

  8. Metformin Use Is Not Associated With B12 Deficiency or Neuropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Elhadd, Tarik; Ponirakis, Georgios; Dabbous, Zeinab; Siddique, Mashhood; Chinnaiyan, Subitha; Malik, Rayaz A

    2018-01-01

    Metformin may lead to B 12 deficiency and neuropathy. There are no published data on the prevalence of Metformin-related B 12 deficiency and neuropathy in the Arabian Gulf. Determine whether Metformin intake is associated with B 12 deficiency and whether B 12 deficiency is associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( n  = 362) attending outpatient clinics at HMC underwent assessment of B 12 levels, the DN4 questionnaire, and vibration perception threshold (VPT). Comparing Metformin to non-Metformin users there were no differences in B 12 levels, VPT, or DN4. The prevalence of B 12 deficiency (B 12 <133 pmol/l) was lower ( P  < 0.01) in Metformin (8%) compared to non-Metformin (19%) users. Patients with B 12 deficiency had a comparable prevalence and severity of sensory neuropathy and painful neuropathy to patients without B 12 deficiency. Serum B 12 levels were comparable between Metformin and non-Metformin users with T2DM in Qatar. T2DM patients on Metformin had a lower prevalence of B 12 deficiency. Furthermore, the prevalence and severity of neuropathy and painful diabetic neuropathy were comparable between patients with and without B 12 deficiency.

  9. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Exaggerates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice: Involvement of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J.; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency. PMID:24155903

  10. [Causes of iron deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Olives, J-P

    2017-05-01

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and parasitic infection. Poor iron intake linked to inadequate diets, low iron intestinal absorption, chronic blood losses and increased requirements are common causes in high-income countries. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  11. Facial morphometry of Ecuadorian patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency/Laron syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G B; Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Campbell, E A; Ullrich, F; Patil, K; Frias, J L

    1994-01-01

    Facial morphometry using computerised image analysis was performed on patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from an inbred population of southern Ecuador. Morphometrics were compared for 49 patients, 70 unaffected relatives, and 14 unrelated persons. Patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency showed significant decreases in measures of vertical facial growth as compared to unaffected relatives and unrelated persons with short stature from other causes. This report validates and quantifies the clinical impression of foreshortened facies in growth hormone receptor deficiency. Images PMID:7815422

  12. New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency among the elderly: insights from Qatar.

    PubMed

    Alhamad, Hanadi Khamis; Nadukkandiyil, Navas; El-Menyar, Ayman; Abdel Wahab, Luay; Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Al Sulaiti, Essa Mubarak

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency is associated with comorbidities in the elderly. The present study investigates the prevalence of VitD deficiency among the elderly in Qatar. A retrospective study conducted between April 2010 and April 2012 that involved chart reviews. All elderly patients of age ≥65 years in geriatrics facilities including Rumailah hospital, skilled nursing facility and home healthcare services in Qatar were included in the study. Patient characteristics and outcomes were analyzed and compared according to the severity of VitD deficiency. Correlation of VitD with comorbidities was analyzed. Mean follow-up period was 6 months. A total of 889 patients were enrolled; the majority (66%) were females and the mean age was 75 ± 8.7 years. Patient comorbidities included hypertension (76.5%), diabetes mellitus (63%), dyslipidemia, (47.5%), dementia (26%) coronary artery disease (24%) and cerebrovascular accident (24%). The mean baseline serum VitD level was 24.4 ± 13.5 ng/ml; 72% of patients had VitD deficiency: mild (31%), moderate (30%) and severe (11%). Patients with severe VitD deficiency had significantly higher HbA1c levels compared with patients with optimal VitD (P = 0.03). High density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in severe VitD deficiency patients compared with optimal VitD patients (P = 0.04). There was a positive correlation between HDL-C and VitD level (r = 0.17, P = 0.001), whereas HbA1c levels showed negative correlation with VitD (r = -0.15, P = 0.009). A high prevalence of VitD deficiency (72%) was observed among the elderly in Qatar. Lower VitD was associated with higher HbA1c and lower HDL-C levels. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether VitD supplementation controls diabetes mellitus (DM) and low HDL-C levels among the elderly.

  14. Selenium Deficiency Induces Autophagy in Immune Organs of Chickens.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Pan, Tingru; Wan, Na; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Li, Shu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on autophagy-related genes and on ultrastructural changes in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of chickens. The Se deficiency group was fed a basal diet containing Se at 0.033 mg/kg and the control group was fed the same basal diet containing Se at 0.15 mg/kg. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, dynein, autophagy associated gene 5 (ATG5), and target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) were assessed using real-time qPCR. The protein levels of LC3-II, Beclin 1, and dynein were investigated using western blot analysis. Furthermore, the ultrastructure was observed using an electron microscope. The results indicated that spleen mRNA levels of LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, dynein, ATG5, and TORC1 and the protein levels of LC3-II, Beclin 1, and dynein were increased in the Se deficiency group compared with the control group. In the bursa of Fabricius, the mRNA levels of LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, dynein, ATG5, and TORC1 and the protein levels of Beclin 1 and dynein were increased; furthermore, the protein level of LC3-II was decreased in the Se deficiency group compared to the control group. In the thymus, the mRNA levels of LC3-I, Beclin 1, and ATG5 increased; the levels of LC3-II, dynein, and TORC1 were decreased; the protein level of Beclin 1 increased; and the levels of LC3-II and dynein decreased in the Se deficiency group compared to those in the control group. Further cellular morphological changes, such as autophagy vacuoles, autolysosomes, and lysosomal degradation, were observed in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of the Se-deficiency group. In summary, Se deficiency caused changes in autophagy-related genes, which increased the autophagic process and also caused structural damages to the immune organs of chickens.

  15. Heart Failure and the Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Beedkar, Amey; Parikh, Rohan; Deshmukh, Pradeep

    2017-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a significant problem worldwide and more so in developing countries, like India. The prevention and treatment of iron deficiency is a major public health goal in India It is now well recognized that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and around one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency.1. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  16. [Study on qi deficiency syndrome distribution and quality of life in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Pei-tong; Yang, Zong-yan

    2011-07-01

    To study the qi deficiency syndrome distribution and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A questionnaire survey was conducted in 120 patients with advanced NSCLC using the QOL scale "Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy" (FACT-L) (Version 4.0). Meanwhile, syndrome typing was performed. On the basis of results of syndrome typing, patients of different syndrome types were grouped and compared, thus studying the distribution of advanced NSCLC patients of qi deficiency syndrome and qi deficiency syndrome correlated QOL features. Qi deficiency, blood stasis, yin deficiency, phlegm and dampness dominated in syndrome types of the 120 patients with advanced NSCLC. Of syndrome types accounting for larger ratios in 112 patients, pure qi deficiency syndrome accounted for 30.36% (34 cases), qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome for 18. 75% (21 cases), both qi and yin deficiency syndrome for 10. 71% (12 cases). There was no correlation between the appearance of qi deficiency syndrome and patients' age, sex, pathological typing (adenocarcinoma/squamous carcinoma), or the disease duration. NSCLC patients in phase IV were mostly complicated with qi deficiency syndrome (P<0.05). Scores of physical states, emotional states, functional states, and total scores in the FACT-L scale were lower in those complicated with qi deficiency syndrome (89 cases) than in those without complicated qi deficiency syndrome (31 cases), showing statistical difference (P<0.01, P<0.05). The scores of the lung cancer specific module (additional concerns) in the FACT-L scale showed statistical difference, sequenced as qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome > pure qi deficiency syndrome > both qi and yin deficiency syndrome (P<0.05). Qi deficiency syndrome is the main syndrome of advanced NSCLC. The QOL of advanced NSCLC patients complicated with qi deficiency syndrome was poorer than those without complicated qi deficiency syndrome. Besides, along with

  17. Biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.

  18. Mild and moderate Mannose Binding Lectin deficiency are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Perazzio, Sandro Félix; Silva, Neusa Pereira da; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The potential association of mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been investigated in several studies, but results have been mixed. One explanation for the conflicting results could be differences in ethnic background of study subjects. In this study we investigated the association of MBL deficiency and SLE in a large cohort of Brazilian SLE patients and controls. Serum MBL and Complement levels were determined for 286 Brazilian adult SLE patients and 301 healthy Brazilian adults as controls. MBL deficiency was classified as mild (<1000 and ≥500μg/L), moderate (<500 and ≥100μg/L) or severe (<100μg/L). SLE patients presented higher frequency of mild and moderate MBL deficiency compared to controls. SLE patients with MBL deficiency presented higher frequency of lupus nephritis compared to those without MBL deficiency. MBL deficiency was not associated with any other clinical manifestation, use of immunosuppressant therapy, disease activity, disease severity serum or Complement levels. This study shows that an association between MBL deficiency and SLE does exist in the Brazilian population. We also found an association between MBL deficiency and lupus nephritis. These findings support the hypothesis that MBL deficiency contributes to the development of SLE and lupus nephritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine deficiency in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Nuaim, A R; Al-Mazrou, Y; Kamel, M; Al-Attas, O; Al-Daghari, N; Sulimani, R

    1997-05-01

    Data on the status of iodine deficiency in the Arabian peninsula is scarce. We have conducted a cross-sectional national epidemiological survey in Saudi Arabia to study the iodine status of Saudi schoolchildren, between eight and ten years, who were randomly selected, after taking into consideration the gender, provincial population and area distribution. Casual urine samples were collected and sent to the central laboratory for analysis. Clinical assessment for the presence of goiter was conducted in four areas with different geographical natures. The survey included 4638 subjects, and their median and mean (SD) of urinary iodine concentration was 18 and 17 m g/dL, respectively. We found provincial differences with respect to urinary iodine concentration and the percentage of subjects with urinary iodine concentration <10 m g/dL. The Southern province had the lowest median (11 m g/dL) and the highest percentage (45%) of subjects with urinary iodine concentration <10 m g/dL. On the other hand, subjects of the Western province had the highest median (24 m g/dL) and the lowest percentage (8%) of subjects with urinary iodine concentration <10 m g/dL. The clinical assessment revealed that the highest prevalence and more advanced grade of goiter (22%, 95% CI 19-25, grade 1; 8%, 95% CI 6-10, grade 2) was found in the Asir region, a high-altitude area in the Southern province. The lowest prevalence of goiter (4%, 95% CI 0.8-7.2, grade 1) was found in Gizan, an urban coastal community. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine concentration. The survey for iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) in Saudi Arabia has shown a mild degree of iodine deficiency in the Southern province. Odds ratio (OR) was used to study the statistical relationship between the prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine concentration. There is a need to launch a control program to ensure the exclusive availability of iodized salt in Saudi Arabia

  20. Only severe malocclusion correlates with mastication deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, Pierre; Soulier-Peigue, Delphine; Lachaze, Pauline; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Woda, Alain; Hennequin, Martine

    2017-03-01

    The relation between level of dentofacial deformity and extent of masticatory deficiency was studied. Three groups of human young adults were formed: (i) subjects needing orthodontics plus orthognathic surgery (SevDFD, n=18), (ii) subjects needing orthodontic treatment only (ModDFD, n=12), and (iii) subjects needing no treatment (NoDFD, n=12). For mastication tests, carrot boluses were collected at the deglutition time. Bolus particle size range was expressed as d50 value, which was compared with the Masticatory Normative Indicator (MNI). Index of treatment need (IOTN), global oral health assessment index (GOHAI) and chewing kinematic characteristics were also recorded. We used a general linear model univariate procedure followed by a Student-Newman-Keuls test. All the SevDFD subjects showed impaired mastication with MNI above the normal limit (d50 mean=7.23mm). All the ModDFD subjects but one were below this limit (d50 mean=2.54mm), and so could adapt to a low level of masticatory impairment as also indicated by kinematics. IOTN indicated a treatment need for ModDFD (3.7±0.5) and SevDFD (4.3±0.6) groups, while GOHAI values were unsatisfactory only for SevDFD (42.6±9.2 vs. 55.3±1.9). Our findings emphasize the need for an objective evaluation of masticatory function to discern truly deficient mastication from mild impairment allowing satisfactory adaptation of the function. However, malocclusions are known to worsen with time justifying thus their corrections as early as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Korean women: the first trimester and the winter season as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-05-11

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted.

  2. HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Yasmeh, Joseph; Farpour, Farzin; Rizzo, Vincent; Kheradnam, Sharon; Sachmechi, Issac

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with several autoimmune diseases. This study assessed whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Two groups of patients were selected for which serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels had been measured: (1) a study group of patients diagnosed with HT as indicated by thyroid antibodies, and (2) a healthy control group. Each group was separated by sex and then controlled for age and body mass index (BMI). Groups' mean 25(OH)D levels were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and percent frequencies of vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency were compared with a Z-test. The correlations between 25(OH)D levels and thyroid antibodies and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were also tested. The mean 25(OH)D levels for the HT and control groups were significantly different in females (30.75 vs. 27.56 ng/mL, respectively) but not in males (14.24 vs. 13.26 ng/mL). HT females had a higher rate of vitamin D sufficiency (51.7% vs. 31.1%) and a lower rate of insufficiency (48.3% vs. 68.9%) relative to control females. No such differences were found in the male groups. None of the females were vitamin D deficient, but almost all males were. A significant (P = .016) positive correlation (rs = 0.436) between 25(OH)D and TPOAb was observed in males. HT is not associated with higher rates of vitamin D deficiency relative to a control group. BMI = body mass index HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxyvitamin D TgAb = thyroglobulin antibody TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone TPOAb = thyroid-peroxidase antibody VDR = Vitamin D receptor.

  3. Biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory response of human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Agrawal, Anshu; Said, Hamid M

    2016-09-01

    The water-soluble biotin (vitamin B7) is indispensable for normal human health. The vitamin acts as a cofactor for five carboxylases that are critical for fatty acid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency is associated with various diseases, and mice deficient in this vitamin display enhanced inflammation. Previous studies have shown that biotin affects the functions of adaptive immune T and NK cells, but its effect(s) on innate immune cells is not known. Because of that and because vitamins such as vitamins A and D have a profound effect on dendritic cell (DC) function, we investigated the effect of biotin levels on the functions of human monocyte-derived DCs. Culture of DCs in a biotin-deficient medium (BDM) and subsequent activation with LPS resulted in enhanced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-1β compared with LPS-activated DCs cultured in biotin-sufficient (control) and biotin-oversupplemented media. Furthermore, LPS-activated DCs cultured in BDM displayed a significantly higher induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 indicating Th1/Th17 bias in T cells compared with cells maintained in biotin control or biotin-oversupplemented media. Investigations into the mechanisms suggested that impaired activation of AMP kinase in DCs cultured in BDM may be responsible for the observed increase in inflammatory responses. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory responses of DCs. This may therefore be one of the mechanism(s) that mediates the observed inflammation that occurs in biotin deficiency.

  4. Biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory response of human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Said, Hamid M.

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble biotin (vitamin B7) is indispensable for normal human health. The vitamin acts as a cofactor for five carboxylases that are critical for fatty acid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency is associated with various diseases, and mice deficient in this vitamin display enhanced inflammation. Previous studies have shown that biotin affects the functions of adaptive immune T and NK cells, but its effect(s) on innate immune cells is not known. Because of that and because vitamins such as vitamins A and D have a profound effect on dendritic cell (DC) function, we investigated the effect of biotin levels on the functions of human monocyte-derived DCs. Culture of DCs in a biotin-deficient medium (BDM) and subsequent activation with LPS resulted in enhanced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-1β compared with LPS-activated DCs cultured in biotin-sufficient (control) and biotin-oversupplemented media. Furthermore, LPS-activated DCs cultured in BDM displayed a significantly higher induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 indicating Th1/Th17 bias in T cells compared with cells maintained in biotin control or biotin-oversupplemented media. Investigations into the mechanisms suggested that impaired activation of AMP kinase in DCs cultured in BDM may be responsible for the observed increase in inflammatory responses. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory responses of DCs. This may therefore be one of the mechanism(s) that mediates the observed inflammation that occurs in biotin deficiency. PMID:27413170

  5. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in a correctional population.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Mullany, Charles J

    2015-05-01

    Adequate nutrition among inmates at correctional facilities may prevent a variety of diseases and conditions. Vitamin D is a nutrient of particular interest to incarcerated populations; however, research in this area is sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess vitamin D status among inmates in a prison in southern Arizona, a sun-replete region of the United States. We conducted a cross-sectional study of circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] among short-term (group 1; <6 wk; n = 29) and long-term (group 2; >1 y; n = 30) inmates at The Fourth Avenue Jail in Maricopa County (Phoenix) Arizona. The long-term inmates in group 2 had statistically significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D (13.9 ± 6.3 ng/mL) compared with group 1 (25.9 ± 12.4; P < 0.0001). Defining vitamin D deficiency as circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL, 37.9% of inmates in group 1 and 90% of those in group 2 were deficient. After adjusting for body mass index and age, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for deficiency in group 2 was 18.7 (4.1-84.9) compared with group 1. This study demonstrates the presence of vitamin D deficiency at the Fourth Avenue Jail in Maricopa County, Arizona, particularly among inmates who have been housed at the facility for >1 y. Because marked vitamin D deficiency is associated with a myriad of adverse health outcomes, consideration should be given to providing dietary or supplemental vitamin D to inmates at correctional facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia: adverse effects on infant psychomotor development.

    PubMed

    Walter, T; De Andraca, I; Chadud, P; Perales, C G

    1989-07-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-control prospective cohort study of 196 infants from birth to 15 months of age, assessment was made at 12 months of age of the relationship between iron status and psychomotor development, the effect of a short-term (10-day) trial of oral iron vs placebo, and the effect of long-term (3 months) oral iron therapy. Development was assessed with the mental and psychomotor indices and the infant behavior record of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 39 anemic, 30 control, and 127 nonanemic iron-deficient children. Anemic infants had significantly lower Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index scores than control infants or nonanemic iron-deficient infants (one-way analysis of variance, P less than .0001). Control infants and nonanemic iron-deficient infants performed comparably. No difference was noted between the effect of oral administration of iron or placebo after 10 days or after 3 months of iron therapy. Among anemic infants a hemoglobin concentration less than 10.5 g/dL and duration of anemia of greater than 3 months were correlated with significantly lower motor and mental scores (P less than .05). Anemic infants failed specifically in language capabilities and body balance-coordination skills when compared with controls. These results, in a design in which intervening variables were closely controlled, suggest that when iron deficiency progresses to anemia, but not before, adverse influences in the performance of developmental tests appear and persist for at least 3 months despite correction of anemia with iron therapy. If these impairments prove to be long standing, prevention of iron deficiency anemia in early infancy becomes the only way to avoid them.

  8. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B.; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. PMID:25850574

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) as a risk factor of male neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Far, Z; Ghadiri, K; Rostami-Far, M; Shaveisi-Zadeh, F; Amiri, A; Rahimian Zarif, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is a disease process, which represents the systemic response of bacteria entering the bloodstream during the first 28 days of life. The prevalence of sepsis is higher in male infants than in females, but the exact cause is unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, which leads to the production of NADPH. NADPH is required for the respiratory burst reaction in white blood cells (WBCs) to destroy microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in neonates with sepsis. Materials and methods. This study was performed on 76 neonates with sepsis and 1214 normal neonates from February 2012 to November 2014 in the west of Iran. The G6PD deficiency status was determined by fluorescent spot test. WBCs number and neutrophils percentages were measured and compared in patients with and without G6PD deficiency. Results. The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency in neonates with sepsis was significantly higher compared to the control group (p=0.03). WBCs number and neutrophils percentages in G6PD deficient patients compared with patients without G6PD deficiency were decreased, but were not statistically significant (p=0.77 and p=0.86 respectively). Conclusions. G6PD deficiency is a risk factor of neonatal sepsis and also a justification for more male involvement in this disease. Therefore, newborn screening for this disorder is recommended.

  11. [Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.

  12. How Can We Improve the Detection of Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa; Dresel, Marc; Koczulla, Rembert; Ottaviani, Stefania; Baldo, Raffaele; Gorrini, Marina; Sala, Giorgia; Cavallon, Luana; Welte, Tobias; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Luisetti, Maurizio; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    The Z deficiency in α1-antitrypsin (A1ATD) is an under-recognized condition. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main protein in the α1-globulin fraction of serum protein electrophoresis (SPE); however, evaluation of the α1-globulin protein fraction has received very little attention. Serum Z-type A1AT manifests in polymeric forms, but their interference with quantitative immunoassays has not been reported. Here, 214 894 samples were evaluated by SPE at the G. Fracastoro Hospital of Verona, Italy. Patients with an A1AT level ≤ 0.92 g/L were recalled to complete A1ATD diagnosis. In parallel, to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize A1AT, sera samples from 10 PiZZ and 10 PiMM subjects obtained at the National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw, Poland, were subjected to non-denaturing 7.5% PAGE and 7.5% SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot. Moreover, purified A1AT was heated at 60°C and analyzed by a non-denaturing PAGE and 4–15% gradient SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot as well as by isolelectrofocusing and nephelometry. A total of 966 samples manifested percentages ≤ 2.8 or a double band in the alpha1-zone. According to the nephelometry data, 23 samples were classified as severe (A1AT ≤ 0.49 g/L) and 462 as intermediate (A1AT >0.49≤ 1.0 g/L) A1ATD. Twenty subjects agreed to complete the diagnosis and an additional 21 subjects agreed to family screening. We detected 9 cases with severe and 26 with intermediate A1ATD. Parallel experiments revealed that polymerization of M-type A1AT, when measured by nephelometry or isolelectrofocusing, yields inaccurate results, leading to the erroneous impression that it was Z type and not M-type A1AT. We illustrate the need for confirmation of Z A1AT values by “state of the art” method. Clinicians should consider a more in-depth investigation of A1ATD in patients when they exhibit serum polymers and low α1-globulin protein levels by SPE. PMID:26270547

  13. Anemia in patients with coinherited thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Phanthong, Siratcha

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency are genetic disorders that cause hemolytic anemia. In areas with high frequencies of both hematological disorders, coinheritance of G-6-PD deficiency with thalassemia can be found. Whether G-6-PD deficiency, coinherited with thalassemia, enhances severe anemia is still unclear. Hematological parameters between thalassemia carriers with G-6-PD deficiency and those without G-6-PD deficiency were compared. The G-6-PD deficiency was diagnosed in 410 blood samples from thalassemia patients using a fluorescent spot test. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and Hb A2/Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys; HBB: c.79G>A] were measured using an automated blood counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The G-6-PD deficiency was found in 37 samples (9.02%). Mean levels of Hb, PCV, MCV and Hb A2/E were similar between the two groups. Thus, G-6-PD deficiency did not enhance red blood cell pathology or induce more anemic severity in thalassemia patients.

  14. The pathophysiology of glossal pain in patients with iron deficiency and anemia.

    PubMed

    Osaki, T; Ueta, E; Arisawa, K; Kitamura, Y; Matsugi, N

    1999-11-01

    It is well known that prolonged anemia causes atrophy of tongue papillae, glossal pain, and dysphagia, but it is uncertain whether iron (Fe) deficiency induces glossal pain without any objective manifestation. To resolve this matter, the relationship between Fe deficiency and glossal pain was examined. Eighteen patients with Fe deficiency and 7 anemic patients manifesting spontaneous irritation or pain of the tongue without any objective abnormalities participated in this study. To ascertain the cause of glossal pain and the oral pathophysiology in Fe deficiency and anemia, peripheral blood was examined and the glossal pain threshold and salivary flow rates (SFRs) were estimated along with Candida albicans cell culture tests. Compared with patients with Fe deficiency, those with anemia had a longer history of tongue pain. In patients with anemia, painful areas of the tongue were more numerous than in patients with Fe deficiency. Pain thresholds were decreased in the painful portions, and both nonstimulated and stimulated SFRs were suppressed. Each patient was treated with oral Fe; within 2 months, most patients exhibited increased serum ferritin level (P< 0.02, paired t-test), pain threshold (P < 0.05) and salivation (P < 0.05) and glossal pain subsided. Fe deficiency causes glossal pain and the degree of glossal pain increases as Fe deficiency advances to anemia, manifesting hyposalivation and abnormalities of glossal papillae.

  15. Vitamin A deficiency in quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.

    1943-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the symptoms of avitaminosis A in growing and adolescent bobwhites. Chicks from parents that have received a diet rich in vitamin A may have enough stored to carry them a week or ten days on a growing diet deficient in vitamin A before symptoms of deficiency occur. The first sign is ruffled feathering, with the wing primaries standing out from the body and drooping. Ophthalmia in one or both eyes occurs and may close the eyes completely, but this condition is not severe in all cases and may not even be noticeable. Birds show poor growth, loss of appetite, and weakness before death. Under the conditions of the experiments discussed herein, death may occur in the fourth or fifth week, and mortality is high......Postmortem examination may reveal visceral gout with thick deposits of urates on the kidneys, in the ureters, on the heart, in the proventriculus, and occasionally covering all the viscera. There may also be hemorrhage of the heart and other organs....Adolescent quail reared on a diet rich in vitamin A may be able to live through the winter on a maintenance diet low in this vitamin without showing symptoms of avitaminosis, but some individuals whose storage of vitamin A in the liver is not as great as that of others may succumb to visceral gout.....A growing mash for quail which contains sufficient vitamin A when fresh may, after a period of storage, lose enough of the vitamin to cause the characteristic symptoms of avitaminosis A to appear.

  16. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  17. Selected Systems Engineering Process Deficiencies and Their Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence Dale

    2006-01-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous systems failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a system engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time - an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is system failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Primary Carnitine Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Emily Cornforth; di San Filippo, Cristina Amat; Ndukwe Erlingsson, Uzochi C.; Ardon, Orly; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by defective OCTN2 carnitine transporters encoded by the SLC22A5 gene. Lack of carnitine impairs fatty acid oxidation resulting in hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatic encephalopathy, skeletal and cardiac myopathy. Recently, asymptomatic mothers with primary carnitine deficiency were identified by low carnitine levels in their infant by newborn screening. Here we evaluate mutations in the SLC22A5 gene and carnitine transport in fibroblasts from symptomatic patients and asymptomatic women. Carnitine transport was significantly reduced in fibroblasts obtained from all patients with primary carnitine deficiency, but was significantly higher in the asymptomatic women’s than in the symptomatic patients’ fibroblasts (p<0.01). By contrast, ergothioneine transport (a selective substrate of the OCTN1 transporter, tested here as a control) was similar in cells from controls and patients with carnitine deficiency. DNA sequencing indicated an increased frequency of nonsense mutations in symptomatic patients (p<0.001). Expression of the missense mutations in CHO cells indicated that many mutations retained residual carnitine transport activity, with no difference in the average activity of missense mutations identified in symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients. These results indicate that cells from asymptomatic women have on average higher levels of residual carnitine transport activity as compared to that of symptomatic patients due to the presence of at least one missense mutation. PMID:21922592

  19. Deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine treatment for thymidine kinase 2 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gomez, Carlos; Levy, Rebecca J; Sanchez-Quintero, Maria J; Juanola-Falgarona, Marti; Barca, Emanuele; Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Tadesse, Saba; Garone, Caterina; Hirano, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), a critical enzyme in the mitochondrial pyrimidine salvage pathway, is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Mutations in the nuclear gene TK2 cause TK2 deficiency, which manifests predominantly in children as myopathy with mtDNA depletion. Molecular bypass therapy with the TK2 products, dCMP and dTMP, prolongs the lifespan of Tk2-deficient (Tk2-/-) mice by 2-3 fold. Because we observed rapid catabolism of the deoxynucleoside monophosphates to deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC), we hypothesized that: 1) deoxynucleosides might be the major active agents and 2) inhibition of deoxycytidine deamination might enhance dTMP+dCMP therapy. Methods To test these hypotheses, we assessed two therapies in Tk2-/- mice: 1) dT+dC and 2) co-administration of the deaminase inhibitor, tetrahydrouridine (THU), with dTMP+dCMP. Results We observed that dC+dT delayed disease onset, prolonged lifespan of Tk2-deficient mice, and restored mtDNA copy number as well as respiratory chain enzyme activities and levels. In contrast, dCMP+dTMP+THU therapy decreased lifespan of Tk2-/- animals compared to dCMP+dTMP. Interpretation Our studies demonstrate that deoxynucleoside substrate enhancement is a novel therapy, which may ameliorate TK2 deficiency in patients. PMID:28318037

  20. Deoxycytidine and Deoxythymidine Treatment for Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gomez, Carlos; Levy, Rebecca J; Sanchez-Quintero, Maria J; Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Barca, Emanuele; Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Tadesse, Saba; Garone, Caterina; Hirano, Michio

    2017-05-01

    Thymidine kinase 2 (TK2), a critical enzyme in the mitochondrial pyrimidine salvage pathway, is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Mutations in the nuclear gene, TK2, cause TK2 deficiency, which manifests predominantly in children as myopathy with mtDNA depletion. Molecular bypass therapy with the TK2 products, deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) and deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), prolongs the life span of Tk2-deficient (Tk2 -/- ) mice by 2- to 3-fold. Because we observed rapid catabolism of the deoxynucleoside monophosphates to deoxythymidine (dT) and deoxycytidine (dC), we hypothesized that: (1) deoxynucleosides might be the major active agents and (2) inhibition of deoxycytidine deamination might enhance dTMP+dCMP therapy. To test these hypotheses, we assessed two therapies in Tk2 -/- mice: (1) dT+dC and (2) coadministration of the deaminase inhibitor, tetrahydrouridine (THU), with dTMP+dCMP. We observed that dC+dT delayed disease onset, prolonged life span of Tk2-deficient mice and restored mtDNA copy number as well as respiratory chain enzyme activities and levels. In contrast, dCMP+dTMP+THU therapy decreased life span of Tk2 -/- animals compared to dCMP+dTMP. Our studies demonstrate that deoxynucleoside substrate enhancement is a novel therapy, which may ameliorate TK2 deficiency in patients. Ann Neurol 2017;81:641-652. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  1. Selected systems engineering process deficiencies and their consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, L. Dale

    2007-06-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous system failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a systems engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time—an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is systems failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  2. PLAG1 deficiency impairs spermatogenesis and sperm motility in mice.

    PubMed

    Juma, Almas R; Grommen, Sylvia V H; O'Bryan, Moira K; O'Connor, Anne E; Merriner, D Jo; Hall, Nathan E; Doyle, Stephen R; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E; Barriga, Daniel; Hart, Adam H; Van de Ven, Wim J M; De Groef, Bert

    2017-07-13

    Deficiency in pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to reduced fertility in male mice, but the mechanism by which PLAG1 contributes to reproduction is unknown. To investigate the involvement of PLAG1 in testicular function, we determined (i) the spatial distribution of PLAG1 in the testis using X-gal staining; (ii) transcriptomic consequences of PLAG1 deficiency in knock-out and heterozygous mice compared to wild-type mice using RNA-seq; and (iii) morphological and functional consequences of PLAG1 deficiency by determining testicular histology, daily sperm production and sperm motility in knock-out and wild-type mice. PLAG1 was sparsely expressed in germ cells and in Sertoli cells. Genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis were downregulated in the testes of knock-out mice, as well as Hsd17b3, which encodes a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. In the absence of Plag1, a number of genes involved in immune processes and epididymis-specific genes were upregulated in the testes. Finally, loss of PLAG1 resulted in significantly lowered daily sperm production, in reduced sperm motility, and in several animals, in sloughing of the germinal epithelium. Our results demonstrate that the subfertility seen in male PLAG1-deficient mice is, at least in part, the result of significantly reduced sperm output and sperm motility.

  3. Methylboronic acid fertilization alleviates boron deficiency symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Duran, Catherine; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Aquea, Felipe

    2018-07-01

    Our results showed that methylboronic acid is capable of alleviating boron deficiency, enhancing plant growth, and is less toxic than boric acid at higher concentrations. Boron is an essential plant micronutrient and its deficiency occurs in several regions globally, resulting in impaired plant growth. Boron fertilization is a common agricultural practice, but the action range of boron is narrow, sharply transitioning from deficiency to toxicity. Boric acid (BA) is the most common chemical form used in agriculture. In this work, we describe that methylboronic acid (MBA) is capable of alleviating boron deficiency in Arabidopsis. MBA is a boronic acid, but does not naturally occur in soils, necessitating synthesis. Other boronic acids have been described as boron competitors in plants, inhibiting auxin biosynthesis and root development. MBA is more water-soluble than BA and delivers the same amount of boron per molecule. We observed that Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of MBA presented higher numbers of lateral roots and greater main root length compared to plants grown in BA. In addition, root hair length and leaf surface area were increased using MBA as a boron fertilizer. Finally, MBA was less toxic than BA at high concentrations, producing a slight reduction in the main root length but no decrease in total chlorophyll. Our results open a new opportunity to explore the use of a synthetic form of boron in agriculture, providing a tool for future research for plant nutrition.

  4. Activation of Nrf2/Keap1 signaling and autophagy induction against oxidative stress in heart in iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Ndong, Moussa; Yamamoto, Yuji; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Uehara, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary iron deficiency on the redox system in the heart. Dietary iron deficiency increased heart weight and accumulation of carbonylated proteins. However, expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 and LC3-II, an antioxidant enzyme and an autophagic marker, respectively, in iron-deficient mice were upregulated compared to the control group, resulting in a surrogate phenomenon against oxidative stress.

  5. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Bae, Tae Soo; Kang, Ki-Ser; Kang, Soo Yong; Lee, Sang Hak

    2011-10-01

    Longitudinal tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn (MMPH) are commonly associated with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the medial meniscus in terms of limiting the amount of anterior-posterior tibial translation in response to anterior tibial loads in ACL-deficient knees. An MMPH tear in an ACL-deficient knee increases the anterior-posterior tibial translation and rotatory instability. In addition, MMPH repair will restore the tibial translation to the level before the tear. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested sequentially using a custom testing system under 5 conditions: intact, ACL deficient, ACL deficient with an MMPH peripheral longitudinal tear, ACL deficient with an MMPH repair, and ACL deficient with a total medial meniscectomy. The knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion in response to a 134-N anterior and 200-N axial compressive tibial load. The rotatory kinematics were also measured at 15° and 30° of flexion in a combined rotatory load of 5 N·m of internal tibial torque and 10 N·m of valgus torque. Medial meniscus posterior horn longitudinal tears in ACL-deficient knees resulted in a significant increase in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 90° (P < .05). An MMPH repair in an ACL-deficient knee showed a significant decrease in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 60° compared with the ACL-deficient/MMPH tear state (P < .05). The total anterior-posterior translation of the ACL-deficient/MMPH repaired knee was not significantly increased compared with the ACL (only)-deficient knee but was increased compared with the ACL-intact knee (P > .05). A total medial meniscectomy in an ACL-deficient knee did not increase the anterior-posterior tibial translation significantly compared with MMPH tears in ACL-deficient knees at all flexion angles (P > .05

  6. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium deficiency symptoms

    Treesearch

    Edward I. Sucoff

    1961-01-01

    A loblolly pine or Virginia pine tree that shows visible symptoms of nutrient deficiency is sick. This means that the life processes of the tree are malfunctioning and that, among other things, the growth rate is probably less than normal, and the life of the tree may be threatened. However, if the deficiency can be identified, treatment with the proper fertilizer may...

  7. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Brain Development, and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Available from: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610. In order to determine what effect, if any, growth hormone (GH) has on human brain development, 29 patients (mean age 11.7 years) with GH deficiency were selected according to the following criteria: no evidence of reversible GH deficiency, onset of…

  8. Glutathione synthetase deficiency: a family report.

    PubMed Central

    Pejaver, R K; Watson, A H

    1994-01-01

    Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism. Low levels of and at times unstable molecules of glutathione synthetase leads to glutathione deficiency affecting various systems of the body. The inheritance is thought to be of autosomal recessive variety. We diagnosed the condition in a neonate and proceeded to investigate the family. The results are discussed below. PMID:8158601

  9. Academic Deficiency: Student Experiences of Institutional Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barouch-Gilbert, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Limited existing research examines how undergraduate students in the United States experience the process of being identified as deficient due to their academic performance. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of college students on academic probation who were labeled academically deficient. Students…

  10. Genetics Home Reference: complement component 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency Sources for This Page Jönsson G, Sjöholm AG, Truedsson L, Bengtsson AA, Braconier JH, Sturfelt G. ... L, Sturfelt G, Oxelius VA, Braconier JH, Sjöholm AG. Hereditary C2 deficiency in Sweden: frequent occurrence of ...

  11. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PubMed Tsujino S, Shanske S, Sakoda S, Fenichel G, DiMauro S. The molecular genetic basis of muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) deficiency. Am ... PubMed Central Tsujino S, Shanske S, Sakoda S, Toscano A, DiMauro S. Molecular genetic studies in muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM-M) deficiency. ...

  13. Iron deficiency and new insights into therapy.

    PubMed

    Low, Michael Sy; Grigoriadis, George

    2017-07-17

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia remain prevalent in Australia. The groups at highest risk are pre-menopausal women, socially disadvantaged people and those of Indigenous background. Diagnosing iron deficiency using a full blood examination and iron studies can be difficult and can be further complicated by concomitant inflammation. Results of iron studies should always be interpreted as an overall picture rather than focusing on individual parameters. In difficult clinical scenarios, soluble transferrin receptor assays can be useful. Management of iron deficiency involves identification and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, as well as effective iron replacement. Clinicians should always take a detailed history and perform a comprehensive physical examination of a patient with iron deficiency. Patients should be monitored even if a likely cause of iron deficiency is identified. Patients who fail to respond to iron replacement or maintain iron status should be referred for further investigation, including endoscopy to exclude internal bleeding. Both enteral and parenteral iron are effective at replacing iron. For most adult patients, we recommend trialling daily oral iron (30-100 mg of elemental iron) as the first-line therapy. Safety and efficacy of intravenous iron infusions have improved with the availability of a newer formulation, ferric carboxymaltose. Patients who fail to respond to oral iron replacement can be safely managed with intravenous iron. Blood transfusion for iron deficiency anaemia should be reserved for life-threatening situations and should always be followed by appropriate iron replacement.

  14. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen. Radiation—Underground...

  15. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen. Radiation—Underground...

  16. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen. Radiation—Underground...

  17. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen. Radiation—Underground...

  18. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen. Radiation—Underground...

  19. Frequent development of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in patients initially diagnosed as isolated growth hormone deficiency: a long term follow-up of patients from a single center.

    PubMed

    Otto, Aline P; França, Marcela M; Correa, Fernanda A; Costalonga, Everlayny F; Leite, Claudia C; Mendonca, Berenice B; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Carvalho, Luciani R S; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2015-08-01

    Children initially diagnosed with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) have a variable rate to progress to combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) during follow-up. To evaluate the development of CPHD in a group of childhood-onset IGHD followed at a single tertiary center over a long period of time. We retrospectively analyzed data from 83 patients initially diagnosed as IGHD with a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the temporal progression and to identify risk factors to development of CPHD over time. From 83 patients initially with IGHD, 37 (45%) developed CPHD after a median time of follow up of 5.4 years (range from 1.2 to 21 years). LH and FSH deficiencies were the most common pituitary hormone (38%) deficiencies developed followed by TSH (31%), ACTH (12%) and ADH deficiency (5%). ADH deficiency (3.1 ± 1 years from GHD diagnosis) presented earlier and ACTH deficiency (9.3 ± 3.5 years) presented later during follow up compared to LH/FSH (8.3 ± 4 years) and TSH (7.5 ± 5.6 years) deficiencies. In a Cox regression model, pituitary stalk abnormalities was the strongest risk factor for the development of CPHD (hazard ratio of 3.28; p = 0.002). Our study indicated a high frequency of development of CPHD in patients initially diagnosed as IGHD at childhood. Half of our patients with IGHD developed the second hormone deficiency after 5 years of diagnosis, reinforcing the need for lifelong monitoring of pituitary function in these patients.

  20. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hodges, R E; Sauberlich, H E; Canham, J E; Wallace, D L; Rucker, R B; Mejia, L A; Mohanram, M

    1978-05-01

    Recent studies of experimental vitamin A deficiency in man led the authors to conclude that anemia may result from lack of vitamin A. A review of numerous nutrition surveys in underdeveloped countries enhanced the suspicion that deficiency of vitamin A does contribute to the prevalence of anemia. Preliminary studies of vitamin A-deficient rats confirmed previous observations that anemia may result from lack of this vitamin. The livers of these animals had very low concentrations of vitamin A but normal or increased concentrations of iron. The finding of anemia is in contrast with other reports that vitamin A deficiency may cause elevated values for hemoglobin and hematocrit. The authors suggest that loss of taste and smell as a result of deficiency may account for refusal of experimental animals to eat and drink enough to prevent inanitation and dehydration. The resulting hemoconcentration may mask the true hematological picture, which is one of anemia.

  1. Japanese family with congenital factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Kanae; Okayama, Yoshiki; Fukushima, Kenji; Kaji, Shunsaku; Muraoka, Michiko; Arao, Yujiro; Shimada, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. The present female patient was diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency because of low hepaplastin test (HPT), although vitamin K was given. Heterozygous p.A191T mutation was detected in the peripheral blood, and the same mutation was also found in the mother and sister. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of p.A191T mutation of FVII in the literature and the first to be reported in Japan. FVII coagulation activity (FVII:C) in asymptomatic heterozygous carriers is mildly reduced. Therefore, some patients may not be accurately diagnosed with congenital FVII deficiency. In infants with low HPT without vitamin K deficiency, congenital FVII deficiency should be considered. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Management of hereditary antithrombin deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    James, Andra H; Bates, Shannon M; Bauer, Kenneth A; Branch, Ware; Mann, Kenneth; Paidas, Michael; Silverman, Neil; Konkle, Barbara A

    2017-09-01

    Antithrombin (AT) deficiency is a high-risk thrombophilia and a rare condition. Despite full anticoagulation during pregnancy and the postpartum period, women with AT deficiency may still be vulnerable to developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including fatal events. There is limited guidance on the management of AT deficiency in pregnancy, including the role of AT concentrates. Following a comprehensive review of the state of the art with respect to recommendations and guidelines, our expert panel in maternal-fetal medicine, hematology and basic science reached consensus on key issues in the recognition and management of AT deficiency in pregnancy. This paper summarizes the state of the art and summarizes what we believe are best practices with special emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetrics and hematology in the care of women with AT deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thiamin deficiency in people with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Jennifer C; Arundel, Cherinne; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-03-01

    Although obesity has been viewed traditionally as a disease of excess nutrition, evidence suggests that it may also be a disease of malnutrition. Specifically, thiamin deficiency was found in 15.5-29% of obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. It can present with vague signs and symptoms and is often overlooked in patients without alcohol use disorders. This review explores the relatively new discovery of high rates of thiamin deficiency in certain populations of people with obesity, including the effects of thiamin deficiency and potential underlying mechanisms of deficiency in people with obesity. The 2 observational studies that examined the prevalence in preoperative bariatric surgery patients and gaps in our current knowledge (including the prevalence of thiamin deficiency in the general obese population and whether the current RDA for thiamin meets the metabolic needs of overweight or obese adults) are reviewed. Suggestions for future areas of research are included. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  5. Functional Reflective Polarizer for Augmented Reality and Color Vision Deficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-03

    Functional reflective polarizer for augmented reality and color vision deficiency Ruidong Zhu, Guanjun Tan, Jiamin Yuan, and Shin-Tson Wu* College...polarizer that can be incorporated into a compact augmented reality system. The design principle of the functional reflective polarizer is explained and...augment reality system is relatively high as compared to a polarizing beam splitter or a conventional reflective polarizer. Such a functional reflective

  6. Iron deficiency and iron excess damage mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA in rats

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Patrick B.; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Paler-Martinez, Andres; Lee, Sonia; Xu, Yu; Viteri, Fernando E.; Ames, Bruce N.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately two billion people, mainly women and children, are iron deficient. Two studies examined the effects of iron deficiency and supplementation on rats. In study 1, mitochondrial functional parameters and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage were assayed in iron-deficient (≤5 μg/day) and iron-normal (800 μg/day) rats and in both groups after daily high-iron supplementation (8,000 μg/day) for 34 days. This dose is equivalent to the daily dose commonly given to iron-deficient humans. Iron-deficient rats had lower liver mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and increased levels of oxidants in polymorphonuclear-leukocytes, as assayed by dichlorofluorescein (P < 0.05). Rhodamine 123 fluorescence of polymorphonuclear-leukocytes also increased (P < 0.05). Lowered respiratory control ratios were found in daily high-iron-supplemented rats regardless of the previous iron status (P < 0.05). mtDNA damage was observed in both iron-deficient rats and rats receiving daily high-iron supplementation, compared with iron-normal rats (P < 0.05). Study 2 compared iron-deficient rats given high doses of iron (8,000 μg) either daily or every third day and found that rats given iron supplements every third day had less mtDNA damage on the second and third day after the last dose compared to daily high iron doses. Both inadequate and excessive iron (10 × nutritional need) cause significant mitochondrial malfunction. Although excess iron has been known to cause oxidative damage, the observation of oxidant-induced damage to mitochondria from iron deficiency has been unrecognized previously. Untreated iron deficiency, as well as excessive-iron supplementation, are deleterious and emphasize the importance of maintaining optimal iron intake. PMID:11854522

  7. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among rural women during childbearing age in Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mir Hassan; Zahoorullah; Hussain, Hamid; Nazli, Rubina; Lutfullah, Ghosia

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a commonly reported health problem throughout the world. This cross sectional survey was conducted in rural Peshawar with an aim to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in women of child bearing age and find its association with age, marital, pregnancy status and parity. Data was collected from 353 women age 15-45 years. EPI INFO version 6.04 was used for data analysis. Overall 98 (27.8 %) women were zinc deficient (<80 μg/dL) while 31 (8.8%) had severe zinc deficiency (<50μg/dL.). Mean zinc level was found to increase gradually with the increase in the age up to 40 years and then starts decreasing significantly beyond this age. A significant decrease (p<0.03) in zinc concentration was found in married as compared to unmarried women. Out of 31 female with severe zinc deficiency, 23 (74.2%) were pregnant. Pregnant women in second (OR (CI) 3.36 (1.52-7.44) p<0.0008) and third ((OR (CI) 3.73 (1.91-7.30) p<0.00002) trimester were 3.4 & 3.7 times, respectively more zinc deficient as compared to control women. Mean zinc levels were significantly lower in women having no children versus women with 1-5 numbers of children. This study concludes that severe zinc deficiency especially prevalent in pregnant women needs urgent correction through food supplementation.

  8. Abnormal patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K; Bremner, W J

    1984-05-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is usually a problem of inadequate progesterone production associated with inadequate ovarian follicular development. The hypothesis that luteal phase deficiency results from an abnormal secretion pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) was tested in these women. To this end, the early follicular LH secretion pattern in four women with luteal phase deficiency was characterized and compared with patterns in normal women. Blood samples were obtained through indwelling catheters every ten minutes for eight hours (10 AM to 6 PM), and plasma levels of LH and FSH were measured. Luteinizing hormone and FSH secretion profiles were analyzed for pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean plasma level. A significantly greater LH pulse frequency in women with luteal phase deficiency was observed when compared with the frequency in normal controls (luteal phase deficiency, 10.5 pulses/eight hours; normal, 5.2 pulses/eight hours; P less than or equal to .05). The mean FSH concentration was less in the women with luteal phase deficiency, but the level was not significant. These data suggest that the abnormal LH secretion pattern observed in women with luteal phase deficiency is responsible for their inadequate luteal phase progesterone secretion and their infertility.

  9. Deficiency of the Chemotactic Factor Inactivator in Human Sera with α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Peter A.; Talamo, Richard C.

    1973-01-01

    As revealed by appropriate fractionation procedures, human serum deficient in α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) is also deficient in the naturally occurring chemotactic factor inactivator. These serum donors had severe pulmonary emphysema. Serum from patients with clinically similar pulmonary disease, but with presence of α1-AT in the serum, showed no such deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. When normal human serum and α1-AT-deficient human sera are chemotactically activated by incubation with immune precipitates, substantially more chemotactic activity is generated in α1-AT-deficient serum. These data indicate that in α1-AT-deficient serum there is an imbalance in the generation and control of chemotactic factors. It is suggested that the theory regarding development of pulmonary emphysema in patients lacking the α1-antitrypsin in their serum should be modified to take into account a deficiency of the chemotactic factor inactivator. PMID:4683887

  10. Nutritional deficiency during colonoscopy preparation: the forgotten iatrogeny.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Gonçalo; Barata, Ana Teresa; Santos, Carla Adriana; Patita, Marta; Fonseca, Jorge

    2018-05-01

    bowel preparation for colonoscopy induces a semi-fasting state, with a potential negative impact on fragile patients. The present study aims to quantify nutritional deficiency during colonoscopy preparation. this was an observational and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample was obtained that included adults that underwent colonoscopy after bowel preparation with Klean-Prep® according to the center protocol. Anthropometric evaluation was performed and nutritional deficiency was calculated via the quantification of energy and protein intake during the 48 hours prior to the examination which was compared with the individuals' needs. The association between nutritional deficiency with the quality of bowel preparation, age and status (hospitalized/ambulatory) was evaluated. the study included 131 patients aged 21-91 years (mean 63.6 ± 13.2 years); 73 cases were male. Malnutrition reached 67.2% using specific anthropometric tools. A median preparation quality of six points was found when the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was considered. The mean intake 48 hours prior to the procedure was 1,795 kcal and 100 g of protein. A daily energy intake of less than 50% of the individual needs was observed in 88 patients and less than 25% in 29 cases. The mean energy and protein deficiency were 59% (p < 0.01) and 45% (p < 0.01), and there was no correlation with preparation quality (p > 0.05). Nutritional defiency is similar in hospitalized and ambulatory patients (p > 0.05), but higher in older individuals (p = 0.04). nutritional deficiency during colonoscopy preparation was significant, more so in older patients, and there was no correlation with the quality of bowel preparation. We conclude that bowel preparation regimens should be reformulated with an improved nutritional intake and the inclusion of nutritional supplements without residues.

  11. Vitamin D concentration and deficiency across different ages and genders.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Montagnana, Martina; Meschi, Tiziana; Borghi, Loris

    2012-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major health problem worldwide, especially in the elderly, so that an accurate assessment of its prevalence is essential for planning reliable healthcare policy throughout the lifespan. The aim of the present study was to assess the concentration as well as the mild and moderate deficiencies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) across different ages and genders. We searched the database of the local Laboratory Information System to retrieve results of 25OHD tests performed on the whole cohort of presumably healthy Caucasian outpatients aged >12 yrs, who were referred to our laboratory in the North-East of Italy for routine laboratory testing ordered by general practitioners, over a 3-year period (October 2008-October 2011). Cumulative results for 25OHD testing were retrieved for 2327 outpatients (1744 females and 583 males). No significant differences between females and males were observed for 25OHD values (71 [25-140] vs 67 [27-130] nmol/L; p=0.40), as well as a similar prevalence of mild (32.8 vs 33.4%; p=0.89) and moderate (21.7 vs 25.6%; p=0.37) 25OHD deficiency. A non significant variation of 25OHD values was also found by ANOVA analysis throughout four age cohorts (<21, 21-40, 41-60 and >60 yrs), in both genders. In each age group, the values of 25OHD did not significantly differ between genders. The percentage of subjects displaying mild and moderate 25OHD deficiencies in the older subgroup was comparable to that observed in the younger adult population. The results of this large epidemiological investigation show that the prevalence of mild and moderate vitamin D deficiency does not significantly increase with aging and seems lower than that observed in other European and American countries.

  12. Prevalence and impact of bronchiectasis in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parr, David G; Guest, Peter G; Reynolds, John H; Dowson, Lee J; Stockley, Robert A

    2007-12-15

    alpha(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is associated with increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular emphysema, but airway disease is less well described. To assess the prevalence of airways disease in subjects with AAT deficiency and to identify the relationship between radiological airway abnormalities and clinical phenotype. We characterized the computed tomographic phenotype of 74 subjects (PiZ), using visual scoring of airway disease and densitometric assessment of emphysema. Computed tomographic measurements were related to physiology, health status (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire), and emphysema severity, and the relative impact of airway disease and emphysema severity on health status and airflow obstruction was compared by stepwise regression. Bronchiectatic changes were seen in 70 subjects, and a subgroup with a bronchiectasis-predominant phenotype was identified. Clinically significant bronchiectasis (radiologic bronchiectasis in 4 or more bronchopulmonary segments together with symptoms of regular sputum production) occurred in 20 subjects (27%). AAT-deficient index cases had higher airway disease scores (P < 0.05), more severe emphysema (P < 0.001), and greater impairment of physiology (P < 0.001) and health status (P < 0.05) than nonindex cases. Airway disease scores correlated with health status, and bronchial wall thickening correlated with FEV(1). Regression analysis indicated that emphysema severity had the strongest associations for health status (r = 0.505, P < 0.001) and FEV(1) (r = 0.699, P < 0.001), but the addition of airway disease score improved the regression models (r = 0.596, P = 0.002 and r = 0.783, P < 0.001, respectively). Emphysema is the predominant component of COPD in AAT deficiency, but the prevalence and impact of airway disease are greater than currently recognized. Consequently, future therapeutic strategies in AAT deficiency should also target this component of COPD.

  13. Pyridoxine deficiency affects biomechanical properties of chick tibial bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, P. G.; Rimnac, C. M.; Yamauchi, M.; Coburn, S. P.; Rucker, R. B.; Howell, D. S.; Boskey, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of bone is dependent on the bone matrix, which is believed to account for the plastic deformation of the tissue, and the mineral, which is believed to account for the elastic deformation. The validity of this model is shown in this study based on analysis of the bones of vitamin B6-deficient and vitamin B6-replete chick bones. In this model, when B6-deficient and control animals are compared, vitamin B6 deficiency has no effect on the mineral content or composition of cortical bone as measured by ash weight (63 +/- 6 vs. 58 +/- 3); mineral to matrix ratio of the FTIR spectra (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2), line-broadening analyses of the X-ray diffraction 002 peak (beta 002 = 0.50 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.01), or other features of the infrared spectra. In contrast, collagen was significantly more extractable from vitamin B6-deficient chick bones (20 +/- 2% of total hydroxyproline extracted vs. 10 +/- 3% p < or = 0.001). The B6-deficient bones also contained an increased amount of the reducible cross-links DHLNL, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine, (1.03 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.84 +/- 0.13 p < or = 0.001); and a nonsignificant increase in HLNL, dehydro-hydroxylysinonorleucine, (0.51 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.03, p < or = 0.10). There were no significant changes in bone length, bone diameter, or area moment of inertia. In four-point bending, no significant changes in elastic modulus, stiffness, offset yield deflection, or fracture deflection were detected. However, fracture load in the B6-deficient animals was decreased from 203 +/- 35 MPa to 151 +/- 23 MPa, p < or = 0.01, and offset yield load was decreased from 165 +/- 9 MPa to 125 +/- 14 MPa, p < or = 0.05. Since earlier histomorphometric studies had demonstrated that the B6-deficient bones were osteopenic, these data suggest that although proper cortical bone mineralization occurred, the alterations of the collagen resulted in changes to bone mechanical performance.

  14. DNA mismatch repair protein deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts: a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rish K; Dudley, Beth; Karloski, Eve; Brand, Randall E; O'Callaghan, Neil; Rosty, Christophe; Buchanan, Daniel D; Jenkins, Mark A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; French, Amy J; Lindor, Noralane M; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-06-08

    Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10). MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were identified in 19 of 122 (16%) patients. MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts were identified in 18 of 52 (35%) patients with Lynch syndrome compared to only 1 of 70 (1%) patients without Lynch syndrome (p < 0.001). This one patient had "Lynch-like" syndrome and harbored two MSH2-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts. MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic colonic crypts were not identified in patients with sporadic MMR protein-deficient or MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that MMR protein-deficient colonic crypts are a novel indicator of Lynch syndrome, and evaluation for MMR protein-deficient crypts may be a helpful addition to Lynch syndrome diagnostics.

  15. Minimum Selenium Requirements Increase When Repleting Second-Generation Selenium-Deficient Rats but Are Not Further Altered by Vitamin E Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Roger A; Thompson, Kevin M; Fritsche, Kevin L; Evenson, Jacqueline K

    2017-05-01

    Second-generation selenium-deficient weanling rats fed graded levels of dietary Se were used (a) to study the impact of initial Se deficiency on dietary Se requirements; (b) to determine if further decreases in selenoperoxidase expression, especially glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), affect growth or gross disease; and (c) to examine the impact of vitamin E deficiency on biochemical and molecular biomarkers of Se status. Rats were fed a vitamin E-deficient and Se-deficient crystalline amino acid diet (3 ng Se/g diet) or that diet supplemented with 100 μg/g all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate and/or 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, or 0.2 μg Se/g diet as Na 2 SeO 3 for 28 days. Se-supplemented rats grew 6.91 g/day as compared to 2.17 and 3.87 g/day for vitamin E-deficient/Se-deficient and vitamin E-supplemented/Se-deficient groups, respectively. In Se-deficient rats, liver Se, plasma Gpx3, red blood cell Gpx1, liver Gpx1 and Gpx4 activities, and liver Gpx1 mRNA levels decreased to <1, <1, 21, 1.6, 49, and 11 %, respectively, of levels in rats fed 0.2 μg Se/g diet. For all biomarkers, ANOVA indicated significant effects of dietary Se, but no significant effects of vitamin E or vitamin E × Se interaction, showing that vitamin E deficiency, even in severely Se-deficient rat pups, does not result in compensatory changes in these biochemical and molecular biomarkers of selenoprotein expression. Se requirements determined in this study, however, were >50 % higher than in previous studies that started with Se-adequate rats, demonstrating that dietary Se requirements determined using initially Se-deficient animals can result in overestimation of Se requirements.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Inherited thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency is a genetic condition that ...

  18. Diet Treatment Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency (G1D)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-20

    GLUT1DS1; Epilepsy; Glut1 Deficiency Syndrome 1, Autosomal Recessive; Glucose Metabolism Disorders; Glucose Transport Defect; Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome; Glucose Transporter Protein Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome

  19. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This ... is the best tool for prevention of the flu, should patients with immune deficiency be given the ...

  20. The hobbit - an unexpected deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Joseph A; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2013-12-16

    Vitamin D has been proposed to have beneficial effects in a wide range of contexts. We investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency, caused by both aversion to sunlight and unwholesome diet, could also be a significant contributor to the triumph of good over evil in fantasy literature. Data on the dietary habits, moral attributes and martial prowess of various inhabitants of Middle Earth were systematically extracted from J R R Tolkien's novel The hobbit. Goodness and victoriousness of characters were scored with binary scales, and dietary intake and habitual sun exposure were used to calculate a vitamin D score (range, 0-4). The vitamin D score was significantly higher among the good and victorious characters (mean, 3.4; SD, 0.5) than the evil and defeated ones (mean, 0.2; SD, 0.4; P < 0.001). Further work is needed to see if these pilot results can be extrapolated to other fantastic situations and whether randomised intervention trials need to be imagined.

  1. Dissociative phenomena in congenital monocular elevation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Olson, R J; Scott, W E

    1998-04-01

    Monocular elevation deficiency is characterized by unilateral limitation of elevation in both adduction and abduction and is usually present at birth. Dissociative phenomena such as dissociated vertical deviation are well recognized in association with conditions such as congenital esotropia but much less so in association with conditions such as congenital monocular elevation deficiency. All 129 patients given the diagnosis of monocular elevation deficiency or double elevator palsy in the Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Clinic at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 1971 and 1995 were reviewed. After those with history of trauma, myasthenia gravis, thyroid eye disease, orbital lesions, Brown syndrome, or monocular elevation deficiency with acquired onset were excluded, 31 patients with congenital monocular elevation deficiency remained for retrospective study. First diagnosed at median age 2.6 years (although all were noted by parents at less than 6 months of age) with mean follow-up of 5.0 years (up to 15.5 years), 9 of 31 (29%) developed dissociated vertical deviation in the eye with monocular elevation deficiency, all of whom had undergone strabismus surgery 0 to 9.7 years previously (mean 3.5 years). Those who developed dissociated vertical deviation were generally younger, were followed up longer, and had more accompanying horizontal strabismus than did those who did not develop dissociated vertical deviation. The results did not reach significance. The current study demonstrates that dissociated vertical deviation occurs in association with monocular elevation deficiency.

  2. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Screening and diagnosis of micronutrient deficiencies before and after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gudzune, Kimberly A.; Huizinga, Mary M.; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Asamoah, Vivian; Gadgil, Meghana; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Micronutrient deficiencies are key concerns after bariatric surgery. We describe the prevalence of perioperative testing and diagnosis of micronutrient deficiencies among a cohort of insured bariatric surgery patients. Methods We used claims data from seven health insurers to identify bariatric surgery patients from 2002–2008. Our outcomes were perioperative claims for vitamin D, B12, folate, and iron testing and diagnosed deficiencies. We analyzed results by bariatric surgery type: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), restrictive, and malabsorptive. We calculated the prevalence of testing and deficiency diagnosis, and performed multivariate logistic regression to determine the association with surgery type. Results Of 21,345 eligible patients, 84% underwent RYGB. The pre-surgical testing prevalence for all micronutrients was <25%. The testing prevalence during the first 12 months after surgery varied: vitamin D (12%), vitamin B12 (60%), folate (47%) and iron (49%), and declined during 13–24 and 25–36 months. The deficiency prevalence during 0–12 months post-survey varied: vitamin D (34%), vitamin B12 (20%), folate (13%), and iron (10%). The odds of vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiency during 0–12 months were significantly lower for restrictive as compared to RYGB, but were not different during 13–24 and 25–36 months post-surgery. The odds of vitamin D deficiency were significantly greater for malabsorptive as compared to RYGB during all post-surgical periods. Conclusion Many patients did not receive micronutrient testing pre- or post-surgery, yet deficiencies were relatively common among those tested. These results highlight the need for surgeons and primary care providers to test all bariatric surgery patients for micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:23515975

  4. Tall stature without growth hormone: four male patients with aromatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rochira, Vincenzo; Zirilli, Lucia; Maffei, Laura; Premrou, Valeria; Aranda, Claudio; Baldi, Matteo; Ghigo, Ezio; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Carani, Cesare; Lanfranco, Fabio

    2010-04-01

    From preliminary observations, GH-IGF-I seems to be compromised in men with aromatase deficiency. The GH deficiency (GHD) coexists paradoxically with tall stature, raising the question whether or not a true GHD is part of this rare syndrome. To evaluate the GH secretion in aromatase-deficient men, their GH response to the GHRH plus arginine (GHRH-ARG) test was compared with that of normal subjects. The effect of estrogen replacement treatment on the GH-IGF-I axis in aromatase-deficient men was evaluated before and during therapy. A case-control study was conducted. Four adult men with aromatase deficiency were compared with 12 normal subjects. We measured the GH response to GHRH-ARG in aromatase-deficient men (at baseline and during estrogen treatment) and in normal subjects. Basal serum IGF-I was measured in both patients and controls. The response of GH to GHRH-ARG was severely impaired in men with aromatase deficiency and resulted in significantly lower (P < 0.001) levels than in normal subjects. Although normal, serum IGF-I levels were also significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in normal subjects. Both GH peak and IGF-I concentrations were not modified by estrogen therapy in men with aromatase deficiency. In aromatase-deficient men, GH response to potent provocative stimuli is impaired and is not restored by exogenous estrogens. Furthermore, a tall stature may be reached, notwithstanding the coexistence of GHD, if a prolonged time for growth is available due to a delay in bone maturation, and other growth factors different from GH (mainly insulin) promote growth.

  5. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Iron deficiency thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Shah, Tara

    2011-01-01

    To describe a rare case of thrombocytopenia secondary to iron deficiency. A 34-year-old woman presented with severe microcytic hypochromic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Her ferritin was 1 ng/dl. A diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia was made and the patient was treated with packed red blood cell transfusion and intravenous iron. Thrombocytopenia rapidly improved to normal. This case showed that iron deficiency should be considered as a cause of thrombocytopenia in the appropriate setting after ruling out common causes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [Vitamin B12 deficiency: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Braillard, O; Casini, A; Samii, K; Rufenacht, P; Junod, Perron N

    2012-09-26

    Vitamin B12 screening is only recommended among symptomatic patients or in those with risk factors. The main cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is the food cobalamin malabsorption syndrom. Holotranscobalamin is a more reliable marker than cyanocobalamin to confirm vitamin B12 deficiency, but it has not been validated yet in complex situations. An autoimmune gastritis must be excluded in the absence of risk factors but in the presence of a probable deficiency. Oral substitution treatment is effective but requires excellent therapeutic compliance and close follow-up to monitor the response to treatment. It has not yet been studied among patients suffering from severe symptoms, inflammatory bowel disease and ileal resection.

  9. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thiamine deficiency in Cambodian infants with and without beriberi.

    PubMed

    Coats, Debra; Shelton-Dodge, Kelsey; Ou, Kevanna; Khun, Vannara; Seab, Sommon; Sok, Kimsan; Prou, Chiva; Tortorelli, Silvia; Moyer, Thomas P; Cooper, Lisa E; Begley, Tadhg P; Enders, Felicity; Fischer, Philip R; Topazian, Mark

    2012-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that heavy metal toxicity and consumption of thiaminase-containing foods predispose to symptomatic thiamine deficiency. In a case-control study, thiamine diphosphate (TDP) blood concentrations were measured in 27 infants diagnosed with beriberi at a rural clinic, as well as their mothers and healthy Cambodian and American controls. Blood and urine levels of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and thallium were measured. Local food samples were analyzed for thiaminase activity. Mean TDP level among cases and Cambodian controls was 48 and 56 nmol/L, respectively (P = .08) and was 132 nmol/L in American controls (P < .0001 compared with both Cambodian groups). Mean TDP level of mothers of cases and Cambodian controls was 57 and 57 nmol/L (P = .92), and was 126 nmol/L in American mothers (P < .0001 compared with both Cambodian groups). Cases (but not controls) had lower blood TDP levels than their mothers (P = .02). Infant TDP level decreased with infant age and was positively associated with maternal TDP level. Specific diagnostic criteria for beriberi did not correlate with TDP level. There was no correlation between heavy metal levels and either TDP level or case/control status. No thiaminase activity was observed in food samples. Thiamine deficiency is endemic among infants and nursing mothers in rural southeastern Cambodia and is often clinically inapparent. Neither heavy metal toxicity nor consumption of thiaminase-containing foods account for thiamine deficiency in this region. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency.

    PubMed

    Reinkingh, Marianne; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Maathuis, Karel G B; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2014-01-01

    To compare stump sensibility in children with upper limb reduction deficiency with sensibility of the unaffected arm and hand. In addition, to evaluate the associations between stump sensibility, stump length and activity level. Cross-sectional study. Children and young adults aged 6-25 years with upper limb reduction deficiency. Threshold of touch was measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, stereognosis was measured with the Shape-Texture Identification test and kinaesthesia and activity level was measured with the Child Amputee Prosthetics Project - Functional Status Inventory and the Prosthetic Upper Extremity Functional Index. A total of 31 children with upper limb reduction deficiency (mean age 15 years, 3 prosthesis wearers) were investigated. The threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm (p = 0.006), hand (p = 0.004) and stump end-point (p = < 0.001). Long stumps had higher threshold of touch (indicating lower sensibility) than short stumps (p = 0.046). Twenty-nine children recognized 1 or more shapes or textures with the stump. Kinaesthesia in the affected and unaffected sides was comparable. Sensibility was not correlated with activity level. Threshold of touch, stereognosis and kinaesthesia of the affected sides were excellent. Threshold of touch of the stump circumference was lower (indicating higher sensibility) than of the unaffected arm and hand. High stump sensibility may clarify good functioning in the children without prostheses and contribute to prosthesis rejection.

  12. The Hayflick Limit and Age-Related Adaptive Immune Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gill, Zoe; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Ndifon, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    The adaptive immune system (AIS) acquires significant deficiency during chronological ageing, making older individuals more susceptible to infections and less responsive to vaccines compared to younger individuals. At the cellular level, one of the most striking features of this ageing-related immune deficiency is the dramatic loss of T-cell diversity that occurs in elderly humans. After the age of 70 years, there is a sharp decline in the diversity of naïve T cells, including a >10-fold decrease in the CD4+ compartment and a >100-fold decrease in the CD8+ compartment. Such changes are detrimental because the AIS relies on a diverse naïve T-cell pool to respond to novel pathogens. Recent work suggests that this collapse of naïve T-cell diversity results from T cells reaching the Hayflick limit and being eliminated through both antigen-dependent and -independent pathways. The progressive attrition of telomeres is the molecular mechanism that underlies this Hayflick limit. Therefore, we propose that by measuring the telomere lengths of T cells with high resolution, it is possible to develop a unique biomarker of immune deficiency, potentially much better correlated with individual susceptibility to diseases compared to chronological age alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  14. Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Giannone, Richard J; Liu, Yie

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape 'end crisis'. However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than othermore » cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.« less

  15. Prevention of iron deficiency in preterm neonates during infancy.

    PubMed

    Heese, H D; Smith, S; Watermeyer, S; Dempster, W S; Jakubiec, L

    1990-04-07

    The preterm infant inevitably develops iron deficiency unless supplementary iron is given. Oral iron supplementation is preferred in ideal social circumstances but, where compliance with such therapy is uncertain, intramuscular iron dextran may be a more effective treatment. A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two methods of preventing iron deficiency of prematurity. One group of healthy premature infants was given oral iron 2 mg/kg/d until the age of 6 months. The second similar group was given 100 mg as intramuscular iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) between the ages of 6 and 8 weeks. Both kinds of supplementary iron appeared to have benefited the majority of infants in this trial.

  16. Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yisong; Giannone, Richard J; Liu, Yie

    2005-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape "end crisis". However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than other cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.

  17. Excessive fluoride consumption increases haematological alteration in subjects with iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Wanachantararak, Phenphichar; Kantawong, Fahsai; Chamnanprai, Supoj; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pienthai, Nattasit; Yanola, Jintana; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin

    2017-08-01

    Excessive fluoride consumption leads to accelerated red blood cell death and anaemia. Whether that increases the haematological alteration in subjects with haematological disorders (iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency) is still unclear. The fluoride in serum and urine and haematological parameters of students at Mae Tuen School (fluoride endemic area) were analysed and compared to those of students at Baan Yang Poa and Baan Mai Schools (control areas). Iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency were also diagnosed in these students. The students at Mae Tuen School had significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of mean fluoride in the serum and urine than those in control areas. In both control and fluoride endemic areas, students with haematological disorders had significantly lower levels of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, and MCHC than those without haematological disorders. Moreover, the lowest levels of Hb, MCH, and MCHC were observed in the students with haematological disorders who live in the fluoride endemic area. Thus, the excessive fluoride consumption increased haematological alteration in subjects with iron deficiency, thalassaemia, and G-6-PD deficiency and that may increase the risk of anaemia in these subjects.

  18. The strategies to reduce iron deficiency in blood donors randomized trial: design, enrolment and early retention.

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, W; Bryant, B J; Schlumpf, K S; Wright, D J; Birch, R; Kiss, J E; D'Andrea, P; Cable, R G; Spencer, B R; Vij, V; Mast, A E

    2015-02-01

    Repeated blood donation produces iron deficiency. Changes in dietary iron intake do not prevent donation-induced iron deficiency. Prolonging the interdonation interval or using oral iron supplements can mitigate donation-induced iron deficiency. The most effective operational methods for reducing iron deficiency in donors are unknown. 'Strategies To Reduce Iron Deficiency' (STRIDE) was a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in blood donors. 692 donors were randomized into one of two educational groups or one of three interventional groups. Donors randomized to educational groups either received letters thanking them for donating, or, suggesting iron supplements or delayed donation if they had low ferritin. Donors randomized to interventional groups either received placebo, 19-mg or 38-mg iron pills. Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 52·7% of males and 74·6% of females at enrolment. Adverse events within 60 days of enrolment were primarily mild gastrointestinal symptoms (64%). The incidence of de-enrolment within 60 days was more common in the interventional groups than in the educational groups (P = 0·002), but not more common in those receiving iron than placebo (P = 0·68). The prevalence of iron deficient erythropoiesis in donors enrolled in the STRIDE study is comparable to previously described cohorts of regular blood donors. De-enrolment within 60 days was higher for donors receiving tablets, although no more common in donors receiving iron than placebo. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Morphological, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Starches from Maize Mutants Deficient in Starch Synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Li, Guantian

    2016-08-31

    Morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with a common genetic background (W64A) were studied and compared with the wild type. SSIII deficiency reduced granule size of the starches from 16.7 to ∼11 μm (volume-weighted mean). Thermal analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the enthalpy change of starch during gelatinization. Steady shear analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased the consistency coefficient and yield stress during steady shearing, whereas additional deficiency in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) increased these values. Dynamic oscillatory analysis showed that SSIII deficiency decreased G' at 90 °C during heating and increased it when the paste was cooled to 25 °C at 40 Hz during a frequency sweep. Additional GBSS deficiency further decreased the G'. Structural and compositional bases responsible for these changes in physical properties of the starches are discussed. This study highlighted the relationship between SSIII and some physicochemical properties of maize starch.

  20. Plasticity of the Arabidopsis Root System under Nutrient Deficiencies1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Benjamin D.; Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Friedel, Swetlana; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots show a particularly high variation in their morphological response to different nutrient deficiencies. Although such changes often determine the nutrient efficiency or stress tolerance of plants, it is surprising that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of root morphological responses to different nutrient deficiencies has not yet been conducted. Since one reason for this is an inherent difficulty in obtaining nutrient-deficient conditions in agar culture, we first identified conditions appropriate for producing nutrient-deficient plants on agar plates. Based on a careful selection of agar specifically for each nutrient being considered, we grew Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants at four levels of deficiency for 12 nutrients and quantified seven root traits. In combination with measurements of biomass and elemental concentrations, we observed that the nutritional status and type of nutrient determined the extent and type of changes in root system architecture (RSA). The independent regulation of individual root traits further pointed to a differential sensitivity of root tissues to nutrient limitations. To capture the variation in RSA under different nutrient supplies, we used principal component analysis and developed a root plasticity chart representing the overall modulations in RSA under a given treatment. This systematic comparison of RSA responses to nutrient deficiencies provides a comprehensive view of the overall changes in root plasticity induced by the deficiency of single nutrients and provides a solid basis for the identification of nutrient-sensitive steps in the root developmental program. PMID:23852440

  1. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Phenotype of β-Thalassaemia Trait.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Maham; Ahmed, Suhaib; Ali, Nadir

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of iron deficiency on Hb-A2 level in β-thalassaemia trait and to determine the frequency of individuals with β-thalassaemia trait who could be missed due to concomitant iron deficiency. A total of 120 patients were studied, out of which 23 were iron deficient (serum ferritin < 20 ng/ml). Mean Hb-A2 in the iron deficient individuals was 4.1 ± 0.47% as compared to 5.1 ± 0.58% in the remaining 97 individuals without iron deficiency (p < 0.001). In the 120 individuals with β-thalassaemia trait, mean Hb-A2 was 5.8% with range 3 - 6.8% and confidence interval was 95%. In 2 individuals with β-thalassaemia trait, Iron deficiency was observed and showed Hb-A2 less than 3.5%. These could have been missed while screening by Hb-A2 estimation alone. Co-existence of Iron deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait may mask the diagnosis of beta thalassaemia trait and such individuals can be missed during screening by Hb-A2 estimation alone.

  2. Lipoprotein lipase gene-deficient mice with hypertriglyceridaemia associated with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maochun; Zong, Pengfei; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Yuhui; Zhao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the severity of pancreatitis in lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-deficient hypertriglyceridaemic (HTG) heterozygous mice and to establish an experimental animal model for HTG pancreatitis study. LPL-deficient HTG heterozygous mice were rescued by somatic gene transfer and mated with wild-type mice. The plasma amylase, triglyceride, and pathologic changes in the pancreas of the LPL-deficient HTG heterozygous mice were compared with those of wild-type mice to assess the severity of pancreatitis. In addition, acute pancreatitis (AP) was induced by caerulein (50 µg/kg) for further assessment. The levels of plasma amylase and triglyceride were significantly higher in the LPL-deficient HTG heterozygous mice. According to the pancreatic histopathologic scores, the LPL-deficient HTG heterozygous mice showed more severe pathologic damage than the wild-type mice. Lipoprotein lipase deficient heterozygous mice developed severe caerulein-induced pancreatitis. In addition, their high triglyceride levels were stable. Therefore, LPL-deficient HTG heterozygous mice are a useful experimental model for studying HTG pancreatitis.

  3. In Vivo Evaluation of Transdermal Iodide Microemulsion for Treating Iodine Deficiency Using Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Alaadin; Sullivan, Ryan D; Lou, Hao; Patel, Hemlata; Mandrell, Timothy; Helms, Richard; Almoazen, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal efficiency of iodide microemulsion in treating iodine deficiency using rats as an animal model. Animals were fed either iodine-deficient diet (20 μg/kg iodide) or control diet (200 μg/kg iodide) over a 17-month period. At month 14, iodide microemulsion was applied topically in iodine-deficient group and physiological evaluations of thyroid gland functions were characterized by monitoring the thyroid hormones (T3, T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), iodide ion excretion in urine, and the overall rat body weights in both groups. Moreover, morphological evaluations of thyroid gland before and after treatment were performed by ultrasound imaging and through histological assessment. Prior to microemulsion treatment, the levels of T3, T4, and TSH in iodine-deficient group were statistically significant as compared to that in the control group. The levels of T3 and T4 increased while TSH level decreased significantly in iodine-deficient group within the first 4 weeks of treatment. After treatment, iodide concentration in urine increased significantly. There was no statistical difference in weight between the two groups. Ultrasound imaging and histological evaluations showed evidence of hyperplasia in iodine-deficient group. Topical iodide microemulsion has shown a promising potential as a novel delivery system to treat iodine deficiency.

  4. Iron-heme-Bach1 axis is involved in erythroblast adaptation to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kato, Hiroki; Hada, Hiroshi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Fujiwara, Tohru; Muto, Akihiko; Inoguchi, Yukihiro; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Hojo, Wataru; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Iron plays the central role in oxygen transport by erythrocytes as a constituent of heme and hemoglobin. The importance of iron and heme is also to be found in their regulatory roles during erythroblast maturation. The transcription factor Bach1 may be involved in their regulatory roles since it is deactivated by direct binding of heme. To address whether Bach1 is involved in the responses of erythroblasts to iron status, low iron conditions that induced severe iron deficiency in mice were established. Under iron deficiency, extensive gene expression changes and mitophagy disorder were induced during maturation of erythroblasts. Bach1 -/- mice showed more severe iron deficiency anemia in the developmental phase of mice and a retarded recovery once iron was replenished when compared with wild-type mice. In the absence of Bach1, the expression of globin genes and Hmox1 (encoding heme oxygenase-1) was de-repressed in erythroblasts under iron deficiency, suggesting that Bach1 represses these genes in erythroblasts under iron deficiency to balance the levels of heme and globin. Moreover, an increase in genome-wide DNA methylation was observed in erythroblasts of Bach1 -/- mice under iron deficiency. These findings reveal the principle role of iron as a regulator of gene expression in erythroblast maturation and suggest that the iron-heme-Bach1 axis is important for a proper adaptation of erythroblast to iron deficiency to avoid toxic aggregates of non-heme globin. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:28095507

  6. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hepatic lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the body's ability to break down fats (lipids). People with this disorder have increased amounts of ... It is unclear what effect this change in lipid levels has on people with hepatic lipase deficiency . ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (2 links) ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... not fully understand how a loss of this enzyme's function leads to the features of ADA2 deficiency. They speculate that a lack of this enzyme may disrupt the balance between pro-inflammatory and ...

  10. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    PubMed

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; Hill, D J

    1986-12-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions that occurs in ... enzyme starts a specific reaction within the urea cycle. In ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency , as its name suggests, ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: primary carnitine deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 link) NIH Office of Dietary Supplements: Carnitine Educational Resources (5 links) Disease InfoSearch: Renal carnitine transport defect Orphanet: Systemic primary carnitine deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics The Linus Pauling Institute: ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: factor XIII deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... XIII deficiency tend to have heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) and may experience recurrent pregnancy losses ( ... inheritance, which means that it results when both copies of either the F13A1 gene or the F13B ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: complete LCAT deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship--a review of LCAT deficiency. Vasc Health Risk ... for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  15. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PC. Aldosterone synthase deficiency and related disorders. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004 Mar 31;217(1-2):81-7. Review. ... are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What is newborn ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the TPI1 gene cause triosephosphate isomerase deficiency . ... down to produce energy for cells. TPI1 gene mutations lead to the production of unstable enzymes or ...

  18. Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hood, S M; Mollon, J D; Purves, L; Jordan, G

    2006-09-01

    Carriers of X-linked color vision deficiencies have previously been reported to exhibit mild abnormalities of color matching and discrimination. In a sample of 55 carriers of protan and deutan deficiencies and 55 age-matched normal controls, we measured chromatic discrimination along a red-green axis. We found that discrimination was impaired in the case of carriers of deutan deficiencies (which affect the middle-wave-sensitive cones of the retina), but was normal in the case of carriers of protan deficiencies (which affect the long-wave-sensitive cones). We argue that this result can be explained by the difference in the relative numbers of middle- and long-wave cones in heterozygous retinae: the imbalance of the two cone types is predicted to be much greater in the case of the deutan heterozygote than in the case of the protan heterozygote. In future studies it will be necessary to consider separately the two types of heterozygote.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... in mitochondrial complex I deficiency are found in nuclear DNA, which is packaged in chromosomes within the ... by a mutation in a gene found in nuclear DNA, it has autosomal recessive or X-linked ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... E, Uldry J. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. Amino Acids. ... Synthesis and transport of creatine in the CNS: importance for cerebral functions. J Neurochem. 2010 Oct;115( ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: GABA-transaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chiriboga CA, Ichikawa K, Osaka H, Tsuji M, Gibson KM, Bonnen PE, Pearl PL. Phenotype of GABA- ... Meirleir L, Jaeken J, Jakobs C, Nyhan WL, Gibson KM. 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency. J ...

  2. FastStats: Anemia or Iron Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Anemia or Iron Deficiency Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... visits Number of visits to emergency departments with anemia as the primary hospital discharge diagnosis: 188,000 ...

  3. Congenital isolated thyrotrophin releasing hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Niimi, H; Inomata, H; Sasaki, N; Nakajima, H

    1982-01-01

    A 4⅓-year-old girl with congenital thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) deficiency is described. Oral TRH administration led to normal thyroid hormone and TRH levels in the blood; favourable growth and development was achieved. PMID:6816148

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... at higher than average risk for developing abnormal blood clots, particularly a type of clot that occurs in ... in the lungs. In hereditary antithrombin deficiency , abnormal blood clots usually form only in veins, although they may ...

  5. Congenital deficiency of alpha feto-protein.

    PubMed

    Sharony, Reuven; Zadik, Idit; Parvari, Ruti

    2004-10-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main fetus serum glycoprotein with a very low concentration in the adult. AFP deficiency is a rare phenomenon. We studied two families with congenital AFP deficiency and searched for mutations in the AFP gene. We identified one mutation of 2 base deletion in exon 8, in both families, that leads to the congenital deficiency of AFP. The mutation nt930-931delCT (T294fs25X) creates a frameshift after codon 294 that leads to a stop codon after 24 amino acids, thus truncating the normal length of AFP of 609 amino acids. All the affected children were found to be homozygous for the mutation as was one of the fathers. The affected individuals were asymptomatic and presented normal development. This first identification of a mutation in the AFP gene demonstrates for the first time that deficiency of AFP is compatible with human normal fetal development and further reproduction in males.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: aminoacylase 1 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jurecka A. Aminoacylase 1 deficiency associated with autistic behavior. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010 Dec;33 Suppl 3:S211-4. doi: ... What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  7. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... K shot into a muscle in the thigh. One shot given just after birth will protect your baby ... easily preventable with just a single vitamin K shot at birth. References 1. Zipursky A. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cegielska J, Whitley CB, Eckert S, Valayannopoulos V, Quinn AG. Clinical Features of Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency. J ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA. ...

  9. [Strategies to control vitamin A deficiency].

    PubMed

    Traoré, L; Banou, A A; Sacko, D; Malvy, D; Schémann, J F

    1998-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in the countries of the Sahel. It causes xerophthalmia and high rates of child mortality and it occurs mostly in underdeveloped regions. People of all ages may suffer from vitamin A deficiency but it is a particular problem in pre-school-age children. Each year, about 250,000 children throughout the world become blind due to vitamin A deficiency. Measles, pneumonia and diarrhea reduce the child's reserves of retinol and increase the dietary requirement for vitamin A. Improvement of social conditions is a radical approach to preventing vitamin A deficiency. Three strategies are currently in use: horticultural activities and health education; fortification of food products; distribution of high-dose vitamin A capsules.

  10. [Small airway diseases and immune deficiency].

    PubMed

    Burgel, P-R; Bergeron, A; Knoop, C; Dusser, D

    2016-02-01

    Innate or acquired immune deficiency may show respiratory manifestations, often characterized by small airway involvement. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of small airway disease across the major causes of immune deficiency. In patients with common variable immune deficiency, recurrent lower airway infections may lead to bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. Follicular and/or granulomatous bronchiolitis of unknown origin may also occur. Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of death after the first year in patients with lung transplantation. Bronchiolitis obliterans also occurs in patients with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, especially in the context of systemic graft-versus-host disease. Small airway diseases have different clinical expression and pathophysiology across various causes of immune deficiency. A better understanding of small airways disease pathogenesis in these settings may lead to the development of novel targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective deficiency of IgA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , and celiac sprue may develop. People with IgA deficiency may develop antibodies to IgA. As a result, they can have severe, even life-threatening reactions ...

  12. Copper Deficiency in Calves in Northcentral Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Smart, M. E.; Gudmundson, J.; Brockman, R. P.; Cymbaluk, N.; Doige, C.

    1980-01-01

    Four seven month old Simmental calves were examined because of unthriftiness, a persistent cough, stiffness and lameness. The calves had gastrointestinal and pulmonary parasitism. Analysis of the blood copper levels of these calves and of cows and calves on the farm indicated a generalized deficiency. Only the calves affected with parasitism showed signs of clinical copper deficiency. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7260830

  13. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  14. Iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Altay, Hakan; Çetiner, Mustafa; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Ural, Dilek; Yeşilbursa, Dilek; Yıldırım, Nesligül; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure is an important community health problem. Prevalence and incidence of heart failure have continued to rise over the years. Despite recent advances in heart failure therapy, prognosis is still poor, rehospitalization rate is very high, and quality of life is worse. Co-morbidities in heart failure have negative impact on clinical course of the disease, further impair prognosis, and add difficulties to treatment of clinical picture. Therefore, successful management of co-morbidities is strongly recommended in addition to conventional therapy for heart failure. One of the most common co-morbidities in heart failure is presence of iron deficiency and anemia. Current evidence suggests that iron deficiency and anemia are more prevalent in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, as well as those with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, iron deficiency and anemia are referred to as independent predictors for poor prognosis in heart failure. There is strong relationship between iron deficiency or anemia and severity of clinical status of heart failure. Over the last two decades, many clinical investigations have been conducted on clinical effectiveness of treatment of iron deficiency or anemia with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin therapies. Studies with oral iron and erythropoietin therapies did not provide any clinical benefit and, in fact, these therapies have been shown to be associated with increase in adverse clinical outcomes. However, clinical trials in patients with iron deficiency in the presence or absence of anemia have demonstrated considerable clinical benefits of intravenous iron therapy, and based on these positive outcomes, iron deficiency has become target of therapy in management of heart failure. The present report assesses current approaches to iron deficiency and anemia in heart failure in light of recent evidence.

  15. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Women

    PubMed Central

    Breymann, C.; Römer, T.; Dudenhausen, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency with and without anaemia is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in women. Iron deficiency is generally the result of an imbalance between iron loss and iron absorption. In women with symptoms suspicious for iron deficiency, it is important to confirm or exclude the suspicion using proper tests. The use of serum ferritin levels is considered the gold standard for diagnosis. Although the ideal ferritin levels are not unknown the current consent is that levels < 40 ng/ml indicate iron deficiency, which needs to be treated in symptomatic patients. However, symptoms can already occur at ferritin levels of < 100 ng/ml and treatment must be adapted to the individual patient. Iron supplementation is only indicated in symptomatic patients diagnosed with iron deficiency whose quality of life is affected. It is important to treat iron deficiency together with its causes or risk factors. For example, blood loss from hypermenorrhea should be reduced. Women also need to receive information about the benefits of an iron-rich diet. If oral treatment with iron supplements is ineffective, parenteral iron administration is recommended. PMID:26633902

  17. Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A S; Meftah, S; Abdallah, J; Kaplan, J; Brewer, G J; Bach, J F; Dardenne, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of thymulin (a thymic hormone) is dependent on the presence of zinc in the molecule. We assayed serum thymulin activity in three models of mildly zinc-deficient (ZD) human subjects before and after zinc supplementation: (a) two human volunteers in whom a specific and mild zinc deficiency was induced by dietary means; (b) six mildly ZD adult sickle cell anemia (SCA) subjects; and (c) six mildly ZD adult non-SCA subjects. Their plasma zinc levels were normal and they showed no overt clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency. The diagnosis of mild zinc deficiency was based on the assay of zinc in lymphocytes, granulocytes, and platelets. Serum thymulin activity was decreased as a result of mild zinc deficiency and was corrected by in vivo and in vitro zinc supplementation, suggesting that this parameter was a sensitive indicator of zinc deficiency in humans. An increase in T101-, sIg-cells, decrease in T4+/T8+ ratio, and decreased IL 2 activity were observed in the experimental human model during the zinc depletion phase, all of which were corrected after repletion with zinc. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulation, correctable with zinc supplementation, were also observed in mildly ZD SCA subjects. Inasmuch as thymulin is known to induce intra- and extrathymic T cell differentiation, our studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of zinc on T cell functions. Images PMID:3262625

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Charra, Bernard; Chazot, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the general elderly population, and is related to an increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and cardiovascular calcification. Only limited data and no guidelines are available on vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to assess the frequency of, and factors associated with, 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients in a French dialysis center. In March 2006, we studied all prevalent hemodialysis patients who had not received native vitamin D supplements in the recent past. According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Initiative guidelines, patients were assigned to the following 3 groups: group 1, with a sufficient vitamin D serum level (>75 nmol/L); group 2, with an insufficient level (25 to 75 nmol/L); and group 3, with severe deficiency (<25 nmol/L). Patients' characteristics and biochemical findings were compared between patients of groups 1 and 3. Of 253 patients, 11% patients were in group 1; 47% were in group 2; and 42% were in group 3. The proportions of female and diabetes patients were 42% and 34%, respectively. The mean (+/- SD) age of all patients was 66.7 +/- 14 years, and the mean duration of dialysis was 62 +/- 74 months, with a mean schedule of 3 x 6.5 hours and administration of a 1.5 mmol/L calcium dialysate. Concomitant treatment included alfacalcidol (66% of patients) and sevelamer (34% of patients) as a standard phosphate binder. Group 3 patients had a lower dialysis vintage (53 +/- 66 vs. 73 +/- 85 months, P < .05), a higher number of diabetes patients (45% vs. 21%, P < .05), a higher number of female patients (53% vs. 28%, P < .05), and a higher level of intact parathyroid hormone (260 +/- 227 vs. 213 +/- 153 pg/mL, P < .05) than group 1 patients. No relationship was found between vitamin D storage levels and bone markers, serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, body mass index, normalized protein catabolic rate, radiologic vascular calcification score, and hip bone

  19. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.; Bock, I.

    1991-08-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (less than 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver, anemia, low plasma ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and increased 64Cu whole-body retention. Freshly isolated liver parenchymal cells from copper-deficient rats showed a higher 64Cu influx, which was associated with a higher apparent Vmax of 45 {plus minus} 4 pmol Cu.mg protein-1.min-1 as compared with 30 {plus minus} 3 pmol Cu.mg protein-1.min-1 for cells isolated from copper-sufficientmore » rats. No significant difference in the apparent Km (approximately 30 mumol/L) was observed. Relative 64Cu efflux from cells from copper-deficient rats was significantly smaller than the efflux from cells from copper-sufficient rats after prelabeling as determined by 2-h efflux experiments. Analysis of the medium after efflux from cells from copper-deficient rats showed elevated protein-associated 64Cu, suggesting a higher incorporation of radioactive copper during metalloprotein synthesis. Effects of copper deficiency persist in primary cultures of parenchymal cells derived from copper-deficient rats, and short-term cultures of these cells offer a prospect for the study of cell biological aspects of the metabolic adaptation of the liver to copper deficiency.« less

  20. Low Prevalence of Iron and Vitamin A Deficiency among Cambodian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Wieringa, Frank T.; Sophonneary, Prak; Whitney, Sophie; Mao, Bunsoth; Berger, Jacques; Conkle, Joel; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Laillou, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cambodia are anemic. To guide interventions, national data on nutritional causes of anemia, including iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency, are needed. In 2012, a national household survey in WRA on antibodies to routine vaccine-preventable disease immunity was performed. We used serum samples from this survey to estimate the prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiency in 2112 Cambodian WRA, aged 15 to 39 years. Iron deficiency was classified as low or marginal iron stores (ferritin concentrations corrected for inflammation <15 μg/L and <50 μg/L respectively; Fer), iron deficient erythropoiesis (soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.3 mg/L; sTfR), or low total body iron (TBI) derived from Fer and sTfR concentrations (<0 mg/kg). Vitamin A status was classified using retinol binding protein (RBP) concentrations corrected for inflammation as deficient (<0.70 μmol/L) or marginal (<1.05 μmol/L. Overall, the prevalence of low iron stores, low TBI and iron deficient erythropoiesis was 8.1%, 5.0% and 9.3% respectively. Almost 40% of the women had marginal iron stores. Iron status was better in women living in urban areas compared to rural areas (p < 0.05 for TBI and sTfR). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was <1%. These findings suggest that the contribution of iron and vitamin A deficiency to the high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian WRA may be limited. The etiology of anemia in Cambodia needs to be elucidated further to guide current policies on anemia. PMID:27043624

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Populus cathayana Females Are More Sensitive and Respond More Sophisticatedly to Iron Deficiency than Males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yunxiang; Cao, Yanchun; Lei, Yanbao; Jiang, Hao

    2016-03-04

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies, but little is known about the sex-specific differences in responses to iron deficiency. In this study, the effects of iron deficiency on the morphology, physiology, and proteome of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that iron deficiency (25 days) significantly decreased height growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, and tissue iron concentration in both sexes. A comparison between the sexes indicated that iron-deficient males had less height inhibition and photosynthesis system II or chloroplast ultrastructural damage than iron-deficient females. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that 144 and 68 proteins were decreased in abundance (e.g., proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and gene expression regulation) and 78 and 39 proteins were increased in abundance (e.g., proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and stress response) according to the criterion of ratio ≥1.5 in females and males, respectively. A comparison between the sexes indicated that iron-deficient females exhibited a greater change in the proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon and energy metabolism, the redox system, and stress responsive proteins. This study reveals females are more sensitive and have a more sophisticated response to iron deficiency compared with males and provides new insights into differential sexual responses to nutrient deficiency.

  2. Association between oral contraceptive use and markers of iron deficiency in a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian women.

    PubMed

    Haile, Zelalem T; Teweldeberhan, Asli K; Chertok, Ilana R A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the associations between oral contraceptive (OC) use and markers of iron deficiency, objectively measured using hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor. A secondary data analysis was performed of a population-based cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. Weighted percentages were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between OC use and iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia. Of the 4336 participants, only 7.3% reported a history of OC use. The prevalence rates of iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia were 30.3%, 40.9%, and 15.1%, respectively. Use of OCs was negatively associated with anemia and iron deficiency anemia, independent of potential confounders. Compared with OC nonusers, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio among OC users was 0.44 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.59; P<0.001) for anemia and 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.68; P<0.001) for iron deficiency anemia. A longer duration of OC use was negatively associated with iron deficiency (P=0.003 for trend), anemia (P<0.001 for trend), and iron deficiency anemia (P<0.001 for trend). The significant association between OC use and iron status has important implications for educating healthcare providers and women about additional nutritional benefits of the use of OCs. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficient "sensory" beta synchronization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Degardin, A; Houdayer, E; Bourriez, J-L; Destée, A; Defebvre, L; Derambure, P; Devos, D

    2009-03-01

    Beta rhythm movement-related synchronization (beta synchronization) reflects motor cortex deactivation and sensory afference processing. In Parkinson's disease (PD), decreased beta synchronization after active movement reflects abnormal motor cortex idling and may be involved in the pathophysiology of akinesia. The objectives of the present study were to (i) compare event-related synchronization after active and passive movement and electrical nerve stimulation in PD patients and healthy, age-matched volunteers and (ii) evaluate the effect of levodopa. Using a 128-electrode EEG system, we studied beta synchronization after active and passive index finger movement and electrical median nerve stimulation in 13 patients and 12 control subjects. Patients were recorded before and after 150% of their usual morning dose of levodopa. The peak beta synchronization magnitude in the contralateral primary sensorimotor (PSM) cortex was significantly lower in PD patients after active movement, passive movement and electrical median nerve stimulation, compared with controls. Levodopa partially reversed the drop in beta synchronization after active movement but not after passive movement or electrical median nerve stimulation. If one considers that beta synchronization reflects sensory processing, our results suggest that integration of somaesthetic afferences in the PSM cortex is abnormal in PD during active and passive movement execution and after simple electrical median nerve stimulation. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the deficient beta synchronization observed here could prompt the development of new therapeutic approaches aimed at strengthening defective processes. The lack of full beta synchronization restoration by levodopa might be related to the involvement of non-dopaminergic pathways.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diabetes mellitus with severe retinal complications in a Sardinian population, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Antonio; Contini, Emma Luigia; Carru, Ciriaco; Solinas, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, with a high prevalence in Sardinia, Italy. Evidence indicates that G6PD-deficient patients are protected against vascular disease. Little is known about the relationship between G6PD deficiency and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare G6PD deficiency prevalence in Sardinian diabetic men with severe retinal vascular complications and in age-matched non-diabetic controls and ascertain whether G6PD deficiency may offer protection against this vascular disorder. Erythrocyte G6PD activity was determined using a quantitative assay in 390 diabetic men with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 390 male non-diabetic controls, both aged ≥50 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes with severe retinal complications. G6PD deficiency was found in 21 (5.4 %) diabetic patients and 33 (8.5 %) controls (P=0.09). In a univariate conditional logistic regression model, G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but the odds ratio (OR) fell short of statistical significance (OR=0.6, 95% confidence interval=0.35-1.08, P=0.09). In multivariate conditional logistic regression models, including as covariates G6PD deficiency, plasma glucose, and systemic hypertension or systolic or diastolic blood pressure, G6PD deficiency showed no statistically significant protection against diabetes with PDR. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in diabetic men with PDR was lower than in age-matched non-diabetic controls. G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but results were not statistically significant.

  5. [Biological diagnosis of iron deficiency in children].

    PubMed

    Thuret, I

    2017-05-01

    Measurement of serum ferritin (SF) is currently the laboratory test recommended for diagnosing iron deficiency. In the absence of an associated disease, a low SF value is an early and highly specific indicator of iron deficiency. The WHO criteria proposed to define depleted storage iron are 12μg/L for children under 5 years and 15μg/L for those over 5 years. A higher threshold of 30μg/L is used in the presence of infection or inflammation. Iron deficiency anemia, with typical low mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, is only present at the end stage of iron deficiency. Other diagnostic tests for iron deficiency including iron parameters (low serum iron, increased total iron-binding capacity, low transferrin saturation) and erythrocyte traits (low mean corpuscular volume, increased zinc protoporphyrin) provide little additional diagnostic value over SF. In children, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been reported to be a sensitive indicator of iron deficiency and is relatively unaffected by inflammation. On the other hand, sTfR is directly related to extent of erythroid activity and not commonly used in clinical practice. In population surveys, approaches based on combinations of markers have been explored to improve the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic. In addition to Hb value determination, a combination of parameters (among transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, mean corpuscular volume or serum ferritin) was generally used to assess iron deficiency. More recently sTfR/ ferritin index were evaluated, sTfR in conjunction with SF allowing to better distinguishing iron deficiency from inflammatory anemia. Also, hepcidin measurements appeared an interesting marker for diagnosing iron deficiency and identifying individuals in need of iron supplementation in populations where inflammatory or infectious diseases are frequently encountered. Reticulocyte Hb content (CHr) determination is an early parameter of iron deficiency

  6. Multispectral colour analysis for quantitative evaluation of pseudoisochromatic color deficiency tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs

    2010-11-01

    Multispectral color analysis was used for spectral scanning of Ishihara and Rabkin color deficiency test book images. It was done using tunable liquid-crystal LC filters built in the Nuance II analyzer. Multispectral analysis keeps both, information on spatial content of tests and on spectral content. Images were taken in the range of 420-720nm with a 10nm step. We calculated retina neural activity charts taking into account cone sensitivity functions, and processed charts in order to find the visibility of latent symbols in color deficiency plates using cross-correlation technique. In such way the quantitative measure is found for each of diagnostics plate for three different color deficiency carrier types - protanopes, deutanopes and tritanopes. Multispectral color analysis allows to determine the CIE xyz color coordinates of pseudoisochromatic plate design elements and to perform statistical analysis of these data to compare the color quality of available color deficiency test books.

  7. [Plasma metabonomics of Guifu Dihuang Wan in the treatment of yang deficiency].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ya; Jing, Yuan; Chen, Jie-Yu; Li, Fei; Cheng, Jing-Ru; Bi, Jian-Lu; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiao-Shan

    2016-11-20

    To assess the effect of Guifu Dihuang Wan (GFDHW) in the treatment of yang deficiency and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Sixty-two participants without diseases were randomized into control group (n=31) and experimental group (n=31) and were given lifestyle intervention additional GFDHW treatment for a month. NMR technology was used for metabonomics analysis. Intervention with GFDHW resulted in significantly decreased conversion scores of yang deficiency in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.005). The concentrations of lactate, valine, proline, arginine and 3-hydroxybutyrate were increased in the plasma of yang-deficient subjects after lifestyle intervention. GFDHW treatment with lifestyle intervention significantly increased the concentrations of lactate, valine, proline, arginine and 3-hydroxybutyrate and also the levels of alanine, glutamine, alpha glucose, isoleucine, betaine and propylene glycol. GFDHW treatment improves yang deficiency possibly by increasing the concentrations of alanine, glutamine, alpha glucose, isoleucine, betaine and propylene glycol and promoting energy metabolism of the body.

  8. Attrition of U.S. military enlistees with waivers for hearing deficiency, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, David W; Li, Yuanzhang; Powers, Timothy E; Krauss, Margot R; Chandler, David; Helfer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Hearing deficiency is the condition for which accession medical waivers are most commonly granted. The retention of individuals entering service with a waiver for hearing deficiency has not been previously studied. Military retention among new enlistees with a medical waiver for hearing deficiency was compared with that among a matched comparison group of fully qualified enlistees. Comparisons according to branch of service over the first 3 years of service were performed with the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and proportional-hazards model. Army subjects had significantly lower retention rates than did their fully qualified counterparts. In the adjusted model, Army and Navy enlistees with a waiver for hearing deficiency had a significantly lower likelihood of retention than did their matched counterparts. The increased likelihood of medical attrition in enlistees with a waiver for hearing loss provides no evidence to make the hearing accession standard more lenient and validates a selective hearing loss waiver policy.

  9. ANGPTL4 deficiency in haematopoietic cells promotes monocyte expansion and atherosclerosis progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Binod; Rotllan, Noemi; Araldi, Elisa; Ramírez, Cristina M.; He, Shun; Chousterman, Benjamin G.; Fenn, Ashley M.; Wanschel, Amarylis; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Warrier, Nikhil; Martín-Ventura, Jose L.; Swirski, Filip K.; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Lipid accumulation in macrophages has profound effects on macrophage gene expression and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we report that angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is the most highly upregulated gene in foamy macrophages and it's absence in haematopoietic cells results in larger atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by bigger necrotic core areas and increased macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, hyperlipidemic mice deficient in haematopoietic ANGPTL4 have higher blood leukocyte counts, which is associated with an increase in the common myeloid progenitor (CMP) population. ANGPTL4-deficient CMPs have higher lipid raft content, are more proliferative and less apoptotic compared with the wild-type (WT) CMPs. Finally, we observe that ANGPTL4 deficiency in macrophages promotes foam cell formation by enhancing CD36 expression and reducing ABCA1 localization in the cell surface. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that haematopoietic ANGPTL4 deficiency increases atherogenesis through regulating myeloid progenitor cell expansion and differentiation, foam cell formation and vascular inflammation.

  10. 14 CFR 63.19 - Operations during physical deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations during physical deficiency. 63... physical deficiency. No person may serve as a flight engineer or flight navigator during a period of known physical deficiency, or increase in physical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the physical...

  11. 14 CFR 63.19 - Operations during physical deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations during physical deficiency. 63... physical deficiency. No person may serve as a flight engineer or flight navigator during a period of known physical deficiency, or increase in physical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the physical...

  12. 14 CFR 63.19 - Operations during physical deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations during physical deficiency. 63... physical deficiency. No person may serve as a flight engineer or flight navigator during a period of known physical deficiency, or increase in physical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the physical...

  13. 14 CFR 63.19 - Operations during physical deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations during physical deficiency. 63... physical deficiency. No person may serve as a flight engineer or flight navigator during a period of known physical deficiency, or increase in physical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the physical...

  14. 14 CFR 63.19 - Operations during physical deficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations during physical deficiency. 63... physical deficiency. No person may serve as a flight engineer or flight navigator during a period of known physical deficiency, or increase in physical deficiency, that would make him unable to meet the physical...

  15. Variability of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of two lettuce varieties under Fe deficiency.

    PubMed

    Msilini, Najoua; Oueslati, Samia; Amdouni, Thouraya; Chebbi, Mohamed; Ksouri, Riadh; Lachaâl, Mokhtar; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2013-06-01

    Fe deficiency affects food growth and quality in calcareous soils. In this study, the effect of Fe deficiency on growth parameters, phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of two lettuce shoots varieties (Romaine and Vista) were investigated. Fresh matter production, pigment (chlorophyll and carotenoid) and Fe2+ content were significantly reduced by Fe deficiency in both varieties. However, restriction of these parameters was particularly pronounced in Romaine variety as compared to Vista. Moreover, Fe deficiency caused decreases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, whereas ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde concentrations were not significantly affected. On the other hand, Fe deficiency in Vista variety induced an increase in polyphenol and flavonoid content as compared to Romaine variety. In addition, total antioxidant capacity and antiradical test against DPPH radical decreased in leaves of Romaine variety after 15 days of treatment. These results suggest that the higher polyphenol content in Vista variety supports the involvement of these components in the stability of antioxidant capacities and then in its protection against oxidative damage generated by Fe deficiency in lettuce plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yin Key; Lai, Nai Ming; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey

    2017-05-01

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may have a higher risk of developing diabetes. The aim of the review was to synthesise the evidence on the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes. A systematic search on Medline, EMBASE, AMED and CENTRAL databases for studies published between January 1966 and September 2016 that assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes was conducted. This was supplemented by a review of the reference list of retrieved articles. We extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes and performed an assessment on the methodological quality of the studies. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Fifteen relevant publications involving 949,260 participants were identified, from which seven studies contributed to the meta-analysis. G6PD deficiency was associated with a higher odd of diabetes (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.73). The odds ratio of diabetes among men was higher (2.22, 1.31-3.75) compared to women (1.87, 1.12-3.12). This association was broadly consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Current evidence suggests that G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for diabetes, with higher odds among men compared to women. Further research is needed to determine how G6PD deficiency moderates diabetes.

  17. Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

  18. Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Degrauw, Ton J; Lindquist, Diana M; Blanco, Victor M; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C; Clark, Joseph F

    2012-08-01

    The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8-/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8-/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8-/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8-/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8-/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency.

  19. Higher Rate of Iron Deficiency in Obese Pregnant Sudanese Women.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Wisal; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria A; Hassan, Nada G; Lutfi, Mohamed F

    2017-06-15

    To assess the association between obesity and iron deficiency (ID). Pregnant women were recruited from Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, during January-April 2015. Medical history (age, parity, gestational age) was gathered using questionnaire. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Women were sub-grouped based on BMI into underweight (< 18.5 kg/m^2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m^2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m^2) and obese (≥ 30 kg/m^2). Serum ferritin and red blood indices were measured in all studied women. Two (0.5%), 126 (29.8%), 224 (53.0%) and 71 (16.8%) out of the 423 women were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Anemia (Hb <11 g/dl), ID (ferritin <15µg/l) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were prevalent in 57.7%, 21.3% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared with the women with normal BMI, significantly fewer obese women were anemic [25 (35.2%) vs. 108 (85.7%), P < 0.001] and significantly higher number of obese women [25 (35.2) vs. 22 (17.5, P = 0.015] had iron deficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative association between serum ferritin and BMI (- 0.010 µg/, P= 0.006). It is evident from the current findings that prevalence of anaemia and ID showed different trends about BMI of pregnant women.

  20. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affects tissue specific stem cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Yuriko; Doi, Hanako; Ono, Yusuke; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kitajima, Michio; Miura, Kiyonori; Li, Tao-Sheng; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Postmenopausal disorders are frequently observed in various organs, but their relationship with estrogen deficiency and mechanisms remain unclear. As tissue-specific stem cells have been found to express estrogen receptors, we examined the hypothesis that estrogen deficiency impairs stem cells, which consequently contributes to postmenopausal disorders. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized, following which they received 17β-estradiol replacement or vehicle (control). Sham-operated mice were used as healthy controls. All mice were killed for evaluation 2 months after treatments. Compared with the healthy control, ovariectomy significantly decreased uterine weight, which was partially recovered by 17β-estradiol replacement. Ovariectomy significantly increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, but impaired their capacity to grow mixed cell-type colonies in vitro. Estrogen replacement further increased the numbers of c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in bone marrow, without significantly affecting colony growth in vitro. The number of CD105-positive mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow also significantly decreased after ovariectomy, but completely recovered following estrogen replacement. Otherwise, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen replacement changed the number of Pax7-positive satellite cells, which are a skeletal muscle-type stem cell. Estrogen deficiency heterogeneously affected tissue-specific stem cells, suggesting a likely and direct relationship with postmenopausal disorders. PMID:26245252

  1. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hebbern, Christopher A; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne H; Schmidt, Sidsel B; Pedas, Pai; Bruhn, Dan; Schjoerring, Jan K; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Husted, Søren

    2009-03-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements revealed that the quantum yield efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced from 0.83 in Mn-sufficient control plants to below 0.5 in Mn-starved plants. Leaf Mn concentrations declined from 30 to 7 microg Mn g(-1) dry weight in control and Mn-starved plants, respectively. Mn-starved plants had up to four-fold higher transpiration than control plants. Stomatal closure and opening upon light/dark transitions took place at the same rate in both Mn treatments, but the nocturnal leaf conductance for water vapour was still twice as high in Mn-starved plants compared with the control. The observed increase in transpiration was substantiated by (13)C-isotope discrimination analysis and gravimetric measurement of the water consumption, showing significantly lower water use efficiency in Mn-starved plants. The extractable wax content of leaves of Mn-starved plants was approximately 40% lower than that in control plants, and it is concluded that the increased leaf conductance and higher transpirational water loss are correlated with a reduction in the epicuticular wax layer under Mn deficiency.

  2. In HepG2 cells, coexisting carnitine deficiency masks important indicators of marginal biotin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Boysen, Gunnar; Mock, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    A large number of birth defects are related to nutrient deficiencies; concern that biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans is reasonable. Surprisingly, studies indicate that increased urinary 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3HIAc), a previously validated marker of biotin deficiency, is not a valid biomarker in pregnancy. In this study we hypothesized that coexisting carnitine deficiency can prevent the increase in 3HIAc due to biotin deficiency. We used a 2-factor nutrient depletion design to induce isolated and combined biotin and carnitine deficiency in HepG2 cells and then repleted cells with carnitine. To elucidate the metabolic pathogenesis, we quantitated intracellular and extracellular free carnitine, acylcarnitines, and acylcarnitine ratios using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to biotin-sufficient, carnitine-sufficient cells, intracellular acetylcarnitine increased by 90%, propionylcarnitine more than doubled, and 3HIAc increased by >10-fold in biotin-deficient, carnitine-sufficient (BDCS) cells, consistent with a defensive mechanism in which biotin-deficient cells transesterify the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates of the biotin-dependent carboxylases to the related acylcarnitines. Likewise, in BDCS cells, the ratio of acetylcarnitine to malonylcarnitine and the ratio of propionylcarnitine to methylmalonylcarnitine both more than tripled, and the ratio of 3HIAc to 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (MGc) increased by >10-fold. In biotin-deficient, carnitine-deficient (BDCD) cells, the 3 substrate-derived acylcarnitines changed little, but the substrate:product ratios were masked to a lesser extent. Moreover, carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency in BDCD cells as shown by increases in acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 3HIAc (each increased by >50-fold). Likewise, ratios of acetylcarnitine:malonylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine, and 3HIAc:MGc all increased by >8-fold. Our findings provide strong

  3. Adverse systemic arterial function in patients with selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y-H; Siu, C-W; Yiu, K-H; Chan, H-T; Li, S-W; Tam, S; Cheung, B M; Lau, C-P; Lam, T H; Tse, H-F

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that selenium is involved in the synthesis of selenoproteins which might contribute to cardiovascular protection. However, the relationship between selenium deficiency and vascular function in clinical context remains unknown. To investigate for any relationship between selenium deficiency and systemic arterial function in patients with high risk of vascular events. Cross-sectional study. 306 consecutive patients with high risk for cardiovascular events (coronary artery disease 35%, acute/ recurrent ischemic stroke 40%, diabetes mellitus 54%) followed up at internal medicine outpatient clinics. Non-invasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using vascular profiling system (VP-2000). Long-term intake of selenium was determined by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Mean daily selenium intake was 59.5 ± 52.1 mcg/day, and mean PWV was 1782.4 ± 418.4 cm/s. Patients with selenium intake <10th percentile had significantly higher PWV as compared to patients with intake ≥ 10th percentile (1968.2 ± 648.9 cm/s versus 1762.2 ± 381.6 cm/s, P=0.010). After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, smoking status, use of cardiovascular medications, waist-hip ratio, education/ financial status, physical activity, calorie intake and intake of antioxidant vitamins, deficient selenium intake <10th percentile remained independently predictive of increased PWV by +363.4 cm/s [95% CI: 68.1 to 658.6, P=0.016, relative increase 21%]. Selenium deficiency is associated with adverse arterial function in patients with high risk for vascular events.

  4. Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency: outcome and treatment monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical characteristics distinguishing treatable thiamine transporter-2 deficiency (ThTR2) due to SLC19A3 genetic defects from the other devastating causes of Leigh syndrome are sparse. Methods We report the clinical follow-up after thiamine and biotin supplementation in four children with ThTR2 deficiency presenting with Leigh and biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease phenotypes. We established whole-blood thiamine reference values in 106 non-neurological affected children and monitored thiamine levels in SLC19A3 patients after the initiation of treatment. We compared our results with those of 69 patients with ThTR2 deficiency after a review of the literature. Results At diagnosis, the patients were aged 1 month to 17 years, and all of them showed signs of acute encephalopathy, generalized dystonia, and brain lesions affecting the dorsal striatum and medial thalami. One patient died of septicemia, while the remaining patients evidenced clinical and radiological improvements shortly after the initiation of thiamine. Upon follow-up, the patients received a combination of thiamine (10–40 mg/kg/day) and biotin (1–2 mg/kg/day) and remained stable with residual dystonia and speech difficulties. After establishing reference values for the different age groups, whole-blood thiamine quantification was a useful method for treatment monitoring. Conclusions ThTR2 deficiency is a reversible cause of acute dystonia and Leigh encephalopathy in the pediatric years. Brain lesions affecting the dorsal striatum and medial thalami may be useful in the differential diagnosis of other causes of Leigh syndrome. Further studies are needed to validate the therapeutic doses of thiamine and how to monitor them in these patients. PMID:24957181

  5. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Deficiency Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Petteri; Kadiri, James J; Velasco-Delgado, Mauricio; Nuutinen, Salla; Viitala, Miro; Hollmén, Maija; Rami, Martina; Savontaus, Eriika; Steffens, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice were crossed with recessive yellow (Mc1r e/e ) mice carrying dysfunctional MC1-R and fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and in the whole aorta compared with Apoe -/- controls. In terms of plaque composition, MC1-R deficiency was associated with less collagen and smooth muscle cells and increased necrotic core, indicative of more vulnerable lesions. These changes were accompanied by reduced Abca1 and Abcg1 expression in the aorta. Furthermore, Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice showed a defect in bile acid metabolism that aggravated high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte profile revealed that dysfunctional MC1-R enhanced arterial accumulation of classical Ly6C high monocytes and macrophages, effects that were evident in mice fed a normal chow diet but not under high-fat diet conditions. In support of enhanced arterial recruitment of Ly6C high monocytes, these cells had increased expression of L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. The present study highlights the importance of MC1-R in the development of atherosclerosis. Deficiency in MC1-R signaling exacerbates atherosclerosis by disturbing cholesterol handling and by increasing arterial monocyte accumulation. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency: outcome and treatment monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ortigoza-Escobar, Juan Darío; Serrano, Mercedes; Molero, Marta; Oyarzabal, Alfonso; Rebollo, Mónica; Muchart, Jordi; Artuch, Rafael; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén

    2014-06-23

    The clinical characteristics distinguishing treatable thiamine transporter-2 deficiency (ThTR2) due to SLC19A3 genetic defects from the other devastating causes of Leigh syndrome are sparse. We report the clinical follow-up after thiamine and biotin supplementation in four children with ThTR2 deficiency presenting with Leigh and biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease phenotypes. We established whole-blood thiamine reference values in 106 non-neurological affected children and monitored thiamine levels in SLC19A3 patients after the initiation of treatment. We compared our results with those of 69 patients with ThTR2 deficiency after a review of the literature. At diagnosis, the patients were aged 1 month to 17 years, and all of them showed signs of acute encephalopathy, generalized dystonia, and brain lesions affecting the dorsal striatum and medial thalami. One patient died of septicemia, while the remaining patients evidenced clinical and radiological improvements shortly after the initiation of thiamine. Upon follow-up, the patients received a combination of thiamine (10-40 mg/kg/day) and biotin (1-2 mg/kg/day) and remained stable with residual dystonia and speech difficulties. After establishing reference values for the different age groups, whole-blood thiamine quantification was a useful method for treatment monitoring. ThTR2 deficiency is a reversible cause of acute dystonia and Leigh encephalopathy in the pediatric years. Brain lesions affecting the dorsal striatum and medial thalami may be useful in the differential diagnosis of other causes of Leigh syndrome. Further studies are needed to validate the therapeutic doses of thiamine and how to monitor them in these patients.

  7. Cardiac remodeling in response to chronic iron deficiency: role of the erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Hirotani, Shinichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-06-01

    Anemia is a common comorbidity of patients with heart failure, and iron deficiency is known as one of the causes of anemia in heart failure. Recent studies have shown that iron deficiency alone, without overt anemia, is associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure. Thus, to minimize the mortality in patients with heart failure, it is important to understand the link between iron deficiency and cardiac function. Chronic untreated iron deficiency results in cardiac remodeling, and we have previously reported that erythropoietin (Epo) and cardiac Epo receptor (EpoR) signaling may be associated with its remodeling. However, the link between EpoR signaling and its remodeling remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the role of EpoR signaling on cardiac remodeling in response to chronic iron deficiency. Wild-type mice and transgene-rescued EpoR-null mutant mice, which express EpoR only in the hematopoietic lineage (EpoR-restricted mice), were fed with either a normal or an iron-restricted diet, and the molecular mechanisms were investigated. Dietary iron restriction gradually induced anemia, Epo secretion, and cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice. In contrast, EpoR-restricted mice fed with an iron-restricted diet exhibited anemia, left ventricular dilatation, and cardiac dysfunction compared with wild-type mice. Interestingly, altered cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis was observed in EpoR-restricted mice following iron deficiency. Moreover, cardiac p53 expression was increased in EpoR-restricted mice compared with wild-type mice following iron deficiency. These data indicate that EpoR signaling is associated with cardiac remodeling following chronic iron deficiency.

  8. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Deficiency Exacerbates Pressure Overload–Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Hu, Xinli; Zhu, Guangshuo; Zhang, Ping; van Deel, Elza D.; French, Joel P.; Fassett, John T.; Oury, Tim D.; Bache, Robert J.; Chen, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) contributes only a small fraction to total SOD activity in the normal heart but is strategically located to scavenge free radicals in the extracellular compartment. To examine the physiological significance of extracellular SOD in the response of the heart to hemodynamic stress, we studied the effect of extracellular SOD deficiency on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)–induced left ventricular remodeling. Under unstressed conditions extracellular SOD deficiency had no effect on myocardial total SOD activity, the ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide, nitrotyrosine content, or superoxide anion production but resulted in small but significant increases in myocardial fibrosis and ventricular mass. In response to TAC for 6 weeks, extracellular SOD-deficient mice developed more severe left ventricular hypertrophy (heart weight increased 2.56-fold in extracellular SOD-deficient mice as compared with 1.99-fold in wild-type mice) and pulmonary congestion (lung weight increased 2.92-fold in extracellular SOD-deficient mice as compared with 1.84-fold in wild-type mice). Extracellular SOD-deficient mice also had more ventricular fibrosis, dilation, and a greater reduction of left ventricular fractional shortening and rate of pressure development after TAC. TAC resulted in greater increases of ventricular collagen I, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, nitrotyrosine, and superoxide anion production. TAC also resulted in a greater decrease of the ratio of glutathione:glutathione disulfide in extracellular SOD-deficient mice. The finding that extracellular SOD deficiency had minimal impact on myocardial overall SOD activity but exacerbated TAC induced myocardial oxidative stress, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction indicates that the distribution of extracellular SOD in the extracellular space is critically important in protecting the heart against pressure overload. PMID:17998475

  9. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Nichols, E K; Khatib, I M D; Aburto, N J; Sullivan, K M; Scanlon, K S; Wirth, J P; Serdula, M K

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, a risk factor for osteomalacia and osteoporosis, is a re-emerging health problem globally. While sunlight is an important vitamin D source, previous investigations among women whose culture encourages skin covering have been small, not nationally representative, or both. We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D(3)) status and factors associated with deficiency in a nationally representative survey of 2013 Jordanian women of reproductive age in Spring 2010. We measured 25(OH)D(3) concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and calculated prevalence ratios for deficiency associated with skin covering and other factors. Results showed 60.3% (95% CI: 57.1-63.4%) deficiency (<12 ng/ml) and 95.7% (95% CI: 94.4-96.8%) insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) among women. Prevalence of deficiency was 1.60 times higher for women who covered with a scarf/hijab (95% CI: 1.06-2.40, P = 0.024) and 1.87 times higher for women who wore full cover, or a niqab (95% CI: 1.20-2.93, P = 0.006), compared with the women who did not wear a scarf/hijab or niqab. Compared with rural women completing at least secondary education, prevalence of deficiency was 1.30 times higher for urban women of the same education level (95% CI: 1.08-1.57, P = 0.006), 1.18 times higher for urban women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.98-1.43, P = 0.09), and 0.66 times lower for rural women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P = 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency pose significant public health problems in Jordanian women. Prevalence of deficiency is significantly higher among urban women and among women who cover with a scarf/hijab or niqab.

  10. Nurse Staffing and Deficiencies in the Largest For-Profit Nursing Home Chains and Chains Owned by Private Equity Companies

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Olney, Brian; Carrillo, Helen; Kang, Taewoon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare staffing levels and deficiencies of the 10 largest U.S. for-profit nursing home chains with five other ownership groups and chain staffing and deficiencies before and after purchase by four private equity (PE) companies. Data Sources Facilities for the largest for-profit chains were identified through Internet searches and company reports and matched with federal secondary data for 2003–2008 for each ownership group. Study Design Descriptive statistics and generalized estimation equation panel regression models examined staffing and deficiencies by ownership groups in the 2003–2008 period, controlling for facility characteristics, resident acuity, and market factors with state fixed effects. Principal Findings The top 10 for-profit chains had lower registered nurse and total nurse staffing hours than government facilities, controlling for other factors. The top 10 chains received 36 percent higher deficiencies and 41 percent higher serious deficiencies than government facilities. Other for-profit facilities also had lower staffing and higher deficiencies than government facilities. The chains purchased by PE companies showed little change in staffing levels, but the number of deficiencies and serious deficiencies increased in some postpurchase years compared with the prepurchase period. Conclusions There is a need for greater study of large for-profit chains as well as those chains purchased by PE companies. PMID:22091627

  11. Nurse staffing and deficiencies in the largest for-profit nursing home chains and chains owned by private equity companies.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Charlene; Olney, Brian; Carrillo, Helen; Kang, Taewoon

    2012-02-01

    To compare staffing levels and deficiencies of the 10 largest U.S. for-profit nursing home chains with five other ownership groups and chain staffing and deficiencies before and after purchase by four private equity (PE) companies. Facilities for the largest for-profit chains were identified through Internet searches and company reports and matched with federal secondary data for 2003-2008 for each ownership group. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimation equation panel regression models examined staffing and deficiencies by ownership groups in the 2003-2008 period, controlling for facility characteristics, resident acuity, and market factors with state fixed effects. The top 10 for-profit chains had lower registered nurse and total nurse staffing hours than government facilities, controlling for other factors. The top 10 chains received 36 percent higher deficiencies and 41 percent higher serious deficiencies than government facilities. Other for-profit facilities also had lower staffing and higher deficiencies than government facilities. The chains purchased by PE companies showed little change in staffing levels, but the number of deficiencies and serious deficiencies increased in some postpurchase years compared with the prepurchase period. There is a need for greater study of large for-profit chains as well as those chains purchased by PE companies. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis in blood donors and red blood cell recovery after transfusion: initial studies with a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sheila; Brittenham, Gary M.; Francis, Richard O.; Zimring, James C.; Hod, Eldad A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Most frequent red cell (RBC) donors and many first-time donors are iron deficient, but meet haemoglobin standards. However, the effects of donation-induced iron deficiency on RBC storage quality are unknown. Thus, we used a mouse model to determine if donor iron deficiency reduced post-transfusion RBC recovery. Methods Weanling mice received a control diet or an iron-deficient diet. A third group receiving the iron-deficient diet was also phlebotomised weekly. This provided 3 groups of mice with different iron status: (1) iron replete, (2) mild iron deficiency with iron-deficient erythropoiesis, and (3) iron-deficiency anaemia. At ten weeks of age, blood was collected, leucoreduced, and stored at 4 ºC. After 12 days of storage, 24-hour (h) post-transfusion RBC recovery was quantified in recipients by flow cytometry. Results Before blood collection, mean haemoglobin concentrations in the iron-replete, iron-deficient, and iron-deficiency anaemia donor mice were 16.5±0.4, 11.5±0.4, and 7.0±1.4 [g/dL± 1 standard deviation (SD)], respectively (p<0.01 for all comparisons between groups). The 24-h post-transfusion RBC recoveries in recipients receiving transfusions from these three cohorts were 77.1±13.2, 66.5±10.9, and 46.7±15.9 (% ±1 SD), respectively (p<0.05 for all comparisons between groups). Discussion In summary, donor iron deficiency significantly reduced 24-h post-transfusion RBC recovery in recipient mice. RBCs from mice with mild iron deficiency and iron-deficient erythropoiesis, with haemoglobin levels similar to those used for human autologous blood donation, had intermediate post-transfusion RBC recovery, as compared to iron-replete donors and those with iron-deficiency anaemia. This suggests that, in addition to the effects of iron deficiency on donor health, frequent blood donation, leading to iron-deficient erythropoiesis, may also have adverse effects for transfusion recipients. PMID:28263174

  13. Experimental Copper Deficiency, Chromium Deficiency and Additional Molybdenum Supplementation in Goats – Pathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, H; Schoon, HA; Frank, A

    2001-01-01

    Secondary copper (Cu) deficiency, chromium (Cr) deficiency and molybdenosis (Mo) has been suggested to cause the "mysterious" moose disease in the southwest of Sweden. The present experiment was performed on goats to investigate the clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations after 20 months feeding of a semi-synthetic diet deficient in Cu and Cr. Four groups were included in the study: control group (n = 4), Cu-deficient group (group 1, n = 4), Cr-deficient group (group 2, n = 2) and Cu+Cr-deficient group (group 3, n = 3). Group 3 was additionally supplemented with tetrathiomolybdate during the last 2 months of the experiment. Main histopathological findings in groups 1 and 3 were the lesions in the liver, characterised by a severe active fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, haemosiderosis and mild necroses. Additionally, degenerative alterations of the exocrine pancreas were prominent in groups 1 and 3. Lesions in group 3 were more pronounced than in group 1. In group 3, the skin showed an atrophic dermatosis, while in group 2 a crusty dermatitis caused by Candida spp. was observed. This study shows that liver, pancreas and skin are mainly affected by a long term deficiency of copper and the findings are complicated by molybdenum application while chromium deficiency produced no histomorphological effects in our study. PMID:11887391

  14. LIPT1 deficiency presenting as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, Leigh disease, and secondary pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Robert C; Sun, Qin; Elsea, Sarah H; Scaglia, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. Lipoyltransferase 1 catalyzes the covalent attachment of lipoate to these enzyme systems. Pathogenic variants in LIPT1 gene have recently been described in four patients from three families, commonly presenting with severe lactic acidosis resulting in neonatal death and/or poor neurocognitive outcomes. We report a 2-month-old male with severe lactic acidosis, refractory status epilepticus, and brain imaging suggestive of Leigh disease. Exome sequencing implicated compound heterozygous LIPT1 pathogenic variants. We describe the fifth case of LIPT1 deficiency, whose phenotype progressed to that of an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, which is novel compared to previously described patients whom we will review. Due to the significant biochemical and phenotypic overlap that LIPT1 deficiency and mitochondrial energy cofactor disorders have with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and/or nonketotic hyperglycinemia, they are and have been presumptively under-diagnosed without exome sequencing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of the method of G6PD deficiency assessment on genetic association studies of malaria susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marla K; Clark, Tamara D; Njama-Meya, Denise; Rosenthal, Philip J; Parikh, Sunil

    2009-09-30

    Clinical association studies have yielded varied results regarding the impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency upon susceptibility to malaria. Analyses have been complicated by varied methods used to diagnose G6PD deficiency. We compared the association between uncomplicated malaria incidence and G6PD deficiency in a cohort of 601 Ugandan children using two different diagnostic methods, enzyme activity and G6PD genotype (G202A, the predominant East African allele). Although roughly the same percentage of males were identified as deficient using enzyme activity (12%) and genotype (14%), nearly 30% of males who were enzymatically deficient were wild-type at G202A. The number of deficient females was three-fold higher with assessment by genotype (21%) compared to enzyme activity (7%). Heterozygous females accounted for the majority (46/54) of children with a mutant genotype but normal enzyme activity. G6PD deficiency, as determined by G6PD enzyme activity, conferred a 52% (relative risk [RR] 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.75) reduced risk of uncomplicated malaria in females. In contrast, when G6PD deficiency was defined based on genotype, the protective association for females was no longer seen (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70-1.39). Notably, restricting the analysis to those females who were both genotypically and enzymatically deficient, the association of deficiency and protection from uncomplicated malaria was again demonstrated in females, but not in males (RR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88 for females). This study underscores the impact that the method of identifying G6PD deficient individuals has upon association studies of G6PD deficiency and uncomplicated malaria. We found that G6PD-deficient females were significantly protected against uncomplicated malaria, but this protection was only seen when G6PD deficiency is described using enzyme activity. These observations may help to explain the discrepancy in some published association studies involving G6PD

  16. Economic impact of routine opt-out antenatal human immune deficiency virus screening: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, Everistus; Haigh, Carol; Duncan, Fiona; Fatoye, Francis

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of routine testing of human immune deficiency virus in antenatal settings. Many children are being infected with human immune deficiency virus through mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Most of these infections are preventable if the mothers' human immune deficiency virus status is identified in a timely manner and appropriate interventions put in place. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is widely acclaimed as a strategy for universal access to human immune deficiency virus testing and is being adopted by developed and developing poor income countries without recourse to the economic impact. A systematic review of published articles. Extensive electronic searches for relevant journal articles published from 1998-2015 when countries began to implement routine antenatal HIV testing on their own were conducted in the following databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, JSTOR, CINAHL and PubMed with search terms as listed in Box 2. Manual searches were also performed to complement the electronic identification of high-quality materials. There were no geographical restrictions, but language was limited to English. Fifty-five articles were retrieved; however, ten were eligible and included in the review. The findings showed that many programmes involving routine human immune deficiency virus testing for pregnant women compared to the alternatives were cost-effective and cost saving. Data from the reviewed studies showed cost savings between $5,761.20-$3.69 million per case of previously undiagnosed maternal human immune deficiency virus-positive infection prevented. Overall, cost-effectiveness was strongly associated with the prevalence rate of human immune deficiency virus in the various settings. Routine human immune deficiency virus testing is both cost-effective and cost saving compared to the alternatives. However, there are wide variations in the methodological approaches to the studies. Adopting standard

  17. Iodine deficiency disorders: contemporary scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Maberly, G F

    1994-08-01

    Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable intellectual impairment and is associated with a spectrum of neurologic and developmental pathology. More than one billion people are at risk. The developing fetus, newborn, and young child are the most susceptible to the effects of an iodine-deficient diet. If intervention is not initiated in a timely fashion, the pathophysiologic abnormalities become resistant to treatment and permanent intellectual, neurologic, and somatic deficits result. The technology of iodine deficiency intervention is well established. Iodized salt, the preferred method, is easy to produce, administer in physiologic doses, and is cost effective. The distribution of iodized salt and social marketing are key to a successful iodine deficiency elimination program. In remote regions, iodized oil is a useful interim intervention. However, it is clear that technology is not enough. Any national effort to eliminate iodine deficiency must extend far beyond the Ministry of Health. The program will require the full participation of a range of national government ministries and agencies and the full support and participation of local or regional governments.

  18. Coenzyme Q10 deficiencies in neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Artuch, Rafael; Salviati, Leonardo; Jackson, Sandra; Hirano, Michio; Navas, Plácido

    2009-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the respiratory chain but also participates in other mitochondrial functions such as regulation of the transition pore and uncoupling proteins. Furthermore, this compound is a specific substrate for enzymes of the fatty acids beta-oxidation pathway and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Furthermore, CoQ is an antioxidant that acts in all cellular membranes and lipoproteins. A complex of at least ten nuclear (COQ) genes encoded proteins synthesizes CoQ but its regulation is unknown. Since 1989, a growing number of patients with multisystemic mitochondrial disorders and neuromuscular disorders showing deficiencies of CoQ have been identified. CoQ deficiency caused by mutation(s) in any of the COQ genes is designated primary deficiency. Other patients have displayed other genetic defects independent on the CoQ biosynthesis pathway, and are considered to have secondary deficiencies. This review updates the clinical and molecular aspects of both types of CoQ deficiencies and proposes new approaches to understanding their molecular bases.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances and beta cell deficient diabetes.

    PubMed

    Conway, Baqiyyah; Innes, Karen E; Long, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic hydrocarbons shown to preserve pancreatic islet cell viability and reduce islet cell hypoxia and apoptosis. We investigated the relationship of serum PFAS with diabetes, and whether this varied by diabetes type. 6,460 individuals with and 60,439 without diabetes from the C8 Health Project, were categorized into three groups: type 1 (n=820), type 2 (n=4,291), or uncategorized diabetes (n=1,349, missing data on diabetes type or diabetes based on blood sugar at study entry). Four PFAS were investigated: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA). PFAS levels were significantly lower in those with diabetes, and lowest in those with type 1 diabetes. In age and sex adjusted analyses, ORs (CI) for type 1, type 2, and uncategorized diabetes compared to no diabetes were 0.59 (0.54-0.64), 0.74 (0.71-0.77), 0.84 (0.78-0.90), respectively for PFHxS; 0.69 (0.65-0.74), 0.87 (0.89-0.91), 0.92 (0.88-0.97), respectively for PFOA; 0.65 (0.61-0.70), 0.86 (0.82-0.90), 0.93 (0.86-1.03), respectively for PFOS; and 0.65 (0.57-0.74), 0.94 (0.88-1.00), 0.95 (0.85-1.06), respectively for PFNA. Further adjustment for eGFR and other covariates did not eliminate these inverse associations. PFAS levels were negatively associated with diabetes. This inverse relationship was strongest for type 1 diabetes, suggesting the relationship with serum PFAS may vary with the severity of islet cell deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth in patients with isolated gonadotrophin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dickerman, Z; Cohen, A; Laron, Z

    1992-01-01

    The growth pattern of 66 patients (50 males, 16 females) with isolated gonadotrophin deficiency (IGnD), who had reached their final height with epiphyseal closure, was evaluated. For the purpose of analysis the males were divided into two groups according to age at referral: group 1 less than 16 years (n = 23) and group 2 greater than or equal to 16 years (n = 27). Sex hormone treatment was initiated at a mean (SD) chronological age of 15.8 (1.3) and 18.6 (1.2) years in groups 1 and 2 in the males and at 15.3 (1.3) years in the females. The duration of treatment (until epiphyseal closure) in the males was 3.9 (1.5) years in group 1 and 2.1 (1.0) years in group 2 and 2.8 (1.3) years in the females. There was no significant difference between the mean final height in groups 1 and 2, but it was significantly higher than the mean parental height (mean height SD score (HtSDS): 0.1 (1.1) v -0.8 (0.9)) and they were significantly correlated. For females the mean HtSDS compared with parental height was 0.4 (1.5) v -0.6 (1.2). It is concluded that the timing of induction of puberty by sex hormones in males and females with IGnD has no significant effect on final height provided that moderate doses are used. Furthermore final height was significantly correlated to mid-parental height. PMID:1580683

  1. Rad GTPase Deficiency Leads to Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Chang-Qing; Ilany, Jacob; Brüning, Jens C.; Sun, Zhongcui; Zhu, Xiaojun; Cui, Taixing; Youker, Keith A.; Yang, Qinglin; Day, Sharlene M.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Background Rad (Ras associated with diabetes) GTPase is the prototypic member of a subfamily of Ras-related small G proteins. The aim of the present study was to define whether Rad plays an important role in mediating cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and Results We document for the first time that levels of Rad mRNA and protein were decreased significantly in human failing hearts (n=10) compared with normal hearts (n=3; P<0.01). Similarly, Rad expression was decreased significantly in cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and in cultured cardiomyocytes with hypertrophy induced by 10 μmol/L phenylephrine. Gain and loss of Rad function in cardiomyocytes significantly inhibited and increased phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, respectively. In addition, activation of calcium-calmodulin–dependent kinase II (CaMKII), a strong inducer of cardiac hypertrophy, was significantly inhibited by Rad overexpression. Conversely, downregulation of CaMKIIδ by RNA interference technology attenuated the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes in which Rad was also knocked down. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we generated Rad-deficient mice and demonstrated that they were more susceptible to cardiac hypertrophy associated with increased CaMKII phosphorylation than wild-type littermate controls. Conclusions The present data document for the first time that Rad is a novel mediator that inhibits cardiac hypertrophy through the CaMKII pathway. The present study will have significant implications for understanding the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and setting the basis for the development of new strategies for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:18056528

  2. Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Beta Cell Deficient Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah; Innes, Karen E; Long, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are synthetic hydrocarbons shown to preserve pancreatic islet cell viability and reduce islet cell hypoxia and apoptosis. We investigated the relationship of serum PFAS with diabetes, and whether this varied by diabetes type. Methods 6,460 individuals with and 60,439 without diabetes from the C8 Health Project, were categorized into three groups: Type 1 (n=820), Type 2 (n=4,291), or Uncategorized diabetes (n=1,349, missing data on diabetes type or diabetes based on blood sugar at study entry). Four PFAS were investigated: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA). Results PFAS levels were significantly lower in those with diabetes, and lowest in those with Type 1 diabetes. In age and sex adjusted analyses, ORs (CI) for Type 1, Type 2, and Uncategorized diabetes compared to no diabetes were 0.59 (0.54–0.64), 0.74 (0.71–0.77), 0.84 (0.78–0.90) respectively for PFHxS; 0.69 (0.65–0.74), 0.87 (0.89–0.91), 0.92 (0.88–0.97) respectively for PFOA; 0.65 (0.61–0.70), 0.86 (0.82–0.90), 0.93 (0.86–1.03) respectively for PFOS; and 0.65 (0.57–0.74), 0.94 (0.88–1.00), 0.95 (0.85–1.06), respectively for PFNA. Further adjustment for eGFR and other covariates did not eliminate these inverse associations. Conclusions PFAS levels were negatively associated with diabetes. This inverse relationship was strongest for Type 1 diabetes, suggesting the relationship with serum PFAS may vary with the severity of islet cell deficiency. PMID:27311784

  3. Hematological parameters and red blood cell morphological abnormality of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency co-inherited with thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Pengon, Jutharat; Svasti, Saovaros; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Vattanaviboon, Phantip

    2018-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and thalassemia are genetically independent hemolytic disorders. Co-inheritance of both disorders may affect red blood cell pathology to a greater extent than normally seen in either disorder alone. This study determines the prevalence and evaluates hematological changes of G-6-PD deficiency and thalassemia co-inheritance. G-6-PD deficiency was screened from 200 male thalassemia blood samples using a fluorescent spot test. Hematological parameters and red blood cell morphology were evaluated among G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance, G-6-PD deficiency alone, thalassemia alone, and normal individuals. G-6-PD deficiency was detected together with hemoglobin (Hb) E heterozygote, Hb E homozygote, β-thalassemia trait, and β-thalassemia/Hb E, α-thalassemia-2 trait, and Hb H disease. Hb level, hematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell Hb of G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with asymptomatic thalassemia carriers show significantly lower mean values compared to carriers with only the same thalassemia genotypes. Higher mean red blood cell distribution width was observed in G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with Hb E heterozygote, as with numbers of hemighost cells in G-6-PD deficiency/thalassemia co-inheritance compared to those with either disorder. Apart from Hb level, hematological parameters of co-inheritance disorders were not different from individuals with a single thalassemia disease. G-6-PD deficiency co-inherited with thalassemia in males was present in 10% of the participants, resulting in worsening of red blood cell pathology compared with inheritance of thalassemia alone. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    When a child is not following the normal, predicted growth curve, an evaluation for underlying illnesses and central nervous system abnormalities is required, and appropriate consideration should be given to genetic defects causing growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). Because Insulin−like Growth Factor−I (IGF−I) plays a pivotal role, GHD could also be considered as a form of IGF−I deficiency (IGFD). Although IGFD can develop at any level of the GH−releasing hormone (GHRH)−GH−IGF axis, a differentiation should be made between GHD (absent to low GH in circulation) and IGFD (normal to high GH in circulation). The main focus of this review is on the GH gene, the various gene alterations and their possible impact on the pituitary gland. However, although transcription factors regulating the pituitary gland development may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, they may present initially as GHD. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274339

  5. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  6. Kinetics and thermodynamics of exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A kinetic theory is developed for exonuclease-deficient DNA polymerases, based on the experimental observation that the rates depend not only on the newly incorporated nucleotide, but also on the previous one, leading to the growth of Markovian DNA sequences from a Bernoullian template. The dependencies on nucleotide concentrations and template sequence are explicitly taken into account. In this framework, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of DNA replication, in particular, the mean growth velocity, the error probability, and the entropy production are calculated analytically in terms of the rate constants and the concentrations. Theory is compared with numerical simulations for the DNA polymerases of T7 viruses and human mitochondria.

  7. Ascorbic acid deficiency increases endotoxin influx to portal blood and liver inflammatory gene expressions in ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yuki; Miura, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Murai, Atsushi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Horio, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ascorbic acid (AsA) deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. The mechanisms by which AsA deficiency provokes inflammatory changes in the liver were investigated in Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats (which are unable to synthesize AsA). Male ODS rats (6-wk-old) were fed a diet containing sufficient (300 mg/kg) AsA (control group) or a diet without AsA (AsA-deficient group) for 14 or 18 d. On day 14, the hepatic mRNA levels of acute-phase proteins and inflammation-related genes were significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than the control group, and these elevations by AsA deficiency were exacerbated on day 18. The serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, which induce acute-phase proteins in the liver, were also significantly elevated on day 14 in the AsA-deficient group compared with the respective values in the control group. IL-1β mRNA levels in the liver, spleen, and lung were increased by AsA deficiency. Moreover, on both days 14 and 18, the portal blood endotoxin concentration was significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than in the control group, and a significant correlation between serum IL-1β concentrations and portal endotoxin concentrations was found in AsA-deficient rats. In the histologic analysis of the ileum tissues, the number of goblet cells per villi was increased by AsA deficiency. These results suggest that AsA deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of G6PD deficiency in Bengali adults with severe and uncomplicated malaria.

    PubMed

    Plewes, Katherine; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Ghose, Aniruddha; Bancone, Germana; Kingston, Hugh W F; Herdman, M Trent; Leopold, Stije J; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Faiz, Md Abul; Anstey, Nicholas M; Day, Nicholas P J; Hossain, Md Amir; Imwong, Mallika; Dondorp, Arjen M; Woodrow, Charles J

    2017-03-29

    Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Few data on the prevalence and genotypic basis of G6PD deficiency are available from Bangladesh, where malaria remains a major problem in the South (Chittagong Division). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and associated G6PD genotypes, in adults with falciparum malaria in southern Bangladesh. G6PD status was assessed via a combination of fluorescent spot testing (FST) and genotyping in 141 Bengali patients admitted with falciparum malaria to two centres in Chittagong Division from 2012 to 2014. In addition, an analysis of genomic data from 1000 Genomes Project was carried out among five healthy Indian subcontinent populations. One male patient with uncomplicated malaria was found to have G6PD deficiency on FST and a genotype associated with deficiency (hemizygous Orissa variant). In addition, there were two female patients heterozygous for deficiency variants (Orissa and Kerala-Kalyan). These three patients had a relatively long duration of symptoms prior to admission compared to G6PD normal cases, possibly suggesting an interaction with parasite multiplication rate. In addition, one of 27 healthy local controls was deficient on FST and hemizygous for the Mahidol variant of G6PD deficiency. Examination of 1000 Genomes Project sequencing data across the Indian subcontinent showed that 19/723 chromosomes (2.63%) carried a variant associated with deficiency. In the Bengali from Bangladesh 1000 Genomes population, three of 130 chromosomes (2.31%) carried deficient alleles; this included single chromosomes carrying the Kerala-Kalyan and Orissa variants. In line with other recent work, G6PD deficiency is uncommon in Bengalis in Bangladesh. Further studies of particular ethnic groups are needed to evaluate the potential risk of wide deployment of

  9. Iron Deficiency in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Associated with Obesity, Female Sex, and Low Serum Hepcidin

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Asma; Nelson, James E.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Yeh, Matthew M.; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron deficiency is often observed in obese individuals. The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is regulated by iron and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. We examine the relationship between obesity, circulating levels of hepcidin and IL6 and IL1β, and other risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with iron deficiency. Methods We collected data on 675 adult subjects (>18 y old) enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network. Subjects with transferrin saturation <20% were categorized as iron deficient, whereas those with transferrin saturation ≥20% were classified as iron normal. We assessed clinical, demographic, anthropometric, laboratory, dietary, and histologic data from patients, as well as serum levels of hepcidin and cytokines IL6 and IL1β. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify risk factors for iron deficiency. Results One third of patients (231/675; 34%) were iron deficient. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome were more common in subjects with iron deficiency (P<.01), compared with those that were iron normal. Serum levels of hepcidin were significantly lower in subjects with iron deficiency (61±45 vs 81±51 ng/mL; P<.0001). Iron deficiency was significantly associated with female sex, obesity, increased body mass index and waist circumference, presence of diabetes, lower alcohol consumption, Black or American Indian/Alaska Native race (P≤.018), and increased levels of IL6 and IL1β (6.6 vs 4.8 for iron normal; P≤.0001 and 0.45 vs 0.32 for iron normal; P≤.005). Conclusion Iron deficiency is prevalent in patients with NAFLD and associated with female sex, increased body mass index, and non-white race. Serum levels of hepcidin were lower in iron-deficient subjects, reflecting an appropriate physiological response to decreased circulating levels of iron, rather than a primary cause of iron deficiency in the setting of obesity and NAFLD. PMID:24269922

  10. Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Prophylaxis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trofimiuk-Mudlner, Malgorzata; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Physiological changes in pregnancy result in increased iodine demand, which may not be met in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency or borderline sufficiency. As a pregnant woman is the only source of thyroid hormones for her child during early gestation, iodine deficiencyinduced hypothyroxinemia may have deleterious effects on fetal development. To present the current approach to iodine deficiency and its prophylaxis during pregnancy. A review of the current literature including patents on iodine deficiency in pregnancy has been performed. Negative influence of severe iodine deficiency on fetal development has been proved, and evidence on a deleterious impact of milder forms of iodine deficiency on cognition of the offspring is rapidly growing. Although the WHO has addressed the issues of monitoring iodine status during pregnancy, prophylactic measures and assessment of their effectiveness, there are some controversies, regarding for example the best methods for control of iodine status. New patents in urinary iodine measurement methods may make iodine nutrition monitoring easier. The main method of iodine prophylaxis, in pregnancy also, is universal salt iodization. However, particularly if there is not sufficient coverage of the households with iodized salt, additional measures, such as oral supplementation with potassium iodide tablets, are necessary in pregnant women to provide adequate iodine nutrition. Iodine supplementation improves maternal thyroid function indices; particularly, it prevents goiter formation. Stronger evidence on beneficial effects of iodine supplementation of mild-to-moderate iodine deficient pregnant women on cognitive function of their children is still needed. It may be provided by randomized controlled trials and international initiatives. Changes in the iodine prophylaxis system should be monitored, both to prevent decreased or excessive iodine intake. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R.; Napolitano, Peter G.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Results Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women. PMID:25898021

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Flood-Nichols, Shannon K; Tinnemore, Deborah; Huang, Raywin R; Napolitano, Peter G; Ippolito, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and subsequent clinical outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study. Plasma was collected in the first trimester from 310 nulliparous women with singleton gestations without significant medical problems. Competitive enzymatic vitamin D assays were performed on banked plasma specimens and pregnancy outcomes were collected after delivery. Logistic regression was performed on patients stratified by plasma vitamin D concentration and the following combined clinical outcomes: preeclampsia, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. Vitamin D concentrations were obtained from 235 patients (mean age 24.3 years, range 18-40 years). Seventy percent of our study population was vitamin D insufficient with a serum concentration less than 30 ng/mL (mean serum concentration 27.6 ng/mL, range 13-71.6 ng/mL). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, race, body mass index, tobacco use, and time of year. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia, growth restriction, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and spontaneous abortion. There was no association between vitamin D deficiency and composite adverse pregnancy outcomes with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (p value 0.738, 95% confidence intervals 0.961-1.057). Vitamin D deficiency did not associate with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this study population. However, the high percentage of affected individuals highlights the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young, reproductive-aged women.

  13. Cited1 Deficiency Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Madeleine; Poetz, Oliver; Parry, Lee; Jenkins, John R.; Williams, Geraint T.; Dunwoodie, Sally L.; Watson, Alastair; Clarke, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditional deletion of Apc in the murine intestine alters crypt-villus architecture and function. This process is accompanied by multiple changes in gene expression, including upregulation of Cited1, whose role in colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. Here we explore the relevance of Cited1 to intestinal tumorigenesis. We crossed Cited1 null mice with ApcMin/+ and AhCre+Apcfl/fl mice and determined the impact of Cited1 deficiency on tumour growth/initiation including tumour multiplicity, cell proliferation, apoptosis and the transcriptome. We show that Cited1 is up-regulated in both human and murine tumours, and that constitutive deficiency of Cited1 increases survival in ApcMin/+ mice from 230.5 to 515 days. However, paradoxically, Cited1 deficiency accentuated nearly all aspects of the immediate phenotype 4 days after conditional deletion of Apc, including an increase in cell death and enhanced perturbation of differentiation, including of the stem cell compartment. Transcriptome analysis revealed multiple pathway changes, including p53, PI3K and Wnt. The activation of Wnt through Cited1 deficiency correlated with increased transcription of β-catenin and increased levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin. Hence, immediately following deletion of Apc, Cited1 normally restrains the Wnt pathway at the level of β-catenin. Thus deficiency of Cited1 leads to hyper-activation of Wnt signaling and an exaggerated Wnt phenotype including elevated cell death. Cited1 deficiency decreases intestinal tumourigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and impacts upon a number of oncogenic signaling pathways, including Wnt. This restraint imposed by Cited1 is consistent with a requirement for Cited1 to constrain Wnt activity to a level commensurate with optimal adenoma formation and maintenance, and provides one mechanism for tumour repression in the absence of Cited1. PMID:23935526

  14. Vitamin C deficiency exerts paradoxical cardiovascular effects in osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats.

    PubMed

    Vergely, Catherine; Goirand, Françoise; Ecarnot-Laubriet, Aline; Renard, Céline; Moreau, Daniel; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Dumas, Monique; Rochette, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be a very efficient water-soluble antioxidant, for which several new cardiovascular properties were recently described. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo the effects of a severe depletion of vitamin C on cardiac and vascular variables and reperfusion arrhythmias. For this purpose, we used a mutant strain of Wistar rats, osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS). After 15 d of consuming a vitamin C-deficient diet, ODS rats had a 90% decrease in plasma and tissue levels of ascorbate compared with ODS vitamin C-supplemented rats and normal Wistar rats. However, plasma antioxidant capacity, proteins, alpha-tocopherol, urate, catecholamines, lipids, and nitrate were not influenced by the vitamin C deficiency in ODS rats. Moreover, there was no difference between ODS vitamin C-deficient and -supplemented rats in heart rate and arterial pressure. After 5 min of an in vivo regional myocardial ischemia, various severe arrhythmias were observed, but their intensities were not modified by vitamin C in vitamin C-deficient ODS rats. The vascular reactivity, measured in vitro on thoracic arteries, was not altered by ascorbate deficiency in ODS rats. These unexpected results suggest that unidentified compensatory mechanisms play a role in maintaining normal cardiac function and vascular reactivity in vitamin C-deficient rats.

  15. The strategies to reduce iron deficiency in blood donors randomized trial: design, enrolment and early retention

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, W.; Bryant, B. J.; Schlumpf, K. S.; Wright, D. J.; Birch, R.; Kiss, J. E.; D’Andrea, P.; Cable, R. G.; Spencer, B. R.; Vij, V.; Mast, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Repeated blood donation produces iron deficiency. Changes in dietary iron intake do not prevent donation-induced iron deficiency. Prolonging the interdonation interval or using oral iron supplements can mitigate donation-induced iron deficiency. The most effective operational methods for reducing iron deficiency in donors are unknown. Materials and Methods ‘Strategies To Reduce Iron Deficiency’ (STRIDE) was a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in blood donors. 692 donors were randomized into one of two educational groups or one of three interventional groups. Donors randomized to educational groups either received letters thanking them for donating, or, suggesting iron supplements or delayed donation if they had low ferritin. Donors randomized to interventional groups either received placebo, 19-mg or 38-mg iron pills. Results Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 52.7% of males and 74.6% of females at enrolment. Adverse events within 60 days of enrolment were primarily mild gastrointestinal symptoms (64%). The incidence of de-enrolment within 60 days was more common in the interventional groups than in the educational groups (P = 0.002), but not more common in those receiving iron than placebo (P = 0.68). Conclusion The prevalence of iron deficient erythropoiesis in donors enrolled in the STRIDE study is comparable to previously described cohorts of regular blood donors. De-enrolment within 60 days was higher for donors receiving tablets, although no more common in donors receiving iron than placebo. PMID:25469720

  16. Dual pathology as a result of spinal stenosis and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohammed Shakil; Rasul, Zurqa; Sell, Philip

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency can confound the clinical assessment of patients presenting with features of spinal disorders. Speciality practice within spinal surgery may lead the clinician to a focus upon spinal explanations for symptoms and that belief may be reinforced by supporting imaging. In the presence of mainly sensory symptoms consideration and exclusion of non surgical causes needs to occur. This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency; the presence of dual pathology on imaging performed; the implementation of replacement therapy and their subsequent clinical response as perceived by patients. This was performed through a retrospective review of patients presenting to specialist spine out-patient clinics over a 4-year period via access to pathology reports followed by a telephone survey. 457 patients were investigated of which 8.5% were vitamin B12 deficient. 70% of patients had repeat levels and 31% continued to be deficient. 26% of these patients were not placed on any supplemental therapy. 72% of patients on treatment had self perceived improved outcomes as compared with 55% not on treatment. 73% of patients underwent MRI/CT imaging. 59% of which had evidence of spinal stenosis. In older patients with sensory symptoms, the coexistence of B12 deficiency should be considered. Detection of deficiency with consequent treatment results in better global outcomes than no treatment. Unless the correct blood test is done, the pathology will remain undetected, and patients may continue with their primary symptoms despite high-risk spinal surgical procedures.

  17. Increased levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer S; Wu, Xueling; Kulhavy, Rose; Tomana, Milan; Novak, Jan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Brown, Rhubell; Goepfert, Paul A; Mestecky, Jiri

    2005-03-04

    The IgG from sera of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of autoimmune character or some chronic microbial infections is frequently deficient in galactose on N-linked glycans. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated at length in human viral infections. To evaluate the glycosylation of serum IgG in HIV-1-positive patients. Psathyrella velutina lectin was used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent and Western blot assays to determine glycosylation. In addition, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were utilized to confirm the galactose deficiency observed in the lectin-binding assays. HIV-1-infected individuals had significantly higher levels of galactose-deficient IgG than healthy controls. In fact, the galactose deficiency of the N-linked glycans observed in other diseases was even more profound in HIV-1 infection. This deficiency was primarily restricted to IgG when total serum glycoproteins were evaluated and IgG1 was the subclass most affected in all patients. Also, a significant increase in lectin binding was observed on IgG2 and IgG4 from HIV-1-positive females compared with HIV-1-negative females. Identification of deficient galactosylation of serum IgG from HIV-1-infected patients extended the spectrum of diseases in which this phenomenon has been observed. In addition, the results suggest yet another aspect of immune dysfunction as a result of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Homologous recombination mediates S-phase-dependent radioresistance in cells deficient in DNA polymerase eta.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Nils H; Carter, Rebecca; Hatch, Stephanie B; Schultz, Niklas; Prevo, Remko; McKenna, W Gillies; Helleday, Thomas; Sharma, Ricky A

    2012-11-01

    DNA polymerase eta (pol η) is the only DNA polymerase causally linked to carcinogenesis in humans. Inherited deficiency of pol η in the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) predisposes to UV-light-induced skin cancer. Pol η-deficient cells demonstrate increased sensitivity to cisplatin and oxaliplatin chemotherapy. We have found that XP30R0 fibroblasts derived from a patient with XPV are more resistant to cell kill by ionising radiation (IR) than the same cells complemented with wild-type pol η. This phenomenon has been confirmed in Burkitt's lymphoma cells, which either expressed wild-type pol η or harboured a pol η deletion. Pol η deficiency was associated with accumulation of cells in S-phase, which persisted after IR. Cells deficient in pol η demonstrated increased homologous recombination (HR)-directed repair of double strand breaks created by IR. Depletion of the HR protein, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 3 (XRCC3), abrogated the radioresistance observed in pol η-deficient cells as compared with pol η-complemented cells. These findings suggest that HR mediates S-phase-dependent radioresistance associated with pol η deficiency. We propose that pol η protein levels in tumours may potentially be used to identify patients who require treatment with chemo-radiotherapy rather than radiotherapy alone for adequate tumour control.

  19. Homologous recombination mediates S-phase-dependent radioresistance in cells deficient in DNA polymerase eta

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ricky A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA polymerase eta (pol η) is the only DNA polymerase causally linked to carcinogenesis in humans. Inherited deficiency of pol η in the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) predisposes to UV-light-induced skin cancer. Pol η-deficient cells demonstrate increased sensitivity to cisplatin and oxaliplatin chemotherapy. We have found that XP30R0 fibroblasts derived from a patient with XPV are more resistant to cell kill by ionising radiation (IR) than the same cells complemented with wild-type pol η. This phenomenon has been confirmed in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells, which either expressed wild-type pol η or harboured a pol η deletion. Pol η deficiency was associated with accumulation of cells in S-phase, which persisted after IR. Cells deficient in pol η demonstrated increased homologous recombination (HR)-directed repair of double strand breaks created by IR. Depletion of the HR protein, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 3 (XRCC3), abrogated the radioresistance observed in pol η-deficient cells as compared with pol η-complemented cells. These findings suggest that HR mediates S-phase-dependent radioresistance associated with pol η deficiency. We propose that pol η protein levels in tumours may potentially be used to identify patients who require treatment with chemo-radiotherapy rather than radiotherapy alone for adequate tumour control. PMID:22822095

  20. Color Vision Deficiency and Functional Disorders Among Israeli Male Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Maymon, Dror; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-09-01

    Color vision deficiency has been associated with educational difficulties among male children, as well as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association of color vision deficiency with functional conditions, including ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis and somatoform disorders, in a large population of male adolescents. We included all Israeli male adolescents that underwent medical and cognitive examinations during conscription between the years 2007 and 2013. The prevalence of ADHD, irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was compared to a control group. The study included 305 964 males aging 17 ± 0.6, of which 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency. Using a multivariable analysis, the probability for irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders among color vision deficiency patients was increased by 1.41, 1.94, and 3.87, respectively (P < .05). No significant association was found between ADHD and color vision deficiency. Color vision abnormalities are associated with functional disorders in male adolescents, including irritable bowel syndrome, enuresis, and somatoform disorders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Low nitric oxide: a key factor underlying copper-deficiency teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Soo Jin; Keen, Carl L; Lanoue, Louise; Rucker, Robert B; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y

    2007-12-15

    Copper (Cu)-deficiency-induced teratogenicity is characterized by major cardiac, brain, and vascular anomalies; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cu deficiency decreases superoxide dismutase activity and increases superoxide anions, which can interact with nitric oxide (NO), reducing the NO pool size. Given the role of NO as a developmental signaling molecule, we tested the hypothesis that low NO levels, secondary to Cu deficiency, represent a developmental challenge. Gestation day 8.5 embryos from Cu-adequate (Cu+) or Cu-deficient (Cu-) dams were cultured for 48 h in Cu+ or Cu- medium, respectively. We report that NO levels were low in conditioned medium from Cu-/Cu- embryos and yolk sacs, compared to Cu+/Cu+ controls under basal conditions and with NO synthase (NOS) agonists. The low NO production was associated with low endothelial NOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations in the Cu-/Cu- group. The altered NO levels in Cu-deficient embryos are functionally significant, as the administration of the NO donor DETA/NONOate increased cGMP and ameliorated embryo and yolk sac abnormalities. These data support the concept that Cu deficiency limits NO availability and alters NO-dependent signaling, which contributes to abnormal embryo and yolk sac development.

  2. The Association between Hantavirus Infection and Selenium Deficiency in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Li-Qun; Goeijenbier, Marco; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Wang, Li-Ping; Liang, Song; Klein, Sabra L.; Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Kun; Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng; Glass, Gregory E.; van Gorp, Eric; Richardus, Jan H.; Ma, Jia-Qi; Cao, Wu-Chun; de Vlas, Sake J.

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantaviruses and transmitted by rodents is a significant public health problem in China, and occurs more frequently in selenium-deficient regions. To study the role of selenium concentration in HFRS incidence we used a multidisciplinary approach combining ecological analysis with preliminary experimental data. The incidence of HFRS in humans was about six times higher in severe selenium-deficient and double in moderate deficient areas compared to non-deficient areas. This association became statistically stronger after correction for other significant environment-related factors (low elevation, few grasslands, or an abundance of forests) and was independent of geographical scale by separate analyses for different climate regions. A case-control study of HFRS patients admitted to the hospital revealed increased activity and plasma levels of selenium binding proteins while selenium supplementation in vitro decreased viral replication in an endothelial cell model after infection with a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). Viral replication with a higher MOI was not affected by selenium supplementation. Our findings indicate that selenium deficiency may contribute to an increased prevalence of hantavirus infections in both humans and rodents. Future studies are needed to further examine the exact mechanism behind this observation before selenium supplementation in deficient areas could be implemented for HFRS prevention. PMID:25609306

  3. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rochford, Rosemary; Ohrt, Colin; Baresel, Paul C.; Campo, Brice; Sampath, Aruna; Magill, Alan J.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for the development of hemolytic anemia when given 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs), an important class of antimalarial/antiinfective therapeutics. However, there is no suitable animal model that can predict the clinical hemolytic potential of drugs. We developed and validated a human (hu)RBC-SCID mouse model by giving nonobese diabetic/SCID mice daily transfusions of huRBCs from G6PD-deficient donors. Treatment of SCID mice engrafted with G6PD-deficient huRBCs with primaquine, an 8-AQ, resulted in a dose-dependent selective loss of huRBCs. To validate the specificity of this model, we tested known nonhemolytic antimalarial drugs: mefloquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, and pyrimethamine. No significant loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs was observed. Treatment with drugs known to cause hemolytic toxicity (pamaquine, sitamaquine, tafenoquine, and dapsone) resulted in loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs comparable to primaquine. This mouse model provides an important tool to test drugs for their potential to cause hemolytic toxicity in G6PD-deficient populations. PMID:24101478

  5. Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Rosemary; Ohrt, Colin; Baresel, Paul C; Campo, Brice; Sampath, Aruna; Magill, Alan J; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A

    2013-10-22

    Individuals with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are at risk for the development of hemolytic anemia when given 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs), an important class of antimalarial/antiinfective therapeutics. However, there is no suitable animal model that can predict the clinical hemolytic potential of drugs. We developed and validated a human (hu)RBC-SCID mouse model by giving nonobese diabetic/SCID mice daily transfusions of huRBCs from G6PD-deficient donors. Treatment of SCID mice engrafted with G6PD-deficient huRBCs with primaquine, an 8-AQ, resulted in a dose-dependent selective loss of huRBCs. To validate the specificity of this model, we tested known nonhemolytic antimalarial drugs: mefloquine, chloroquine, doxycycline, and pyrimethamine. No significant loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs was observed. Treatment with drugs known to cause hemolytic toxicity (pamaquine, sitamaquine, tafenoquine, and dapsone) resulted in loss of G6PD-deficient huRBCs comparable to primaquine. This mouse model provides an important tool to test drugs for their potential to cause hemolytic toxicity in G6PD-deficient populations.

  6. Markers of iron deficiency in patients with polycythemia vera receiving ruxolitinib or best available therapy.

    PubMed

    Verstovsek, Srdan; Harrison, Claire N; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Miller, Carole; Naim, Ahmad B; Paranagama, Dilan C; Habr, Dany; Vannucchi, Alessandro M

    2017-05-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is characterized by erythropoiesis and JAK2-activating mutations, with increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with PV are iron deficient, and treatment often includes hematocrit control with phlebotomy, which may exacerbate iron deficiency-associated complications. The phase 3 RESPONSE trial evaluated the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib (n=110) versus best available therapy (BAT; n=112) in patients with PV who were hydroxyurea-resistant/intolerant. Ruxolitinib was superior to BAT for hematocrit control, reduction in splenomegaly, and blood count normalization. This exploratory analysis, the first to evaluate iron status in a prospective study of patients with PV, investigated ruxolitinib effects on 7 serum iron markers and iron deficiency-related patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Among patients with evidence of baseline iron deficiency, ruxolitinib was associated with normalization of iron marker levels, compared with lesser improvement with BAT. Iron levels remained stable in ruxolitinib patients with normal iron levels at baseline. Regardless of baseline iron status, treatment with ruxolitinib was associated with improvements in concentration problems, cognitive function, dizziness, fatigue, headaches, and inactivity, although improvements were generally greater among patients with baseline iron deficiency. The improvements in iron deficiency markers and PROs observed with ruxolitinib are suggestive of clinical benefits that warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  8. Effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2012-06-01

    Dietary iodine requirements are increased in pregnancy due to increased thyroid hormone production, increased renal iodine losses, and fetal iodine requirements. Adverse effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy include maternal and fetal goiter, cretinism, intellectual impairments, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant. Dietary iodine requirements remain increased in lactation due to the concentration of iodine in breast milk. Iodine deficiency remains a significant global public health problem. Excess iodine ingestion in pregnancy, while a relatively uncommon problem, may also have adverse fetal effects. However, the safe upper limit for chronic iodine ingestion in pregnancy and lactation is not currently well defined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical heterogeneity in glutathione synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, S P; Garrick, M D; Corash, L M; Butler, J D; Tietze, F; Rogers, L; Schulman, J D

    1978-01-01

    Two different clinical syndromes are associated with glutathione synthetase deficiency, one presenting with hemolytic anemia and 5-oxoprolinuria, the other with isolated hemolysis. We have differentiated these disorders on an enzymatic basis. In 5-oxoprolinuria, all cell types examined have grossly deficient enzyme activity and glutathione content. In contrast, in the nonoxoprolinuric variant, erythrocytes have decreased enzyme activity and glutathione content, whereas nucleated cells maintain substantial levels of both. The enzyme in this disorder is unstable in vitro and has shortened survival in intact erythrocytes. Nucleated cells appear able to maintain sufficient enzyme activity and concentrations of glutathione to suppress overproduction of 5-oxoproline. PMID:659603

  10. [Factor V congenital deficiency: about a case].

    PubMed

    Boujrad, Saloua; El Hasbaoui, Brahim; Echahdi, Hanae; Malih, Mohamed; Agadr, Aomar

    2017-01-01

    Factor V congenital deficiency is a rare coagulation disorder initially described by Owren in 1947 and known as para hemophilia. It is transmitted through autosomal-recessive inheritance and homozygous cases are usually symptomatic. Factor V is an essential cofactor in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin by activated factor X. In the absence of factor V, thrombin generation is slowed down and fibrin formation is delayed. This results in a bleeding tendency. We report a case of factor V congenital deficiency in an infant with recurrent epistaxis.

  11. Paralysis Episodes in Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Ibrahim, Alia; Al-Harbi, Mosa; Al-Musallam, Sulaiman

    2003-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder manifest by osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and cerebral calcification. Other features include growth failure and mental retardation. Complications of the osteopetrosis include frequent bone fractures, cranial nerve compression, and dental mal-occlusion. A hyper-chloremic metabolic acidosis, sometimes with hypokalemia, occurs due to renal tubular acidosis that may be proximal, distal, or more commonly, the combined type. Such patients may present with global hypotonia, muscle weakness or paralysis. We report a case of CA II deficiency with recurrent attacks of acute paralysis which was misdiagnosed initially as Guillian-Barre syndrome.

  12. MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Du, Chong-Tao; Gao, Wei; Ma, Ke; Yu, Shui-Xing; Li, Na; Yan, Shi-Qing; Zhou, Feng-Hua; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Lei, Lian-Cheng; Yang, Yong-Jun; Han, Wen-Yu

    2018-03-26

    The gut microbiota and microRNAs play important roles in the defense against infection. However, the role of miR-146a in L. monocytogenes infection and gut microbiota remains unclear. We tried to determine whether miR-146a controlled L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota. Wild-type and miR-146a-deficient mice or macrophages were used to characterize the impact of miR-146a on animal survival, cell death, bacterial clearance, and gut microbiota following L. monocytogenes challenge. We found that L. monocytogenes infection induced miR-146a expression both in vitro and in vivo. When compared to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice were more resistant to L. monocytogenes infection. MiR-146a deficiency in macrophages resulted in reduced invasion and intracellular survival of L. monocytogenes . High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the gut microbiota composition differed between miR-146a-deficient and wild-type mice. Relative to wild-type mice, miR-146a-deficient mice had decreased levels of the Proteobacteria phylum, Prevotellaceae family, and Parasutterella genus, and significantly increased short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, including the genera Alistipes , Blautia , Coprococcus_1, and Ruminococcus_1 . Wild-type mice co-housed with miR-146a-deficient mice had increased resistance to L. monocytogenes , indicating that miR-146a deficiency guides the gut microbiota to alleviate infection. Together, these results suggest that miR-146a deficiency protects against L. monocytogenes infection by regulating the gut microbiota.

  13. Cerebral Developmental Abnormalities in a Mouse with Systemic Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pliss, Lioudmila; Hausknecht, Kathryn A.; Stachowiak, Michal K.; Dlugos, Cynthia A.; Richards, Jerry B.; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (PDC) deficiency is an inborn error of pyruvate metabolism causing a variety of neurologic manifestations. Systematic analyses of development of affected brain structures and the cellular processes responsible for their impairment have not been performed due to the lack of an animal model for PDC deficiency. METHODS: In the present study we investigated a murine model of systemic PDC deficiency by interrupting the X-linked Pdha1 gene encoding the α subunit of PDH to study its role on brain development and behavioral studies. RESULTS: Male embryos died prenatally but heterozygous females were born. PDC activity was reduced in the brain and other tissues in female progeny compared to age-matched control females. Immunohistochemical analysis of several brain regions showed that approximately 40% of cells were PDH−. The oxidation of glucose to CO2 and incorporation of glucose-carbon into fatty acids were reduced in brain slices from 15 day-old PDC-deficient females. Histological analyses showed alterations in several structures in white and gray matters in 35 day-old PDC-deficient females. Reduction in total cell number and reduced dendritic arbors in Purkinje neurons were observed in PDC-deficient females. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into neurons by newly generated cells were reduced in the affected females during pre- and postnatal periods. PDC-deficient mice had normal locomotor activity in a novel environment but displayed decreased startle responses to loud noises and there was evidence of abnormal pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that a reduction in glucose metabolism resulting in deficit in energy production and fatty acid biosynthesis impairs cellular differentiation and brain development in PDC-deficient mice. PMID:23840713

  14. Presence of immune deficiency increases the risk of hospitalization in patients with norovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Keith A; Pongdee, Thanai; Binnicker, Matthew J; Espy, Mark; Pardi, Darrell; Khanna, Sahil; Joshi, Avni Y

    2018-04-01

    Norovirus is an emerging pathogen causing gastroenteritis. We sought to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients with laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with positive norovirus polymerase chain reaction in stool between October 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016. 128 unique patients were identified during the study period, 64 of whom had immune deficiency, of which only 3 patients had a primary immune deficiency (common variable immune deficiency), while 61 patients had a secondary immune deficiency. 50% of patients with immune deficiency were hospitalized as compared to only 30% of the non-immune-deficient cohort (odds ratio: 2.1 (1.1-4.18, P=0.04). One-third (32.8%) of the patients had a polymicrobial stool infection, and 21.1% had concurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Initial mean total leukocyte count was higher in the hospitalized group at 8.40×109/L versus 6.31×109/L in the nonhospitalized group (P=0.049). All 13 patients presenting with fever had symptomatic resolution (P=0.002). The presence of C. difficile infection was correlated with persistent symptoms (OR 2.30 [0.95-5.58], P=0.067). The overall mortality rate among our cohort was 3.13% (4 patients). All deceased patients had secondary immune deficiency, and none had C. difficile coinfection. Presence of an immune deficiency increases the risk of hospitalization with norovirus infection. Absence of fever is associated with lower resolution and possibly may contribute to a persistent infectious state. Presence of concomitant C. difficile infection is correlated with a lower overall mortality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Cholinergic Deficiency in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Using Pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Liam; Rowe, Christopher C.; Ames, David; Masters, Colin L.; Taddei, Kevin; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Martins, Ralph N.; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2017-01-01

    Cortical cholinergic deficiency is prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and published findings of diminished pupil flash response in AD suggest that this deficiency may extend to the visual cortical areas and anterior eye. Pupillometry is a low-cost, noninvasive technique that may be useful for monitoring cholinergic deficits which generally lead to memory and cognitive disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate pupillometry for early detection of AD by comparing the pupil flash response (PFR) in AD (N = 14) and cognitively normal healthy control (HC, N = 115) participants, with the HC group stratified according to high (N = 38) and low (N = 77) neocortical amyloid burden (NAB). Constriction phase PFR parameters were significantly reduced in AD compared to HC (maximum acceleration p < 0.05, maximum velocity p < 0.0005, average velocity p < 0.005, and constriction amplitude p < 0.00005). The high-NAB HC subgroup had reduced PFR response cross-sectionally, and also a greater decline longitudinally, compared to the low-NAB subgroup, suggesting changes to pupil response in preclinical AD. The results suggest that PFR changes may occur in the preclinical phase of AD. Hence, pupillometry has a potential as an adjunct for noninvasive, cost-effective screening for preclinical AD. PMID:28894607

  16. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/-) mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) compared to Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule. PMID:21988729

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with asymptomatic malaria in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bazie, Bapio Valery Jean Télesphore Elvira; Diarra, Birama; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Djigma, Florencia; Pietra, Virginio; Moret, Remy; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    To investigate 4 combinations of mutations responsible for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a rural community of Burkina Faso, a malaria endemic country. Two hundred individuals in a rural community were genotyped for the mutations A376G, G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism assays and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The prevalence of the G6PD deficiency was 9.5% in the study population. It was significantly higher in men compared to women (14.3% vs 6.0%, P=0.049). The 202A/376G G6PD A- was the only deficient variant detected. Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly higher among the G6PD-non-deficient persons compared to the G6PD-deficient (P<0.001). The asymptomatic parasitaemia was also significantly higher among G6PD non-deficient compared to G6PD-heterozygous females (P<0.001). This study showed that the G6PD A- variant associated with protection against asymptomatic malaria in Burkina Faso is probably the most common deficient variant.

  18. Riboflavin transporter deficiency mimicking mitochondrial myopathy caused by complex II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Graeme A M; Ejaz, Resham; Cordeiro, Dawn; Kannu, Peter; Mercimek-Andrews, Saadet

    2018-02-01

    Biallelic likely pathogenic variants in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 cause riboflavin transporter deficiency. It is characterized by muscle weakness, ataxia, progressive ponto-bulbar palsy, amyotrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss. Oral riboflavin halts disease progression and may reverse symptoms. We report two new patients whose clinical and biochemical features were mimicking mitochondrial myopathy. Patient 1 is an 8-year-old male with global developmental delay, axial and appendicular hypotonia, ataxia, and sensorineural hearing loss. His muscle biopsy showed complex II deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SLC52A2 (c.917G>A; p.Gly306Glu). Patient 2 is a 14-month-old boy with global developmental delay, respiratory insufficiency requiring ventilator support within the first year of life. His muscle biopsy revealed combined complex II + III deficiency and ragged red fibers consistent with mitochondrial myopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in SCL52A3 (c.1223G>A; p.Gly408Asp). We report two new patients with riboflavin transporter deficiency, caused by mutations in two different riboflavin transporter genes. Both patients presented with complex II deficiency. This treatable neurometabolic disorder can mimic mitochondrial myopathy. In patients with complex II deficiency, riboflavin transporter deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis to allow early treatment and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Adult outcomes following amputation or lengthening for fibular deficiency.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janet L; Knapp, Dwana; Minter, Christin; Boakes, Jennette L; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Sanders, James O; Lubicky, John P; Drvaric, David M; Davids, Jon R

    2009-04-01

    Fibular deficiency results in a small, unstable foot and ankle as well as a limb-length discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes in adults who, as children, had had amputation or limb-lengthening, commonly used treatments for fibular deficiency. Retrospective review of existing data collected since 1950 at six pediatric orthopaedic centers identified 248 patients with fibular deficiency who were twenty-one years of age or older at the time of the review. Excluding patients with other anomalies and other treatments (with the excluded group including six who had had lengthening and then amputation), we identified ninety-eight patients who had had amputation or limb-lengthening for the treatment of isolated unilateral fibular deficiency. Sixty-two patients (with thirty-six amputations and twenty-six lengthening procedures) completed several questionnaires, including one asking general demographic questions, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Lower Limb Questionnaire including the Short Form-36. A group of twenty-eight control subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Quality of Life Questionnaire. There were forty men and twenty-two women. The average age at the time of the interview was thirty-three years. There were more amputations in those with fewer rays and less fibular preservation. Lengthening resulted in more surgical procedures (6.3 compared with 2.4 in patients treated with amputation) and more days in the hospital (184 compared with sixty-three) (both p<0.0001). However, when we compared treatment outcomes we did not find differences between groups with regard to education, employment, income, public assistance or disability payments, pain or use of pain medicine, sports participation, activity restriction, comfort wearing shorts, dislike of limb appearance, or satisfaction with treatment. No patient who had been treated for fibular

  20. Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Li, Ping; Zhu, Yufeng; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women. This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20-70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis. The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20-29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3 < 20 μg/L) were 26.60 % and 24.89 %, respectively. Significant negative association was observed for VFA with serum 25(OH) D3 levels in men and pre-menopausal women (P < 0.05), not in post-menopausal women (P > 0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose-response trend (P for trend < 0.001). As compared to individuals with the lowest VFA, those who had the highest VFA were at 4.9-fold risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.792-13.365] in men and 1.8-fold risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency (95 % CI: 1.051-3.210) in pre-menopausal women, but not in post-menopausal women [odds ratio (OR) (95 % CI): 2.326(0.903-5.991)]. These results suggest that higher VFA increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in men and pre-menopausal women, but not in

  1. Estrogen receptor alpha deficiency modulates TLR ligand mediated PDC-TREM expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in lupus prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer L; Cunningham, Melissa A; Naga, Osama S; Wirth, Jena R; EuDaly, Jackie G; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Female lupus prone NZM2410 estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) deficient mice are protected from renal disease and have prolonged survival compared to wild type (WT) littermates, however the mechanism of protection is unknown. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type I interferon (IFN) drive lupus pathogenesis. Estrogen acting via ERα enhances both pDC development and IFN production. The objectives for this study were to determine if ERα modulates pDC function and IFN activity in pre-disease NZM2410 mice as a possible protective mechanism of ERα deficiency in lupus prone mice. We measured the effect of ERα deficiency on spleen pDC frequency, number, maturation, and activation state. ERα deficiency reduced type I IFN activity and the frequency of MHCII+ pDCs in the spleen without altering overall pDC frequency, number, or maturation state. Additionally, ERα deficient NZM2410 mice had a significantly decreased frequency of pDCs expressing PDC-TREM, a modulator of toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated IFN production. After in vitro TLR9 stimulation, ERα deficiency significantly reduced the expression of PDC-TREM on pDCs from both NZM2410 and C57BL/6 mice. Thus, we have identified a significant effect of ERα deficiency on pDCs in pre-disease NZM2410 mice, which may represent a mechanism by which ERα deficiency protects NZM2410 mice from lupus like disease. PMID:26553076

  2. Prevalence of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in 20 to 49 years old women: Ensanut 2012.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Rangel-Baltazar, Eduardo; Zambrano-Mujica, Norma

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of iron, folate, and B12 deficiencies in Mexican women of reproductive age from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut) 2012. Data came from a national probabilistic survey, representative from rural and urban areas, and different age groups. Blood samples were obtained from 4 263, 20 to 49 years old women for serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and serum folate concentrations. The prevalence of deficiencies, was assessed using adjusted logistic regression models. The deficiency of folate was 1.9% (95%CI 1.3-2.8), B12 deficiency was 8.5% (95%CI 6.7-10.1) and iron deficiency was 29.4% (95%CI 26.5-32.2). No differences were found when compared with 2006, 24.8% (95%CI 22.3-27.2). The vitamin B12 deficiency is still a problem for women of reproductive age and their offspring in Mexico, while folate deficiency disappeared as a problem. Iron deficiency needs prevention and fortification strategies.

  3. Effect of dietary calcium deficiency on the cardiac function of broiler chickens based on electro- and echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Zamani Moghaddam, Abdol Karim; Hassanpour, Hossein; Soroori, Sarang; Yadegari, Mehrdad; Tajeri, Ghodsieh

    2010-06-01

    To determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the heart function of broiler chickens based on electro- and echocardiography, chicks were reared for 42 days and fed rations with different amounts of calcium. At 28 and 42 days of age, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters were assessed. There were significant reductions of R wave amplitude (leads II and aVR) in the Ca-deficient group II at 42 day of age as compared to the control. S wave amplitudes were decreased in most leads but the decrease was significant (P < 0.05) only at 28 days (lead aVL, Ca-deficient group I) and 42 days (leads III, aVR, aVF, Ca-deficient groups I and II). T wave amplitudes were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 42 days (leads II, aVR and aVF) in the Ca-deficient group II compared to the control group. Variations in QT, ST and RR intervals were insignificant in the Ca-deficient groups compared with the control. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in left ventricular diameter at end-systole and a reduction of left ventricular fractional shortening in the Ca-deficient group II at 28 and 42 days as compared to the controls. Right ventricular fractional shortening was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased only in the Ca-deficient group II at 42 days of age. These results suggest that dose-dependent dietary calcium deficiency alters variations in electro- and echocardiographic parameters which could reflect decreased cardiac function in growing broiler chickens.

  4. Breastfeeding, Mixed, or Formula Feeding at 9 Months of Age and the Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Two Cohorts of Infants in China.

    PubMed

    Clark, Katy M; Li, Ming; Zhu, Bingquan; Liang, Furong; Shao, Jie; Zhang, Yueyang; Ji, Chai; Zhao, Zhengyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-02-01

    To assess associations between breastfeeding and iron status at 9 months of age in 2 samples of Chinese infants. Associations between feeding at 9 months of age (breastfed as sole milk source, mixed fed, or formula fed) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency, and iron sufficiency were determined in infants from Zhejiang (n = 142) and Hebei (n= 813) provinces. Iron deficiency was defined as body iron < 0 mg/kg, and IDA as iron deficiency + hemoglobin < 110 g/L. Multiple logistic regression assessed associations between feeding pattern and iron status. Breastfeeding was associated with iron status (P < .001). In Zhejiang, 27.5% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 0% of formula-fed infants. The odds of iron deficiency/IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants compared with formula-fed infants: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 28.8 (95% CI, 3.7-226.4) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.2-103.2). In Hebei, 44.0% of breastfed infants had IDA compared with 2.8% of formula-fed infants. With covariable adjustment, odds of IDA were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed groups: breastfed vs formula-fed OR, 78.8 (95% CI, 27.2-228.1) and mixed-fed vs formula-fed OR, 21.0 (95% CI, 7.3-60.9). In both cohorts, the odds of iron deficiency/IDA at 9 months of age were increased in breastfed and mixed-fed infants, and iron deficiency/IDA was common. Although the benefits of breastfeeding are indisputable, these findings add to the evidence that breastfeeding in later infancy identifies infants at risk for iron deficiency/IDA in many settings. Protocols for detecting and preventing iron deficiency/IDA in breastfed infants are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00642863 and NCT00613717. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [A neonate with anaemia of prematurity: zinc protoporphyrin identifies iron deficiency anaemia without iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    van der Feen, Diederik E; van Hillegersberg, Jacqueline L A M; Schippers, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common problem in premature infants and is generally easy to treat with iron supplementation. If the anaemia persists despite appropriate correction of deficiencies, more extensive evaluation is required. We describe a case of a premature male infant with a production-deficient anaemia without metabolic deficiencies, eventually identified as anaemia of prematurity. This type of anaemia is commonly diagnosed but its highly variable and complex aetiology and phenotype are often poorly understood. A probable explanation for the anaemia of prematurity in this case was a transient iron incorporation defect, identifiable by high levels of zinc protoporphyrin.

  6. Isolated Cortisol Deficiency: A Rare Cause of Neonatal Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Awatif; Mursi, Alaaddin; Alghofely, Mohammed; Asery, Ali

    2012-01-01

    For decades, congenital panhypopituitarism has been recognized to cause infantile cholestasis. However, the identity of the hormone whose deficiency causes such derangement of the liver is not clear. Here, we report four cases of isolated severe cortisol deficiency presenting with neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycemia, of whom two had familial primary glucocorticoid deficiency and the other two had isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency. The resolution of cholestasis by hydrocortisone replacement therapy suggests a causal relationship between cortisol deficiency and the development of neonatal cholestasis. In conclusion, the presentation of a young infant with cholestasis and hypoglycemia should alert pediatricians to the possibility of cortisol deficiency and prompt investigation of adrenal function should be undertaken. PMID:23006463

  7. 10 CFR 590.203 - Deficient applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.203 Deficient applications. If an application is incomplete or otherwise deemed...

  8. Pbx3 Deficiency Results in Central Hypoventilation

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Joon Whan; Arata, Akiko; Selleri, Licia; Jacobs, Yakop; Arata, Satoru; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Cleary, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Pbx proteins comprise a family of TALE (three amino acid loop extension) class homeodomain transcription factors that are implicated in developmental gene expression through their abilities to form hetero-oligomeric DNA-binding complexes and function as transcriptional regulators in numerous cell types. We demonstrate here that one member of this family, Pbx3, is expressed at high levels predominantly in the developing central nervous system, including a region of the medulla oblongata that is implicated in the control of respiration. Pbx3-deficient mice develop to term but die within a few hours of birth from central respiratory failure due to abnormal activity of inspiratory neurons in the medulla. This partially phenocopies the defect in mice deficient for Rnx, a metaHox homeodomain transcription factor, that we demonstrate here is capable of forming a DNA-binding complex with Pbx3. Rnx expression is unperturbed in Pbx3-deficient mice, but its ability to enhance transcription in vitro as a complex with TALE proteins is compromised in the absence of Pbx3. Thus, Pbx3 is essential for respiration and, like its DNA-binding partner Rnx, is critical for proper development of medullary respiratory control mechanisms. Pbx3-deficient mice provide a model for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and suggest that Pbx3 mutations may promote the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:15466398

  9. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; Hill, D J

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein. Images Figure PMID:2434036

  10. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets

    PubMed Central

    Holick, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The epidemic scourge of rickets in the 19th century was caused by vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate sun exposure and resulted in growth retardation, muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, hypocalcemia, tetany, and seizures. The encouragement of sensible sun exposure and the fortification of milk with vitamin D resulted in almost complete eradication of the disease. Vitamin D (where D represents D2 or D3) is biologically inert and metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the major circulating form of vitamin D that is used to determine vitamin D status. 25(OH)D is activated in the kidneys to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], which regulates calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency has again become an epidemic in children, and rickets has become a global health issue. In addition to vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency and acquired and inherited disorders of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus metabolism cause rickets. This review summarizes the role of vitamin D in the prevention of rickets and its importance in the overall health and welfare of infants and children. PMID:16886050

  11. 24 CFR 203.369 - Deficiency judgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deficiency judgments. 203.369... judgments. (a) Mortgages insured on or after March 28, 1988. (1) For mortgages insured pursuant to firm commitments issued on or after March 28, 1988, or pursuant to direct endorsement processing where the credit...

  12. What Causes a Memory Strategy Utilization Deficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patricia H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In memory strategy utilization deficiency, a child spontaneously produces an appropriate strategy but receives little or no benefit from it for recall. Three studies suggest two causes: children's failure to relate the task situation to their event knowledge, or to link the strategy to a second strategy, in this case linking a selective attention…

  13. 36 CFR 1120.26 - Deficient descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deficient descriptions. 1120.26 Section 1120.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... additional information is furnished. (b) The A&TBCB must make every reasonable effort to assist the requestor...

  14. 36 CFR 1120.26 - Deficient descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deficient descriptions. 1120.26 Section 1120.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... additional information is furnished. (b) The A&TBCB must make every reasonable effort to assist the requestor...

  15. 36 CFR 1120.26 - Deficient descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deficient descriptions. 1120.26 Section 1120.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... additional information is furnished. (b) The A&TBCB must make every reasonable effort to assist the requestor...

  16. 36 CFR 1120.26 - Deficient descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deficient descriptions. 1120.26 Section 1120.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... additional information is furnished. (b) The A&TBCB must make every reasonable effort to assist the requestor...

  17. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    goals and effectiveness. This case study evaluates the Depot Source of Repair (DSOR) team and how it has addressed the USAF’s enterprise- level IS...deficiencies. A framework created from the literature review is used to evaluate the DSOR team’s IS called DSOR II. The case study evaluation ...7 IS Design Evaluation

  18. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  19. Severe iron deficiency anemia and lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Guss, David A; Koenig, Mark; Castillo, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    Lice infestation is a commonly encountered disorder in emergency medicine. The louse survives from a blood meal from its host; hence, iron deficiency anemia is a theoretic possibility. A limited number of reports of severe iron deficiency anemia have appeared in the veterinary literature, but a thorough review of the medical literature did not reveal a single instance in human beings. We report a small case series of patients with heavy louse infestation and profound iron deficiency anemia. The index case along with two other cases discovered from an exhaustive search of 4 years of the institution's Emergency Department records all had heavy infestation with head and body lice. Laboratory evaluation revealed serum hemoglobin levels under 6 gm/dL, low serum ferritin levels, and microcytic red blood cell indices. All patients were admitted to the hospital, received transfusions, and had evaluation of their anemia. No patient had evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss or alternative explanation for their anemia. Although cause and effect cannot be established from this case series, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first published evidence of a provocative association of louse infestation and severe iron deficiency anemia in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron and Folate-Deficiency Anaemias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercberg, Serge

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional anemia is believed to be the most widespread nutritional disorder in the world. While it generally affects developing countries, developed countries are also affected to an extent sufficient to justify the implementation of preventive measures at a national level. This report focuses on iron and folate deficiencies, which are by far…

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient homozygous for the L487F mutation in the human GPI gene. Int J Hematol. 2012 Aug;96(2):263- ... PubMed Xu W, Beutler E. The characterization of gene mutations for human glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with chronic hemolytic ...

  2. 10 CFR 590.203 - Deficient applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.203 Deficient applications. If an application is incomplete or otherwise deemed...

  3. Critical Reading Deficiency: Cause, Scope, Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Gerald

    The extent of deficiencies in critical reading skills among 153 entering college students enrolled in basic skills reading courses at New Mexico State University was studied. Forty-nine percent of the sample were Hispanic Americans. The students were administered the Nelson-Denny Reading Test and the scores were converted into grade equivalents.…

  4. Circadian Behaviour in Neuroglobin Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hundahl, Christian A.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night. PMID:22496809

  5. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  6. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) of the newborn is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often develops in ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often have a ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: cytochrome c oxidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... are caused by mutations in genes found within nuclear DNA; however, in some rare instances, mutations in genes located within mtDNA cause this condition. The genes associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency are involved in energy production in mitochondria through a process called oxidative ...

  8. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  9. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROTAN SERIES TRITANOPIA Sources for This Page Deeb SS. Molecular genetics of color-vision deficiencies. Vis Neurosci. 2004 May-Jun;21(3):191-6. Review. Citation on PubMed Deeb SS. The molecular basis of variation in human color vision. Clin ...

  10. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  11. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone deficiency type III Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Human Growth Foundation Little People UK The MAGIC Foundation ... Reviewed : February 2012 Published : June 26, 2018 The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute ... Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders (CLIMB) March of Dimes: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders The Compassionate Friends GeneReviews (1 link) Isolated Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  13. Risk-Based Questionnaires Fail to Detect Adolescent Iron Deficiency and Anemia.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Deepa L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Schaefer, Eric W; Paul, Ian M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the predictive ability of screening questionnaires to identify adolescent women at high-risk for iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia who warrant objective laboratory testing. Cross-sectional study of 96 female individuals 12-21 years old seen at an academic medical center. Participants completed an iron deficiency risk assessment questionnaire including the 4 Bright Futures Adolescent Previsit Questionnaire anemia questions, along with depression, attention, food insecurity, and daytime sleepiness screens. Multiple linear regression controlling for age, race, and hormonal contraception use compared the predictive ability of 2 models for adolescent iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <12 mcg/L) and anemia (hemoglobin <12 g/dL). Model 1, the Bright Futures questions, was compared with model 2, which included the 4 aforementioned screens and body mass index percentile. Among participants, 18% (17/96) had iron deficiency and 5% (5/96) had iron deficiency anemia. Model 1 (Bright Futures) poorly predicted ferritin and hemoglobin values (R 2  = 0.03 and 0.08, respectively). Model 2 demonstrated similarly poor predictive ability (R 2  = 0.05 and 0.06, respectively). Mean differences for depressive symptoms (0.3, 95% CI -0.2, 0.8), attention difficulty (-0.1, 95% CI -0.5, 0.4), food insecurity (0.04, 95% CI -0.5, 0.6), daytime sleepiness (0.1, 95% CI -0.1, 0.3), and body mass index percentile (-0.04, 95% CI -0.3, 0.2) were not significantly associated with ferritin in model 2. Mean differences for hemoglobin were also nonsignificant. Risk-based surveys poorly predict objective measures of iron status using ferritin and hemoglobin. Next steps are to establish the optimal timing for objective assessment of adolescent iron deficiency and anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitamin d deficiency in Saudi Arabs.

    PubMed

    Elsammak, M Y; Al-Wosaibi, A A; Al-Howeish, A; Alsaeed, J

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with various chronic diseases especially rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Adequate vitamin D intake is of paramount importance to protect against bone metabolic diseases and prevent the occurrence of complications (e. g., fracture and bone pains). This study aimed at the evaluation of vitamin D levels in a cohort of healthy Saudi Arabs. The comprised 139 healthy subjects coming for regular blood donation. Participants had full clinical examination and evaluation of their calcium and vitamin D intake and the degree of exposure to sunlight. Serum 25-OH vitamin D was determined using Liasion chemiluminescent immunoassay and serum parathormone levels were determined using the Architect 2,000 immunochemiluminescent assay. Our results showed increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs (both males and females) in the studied group of subjects. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not correlate with serum vitamin D level in either male or female groups (p<0.01). Our data illustrate a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs and the importance for screening for vitamin D deficiency (irrespective of PTH level). We hypothesize that the reported vitamin D deficiency in the studied group of Saudi Arabs may reflect a possible inadequacy of the current level of vitamin D fortification of food products. We suggest that higher level of fortification of food products with vitamin D may be needed to compensate for the reduced skin vitamin D synthesis due to poor exposure to sunlight and to reverse this state of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  15. Sunglasses, traffic signals, and color vision deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Wood, Joanne M; Atchison, David A

    2009-04-01

    To determine (a) the effect of different sunglass tint colorations on traffic signal detection and recognition for color normal and color deficient observers, and (b) the adequacy of coloration requirements in current sunglass standards. Twenty color-normals and 49 color-deficient males performed a tracking task while wearing sunglasses of different colorations (clear, gray, green, yellow-green, yellow-brown, red-brown). At random intervals, simulated traffic light signals were presented against a white background at 5 degrees to the right or left and observers were instructed to identify signal color (red/yellow/green) by pressing a response button as quickly as possible; response times and response errors were recorded. Signal color and sunglass tint had significant effects on response times and error rates (p < 0.05), with significant between-color group differences and interaction effects. Response times for color deficient people were considerably slower than color normals for both red and yellow signals for all sunglass tints, but for green signals they were only noticeably slower with the green and yellow-green lenses. For most of the color deficient groups, there were recognition errors for yellow signals combined with the yellow-green and green tints. In addition, deuteranopes had problems for red signals combined with red-brown and yellow-brown tints, and protanopes had problems for green signals combined with the green tint and for red signals combined with the red-brown tint. Many sunglass tints currently permitted for drivers and riders cause a measurable decrement in the ability of color deficient observers to detect and recognize traffic signals. In general, combinations of signals and sunglasses of similar colors are of particular concern. This is prima facie evidence of a risk in the use of these tints for driving and cautions against the relaxation of coloration limits in sunglasses beyond those represented in the study.

  16. Response to parenteral iron therapy distinguish unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia from iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Akin, M; Sarbay, H; Guler, S; Balci, Y I; Polat, A

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated that response to parenteral iron therapy could be helpful in distinguishing the types of iron deficiency anemia. This study analyzed responses to IV iron sucrose therapy of 15 children with unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia (URIDA). We compared the results at diagnosis, 6 weeks and 6 months after the therapy. Results were compared with responses of 11 patients' results with iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) from our previous study. Six weeks after the start of treatment, ferritin, MCV, MCH and Hb values were in normal range in 10 patients. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 2.6-3.5 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. In five patients, Hb, MCH, and MCV mean (range) values [11.2 g/dL (11-12.2), 24.5 pg (24-25.6), and 67 fL (65-70)] were nearly normal but ferritin mean (range) values [9.8 ng/mL (8-11)] were below normal. Six weeks after the start of treatment, Hb, MCH, MCV and ferritin values of patients with IRIDA were increased. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 0.8-2.7 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. IRIDA is only partially responsive to parenteral iron supplementation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the response to intravenous iron therapy for the URIDA cases improved blood parameters more effectively than hereditary IRIDA. Response to parenteral iron therapy would be helpful to distinguish unexplained refractory IDA from hereditary IRIDA for clinicians who do not have access to hepcidin or TMPRS6 mutation analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SLAP deficiency decreases dsDNA autoantibody production

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lisa K.; Pennington, Luke F.; Shaw, Laura A.; Brown, Meredith; Treacy, Eric C.; Friend, Samantha F.; Hatlevik, Øyvind; Rubtsova, Kira; Rubtsov, Anatoly V.; Dragone, Leonard L.

    2014-01-01

    Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) adapts c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to activated components of the BCR signaling complex regulating BCR levels and signaling in developing B cells. Based on this function, we asked whether SLAP deficiency could decrease the threshold for tolerance and eliminate development of autoreactive B cells in two models of autoantibody production. First, we sensitized mice with a dsDNA mimetope that causes an anti-dsDNA response. Despite equivalent production of anti-peptide antibodies compared to BALB/c controls, SLAP−/− mice did not produce anti-dsDNA. Second, we used the 56R tolerance model. SLAP−/− 56R mice had decreased levels of dsDNA-reactive antibodies compared to 56R mice due to skewed light chain usage. Thus, SLAP is a critical regulator of B-cell development and function and its deficiency leads to decreased autoreactive B cells that are otherwise maintained by inefficient receptor editing or failed negative selection. PMID:24440645

  18. SLAP deficiency decreases dsDNA autoantibody production.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Pennington, Luke F; Shaw, Laura A; Brown, Meredith; Treacy, Eric C; Friend, Samantha F; Hatlevik, Øyvind; Rubtsova, Kira; Rubtsov, Anatoly V; Dragone, Leonard L

    2014-02-01

    Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) adapts c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to activated components of the BCR signaling complex regulating BCR levels and signaling in developing B cells. Based on this function, we asked whether SLAP deficiency could decrease the threshold for tolerance and eliminate development of autoreactive B cells in two models of autoantibody production. First, we sensitized mice with a dsDNA mimetope that causes an anti-dsDNA response. Despite equivalent production of anti-peptide antibodies compared to BALB/c controls, SLAP(-/-) mice did not produce anti-dsDNA. Second, we used the 56R tolerance model. SLAP(-/-) 56R mice had decreased levels of dsDNA-reactive antibodies compared to 56R mice due to skewed light chain usage. Thus, SLAP is a critical regulator of B-cell development and function and its deficiency leads to decreased autoreactive B cells that are otherwise maintained by inefficient receptor editing or failed negative selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Children With Potential Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Repo, Marleena; Lindfors, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Huhtala, Heini; Laurila, Kaija; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    Active screening for celiac disease frequently detects seropositive children with normal villous morphology (potential celiac disease). It remains unclear whether these subjects should be treated. We here investigated the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in children with potential and mucosal atrophy celiac disease. The prospective study involved 19 children with potential disease, 67 with partial or subtotal villous atrophy (P/SVA), and 16 with total villous atrophy (TVA). Twenty-three healthy children comprised the control group. The groups were compared for various clinical, histological, and laboratory parameters and hepcidin. The prevalence of abnormal parameters was as follows (controls, potential celiac disease, P/SVA, and TVA, respectively): anemia 0%, 15%, 22%, and 63%; low iron 5%, 0%, 14%, and 50%; increased transferrin receptor 1 5%, 16%, 20%, and 47%; low ferritin 0%, 21%, 35%, and 87%; and low transferrin saturation 10%, 11%, 41%, and 71%. One subject had low folate and none had low vitamin B12. The median values for hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were significantly lower and transferrin receptor 1 values higher in TVA group compared with other groups. After a median of 7 months on a gluten-free diet hemoglobin, total iron, ferritin, and albumin in children with P/SVA exceeded the baseline values in the potential celiac disease group. The development of anemia and iron deficiency in celiac disease is a continuum and may already be present in children with normal villous morphology, advocating an early diagnosis and possible dietary treatment of these patients.

  20. Effects of high-color-discrimination capability spectra on color-deficient vision.

    PubMed

    Perales, Esther; Linhares, João Manuel Maciel; Masuda, Osamu; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco M; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Light sources with three spectral bands in specific spectral positions are known to have high-color-discrimination capability. W. A. Thornton hypothesized that they may also enhance color discrimination for color-deficient observers. This hypothesis was tested here by comparing the Rösch-MacAdam color volume for color-deficient observers rendered by three of these singular spectra, two reported previously and one derived in this paper by maximization of the Rösch-MacAdam color solid. It was found that all illuminants tested enhance discriminability for deuteranomalous observers, but their impact on other congenital deficiencies was variable. The best illuminant was the one derived here, as it was clearly advantageous for the two red-green anomalies and for tritanopes and almost neutral for red-green dichromats. We conclude that three-band spectra with high-color-discrimination capability for normal observers do not necessarily produce comparable enhancements for color-deficient observers, but suitable spectral optimization clearly enhances the vision of the color deficient.

  1. Is Male Migraine Associated With Color Vision Deficiency? Findings Among Israeli Adolescents Between 2007 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Berger, Assaf; Findler, Michael; Korach, Tzfanya; Yativ, Oshrat Fono; Gronovich, Yoav; Hassidim, Ayal

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence has shown that migraine patients tend to suffer from color vision abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine whether color vision deficiency is associated with male migraine in a large population of adolescents. The study population included all Israeli male adolescents who underwent medical and cognitive examinations as part of their recruiting process between the years 2007 and 2013. Migraine prevalence among patients with color vision deficiency was compared to that of males without substantial color vision abnormalities. The study population included 305 964 male adolescents at the age of 17 ± 0.6, of whom 7584 (2.5%) had color vision deficiency, as determined by the Farnsworth Panel D-15 color blindness test. Males with color vision deficiency had a 32% increased prevalence of migraine as compared with the control group (odds ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.48, P < .001), after adjusting for multiple variables. The authors found an association between color vision deficiency and migraine in male adolescents. The study results lay the basis for further research into male migraine, as well as the visual aspects of migraine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Anteroposterior stability of the knee during the stance phase of gait after anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hui; Li, Jing-Sheng; Hosseini, Ali; Gadikota, Hemanth R; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-03-01

    Quadriceps avoidance and higher flexion strategies have been assumed as effects of ACL deficiency on knee joint function during gait. However, the effect of ACL deficiency on anteroposterior stability of the knee during gait is not well defined. In this study, 10 patients with unilateral acute ACL ruptures and the contralateral side intact performed gait on a treadmill. Flexion angles and anteroposterior translation of the ACL injured and the intact controlateral knees were measured at every 10% of the stance phase of the gait (from heel strike to toe-off) using a combined MRI and dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS). The data indicated that during the stance phase of the gait, the ACL-deficient knees showed higher flexion angles compared to the intact contralateral side, consistent with the assumption of a higher flexion gait strategy. However, the data also revealed that the ACL-deficient knees had higher anterior tibial translation compared to the intact contralateral side during the stance phase of the gait. The higher flexion gait strategy was not shown to correlate to a reduction of the anterior tibial translation in ACL deficient knees. These data may provide indications for conservative treatment or surgical reconstruction of the ACL injured knees in restoration of the knee kinematics during daily walking activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anteroposterior Stability of the Knee during the Stance Phase of Gait after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, CH; Li, JS; Hosseini, A; Gadikota, HR; Gill, TJ; Li, G

    2011-01-01

    Quadriceps avoidance and higher flexion strategy have been assumed as effects of ACL deficiency on knee joint function during gait. However, the effect of ACL deficiency on anteroposterior stability of the knee during gait is not well defined. In this study, ten patients with unilateral acute ACL ruptures and the contralateral side intact performed gait on a treadmill. Flexion angles and anteroposterior translation of the ACL injured and the intact controlateral knees were measured at every 10% of the stance phase of the gait (from heel strike to toe-off) using a combined MRI and dual fluoroscopic image system (DFIS). The data indicated that during the stance phase of the gait, the ACL-deficient knees showed higher flexion angles compared to the intact contralateral side, consistent with the assumption of a higher flexion gait strategy. However, the data also revealed that the ACL-deficient knees had higher anterior tibial translation compared to the intact contralateral side during the stance phase of the gait. The higher flexion gait strategy was not shown to correlate to a reduction of the anterior tibial translation in ACL deficient knees. These data may provide indications for conservative treatment or surgical reconstruction of the ACL injured knees in restoration of the knee kinematics during daily walking activities. PMID:22169387

  4. Altered small intestinal absorptive enzyme activities in leptin-deficient obese mice: influence of bowel resection.

    PubMed

    Kiely, James M; Noh, Jae H; Svatek, Carol L; Pitt, Henry A; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A

    2006-07-01

    Residual bowel increases absorption after massive small bowel resection. Leptin affects intestinal adaptation, carbohydrate, peptide, and lipid handling. Sucrase, peptidase, and acyl coenzyme A:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid absorption. We hypothesized that leptin-deficient obese mice would have altered absorptive enzymes compared with controls before and after small bowel resection. Sucrase, peptidase (aminopeptidase N [ApN], dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPPIV]), and MGAT activities were determined from lean control (C57BL/6J, n = 16) and leptin-deficient (Lep(ob), n = 16) mice small bowel before and after 50% resection. Ileal sucrase activity was greater in obese mice before and after resection. Jejunal ApN and DPPIV activities were lower for obese mice before resection; ileal ApN activity was unaltered after resection for both strains. Resection increased DPPIV activity in both strains. Jejunal MGAT in obese mice decreased postresection. In both strains, ileal MGAT activity decreased after resection, and obese mice had greater activity in remnant ileum. After small bowel resection, leptin-deficient mice have increased sucrase activity and diminished ileal ApN, DPPIV, and MGAT activity compared with controls. Therefore, we conclude that leptin deficiency alters intestinal enzyme activity in unresected animals and after small bowel resection. Altered handling of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid may contribute to obesity and diabetes in leptin-deficient mice.

  5. Effect of Performance Deficiencies on Graduation and Board Certification Rates: A 10-Year Multicenter Study of Anesthesiology Residents

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Judi A.; Fitzsimons, Michael G.; Pardo, Manuel C.; Hawkins, Joy L.; Huang, Yue Ming; Rudolph, Maria D. D.; Keyes, Mary A.; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly J.; Naim, Natale Z.; Buckley, Jack C.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Steadman, Randolph H.

    2016-01-01

    Background This multi-center, retrospective study was conducted to determine how resident performance deficiencies affect graduation and board certification. Methods Primary documents pertaining to resident performance were examined over a 10-year period at four academic anesthesiology residencies. Residents entering training between 2000 and 2009 were included, with follow-up through February 2016. Residents receiving actions by the programs’ Clinical Competency Committee were categorized by the area of deficiency and compared to peers without deficiencies. Results A total of 865 residents were studied (range: 127–275 per program). Of these, 215 residents received a total of 405 actions from their respective Clinical Competency Committee. Among those who received an action compared to those who did not, the proportion graduating differed (93% versus 99%, respectively, P<0.001), as did the proportion achieving board certification (89% versus 99%, respectively, P<0.001). When a single deficiency in an Essential Attribute (e.g., ethical, honest, respectful behavior; absence of impairment) was identified, the proportion graduating dropped to 55%. When more than three Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies were deficient, the proportion graduating also dropped significantly. Conclusions Overall graduation and board certification rates were consistently high in residents with no, or isolated, deficiencies. Residents deficient in an Essential Attribute, or multiple competencies, are at high risk of not graduating or achieving board certification. More research is needed on the effectiveness and selective deployment of remediation efforts, particularly for high-risk groups. PMID:27119434

  6. Effect of Performance Deficiencies on Graduation and Board Certification Rates: A 10-yr Multicenter Study of Anesthesiology Residents.

    PubMed

    Turner, Judi A; Fitzsimons, Michael G; Pardo, Manuel C; Hawkins, Joy L; Huang, Yue Ming; Rudolph, Maria D D; Keyes, Mary A; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly J; Naim, Natale Z; Buckley, Jack C; Grogan, Tristan R; Steadman, Randolph H

    2016-07-01

    This multicenter, retrospective study was conducted to determine how resident performance deficiencies affect graduation and board certification. Primary documents pertaining to resident performance were examined over a 10-yr period at four academic anesthesiology residencies. Residents entering training between 2000 and 2009 were included, with follow-up through February 2016. Residents receiving actions by the programs' Clinical Competency Committee were categorized by the area of deficiency and compared to peers without deficiencies. A total of 865 residents were studied (range: 127 to 275 per program). Of these, 215 residents received a total of 405 actions from their respective Clinical Competency Committee. Among those who received an action compared to those who did not, the proportion graduating differed (93 vs. 99%, respectively, P < 0.001), as did the proportion achieving board certification (89 vs. 99%, respectively, P < 0.001). When a single deficiency in an Essential Attribute (e.g., ethical, honest, respectful behavior; absence of impairment) was identified, the proportion graduating dropped to 55%. When more than three Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Core Competencies were deficient, the proportion graduating also dropped significantly. Overall graduation and board certification rates were consistently high in residents with no, or isolated, deficiencies. Residents deficient in an Essential Attribute, or multiple competencies, are at high risk of not graduating or achieving board certification. More research is needed on the effectiveness and selective deployment of remediation efforts, particularly for high-risk groups.

  7. Does the probability of developing ocular trauma-related visual deficiency differ between genders?

    PubMed

    Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros Razo; Valencia-Aguirre, Jessica Daniela; Lima-Gómez, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Ocular trauma affects males more often than females, but the impact of this condition regarding visual prognosis is unknown. We undertook this study to compare the probability of developing ocular trauma-related visual deficiency between genders, as estimated by the ocular trauma score (OTS). We designed an observational, retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional and open-label study. Female patients aged ≥6 years with ocular trauma were included and matched by age and ocular wall status with male patients at a 1:2 male/female ratio. Initial trauma features and the probability of developing visual deficiency (best corrected visual acuity <20/40) 6 months after the injury, as estimated by the OTS, were compared between genders. The proportion and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of visual deficiency 6 months after the injury were estimated. Ocular trauma features and the probability of developing visual deficiency were compared between genders (χ(2) and Fisher's exact test); p value <0.05 was considered significant. Included were 399 eyes (133 from females and 266 from males). Mean age of patients was 25.7 ± 14.6 years. Statistical differences existed in the proportion of zone III in closed globe trauma (p = 0.01) and types A (p = 0.04) and type B (p = 0.02) in open globe trauma. The distribution of the OTS categories was similar for both genders (category 5: p = 0.9); the probability of developing visual deficiency was 32.6% (95% CI = 24.6 to 40.5) in females and 33.2% (95% CI = 27.6 to 38.9) in males (p = 0.9). The probability of developing ocular trauma-related visual deficiency was similar for both genders. The same standard is required.

  8. Clinical significance of enzymatic deficiencies in the gastrointestinal tract with particular reference to lactase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rossi, E; Lentze, M J

    1984-12-01

    The study of deficiencies of small intestinal brush-border hydrolases increased our knowledge about the specific functions of hydrolases in the digestion of smaller molecules on the microvillus surface of the absorptive cells. The sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex has been shown to be synthesized as a precursor (pro-sucrase-isomaltase) which is then incorporated into the membrane. The hydrophobic N-terminal end of the molecule is anchored in the lipid bilayer. In SI deficiency the molecular base of the disease is still not clear. Absence of SI activity could be due to complete lack of precursor synthesis or to structural changes within the N-terminal end of the SI-complex. Deficiencies of peptide hydrolases have not been reported with the exception of enteropeptidase (EP). Here a congenital deficiency of the enzyme was observed as the primary defect in enzyme synthesis within the enterocytes and as a secondary defect due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. In contrast to the primary EP deficiency, the activity of EP can be restored in the cases of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by treatment with pancreatic extracts. Primary lactase deficiency exists in various forms. Besides congenital lactase deficiency, the late onset or adult type of lactase deficiency has been observed. The latter occurs in many different ethnic groups around the world. Here, using gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, the lack of enzyme activity could be shown to be a primary defect in enzyme protein synthesis. In man and in the rat, two different lactases have been identified. In contrast to adult lactase, fetal lactase contains sialic acid at the end of carbohydrate side chains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  10. Nutritional deficiencies and overweight prevalence among children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Shmaya, Yael; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Leitner, Yael; Reif, Shimon; Gabis, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk of developing nutritional deviations. Three to six year old children with ASD were compared to their typically developing siblings and to a typically developing age and gender matched control group, in order to evaluate their intake and body mass index. Nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake using three-day diet diaries completed by the parents. The sum percentage of nutritional deficiencies in the ASD group compared to the typical development group was 342.5% (±122.9%) vs. 275.9% (±106.8%), respectively (P=0.026). A trend toward higher deficiency in the ASD group was observed as compared to the sibling group 363% (±122.9%) vs. 283.2% (±94.7%) (P=0.071). A higher body mass index was found in the ASD group compared to their counterparts, despite their nutritional deficiencies. In conclusion, children with ASD are more likely to suffer from nutritional deficiencies despite higher body mass index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and pregnancy rates in women undergoing single embryo, blastocyst stage, transfer (SET) for IVF/ICSI.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Anckaert, Ellen; Guzman, Luis; Schiettecatte, Johan; Van Landuyt, Lisbet; Camus, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Tournaye, Herman

    2014-09-01

    What is the influence of vitamin D deficiency on pregnancy rates among women undergoing IVF/ICSI and Day 5 (blastocyst stage) single embryo transfer (SET)? Vitamin D deficiency results in significantly lower pregnancy rates in women undergoing single blastocyst transfer. Preliminary experiments have identified the presence of vitamin D receptors in the female reproductive system. However, results regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency on clinical outcomes are conflicting. None of the previous studies adopted a SET strategy. Serum vitamin D concentration was measured retrospectively in patients who underwent SET on Day 5. Overall 368 consecutive infertile women treated within a period of 15 months were included in the study. All patients underwent ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI and Day 5 SET. Serum samples were obtained 7 days prior to embryo transfer and stored frozen at -20°C. Samples were collectively analyzed for their 25-OH vitamin D content. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-OH vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml in accordance with the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in women with vitamin D deficiency compared with those with higher vitamin D values (41 versus 54%, P = 0.015).Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify whether vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with clinical pregnancy rates after controlling for 16 potential confounding factors. According to our results vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with lower clinical pregnancy rates, odds ratios [ORs (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 (0.39-0.95)] for vitamin D deficiency (deficient versus non-deficient women), P = 0.030. Finally, even when restricting our analysis to women undergoing elective SET (274 patients), vitamin D deficiency was again independently associated with pregnancy rates [OR (95% CI) 0.56 (0.33-0.93), P = 0.024]. Our results refer only to

  12. Genetics Home Reference: malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... decarboxylase malonic aciduria malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency MCD deficiency Related Information How are genetic conditions and ... Morrell JC, Wanders RJ, Matalon R, Gould SJ. MCD encodes peroxisomal and cytoplasmic forms of malonyl-CoA ...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.398 - Unauthorized assistance and other deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proper change orders. (3) Fraud or misrepresentation. A deficiency that involves an action by the Lender... debarment. Examples of this type of deficiency include falsified Verifications of Employment, false...

  14. A rare combination: congenital factor VII deficiency with Chiari malformation.

    PubMed

    Bay, Ali; Aktekin, Elif; Erkutlu, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Congenital factor (VII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder. We present a patient with congenital FVII deficiency and congenital hydrocephalus who underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation and needed no prophylaxis after the procedure.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... translocase deficiency Orphanet: Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) FOD (Fatty ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase deficiency Orphanet: Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... some affected individuals may also experience breast enlargement (gynecomastia). Despite having testes, people with this disorder are ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase deficiency pseudohermaphroditism, male, with gynecomastia testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase deficiency Related Information How ...

  18. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  19. iTRAQ protein profile analysis of Citrus sinensis roots in response to long-term boron-deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Lu, Yi-Bin; Guo, Peng; Sang, Wen; Feng, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-11-20

    Seedlings of Citrus sinensis were fertilized with boron (B)-deficient (0μM H3BO3) or -sufficient (10μM H3BO3) nutrient solution for 15weeks. Thereafter, iTRAQ analysis was employed to compare the abundances of proteins from B-deficient and -sufficient roots. In B-deficient roots, 164 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated proteins were identified. These proteins were grouped into the following functional categories: protein metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell transport, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, biological regulation and signal transduction, and lipid metabolism. The adaptive responses of roots to B-deficiency might include following several aspects: (a) decreasing root respiration; (b) improving the total ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (c) enhancing cell transport. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ are much larger than those detected using 2D gel electrophoresis, and many novel B-deficiency-responsive proteins involved in cell transport, biological regulation and signal transduction, stress responses and other metabolic processes were identified in this work. Our results indicate remarkable metabolic flexibility of citrus roots, which may contribute to the survival of B-deficient plants. This represents the most comprehensive analysis of protein profiles in response to B-deficiency. In this study, we identified many new proteins involved in cell transport, biological regulation and signal transduction, stress responses and other metabolic processes that were not previously known to be associated with root B-deficiency responses. Therefore, our manuscript represents the most comprehensive analysis of protein profiles in response to B-deficiency and provides new information about the plant response to B-deficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Veganism as a cause of iodine deficient hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yeliosof, Olga; Silverman, Lawrence A

    2018-01-26

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism.

  1. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency exacerbates sinonasal inflammation and alters local 25(OH)D3 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Jennifer K; Pasquini, Whitney N; Carroll, William W; Williamson, Tucker; Reaves, Nicholas; Patel, Kunal J; Mappus, Elliott; Schlosser, Rodney J; Atkinson, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have been shown to be vitamin D3 (VD3) deficient, which is associated with more severe disease and increased polyp size. To gain mechanistic insights into these observational studies, we examined the impact of VD3 deficiency on inflammation and VD3 metabolism in an Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis (Af-CRS). Balb/c mice were fed control or VD3 deficient diet for 4 weeks. Mice were then sensitized with intraperitoneal Af, and one week later given Af intranasally every three days for four weeks while being maintained on control or VD3 deficient diet. Airway function, sinonasal immune cell infiltrate and sinonasal VD3 metabolism profiles were then examined. Mice with VD3 deficiency had increased Penh and sRaw values as compared to controls as well as exacerbated changes in sRaw when coupled with Af-CRS. As compared to controls, VD3 deficient and Af-CRS mice had reduced sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase and the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3. Differential analysis of nasal lavage samples showed that VD3 deficiency alone and in combination with Af-CRS profoundly upregulated eosinophil, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers. VD3 deficiency exacerbated increases in monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) associated with Af-CRS. Conversely, T-regulatory cells were decreased in both Af-CRS mice and VD3 deficient mice, though coupling VD3 deficiency with Af-CRS did not exacerbate CD4 or T-regulatory cells numbers. Lastly, VD3 deficiency had a modifying or exacerbating impact on nasal lavage levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but had no impact on IL-17A. VD3 deficiency causes changes in sinonasal immunity, which in many ways mirrors the changes observed in Af-CRS mice, while selectively exacerbating inflammation. Furthermore, both VD3 deficiency and Af-CRS were associated with altered sinonasal VD3 metabolism causing reductions in local levels of the active VD3 metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3

  2. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in urban health checkup population.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhiwei; Song, Shufan; Miao, Li; Zhang, Pengrui; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jia; Hu, Yanjin; Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Tingting; Liang, Yufang; Wang, Qingtao; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Lizhi; Huo, Mingyan; Zhou, Qinyun

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is documented as a common health problem in the world. Limited data has been found on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Beijing area. To investigate the prevalence s of vitamin D deficiency in urban Beijing residents and the seasonal and monthly serum 25(OH)D variation in this population. This is an urban hospital based cross-sectional study lasting whole 2 years. 5531 (5-101 years old) urban Beijing residents for health checkup are recruited from December 9th, 2011 to December 8th, 2013. Each subject completed a questionnaire designed to quantify intake of vitamin D through food, vitamin D supplements, hours of sun exposure, sunscreen use over the past month. Serum 25(OH)D is statistically analyzed in accordance with gender, age, and time-lines. Vitamin D deficiency (Serum 25(OH)D level ≤20 ng/mL) and sever deficiency (Serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 10 ng/mL) are highly prevalent in this population. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is 87.1% and higher prevalence is found in female (89.0%) than male (84.9% P < 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency is also higher in female than male (59.3% and 42.7%, respectively, P < 0.001). Female under 20 and over 80 have lower 25(OH)D levels compared to 40-60 years old female (both P < 0.05). Severe vitamin D deficiency are also highly prevalence in this two group (60.9% and 54.1%) compared with 40-60 years old females (43.1%, both P < 0.05). Seasonal variation are also found in this population (P < 0.01). Autumn and summer have the higher 25(OH)D level than winter and spring in both genders (P < 0.001). Winter and spring have higher vitamin D deficiency and Severe deficiency than the other two seasons (P < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D level peaks in October and troughed in April in both female and male. Lower serum 25(OH)D level are found in April than February (P < 0.05) in both gender. This is the first time to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among urban Beijing

  3. Relationship of Iron Deficiency and Serum Ferritin Levels with Pulmonary Hypertension: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Jankowich, Matthew; Elston, Beth; Evans, Samuel K; Wu, Wen-Chih; Choudhary, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is prevalent in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), but whether iron deficiency or ferritin levels are associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the general population is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data on iron deficiency (exposure), and PH (pulmonary artery systolic pressure>40mmHg on echocardiogram) (outcome) on subjects with complete data on exposures and outcomes as well as covariates (n = 2,800) enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a longitudinal prospective observational cohort study of heart disease in African-Americans from Jackson, Mississippi. Iron deficiency was defined as a serum ferritin level < 15ng/mL (females); < 30ng/mL (males). We determined crude prevalence ratios (PRs) for PH in iron deficient versus non-iron deficient groups using modified Poisson regression modeling. We also analyzed the prevalence of PH by sex-specific quartiles of ferritin (Females ≤ 47ng/mL; > 47ng/mL- 95ng/mL; > 95ng/mL- 171ng/mL; > 171ng/mL; Males ≤ 110ng/mL; > 110ng/mL- 182ng/mL; > 182ng/mL- 294ng/mL; > 294ng/mL), using the same modeling technique with the lowest quartile as the referent. Median pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 27mmHg (interquartile range 23-31mmHg) in the study cohort. 147 subjects (5.2%) had PH and 140 (5.0%) had iron deficiency. However, of the 147 subjects with PH, only 4 were also iron deficient. The crude PH PR was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.4) in iron-deficiency compared to non-deficient. In analysis by quartiles of ferritin, adjusting for age and sex, there was no evidence of association with PH in quartiles 2 (PR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7-1.6), 3 (PR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.3), or 4 (PR 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.2) compared with quartile 1 (referent group, PR 1). Further analyses of the relationship between PH and ferritin as a log-transformed continuous variable or by quartiles of serum iron showed similar results. In the Jackson Heart Study, the prevalence of PH was similar in iron-deficient and non

  4. Higher Rate of Iron Deficiency in Obese Pregnant Sudanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Wisal; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria A.; Hassan, Nada G.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the association between obesity and iron deficiency (ID). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, during January–April 2015. Medical history (age, parity, gestational age) was gathered using questionnaire. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Women were sub-grouped based on BMI into underweight (< 18.5 kg/m^2), normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m^2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m^2) and obese (≥ 30 kg/m^2). Serum ferritin and red blood indices were measured in all studied women. RESULTS: Two (0.5%), 126 (29.8%), 224 (53.0%) and 71 (16.8%) out of the 423 women were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Anemia (Hb <11 g/dl), ID (ferritin <15µg/l) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were prevalent in 57.7%, 21.3% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared with the women with normal BMI, significantly fewer obese women were anemic [25 (35.2%) vs. 108 (85.7%), P < 0.001] and significantly higher number of obese women [25 (35.2) vs. 22 (17.5, P = 0.015] had iron deficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative association between serum ferritin and BMI (– 0.010 µg/, P= 0.006). CONCLUSION: It is evident from the current findings that prevalence of anaemia and ID showed different trends about BMI of pregnant women PMID:28698743

  5. Alterations of proteins in MDCK cells during acute potassium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peerapen, Paleerath; Ausakunpipat, Nardtaya; Chanchaem, Prangwalai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Chronic K(+) deficiency can cause hypokalemic nephropathy associated with metabolic alkalosis, polyuria, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial injury. However, effects of acute K(+) deficiency on the kidney remained unclear. This study aimed to explore such effects by evaluating changes in levels of proteins in renal tubular cells during acute K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were cultivated in normal K(+) (NK) (K(+)=5.3 mM), low K(+) (LK) (K(+)=2.5 mM), or K(+) depleted (KD) (K(+)=0 mM) medium for 24 h and then harvested. Cellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (5 gels per group). Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed a total 48 protein spots that had significantly differential levels among the three groups. Among these, 46 and 30 protein spots had differential levels in KD group compared to NK and LK groups, respectively. Comparison between LK and NK groups revealed only 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed. All of these differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), ezrin, lamin A/C, tubulin, chaperonin-containing TCP1 (CCT1), and calpain 1 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis showed three main functional networks, including 1) cell growth and proliferation, 2) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and 3) protein folding in which the altered proteins were involved. Further investigations on these networks may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of low K(+)-induced renal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The MMACHC proteome: hallmarks of functional cobalamin deficiency in humans.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; DiBello, Patricia M; Yu, Michelle; Miller, Abby; Wang, Sihe; Willard, Belinda; Rosenblatt, David S; Jacobsen, Donald W

    2011-07-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, B(12)) is an essential micronutrient required to fulfill the enzymatic reactions of cytosolic methylcobalamin-dependent methionine synthase and mitochondrial adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Mutations in the MMACHC gene (cblC complementation group) disrupt processing of the upper-axial ligand of newly internalized cobalamins, leading to functional deficiency of the vitamin. Patients with cblC disease present with both hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic acidemia, cognitive dysfunction, and megaloblastic anemia. In the present study we show that cultured skin fibroblasts from cblC patients export increased levels of both homocysteine and methylmalonic acid compared to control skin fibroblasts, and that they also have decreased levels of total intracellular folates. This is consistent with the clinical phenotype of functional cobalamin deficiency in vivo. The protein changes that accompany human functional Cbl deficiency are unknown. The proteome of control and cblC fibroblasts was quantitatively examined by two dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS). Major changes were observed in the expression levels of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and assembly, the neurological system and cell signaling. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated strong associations with neurological disorders, muscular and skeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases in the cblC mutant cell lines. Supplementation of the cell cultures with hydroxocobalamin did not restore the cblC proteome to the patterns of expression observed in control cells. These results concur with the observed phenotype of patients with the cblC disorder and their sometimes poor response to treatment with hydroxocobalamin. Our findings could be valuable for designing alternative therapies to alleviate the clinical manifestation of the cbl

  7. THE MMACHC PROTEOME: HALLMARKS OF FUNCTIONAL COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; DiBello, Patricia M.; Yu, Michelle; Miller, Abby; Wang, Sihe; Willard, Belinda; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jacobsen, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, B12) is an essential micronutrient required to fulfill the enzymatic reactions of cytosolic methylcobalamin-dependent methionine synthase and mitochondrial adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Mutations in the MMACHC gene (cblC complementation group) disrupt processing of the upper-axial ligand of newly internalized cobalamins, leading to functional deficiency of the vitamin. Patients with cblC disease present with both hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic acidemia, cognitive dysfunction, and megaloblastic anemia. In the present study we show that cultured skin fibroblasts from cblC patients export increased levels of both homocysteine and methylmalonic acid compared to control skin fibroblasts, and that they also have decreased levels of total intracellular folates. This is consistent with the clinical phenotype of functional cobalamin deficiency in vivo. The protein changes that accompany human functional Cbl deficiency are unknown. The proteome of control and cblC fibroblasts was quantitatively examined by two dimensional in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS). Major changes were observed in the expression levels of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and assembly, the neurological system and cell signaling. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated strong associations with neurological disorders, muscular and skeletal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases in the cblC mutant cell lines. Supplementation of the cell cultures with hydroxocobalamin did not restore the cblC proteome to the patterns of expression observed in control cells. These results concur with the observed phenotype of patients with the cblC disorder and their sometimes poor response to treatment with hydroxocobalamin. Our findings could be valuable for designing alternative therapies to alleviate the clinical manifestation of the cblC disorder, as

  8. A novel deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase of nuclear origin.

    PubMed

    Houstek, J; Klement, P; Floryk, D; Antonická, H; Hermanská, J; Kalous, M; Hansíková, H; Hout'ková, H; Chowdhury, S K; Rosipal, T; Kmoch, S; Stratilová, L; Zeman, J

    1999-10-01

    We report a new type of fatal mitochondrial disorder caused by selective deficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase). A hypotrophic newborn from a consanguineous marriage presented severe lactic acidosis, cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly and died from heart failure after 2 days. The activity of oligomycin-sensitive ATPase was only 31-34% of the control, both in muscle and heart, but the activities of cytochrome c oxidase, citrate synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were normal. Electrophoretic and western blot analysis revealed selective reduction of ATPase complex but normal levels of the respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. The same selective deficiency of ATPase was found in cultured skin fibroblasts which showed similar decreases in ATPase content, ATPase hydrolytic activity and level of substrate-dependent ATP synthesis (20-25, 18 and 29-33% of the control, respectively). Pulse-chase labelling of patient fibroblasts revealed low incorporation of [(35)S]methionine into assembled ATPase complexes, but increased incorporation into immunoprecipitated ATPase subunit beta, which had a very short half-life. In contrast, no difference was found in the size and subunit composition of the assembled and newly produced ATPase complex. Transmitochondrial cybrids prepared from enucleated fibroblasts of the patient and rho degrees cells derived from 143B. TK(-)human osteosarcoma cells fully restored the ATPase activity, ATP synthesis and ATPase content, when compared with control cybrids. Likewise, the pattern of [(35)S]methionine labelling of ATPase was found to be normal in patient cybrids. We conclude that the generalized deficiency of mitochondrial ATPase described is of nuclear origin and is caused by altered biosynthesis of the enzyme.

  9. The clinical syndrome of specific antibody deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R J; Le, C; Balloch, A; Tang, M L-K

    2006-12-01

    Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) is an immune deficiency which has been reported in adults and children with recurrent respiratory tract infections; however, the clinical features of SAD are not well described. This study evaluated formally the clinical syndrome of SAD, by comparing the clinical features of children with SAD and those of children with recurrent infection but normal immune function tests. SAD was defined as an adequate IgG antibody response to less than 50% of 12 pneumococcal serotypes tested following 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal immunization. An adequate IgG antibody response was defined as a post-immunization titre of >or= 1.3 microg/ml or >or= four times the preimmunization value. Seventy-four children with recurrent infection were evaluated where immune deficiencies other than SAD had been excluded. Eleven (14.9%) of these children had SAD. Clinical features differed between the group with SAD and the group with normal antibody responses. A history of otitis media, particularly in association with chronic otorrhoea was associated with SAD [relative risk (RR) of SAD in those with chronic otorrhoea 4.64 (P = 0.02)]. SAD was associated with allergic disease, particularly allergic rhinitis [RR of SAD in those with allergic rhinitis 3.77 (P = 0.04)]. These two clinical associations of SAD were independent in this study [RR of chronic otorrhoea in those with allergic rhinitis 0.85 (P = 0.28)]. SAD was not an age-related phenomenon in this population. SAD has a distinct clinical phenotype, presenting as recurrent infection associated with chronic otorrhoea and/or allergic disease, and the condition should be sought in children with these features.

  10. Energy homeostasis in leptin deficient Lepob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Alicja A; Ravussin, Yann; Leibel, Rudolph L; LeDuc, Charles A

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21). After losing 20% of initial weight (in approximately 2 weeks), the CR mice were stabilized at 80% of initial body weight for two weeks by titrated refeeding, and then released from food restriction. CR mice conserved energy (-17% below predicted based on body mass and composition during the day; -52% at night); and, when released to ad libitum feeding, CR mice regained fat and lean mass (to AL levels) within 5 weeks. CR mice did so while their ad libitum caloric intake was equal to that of the AL animals. While calorically restricted, the CR mice had a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER = 0.89) compared to AL (0.94); after release to ad libitum feeding, RER was significantly higher (1.03) than in the AL group (0.93), consistent with their anabolic state. These results confirm that, in congenitally leptin deficient animals, leptin is not required for compensatory reduction in energy expenditure accompanying weight loss, but suggest that the hyperphagia of the weight-reduced state is leptin-dependent.

  11. Unrecognized vitamin D3 deficiency is common in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hongliu; Dhima, Kaltra; Lockhart, Kaitlin C.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Hoesing, Ashley N.; Duong, Karen; Trisini-Lipsanopoulos, Ana; Hayes, Michael T.; Sohur, U. Shivraj; Wills, Anne-Marie; Mollenhauer, Brit; Flaherty, Alice W.; Hung, Albert Y.; Mejia, Nicte; Khurana, Vikram; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Selkoe, Dennis J.; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Growdon, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conclusively test for a specific association between the biological marker 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, a transcriptionally active hormone produced in human skin and liver, and the prevalence and severity of Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: We used liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to establish an association specifically between deficiency of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and PD in a cross-sectional and longitudinal case-control study of 388 patients (mean Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2.1 ± 0.6) and 283 control subjects free of neurologic disease nested in the Harvard Biomarker Study. Results: Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 were associated with PD in both univariate and multivariate analyses with p values = 0.0034 and 0.047, respectively. Total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels, the traditional composite measure of endogenous and exogenous vitamin D, were deficient in 17.6% of patients with PD compared with 9.3% of controls. Low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 as well as total 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels were correlated with higher total Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores at baseline and during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study reveals an association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and PD and suggests that thousands of patients with PD in North America alone may be vitamin D–deficient. This finding has immediate relevance for individual patients at risk of falls as well as public health, and warrants further investigation into the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:24068787

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic?12

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert BM; Rabenberg, Martina; Busch, Markus A; Cox, Lorna; Meadows, Sarah; Goldberg, Gail; Prentice, Ann; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Pilz, Stefan; Swart, Karin M; van Schoor, Natasja M; Lips, Paul; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Koskinen, Seppo; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Sempos, Christopher T; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been described as being pandemic, but serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] distribution data for the European Union are of very variable quality. The NIH-led international Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) has developed protocols for standardizing existing 25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. Objective: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Europe. Design: The VDSP protocols were applied in 14 population studies [reanalysis of subsets of serum 25(OH)D in 11 studies and complete analysis of all samples from 3 studies that had not previously measured it] by using certified liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry on biobanked sera. These data were combined with standardized serum 25(OH)D data from 4 previously standardized studies (for a total n = 55,844). Prevalence estimates of vitamin D deficiency [using various serum 25(OH)D thresholds] were generated on the basis of standardized 25(OH)D data. Results: An overall pooled estimate, irrespective of age group, ethnic mix, and latitude of study populations, showed that 13.0% of the 55,844 European individuals had serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L on average in the year, with 17.7% and 8.3% in those sampled during the extended winter (October–March) and summer (April–November) periods, respectively. According to an alternate suggested definition of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), the prevalence was 40.4%. Dark-skinned ethnic subgroups had much higher (3- to 71-fold) prevalence of serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L than did white populations. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these

  13. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency in Serbian Adults with Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Marija; Divac-Rankov, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, and severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic risk factor for early-onset emphysema. Despite the relatively high prevalence of A1ATD, this condition is frequently underdiagnosed. Our aim was to determine the distribution of the A1ATD phenotypes/alleles in patients with lung diseases as well as in the Serbian population. Methods: The study included the adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=348), asthma (n=71), and bronchiectasis (n=35); the control was 1435 healthy blood donors. The A1ATD variants were identified by isoelectric focusing or polymerase chain reaction-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. Results: PiMZ heterozygotes, PiZZ homozygotes, and Z allele carriers are associated with significantly higher risk of developing COPD than healthy individuals (odds ratios 3.43, 42.42, and 5.49 respectively). The calculated prevalence of PiZZ, PiMZ, and PiSZ was higher in patients with COPD (1:202, 1:8, and 1:1243) than in the Serbian population (1:5519, 1:38, and 1:5519). Conclusion: The high prevalence of A1ATD phenotypes/allele in our population has confirmed the necessity of screening for A1ATD in patients with COPD. On the other hand, on the basis of the estimated number of those with A1ATD among the COPD patients, it is possible to assess the diagnostic efficiency of A1ATD in the Serbian population. PMID:22971141

  14. Vitamin D deficiency causes airway hyperresponsiveness, increases airway smooth muscle mass, and reduces TGF‐β expression in the lungs of female BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Rachel E.; Shaw, Nicole C.; Berry, Luke J.; Hart, Prue H.; Gorman, Shelley; Zosky, Graeme R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is associated with disease severity in asthma. We tested whether there is a causal association between vitamin D deficiency, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). A physiologically relevant mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was developed by raising BALB/c mice on vitamin D‐deficient or ‐replete diets. AHR was assessed by measuring lung function responses to increasing doses of inhaled methacholine. Five‐micron sections from formalin‐fixed lungs were used for ASM measurement and assessment of lung structure using stereological methods. Transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Lungs were dissected from embryonic day (E) 17.5 vitamin D‐deficient and ‐replete fetal mice for quantification of ASM density and relative gene expression of TGF‐β signaling pathway molecules. Eight‐week‐old adult vitamin D‐deficient female mice had significantly increased airway resistance and ASM in the large airways compared with controls. Vitamin D‐deficient female mice had a smaller lung volume, volume of parenchyma, and alveolar septa. Both vitamin D‐deficient male and female mice had reduced TGF‐β levels in BALF. Vitamin D deficiency did not have an effect on ASM density in E17.5 mice, however, expression of TGF‐β1 and TGF‐β receptor I was downregulated in vitamin D‐deficient female fetal mice. Decreased expression of TGF‐β1 and TGF‐β receptor I during early lung development in vitamin D‐deficient mice may contribute to airway remodeling and AHR in vitamin D‐deficient adult female mice. This study provides a link between vitamin D deficiency and respiratory symptoms in chronic lung disease. PMID:24760528

  15. 12 CFR 204.6 - Charges for reserve deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Deficiencies in a depository institution's required reserve balance, after application of the... authorized to assess charges for deficiencies in required reserves at a rate of 1 percentage point per year... involved, permit a depository institution to eliminate deficiencies in its required reserve balance by...

  16. Solemnity: A Clinical Risk Index for Iron Deficient Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Oski, Frank A.

    1984-01-01

    Studies four groups of infants with iron deficiency but without anemia in an attempt to discover behavioral signs that can be used to index high-risk probability for iron deficiency. Solemnity in well-attached infants is suggested as a clinical sign to indicate the need for biochemical screening for iron deficiency. (AS)

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics of iron deficiency in soybean leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern leading to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding of the condition, at the metabolome level, could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extract...

  18. 33 CFR 72.01-30 - Temporary deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary deficiencies. 72.01-30 Section 72.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-30 Temporary deficiencies. Temporary deficiencies...

  19. 33 CFR 72.01-30 - Temporary deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary deficiencies. 72.01-30 Section 72.01-30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARINE INFORMATION Notices to Mariners § 72.01-30 Temporary deficiencies. Temporary deficiencies...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive such...