Science.gov

Sample records for a1b a2 b1

  1. Electron Impact Excitation of the lowest-lying A^1B1 Electronic state of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, P. J. O.; Thorn, P. A.; Brunger, M. J.; Campbell, L.; Kato, H.; Makochekanwa, C.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2006-05-01

    We report differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the A^1B1 electronic state of water. The energy range of these measurements is 15--50eV and, where possible, comparison is made to the results of available theory. We additionally report generalised oscillator strengths (at energies 30, 100 and 200eV) and a value of the optical oscillator strength (OOS) for this state. The present OOS is also compared to the results of earlier studies.

  2. Dynamics of combined forest damage risks for 21st century (SRES A1B, B1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panferov, Oleg; Merklein, Johannes; Sogachev, Andrey; Junghans, Udo; Ahrends, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The ongoing climate change can result in increasing frequency of weather extremes (Leckebusch et al., 2008) which in turn can produce wide area forest damage (windthrows, droughts, insect attacks) within forest ecosystems in Europe. The probability and extent of damage, depend not only on a strength of a driving force itself but especially on combinations of effecting agents and their interactions with forest ecosystem structure and soil properties. The combined effect of several factors which are not the extremes themselves can lead to the biotic and/or abiotic damage so that the combination becomes an extreme event. As soon as a damage event occurs, the forest structure is changed. The changes in forest structure in their turn strengthen or inhibits the influence of different climatic factors thus increase or decrease the probability of the next damage event creating positive or negative feedbacks. To assess the roles of separate meteorological factors and their combinations in forest damage under present and future climatic conditions the coupled model was created in University of Goettingen, as a part of a Decision Support System (Jansen et al, 2008, Panferov et al., 2009). The model combines the 3D ABL Model SCADIS (Panferov and Sogachev, 2008) with modified soil hydrology model BROOK 90 (Federer, 2003, Ahrends et al. 2009) and the model of climate dependent biotic damage. The projected future developments of forest damage events in 21st Century were carried out under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1; the present conditions were evaluated using the measured data of German Weather Service. Climate scenario data of coupled ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled by the regional climate model Climate Local Model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of 0.2° x 0.2° and temporal resolution of 24 hours. Using these data as input the small-scale coupled process based modeling was then carried out for example region of Solling, Germany calculating the water and energy balance

  3. The Role of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor-Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    study display dwarfism and the retardation of mammary gland growth [9]. At the 4-month time point, I similarly observed an overall decrease in mammary...Coactivator A1B1 in Growth Factor- Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark P Fereshteh (BS) CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION

  4. Plant Equipment Package Modernization Program. Volume 4-1. Model Lines. Shell, HE, M483/M107-155MM Case, Cartridge, M115B1, M148A1B1, M150B1-105MM Shell, HEAT-T, M456A1-105MM Fuze, PD, M739

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    Cartridge, M115B1, M148A1B1, M15#1B1-15MM J .. Shell, HEAT-T, M456A1-105MM Fuze, PD, M739 # prepared for Project Manager Munitions Production Base...ENGINEERS PLANT EQUIPMENT PACKAGE MODERNIZATION PROGRAM Volume 4-1 Report No. 75-86-R-4- MODEL LINE DEVELOPMENT FUZE,PD, M739 prepared for Project...In preparing the model line for the manufacture of piece parts for the M739 fuze, a number of facts became obvious and affect the detailed de- [ sign

  5. Test wells SF-1A, 1B, 1C, and SF-2A, 2B, 2C, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two well nests, SF-1 and SF-2, were drilled in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, to monitor the hydraulic head within selected zones of the aquifer. Each well nest consists of three piezometers of shallow, middle, and deep completion within the aquifer. Each set of wells was drilled to a depth of about 2,000 ft before actual construction of the piezometers. Each piezometer was completed using either 5 or 10 ft of wire-wrapped screen. These piezometers were constructed as part of a larger ongoing program with the Santa Fe Metropolitan Water Board and New Mexico State Engineer Office to establish a regional observation-well network and to define better the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Santa Fe and Santa Fe well fields. (USGS)

  6. Successful ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation:  Blood Group A1B Donor Into A2B Recipient With Anti-A1 Isoagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Abnormal levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) in tumour tissue and blood samples from patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Pollard, Damian; Larkin, AnneMarie; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Gately, Kathy; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Barr, Martin P; Lynch, Vincent; Ballot, Jo; Crown, John; Moriarty, Michael; O'Brien, Emmet; Morgan, Ross; Clynes, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.

  8. Global Profiling of hnRNP A2/B1-RNA Binding on Chromatin Highlights LncRNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Eric D; Balas, Maggie M; Griffin, April M; Roberts, Justin T; Johnson, Aaron M

    2018-06-23

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) often carry out their functions through associations with adaptor proteins. We recently identified heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 as an adaptor of the human HOTAIR lncRNA. hnRNP A2 and B1 are splice isoforms of the same gene. The spliced version of HOTAIR preferentially associates with the B1 isoform, which we hypothesize contributes to RNA-RNA matching between HOTAIR and transcripts of target genes in breast cancer. Here we used enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) to map the direct interactions between A2/B1 and RNA in breast cancer cells. Despite differing by only twelve amino acids, the A2 and B1 splice isoforms associate preferentially with distinct populations of RNA in vivo. Through cellular fractionation experiments we characterize the pattern of RNA association in chromatin, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. We find that a majority of interactions occur on chromatin, even those that do not contribute to co-transcriptional splicing. A2/B1 binding site locations on multiple RNAs hint at a contribution to the regulation and function of lncRNAs. Surprisingly, the strongest A2/B1 binding site occurs in a retained intron of HOTAIR, which interrupts an RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. In vitro eCLIP experiments highlight additional exonic B1 binding sites in HOTAIR which also surround the RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. Interestingly, a version of HOTAIR with the intron retained is still capable of making RNA-RNA interactions in vitro through the hotspot region. Our data further characterize the multiple functions of a repurposed splicing factor with isoform-biased interactions, and highlight that the majority of these functions occur on chromatin-associated RNA.

  9. 75 FR 28188 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Frost, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New..., Massachusetts, on May 10, 2010. Peter A. White, Assistant Manager, Engine and Propeller Directorate, Aircraft... Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1 Turbofan Engines...

  10. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  11. Interaction of A1B1 and BRCA1 in the Development of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    using MCF-7 cellular lysate (Figure 1). In this experiment, BRCA1 was immunoprecipitated with a BRCA1 antibody (Ab2, Oncogene Science) and GammaBind...Sepharose beads (GE Healthcare). AIB1 was detected by immunoblot with an anti-AIB1 antibody (BD Transduction). There was increased association of...EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR as detected with a phosphotyrosine antibody (Figure 8A). This result was then verified with antibodies

  12. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to themore » cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.« less

  13. Impacts of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury on Expressions of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B1, 2D1, and 3A2 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Junrui; Cheng, Jingmin; Xiao, Wenjing; Fan, Kaihua; Gu, Jianwen; Yu, Botao; Yin, Guangfu; Wu, Juan; Ren, Jiandong; Hou, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Tan, Yonghong; Jin, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme superfamily is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, which is responsible for the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant medications used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. Modification of CYP450 expression may have important influences on drug metabolism and lead to untoward effects on those with narrow therapeutic windows. However, the impact of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) on the expression of CYP450 has received little attention. The subfamilies of CYP1A, 2B, 2D, and 3A account for about 85 % of all human drug metabolism of clinical significance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expressions of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 in rats suffering bTBI. Meanwhile, we also measured some important cytokines in serum after injury, and calculated the correlation between these cytokines and the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. The results showed that bTBI could significantly reduce mRNA expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 at the early stage and induce the expressions from 48 h to 1 week after injury. The protein expressions of these CYP450s had all been downregulated from 24 to 48 h post- injury, and then began to elevate at 48 h after bTBI. The cytokines, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased significantly in the early phase, and began to reduce at the delayed phase of bTBI. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but not IL-2 were significantly negative correlated with the mRNA expressions of CYP2B1 and CYP2D1 and the proteins expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. In conclusion, our work has, for the first time, indicated that bTBI has significant impact on the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2, which may be related to the cytokines induced by the injury.

  14. Design synthesis and evaluation of the inhibitory selectivity of novel trans-resveratrol analogues on human recombinant CYP1A1 CYP1A2 and CYP1B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of trans-stilbene derivatives containing 4’-thiomethyl substituent were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activities on human recombinant cytochrome P450(s): CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. CYP1A2-related metabolism of stilbene derivatives was estimated by using NADPH oxidation assay. A...

  15. Low-voltage organic field effect transistors with a 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene semiconductor layer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Atefeh Y; Khassanov, Artoem; Reuter, Knud; Meyer-Friedrichsen, Timo; Halik, Marcus

    2012-10-10

    An asymmetric n-alkyl substitution pattern was realized in 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(13)-BTBT) in order to improve the charge transport properties in organic thin-film transistors. We obtained large hole mobilities up to 17.2 cm(2)/(V·s) in low-voltage operating devices. The large mobility is related to densely packed layers of the BTBT π-systems at the channel interface dedicated to the substitution motif and confirmed by X-ray reflectivity measurements. The devices exhibit promising stability in continuous operation for several hours in ambient air.

  16. Pyranoflavones: a group of small-molecule probes for exploring the active site cavities of cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiawang; Taylor, Shannon F; Dupart, Patrick S; Arnold, Corey L; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Yuji; Skripnikova, Elena V; Zhao, Ming; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2013-05-23

    Selective inhibition of P450 enzymes is the key to block the conversion of environmental procarcinogens to their carcinogenic metabolites in both animals and humans. To discover highly potent and selective inhibitors of P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, as well as to investigate active site cavities of these enzymes, 14 novel flavone derivatives were prepared as chemical probes. Fluorimetric enzyme inhibition assays were used to determine the inhibitory activities of these probes toward P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, and 2B1. A highly selective P450 1B1 inhibitor 5-hydroxy-4'-propargyloxyflavone (5H4'FPE) was discovered. Some tested compounds also showed selectivity between P450s 1A1 and 1A2. α-Naphthoflavone-like and 5-hydroxyflavone derivatives preferentially inhibited P450 1A2, while β-naphthoflavone-like flavone derivatives showed selective inhibition of P450 1A1. On the basis of structural analysis, the active site cavity models of P450 enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 were generated, demonstrating a planar long strip cavity and a planar triangular cavity, respectively.

  17. Selective increases in serotonin 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2C binding sites in adult rat basal ganglia following lesions of serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Compan, V; Segu, L; Buhot, M C; Daszuta, A

    1998-05-18

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine possible adaptive changes in serotonin 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2C receptor binding sites in adult rat basal ganglia, after partial or severe lesions of serotonergic neurons produced by intraraphe injections of variable amounts of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. In controls, the 5-HT1B/1D sites labeled with S-CM-G[125I]TNH2 were evenly distributed in the core and the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The density of 5-HT1B/1D sites was higher in the ventral than dorsal part of the striatum and no regional differences were detected along the rostrocaudal axis of the structure. The 5-HT2A/2C sites labeled with [125I]DOI were preferentially distributed in the mediodorsal striatum and higher densities were detected in the shell than core of the nucleus accumbens. Following 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections, there were no changes in binding of either receptor subtype after partial lesions entailing 80-90% 5-HT depletions. After severe 5-HT depletions (over 95%), large increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding were observed in the substantia nigra (78%), but no changes took place in the globus pallidus. Increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding were also detected in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (27%). Similar sized increases in 5-HT2A/2C binding (22%) were restricted to the medial striatum. The present results suggest a preferential association between 5-HT1B/1D receptors and the striatonigral neurons containing substance P, as indicated by the striatal distribution of these receptors and their selective increases in the substantia nigra after severe 5-HT deprivation. We recently proposed a similar relationship between the 5-HT4 receptors and the striatopallidal neurons containing met-enkephalin. Moreover, the increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding in the substantia nigra and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens reinforce the view of an implication of this receptor subtype in motor functions. In contrast, the prominent increases in 5-HT2A/2C binding after

  18. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 2; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Multi-Layer Targets A-1, A-2, and B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Targets A-1, A-2, and B-2 was to study hypervelocity impacts through multi-layered panels simulating Whipple shields on spacecraft. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  19. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  20. Endophilin B1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Zelda H

    2009-01-01

    Endophilin B1 is a member of the endophilin family that is localized predominantly to intracellular membranes. Also known as Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1), this protein has been observed to regulate the membrane dynamics of various intracellular compartments, such as the control of mitochondrial morphology and autophagosome formation in fibroblast. Endophilin B1 is expressed in the brain, but its functions in neurons had remained unknown. Recently, we have observed a novel role of endophilin B1 in neurons where it controls the trafficking of TrkA, cognate receptor for the prototypic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF). Knock-down of endophilin B1 expression induces precocious targeting of NGF/TrkA to late endosomes and lysosomes, thereby leading to reduced TrkA levels. This is accompanied by marked attenuation of NGF-induced gene transcription and neurite outgrowth. Our observations suggest that endophilin B1 regulates TrkA level and downstream functions by controlling the movement of TrkA to late endosomes/lysosomes, possibly acting at the level of early endosomes. PMID:19704909

  1. Avermectin B1

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Avermectin B1 ; CASRN 65195 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  2. Characterization of the X~ 2A1, A~ 2B1, and X~ 2Π electronic states of the Ga2H molecule and the X~ 2A' and A~ 2A'' isomerization transition states connecting the three minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Suyun; Yan, Ge; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of highly correlated ab initio methods has been used to predict the geometrical parameters of the linear (X˜Π2) and H-bridged (X˜A12 and ÃB12) Ga2H isomers and two isomerization transition states (X˜A'2 and ÃA″2) connecting the three minima. Dipole moments and vibrational frequencies are also obtained. The global minimum X˜A12 ground state of the H-bridged GaHGa isomer is predicted to lie only 1.6 [1.9 with the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) corrections] kcalmol-1 below the ÃB12 state. The X˜A12 state lies 5.4kcalmol-1 below the X˜Π2 ground state of the linear GaGaH isomer at the coupled-cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] level of theory with the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set. The full triples coupled-cluster method is found to alter these CCSD(T) predictions by as much as 0.3kcalmol-1. The forward isomerization barriers from the linear ground state to the X˜A'2 and ÃA″2 transition states are determined to be 3.3 and 5.3kcalmol-1, respectively. The reverse isomerization barrier between the X˜A12 GaHGa structure and the X˜Π2 GaGaH structure is predicted to be 8.6 (8.2 with the ZPVE corrections) kcalmol-1 at the aug-cc-pVQZ CCSD(T) level of theory.

  3. Expression and inducibility of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 by β-naphthoflavone and CYP2B22, CYP3As by rifampicin in heart regions and coronary arteries of pig.

    PubMed

    Messina, Andrea; Puccinelli, Emanuela; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the constitutive and inducible expression of the CYP genes (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29 and 3A46), related transcriptional factors (AhR, CAR, PXR, and Nrf2) and the antioxidant enzymes SOD, catalase, GSSH-reductase and GSH-peroxidase were investigated in the liver, heart regions and coronary arteries of control pigs and pigs treated with β-naphthoflavone (βNF) or with rifampicin (RIF). Real-time PCR experiments and enzymatic or immunoblot assays showed that CYP1A1 was predominantly enhanced by βNF in a similar manner in all the heart regions, whereas antioxidant enzyme activity was not affected. The rifampicin treatment resulted in an induction of CYP2B22 and CYP3As, at the transcriptional, activity and protein level in liver but not in heart nor in the coronary arteries, despite the expression of CAR and PXR in the cardiac tissues. These results obtained in vivo suggest that pig cardiac tissues may represent a useful model for humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. B-1 phagocytes: the myeloid face of B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Popi, Ana Flavia

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between malignant B cells and macrophages has long been established. Furthermore, evolutionary studies have demonstrated that B cells from early vertebrates have both phagocytic and antibody production capabilities. In addition to their lymphoid nature, B-1 cells retain several myeloid characteristics. Various reports have demonstrated that B-1 cells can differentiate into phagocytes. However, descriptions of B-1 cells as a novel phagocyte cell member are rarely found in the literature. This review aims to present the available data regarding B-1 cell-derived phagocytes and also discusses how their existence might be relevant to hematopoiesis and immune responses. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. 76 FR 56637 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Model IO-720-A1B Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Model IO-720-A1B Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... directive (AD) for certain model IO-720-A1B Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. This AD requires a... crankshaft due to incorrect parts installed. We are issuing this AD to prevent engine crankshaft failure and...

  6. Study of grain boundary transparency in (Y b1 -xC ax) B a2C u3O bicrystal thin films over a wide temperature, field, and field orientation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Abraimov, Dmytro; Polyanskii, Anatolii; Kametani, Fumitake; Larbalestier, David

    2015-03-01

    The residual low-angle grain boundary (GB) network is still the most important current-limiting mechanism operating in biaxially textured rare-earth barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) coated conductors. While Ca doping is well established to improve supercurrent flow across low-angle GBs in weak fields at high temperatures, Ca doping also depresses Tc, making it so far impractical for high-temperature applications of REBCO coated conductors. On the other hand, high-field-magnet applications of REBCO require low temperatures. Here we systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Ca doping in improving the GB transparency, rGB=JcGB/ Jcgrain , of low-angle Y b1 -xC axBaCuO [001] tilt bicrystal films down to 10 K and with magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the film surfaces, while varying the Ca and oxygen doping level. Using low-temperature scanning laser microscopy and magneto-optical imaging, we found rGB to strongly depend on the angle between magnetic field and the GB plane and clearly identified regimes in which JcGB can exceed Jcgrain(rGB>1 ) where the GB pinning is optimized by the field being parallel to the GB dislocations. However, even in this favorable situation, we found that rGB became much smaller at lower temperatures. Calculations of the GB Ca segregation profile predict that the high-Jc channels between the GB dislocation cores are almost Ca free. It may be therefore that the positive effects of Ca doping seen by many authors near Tc are partly a consequence of the higher Tc of these Ca-free channels.

  7. Hadronic decays of B →a1(1260 )b1(1235 ) in the perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao-Yang; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the branching ratios and polarization fractions of the B →a1b1 decays in the perturbative QCD(pQCD) approach at leading order, where a1(b1) stands for the axial-vector a1(1260 )[b1(1235 )] state. By combining the phenomenological analyses with the perturbative calculations, we find the following results: (a) the large decay rates around 10-5 to 10-6 of the B →a1b1 decays dominated by the longitudinal polarization(except for the B+→b1+a10 mode) are predicted and basically consistent with those in the QCD factorization(QCDF) within errors, which are expected to be tested by the Large Hadron Collider and Belle-II experiments. The large B0→a10b10 branching ratio could provide hints to help explore the mechanism of the color-suppressed decays. (b) the rather different QCD behaviors between the a1 and b1 mesons result in the destructive(constructive) contributions in the nonfactorizable spectator diagrams with a1(b1) emission. Therefore, an interesting pattern of the branching ratios appears for the color-suppressed B0→a10a10,a10b10, and b10b10 modes in the pQCD approach, BR (B0→b10b10)>BR (B0→a10b10)≳BR (B0→a10a10), which is different from BR (B0→b10b10)˜BR (B0→a10b10)≳BR (B0→a10a10) in the QCDF and would be verified at future experiments. (c) the large naive factorization breaking effects are observed in these B →a1b1 decays. Specifically, the large nonfactorizable spectator(weak annihilation) amplitudes contribute to the B0→b1+a1-(B+→a1+b10andB+→b1+a10) mode(s), which demand confirmations via the precise measurements. Furthermore, the different phenomenologies shown among B →a1b1, B →a1a1, and B →b1b1 decays are also expected to be tested stringently, which could shed light on the typical QCD dynamics involved in these modes, even further distinguish those two popular pQCD and QCDF approaches.

  8. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  9. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed...

  10. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed...

  11. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a... Education. (c) Department means the Department of Education. (d) Disclosure means the availability or...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  16. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence. It does not... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a...

  17. 45 CFR 73b.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 73b.1 Section 73b.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DEBARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF FORMER EMPLOYEES... officer or employee of the Department, including former and retired officers of the commissioned corps of...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects. [43 FR 27174, June 23, 1978, as amended by Order...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  1. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  2. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  3. Antigen specific suppression of humoral immunity by anergic Ars/A1 B cells1

    PubMed Central

    Aviszus, Katja; MacLeod, Megan K.L.; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Detanico, Thiago O.; Heiser, Ryan A.; St. Clair, James B.; Guo, Wenzhong; Wysocki, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Autoreactive anergic B lymphocytes are considered to be dangerous because of their potential for activation and recruitment into autoimmune responses. Yet they persist for days and constitute ~5% of the B cell pool. We assessed their functional potential in the Ars/A1 transgene model, where anergic B cells express a dual-reactive antigen receptor that binds, in addition to a self-antigen, the hapten p-azophenylarsonate (Ars). When Ars/A1 B cells were transferred into adoptive recipients that were immunized with foreign proteins covalently conjugated with Ars, endogenous IgG immune responses to both were selectively and severely diminished, and the development of T helper cells was impaired. Approximately 95% inhibition of the anti-Ars response was attained with ~4000 transferred Ars/A1 B cells through redundant mechanisms, one of which depended upon their expression of MHC II but not upon secretion of IL-10 or IgM. This antigen-specific suppressive activity implicates the autoreactive anergic B cell as an enforcer of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. PMID:23008448

  4. Antigen-specific suppression of humoral immunity by anergic Ars/A1 B cells.

    PubMed

    Aviszus, Katja; Macleod, Megan K L; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Detanico, Thiago O; Heiser, Ryan A; St Clair, James B; Guo, Wenzhong; Wysocki, Lawrence J

    2012-11-01

    Autoreactive anergic B lymphocytes are considered to be dangerous because of their potential for activation and recruitment into autoimmune responses. However, they persist for days and constitute ∼5% of the B cell pool. We assessed their functional potential in the Ars/A1 transgene model, where anergic B cells express a dual-reactive Ag receptor that binds, in addition to a self-Ag, the hapten p-azophenylarsonate (Ars). When Ars/A1 B cells were transferred into adoptive recipients that were immunized with foreign proteins covalently conjugated with Ars, endogenous IgG immune responses to both were selectively and severely diminished, and the development of T helper cells was impaired. Approximately 95% inhibition of the anti-Ars response was attained with ∼4000 transferred Ars/A1 B cells through redundant mechanisms, one of which depended on their expression of MHC class II but not upon secretion of IL-10 or IgM. This Ag-specific suppressive activity implicates the autoreactive anergic B cell as an enforcer of immunological tolerance to self-Ags.

  5. 76 FR 39254 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1, and TH-55... reviewed Schweizer Service Bulletins No. B-295 for Model 269A, A-1, B, and C helicopters, and No. C1B-032... citation for Part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13...

  6. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    PubMed

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two- and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k-space. Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error <10%) when sampling under 10% of k-space from the 3D data. The methods demonstrated here can successfully measure T1, T2, and B1. Errors due to slice profile can be substantially reduced by including its effect in the dictionary or acquiring data in 3D. Magn Reson Med 76:1127-1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.

    PubMed

    Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

    1996-01-01

    Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia.

  8. 45 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As... the Department of Health and Human Services. (c) Department means the Department of Health and Human... used in connection with the term “record”; and, to have control over or responsibility for a system of...

  9. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  10. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  11. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  12. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  14. Multimodel ensemble projection of precipitation in eastern China under A1B emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Tang, Jianping; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Hong, Songyou; Gutowski, William J.; McGregor, John

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia, future precipitation projection in China is constructed using five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by the same global climate model (GCM) of European Centre/Hamburg version 5. The simulations cover both the control climate (1978-2000) and future projection (2041-2070) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. For the control climate, the RCMs have an advantage over the driving GCM in reproducing the summer mean precipitation distribution and the annual cycle. The biases in simulating summer precipitation mainly are caused by the deficiencies in reproducing the low-level circulation, such as the western Pacific subtropical high. In addition, large inter-RCM differences exist in the summer precipitation simulations. For the future climate, consistent and inconsistent changes in precipitation between the driving GCM and the nested RCMs are observed. Similar changes in summer precipitation are projected by RCMs over western China, but model behaviors are quite different over eastern China, which is dominated by the Asian monsoon system. The inter-RCM difference of rainfall changes is more pronounced in spring over eastern China. North China and the southern part of South China are very likely to experience less summer rainfall in multi-RCM mean (MRM) projection, while limited credibility in increased summer rainfall MRM projection over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The inter-RCM variability is the main contributor to the total uncertainty for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and South China during 2041-2060, while lowest for Northeast China, being less than 40%.

  15. Multi-model projections of Indian summer monsoon climate changes under A1B scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X.; Wang, S.; Tang, J.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia, the projections of Indian summer monsoon climate changes are constructed using three global climate models (GCMs) and seven regional climate models (RCMs) during 2041-2060 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission scenario. For the control climate of 1981-2000, most nested RCMs show advantage over the driving GCM of European Centre/Hamburg Fifth Generation (ECHAM5) in the temporal-spatial distributions of temperature and precipitation over Indian Peninsula. Following the driving GCM of ECHAM5, most nested RCMs produce advanced monsoon onset in the control climate. For future climate widespread summer warming is projected over Indian Peninsula by all climate models, with the Multi-RCMs ensemble mean (MME) temperature increasing of 1°C to 2.5°C and the maximum warming center located in northern Indian Peninsula. While for the precipitation, a large inter-model spread is projected by RCMs, with wetter condition in MME projections and significant increase over southern India. Driven by the same GCM, most RCMs project advanced monsoon onset while delayed onset is found in two Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) projections, indicating uncertainty can be expected in the Indian Summer Monsoon onset. All climate models except Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model with equal resolution (referred as CCAMP) and two RegCM3 models project stronger summer monsoon during 2041-2060. The disagreement in precipitation projections by RCMs indicates that the surface climate change on regional scale is not only dominated by the large-scale forcing which is provided by driving GCM but also sensitive to RCM' internal physics.

  16. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  17. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2012-01-01

    Typically, chemopreventive agents involve either induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and/or inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) that are required for the activation of procarcinogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent detoxification. Phloretin markedly inhibited formation of the epoxide with human liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. Phloretin also inhibited the activities of nifedipine oxidation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in human liver microsomes. These data show that phloretin strongly inhibits CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, which are involved in the activation of AFB1. Phloretin increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12) cells in a dose-dependent manner. GST activity toward AFBO in cell lysates treated with 20 μM phloretin was 23-fold that of untreated control cell lysates. The expression of GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 was induced by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner in AML 12 cells. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were able to significantly increase the conjugation of AFBO with glutathione. Concurrently, induction of the GST isozyme genes was partially associated with the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that phloretin has a strong chemopreventive effect against AFB1 through its inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and its inductive effect on GST activity. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(a)-5 - Pension and annuity plans; limitations under section 404(a)(1)(B).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are reasonable and appropriate in view of the provisions of the plan, the funding medium, and other... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension and annuity plans; limitations under... Plans, Etc. § 1.404(a)-5 Pension and annuity plans; limitations under section 404(a)(1)(B). (a) Subject...

  19. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Hirsch, Joseph A.; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Jordon, Barry D.; Cirio, Rosanna T.; Elder, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The earliest and perhaps best example of an interaction between nutrition and dementia is related to thiamine (vitamin B1). Throughout the last century, research showed that thiamine deficiency is associated with neurological problems, including cognitive deficits and encephalopathy. Multiple similarities exist between classical thiamine deficiency and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in that both are associated with cognitive deficits and reductions in brain glucose metabolism. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are critical components of glucose metabolism that are reduced in the brains of AD patients and by thiamine deficiency, and their decline could account for the reduction in glucose metabolism. In preclinical models, reduced thiamine can drive AD-like abnormalities, including memory deficits, plaques, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. Furthermore, excess thiamine diminishes AD-like pathologies. In addition to dietary deficits, drugs, or other manipulations that interfere with thiamine absorption can cause thiamine deficiency. Elucidating the reasons why the brains of AD patients are functionally thiamine deficient and determining the effects of thiamine restoration may provide critical information to help treat patients with AD. PMID:26971083

  20. In vivo Metabolism of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent fumonisin mycotoxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It inhibits ceramide synthase, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and function, is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and induces neural tube defects in some mouse strains. Its human health effect...

  1. Effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    He, Jiake; Qiu, Zhixia; Li, Ning; Yu, Yang; Lu, Yang; Han, Deen; Li, Tingting; Zhao, Di; Sun, Wei; Fang, Fang; Zheng, Jianheng; Fan, Hongwei; Chen, Xijing

    2011-07-01

    Repaglinide is commonly used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this research was to study the effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide in healthy Chinese volunteers. A total of 22 healthy young male participants were recruited from a pool of pharmacogenetically characterized participants genotyped for SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C8 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Volunteers with CYP2C8*3 and CYP3A4*4 alleles were excluded from the clinical study. Then selected volunteers took part in the clinical pharmacokinetic study, receiving 2 mg repaglinide. Healthy participants with SLCO1B1*1A/*1B or *1A/*1A genotype and SLCO1B1 *15/*1A or *5/*1A genotype had significantly higher AUC(0-∞) than participants with SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype, with the former showing an increase over the latter of 39.81 and 42.09%, respectively (P = 0.028, 0.032). The clearance in the former two genotype groups was significantly attenuated (by 27.39 and 28.55%, respectively) compared with individuals with SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype (P = 0.015, 0.019). No significant differences in blood glucose-lowering effect were observed among three genotype groups. SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype is associated with reduced pharmacokinetic exposure after a single dose oral administration of 2 mg repaglinide, including decreased AUC(0-∞) and increased clearance of repaglinide. Moreover, this polymorphism of SLCO1B1 has significant influence on the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide, but no effects on its pharmacodynamics.

  2. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  3. 77 FR 53182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: Navy (AKL) [[Page 53184

  4. 26 CFR 1.681(b)-1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross reference. 1.681(b)-1 Section 1.681(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.681(b)-1 Cross reference. For disallowance of certain charitable, etc...

  5. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  6. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  7. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  8. Neuroradiological findings in GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shahina; Prasad, Akhila; Yadav, Sachchida Nand; Chaudhary, Vikas; Garga, Umesh Chandra

    2011-07-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is a very rare lysosomal disorder. As per our knowledge, to date, only one article depicting the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is available in the literature. We are the first to describe the neuroradiological findings in an Indian patient diagnosed with GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1.

  9. 26 CFR 31.6302(b)-1 - Method of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of collection. 31.6302(b)-1 Section 31.6302(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6302(b)-1 Method of collection. For provisions relating to collection by means...

  10. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  11. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons referred to... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  15. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  16. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  17. 12 CFR 261b.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and scope. 261b.1 Section 261b.1 Banks... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.1 Basis and scope. This part is issued by the Board of... public is entitled to the fullest practicable information regarding the decision making processes of the...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 31.3306(b)-1 Section 31.3306(b)-1... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law and... after 1938 constitutes wages is determined under section 3306(b). Accordingly, only remuneration paid...

  19. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-21] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Pursuant to Section 36(b) (1) Of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Iraq...

  20. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer protection...

  1. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b) [Reserved] [74 FR 2268, Jan...

  2. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b...

  3. Screening Estrogenic Activities of Chemicals or Mixtures In Vivo Using Transgenic (cyp19a1b-GFP) Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Brion, François; Le Page, Yann; Piccini, Benjamin; Cardoso, Olivier; Tong, Sok-Keng; Chung, Bon-chu; Kah, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) transgenic zebrafish expresses GFP (green fluorescent protein) under the control of the cyp19a1b gene, encoding brain aromatase. This gene has two major characteristics: (i) it is only expressed in radial glial progenitors in the brain of fish and (ii) it is exquisitely sensitive to estrogens. Based on these properties, we demonstrate that natural or synthetic hormones (alone or in binary mixture), including androgens or progestagens, and industrial chemicals induce a concentration-dependent GFP expression in radial glial progenitors. As GFP expression can be quantified by in vivo imaging, this model presents a very powerful tool to screen and characterize compounds potentially acting as estrogen mimics either directly or after metabolization by the zebrafish embryo. This study also shows that radial glial cells that act as stem cells are direct targets for a large panel of endocrine disruptors, calling for more attention regarding the impact of environmental estrogens and/or certain pharmaceuticals on brain development. Altogether these data identify this in vivo bioassay as an interesting alternative to detect estrogen mimics in hazard and risk assessment perspective. PMID:22586461

  4. Observation of sand waves in the Taiwan Banks using HJ-1A/1B sun glitter imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua-guo; Lou, Xiu-lin; Shi, Ai-qin; He, Xie-kai; Guan, Wei-bing; Li, Dong-ling

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the large sand waves in the Taiwan Banks. Our goals are to observe the sand waves as completely as possible, to obtain their direction, wavelength, density, and ridge length, to analyze their spatial distributions, and to understand the effects of the current field and water depth on the sand waves. This study demonstrates the possibility of using HJ-1A/1B sun glitter imagery with a large swath width and rapid coverage in studying sand waves. Six cloud-free HJ-1A/1B optical images with sun glitter signals received during 2009 to 2011 were processed. The sand waves were mapped based on their features in the images; their direction, wavelength, density, and ridge length were measured and analyzed. We identified 4604 sand waves distributed in an area of 16,400 km2. The distributions of sand waves and their characteristics were analyzed, and the differences of sand waves between the northwestern subregion and the southeastern subregion are reported. Further analysis and discussion of the relationships between spatial distribution of the sand waves and both the tidal current field from a numerical simulation and water depth led to some interesting conclusions. The current field determines the orientation of the sand wave, while the hydrodynamic conditions and water depth influence the shape, size, and density of sand waves to a certain degree.

  5. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Eliana N. C.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S. P.; Ledoux, David R.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Oliveira, Carlos A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB1 and FB1 which had higher plasma TP than control birds, plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB1 and FB1 had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB1 singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  6. Bax Activates Endophilin B1 Oligomerization and Lipid Membrane Vesiculation*

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Boukari, Hacène; Antignani, Antonella; Shiu, Brian; Banerjee, Soojay; Neutzner, Albert; Youle, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Endophilins participate in membrane scission events that occur during endocytosis and intracellular organelle biogenesis through the combined activity of an N-terminal BAR domain that interacts with membranes and a C-terminal SH3 domain that mediates protein binding. Endophilin B1 (Endo B1) was identified to bind Bax, a Bcl-2 family member that promotes apoptosis, through yeast two-hybrid protein screens. Although Endo B1 does not bind Bax in healthy cells, during apoptosis, Endo B1 interacts transiently with Bax and promotes cytochrome c release from mitochondria. To explore the molecular mechanism of action of Endo B1, we have analyzed its interaction with Bax in cell-free systems. Purified recombinant Endo B1 in solution displays a Stokes radius indicating a tetrameric quarternary structure. However, when incubated with purified Bax, it assembles into oligomers more than 4-fold greater in molecular weight. Although Endo B1 oligomerization is induced by Bax, Bax does not stably associate with the high molecular weight Endo B1 complex. Endo B1 oligomerization requires its C-terminal Src homology 3 domain and is not induced by Bcl-xL. Endo B1 combined with Bax reduces the size and changes the morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles by inducing massive vesiculation of liposomes. This activity of purified Bax protein to induce cell-free assembly of Endo B1 may reflect its activity in cells that regulates apoptosis and/or mitochondrial fusion. PMID:19805544

  7. Antihyperalgesic activity of a novel nonpeptide bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Alyson; Kaur, Satbir; Li, Bifang; Panesar, Moh; Saha, Uma; Davis, Clare; Dragoni, Ilaria; Colley, Sian; Ritchie, Tim; Bevan, Stuart; Burgess, Gillian; McIntyre, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We describe the properties of a novel nonpeptide kinin B1 receptor antagonist, NVP-SAA164, and demonstrate its in vivo activity in models of inflammatory pain in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor. NVP-SAA164 showed high affinity for the human B1 receptor expressed in HEK293 cells (Ki 8 nM), and inhibited increases in intracellular calcium induced by desArg10kallidin (desArg10KD) (IC50 33 nM). While a similar high affinity was observed in monkey fibroblasts (Ki 7.7 nM), NVP-SAA164 showed no affinity for the rat B1 receptor expressed in Cos-7 cells. In transgenic mice in which the native B1 receptor was deleted and the gene encoding the human B1 receptor was inserted (hB1 knockin, hB1-KI), hB1 receptor mRNA was induced in tissues following LPS treatment. No mRNA encoding the mouse or human B1 receptor was detected in mouse B1 receptor knockout (mB1-KO) mice following LPS treatment. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was significantly reduced in mB1-KO animals. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by injection of the B1 agonist desArg10KD into the contralateral paw 24 h following FCA injection was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was absent in mB1-KO animals. Oral administration of NVP-SAA164 produced a dose-related reversal of FCA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and desArg10KD-induced hyperalgesia in hB1-KI mice, but was inactive against inflammatory pain in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate the use of transgenic technology to investigate the in vivo efficacy of species selective agents and show that NVP-SAA164 is a novel orally active B1 receptor antagonist, providing further support for the utility of B1 receptor antagonists in inflammatory pain conditions in man. PMID:15685199

  8. Future projections of insured losses in the German private building sector following the A1B climatic change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.; Gerstengarbe, F.-W.; Hattermann, F.; Pinto, J. G.; Ulbrich, U.; Böhm, U.; Born, K.; Büchner, M.; Donat, M. G.; Kücken, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nissen, K.; Nocke, T.; Österle, H.; Pardowitz, T.; Werner, P. C.; Burghoff, O.; Broecker, U.; Kubik, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present an overview of a complementary-approaches impact project dealing with the consequences of climate change for the natural hazard branch of the insurance industry in Germany. The project was conducted by four academic institutions together with the German Insurance Association (GDV) and finalized in autumn 2011. A causal chain is modeled that goes from global warming projections over regional meteorological impacts to regional economic losses for private buildings, hereby fully covering the area of Germany. This presentation will focus on wind storm related losses, although the method developed had also been applied in part to hail and flood impact losses. For the first time, the GDV supplied their collected set of insurance cases, dating back for decades, for such an impact study. These data were used to calibrate and validate event-based damage functions which in turn were driven by three different types of regional climate models to generate storm loss projections. The regional models were driven by a triplet of ECHAM5 experiments following the A1B scenario which were found representative in the recent ENSEMBLES intercomparison study. In our multi-modeling approach we used two types of regional climate models that conceptually differ at maximum: a dynamical model (CCLM) and a statistical model based on the idea of biased bootstrapping (STARS). As a third option we pursued a hybrid approach (statistical-dynamical downscaling). For the assessment of climate change impacts, the buildings' infrastructure and their economic value is kept at current values. For all three approaches, a significant increase of average storm losses and extreme event return levels in the German private building sector is found for future decades assuming an A1B-scenario. However, the three projections differ somewhat in terms of magnitude and regional differentiation. We have developed a formalism that allows us to express the combined effect of multi-source uncertainty on return

  9. Slice profile and B1 corrections in 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Coppo, Simone; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra F; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize and improve the accuracy of 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) scans in the presence of slice profile (SP) and B 1 imperfections, which are two main factors that affect quantitative results in MRF. The SP and B 1 imperfections are characterized and corrected separately. The SP effect is corrected by simulating the radiofrequency pulse in the dictionary, and the B 1 is corrected by acquiring a B 1 map using the Bloch-Siegert method before each scan. The accuracy, precision, and repeatability of the proposed method are evaluated in phantom studies. The effects of both SP and B 1 imperfections are also illustrated and corrected in the in vivo studies. The SP and B 1 corrections improve the accuracy of the T 1 and T 2 values, independent of the shape of the radiofrequency pulse. The T 1 and T 2 values obtained from different excitation patterns become more consistent after corrections, which leads to an improvement of the robustness of the MRF design. This study demonstrates that MRF is sensitive to both SP and B 1 effects, and that corrections can be made to improve the accuracy of MRF with only a 2-s increase in acquisition time. Magn Reson Med 78:1781-1789, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. 75 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 09-67 and 09-72] 36(b)(1) Arms... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following are copies...

  11. 75 FR 114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... and 09-78] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section 36(b)(1... 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  12. 75 FR 51445 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B...

  13. 76 FR 35188 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-22] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The following is a copy...

  14. 75 FR 42708 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-09, 10-33, and 10-37] 36(b)(1... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  15. 75 FR 62792 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-20, 10-23, and 10-42] 36(b)(1... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  16. 75 FR 62767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ..., 10-61, and 10-63] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740...

  17. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuatedmore » β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.« less

  18. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-1 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information requirements. 1.669(b)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-1 Information requirements. The election of a beneficiary who is... following information with respect to the operation and accounts of the foreign trust created by a U.S...

  19. 75 FR 23247 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  20. 75 FR 27314 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  1. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  2. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  3. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  4. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  6. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under title 26 of the Internal...

  7. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under title 26 of the Internal...

  8. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation is a stapled...

  10. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  18. 76 FR 18726 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published...

  19. 78 FR 699 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... proposed sale of this system will not alter the basic military balance in the region. The principal... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-02] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction otherwise allowable...

  1. 78 FR 76110 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-58] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: Multiple cases date back to 1997; most recent FMS case is GGT-$100M-08Nov11 (vi) Sales Commission...

  2. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-42] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  10. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-1 - Employers' identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employers' identification numbers. 31.6011(b)-1... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-1 Employers' identification numbers. (a... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day neither has been assigned an identification number...

  11. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-1 - Employers' identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employers' identification numbers. 31.6011(b)-1... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-1 Employers' identification numbers. (a... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day neither has been assigned an identification number...

  12. 75 FR 69922 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-50] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 75 FR 69938 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-44] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 75 FR 69971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-58] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-27, 10-31 and 10-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  17. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-28 and 10-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to...

  18. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-03] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 75 FR 69931 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-46] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-75] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 75 FR 69957 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-38] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  5. 75 FR 69960 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-43] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-77] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 75 FR 69947 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-45] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. 75 FR 69953 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-57] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 75 FR 69926 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-52] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement funds. (a) In general. A qualified settlement fund is a fund, account, or trust that satisfies the requirements...

  11. 78 FR 41040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 77 FR 14767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-14] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 78 FR 76823 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-69] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 77 FR 74832 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-65] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 78 FR 36536 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-25] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-71] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  17. 77 FR 68738 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-40] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-51] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 77 FR 40028 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-18] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 77 FR 37884 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-60] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 76 FR 60467 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  5. 78 FR 66338 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-55] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-17] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 76 FR 60457 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-74] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. 78 FR 48426 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-33] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 76 FR 72184 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  11. 76 FR 72182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-40] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 78 FR 36534 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 76 FR 61673 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 76 FR 60469 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 76 FR 40701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-79] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 76 FR 72684 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-48] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  17. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-35] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 77 FR 71401 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-61] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 76 FR 56181 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-14] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 78 FR 66340 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-54] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 77 FR 68740 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. ALDH1B1 links alcohol consumption and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Chen, Ying; Matsumoto, Akiko; Orlicky, David J; Dong, Hongbin; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-08-07

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (ALDH1B1) is a mitochondrial enzyme sharing 65% and 72% sequence identity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 proteins, respectively. Compared to the latter two ALDH isozymes, little is known about the physiological functions of ALDH1B1. Studies in humans indicate that ALDH1B1 may be associated with alcohol sensitivity and stem cells. Our recent in vitro studies using human ALDH1B1 showed that it metabolizes acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde. To investigate the in vivo role of ALDH1B1, we generated and characterized a global Aldh1b1 knockout mouse line. These knockout (KO) mice are fertile and show overtly good health. However, ethanol pharmacokinetic analysis revealed ∼40% increase in blood acetaldehyde levels in KO mice. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited higher fasting blood glucose levels. Collectively, we show for the first time the functional in vivo role of ALDH1B1 in acetaldehyde metabolism and in maintaining glucose homeostasis. This mouse model is a valuable tool to investigate the mechanism by which alcohol may promote the development of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by use of UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products and used it to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the US. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled and amended with 13C17-labelled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. Our method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3>241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3>285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5% to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105–111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analysed ranged from B1 was most frequently detected in dry snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 we detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds. PMID:26452144

  4. 78 FR 30896 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996.

  5. 78 FR 31523 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996.

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  7. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  8. 76 FR 26707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  9. 76 FR 8716 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER...

  10. 78 FR 78941 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  11. 77 FR 46419 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  12. 77 FR 46415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  13. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  14. 76 FR 65701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  15. 77 FR 46423 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  16. 76 FR 77809 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  17. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  18. 78 FR 46579 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  19. 76 FR 18731 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER...

  20. 77 FR 35363 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  1. 76 FR 38371 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  2. 77 FR 35362 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  3. 76 FR 69709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  4. 76 FR 69707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  5. 78 FR 26330 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  6. 77 FR 46413 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  7. 77 FR 46417 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  8. 76 FR 79658 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  9. 76 FR 55651 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  10. 77 FR 781 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  11. 76 FR 28956 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  12. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  13. 77 FR 46421 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  14. 75 FR 9182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the... the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 09-28 with attached transmittal, and policy...

  15. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 31.3401(b)-1 Section 31.3401(b... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(b)-1 Payroll period. (a) The term payroll period means the... elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the payroll period is still the calendar week...

  16. 26 CFR 1.677(b)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.677(b)-1 Section 1.677(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.677(b)-1 Trusts for support. (a) Section 677(b) provides that a grantor is not treated as the owner of a trust merely because its...

  17. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001 PMID:23426999

  18. Characterization of a symbol rate timing recovery technique for a 2B1Q digital receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulnasr, T.; Hage, M.; Sayar, B.; Aly, S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a study of several implementations of the Mueller and Muller symbol rate timing recovery algorithm for ISDN transmission over digital subscriber loops (DSL). Implementations of this algorithm using various estimates of a specified timing function are investigated. It will be shown that despite the fact that all of the estimates considered are derived based on one set of conditions, their performance varies widely in a real system. The intrinsic properties of these estimates are first analyzed, then their performance on real subscriber loops is studied through extensive simulations of a practical digital receiver. The effect of various system parameters such as channel distortion and additive noise are included. Possible sources of convergence problems are also identified and corrective action proposed.

  19. Novel kinin B1 receptor agonists with improved pharmacological profiles.

    PubMed

    Côté, Jérôme; Savard, Martin; Bovenzi, Veronica; Bélanger, Simon; Morin, Josée; Neugebauer, Witold; Larouche, Annie; Dubuc, Céléna; Gobeil, Fernand

    2009-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that inducible kinin B1 receptors (B1R) may play beneficial and protecting roles in cardiovascular-related pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic organ diseases. Peptide B1R agonists bearing optimized pharmacological features (high potency, selectivity and stability toward proteolysis) hold promise as valuable therapeutic agents in the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, we used solid-phase methodology to synthesize a series of novel peptide analogues based on the sequence of Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin, a relatively stable peptide agonist with moderate affinity for the human B1R. We evaluated the pharmacological properties of these peptides using (1) in vitro competitive binding experiments on recombinant human B1R and B2R (for index of selectivity determination) in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293T cells), (2) ex vivo vasomotor assays on isolated human umbilical veins expressing endogenous human B1R, and (3) in vivo blood pressure tests using anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-immunostimulated rabbits. Key chemical modifications at the N-terminus, the positions 3 and 5 on Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin led to potent analogues. For example, peptides 18 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Cha(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) and 20 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Igl(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) outperformed the parental molecule in terms of affinity, functional potency and duration of action in vitro and in vivo. These selective agonists should be valuable in future animal and human studies to investigate the potential benefits of B1R activation.

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F.; Gomes, Tatiana C. B.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Oliveira, Marize S.; Ferreira, Marli B.; Gomes, Mateus B.; Paschoal, Fabiano N.; von S. Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A.; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1 respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  1. B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.

    PubMed

    van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride in Pseudomonas strain B1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, C G; van Dijk, J B; Kroon, A G

    1992-01-01

    A bacterium (strain B1) utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as a carbon and energy source was isolated from activated sludge and tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. This bacterium only grew on alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C12 to C22) and possible intermediates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride breakdown such as hexadecanoate and acetate. Pseudomonas strain B1 did not grow on amines. Simultaneous adaptation studies suggested that the bacterium oxidized only the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric formation of trimethylamine from hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The initial hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride oxygenase activity, measured by its ability to form trimethylamine, was NAD(P)H and O2 dependent. Finally, assays of aldehyde dehydrogenase, hexadecanoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in cell extracts revealed the potential of Pseudomonas strain B1 to metabolize the alkyl chain via beta-oxidation. PMID:1444422

  3. B1-Metallo-beta-Lactamases: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Maria F.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Fast, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-beta-Lactamases (MBLs) are class B β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all clinically-available β-lactam antibiotics. MBLs feature the distinctive αβ/βα sandwich fold of the metallo-hydrolase / oxidoreductase superfamily and possess a shallow active-site groove containing one or two divalent zinc ions, flanked by flexible loops. According to sequence identity and zinc ion dependence, MBLs are classified into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3), of which the B1 subclass enzymes have emerged as the most clinically significant. Differences among the active site architectures, the nature of zinc ligands, and the catalytic mechanisms have limited the development of a common inhibitor. In this review, we will describe the molecular epidemiology and structural studies of the most prominent representatives of class B1 MBLs (NDM-1, IMP-1 and VIM-2) and describe the implications for inhibitor design to counter this growing clinical threat. PMID:26424398

  4. Refractive index of B1-xGaxN semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, P. S.; Baria, J. K.; Jivani, A. R.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical procedure is presented for the study of refractive index of ternary alloy B1-xGaxN. The calculations based on the pseudopotential formalism in which local potential coupled with the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) is applied to evaluate energy band gap at point X on the Jones-zone face, refractive index for the entire range of the alloy composition x of the ternary alloy B1-xGaxN. To include exchange and correlation effects, local field correction function due to Nagy is employed. Our results for parent compounds are compared to experiment and other available theoretical findings and showed generally good agreement. During present study it is found that the refractive index of the ternary alloy B1-xGaxN has minimum value at gallium concentration x = 0.4.

  5. Evaluation of particulate air samplers for airborne aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Silas, J.C.; Harrison, M.A.; Carpenter, J.A.

    Five air samplers (Millipore, all-glass impinger, centrifugal, Andersen, and absorbent cotton) were evaluated for their ability to collect airborne grain particles contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Corn dust containing 100 micrograms aflatoxin B1/g was aerosolized within a containment system. Each device sampled 100 I air, thus exchanging the air in the chamber two times. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted from all sampling matrices and was detected and quantitated with thin-layer chromatography and scanning fluorodensitometry. The highest efficiency was obtained with the Millipore sampler, while the efficiencies of the centrifugal and the cotton samplers were almost identical. Efficiency of an Andersen was less,more » with no toxin recovered from an all-glass impinger. Measurement of particle size was accomplished with the Andersen sampler.« less

  6. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining a...

  7. 76 FR 46754 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Poland to develop and maintain a strong and ready self-defense capability. The proposed sale will improve... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 11-32] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 78 FR 26332 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... type of mission. 2. The AN/ALE-47 Counter-Measures Dispensing System (CMDS) is an integrated, threat... multiple Optical Sensor Converter (OSC) units, a Computer Processor (CP) and a Control Indicator (CI). The...

  9. 75 FR 47275 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-32 and 10-35 with... of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-32 with attached transmittal, policy justification...

  10. 76 FR 30667 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-04 with attached transmittal, and...

  11. 75 FR 61440 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... are copies of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-20, 10-23, and... a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-47 with attached transmittal...

  12. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-32 with attached...

  13. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-54 with attached...

  14. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-26 with attached...

  15. 75 FR 76415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-72 with...

  16. 75 FR 76418 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-65 with...

  17. 76 FR 40703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of [[Page 40704

  18. 75 FR 29998 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the.... English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of...

  19. 75 FR 76412 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-69 with...

  20. 76 FR 27022 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-12 with...

  1. 75 FR 76408 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-73 with...

  2. 76 FR 27026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-13 with...

  3. 76 FR 17111 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-10 with...

  4. 76 FR 32958 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-02 with attached...

  5. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-28 with attached...

  6. 75 FR 20571 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-04 and 10-14 with... copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-04 with attached...

  7. 75 FR 41820 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of five section 36(b)(1... INFORMATION: The following are copies of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-05 with...

  8. In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolize...

  9. 17 CFR 240.11b-1 - Regulation of specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of specialists. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Regulation on Conduct of Specialists § 240.11b-1 Regulation of specialists. (a)(1) The rules of a national securities exchange may permit a member of such exchange to...

  10. 78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as... Articles or Services under Consideration for Purchase: 14 CH-47D Model Aircraft to include T55-GA-714A Turbine Engines, 2 per aircraft (14 ac x 2 = 28 engines) 5 T55-GA-714A Turbine Engines to be used as...

  11. 76 FR 43662 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... and control systems with modern technology. The new guidance and control system uses a mixture of... Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i... million TOTAL $86 million * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description...

  12. 77 FR 68742 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Engagement Control Systems, 30 Antenna Mast Groups, 44 M902 Launching Stations, 246 PATRIOT MIM-104E Guidance... Fire Units, 11 AN/MPQ-65 Radar Sets, 11 AN/ MSQ-132 Engagement Control Systems, 30 Antenna Mast Groups... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective...

  13. Critical early roles for col27a1a and col27a1b in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis, vertebral mineralization and post-embryonic axial growth.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Helena E; Lang, Michael R; Pace, James M; Parichy, David M

    2009-12-29

    Fibrillar collagens are well known for their links to human diseases, with which all have been associated except for the two most recently identified fibrillar collagens, type XXIV collagen and type XXVII collagen. To assess functions and potential disease phenotypes of type XXVII collagen, we examined its roles in zebrafish embryonic and post-embryonic development. We identified two type XXVII collagen genes in zebrafish, col27a1a and col27a1b. Both col27a1a and col27a1b were expressed in notochord and cartilage in the embryo and early larva. To determine sites of type XXVII collagen function, col27a1a and col27a1b were knocked down using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Knockdown of col27a1a singly or in conjunction with col27a1b resulted in curvature of the notochord at early stages and formation of scoliotic curves as well as dysmorphic vertebrae at later stages. These defects were accompanied by abnormal distributions of cells and protein localization in the notochord, as visualized by transmission electron microscopy, as well as delayed vertebral mineralization as detected histologically. Together, our findings indicate a key role for type XXVII collagen in notochord morphogenesis and axial skeletogenesis and suggest a possible human disease phenotype.

  14. Lamin B1 mediated demyelination: Linking Lamins, Lipids and Leukodystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Padiath, Quasar S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disorder, is the only human disease that has been linked to mutations of the nuclear lamina protein, lamin B1, and is primarily caused by duplications of the LMNB1 gene. Why CNS myelin is specifically targeted and the mechanisms underlying ADLD are unclear. Recent work from our group has demonstrated that over expression of lamin B1 in oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the CNS, resulted in age dependent epigenetic modifications, transcriptional down-regulation of lipogenic gene expression and significant reductions of myelin-enriched lipids. Given the high lipid content of meylin, we hypothesize that lipid loss is one of the primary drivers of the demyelination phenotype. These results can, at least partially, explain the age dependence and cell type specificity in ADLD and are discussed in the context of the existing literature, in an attempt to delineate potential pathways underlying the disease phenotype. PMID:27854160

  15. The minimal-ABC trees with B1-branches.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Darko; Du, Zhibin; Fonseca, Carlos M da

    2018-01-01

    The atom-bond connectivity index (or, for short, ABC index) is a molecular structure descriptor bridging chemistry to graph theory. It is probably the most studied topological index among all numerical parameters of a graph that characterize its topology. For a given graph G = (V, E), the ABC index of G is defined as [Formula: see text], where di denotes the degree of the vertex i, and ij is the edge incident to the vertices i and j. A combination of physicochemical and the ABC index properties are commonly used to foresee the bioactivity of different chemical composites. Additionally, the applicability of the ABC index in chemical thermodynamics and other areas of chemistry, such as in dendrimer nanostars, benzenoid systems, fluoranthene congeners, and phenylenes is well studied in the literature. While finding of the graphs with the greatest ABC-value is a straightforward assignment, the characterization of the tree(s) with minimal ABC index is a problem largely open and has recently given rise to numerous studies and conjectures. A B1-branch of a graph is a pendent path of order 2. In this paper, we provide an important step forward to the full characterization of these minimal trees. Namely, we show that a minimal-ABC tree contains neither 4 nor 3 B1-branches. The case when the number of B1-branches is 2 is also considered.

  16. Improving MRI surface coil decoupling to reduce B1 distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Christian

    As clinical MRI systems continue to advance, larger focus is being given to image uniformity. Good image uniformity begins with generating uniform magnetic fields, which are easily distorted by induced currents on receive-only surface coils. It has become an industry standard to combat these induced currents by placing RF blocking networks on surface coils. This paper explores the effect of blocking network impedance of phased array surface coils on B1 distortion. It has been found and verified, that traditional approaches for blocking network design in complex phased arrays can leave undesirable B1 distortions at 3 Tesla. The traditional approach of LC tank blocking is explored, but shifts from the idea that higher impedance equals better B1 distortion at 3T. The result is a new design principle for a tank with a finite inductive reactance at the Larmor Frequency. The solution is demonstrated via simulation using a simple, single, large tuning loop. The same loop, along with a smaller loop, is used to derive the new design principle, which is then applied to a complex phased array structure.

  17. Isolation and characterization of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b promoters in the protogynous hermaphrodite orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Lu, Huijie; Jiang, Haiyan; Li, Mu; Zhang, Shen; Liu, Qiongyou; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-02-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In teleosts, duplicated copies of cyp19a1 genes, namely cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b, were identified, however, the transcriptional regulation of these two genes remains poorly understood. In the present study, the 5'-flanking regions of the orange-spotted grouper cyp19a1a (gcyp19a1a) and cyp19a1b (gcyp19a1b) genes were isolated and characterized. The proximal promoter regions of both genes were relatively conserved when compared to those of the other teleosts. Notably, a conserved FOXO transcriptional factor binding site was firstly reported in the proximal promoter of gcyp19a1a, and deletion of the region (-112 to -60) containing this site significantly decreased the promoter activities. The deletion of the region (-246 to -112) containing the two conserved FTZ-F1 sites also dramatically decreased the transcriptional activities of gcyp19a1a promoter, and both two FTZ-F1 sites were shown to be stimulatory cis-acting elements. A FTZ-F1 homologue isolated from ricefield eel (eFTZ-F1) up-regulated gcyp19a1a promoter activities possibly via the FTZ-F1 sites, however, a previously identified orange-spotted grouper FTZ-F1 homologue (gFTZ-F1) did not activate the transcription of gcyp19a1a promoter unexpectedly. As to gcyp19a1b promoter, all the deletion constructs did not show good promoter activities in either TM4 or U251-MG cells. Estradiol (100nM) up-regulated gcyp19a1b promoter activities by about 13- and 36-fold in TM4 and U251-MG cells, respectively, via the conserved ERE motif, but did not stimulate gcyp19a1a promoter activities. These results are helpful to further elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b expression in the orange-spotted grouper as well as other teleosts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SOFIA FIFI-LS Observations of Sgr B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean; Cotera, Angela; Kaufman, Michael; Stolovy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Although Sgr B1 is the third most luminous H II region in the Galactic Center, after the region ionized by the central star cluster Sgr A and the very young star-forming region Sgr B2, it has surprisingly not been well studied. Because Sgr B1 is found with Sgr B2 in a common envelope of molecular gas and far-infrared (FIR) emission, it has been assumed that the two sources are physically related, even though the ionized gas of Sgr B1 is much more extended and there are evolved-star indicators of a significantly greater age than Sgr B2. This presents a problem because the current paradigm of Galactic Center gas motions and star formation requires that the entire Sgr B complex must have reasonably similar ages. To clarify the situation, we have mapped Sgr B1 with the FIFI-LS spectrometer on SOFIA in the FIR lines of [O III] 52 and 88 micron, [O I] 146 micron, and [C II] 158 micron. For the most part, we find little correlation of the density-sensitive ratio of the [O III] lines with the radio VLA images or the FIR Herschel PACS images, from which we infer that the structures seen in those images are not due to density enhancements but are due to bubbles of gas and dust seen edge-on. The [C II] 158 micron line correlates much better with the structure seen in the Herschal PACS Blue 60-85 micron image than it does with the Red 130-210 micron image, which is dominated by the massive molecular cloud seen at higher Galactic latitude. Sgr B1 is largely covered by spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Archive, from which we measure mid-infrared lines of [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], and [Ar II]. From the ratios of these lines with the observed FIR lines we find that there are at least six small regions with significantly higher excitation than their surroundings; we infer that these regions contain the stars that excite the gas. Our presentation will describe these results in further detail.

  19. Additive effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) in zebrafish specific in vitro and in vivo bioassays.

    PubMed

    Hinfray, N; Tebby, C; Garoche, C; Piccini, B; Bourgine, G; Aït-Aïssa, S; Kah, O; Pakdel, F; Brion, F

    2016-09-15

    Estrogens and progestins are widely used in combination in human medicine and both are present in aquatic environment. Despite the joint exposure of aquatic wildlife to estrogens and progestins, very little information is available on their combined effects. In the present study we investigated the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone and in mixtures, on the expression of the brain specific ER-regulated cyp19a1b gene. For that purpose, recently established zebrafish-derived tools were used: (i) an in vitro transient reporter gene assay in a human glial cell line (U251-MG) co-transfected with zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERs) and the luciferase gene under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter and (ii) an in vivo bioassay using a transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter (cyp19a1b-GFP). Concentration-response relationships for single chemicals were modeled and used to design the mixture experiments following a ray design. The results from mixture experiments were analyzed to predict joint effects according to concentration addition and statistical approaches were used to characterize the potential interactions between the components of the mixtures (synergism/antagonism). We confirmed that some progestins could elicit estrogenic effects in fish brain. In mixtures, EE2 and LNG exerted additive estrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some environmental progestin could exert effects that will add to those of environmental (xeno-)estrogens. Moreover, our zebrafish specific assays are valuable tools that could be used in risk assessment for both single chemicals and their mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat sperm surface antigen 2B1, a glycoprotein implicated in sperm-zona binding.

    PubMed

    Hou, S T; Ma, A; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1996-10-01

    The rat sperm surface antigen, 2B1, that has been proposed to play a key role in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida, has been cloned and its entire cDNA sequenced. Northern blot analysis indicates that 2B1 is encoded by a 2.2-kb RNA transcript that is abundantly expressed in the testis. The deduced protein sequence contains 512 amino-acid residues with a strong candidate signal sequence and C-terminal transmembrane domain. Data base searches reveal a high degree of sequence similarity to guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, and human PH20 sperm surface antigens, and a lower degree of similarity to honey bee and whiteface hornet venom hyaluronidases. Rat 2B1 antigen also possesses hyaluronidase activity, suggesting that it is a bifunctional protein with putative roles in the dispersion of cumulus oophorus cells as well as zona adhesion. However, while it would appear that 2B1 is the rat homologue of the guinea pig PH20 antigen, they differ in a number of important biochemical respects (including their mode of attachment to the sperm membrane and distribution between soluble and membrane-bound fractions), as well as in their localization on the sperm membrane. Expression of regions of the 2B1 protein in recombinant bacterial cells has allowed a preliminary mapping of the 2B1 epitope, and has provided more definitive information on the endoproteolytic processing of 2B1 during epididymal transit.

  1. A search for cyanopolyynes in L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Jaber, A. A.; Podio, L.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present here a systematic search for cyanopolyynes in the shock region L1157-B1 and its associated protostar L1157-mm in the framework of the Large Program`Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM' (ASAI), dedicated to chemical surveys of solar-type star-forming regions with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Observations of the millimeter windows between 72 and 272 GHz permitted the detection of HC3N and its 13C isotopologues, and HC5N (for the first time in a protostellar shock region). In the shock, the analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with L1157-B1 and L1157-B2. Molecular abundances and excitation conditions were obtained from the analysis of the Spectral Line Energy Distributions under the assumption of Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium or using a radiative transfer code in the Large Velocity Gradient approximation. Towards L1157 mm, the HC3N emission arises from the cold envelope (T_rot=10K) and a higher-excitation region (Trot = 31K) of smaller extent around the protostar. We did not find any evidence of 13C or D fractionation enrichment towards L1157-B1. We obtain a relative abundance ratio HC3N/HC5N of 3.3 in the shocked gas. We find an increase by a factor of 30 of the HC3N abundance between the envelope of L1157-mm and the shock region itself. Altogether, these results are consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of HC3N was produced by means of gas phase reactions in the passage of the shock. This scenario is supported by the predictions of a parametric shock code coupled with the chemical model UCL_CHEM.

  2. 5-HT1A/1B Receptors as Targets for Optimizing Pigmentary Responses in C57BL/6 Mouse Skin to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hua-Li; Pang, Si-Lin; Liu, Qiong-Zhen; Wang, Qian; Cai, Min-Xuan; Shang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A

  3. Additive effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) in zebrafish specific in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Hinfray, N., E-mail: nathalie.hinfray@ineris.fr

    Estrogens and progestins are widely used in combination in human medicine and both are present in aquatic environment. Despite the joint exposure of aquatic wildlife to estrogens and progestins, very little information is available on their combined effects. In the present study we investigated the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone and in mixtures, on the expression of the brain specific ER-regulated cyp19a1b gene. For that purpose, recently established zebrafish-derived tools were used: (i) an in vitro transient reporter gene assay in a human glial cell line (U251-MG) co-transfected with zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERs) and the luciferase genemore » under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter and (ii) an in vivo bioassay using a transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter (cyp19a1b-GFP). Concentration-response relationships for single chemicals were modeled and used to design the mixture experiments following a ray design. The results from mixture experiments were analyzed to predict joint effects according to concentration addition and statistical approaches were used to characterize the potential interactions between the components of the mixtures (synergism/antagonism). We confirmed that some progestins could elicit estrogenic effects in fish brain. In mixtures, EE2 and LNG exerted additive estrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some environmental progestin could exert effects that will add to those of environmental (xeno-)estrogens. Moreover, our zebrafish specific assays are valuable tools that could be used in risk assessment for both single chemicals and their mixtures. - Highlights: • Combined effects of EE2 and LNG were assessed on ER-dependent cyp19a1b expression. • EE2 and LNG alone induced brain aromatase in zebrafish specific bioassays. • Experimental ray design allowed complete concentration-response surfaces modeling.

  4. Determination of the rate constant for the NH2(X(2)B1) + NH2(X(2)B1) reaction at low pressure and 293 K.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Mi-Kyung; Macdonald, R Glen

    2008-12-25

    The rate constant for the reaction NH(2)(X(2)B(1)) + NH(2)(X(2)B(1)) --> products was measured in CF(4), N(2) and Ar carrier gases at 293 +/- 2 K over a pressure range from 2 to 10 Torr. The NH(2) radical was produced by the 193 nm photolysis of NH(3) dilute in the carrier gas. Both the loss of NH(3) and its subsequent recovery and the production of NH(2) and subsequent reaction were monitored simultaneously following the photolysis laser pulse. Both species were detected using quantitative time-resolved high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. The NH(3) molecule was monitored in the NIR using a rotation transition of the nu(1) + nu(3) first combination band near 1500 nm, and the NH(2) radical was monitored using the (1)2(21) <-- (1)3(31) rotational transition of the (0,7,0)A(2)A(1) <-- (0,0,0) X(2)B(1) band near 675 nm. The low-pressure rate constant showed a linear dependence on pressure. The slope of the pressure dependence was dominated by a recombination rate constant for NH(2) + NH(2) given by (8.0 +/- 0.5) x 10(-29), (5.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(-29), and (3.9 +/- 0.4) x 10(-29) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) in CF(4), N(2), and Ar bath gases, respectively, where the uncertainties are +/-2sigma in the scatter of the measurements. The average of the three independent measurements of the sum of the disproportionation rate constants (the zero pressure rate constant) was (3.4 +/- 6) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), where the uncertainty is +/-2sigma in the scatter of the measurements.

  5. Asymmetric Dual-Band Tracking Technique for Optimal Joint Processing of BDS B1I and B1C Signals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuhan; Cui, Xiaowei; Ma, Tianyi; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), satellite navigation signals have become more diversified, complex, and agile in adapting to increasing market demands. Various techniques have been developed for processing multiple navigation signals to achieve better performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. This paper focuses on a technique for processing two signals with separate but adjacent center frequencies, such as B1I and B1C signals in the BeiDou global system. The two signals may differ in modulation scheme, power, and initial phase relation and can be processed independently by user receivers; however, the propagation delays of the two signals from a satellite are nearly identical as they are modulated on adjacent frequencies, share the same reference clock, and undergo nearly identical propagation paths to the receiver, resulting in strong coherence between the two signals. Joint processing of these signals can achieve optimal measurement performance due to the increased Gabor bandwidth and power. In this paper, we propose a universal scheme of asymmetric dual-band tracking (ASYM-DBT) to take advantage of the strong coherence, the increased Gabor bandwidth, and power of the two signals in achieving much-reduced thermal noise and more accurate ranging results when compared with the traditional single-band algorithm. PMID:29035350

  6. Asymmetric Dual-Band Tracking Technique for Optimal Joint Processing of BDS B1I and B1C Signals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuhan; Cui, Xiaowei; Ma, Tianyi; Zhao, Sihao; Lu, Mingquan

    2017-10-16

    Along with the rapid development of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), satellite navigation signals have become more diversified, complex, and agile in adapting to increasing market demands. Various techniques have been developed for processing multiple navigation signals to achieve better performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and robustness. This paper focuses on a technique for processing two signals with separate but adjacent center frequencies, such as B1I and B1C signals in the BeiDou global system. The two signals may differ in modulation scheme, power, and initial phase relation and can be processed independently by user receivers; however, the propagation delays of the two signals from a satellite are nearly identical as they are modulated on adjacent frequencies, share the same reference clock, and undergo nearly identical propagation paths to the receiver, resulting in strong coherence between the two signals. Joint processing of these signals can achieve optimal measurement performance due to the increased Gabor bandwidth and power. In this paper, we propose a universal scheme of asymmetric dual-band tracking (ASYM-DBT) to take advantage of the strong coherence, the increased Gabor bandwidth, and power of the two signals in achieving much-reduced thermal noise and more accurate ranging results when compared with the traditional single-band algorithm.

  7. Competition for vitamin B1 (thiamin) structures numerous ecological interactions.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Clifford E; Angert, Esther R

    2017-06-01

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is a cofactor required for essential biochemical reactions in all living organisms, yet free thiamin is scarce in the environment. The diversity of biochemical pathways involved in the acquisition, degradation, and synthesis of thiamin indicates that organisms have evolved numerous ecological strategies for meeting this nutritional requirement. In this review we synthesize information from multiple disciplines to show how the complex biochemistry of thiamin influences ecological outcomes of interactions between organisms in environments ranging from the open ocean and the Australian outback to the gastrointestinal tract of animals. We highlight population and ecosystem responses to the availability or absence of thiamin. These include widespread mortality of fishes, birds, and mammals, as well as the thiamin-dependent regulation of ocean productivity. Overall, we portray thiamin biochemistry as the foundation for molecularly mediated ecological interactions that influence survival and abundance of a vast array of organisms.

  8. Aflatoxin B1-induced epigenetic alterations: An overview.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yaqi; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Boyang; Zhu, Liye; Xu, Wentao

    2017-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is widely distributed in nature, especially in a variety of food commodities. It is confirmed to be the most toxic of all the aflatoxins. The toxicity of AFB1 has been well investigated, and it may result in severe health problems including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, growth retardation, and immune suppression. Epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of non-coding RNA play an important role in AFB1-induced disease and carcinogenesis. To better understand the evidence for AFB1-induced epigenetic alterations and the potential mechanisms of the toxicity of AFB1, we conducted a review of published studies of AFB1-induced epigenetic alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on brain-specific expression of cyp19a1b gene in swim-up fry of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shreyasi; Guha, Payel; Majumder, Suravi; Pal, Puja; Sen, Koushik; Chowdhury, Piyali; Chakraborty, Arindam; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2018-07-01

    Estrogen regulates numerous developmental and physiological processes and effects are mediated mainly by estrogenic receptors (ERs), which function as ligand-regulated transcription factor. ERs can be activated by many different types endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and interfere with behaviour and reproductive potential of living organism. Estrogenic regulation of membrane associated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, GPER activity has also been reported. Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor is present in many household products, has been linked to many adverse effect on sexual development and reproductive potential of wild life species. The present work is aimed to elucidate how an environmentally pervasive chemical BPA affects in vivo expression of a known estrogen target gene, cyp19a1b in the brain, and a known estrogenic biomarker, vitellogenin (Vg) in the whole body homogenate of 30 days post fertilization (dpf) swim-up fry of Labeo rohita. We confirm that, like estrogen, the xenoestrogen BPA exposure for 5-15 days induces strong overexpression of cyp19a1b, but not cyp19a1a mRNA in the brain and increase concentration of vitellogenin in swim-up fry. BPA also induces strong overexpression of aromatase B protein and aromatase activity in brain. Experiments using selective modulators of classical ERs and GPER argue that this induction is largely through nuclear ERs, not through GPER. Thus, BPA has the potential to elevate the levels of aromatase and thereby, levels of endogenous estrogen in developing brain. These results indicate that L. rohita swim-up fry can be used to detect environmental endocrine disruptors either using cyp19a1b gene expression or vitellogenin induction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpretive geologic bedrock map of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle, Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reifenstuh, Rocky R.; Dover, James H.; Newberry, Rainer J.; Calutice, Karen H.; Liss, Shirley A.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Budtzen, Thomas K.; Weber, Florence R.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides detailed (1:63,360-scale) mapping of the Tanana B-1 Quadrangle (250 square miles; equivalent to four 7.5 minute quadrangles). The area is part of the Manley Hot Springs-Tofty mining districts and adjacent to the Rampart mining district to the north of the Tanana A-1 and A-2 Quadrangles. This report includes detailed bedrock, structural, stratigraphic, and geochronologic data. Based on the resulting geologic maps, field investigations, and laboratory materials analyses, the project has also generated derivative maps of geologic construction materials and geologic hazards.

  11. B1-control receive array coil (B-RAC) for reducing B1+ inhomogeneity in abdominal imaging at 3T-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Soutome, Yoshihisa; Habara, Hideta; Bito, Yoshitaka; Ochi, Hisaaki

    2018-02-01

    B1+ inhomogeneity in the human body increases as the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency increases. Various methods have thus been developed to reduce B1+ inhomogeneity, such as a dielectric pad, a coupling coil, parallel transmit, and radio-frequency (RF) shimming. However, B1+ inhomogeneity still remains in some cases of abdominal imaging. In this study, we developed a B1-control receive array coil (B-RAC). Unlike the conventional receive array coil, B-RAC reduces B1+ inhomogeneity by using additional PIN diodes to generate the inductive loop during the RF transmit period. The inductive loop can generate dense and sparse regions of the magnetic flux, which can be used to compensate for B1+ inhomogeneity. First, B-RAC is modeled in the numerical simulation, and the spatial distributions of B1+ in a phantom and a human model were analyzed. Next, we fabricated a 12-channel B-RAC and measured receive sensitivity and B1+ maps in a 3T-MRI experiment. It was demonstrated that B-RAC can reduce B1+ inhomogeneity in the phantom and human model without increasing the maximum local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body. B-RAC was also found to have almost the same the receive sensitivity as the conventional receive coil. Using RF shimming combined with B-RAC was revealed to more effectively reduce B1+ inhomogeneity than using only RF shimming. Therefore, B-RAC can reduce B1+ inhomogeneity while maintaining the receive sensitivity.

  12. Liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for emamectin B1a and desmethylamino-emamectin B1a residues in lobster tissue.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Ronald; Gillan, Niall; Crouch, Louis; Greenhalgh, Roy

    2006-01-01

    A liquid chromatography (LC)/fluorescence procedure was validated for emamectin (EM B1a) and desmethylamino-emamectin (DMAEM B1a) residues in lobster tissue. They were extracted by shaking and sonicating with 1% ammonium acetate-methanol in the presence of sand. The extract was concentrated, partitioned with ethyl acetate, and cleaned up on a propylsulfonic cation exchange cartridge. The analytes were eluted from the cartridge with 5% ammonium hydroxide-methyl acetate, the eluate was concentrated, and the solvent was changed to dry 20% ethyl acetate-acetonitrile before derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride-N-methylimidizole. The products were analyzed by LC-fluorescence, and no interference [>limit of detection (LOD)] was detected in the control samples. Lobster tissues fortified with EM B1a and DMAEM B1a at 0.5, 5, 10, 25, and 50 ng/g gave overall mean recoveries of 96.7 +/- 12.4%, relative standard deviation (RSD) = 12.8% for EM B1 and 83.6 +/- 12.1%, RSD = 14.5% for DMAEM B1a. Regression analysis of the calibration data gave slopes of 0.90 (EM B1a) and 0.71 (DMAEM B1a) with an r2 = 0.99 for both compounds. The calculated LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ) for EM B1a were 1.10 and 3.32 ng/g, respectively, and for DMAEM B1a were 0.762 and 2.31 ng/g, respectively. Residues of EM B1a and DMAEM B1a in fortified lobster tissues stored at -20 degrees C showed that residues were stable for 10-12 months. No loss of EM B1a and DMAEM B1a residues was observed after 3 freeze/thaw cycles of fortified tissue in a 5-day period.

  13. Solvent-dependent transformation of aflatoxin B1 in soil.

    PubMed

    Starr, James M; Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-08-01

    To date, all studies of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B 2 (AFB 2 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products. In this study, we investigated the role of the solvent vehicle in the transformation of AFB 1 in soil. To do this, we spiked soils with AFB 1 dissolved in water (93:7, water/methanol) or methanol and used HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS to identify the transformation products. Contrasting previous published reports, we did not detect AFB 2 or AFG 2 . In an aqueous-soil environment, we identified aflatoxin B 2a (AFB 2a ) as the single major transformation product. We propose that AFB 2a is formed from hydrolysis of AFB 1 with the soil acting as an acid catalyst. Alternatively, when methanol was used, we identified methoxy aflatoxin species likely formed via acid-catalyzed addition of methanol to AFB 1 . These results suggest that where soil moisture is adequate, AFB 1 is hydrolyzed to AFB 2a and that reactive organic solvents should be avoided when replicating natural conditions to study the fate of AFB 1 in soil.

  14. Alcohol and B1 vitamin deficiency-related stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2009-05-01

    The present study attempts to determine whether prenatal thiamine (B1 vitamin) deficiency and prenatal alcohol exposure are risk factors for stillbirths. From conception to parturition, Wistar rat dams were exposed to the following treatments: (1) Rat dams consuming a thiamine-deficient diet; (2) 12% alcohol/water drinking mothers; (3) mothers drinking 12% alcohol/water + thiamine hydrochloride mixture. Appropriate pair-fed controls and ad libitum controls were assessed. Gestation outcome and fetal parameters, including spontaneous abortion, still-born fetuses, litter size and birth weight, were assessed from the dams of each experimental group. Both alcohol and thiamine deficiency during pregnancy increased fetal death (48.26%vs. 84.47%), reduced litter size (44.54%vs. 72.7%), respectively, and lowered birth weight. Thiamine administration reversed the effects of alcohol-induced fetal death, suggesting that a part of deleterious actions of alcohol on fetal death was mediated by thiamine deficiency. Prenatal thiamine deficiency increased singularly spontaneous abortion with abundant bleeding (40%), rising the occurrence of stillbirth. Such a pathology was not observed in alcohol group. The results indexed thiamine deficiency as a potent risk factor for stillbirths. The vitamin supply during pregnancy prevents stillbirths related to chronic alcoholism and different facets of malnutrition.

  15. Scavenger receptor-B1 and luteal function in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Leonor Miranda; Binelli, Mario; Bertolin, Kalyne; Pelletier, R Marc; Murphy, Bruce D

    2010-08-01

    During luteinization, circulating high-density lipoproteins supply cholesterol to ovarian cells via the scavenger receptor-B1 (SCARB1). In the mouse, SCARB1 is expressed in cytoplasm and periphery of theca, granulosa, and cumulus cells of developing follicles and increases dramatically during formation of corpora lutea. Blockade of ovulation in mice with meloxicam, a prostaglandin synthase-2 inhibitor, resulted in follicles with oocytes entrapped in unexpanded cumulus complexes and with granulosa cells with luteinized morphology and expressing SCARB1 characteristic of luteinization. Mice bearing null mutation of the Scarb1 gene (SCARB1(-/-)) had ovaries with small corpora lutea, large follicles with hypertrophied theca cells, and follicular cysts with blood-filled cavities. Plasma progesterone concentrations were decreased 50% in mice with Scarb1 gene disruption. When SCARB1(-/-) mice were treated with a combination of mevinolin [an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR)] and chloroquine (an inhibitor of lysosomal processing of low-density lipoproteins), serum progesterone was further reduced. HMGR protein expression increased in SCARB1(-/-) mice, independent of treatment. It was concluded that theca, granulosa, and cumulus cells express SCARB1 during follicle development, but maximum expression depends on luteinization. Knockout of SCARB1(-/-) leads to ovarian pathology and suboptimal luteal steroidogenesis. Therefore, SCARB1 expression is essential for maintaining normal ovarian cholesterol homeostasis and luteal steroid synthesis.

  16. B-1 Cell Immunoglobulin Directed Against Oxidation-Specific Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Gruber, Sabrina; Binder, Christoph J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAbs) are pre-existing antibodies with germline origin that arise in the absence of previous exposure to foreign antigens. NAbs are produced by B-1 lymphocytes and are primarily of the IgM isotype. There is accumulating evidence that – in addition to their role in antimicrobial host defense – NAbs exhibit important housekeeping functions by facilitating the non-immunogenic clearance of apoptotic cells as well as the removal of (neo-)self antigens. These properties are largely mediated by the ability of NAbs to recognize highly conserved and endogenously generated structures, which are exemplified by so-called oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) that are products of lipid peroxidation. The generation of OSEs as well as their interaction with the immune system have been studied extensively in the context of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vascular wall that is characterized by the accumulation of cellular debris and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL). Both apoptotic cells as well as OxLDL carry OSEs that are targeted by NAbs. Therefore, OSEs represent stress-induced neo self-structures that mediate recognition of metabolic waste (e.g., cellular debris) by NAbs, allowing its safe disposal, which has fundamental implications in health and disease. PMID:23316200

  17. Molecular ions in the protostellar shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podio, L.; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Bachiller, R.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We perform a complete census of molecular ions with an abundance greater than ~10-10 in the protostellar shock L1157-B1. This allows us to study the ionisation structure and chemistry of the shock. Methods: An unbiased high-sensitivity survey of L1157-B1 performed with the IRAM-30 m and Herschel/HIFI as part of the CHESS and ASAI large programmes allows searching for molecular ions emission. Then, by means of a radiative transfer code in the large velocity gradient approximation, the gas physical conditions and fractional abundances of molecular ions are derived. The latter are compared with estimates of steady-state abundances in the cloud and their evolution in the shock calculated with the chemical model Astrochem. Results: We detect emission from HCO+, H13CO+, N2H+, HCS+, and for the first time in a shock, from HOCO+ and SO+. The bulk of the emission peaks at blue-shifted velocity, ~0.5-3 km s -1 with respect to systemic, has a width of ~3-7 km s-1 and is associated with the outflow cavities (Tkin ~ 20-70 K, nH2 ~ 105 cm-3). A high-velocity component up to -40 km s-1, associated with the primary jet, is detected in the HCO+ 1-0 line. Observed HCO+ and N2H+ abundances (XHCO+ ~ 0.7-3 × 10-8, XN2H+ ~ 0.4-8 × 10-9) agree with steady-state abundances in the cloud and with their evolution in the compressed and heated gas in the shock for cosmic rays ionisation rate ζ = 3 × 10-16 s-1. HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ observed abundances (XHOCO+ ~ 10-9, XSO+ ~ 8 × 10-10, XHCS+ ~ 3-7 × 10-10), instead, are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than predicted in the cloud; on the other hand, they are strongly enhanced on timescales shorter than the shock age (~2000 years) if CO2, S or H2S, and OCS are sputtered off the dust grains in the shock. Conclusions: The performed analysis indicates that HCO+ and N2H+ are a fossil record of pre-shock gas in the outflow cavity, whilst HOCO+, SO+, and HCS+ are effective shock tracers that can be used to infer the amount of CO2 and sulphur

  18. Residues of aflatoxin B1 in broiler meat: effect of age and dietary aflatoxin B1 levels.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zahid; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Sultan; Asi, Muhammad Rafique

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the effect of dietary levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and age of the birds upon the residue level in liver and muscles of broiler chicks. In three different experiments broiler chicks of 7, 14 and 28 days of age were kept for 7 days on contaminated rations having 1600, 3200 and 6400 μg/kg AFB1. AFB1 residues were detected earlier in younger birds and those fed high AFB1 dietary levels. The highest residue levels in liver and muscles of young chicks fed 6400 μg/kg AFB1 was 6.97±0.08 and 3.27±0.05 ng/g, respectively. Maximum residue concentration was high in birds of young age and those kept on high AFB1 ration. After withdrawal of AF contaminated rations, residues clearance was slow and AFB1 was detectable in liver and muscles of birds for longer duration in younger birds and those fed high AFB1 dietary levels. AFB1 residues in poultry tissues may buildup to high levels in areas with no regulatory limits on AFB1 levels of poultry feed and may pose a risk to consumers health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of vegetation change in future climate under the A1B scenario and a climate stabilisation scenario, using the HadCM3C earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falloon, P. D.; Dankers, R.; Betts, R. A.; Jones, C. D.; Booth, B. B. B.; Lambert, F. H.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to use the coupled climate-carbon cycle model HadCM3C to quantify climate impact of ecosystem changes over recent decades and under future scenarios, due to changes in both atmospheric CO2 and surface albedo. We use two future scenarios - the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, and a climate stabilisation scenario (2C20), allowing us to assess the impact of climate mitigation on results. We performed a pair of simulations under each scenario - one in which vegetation was fixed at the initial state and one in which vegetation changes dynamically in response to climate change, as determined by the interactive vegetation model within HadCM3C. In our simulations with interactive vegetation, relatively small changes in global vegetation coverage were found, mainly dominated by increases in scrub and needleleaf trees at high latitudes and losses of broadleaf trees and grasses across the Amazon. Globally this led to a loss of terrestrial carbon, mainly from the soil. Global changes in carbon storage were related to the regional losses from the Amazon and gains at high latitude. Regional differences in carbon storage between the two scenarios were largely driven by the balance between warming-enhanced decomposition and altered vegetation growth. Globally, interactive vegetation reduced albedo acting to enhance albedo changes due to climate change. This was mainly related to the darker land surface over high latitudes (due to vegetation expansion, particularly during winter and spring); small increases in albedo occurred over the Amazon. As a result, there was a relatively small impact of vegetation change on most global annual mean climate variables, which was generally greater under A1B than 2C20, with markedly stronger local-to-regional and seasonal impacts. Globally, vegetation change amplified future annual temperature increases by 0.24 and 0.15 K (under A1B and 2C20, respectively) and increased global precipitation, with reductions in precipitation over

  20. Role of vegetation change in future climate under the A1B scenario and a climate stabilisation scenario, using the HadCM3C Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falloon, P. D.; Dankers, R.; Betts, R. A.; Jones, C. D.; Booth, B. B. B.; Lambert, F. H.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of our study was to use the coupled climate-carbon cycle model HadCM3C to quantify climate impact of ecosystem changes over recent decades and under future scenarios, due to changes in both atmospheric CO2 and surface albedo. We use two future scenarios - the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, and a climate stabilisation scenario (2C20), allowing us to assess the impact of climate mitigation on results. We performed a pair of simulations under each scenario - one in which vegetation was fixed at the initial state and one in which vegetation changes dynamically in response to climate change, as determined by the interactive vegetation model within HadCM3C. In our simulations with interactive vegetation, relatively small changes in global vegetation coverage were found, mainly dominated by increases in shrub and needleleaf trees at high latitudes and losses of broadleaf trees and grasses across the Amazon. Globally this led to a loss of terrestrial carbon, mainly from the soil. Global changes in carbon storage were related to the regional losses from the Amazon and gains at high latitude. Regional differences in carbon storage between the two scenarios were largely driven by the balance between warming-enhanced decomposition and altered vegetation growth. Globally, interactive vegetation reduced albedo acting to enhance albedo changes due to climate change. This was mainly related to the darker land surface over high latitudes (due to vegetation expansion, particularly during December-January and March-May); small increases in albedo occurred over the Amazon. As a result, there was a relatively small impact of vegetation change on most global annual mean climate variables, which was generally greater under A1B than 2C20, with markedly stronger local-to-regional and seasonal impacts. Globally, vegetation change amplified future annual temperature increases by 0.24 and 0.15 K (under A1B and 2C20, respectively) and increased global precipitation, with reductions in

  1. Genetic screening of non-classic CAH females with hyperandrogenemia identifies a novel CYP11B1 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Shammas, Christos; Byrou, Stefania; Phelan, Marie M; Toumba, Meropi; Stylianou, Charilaos; Skordis, Nicos; Neocleous, Vassos; Phylactou, Leonidas A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an endocrine autosomal recessive disorder with various symptoms of diverse severity. Mild hyperandrogenemia is the most commonclinical feature in non-classic CAH patients and 95% of the cases are identified by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. In the present study, the second most common cause for non-classic CAH (NC-CAH), 11β-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, is investigated. Screening of the CYP21A2 and CYP11B1 genes by direct sequencing was carried out for the detection of possible genetic defects in patients with suspected CAH. It wasobserved that CYP11B1 variants co-exist only in rare cases along with mutations in CYP21A2 in patients clinically diagnosed with CAH. A total of 23 NC-CAH female patients out of 75 were identified with only one mutation in the CYP21A2 gene. The novel CYP11B1 gene mutation, p.Val484Asp, was identified in a patient with CAH in the heterozygous state. The structural characterization of the novel p.Val484Asp was found to likely cause distortion of the surrounding beta sheet and indirect destabilization of the cavity that occurs on the opposite face of the structural elements, leading to partial impairment of the enzymatic activity. CYP21A2 gene mutations are the most frequent genetic defects in cases of NC-CAH even when these patients are in the heterozygous state. These mutations have a diverse phenotype giving rise to a variable extent of cortisol synthesis impairment; it is also clear that CYP11B1 mutants are a rare type of defects causing CAH.

  2. Anti-human neutrophil antigen-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in neonates and children with immune neutropenias analyzed by extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Rie; Kurita, Emi; Taniguchi, Kikuyo; Karakawa, Shuhei; Okada, Satoshi; Kihara, Hirotaka; Fujii, Teruhisa; Kobayashi, Masao

    2017-11-01

    Anti-human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies have been implicated in the development of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAN) and autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). There are many conventional assay methods that detect anti-HNA antibodies. However, a method to measure multiple samples and detect several anti-HNA antibodies simultaneously is needed. We developed a new method, the extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay (EGIFA), to analyze anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in sera. The results obtained by EGIFA were evaluated in comparison with those from several standard assay methods. Anti-HNA antibodies in serum samples from nine familial cases with suspected NAN (n = 19) and children with suspected AIN (n = 88) were also measured by EGIFA. The evaluation of nine serum samples with anti-HNA antibodies suggested that EGIFA demonstrated equivalent specificity and superior sensitivity to monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of granulocyte antigens and had comparable sensitivity to the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test. EGIFA successfully detected anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibodies in seven of nine familial cases with suspected NAN. EGIFA detected anti-HNA antibodies in 40.9% of children with suspected AIN. Among them, isolated anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibody was detected in 4.5 or 12.5% of children, respectively, and anti-HNA-2 antibody was identified in 3.4% of children. The 30.8% (16 of 52) of children negative for anti-HNA antibody by EGIFA were positive for anti-HLA antibody. EGIFA facilitated the measurement of anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and/or -2 antibodies in sera. The prompt measurement of anti-HNA antibodies will improve the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with suspected NAN or AIN. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Antihypertensive effect of formononetin through regulating the expressions of eNOS, 5-HT2A/1B receptors and α1-adrenoceptors in spontaneously rat arteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Jie; Huang, Lin-Hong; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2013-01-15

    One of the main pathological changes of hypertension is the dysfunction of blood vessels. We have found in our previous study that formononetin, one kind of phytoestrogens, has an acute antihypertensive effect. Therefore, we hypothesized that formononetin might produce a chronic antihypertensive effect through regulating the expressions of contractile receptors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in artery. The present study was conducted to verify this effect. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into two groups, orally administrated formononetin (50mg/kg per day) and Tween 80 vehicle, respectively, for 8 weeks. The blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. Isometric tension of arterial rings was recorded by a myograph system. The mRNA and protein expression in arteries was determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results showed that the systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreased significantly in formononetin group compared to Tween 80 group. The vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the mesenteric artery segments in formononetin group was decreased, and the relaxation induced by acetylcholine was increased compared with that in Tween 80 group. In the mesenteric arteries of the formononetin-treated SHRs, the expressions of α(1)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT(2A/1B) receptors at both mRNA and protein levels decreased, while the mRNA and protein expressions of eNOS increased. In conclusion, formononetin has a chronic antihypertensive effect in SHRs. The antihypertensive mechanism may be associated with the down-regulation of α(1)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT(2A/1B) receptors, and the up-regulation of eNOS expression in arteries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of fumonisin B1 levels in body fluids and hair from piglets fed fumonisin B1-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Souto, Pollyana C M C; Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Petta, Tânia; Di Gregório, Mayra C; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Pinton, Philippe; Oswald, Isabelle P; Rottinghaus, George E; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2017-10-01

    The levels of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) residues in plasma, urine, feces and hair from 24 piglets fed FB 1 -contaminated diets containing 3.1, 6.1 or 9.0 μg FB 1 .g -1 for 28 days were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of FB 1 in plasma, urine, feces and pooled hair (n = 3) samples varied from 0.15 to 1.08 μg.L -1 , 16.09-75.01 μg.L -1 , 1.87-13.89 μg.g -1 and 2.08-8.09 ng.g -1 , respectively. Significant correlations (r = 0.808-0.885; P < 0.001; N = 18) were found between FB 1 intake and plasma FB 1 on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. However, urinary FB 1 correlated with FB 1 intake only on days 7 and 14 (r = 0.561-572; P = 0.02; N = 18). A significant correlation (r = 0.509; P = 0.02; N = 24) was also found for the first time between FB 1 in hair samples and FB 1 intake. Plasma and urinary FB 1 are good biomarkers of early exposure of pigs to low dietary FB 1 levels, although plasma is recommended to assess prolonged exposure (>14 days). The possibility to evaluate hair as a biomarker of fumonisin exposure was established, although further studies are needed to provide physiologically based toxicokinetics of residual FB 1 in the pig hair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 695 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Consideration for Purchase: 7 M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) Launchers with the Universal... M68A2 Trainers, 1 Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS); 2 M1151A1 High Mobility..., transportation, wheeled vehicles, communications equipment, spare and repair parts, support equipment, tools and...

  6. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA Adduct Formation and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    32 cases and 11 controls) undergoing surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 gene expression, CYP1B1 genotype and PAH-DNA adducts. CYP1B1...quantitated and its purity determined by its 260/280 nm absorption. Samples were aliqoted for later measurements of CYP1B1 genotype and DNA adducts...19.78) 0.06 – 73.7 d. Perform CYP1B1 genotype analysis The CYP1B1 genotype at two polymorphic sites located in the catalytic side of the enzyme

  7. Evidence for the η(b)(2S) and observation of h(b)(1P)→η(b)(1S)γ and h(b)(2P)→η(b)(1S)γ.

    PubMed

    Mizuk, R; Asner, D M; Bondar, A; Pedlar, T K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I-S; Cho, K; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kawasaki, T; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Ng, C; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Röhrken, M; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V

    2012-12-07

    We report the first evidence for the η(b)(2S) using the h(b)(2P)→η(b)(2S)γ transition and the first observation of the h(b)(1P)→η(b)(1S)γ and h(b)(2P)→η(b)(1S)γ transitions. The mass and width of the η(b)(1S) and η(b)(2S) are measured to be m(η(b)(1S))=(9402.4±1.5±1.8) MeV/c(2), m(η(b)(2S))=(9999.0±3.5(-1.9)(+2.8)) MeV/c(2), and Γ(η(b)(1S))=(10.8(-3.7-2.0)(+4.0+4.5)) MeV. We also update the h(b)(1P) and h(b)(2P) mass measurements. We use a 133.4 fb(-1) data sample collected at energies near the Υ(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider.

  8. Carboxypeptidase M Is a Positive Allosteric Modulator of the Kinin B1 Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2013-01-01

    Ligand binding to extracellular domains of G protein-coupled receptors can result in novel and nuanced allosteric effects on receptor signaling. We previously showed that the protein-protein interaction of carboxypeptidase M (CPM) and kinin B1 receptor (B1R) enhances B1R signaling in two ways; 1) kinin binding to CPM causes a conformational activation of the B1R, and 2) CPM-generated des-Arg-kinin agonist is efficiently delivered to the B1R. Here, we show CPM is also a positive allosteric modulator of B1R signaling to its agonist, des-Arg10-kallidin (DAKD). In HEK cells stably transfected with B1R, co-expression of CPM enhanced DAKD-stimulated increases in intracellular Ca2+ or phosphoinositide turnover by a leftward shift of the dose-response curve without changing the maximum. CPM increased B1R affinity for DAKD by ∼5-fold but had no effect on basal B1R-dependent phosphoinositide turnover. Soluble, recombinant CPM bound to HEK cells expressing B1Rs without stimulating receptor signaling. CPM positive allosteric action was independent of enzyme activity but depended on interaction of its C-terminal domain with the B1R extracellular loop 2. Disruption of the CPM/B1R interaction or knockdown of CPM in cytokine-treated primary human endothelial cells inhibited the allosteric enhancement of CPM on B1R DAKD binding or ERK1/2 activation. CPM also enhanced the DAKD-induced B1R conformational change as detected by increased intramolecular fluorescence or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. Thus, CPM binding to extracellular loop 2 of the B1R results in positive allosteric modulation of B1R signaling, and disruption of this interaction could provide a novel therapeutic approach to reduce pathological B1R signaling. PMID:24108126

  9. Neuronal SH2B1 is essential for controlling energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Decheng; Zhou, Yingjiang; Morris, David; Li, Minghua; Li, Zhiqin; Rui, Liangyou

    2007-02-01

    SH2B1 (previously named SH2-B), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, binds via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain to a variety of protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK2 and the insulin receptor. SH2B1-deficient mice are obese and diabetic. Here we demonstrated that multiple isoforms of SH2B1 (alpha, beta, gamma, and/or delta) were expressed in numerous tissues, including the brain, hypothalamus, liver, muscle, adipose tissue, heart, and pancreas. Rat SH2B1beta was specifically expressed in neural tissue in SH2B1-transgenic (SH2B1(Tg)) mice. SH2B1(Tg) mice were crossed with SH2B1-knockout (SH2B1(KO)) mice to generate SH2B1(TgKO) mice expressing SH2B1 only in neural tissue but not in other tissues. Systemic deletion of the SH2B1 gene resulted in metabolic disorders in SH2B1(KO) mice, including hyperlipidemia, leptin resistance, hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Neuron-specific restoration of SH2B1beta not only corrected the metabolic disorders in SH2B1(TgKO) mice, but also improved JAK2-mediated leptin signaling and leptin regulation of orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus. Moreover, neuron-specific overexpression of SH2B1 dose-dependently protected against high-fat diet-induced leptin resistance and obesity. These observations suggest that neuronal SH2B1 regulates energy balance, body weight, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis at least in part by enhancing hypothalamic leptin sensitivity.

  10. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is

  11. Genome-wide study of methotrexate clearance replicates SLCO1B1

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Laura B.; Panetta, John C.; Smith, Colton; Yang, Wenjian; Fan, Yiping; Winick, Naomi J.; Martin, Paul L.; Cheng, Cheng; Devidas, Meenakshi; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Loh, Mignon

    2013-01-01

    Methotrexate clearance can influence the cure of and toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We estimated methotrexate plasma clearance for 1279 patients with ALL treated with methotrexate (24-hour infusion of a 1 g/m2 dose or 4-hour infusion of a 2 g/m2 dose) on the Children's Oncology Group P9904 and P9905 protocols. Methotrexate clearance was lower in older children (P = 7 × 10−7), girls (P = 2.7 × 10−4), and those who received a delayed-intensification phase (P = .0022). A genome-wide analysis showed that methotrexate clearance was associated with polymorphisms in the organic anion transporter gene SLCO1B1 (P = 2.1 × 10−11). This replicates findings using different schedules of high-dose methotrexate in St Jude ALL treatment protocols; a combined meta-analysis yields a P value of 5.7 × 10−19 for the association of methotrexate clearance with SLCO1B1 SNP rs4149056. Validation of this variant with 5 different treatment regimens of methotrexate solidifies the robustness of this pharmacogenomic determinant of methotrexate clearance. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005585 and NCT00005596. PMID:23233662

  12. The effect of organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 on the antitumor activity of flavopiridol in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Stefan; Riha, Juliane; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Thalhammer, Theresia; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Stieger, Bruno; Jäger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) to the cellular uptake of flavopiridol was investigated in OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Uptake of flavopiridol into these cells showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with much higher transport capacity for OATP1B3 compared to OATP1B1 and OATP2B1 (Vmax/Km, 33.9 vs. 8.84 and 2.41 µl/mg/min, respectively). The predominant role of OATPs was further supported by a dramatic inhibition of flavopiridol uptake in the presence of the OATP substrate rifampicin. Uptake of flavopiridol by OATPs also seems to be an important determinant in breast cancer cells. The much higher mRNA level for OATP1B1 found in wild-type compared to ZR-75-1 OATP1B1 knockdown cells correlated with higher flavopiridol initial uptake leading to 4.6-fold decreased IC50 values in the cytotoxicity assay (IC50, 1.45 vs. 6.64 µM). Cell cycle profile also showed a clear incidence for a stronger cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase for ZR-75-1 wild-type cells compared to OATP1B1 knockdown cells, further indicating an active uptake via OATP1B1. In conclusion, our results revealed OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 as uptake transporters for flavopiridol in cancer cells, which may also apply in patients during cancer therapy.

  13. 26 CFR 53.4941(b)-1 - Imposition of additional taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition of additional taxes. 53.4941(b)-1...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Self-Dealing § 53.4941(b)-1 Imposition of additional taxes. (a) Tax on self-dealer. Section 4941(b)(1) of the Code imposes an excise tax...

  14. 42 CFR 52b.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52b.1 Section 52b.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.1 To what programs do these regulations apply? (a) General...

  15. 42 CFR 52b.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52b.1 Section 52b.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.1 To what programs do these regulations apply? (a) General...

  16. 42 CFR 52b.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52b.1 Section 52b.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.1 To what programs do these regulations apply? (a) General...

  17. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plan satisfies section 410(b)(1) if it satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this... this subparagraph if it benefits— (i) Seventy percent or more of all employees, or (ii) Eighty percent... requirements of section 410(b)(1) and this subparagraph if it benefits such employees as qualify under a...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. 48.4161(b)-1 Section 48.4161(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-1...

  19. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency leads to leptin hypersensitivity and resistance to obesity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Marcelo A; Araújo, Ronaldo C; Reis, Felipe C G; Sgai, Daniela G; Fonseca, Raphael G; Barros, Carlos C; Merino, Vanessa F; Passadore, Mariana; Barbosa, Ana M; Ferrari, Bernard; Carayon, Pierre; Castro, Charlles H M; Shimuta, Suma I; Luz, Jacqueline; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Even, Patrick C; Oliveira, Suzana M; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, João B

    2008-06-01

    Kinins mediate pathophysiological processes related to hypertension, pain, and inflammation through the activation of two G-protein-coupled receptors, named B(1) and B(2). Although these peptides have been related to glucose homeostasis, their effects on energy balance are still unknown. Using genetic and pharmacological strategies to abrogate the kinin B(1) receptor in different animal models of obesity, here we present evidence of a novel role for kinins in the regulation of satiety and adiposity. Kinin B(1) receptor deficiency in mice (B(1)(-/-)) resulted in less fat content, hypoleptinemia, increased leptin sensitivity, and robust protection against high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Under high-fat diet, B(1)(-/-) also exhibited reduced food intake, improved lipid oxidation, and increased energy expenditure. Surprisingly, B(1) receptor deficiency was not able to decrease food intake and adiposity in obese mice lacking leptin (ob/ob-B(1)(-/-)). However, ob/ob-B(1)(-/-) mice were more responsive to the effects of exogenous leptin on body weight and food intake, suggesting that B(1) receptors may be dependent on leptin to display their metabolic roles. Finally, inhibition of weight gain and food intake by B(1) receptor ablation was pharmacologically confirmed by long-term administration of the kinin B(1) receptor antagonist SSR240612 to mice under high-fat diet. Our data suggest that kinin B(1) receptors participate in the regulation of the energy balance via a mechanism that could involve the modulation of leptin sensitivity.

  20. 42 CFR 52b.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52b.1 Section 52b.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.1 To what programs do these regulations apply? (a) General...

  1. 42 CFR 52b.1 - To what programs do these regulations apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false To what programs do these regulations apply? 52b.1 Section 52b.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.1 To what programs do these regulations apply? (a) General...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined...

  6. 29 CFR 2550.403b-1 - Exemptions from trust requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions from trust requirement. 2550.403b-1 Section 2550.403b-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.403b-1 Exemptions from trust requirement. (a...

  7. Impact of climate change on soil thermal and moisture regimes in Serbia: An analysis with data from regional climate simulations under SRES-A1B.

    PubMed

    Mihailović, D T; Drešković, N; Arsenić, I; Ćirić, V; Djurdjević, V; Mimić, G; Pap, I; Balaž, I

    2016-11-15

    We considered temporal and spatial variations to the thermal and moisture regimes of the most common RSGs (Reference Soil Groups) in Serbia under the A1B scenario for the 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 periods, with respect to the 1961-1990 period. We utilized dynamically downscaled global climate simulations from the ECHAM5 model using the coupled regional climate model EBU-POM (Eta Belgrade University-Princeton Ocean Model). We analysed the soil temperature and moisture time series using simple statistics and a Kolmogorov complexity (KC) analysis. The corresponding metrics were calculated for 150 sites. In the future, warmer and drier regimes can be expected for all RSGs in Serbia. The calculated soil temperature and moisture variations include increases in the mean annual soil temperature (up to 3.8°C) and decreases in the mean annual soil moisture (up to 11.3%). Based on the KC values, the soils in Serbia are classified with respect to climate change impacts as (1) less sensitive (Vertisols, Umbrisols and Dystric Cambisols) or (2) more sensitive (Chernozems, Eutric Cambisols and Planosols). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of surface water budget and assessment the global water cycle for the IPCC AR4 A1B scenario simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, H.; Park, E.; Kwon, W.

    2009-12-01

    Water balance calculations are becoming increasingly important for earth-system studies, because humans require water for their survival. Especially, the relationship between climate change and freshwater resources is of primary concern to human society and also has implications for all living species. The goal of this study is to assess the closure and annual variations of the water cycles based on the multi-model ensemble approach. In this study, the projection results of the previous works focusing on global and six sub-regions are updated using sixteen atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. Before projecting future climate, model performances are evaluated on the simulation of the present-day climate. From the result, we construct and use mainly multi-model ensembles (MMEs), which is referred to as MME9, defined from nine selected AOGCMs of higher performance. Analyzed variables include annual and seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and runoff. The overall projection results from MME9 show that most regions will experience warmer and wetter climate at the end of 21st century. The evaporation shows a very similar trend to precipitation, but not in the runoff projection. The internal and inter-model variabilities are larger in the runoff than both precipitation and evaporation. Moreover, the runoff is notably reduced in Europe at the end of 21st century.

  9. Kinin B1 Receptor Promotes Neurogenic Hypertension Through Activation of Centrally Mediated Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with increased activity of the kallikrein-kinin system. Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) activation leads to vasoconstriction and inflammation. Despite evidence supporting a role for the B1R in blood pressure regulation, the mechanisms by which B1R could alter autonomic function and participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain unidentified. We sought to explore whether B1R-mediated inflammation contributes to hypertension and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of B1R in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, using the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt model of neurogenic hypertension in wild-type and B1R knockout mice. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment in wild-type mice led to significant increases in B1R mRNA and protein levels and bradykinin levels, enhanced gene expression of carboxypeptidase N supporting an increase in the B1R ligand, associated with enhanced blood pressure, inflammation, sympathoexcitation, autonomic dysfunction, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity, whereas these changes were blunted or prevented in B1R knockout mice. B1R stimulation was further shown to involve activation of the ASK1-JNK-ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways in the brain. To dismiss potential developmental alterations in knockout mice, we further used B1R blockade selectively in the brain of wild-type mice. Supporting the central origin of this mechanism, intracerebroventricular infusion of a specific B1R antagonist, attenuated the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced increase in blood pressure in wild-type mice. Our data provide the first evidence of a central role for B1R-mediated inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and offer novel insights into possible B1R-targeted therapies for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Laboratory detection of a new interstellar free radical CH2CN(2B1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Shuji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Irvine, W. M.; Ziurys, L. M.; Suzuki, Hiroko

    1988-01-01

    An asymmetric-top free radical CH2CN with a 2B1 ground state was detected by laboratory microwave spectroscopy. The radical was produced in a free-space absorption cell by a DC glow discharge in pure CH3CN gas. About 60 fine-structure components were observed for the N = 11-10 to 14-13 a-type rotational transitions in the frequency region of 220-260 GHz. Hyperfine resolved components for the N = 4-3 and 5-4 transitions were resolved in the 80 and 100 GHz regions, respectively. Molecular constants were determined and U100602 and U80484 from Sgr B2, and U40240 and U20120 from TMC-1 were assigned to the N = 5-4, 4-3, 2-1, and 1-0 transitions with K(-1) = 0 of the CH2CN radical.

  11. Thyroid Hormones Are Transport Substrates and Transcriptional Regulators of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    PubMed

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G

    2018-07-01

    Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  12. P-glycoprotein (Mdr1a/1b) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) decrease the uptake of hydrophobic alkyl triphenylphosphonium cations by the brain

    PubMed Central

    Porteous, Carolyn M.; Menon, David K.; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to degenerative neurological disorders, consequently there is a need for mitochondria-targeted therapies that are effective within the brain. One approach to deliver pharmacophores is by conjugation to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation that accumulates in mitochondria driven by the membrane potential. While this approach has delivered TPP-conjugated compounds to the brain, the amounts taken up are lower than by other organs. Methods To discover why uptake of hydrophobic TPP compounds by the brain is relatively poor, we assessed the role of the P-glycoprotein (Mdr1a/b) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which drive the efflux of lipophilic compounds from the brain thereby restricting the uptake of lipophilic drugs. We used a triple transgenic mouse model lacking two isoforms of P-glycoprotein (Mdr1a/1b) and the Bcrp. Results There was a significant increase in the uptake into the brain of two hydrophobic TPP compounds, MitoQ and MitoF, in the triple transgenics following intra venous (IV) administration compared to control mice. Greater amounts of the hydrophobic TPP compounds were also retained in the liver of transgenic mice compared to controls. The uptake into the heart, white fat, muscle and kidneys was comparable between the transgenic mice and controls. Conclusion Efflux of hydrophobic TPP compounds by ABC transporters contributes to their lowered uptake into the brain and liver. General significance These findings suggest that strategies to bypass ABC transporters in the BBB will enhance delivery of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, probes and pharmacophores to the brain. PMID:23454352

  13. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2007-03-26

    We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than themore » difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.« less

  14. Efficient Maize and Sunflower Multi-year Mapping with NDVI Time Series of HJ-1A/1B in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Shang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food shortage is one of the major challenges that human beings are facing. It is urgent to improve the monitoring of the plantation and distribution of the main crops to solve the following economic and social issues. Recently, with the extensive use of remote sensing satellite data, it has provided favorable conditions for crop identification in large irrigation district with complex planting structure. Difference of different crop phenology is the main basis for crop identification, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series could better delineate crop phenology cycle. Therefore, the key of crop identification is to obtain high quality NDVI time-series. MODIS and Landsat TM satellite images are the most frequently used, however, neither of them could guarantee high temporal and spatial resolutions at once. Accordingly, this paper makes use of NDVI time-series extracted from China Environment Satellites data, which has two-day-repeat temporal and 30m spatial resolutions. The NDVI time-series are fitted with an asymmetric logistic curve, the fitting effect is good and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9. The phonological parameters are derived from NDVI fitting curves, and crop identification is carried out by different relation ellipses between NDVI and its phonological parameters of different crops. This paper takes Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia as an example, to identify multi-year maize and sunflower in the district, and the identification result is good. Compared with the official statistics, the relative errors are both lower than 5%. The results show that the NDVI time-series dataset derived from HJ-1A/1B CCD could delineate the crop phenology cycle accurately and demonstrate its application in crop identification in irrigated district.

  15. Characterization of ursodeoxycholic and norursodeoxycholic acid as substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Klatt, Sabine; Dilger, Karin; Fromm, Martin F

    2012-08-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only approved treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, and norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is currently tested in clinical trials for future treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis because of beneficial effects in cholestatic Mdr2 knock-out mice. Uptake of UDCA and norUDCA into hepatocytes is believed to be a prerequisite for subsequent metabolism and therapeutic action. However, the molecular determinants of hepatocellular uptake of UDCA and norUDCA are poorly understood. We therefore investigated whether UDCA and norUDCA are substrates of the hepatic uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and Na(+) -taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), which are localized in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. Uptake of [(3) H]UDCA and [(14) C]norUDCA into Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 or NTCP was investigated and compared with uptake into vector control cells. Uptake ratios were calculated by dividing uptake into transporter-transfected cells by uptake into respective control cells. Uptake ratios of OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-mediated UDCA and norUDCA uptake were at maximum 1.23 and 1.49, respectively. Uptake of UDCA was significantly higher into HEK-NTCP cells only at the lowest tested concentration (1 μM, p < 0.001) compared with the control cells with an uptake ratio of 1.34-fold. NorUDCA was not significantly transported by NTCP. The low uptake rates suggest that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and NTCP are not relevant for hepatocellular uptake and effects of UDCA and norUDCA in human beings. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  16. Heat Shock Protein B1-Deficient Mice Display Impaired Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, Kay; Przybycien, Paulina M.; Lu, Xin; Williams, Richard O.; Bou-Gharios, George; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Dean, Jonathan L. E.

    2013-01-01

    There is large literature describing in vitro experiments on heat shock protein (hsp)B1 but understanding of its function in vivo is limited to studies in mice overexpressing human hspB1 protein. Experiments in cells have shown that hspB1 has chaperone activity, a cytoprotective role, regulates inflammatory gene expression, and drives cell proliferation. To investigate the function of the protein in vivo we generated hspB1-deficient mice. HspB1-deficient fibroblasts display increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, compared to wild-type cells, but reduced proliferation. HspB1-deficient fibroblasts exhibit reduced entry into S phase and increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27kip1 and p21waf1. The expression of hspB1 protein and mRNA is also controlled by the cell cycle. To investigate the physiological function of hspB1 in regulating inflammation and cell proliferation we used an excisional cutaneous wound healing model. There was a significant impairment in the rate of healing of wounds in hspB1-deficient mice, characterised by reduced re-epithelialisation and collagen deposition but also increased inflammation. HspB1 deficiency augments neutrophil infiltration in wounds, driven by increased chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 expression. This appears to be a general mechanism as similar results were obtained in the air-pouch and peritonitis models of acute inflammation. PMID:24143227

  17. Defining the membrane disruption mechanism of kalata B1 via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Nawae, Wanapinun; Hannongbua, Supa; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri

    2014-01-01

    Kalata B1 has been demonstrated to have bioactivity relating to membrane disruption. In this study, we conducted coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to gain further insight into kB1 bioactivity. The simulations were performed at various concentrations of kB1 to capture the overall progression of its activity. Two configurations of kB1 oligomers, termed tower-like and wall-like clusters, were detected. The conjugation between the wall-like oligomers resulted in the formation of a ring-like hollow in the kB1 cluster on the membrane surface. Our results indicated that the molecules of kB1 were trapped at the membrane-water interface. The interfacial membrane binding of kB1 induced a positive membrane curvature, and the lipids were eventually extracted from the membrane through the kB1 ring-like hollow into the space inside the kB1 cluster. These findings provide an alternative view of the mechanism of kB1 bioactivity that corresponds with the concept of an interfacial bioactivity model. PMID:24492660

  18. Distinct Sequence Elements of Cyclin B1 Promote Localization to Chromatin, Centrosomes, and Kinetochores during Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Anna M.; Normand, Guillaume; Hoyt, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The mitotic cyclins promote cell division by binding and activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Each cyclin has a unique pattern of subcellular localization that plays a vital role in regulating cell division. During mitosis, cyclin B1 is known to localize to centrosomes, microtubules, and chromatin. To determine the mechanisms of cyclin B1 localization in M phase, we imaged full-length and mutant versions of human cyclin B1-enhanced green fluorescent protein in live cells by using spinning disk confocal microscopy. In addition to centrosome, microtubule, and chromatin localization, we found that cyclin B1 also localizes to unattached kinetochores after nuclear envelope breakdown. Kinetochore recruitment of cyclin B1 required the kinetochore proteins Hec1 and Mad2, and it was stimulated by microtubule destabilization. Mutagenesis studies revealed that cyclin B1 is recruited to kinetochores through both CDK1-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In contrast, localization of cyclin B1 to chromatin and centrosomes is independent of CDK1 binding. The N-terminal domain of cyclin B1 is necessary and sufficient for chromatin association, whereas centrosome recruitment relies on sequences within the cyclin box. Our data support a role for cyclin B1 function at unattached kinetochores, and they demonstrate that separable and distinct sequence elements target cyclin B1 to kinetochores, chromatin, and centrosomes during mitosis. PMID:17881737

  19. Estimating B1+ in the breast at 7 T using a generic template.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Michael J; Pluim, Josien P W; Luijten, Peter R; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; Klomp, Dennis W J

    2018-05-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is the workhorse of breast MRI, where the diagnosis of lesions is largely based on the enhancement curve shape. However, this curve shape is biased by RF transmit (B 1 + ) field inhomogeneities. B 1 + field information is required in order to correct these. The use of a generic, coil-specific B 1 + template is proposed and tested. Finite-difference time-domain simulations for B 1 + were performed for healthy female volunteers with a wide range of breast anatomies. A generic B 1 + template was constructed by averaging simulations based on four volunteers. Three-dimensional B 1 + maps were acquired in 15 other volunteers. Root mean square error (RMSE) metrics were calculated between individual simulations and the template, and between individual measurements and the template. The agreement between the proposed template approach and a B 1 + mapping method was compared against the agreement between acquisition and reacquisition using the same mapping protocol. RMSE values (% of nominal flip angle) comparing individual simulations with the template were in the range 2.00-4.01%, with mean 2.68%. RMSE values comparing individual measurements with the template were in the range8.1-16%, with mean 11.7%. The agreement between the proposed template approach and a B 1 + mapping method was only slightly worse than the agreement between two consecutive acquisitions using the same mapping protocol in one volunteer: the range of agreement increased from ±16% of the nominal angle for repeated measurement to ±22% for the B 1 + template. With local RF transmit coils, intersubject differences in B 1 + fields of the breast are comparable to the accuracy of B 1 + mapping methods, even at 7 T. Consequently, a single generic B 1 + template suits subjects over a wide range of breast anatomies, eliminating the need for a time-consuming B 1 + mapping protocol. © 2018 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Estimating B 1 + in the breast at 7 T using a generic template

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Josien P. W.; Luijten, Peter R.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A.; Raaijmakers, Alexander J. E.; Klomp, Dennis W. J.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI is the workhorse of breast MRI, where the diagnosis of lesions is largely based on the enhancement curve shape. However, this curve shape is biased by RF transmit (B 1 +) field inhomogeneities. B 1 + field information is required in order to correct these. The use of a generic, coil‐specific B 1 + template is proposed and tested. Finite‐difference time‐domain simulations for B 1 + were performed for healthy female volunteers with a wide range of breast anatomies. A generic B 1 + template was constructed by averaging simulations based on four volunteers. Three‐dimensional B 1 + maps were acquired in 15 other volunteers. Root mean square error (RMSE) metrics were calculated between individual simulations and the template, and between individual measurements and the template. The agreement between the proposed template approach and a B 1 + mapping method was compared against the agreement between acquisition and reacquisition using the same mapping protocol. RMSE values (% of nominal flip angle) comparing individual simulations with the template were in the range 2.00‐4.01%, with mean 2.68%. RMSE values comparing individual measurements with the template were in the range8.1‐16%, with mean 11.7%. The agreement between the proposed template approach and a B 1 + mapping method was only slightly worse than the agreement between two consecutive acquisitions using the same mapping protocol in one volunteer: the range of agreement increased from ±16% of the nominal angle for repeated measurement to ±22% for the B 1 + template. With local RF transmit coils, intersubject differences in B 1 + fields of the breast are comparable to the accuracy of B 1 + mapping methods, even at 7 T. Consequently, a single generic B 1 + template suits subjects over a wide range of breast anatomies, eliminating the need for a time‐consuming B 1 + mapping protocol. PMID:29570887

  1. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. Themore » Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased

  2. From molecule to behavior: Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) characterization, expression analysis and its relation with social status and male agonistic behavior in a Neotropical cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Martín R; Morandini, Leonel; Birba, Agustina; Somoza, Gustavo M; Pandolfi, Matías

    2017-03-01

    The enzyme aromatase, responsible for the conversion of C19 androgens to C18 estrogens, exists as two paralogue copies in teleost fish: Cyp19a1a mostly expressed in the gonads, referred as gonadal aromatase, and Cyp19a1b, mostly expressed in the brain, accordingly known as brain aromatase. The neural localization of Cyp19a1b is greatly contained within the social behavior network and mesolimbic reward system in fish, suggesting a strong role of estrogen synthesis in the regulation of social behavior. In this work we aimed to analyze the variation in cyp19a1b expression in brain and pituitary of males of a highly social cichlid, Cichlasoma dimerus (locally known as chanchita), and its relation with inter-individual variability in agonistic behavior in a communal social environment. We first characterized chanchita's cyp19a1b mRNA and deduced amino acid sequence, which showed a high degree of conservation when compared to other teleost brain aromatase sequences, and its tissue expression patterns. Within the brain, Cyp19a1b was solely detected at putative radial glial cells of the forebrain, close to the brain ventricles. We then studied the relative expression levels of cyp19a1b by Real Time PCR in the brain and pituitary of males of different social status, territorial vs. non-territorial, and its relationship with an index of agonistic behavior. We found that even though, brain aromatase expression did not differ between types of males, pituitary cyp19a1b expression levels positively correlated with the index of agonistic behavior. This suggests a novel role of the pituitary in the regulation of social behavior by local estrogen synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional characterisation of a TLR accessory protein, UNC93B1, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Lee, P T; Zou, J; Holland, J W; Martin, S A M; Scott, C J W; Kanellos, T; Secombes, C J

    2015-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localisation and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the accessory protein, UNC93B1, from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs aided by the conserved gene synteny of genes flanking UNC93B1 in fish, birds and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that salmon UNC93B1 grouped with other vertebrate UNC93B1 molecules, and had highest amino acid identity and similarity to zebrafish UNC93B1. The salmon UNC93B1 gene organisation was also similar in structure to mammalian UNC93B1. Our gene expression studies revealed that salmon UNC93B1 was more highly expressed in spleen, liver and gill tissues but was expressed at a lower level in head kidney tissue in post-smolts relative to parr. Moreover, salmon UNC93B1 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in vivo in spleen tissue from polyI:C treated salmon and in vitro in polyI:C or IFNγ stimulated Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cells. Initial studies into the functional role of salmon UNC93B1 in fish TLR signalling found that both wild type salmon UNC93B1 and a molecule with a site-directed mutation (H424R) co-immunoprecipitated with salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d. Overall, these data illustrate the potential importance of UNC93B1 as an accessory protein in fish TLR signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. PMID:25289859

  6. 2014-2016 Mt. Etna Ground deformation imaged by SISTEM approach using GPS and SENTINEL-1A/1B TOPSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), and thanks to the GEO-GSNL initiative, GPS data and SENTINEL 1A/1B TOPSAR acquired on Mt. Etna between October 2014 and November 2016 were analyzed. The SENTINEL data were used in order to combine and integrate them with GPS, and detail the ground deformation recorded by GPS on Mt. Etna, during the last two-year's volcanic activity. The Sentinel data were processed by GAMMA software, using a spectral diversity method and a procedure able to co-register the SENTINEL pairs with extremely high precision (< 0.01 pixel). In order to optimize the time processing, a new software architecture based on the hypervisor virtualization technology for the x64 versions of Windows has been implemented. The DInSAR results are analysed and successively used as input for the time series analysis using the StaMPS package. On December 28, 2014 eruptive activity resumed at Mt. Etna with a fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows spreading on the eastern and south-western upper flanks of the volcano, producing evident deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferogram were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The ground deformation pattern has been perfectly depicted by the GPS network, mainly affecting the uppermost part of the volcano edifice, with a strong decay of the deformation, according to a very shallow and strong dyke intrusion. The Sentinel 1A SAR data, covering the similar time spanning, confirmed that most of displacements are related to the dike intrusion, and evidenced a local gravity-driven motion of the western wall of the Valle del Bove, probably related to the dike intrusion. To monitor the temporal successive evolution of ground deformation, we performed an A-DInSAR SENTINEL analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach included with the StaMPS processing package. The April 2015

  7. Loss of endophilin-B1 exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Kinoshita, Yoshito; Kinoshita, Chizuru; Uo, Takuma; Sopher, Bryce L.; Cudaback, Eiron; Keene, C. Dirk; Bilousova, Tina; Gylys, Karen; Case, Amanda; Jayadev, Suman; Wang, Hong-Gang; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2015-01-01

    Endophilin-B1, also known as Bax-interacting factor 1 (Bif-1, and encoded by SH3GLB1), is a multifunctional protein involved in apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial function. We recently described a unique neuroprotective role for neuron-specific alternatively spliced isoforms of endophilin-B1. To examine whether endophilin-B1-mediated neuroprotection could be a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease we used a double mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (APPswe/PSEN1dE9) mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease and observed that expression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms declined with disease progression. To determine if this reduction in endophilin-B1 has a functional role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis, we crossed endophilin-B1−/− mice with APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. Deletion of endophilin-B1 accelerated disease onset and progression in 6-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9/endophilin-B1−/− mice, which showed more plaques, astrogliosis, synaptic degeneration, cognitive impairment and mortality than APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice. In mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, overexpression of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms protected against amyloid-β-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, protein and mRNA levels of neuron-specific endophilin-B1 isoforms were also selectively decreased in the cerebral cortex and in the synaptic compartment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Flow sorting of synaptosomes from patients with Alzheimer’s disease demonstrated a negative correlation between amyloid-β and endophilin-B1 levels. The importance of endophilin-B1 in neuronal function was further underscored by the development of synaptic degeneration and cognitive and motor impairment in endophilin-B1−/− mice by 12 months. Our findings suggest that endophilin-B1 is a key mediator of a feed-forward mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis where amyloid-β reduces neuron-specific endophilin-B1, which in turn

  8. Global gene profiling of aging lungs in Atp8b1 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Turn, Christina; Westermann-Clark, Emma; Breitzig, Mason; Tan, Lee; Lockey, Richard F; King, Benjamin L; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2016-09-29

    Recent studies implicate cardiolipin oxidation in several age-related diseases. Atp8b1 encoding Type 4 P-type ATPases is a cardiolipin transporter. Mutation in Atp8b1 gene or inflammation of the lungs impairs the capacity of Atp8b1 to clear cardiolipin from lung fluid. However, the link between Atp8b1 mutation and age-related gene alteration is unknown. Therefore, we investigated how Atp8b1 mutation alters age-related genes. We performed Affymetrix gene profiling of lungs isolated from young (7-9 wks, n=6) and aged (14 months, 14 M, n=6) C57BL/6 and Atp8b1 mutant mice. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Global transcriptome analysis revealed 532 differentially expressed genes in Atp8b1 lungs, 157 differentially expressed genes in C57BL/6 lungs, and 37 overlapping genes. IPA of age-related genes in Atp8b1 lungs showed enrichment of Xenobiotic metabolism and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways. The increase in Adamts2 and Mmp13 transcripts in aged Atp8b1 lungs was validated by qRT-PCR. Similarly, the decrease in Col1a1 and increase in Cxcr6 transcripts was confirmed in both Atp8b1 mutant and C57BL/6 lungs. Based on transcriptome profiling, our study indicates that Atp8b1 mutant mice may be susceptible to age-related lung diseases.

  9. Strain Background Modifies Phenotypes in the ATP8B1-Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Julie C.; Xu, Hongmei; Groen, Annamiek; Paulusma, Coen C.; Grenert, James P.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Sen, Saunak; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Bull, Laura N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1) underlie cases of cholestatic disease, ranging from chronic and progressive (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis) to intermittent (benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis). The ATP8B1-deficient mouse serves as an animal model of human ATP8B1 deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effect of genetic background on phenotypes of ATP8B1-deficient and wild-type mice, using C57Bl/6 (B6), 129, and (B6-129) F1 strain backgrounds. B6 background resulted in greater abnormalities in ATP8B1-deficient mice than did 129 and/or F1 background. ATP8B1-deficient pups of B6 background gained less weight. In adult ATP8B1-deficient mice at baseline, those of B6 background had lower serum cholesterol levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and larger livers. After challenge with cholate-supplemented diet, these mice exhibited higher serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, greater weight loss and larger livers. ATP8B1-deficient phenotypes in mice of F1 and 129 backgrounds are usually similar, suggesting that susceptibility to manifestations of ATP8B1 deficiency may be recessive. We also detected differences in hepatobiliary phenotypes between wild-type mice of differing strains. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the ATP8B1-deficient mouse in a B6 background may be a better model of human ATP8B1 deficiency and highlight the importance of informed background strain selection for mouse models of liver disease. PMID:20126555

  10. Cyp1b1 Regulates Ocular Fissure Closure Through a Retinoic Acid–Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Antionette L.; Eason, Jessica; Chawla, Bahaar; Bohnsack, Brenda L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the CYP1B1 gene are the most commonly identified genetic causes of primary infantile-onset glaucoma. Despite this disease association, the role of CYP1B1 in eye development and its in vivo substrate remain unknown. In the present study, we used zebrafish to elucidate the mechanism by which cyp1b1 regulates eye development. Methods Zebrafish eye and neural crest development were analyzed using live imaging of transgenic zebrafish embryos, in situ hybridization, immunostaining, TUNEL assay, and methylacrylate sections. Cyp1b1 and retinoic acid (RA) levels were genetically (morpholino oligonucleotide antisense and mRNA) and pharmacologically manipulated to examine gene function. Results Using zebrafish, we observed that cyp1b1 was expressed in a specific spatiotemporal pattern in the ocular fissures of the developing zebrafish retina and regulated fissure patency. Decreased Cyp1b1 resulted in the premature breakdown of laminin in the ventral fissure and altered subsequent neural crest migration into the anterior segment. In contrast, cyp1b1 overexpression inhibited cell survival in the ventral ocular fissure and prevented fissure closure via an RA-independent pathway. Cyp1b1 overexpression also inhibited the ocular expression of vsx2, pax6a, and pax6b and increased the extraocular expression of shha. Importantly, embryos injected with human wild-type but not mutant CYP1B1 mRNA also showed colobomas, demonstrating the evolutionary and functional conservation of gene function between species. Conclusions Cyp1b1 regulation of ocular fissure closure indirectly affects neural crest migration and development through an RA-independent pathway. These studies provide insight into the role of Cyp1b1 in eye development and further elucidate the pathogenesis of primary infantile-onset glaucoma. PMID:28192799

  11. Distension of the uterus induces HspB1 expression in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    White, B G; MacPhee, D J

    2011-11-01

    The uterine musculature, or myometrium, demonstrates tremendous plasticity during pregnancy under the influences of the endocrine environment and mechanical stresses. Expression of the small stress protein heat shock protein B1 (HspB1) has been reported to increase dramatically during late pregnancy, a period marked by myometrial hypertrophy caused by fetal growth-induced uterine distension. Thus, using unilaterally pregnant rat models and ovariectomized nonpregnant rats with uteri containing laminaria tents to induce uterine distension, we examined the effect of uterine distension on myometrial HspB1 expression. In unilaterally pregnant rats, HspB1 mRNA and Ser(15)-phosphorylated HspB1 (pSer(15) HspB1) protein expression were significantly elevated in distended gravid uterine horns at days 19 and 23 (labor) of gestation compared with nongravid horns. Similarly, pSer(15) HspB1 protein in situ was only readily detectable in the distended horns compared with the nongravid horns at days 19 and 23; however, pSer(15) HspB1 was primarily detectable in situ at day 19 in membrane-associated regions, while it had primarily a cytoplasmic localization in myometrial cells at day 23. HspB1 mRNA and pSer(15) HspB1 protein expression were also markedly increased in ovariectomized nonpregnant rat myometrium distended for 24 h with laminaria tents compared with empty horns. Therefore, uterine distension plays a major role in the stimulation of myometrial HspB1 expression, and increased expression of this small stress protein could be a mechanoadaptive response to the increasing uterine distension that occurs during pregnancy.

  12. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) profoundly excludes high density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein AII as it nibbles HDL-cholesteryl ester.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Baiba K; Bassett, G Randall; Gotto, Antonio M; Rosales, Corina; Pownall, Henry J

    2017-05-26

    Reverse cholesterol transport (transfer of macrophage-cholesterol in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall to the liver) is terminated by selective high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, mediated by scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1). We tested the validity of two models for this process: "gobbling," i.e. one-step transfer of all HDL-CE to the cell and "nibbling," multiple successive cycles of SR-B1-HDL association during which a few CEs transfer to the cell. Concurrently, we compared cellular uptake of apoAI with that of apoAII, which is more lipophilic than apoAI, using HDL-[ 3 H]CE labeled with [ 125 I]apoAI or [ 125 I]apoAII. The studies were conducted in CHO-K1 and CHO-ldlA7 cells (LDLR -/- ) with (CHO-SR-B1) and without SR-B1 overexpression and in human Huh7 hepatocytes. Relative to CE, both apoAI and apoAII were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, apoAII was more highly excluded from uptake (2-4×) than apoAI. To distinguish gobbling versus nibbling mechanisms, media from incubations of HDL with CHO-SR-B1 cells were analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and the distribution of apoAI, apoAII, cholesterol, and phospholipid among HDL species as a function of incubation time. HDL size gradually decreased, i.e. nibbling, with the concurrent release of lipid-free apoAI; apoAII was retained in an HDL remnant. Our data support an SR-B1 nibbling mechanism that is similar to that of streptococcal serum opacity factor, which also selectively removes CE and releases apoAI, leaving an apoAII-rich remnant. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. 26 CFR 1.514(b)-1 - Definition of debt-financed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of debt-financed property. 1.514(b)-1 Section 1.514(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt...

  14. Scavenger receptor B1, the HDL receptor, is expressed abundantly in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Latha P.; Mates, Jessica M.; Cheplowitz, Alana M.; Avila, Christina L.; Zimmerer, Jason M.; Yao, Zhili; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol from peripheral tissue, carried by HDL, is metabolized in the liver after uptake by the HDL receptor, SR-B1. Hepatocytes have long been considered the only liver cells expressing SR-B1; however, in this study we describe two disparate immunofluorescence (IF) experiments that suggest otherwise. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy employing ultrathin (120 nm) sections of mouse liver, improving z-axis resolution, we identified the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), marked by FcγRIIb, as the cell within the liver expressing abundant SR-B1. In contrast, the hepatocyte, identified with β-catenin, expressed considerably weaker levels, although optical resolution of SR-B1 was inadequate. Thus, we moved to a different IF strategy, first separating dissociated liver cells by gradient centrifugation into two portions, hepatocytes (parenchymal cells) and LSEC (non-parenchymal cells). Characterizing both portions for the cellular expression of SR-B1 by flow cytometry, we found that LSEC expressed considerable amounts of SR-B1 while in hepatocytes SR-B1 expression was barely perceptible. Assessing mRNA of SR-B1 by real time PCR we found messenger expression in LSEC to be about 5 times higher than in hepatocytes. PMID:26865459

  15. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies. (a) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1955...

  16. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies. (a) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1955...

  17. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies. (a) For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1953, but before January 1, 1955...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3402(b)-1 - Percentage method of withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Percentage method of withholding. 31.3402(b)-1... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(b)-1 Percentage method of withholding. With respect... percentage method of withholding shall be determined under the applicable percentage method withholding table...

  19. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life..., and ending after August 16, 1954, section 802(b) imposes a tax on the 1954 life insurance company...

  20. 26 CFR 1.802(b)-1 - Tax on life insurance companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on life insurance companies. 1.802(b)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.802(b)-1 Tax on life insurance companies... August 16, 1954, section 802(b) imposes a tax on the 1954 life insurance company taxable income of all...

  1. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned...

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned...

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1...(b)-1 Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned...

  5. Preparation and application of new fluorescein-labeled fumonisins B1 in fluorescence polarization analysis technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To prepare a new fluorescent tracer against common mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 in order to replace 6-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (6-DTAF), an expensive marker, and to develop a technique for quick detection of fumonisin B1 based on the principle of fluorescence polarizati...

  6. 26 CFR 1.678(b)-1 - If grantor is treated as the owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(b)-1 If grantor is treated as the owner. Section 678(a) does not apply with respect to a power over income, as... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If grantor is treated as the owner. 1.678(b)-1...

  7. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    identify those that diminish or eliminate the EphB1-NR1 protein-protein interaction. Damage to pain sensing peripheral nerves following traumatic...injury or other insult, such as diabetic neuropathy or bone cancer growth, strongly elevates the protein-protein interaction between EphB1 and the NR1

  8. The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies.

    PubMed

    Van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Bartels, Lambertus W; van den Bergen, Bob; Kroeze, Hugo; de Leeuw, Astrid A C; Van de Kamer, Jeroen B; Lagendijk, Jan J W

    2006-10-07

    In this study, MR B(+)(1) imaging is employed to experimentally verify the validity of FDTD simulations of electromagnetic field patterns in human anatomies. Measurements and FDTD simulations of the B(+)(1) field induced by a 3 T MR body coil in a human corpse were performed. It was found that MR B(+)(1) imaging is a sensitive method to measure the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field inside a human anatomy with a precision of approximately 3.5%. A good correlation was found between the B(+)(1) measurements and FDTD simulations. The measured B(+)(1) pattern for a human pelvis consisted of a global, diagonal modulation pattern plus local B(+)(1) heterogeneties. It is believed that these local B(+)(1) field variations are the result of peaks in the induced electric currents, which could not be resolved by the FDTD simulations on a 5 mm(3) simulation grid. The findings from this study demonstrate that B(+)(1) imaging is a valuable experimental technique to gain more knowledge about the dielectric interaction of RF fields with the human anatomy.

  9. 16 CFR 1101.11 - General application of provisions of section 6(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Subject to Notice and Analysis Provisions of Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.11 General... notice and analysis provisions of section 6(b)(1), information must meet all the following criteria: (1...

  10. 16 CFR § 1101.11 - General application of provisions of section 6(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Subject to Notice and Analysis Provisions of Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.11 General... notice and analysis provisions of section 6(b)(1), information must meet all the following criteria: (1...

  11. 16 CFR 1101.11 - General application of provisions of section 6(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Subject to Notice and Analysis Provisions of Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.11 General... notice and analysis provisions of section 6(b)(1), information must meet all the following criteria: (1...

  12. 16 CFR 1101.11 - General application of provisions of section 6(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Subject to Notice and Analysis Provisions of Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.11 General... notice and analysis provisions of section 6(b)(1), information must meet all the following criteria: (1...

  13. 16 CFR 1101.11 - General application of provisions of section 6(b)(1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Information Subject to Notice and Analysis Provisions of Section 6(b)(1) § 1101.11 General... notice and analysis provisions of section 6(b)(1), information must meet all the following criteria: (1...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85...

  15. CYP1B1 copy number variation is not a major contributor to primary congenital glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Hayes, Melanie; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Elder, James E; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Mackey, David A; Zhou, Tiger; Ridge, Bronwyn; Burdon, Kathryn P; Dubowsky, Andrew; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and the diagnostic utility of testing for CYP1B1 copy number variation (CNV) in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) cases unexplained by CYP1B1 point mutations in The Australian and New Zealand Registry of Advanced Glaucoma. In total, 50 PCG cases either heterozygous for disease-causing variants or with no CYP1B1 sequence variants were included in the study. CYP1B1 CNV was analyzed by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). No deletions or duplications were found in any of the cases. This is the first study to report on CYP1B1 CNV in PCG cases. Our findings show that this mechanism is not a major contributor to the phenotype and is of limited diagnostic utility.

  16. Identification of Ppd-B1 alleles in common wheat cultivars by CAPS marker.

    PubMed

    Okoń, S; Kowalczyk, K; Miazga, D

    2012-05-01

    Photoperiod response is a major determinant of the duration of growth stages in common wheat. In common wheat, many genes play a role in determining flowering time, but the Ppd genes located on the homoeologous group 2 play a major role. Of these Ppd-B1 is located on the short arm of 2B. In 107 common wheat cultivars grown in Poland and neighboring countries, the identification of Ppd-B1 alleles using in-del analysis by using a CAPS markers was investigated. 87 cultivars were shown to carry dominant Ppd-B1 alleles. This shows that Ppd-B1 alleles is have been widely used in common wheat breeding programme in these countries. Recessive ppd-B1 alleles were found only in 20 cultivars (12 Polish, 5 former Soviet Union, 2 German, 1 Swedish).

  17. OCT4B1 Regulates the Cellular Stress Response of Human Dental Pulp Cells with Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Huang, Rong; Yang, Ruiqi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Infection and apoptosis are combined triggers for inflammation in dental tissues. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4-B1 (OCT4B1), a novel spliced variant of OCT4 family, could respond to the cellular stress and possess antiapoptotic property. However, its specific role in dental pulpitis remains unknown. Methods. To investigate the effect of OCT4B1 on inflammation of dental pulp cells (DPCs), its expression in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs was examined by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay. OCT4B1 overexpressed DPCs model was established, confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, and then stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Apoptotic rate was determined by Hoechst/PI staining and FACS. Cell survival rate was calculated by CCK8 assay. Results. In situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay revealed that OCT4B1 was extensively expressed in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs with LPS stimulation. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining showed the expression of OCT4B1 and OCT4B increased after OCT4B1 transfection. Hoechst/PI staining and FACS demonstrated that less red/blue fluorescence was detected and apoptotic percentage decreased (3.45%) after transfection. CCK8 demonstrated that the survival rate of pCDH-OCT4B1-flag cells increased. Conclusions. OCT4B1 plays an essential role in inflammation and apoptosis of DPCs. OCT4B might operate synergistically with OCT4B1 to reduce apoptosis. PMID:28473980

  18. Role of transmembrane domain 10 for the function of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chunshan; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are highly homologous and share numerous substrates. However, at low concentrations OATP1B1 shows substrate selectivity for estrone-3-sulfate. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for this substrate selectivity of OATP1B1 by constructing OATP1B1/1B3 chimeric transporters and by site-directed mutagenesis. Functional studies of chimeras showed that transmembrane domain 10 is critical for the function of OATP1B1. We further identified four amino acid residues, namely L545, F546, L550, and S554 in TM10, whose simultaneous mutation caused almost complete loss of OATP1B1-mediated estrone-3-sulfate transport. Comparison of the kinetics of estrone-3-sulfate transport confirmed a biphasic pattern for OATP1B1, but showed a monophasic pattern for the quadruple mutant L545S/F546L/L550T/S554T. This mutant also showed reduced transport for other OATP1B1 substrates such as bromosulfophthalein and [d-penicillamine2,5]enkephalin. Helical wheel analysis and molecular modeling suggest that L545 is facing the substrate translocation pathway, whereas F546, L550, and S554 are located inside the protein. These results indicate that L545 might contribute to OATP1B1 function by interacting with substrates, whereas F546, L550, and S554 seem important for protein structure. In conclusion, our results show that TM10 is critical for the function of OATP1B1. PMID:19760661

  19. Cyp26b1 within the growth plate regulates bone growth in juvenile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Minegishi, Yoshiki; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Fukui Hospital, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193; Department of Plastic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    Highlights: • Retinoic acid and Cyp26b1 were oppositely localized in growth plate cartilage. • Cyp26b1 deletion in chondrocytes decreased bone growth in juvenile mice. • Cyp26b1 deletion reduced chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate height. • Vitamin A-depletion partially reversed growth plate abnormalities caused by Cyp26b1 deficiency. • Cyp26b1 regulates bone growth by controlling chondrocyte proliferation. - Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an active metabolite of vitamin A and plays important roles in embryonic development. CYP26 enzymes degrade RA and have specific expression patterns that produce a RA gradient, which regulates the patterning of various structures in the embryo. However, itmore » has not been addressed whether a RA gradient also exists and functions in organs after birth. We found localized RA activities in the diaphyseal portion of the growth plate cartilage were associated with the specific expression of Cyp26b1 in the epiphyseal portion in juvenile mice. To disturb the distribution of RA, we generated mice lacking Cyp26b1 specifically in chondrocytes (Cyp26b1{sup Δchon} cKO). These mice showed reduced skeletal growth in the juvenile stage. Additionally, their growth plate cartilage showed decreased proliferation rates of proliferative chondrocytes, which was associated with a reduced height in the zone of proliferative chondrocytes, and closed focally by four weeks of age, while wild-type mouse growth plates never closed. Feeding the Cyp26b1 cKO mice a vitamin A-deficient diet partially reversed these abnormalities of the growth plate cartilage. These results collectively suggest that Cyp26b1 in the growth plate regulates the proliferation rates of chondrocytes and is responsible for the normal function of the growth plate and growing bones in juvenile mice, probably by limiting the RA distribution in the growth plate proliferating zone.« less

  20. 75 FR 16664 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca ARRIEL 1B, 1D, 1D1, 2B, and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... limited to, Eurocopter AS 350 B, AS 350 BA, AS 350 B1, AS 350 B2, AS 350 B3, and EC 130 B4 helicopters... an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: During production of Arriel 1 and... by Turbom[eacute]ca. Potentially non-conforming PT blades have been traced as having been installed...

  1. Laminar shear stress regulates endothelial kinin B1 receptor expression and function: potential implication in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Duchene, Johan; Cayla, Cécile; Vessillier, Sandrine; Scotland, Ramona; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Lecomte, Florence; Syed, Irfan; Vo, Phuong; Marrelli, Alessandra; Pitzalis, Costantino; Cipollone, Francesco; Schanstra, Joost; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Hobbs, Adrian J; Perretti, Mauro; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pro-inflammatory phenotype induced by low laminar shear stress (LSS) is implicated in atherogenesis. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R), known to be induced by inflammatory stimuli, exerts many pro-inflammatory effects including vasodilatation and leukocyte recruitment. We investigated whether low LSS is a stimulus for endothelial B1R expression and function. METHODS AND RESULTS Human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques expressed high level of B1R mRNA and protein. In addition, B1R expression was upregulated in the aortic arch (low LSS region) of ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat diet compared to vascular regions of high LSS and animals fed normal chow. Of interest, a greater expression of B1R was noticed in endothelial cells from regions of low LSS in aortic arch of ApoE-/- mice. B1R was also upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to low LSS (0-2dyn/cm2) compared to physiological LSS (6-10dyn/cm2): an effect similarly evident in murine vascular tissue perfused ex vivo. Functionally, B1R activation increased prostaglandin and CXCL5 expression in cells exposed to low, but not physiological, LSS. IL-1β and ox-LDL induced B1R expression and function in HUVECs, a response substantially enhanced under low LSS conditions and inhibited by blockade of NFκB activation. CONCLUSION Herein, we show that LSS is a major determinant of functional B1R expression in endothelium. Furthermore, whilst physiological high LSS is a powerful repressor of this inflammatory receptor, low LSS at sites of atheroma are associated with substantial upregulation, identifying this receptor as a potential therapeutic target. CONDENSED ABSTRACT Low laminar shear stress (LSS) underlies the pro-inflammatory processes in atherogenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that whilst physiological LSS represses inflammatory kinin B1 receptor (B1R) expression/function, low atherogenic LSS is associated with profound upregulation of both in atherosclerosis in both humans and animal

  2. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  3. Kinin B1 receptor antagonists containing alpha-methyl-L-phenylalanine: in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activities.

    PubMed

    Gobeil, F; Charland, S; Filteau, C; Perron, S I; Neugebauer, W; Regoli, D

    1999-03-01

    -To protect from metabolism and to improve potency of the AcLys-[D-betaNal7,Ile8]desArg9-bradykinin (BK) (R 715), we prepared and tested 3 analogues containing alpha-methyl-L-Phe ([alphaMe]Phe) in position 5: these are the AcLys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 892), Lys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 913), and AcLys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 914). The new compounds were tested against the contractile effect induced by desArg9BK on 2 B1 receptor bioassays, the human umbilical vein, and the rabbit aorta. Their antagonistic activities were compared with those of the early prototypes (Lys-[Leu8]desArg9BK and [Leu8]desArg9BK) and with other recently described peptide antagonists. The 3 (alphaMe)Phe analogues showed high antagonistic potencies (pA2) at both the human (8.8, 7.7, and 8. 7, respectively) and rabbit (8.6, 7.8, and 8.6, respectively) B1 receptors. No antagonistic effects (pA2<5) were observed on the B2 receptors that mediate the contractile effects of BK on the human umbilical vein, the rabbit jugular vein, and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, these new B1 antagonists were found to be resistant to in vitro degradation by purified angiotensin-converting enzyme from rabbit lung. The Nalpha-acetylated forms, R 892 and R 914, were resistant to aminopeptidases from human plasma. In vivo antagonistic potencies (ID50) of B1 receptor antagonists were evaluated in anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-treated (for B1 receptor) and nontreated (for B2 receptor) rabbits against the hypotensive effects of exogenous desArg9BK and BK. R 892 efficiently inhibited (ID50 2.8 nmol/kg IV) hypotension induced by desArg9BK without affecting that evoked by BK (ID50 >600 nmol/kg IV). Conversely, the peptide antagonists Lys-Lys-[Hyp3,Igl5,D-Igl7,Oic8]desArg9BK (B 9858) and DArg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8] desArg9BK (S 0765) showed dual B1/B2 receptor antagonism in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that R 892 and congeners provide selective

  4. Minute Virus of Mice Inhibits Transcription of the Cyclin B1 Gene during Infection.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Matthew S; Majumder, Kinjal; Pintel, David J

    2017-07-15

    Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent premitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others reported previously, depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function, thus preventing mitotic entry. We show here that while the stability of cyclin B1 RNA was not affected by MVM infection, the production of nascent cyclin B1 RNA was substantially diminished at late times postinfection. Ectopic expression of NS1 alone did not reduce cyclin B1 expression. MVM infection also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 protein, and RNA levels normally increased in response to DNA-damaging reagents. We demonstrated that at times of reduced cyclin B1 expression during infection, there was a significantly reduced occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 on the cyclin B1 gene promoter. Additionally, while total FoxM1 levels remained constant, there was a significant decrease of the phosphorylated, likely active, forms of FoxM1. Targeting of a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-enzymatically inactive Cas9 in MVM-infected cells increased both cyclin B1 protein and RNA levels, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target for cyclin B1 inhibition during MVM infection. IMPORTANCE Replication of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is establishment of a

  5. Minute Virus of Mice Inhibits Transcription of the Cyclin B1 Gene during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Matthew S.; Majumder, Kinjal

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent premitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others reported previously, depends upon a significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function, thus preventing mitotic entry. We show here that while the stability of cyclin B1 RNA was not affected by MVM infection, the production of nascent cyclin B1 RNA was substantially diminished at late times postinfection. Ectopic expression of NS1 alone did not reduce cyclin B1 expression. MVM infection also reduced the levels of cyclin B1 protein, and RNA levels normally increased in response to DNA-damaging reagents. We demonstrated that at times of reduced cyclin B1 expression during infection, there was a significantly reduced occupancy of RNA polymerase II and the essential mitotic transcription factor FoxM1 on the cyclin B1 gene promoter. Additionally, while total FoxM1 levels remained constant, there was a significant decrease of the phosphorylated, likely active, forms of FoxM1. Targeting of a constitutively active FoxM1 construct or the activation domain of FoxM1 to the cyclin B1 gene promoter via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-enzymatically inactive Cas9 in MVM-infected cells increased both cyclin B1 protein and RNA levels, implicating FoxM1 as a critical target for cyclin B1 inhibition during MVM infection. IMPORTANCE Replication of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is establishment

  6. A novel method for determination of aflatoxin B1 mediated by FCLA + BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, WenLi; Xing, Da

    2005-02-01

    As a chemiluminescence (CL) probe, 3,7-dihydro-6-{4-{2-(N"-(5-fluoresceinyl) thioureido)ethoxy}phenyl}-2-met -hylimi-dazo{1,2-a}pyrazin-3-one dosium salt (FCLA) can sensitively and specifically react with singlet oxygen (1O2 ) and superoxide(O2""). BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) can enlarge the CL intensity of FCLA to 860%. This report presents a novel method for determination of Aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) mediated by FCLA+BSA. The concentration of AFB1 showed an obvious positive correlation with the CL intensity mediated by FCLA+BSA. This method could measure accurately ng/ml of AfB1 concentration. At the same time, the fluorescence spectrum of FCLA+BSA and FCLA+BSA+AfB1 were measured respectively, which showed that the fluorescence intensity of FCLA+BSA+AfB1 was higher than FCLA+BSA. Comparing the peak value of FCLA, FCLA+BSA and FCLA+BSA+AfB1 had a 6nm Einstein shift (red shift). The study suggested that CL method mediated by FCLA+BSA might be applicable to the determination of AfB1 concentration.

  7. Modulation of cutaneous scavenger receptor B1 levels by exogenous stressors impairs "in vitro" wound closure.

    PubMed

    Muresan, Ximena Maria; Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Savelli, Vinno; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) is a trans-membrane protein, involved in tissue reverse cholesterol transport. Several studies have demonstrated that SR-B1 is also implicated in other physiological processes, such as bacteria and apoptotic cells recognition and regulation of intracellular tocopherol and carotenoids levels. Among the tissues where it is localized, SR-B1 has been shown to be significantly expressed in human epidermis. Our group has demonstrated that SR-B1 levels are down-regulated in human cultured keratinocytes by environmental stressors, such as cigarette smoke, via cellular redox imbalance. Our present study aimed to investigate whether such down-regulation was confirmed in a 3D skin model and under other environmental challengers such as particulate matter and ozone. We also investigated the association between oxidation-induced SR-B1 modulation and impaired wound closure. The data obtained showed that not only cigarette, but also the other environmental stressors reduced SR-B1 expression in epidermal cutaneous tissues and that this effect might be involved in impaired wound healing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Development of High Capacity Enterosorbents for Aflatoxin B1 and Other Hazardous Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meichen; Maki, Cody R; Deng, Youjun; Tian, Yanan; Phillips, Timothy D

    2017-09-18

    Previously, a calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) included in the diet of animals has been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and reduce the symptoms of aflatoxicosis. To investigate and improve the capacity and efficacy of clay-based materials as aflatoxin sorbents, we developed and tested calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays amended with nutrients including l-carnitine and choline. Also, we determined the sorption of AfB1 by isothermal analysis and tested the ability of these amended sorbents to protect adult hydra from AfB1 toxicity. The results showed that exchanging montmorillonite clays with l-carnitine and choline inhibited swelling of the clays and increased the sorption capacity and efficacy of clay surfaces for AfB1. Results from dehydroxylated and heat-collapsed clays suggested that AfB1 was primarily adsorbed in the clay interlayer, as predicted from thermodynamic calculations and computational modeling. The hydra bioassay further indicated that the modified clays can significantly protect adult hydra from AfB1 with as low as 0.005% clay inclusion. This enterosorbent therapy may also be applied to screen hazardous chemicals such as pesticides and PAHs based on similar sorption mechanisms. Taken together, enterosorbent therapy could be delivered in nutritional supplements, foods that are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination, flavored liquids and animal feeds during emergencies and outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis, and as a screening model for hazardous environmental chemicals.

  9. B1- non-uniformity correction of phased-array coils without measuring coil sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Damen, Frederick C; Cai, Kejia

    2018-04-18

    Parallel imaging can be used to increase SNR and shorten acquisition times, albeit, at the cost of image non-uniformity. B 1 - non-uniformity correction techniques are confounded by signal that varies not only due to coil induced B 1 - sensitivity variation, but also the object's own intrinsic signal. Herein, we propose a method that makes minimal assumptions and uses only the coil images themselves to produce a single combined B 1 - non-uniformity-corrected complex image with the highest available SNR. A novel background noise classifier is used to select voxels of sufficient quality to avoid the need for regularization. Unique properties of the magnitude and phase were used to reduce the B 1 - sensitivity to two joint additive models for estimation of the B 1 - inhomogeneity. The complementary corruption of the imaged object across the coil images is used to abate individual coil correction imperfections. Results are presented from two anatomical cases: (a) an abdominal image that is challenging in both extreme B 1 - sensitivity and intrinsic tissue signal variation, and (b) a brain image with moderate B 1 - sensitivity and intrinsic tissue signal variation. A new relative Signal-to-Noise Ratio (rSNR) quality metric is proposed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and the RF receiving coil array. The proposed method has been shown to be robust to imaged objects with widely inhomogeneous intrinsic signal, and resilient to poorly performing coil elements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Interaction of soy isoflavones and their main metabolites with hOATP2B1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Navrátilová, Lucie; Applová, Lenka; Horký, Pavel; Mladěnka, Přemysl; Pávek, Petr; Trejtnar, František

    2018-06-22

    Membrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are responsible for the drug transmembrane transport within the human body. The function of OATP2B1 transporter can be inhibited by various natural compounds. Despite increased research interest in soya as a part of human diet, the effect of its active components to interact with hOATP2B1 has not been elucidated in a complex extent. This in vitro study examined the inhibitory effect of main soy isoflavones (daidzin, daidzein, genistin, genistein, glycitin, glycitein, biochanin A, formononetin) and their metabolites formed in vivo (S-equol, O-desmethylangolensin) towards human OATP2B1 transporter. MDCKII cells overexpressing hOATP2B1 were employed to determine quantitative inhibitory parameters of the tested compounds and to analyze mechanism/s of the inhibitory interaction. The study showed that aglycones of soy isoflavones and the main biologically active metabolite S-equol were able to significantly inhibit hOATP2B1-mediated transport. The K i values for most of aglycones range from 1 to 20 μM. In contrast, glucosides did not exhibit significant inhibitory effect. The kinetic analysis did not indicate a uniform type of inhibition towards the hOATP2B1 although predominant mechanism of inhibition seemed to be competitive. These findings may suggest that tested soy isoflavones and their metabolites might affect transport of xenobiotics including drugs across tissue barriers via hOATP2B1.

  11. Structure and genomic organization of the human B1 receptor gene for kinins (BDKRB1).

    PubMed

    Bachvarov, D R; Hess, J F; Menke, J G; Larrivée, J F; Marceau, F

    1996-05-01

    Two subtypes of mammalian bradykinin receptors, B1 and B2 (BDKRB1 and BDKRB2), have been defined based on their pharmacological properties. The B1 type kinin receptors have weak affinity for intact BK or Lys-BK but strong affinity for kinin metabolites without the C-terminal arginine (e.g., des-Arg9-BK and Lys-des-Arg9-BK, also called des-Arg10-kallidin), which are generated by kininase I. The B1 receptor expression is up-regulated following tissue injury and inflammation (hyperemia, exudation, hyperalgesia, etc.). In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding human B1 receptor from a human genomic library. The human B1 receptor gene contains three exons separated by two introns. The first and the second exon are noncoding, while the coding region and the 3'-flanking region are located entirely on the third exon. The exon-intron arrangement of the human B1 receptor gene shows significant similarity with the genes encoding the B2 receptor subtype in human, mouse, and rat. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed the presence of a consensus TATA box and of numerous candidate transcription factor binding sequences. Primer extension experiments have shown the existence of multiple transcription initiation sites situated downstream and upstream from the consensus TATA box. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the human B1 receptor is encoded by a single-copy gene.

  12. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  13. Diversity in peptide recognition by the SH2 domain of SH2B1.

    PubMed

    McKercher, Marissa A; Guan, Xiaoyang; Tan, Zhongping; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2018-02-01

    SH2B1 is a multidomain protein that serves as a key adaptor to regulate numerous cellular events, such as insulin, leptin, and growth hormone signaling pathways. Many of these protein-protein interactions are mediated by the SH2 domain of SH2B1, which recognizes ligands containing a phosphorylated tyrosine (pY), including peptides derived from janus kinase 2, insulin receptor, and insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2. Specificity for the SH2 domain of SH2B1 is conferred in these ligands either by a hydrophobic or an acidic side chain at the +3 position C-terminal to the pY. This specificity for chemically disparate species suggests that SH2B1 relies on distinct thermodynamic or structural mechanisms to bind to peptides. Using binding and structural strategies, we have identified unique thermodynamic signatures for each peptide binding mode, and several SH2B1 residues, including K575 and R578, that play distinct roles in peptide binding. The high-resolution structure of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 further reveals conformationally plastic protein loops that may contribute to the ability of the protein to recognize dissimilar ligands. Together, numerous hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, in addition to backbone conformational flexibility, permit the recognition of diverse peptides by SH2B1. An understanding of this expanded peptide recognition will allow for the identification of novel physiologically relevant SH2B1/peptide interactions, which can contribute to the design of obesity and diabetes pharmaceuticals to target the ligand-binding interface of SH2B1 with high specificity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0220 TITLE: EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mark Henkemeyer...as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Ad 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER EphB1 as a Novel Drug Target to Combat Pain and Addiction 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...identify small molecular weight drug -like compounds from a >200,000 complex library that antagonize EphB1 protein-protein interactions. While we

  15. Computation of transmitted and received B1 fields in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Milles, Julien; Zhu, Yue Min; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Panych, Lawrence P; Gimenez, Gérard; Guttmann, Charles R G

    2006-05-01

    Computation of B1 fields is a key issue for determination and correction of intensity nonuniformity in magnetic resonance images. This paper presents a new method for computing transmitted and received B1 fields. Our method combines a modified MRI acquisition protocol and an estimation technique based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and spatial filtering. It enables accurate estimation of transmitted and received B1 fields for both homogeneous and heterogeneous objects. The method is validated using numerical simulations and experimental data from phantom and human scans. The experimental results are in agreement with theoretical expectations.

  16. Non-selectivity of new bradykinin antagonists for B1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rhaleb, N E; Gobeil, F; Regoli, D

    1992-01-01

    Two new B1 receptor antagonists, [Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK and DArg[Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK were tested in vitro on the rabbit jugular vein and the guinea pig ileum (preparations containing B2 receptors) and on the rabbit aorta (preparation containing B1 receptors) for pharmacological characterization. The results indicate that both compounds are antagonists on both B1 and B2 receptors, are competitive and discriminate between B2A and B2B receptor subtypes.

  17. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, U.D.; Govindarajan, P.; Dave, P.J.

    Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 was studied by using gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate 50 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of 5% hydrogen peroxide, and 400 krad was required for total degradation of 100 micrograms of aflatoxin in the same system. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Ames microsomal mutagenicity test showed loss of aflatoxin activity. This method of detoxification also reduces the toxin levels effectively in artificially contaminated groundnuts.

  18. Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh2 and gnrh3) expression during reproductive development and sex change in black sea bass (Centropristis striata).

    PubMed

    Breton, Timothy S; DiMaggio, Matthew A; Sower, Stacia A; Berlinsky, David L

    2015-03-01

    Teleost fish exhibit diverse reproductive strategies, and some species are capable of changing sex. The influence of many endocrine factors, such as gonadal steroids and neuropeptides, has been studied in relation to sex change, but comparatively less research has focused on gene expression changes within the brain in temperate grouper species with non-haremic social structures. The purpose of the present study was to investigate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) gene expression patterns during reproductive development and sex change in protogynous (female to male) black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Partial cDNA fragments for cyp19a1b and eef1a (a reference gene) were identified, and included with known gnrh2 and gnrh3 sequences in real time quantitative PCR. Elevated cyp19a1b expression was evident in the olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, optic tectum, and hypothalamus/midbrain region during vitellogenic growth, which may indicate changes in the brain related to neurogenesis or sexual behavior. In contrast, gnrh2 and gnrh3 expression levels were largely similar among gonadal states, and all three genes exhibited stable expression during sex change. Although sex change in black sea bass is not associated with dramatic changes in GnRH or cyp19a1b gene expression among brain regions, these genes may mediate processes at other levels, such as within individual hypothalamic nuclei, or through changes in neuron size, that warrant further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on procarcinogen-bioactivating human CYP1 enzymes: Identification of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin as potent inhibitors of CYP1B1

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Thomas K.H.; Chen Jie; Yeung, Eugene Y.H.

    2006-05-15

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts and some of its individual constituents on the catalytic activity of human cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. G. biloba extract of known abundance of terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation catalyzed by human recombinant CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2, and human liver microsomes, with apparent K {sub i} values of 2 {+-} 0.3, 5 {+-} 0.5, 16 {+-} 1.4, and 39 {+-} 1.2 {mu}g/ml (mean {+-} SE), respectively. In each case, the mode of inhibition was of the mixed type. Bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C,more » and J, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamentin 3-O-rutinoside were not responsible for the inhibition of CYP1 enzymes by G. biloba extract, as determined by experiments with these individual chemicals at the levels present in the extract. In contrast, the aglycones of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamentin inhibited CYP1B1, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2. Among the three flavonol aglycones, isorhamentin was the most potent in inhibiting CYP1B1 (apparent K {sub i} = 3 {+-} 0.1 nM), whereas quercetin was the least potent in inhibiting CYP1A2 (apparent K {sub i} 418 {+-} 50 nM). The mode of inhibition was competitive, noncompetitive, or mixed, depending on the enzyme and the flavonol. G. biloba extract also reduced benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, and the effect was greater with CYP1B1 than with CYP1A1 as the catalyst. Overall, our novel findings indicate that G. biloba extract and the flavonol aglycones isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin preferentially inhibit the in vitro catalytic activity of human CYP1B1.« less

  20. Dietary modulation of the biotransformation and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1).

    PubMed

    Gross-Steinmeyer, Kerstin; Eaton, David L

    2012-09-28

    Diet and its various components are consistently identified as among the most important 'risk factors' for cancer worldwide, yet great uncertainty remains regarding the relative contribution of nutritive (e.g., vitamins, calories) vs. non-nutritive (e.g., phytochemicals, fiber, contaminants) factors in both cancer induction and cancer prevention. Among the most potent known human dietary carcinogens is the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB). AFB and related aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that commonly infect poorly stored foods including peanuts, pistachios, corn, and rice. AFB is a potent hepatocarcinogenic agent in numerous animal species, and has been implicated in the etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent research has shown that many diet-derived factors have great potential to influence AFB biotransformation, and some efficiently protect from AFB-induced genotoxicity. One key mode of action for reducing AFB-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals was shown to be the induction of detoxification enzymes such as certain glutathione-S-transferases that are regulated through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Although initial studies utilized the dithiolthione drug, oltipraz, as a prototypical inducer of antioxidant response, dietary components such as suforaphane (SFN) are also effective inducers of this pathway in rodent models. However, human GSTs in general do not appear to be extensively induced by SFN, and GSTM1 - the only human GST with measurable catalytic activity toward aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO; the genotoxic metabolite of AFB), does not appear to be induced by SFN, at least in human hepatocytes, even though its expression in human liver cells does appear to offer considerable protection against AFB-DNA damage. Although induction of detoxification pathways has served as the primary mechanistic focus of chemoprevention studies, protective effects of

  1. 75 FR 30687 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 2B1 Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Dickert, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller... public interest require adopting the AD with the change described previously. [[Page 30688

  2. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and its conjugated metabolites by rat gastrointestinal microfloras.

    PubMed Central

    Wei, C; Macy, J M; Hsieh, D P

    1981-01-01

    Rat cecal microflora from high- and low-fiber-fed animals hydrolyzed aflatoxin conjugates to metabolites indistinguishable from aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin P1, but aflatoxicol was not a transformation product. PMID:6263185

  3. Regulation of B1 cell migration by signals through Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seon-ah; Tsuji, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Meek, Bob; Yasuda, Nobutaka; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2006-01-01

    Peritoneal B1 cells are known to generate large amounts of antibodies outside their residential site. These antibodies play an important role in the early defense against bacteria and viruses, before the establishment of adaptive immune responses. Although many stimuli, including antigen, lipopolysaccharide, or cytokines, have been shown to activate B1 cells and induce their differentiation into plasma cells, the molecular signals required for their egress from the peritoneal cavity are not understood. We demonstrate here that direct signals through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce specific, rapid, and transient down-regulation of integrins and CD9 on B1 cells, which is required for detachment from local matrix and a high velocity movement of cells in response to chemokines. Thus, we revealed an unexpected role for TLRs in governing the interplay between integrins, tetraspanins, and chemokine receptors required for B1 cell egress and, as such, in facilitating appropriate transition from innate to adaptive immune responses. PMID:17060475

  4. No significant effect of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Vakkilainen, Juha; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2011-11-01

    To investigate possible effects of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its metabolites in healthy volunteers. In a crossover study with two phases, 15 healthy volunteers with the SLCO1B1*1A/*1A genotype, seven with the *1B/*1B genotype, and five with the *15/*15 or *5/*15 genotype ingested placebo or a single 150-mg dose of UDCA. Plasma concentrations of bile acids and their biosynthesis marker were determined up to 24 h post-ingestion by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The SLCO1B1 genotype had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of UDCA. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence interval) of UDCA area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) in subjects with the SLCO1B1*1B/*1B genotype and in subjects with the SLCO1B1*15/*15 or *5/*15 genotype to the AUC(0-12) in subjects with the SLCO1B1*1A/*1A genotype were 1.07 (0.85, 1.35; P = 0.459) and 0.93 (0.75, 1.15; P = 0.563), respectively. In addition, following either placebo or UDCA administration, the SLCO1B1 polymorphism showed no association with the AUC(0-24) of the glycine and taurine conjugates of UDCA, with endogenous bile acids, or with the incremental AUC(0-24) of a bile acid synthesis marker. Compared with placebo, UDCA ingestion increased the AUC(0-24) of cholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid by 1.5-, 1.1-, 1.2-, and 1.2- fold (P < 0.05), respectively. Genetic polymorphism in SLCO1B1 does not affect pharmacokinetics of UDCA, suggesting that OATP1B1 is not rate-limiting to the hepatic uptake of therapeutic UDCA. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms by which UDCA increases the plasma concentrations of endogenous bile acids.

  5. Chicken TREM-B1, an Inhibitory Ig-Like Receptor Expressed on Chicken Thrombocytes

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Vanessa; Sperling, Beatrice; Hanczaruk, Matthias A.; Göbel, Thomas W.; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.

    2016-01-01

    Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) form a multigene family of immunoregulatory Ig-like receptors and play important roles in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In chickens, three members of the TREM family have been identified on chromosome 26. One of them is TREM-B1 which possesses two V-set Ig-domains, an uncharged transmembrane region and a long cytoplasmic tail with one ITSM and two ITIMs indicating an inhibitory function. We generated specific monoclonal antibodies by immunizing a Balb/c mouse with a TREM-B1-FLAG transfected BWZ.36 cell line and tested the hybridoma supernatants on TREM-B1-FLAG transfected 2D8 cells. We obtained two different antibodies specific for TREM-B1, mab 7E8 (mouse IgG1) and mab 1E9 (mouse IgG2a) which were used for cell surface staining. Single and double staining of different tissues, including whole blood preparations, revealed expression on thrombocytes. Next we investigated the biochemical properties of TREM-B1 by using the specific mab 1E9 for immunoprecipitation of either lysates of surface biotinylated peripheral blood cells or stably transfected 2D8 cells. Staining with streptavidin coupled horse radish peroxidase revealed a glycosylated monomeric protein of about 50 kDa. Furthermore we used the stably transfected 2D8 cell line for analyzing the cytoplasmic tyrosine based signaling motifs. After pervanadate treatment, we detected phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues and subsequent recruitment of the tyrosine specific protein phosphatase SHP-2, indicating an inhibitory potential for TREM-B1. We also showed the inhibitory effect of TREM-B1 in chicken thrombocytes using a CD107 degranulation assay. Crosslinking of TREM-B1 on activated primary thrombocytes resulted in decreased CD107 surface expression of about 50–70%. PMID:26967520

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain B1, Isolated from a Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Ashish; Jaswal, Rajneesh; Stothard, Paul

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain B1, isolated from a contaminated soil, is reported. The genome comprises 6,706,934 bases, 6,059 coding sequences, and 70 RNAs and has a G+C content of 60.3%. A suite of biodegradative genes, many located on genomic islands, were identified from strain B1, further enhancing our understanding of the versatile pseudomonads.

  7. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels resultmore » in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.« less

  8. Prevention of Escherichia coli infection in broiler chickens with Lactobacillus plantarum B1.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Peng, Q; Jia, H M; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Hou, C L; Liu, X T; Yang, F J; Qiao, S Y

    2017-08-01

    Two studies were performed to assess the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 in prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88 gastrointestinal infection in broilers. In an in vitro study, L. plantarum B1 showed resistance to acid and bile and inhibited the growth of E. coli K88. Additionally, L. plantarum B1 exhibited high ability to adhere to broiler embryo ileal epithelium. In an animal trial, 240 broilers at 1 d of age were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment arms: negative control (NC) broilers fed a basal diet and not challenged; positive control (PC) broilers fed a basal diet and challenged with E. coli K88; L. plantarum (LP) treatment broilers fed a basal diet containing 2 × 109 cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 and challenged with E. coli K88; and antibiotic treatment (Anti) broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with colistin sulfate (20 mg/kg) and challenged with E. coli K88. Broilers fed L. plantarum B1 had greater (P ≤ 0.05) BW than those in the PC treatment on d 14 and 28. Dietary L. plantarum B1 decreased (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the cecal contents on d 10 and 14, and increased (P < 0.05) cecal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on d 8, 10, 14, and 28 compared with the PC treatment. Dietary supplementation of L. plantarum B1 increased (P < 0.05) the ileal mucosal secretory IgA concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the ileum. Overall, these results suggest dietary supplementation of L. plantarum B1 promotes growth performance, lowers cecal E. coli counts, and increases the population of cecal LAB, as well as improves intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli K88-challenged broilers. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...and PCa cell lines and that genetic knock down suppresses LNCaP growth and diminishes androgen receptor ( AR ) activity. It is hypothesized that SULT2B1b...knock down suppresses LNCaP growth and diminishes androgen receptor ( AR ) activity. It is hypothesized that SULT2B1b modulates PCa growth and

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain B1, Isolated from a Contaminated Sediment

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Ashish; Jaswal, Rajneesh; Stothard, Paul; ...

    2018-06-21

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain B1, isolated from a contaminated soil, is reported. The genome comprises 6,706,934 bases, 6,059 coding sequences, and 70 RNAs and has a G+C content of 60.3%. A suite of biodegradative genes, many located on genomic islands, were identified from strain B1, further enhancing our understanding of the versatile pseudomonads.

  11. Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0588 TITLE: Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate Cancer...October 2015 30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 W81XWH-14-1-0588Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate...epidemiological and experimental evidence establishes alterations in cholesterol metabolism as a key driver of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness

  12. Germline Variation in HSD3B1 as a Novel Biomarker in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    metastasis. Taken together, these results indicate that HSD3B1 genotype is a powerful genetic biomarker of resistance to ADT, and can be used to...salvage ADT. We analyzed differences in these endpoints according to genotype using an additive genetic model with the log-rank trend test...indicate that HSD3B1 genotype is a powerful genetic biomarker of resistance to ADT, and can be used to identify men who might benefit from escalated

  13. Dependence of B1+ and B1- Field Patterns of Surface Coils on the Electrical Properties of the Sample and the MR Operating Frequency.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Manushka V; Collins, Christopher M; Sodickson, Daniel K; Brown, Ryan; Wiggins, Graham C; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    In high field MRI, the spatial distribution of the radiofrequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field is usually affected by the presence of the sample. For hardware design and to aid interpretation of experimental results, it is important both to anticipate and to accurately simulate the behavior of these fields. Fields generated by a radiofrequency surface coil were simulated using dyadic Green's functions, or experimentally measured over a range of frequencies inside an object whose electrical properties were varied to illustrate a variety of transmit [Formula: see text] and receive [Formula: see text] field patterns. In this work, we examine how changes in polarization of the field and interference of propagating waves in an object can affect the B 1 spatial distribution. Results are explained conceptually using Maxwell's equations and intuitive illustrations. We demonstrate that the electrical conductivity alters the spatial distribution of distinct polarized components of the field, causing "twisted" transmit and receive field patterns, and asymmetries between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Additionally, interference patterns due to wavelength effects are observed at high field in samples with high relative permittivity and near-zero conductivity, but are not present in lossy samples due to the attenuation of propagating EM fields. This work provides a conceptual framework for understanding B 1 spatial distributions for surface coils and can provide guidance for RF engineers.

  14. Sulfolobus chromatin proteins modulate strand displacement by DNA polymerase B1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Strand displacement by a DNA polymerase serves a key role in Okazaki fragment maturation, which involves displacement of the RNA primer of the preexisting Okazaki fragment into a flap structure, and subsequent flap removal and fragment ligation. We investigated the role of Sulfolobus chromatin proteins Sso7d and Cren7 in strand displacement by DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. PolB1 showed a robust strand displacement activity and was capable of synthesizing thousands of nucleotides on a DNA-primed 72-nt single-stranded circular DNA template. This activity was inhibited by both Sso7d and Cren7, which limited the flap length to 3–4 nt at saturating concentrations. However, neither protein inhibited RNA displacement on an RNA-primed single-stranded DNA minicircle by PolB1. Strand displacement remained sensitive to modulation by the chromatin proteins when PolB1 was in association with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Inhibition of DNA instead of RNA strand displacement by the chromatin proteins is consistent with the finding that double-stranded DNA was more efficiently bound and stabilized than an RNA:DNA duplex by these proteins. Our results suggest that Sulfolobus chromatin proteins modulate strand displacement by PolB1, permitting efficient removal of the RNA primer while inhibiting excessive displacement of the newly synthesized DNA strand during Okazaki fragment maturation. PMID:23821667

  15. DjhnRNPA2/B1-like gene is required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zimei; Yang, Tong; Yang, Yibo; Dou, He; Chen, Guangwen

    2017-10-30

    The hnRNPs play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of pre-mRNA after transcription, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, DNA replication and repair and telomere maintenance and so on. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of hnRNPA2/B1-like was first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and its roles were investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results showed that: (1) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like was highly conserved during animal evolution; (2) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like mRNA was mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms and regenerative blastemas, and its expression levels were up-regulated on days 0 and 5 after amputation; (3) the intact and regenerating worms gradually lysed or lost regeneration capacity after DjhnRNPA2/B1-like RNAi; and (4) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like expression is induced by temperature and heavy metal ion stress. The data suggests that DjhnRNPA2/B1-like is a multiple functional gene, it plays important roles in regeneration and homeostatic maintenance and it is also involved in stress responses in planarians. Our work provides basic data for the study of regenerative mechanism and stress responses in freshwater planarians. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Robust reconstruction of B1 (+) maps by projection into a spherical functions space.

    PubMed

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Lagendijk, Jan J; Luijten, Peter; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2014-01-01

    Several parallel transmit MRI techniques require knowledge of the transmit radiofrequency field profiles (B1 (+) ). During the past years, various methods have been developed to acquire this information. Often, these methods suffer from long measurement times and produce maps exhibiting regions with poor signal-to-noise ratio and artifacts. In this article, a model-based reconstruction procedure is introduced that improves the robustness of B1 (+) mapping. The missing information from undersampled B1 (+) maps and the regions of poor signal to noise ratio are reconstructed through projection into the space of spherical functions that arise naturally from the solution of the Helmholtz equations in the spherical coordinate system. As a result, B1 (+) data over a limited range of the field of view/volume is sufficient to reconstruct the B1 (+) over the full spatial domain in a fast and robust way. The same model is exploited to filter the noise of the measured maps. Results from simulations and in vivo measurements confirm the validity of the proposed method. A spherical functions model can well approximate the magnetic fields inside the body with few basis terms. Exploiting this compression capability, B1 (+) maps are reconstructed in regions of unknown or corrupted values. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Suppression of gastric cancer dissemination by ephrin-B1-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Kamata, Reiko; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of the Eph family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their ligands, ephrin family members, induces bidirectional signaling through cell-cell contacts. High expression of B-type ephrin is associated with high invasion potential of tumors, and we previously observed that signaling through the C-terminus of ephrin-B1 mediates the migration and invasion of cells, and is involved in the promotion of carcinomatous peritonitis in vivo. Here we show that the intracellular introduction of a synthetic peptide derived from ephrin-B1 C-terminus blocks ephrin-B1 mediated signaling in scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Treatment of cancer cells with a fusion peptide consisting of HIV-TAT and amino acids 331-346 of ephrin-B1 (PTD-EFNB1-C) suppressed the activation of RhoA, mediated by the association of ephrin-B1 with an adaptor protein Dishevelled, and also inhibited extracellular secretion of metalloproteinase. Moreover, injection of PTD-EFNB1-C peptide into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice suppressed carcinomatous peritonitis of intraperitoneally transplanted scirrhous gastric cancer cells. These results indicate the possible application of ephrin-B1 C-terminal peptide to develop novel protein therapy for scirrhous gastric carcinoma, especially in the stage of tumor progression, including peritoneal dissemination.

  18. Assessing airborne aflatoxin B1 during on-farm grain handling activities.

    PubMed

    Selim, M I; Juchems, A M; Popendorf, W

    1998-04-01

    The presence of aflatoxin in corn and corn dust during relatively normal years and the increased risk of Aspergillus flavus infestation during drought conditions suggest that airborne agricultural exposures should be of considerable concern. Liquid extraction, thin layer chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography were used for the analysis of aflatoxin B1 in grain dust and bulk corn samples. A total of 24 samples of airborne dust were collected from 8 farms during harvest, 22 samples from 9 farms during animal feeding, and 14 sets of Andersen samples from 11 farms during bin cleaning. A total of 14 samples of settled dust and 18 samples of bulk corn were also collected and analyzed. The airborne concentration of aflatoxin B1 found in dust collected during harvest and grain unloading ranged from 0.04 to 92 ng/m3. Higher levels of aflatoxin B1 were found in the airborne dust samples collected from enclosed animal feeding buildings (5-421 ng/m3) and during bin cleaning (124-4849 ng/m3). Aflatoxin B1 up to 5100 ng/g were detected in settled dust collected from an enclosed animal feeding building; however, no apparent correlation was found between the airborne concentration of aflatoxin B1 and its concentration in settled dust or bulk corn. The data demonstrate that farmers and farm workers may be exposed to potentially hazardous concentrations of aflatoxin B1, particularly during bin cleaning and animal feeding in enclosed buildings.

  19. A Novel Role for C5a in B-1 Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Katharina; Figge, Julia; Magnusen, Albert F.; Manz, Rudolf A.; Köhl, Jörg; Karsten, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    B-1 cells constitute a unique subpopulation of lymphocytes residing mainly in body cavities like the peritoneal cavity (PerC) but are also found in spleen and bone marrow (BM). As innate-like B cells, they mediate first line immune defense through low-affinity natural IgM (nIgM) antibodies. PerC B-1 cells can egress to the spleen and differentiate into nIgM antibody-secreting plasma cells that recognize conserved exogenous and endogenous cellular structures. Homing to and homeostasis within the PerC are regulated by the chemokine CXCL13 released by PerC macrophages and stroma cells. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the regulation of CXCL13 and B-1 homeostasis are not fully explored. B-1 cells play important roles in the inflammatory response to infection, autoimmunity, ischemia/reperfusion injury, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Remarkably, this list of inflammatory entities has a strong overlap with diseases that are regulated by complement suggesting a link between B-1 cells and the complement system. Interestingly, up to now, no data exist regarding the role of complement in B-1 cell biology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates B-1 cell steady-state dynamics within the peritoneum, the spleen, and the BM. We found decreased B-1a cell numbers in the peritoneum and the spleen of C5aR1−/− mice associated with increased B1-a and B1-b numbers in the spleen and high serum titers of nIgM antibodies directed against phosphorylcholine and several pneumococcal polysaccharides. Similarly, peritoneal B-1a cells were decreased in the peritoneum and splenic B-1a and B-1b cells were increased in C5aR2−/− mice. The decrease in peritoneal B-1 cell numbers was associated with decreased peritoneal CXCL13 levels in C5aR1−/− and C5aR2−/− mice. In search for mechanisms, we found that combined TLR2 and IL-10 receptor activation in PerC macrophages induced strong CXCL13 production, which was significantly reduced in cells from C5aR1- and C5a

  20. A recombinant CYP11B1 dependent Escherichia coli biocatalyst for selective cortisol production and optimization towards a preparative scale.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Lina; Anderko, Simone; Hobler, Anna; Hannemann, Frank; Kagawa, Norio; Bernhardt, Rita

    2015-02-25

    Human mitochondrial CYP11B1 catalyzes a one-step regio- and stereoselective 11β-hydroxylation of 11-deoxycortisol yielding cortisol which constitutes not only the major human stress hormone but also represents a commercially relevant therapeutic drug due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Moreover, it is an important intermediate in the industrial production of synthetic pharmaceutical glucocorticoids. CYP11B1 thus offers a great potential for biotechnological application in large-scale synthesis of cortisol. Because of its nature as external monooxygenase, CYP11B1-dependent steroid hydroxylation requires reducing equivalents which are provided from NADPH via a redox chain, consisting of adrenodoxin reductase (AdR) and adrenodoxin (Adx). We established an Escherichia coli based whole-cell system for selective cortisol production from 11-deoxycortisol by recombinant co-expression of the demanded 3 proteins. For the subsequent optimization of the whole-cell activity 3 different approaches were pursued: Firstly, CYP11B1 expression was enhanced 3.3-fold to 257 nmol∗L(-1) by site-directed mutagenesis of position 23 from glycine to arginine, which was accompanied by a 2.6-fold increase in cortisol yield. Secondly, the electron transfer chain was engineered in a quantitative manner by introducing additional copies of the Adx cDNA in order to enhance Adx expression on transcriptional level. In the presence of 2 and 3 copies the initial linear conversion rate was greatly accelerated and the final product concentration was improved 1.4-fold. Thirdly, we developed a screening system for directed evolution of CYP11B1 towards higher hydroxylation activity. A culture down-scale to microtiter plates was performed and a robot-assisted, fluorescence-based conversion assay was applied for the selection of more efficient mutants from a random library. Under optimized conditions a maximum productivity of 0.84 g cortisol∗L(-1)∗d(-1) was achieved, which

  1. Somatic overgrowth associated with homozygous mutations in both MAN1B1 and SEC23A

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Wang, Tracy; Dempsey Nunez, Laura; Rosenblatt, David S.; Gibson, William T.; Gilfix, Brian; Bergeron, John J. M.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2016-01-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous mutations in two unlinked genes, SEC23A c.1200G>C (p.M400I) and MAN1B1 c.1000C>T (p.R334C), associated with congenital birth defects in two patients from a consanguineous family. Patients presented with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, tall stature, obesity, macrocephaly, and maloccluded teeth. The parents were healthy heterozygous carriers for both mutations and an unaffected sibling with tall stature carried the heterozygous mutation in SEC23A only. Mutations in SEC23A are responsible for craniolenticosultura dysplasia (CLSD). CLSD patients are short, have late-closing fontanels, and have reduced procollagen (pro-COL1A1) secretion because of abnormal pro-COL1A1 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The mutation we identified in MAN1B1 was previously associated with reduced MAN1B1 protein and congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). CDG patients are also short, are obese, and have abnormal glycan remodeling. Molecular analysis of fibroblasts from the family revealed normal levels of SEC23A in all cells and reduced levels of MAN1B1 in cells with heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SEC23A and MAN1B1. Secretion of pro-COL1A1 was increased in fibroblasts from the siblings and patients, and pro-COL1A1 was retained in Golgi of heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells, although intracellular pro-COL1A1 was increased in patient fibroblasts only. We postulate that increased pro-COL1A1 secretion is responsible for tall stature in these patients and an unaffected sibling, and not previously discovered in patients with mutations in either SEC23A or MAN1B1. The patients in this study share biochemical and cellular characteristics consistent with mutations in MAN1B1 and SEC23A, indicating a digenic disease. PMID:27148587

  2. Scavenger receptor B1 facilitates macrophage uptake of silver nanoparticles and cellular activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldossari, Abdullah A.; Shannahan, Jonathan H.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Brown, Jared M.

    2015-07-01

    Due to increased use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for their antimicrobial activity, concerns have risen regarding potential adverse human health effects. Scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1), a major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is expressed by macrophages and has also been reported to play a role in recognition of negatively charged particles. We, therefore, hypothesized that SR-B1 mediates macrophage uptake of AgNPs and inflammatory activation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 (RAW) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to 20 nm citrate-suspended AgNPs. To verify the role of the SR-B1 receptor, we utilized a SR-B1 inhibitor (Blt2). In vitro studies demonstrated uptake of AgNPs and HDL-coated AgNPs by macrophages which were significantly reduced following pretreatment with Blt2. Inflammatory cytokine arrays revealed that macrophages exposed to AgNPs up-regulated expression of Tnf- α, Oncostatin m (OSM), Ccl4, Il17f, Ccl7, and Ccl2, whereas Il16 was found to be down-regulated. Macrophage activation was observed following AgNP and HDL-coated AgNP exposure as measured by OSM protein production and increased surface expression of CD86. These markers of activation were reduced with Blt2 pretreatment. The in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo through pulmonary instillation of AgNPs in mice. Pulmonary instillation of AgNPs resulted in a recruitment of inflammatory cells that were reduced in SR-B1-deficient mice or following Blt2 pretreatment. This study suggests that SR-B1 plays a major role in cellular recognition of AgNPs and the induction of cell responses that could contribute to inflammation caused by AgNP exposure.

  3. [Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates derived from phylogenetic groups A and B1 causing extraintestinal infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eva; Prats, Guillem; Planells, Irene; Planes, Ana M; Pérez, Teresa; Andreu, Antonia

    2006-10-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from the non-pathogenic phylogenetic groups A and B1 rarely cause extraintestinal infections. The aim of this study was to analyze 37 E. coli isolates pertaining to phylogenetic groups A and B1 and compare them with 37 E. coli isolates from group B2 and 31 from group D, which caused the same infections. Among 105 E. coli isolated from the urine of patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis and from the blood of patients with urinary-source and other-source bacteriemia, the E. coli phylogenetic groups, 15 virulence-associated genes, 7 O-antigens and fluoroquinolone resistance were analyzed. E. coli from groups A and B1 showed fewer virulence determinants (median 3.5) than E. coli from group B2 (8.6, P < 0.01) or D (5.3, P < .001); however, a subgroup containing 3 isolates from group A and 5 from B1 harbored 5 or more factors. E. coli from groups A/B1 were associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (74%, P < .001), whereas E. coli from group B2 were associated with susceptibility to this antibiotic (76%, P = .003). E. coli from groups A/B1 were isolated significantly more frequently in patients with pyelonephritis or sepsis and local or general factors favoring infection, association not observed in patients with cystitis. Even though most of the E. coli isolates from phylogenetic groups A and B1 presented a low virulence potential, they were able to cause extraintestinal infections, particularly in compromised patients.

  4. Mutations in SULT2B1 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Humans.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Lisa; Kim, Gwang-Jin; Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Christiansen, Julie; Turki, Hamida; Rauschendorf, Marc-Alexander; Lathrop, Mark; Hausser, Ingrid; Zimmer, Andreas D; Fischer, Judith

    2017-06-01

    Ichthyoses are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of genodermatoses associated with abnormal scaling of the skin over the whole body. Mutations in nine genes are known to cause non-syndromic forms of autosomal-recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). However, not all genetic causes for ARCI have been discovered to date. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and multigene panel screening, we identified 6 ARCI-affected individuals from three unrelated families with mutations in Sulfotransferase family 2B member 1 (SULT2B1), showing their causative association with ARCI. Cytosolic sulfotransferases form a large family of enzymes that are involved in the synthesis and metabolism of several steroids in humans. We identified four distinct mutations including missense, nonsense, and splice site mutations. We demonstrated the loss of SULT2B1 expression at RNA and protein levels in keratinocytes from individuals with ARCI by functional analyses. Furthermore, we succeeded in reconstructing the morphologic skin alterations in a 3D organotypic tissue culture model with SULT2B1-deficient keratinocytes and fibroblasts. By thin layer chromatography (TLC) of extracts from these organotypic cultures, we could show the absence of cholesterol sulfate, the metabolite of SULT2B1, and an increased level of cholesterol, indicating a disturbed cholesterol metabolism of the skin upon loss-of-function mutation in SULT2B1. In conclusion, our study reveals an essential role for SULT2B1 in the proper development of healthy human skin. Mutation in SULT2B1 leads to an ARCI phenotype via increased proliferation of human keratinocytes, thickening of epithelial layers, and altered epidermal cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin B1 diversity and characterization of biosynthesis genes in cassava.

    PubMed

    Mangel, Nathalie; Fudge, Jared B; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2017-06-15

    Vitamin B1, which consists of the vitamers thiamin and its phosphorylated derivatives, is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms because it is required as a metabolic cofactor in several enzymatic reactions. Genetic diversity of vitamin B1 biosynthesis and accumulation has not been investigated in major crop species other than rice and potato. We analyzed cassava germplasm for accumulation of B1 vitamers. Vitamin B1 content in leaves and roots of 41 cassava accessions showed significant variation between accessions. HPLC analyses of B1 vitamers revealed distinct profiles in cassava leaves and storage roots, with nearly equal relative levels of thiamin pyrophosphate and thiamin monophosphate in leaves, but mostly thiamin pyrophosphate in storage roots. Unusually, the cassava genome has two genes encoding the 4-amino-2-methyl-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate synthase, THIC (MeTHIC1 and MeTHIC2), both of which carry a riboswitch in the 3'-UTR, as well as the adenylated thiazole synthase, THI1 (MeTHI1a and MeTHI1b). The THIC and THI1 genes are expressed at very low levels in storage roots compared with the accumulation of vitamin B1, indicating only limited biosynthesis de novo therein. In leaves, vitamin B1 content is negatively correlated with THIC and THI1 expression levels, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of THIC by the riboswitch present in the 3'-UTR of the THIC mRNA and regulation of THI1 by promoter activity or alternative post-transcriptional mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. CD22 Promotes B-1b Cell Responses to T Cell-Independent Type 2 Antigens.

    PubMed

    Haas, Karen M; Johnson, Kristen L; Phipps, James P; Do, Cardinal

    2018-03-01

    CD22 (Siglec-2) is a critical regulator of B cell activation and survival. CD22 -/- mice generate significantly impaired Ab responses to T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) Ags, including haptenated Ficoll and pneumococcal polysaccharides, Ags that elicit poor T cell help and activate BCR signaling via multivalent epitope crosslinking. This has been proposed to be due to impaired marginal zone (MZ) B cell development/maintenance in CD22 -/- mice. However, mice expressing a mutant form of CD22 unable to bind sialic acid ligands generated normal TI-2 Ab responses, despite significantly reduced MZ B cells. Moreover, mice treated with CD22 ligand-binding blocking mAbs, which deplete MZ B cells, had little effect on TI-2 Ab responses. We therefore investigated the effects of CD22 deficiency on B-1b cells, an innate-like B cell population that plays a key role in TI-2 Ab responses. B-1b cells from CD22 -/- mice had impaired BCR-induced proliferation and significantly increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration responses following BCR crosslinking. Ag-specific B-1b cell expansion and plasmablast differentiation following TI-2 Ag immunization was significantly impaired in CD22 -/- mice, consistent with reduced TI-2 Ab responses. We generated CD22 -/- mice with reduced CD19 levels (CD22 -/- CD19 +/- ) to test the hypothesis that augmented B-1b cell BCR signaling in CD22 -/- mice contributes to impaired TI-2 Ab responses. BCR-induced proliferation and intracellular Ca 2+ concentration responses were normalized in CD22 -/- CD19 +/- B-1b cells. Consistent with this, TI-2 Ag-specific B-1b cell expansion, plasmablast differentiation, survival, and Ab responses were rescued in CD22 -/- CD19 +/- mice. Thus, CD22 plays a critical role in regulating TI-2 Ab responses through regulating B-1b cell signaling thresholds. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. The family B1 GPCR: structural aspects and interaction with accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in physiology and pathophysiology in humans. Beside the large family A (rhodopsin-like receptors) and family C GPCR (metabotropic glutamate receptors), the small family B1 GPCR (secretin-like receptors) includes important receptors such as vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VPAC), pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide receptor (PAC1R), secretin receptor (SECR), growth hormone releasing factor receptor (GRFR), glucagon receptor (GCGR), glucagon like-peptide 1 and 2 receptors (GLPR), gastric inhibitory peptide receptor (GIPR), parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR), calcitonin receptors (CTR) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFR). They represent very promising targets for the development of drugs having therapeutical impact on many diseases such as chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, diabetes, stress and osteoporosis. Over the past decade, structure-function relationship studies have demonstrated that the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of family B1 receptors plays a pivotal role in natural ligand recognition. Structural analysis of some family B1 GPCR N-teds revealed the existence of a Sushi domain fold consisting of two antiparallel β sheets stabilized by three disulfide bonds and a salt bridge. The family B1 GPCRs promote cellular responses through a signaling pathway including predominantly the Gsadenylyl cyclase-cAMP pathway activation. Family B1 GPCRs also interact with a few accessory proteins which play a role in cell signaling, receptor expression and/or pharmacological profiles of receptors. These accessory proteins may represent new targets for the design of new drugs. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding: i) the structure of family B1 GPCR binding domain for natural ligands and ii) the interaction of family B1 GPCRs with accessory proteins.

  8. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  9. Multi-turn transmit coil to increase b1 efficiency in current source amplification.

    PubMed

    Gudino, N; Griswold, M A

    2013-04-01

    A multi-turn transmit surface coil design was presented to improve B1 efficiency when used with current source amplification. Three different coil designs driven by an on-coil current-mode class-D amplifier with current envelope feedback were tested on the benchtop and through imaging in a 1.5 T scanner. Case temperature of the power field-effect transistor at the amplifier output stage was measured to evaluate heat dissipation for the different current levels and coil configurations. In addition, a lower power rated device was tested to exploit the potential gain in B1 obtained with the multi-turn coil. As shown both on the benchtop and in a 1.5 T scanner, B1 was increased by almost 3-fold without increasing heat dissipation on the power device at the amplifier's output using a multi-turn surface coil. Similar gain was obtained when connecting a lower power rated field-effect transistor to the multi-turn coil. In addition to reduce heat dissipation per B1 in the device, higher B1 per current efficiency allows the use of field-effect transistors with lower current ratings and lower port capacitances, which could improve the overall performance of the on-coil current source transmit system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multi-turn transmit coil to increase B1 efficiency in current source amplification

    PubMed Central

    Gudino, N.; Griswold, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A multi-turn transmit surface coil design was presented to improve B1 efficiency when used with current source amplification. Methods Three different coil designs driven by an on-coil current-mode class-D (CMCD) amplifier with current envelope feedback were tested on the benchtop and through imaging in a 1.5 T scanner. Case temperature of the power field-effect transistor (FET) at the amplifier output stage was measured to evaluate heat dissipation for the different current levels and coil configurations. In addition, a lower power rated device was tested to exploit the potential gain in B1 obtained with the multi-turn coil. Results As shown both on the benchtop and in a 1.5 T scanner, B1 was increased by almost three-fold without increasing heat dissipation on the power device at the amplifier's output using a multi-turn surface coil. Similar gain was obtained when connecting a lower power rated FET to the multi-turn coil. Conclusion In addition to reduce heat dissipation per B1 in the device, higher B1 per current efficiency allows the use of FETs with lower current ratings and lower port capacitances which could improve the overall performance of the on-coil current source transmit system. PMID:23401060

  11. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  12. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-04-15

    B cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL(+)MHC class-I(Hi)CD86(Hi)B cells of unknown origin. In this article, we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. They induce expression and activation of 4-1BBL and IFN-γR1 on B1a cells to subsequently upregulate membrane TNF-α and CD86. As a result, activated B1a/4BL cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8(+)T cells by targeting TNFR2 via membrane TNF-α and providing costimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, to our knowledge, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8(+)T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A.; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-01-01

    B-cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL+ MHC class-IHi CD86Hi B cells of unknown origin. Here we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. The 4BL cells induce expression of 4-1BBL and IFNγR1 on B1a cells resulting in subsequent up regulation of membrane TNFα (mTNFα) and CD86. As a result, B1a cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8+T cells by targeting TNFR2 via mTNFα while providing co-stimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8+T cells. PMID:26983789

  14. Influence of Kernel Age on Fumonisin B1 Production in Maize by Fusarium moniliforme

    PubMed Central

    Warfield, Colleen Y.; Gilchrist, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme on naturally infected maize ears is an important food safety concern due to the toxic nature of this class of mycotoxins. Assessing the potential risk of fumonisin production in developing maize ears prior to harvest requires an understanding of the regulation of toxin biosynthesis during kernel maturation. We investigated the developmental-stage-dependent relationship between maize kernels and fumonisin B1 production by using kernels collected at the blister (R2), milk (R3), dough (R4), and dent (R5) stages following inoculation in culture at their respective field moisture contents with F. moniliforme. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) in fumonisin B1 production were found among kernels at the different developmental stages. The highest levels of fumonisin B1 were produced on the dent stage kernels, and the lowest levels were produced on the blister stage kernels. The differences in fumonisin B1 production among kernels at the different developmental stages remained significant (P ≤ 0.001) when the moisture contents of the kernels were adjusted to the same level prior to inoculation. We concluded that toxin production is affected by substrate composition as well as by moisture content. Our study also demonstrated that fumonisin B1 biosynthesis on maize kernels is influenced by factors which vary with the developmental age of the tissue. The risk of fumonisin contamination may begin early in maize ear development and increases as the kernels reach physiological maturity. PMID:10388675

  15. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  16. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  17. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  18. SoxB1-driven transcriptional network underlies neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signals.

    PubMed

    Oosterveen, Tony; Kurdija, Sanja; Ensterö, Mats; Uhde, Christopher W; Bergsland, Maria; Sandberg, Magnus; Sandberg, Rickard; Muhr, Jonas; Ericson, Johan

    2013-04-30

    The reiterative deployment of a small cadre of morphogen signals underlies patterning and growth of most tissues during embyogenesis, but how such inductive events result in tissue-specific responses remains poorly understood. By characterizing cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) associated with genes regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh), retinoids, or bone morphogenetic proteins in the CNS, we provide evidence that the neural-specific interpretation of morphogen signaling reflects a direct integration of these pathways with SoxB1 proteins at the CRM level. Moreover, expression of SoxB1 proteins in the limb bud confers on mesodermal cells the potential to activate neural-specific target genes upon Shh, retinoid, or bone morphogenetic protein signaling, and the collocation of binding sites for SoxB1 and morphogen-mediatory transcription factors in CRMs faithfully predicts neural-specific gene activity. Thus, an unexpectedly simple transcriptional paradigm appears to conceptually explain the neural-specific interpretation of pleiotropic signaling during vertebrate development. Importantly, genes induced in a SoxB1-dependent manner appear to constitute repressive gene regulatory networks that are directly interlinked at the CRM level to constrain the regional expression of patterning genes. Accordingly, not only does the topology of SoxB1-driven gene regulatory networks provide a tissue-specific mode of gene activation, but it also determines the spatial expression pattern of target genes within the developing neural tube.

  19. Cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brett L; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Estes, Anne M; Das, Kanak; Farjana, Nasreen; Fang, Xiao R; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, and angiotensin II is one of the major components of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of hypertension. However, the precise mechanisms for the development of hypertension are unknown. Our recent study showing that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth depends on cytochrome P450 1B1 led us to investigate its contribution to hypertension caused by this peptide. Angiotensin II was infused via miniosmotic pump into rats (150 ng/kg per minute) or mice (1000 μg/kg per day) for 13 days resulting in increased blood pressure, increased cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, increased vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, increased vascular reactive oxygen species production, and endothelial dysfunction in both species. The increase in blood pressure and associated pathophysiological changes were minimized by the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene in both species and was markedly reduced in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. These data suggest that cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes. Moreover, 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene, which prevents both cytochrome P450 1B1-dependent and -independent components of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and inhibits associated pathophysiological changes could be clinically useful in the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

  20. CYTOCHROME P450 1B1 CONTRIBUTES TO ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Brett L.; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Estes, Anne M.; Das, Kanak; Farjana, Nasreen; Fang, Xiao R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Malik, Kafait U.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, and angiotensin II is one of the major components of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of hypertension. However, the precise mechanisms for the development of hypertension are unknown. Our recent study that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth is dependent on cytochrome P450 1B1 led us to investigate its contribution to hypertension caused by this peptide. Angiotensin II was infused via miniosmotic pump into rats (150 ng/kg/min) or mice (1000 μg/kg/day) for 13 days resulting in increased blood pressure, increased cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, increased vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, increased reactive oxygen species production, and endothelial dysfunction in both species. The increase in blood pressure and associated pathophysiological changes were minimized by the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor, 2,3′,4,5′-tetramethoxystilbene in both species and was markedly reduced in Cyp1b1-/- mice. These data suggest that cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes. Moreover, 2,3′,4,5′-tetramethoxystilbene which prevents both cytochrome P450 1B1-dependent and independent components of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and inhibits associated pathophysiological changes could be clinically useful in the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:20805442

  1. A decrease in cyclin B1 levels leads to polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ikue; Nakayama, Yuji; Morinaga, Takao; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2010-05-04

    Adriamycin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used for the treatment of various types of tumours. Adriamycin induces at least two distinct types of growth repression, such as senescence and apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner. Cellular senescence is a condition in which cells are unable to proliferate further, and senescent cells frequently show polyploidy. Although abrogation of cell division is thought to correlate with polyploidization, the mechanisms underlying induction of polyploidization in senescent cells are largely unclear. We wished, therefore, to explore the role of cyclin B1 level in polyploidization of Adriamycin-induced senescent cells. A subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin induced polyploid cells having the features of senescence, such as flattened and enlarged cell shape and activated beta-galactosidase activity. In DNA damage-induced senescent cells, the levels of cyclin B1 were transiently increased and subsequently decreased. The decrease in cyclin B1 levels occurred in G2 cells during polyploidization upon treatment with a subcytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. In contrast, neither polyploidy nor a decrease in cyclin B1 levels was induced by treatment with a cytotoxic concentration of Adriamycin. These results suggest that a decrease in cyclin B1 levels is induced by DNA damage, resulting in polyploidization in DNA damage-induced senescence.

  2. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

  5. Absence of B1-B2 structural transition in lithium halides under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Murrieta, Gabriel

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the B1-B2 structural transition in LiF, LiCl, LiBr, and LiI under hydrostatic pressure by means of first-principles total-energy calculations using the Full- Potential LAPW method. In order to analyze the gradient effects, we have performed calculations using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), for the exchange and correlation potential. In agreement with the experimental observations, we find that even for pressures higher than 100 GPa, the Li halides do not present the B1-B2 structural transition. In order to understand this behavior, we have calculated the distribution of the electron densities. From the analysis of the distribution of electron densities for the Li halides in the B1 and B2 phases, we find that for this group of ionic compounds the B1 phase have a distribution of electron densities more homogeneous than in the B2 phase, preventing the B1-B2 structural transition. This work was partially supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (CONACYT, M'exico) under Grant No. 43830-F.

  6. Motor neurons in Drosophila flight control: could b1 be the one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Samuel; Shirangi, Troy; Cohen, Itai

    Similar to balancing a stick on one's fingertip, flapping flight is inherently unstable; maintaining stability is a delicate balancing act made possible only by near-constant, often-subtle corrective actions. For fruit flies, such corrective responses need not only be robust, but also fast: the Drosophila flight control reflex has a response latency time of ~5 ms, ranking it among the fastest reflexes in the animal kingdom. How is such rapid, robust control implemented physiologically? Here we present an analysis of a putatively crucial component of the Drosophila flight control circuit: the b1 motor neuron. Specifically, we apply mechanical perturbations to freely-flying Drosophila and analyze the differences in kinematics patterns between flies with manipulated and un-manipulated b1 motor neurons. Ultimately, we hope to identify the functional role of b1 in flight stabilization, with the aim of linking it to previously-proposed, reduced-order models for reflexive control.

  7. B1 to B2 structural phase transition in LiF under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aayushi; Dixit, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    In the last few decades the alkali halides emerged as crystals with useful applications and their high-pressure behaviour is the most intensively studied subject in high-pressure physics/chemistry, material science, and geosciences. Most alkali halides follow the B1 (NaCl-type)→B2 (CsCl-type) phase-transition route under pressure. In the present paper, we have investigated the characteristics of structural phase transition that occurred in Lithium Florid compound under high pressure. The transition pressure of B1-B2 was calculated using an effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP). The changes of the characteristics of crystals like, Gibbs free energy, cohesive energy, volume collapse, and lattice constant are calculated for the B1 and B2 structures. These data were compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  8. Identification of averantin as an aflatoxin B1 precursor: placement in the biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, J W; Lee, L S; Shoss, S M; Boudreaux, G H

    1980-01-01

    A new blocked mutant of Aspergillus parasiticus produces no detectable aflatoxin B1, but accumulates several polyhydroxyanthraquinones. One of these pigments was identified as averantin. This is the first report of its formation by A. parasiticus. Radiotracer studies with [14C]averantin showed that 15.3% of label from averantin was incorporated into aflatoxin B1. This incorporation was blocked by dichlorvos. With radiotracers and other mutants, averantin was placed after norsolorinic acid and before averufin in the biosynthetic pathway in which the general steps are norsolorinic acid leads to averantin leads to averufin leads to versiconal hemiacetal acetate leads to versicolorin A leads to sterigmatocystin leads to aflatoxin B1. PMID:7377778

  9. Fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, T.; Hsieh, D.P.

    A detailed fractionation of radioactivity in the milk of goats administered UC-aflatoxin B1 at low doses was performed. The milk collected in the first 24 h following dosing contained radioactivity equivalent to 0.45-1.1% of the dose given. The radioactivity in each sample was partitioned into 4 fractions: ether, protein, dichloromethane, and water-alcohol. Over 80% of the radioactivity was detected in the dichloromethane fraction, of which over 95% was attributable to aflatoxin M1. No aflatoxin B1 or other known aflatoxin metabolites were detected in any fraction. The results indicate that the major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in goat milk is aflatoxinmore » M1 and that other metabolites, including conjugates, are of minor significance.« less

  10. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  11. SF3B1 mutations constitute a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L; Leonidou, Andri; Wai, Patty; Marchiò, Caterina; Ng, Charlotte KY; Sapino, Anna; Salomon, Anne-Vincent; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta; Natrajan, Rachael C

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing have been found to occur at relatively high frequencies in several tumour types including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, uveal melanoma, and pancreatic cancer, and at lower frequencies in breast cancer. To investigate whether dysfunction in RNA splicing is implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we performed a re-analysis of published exome and whole genome sequencing data. This analysis revealed that mutations in spliceosomal component genes occurred in 5.6% of unselected breast cancers, including hotspot mutations in the SF3B1 gene, which were found in 1.8% of unselected breast cancers. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with ER-positive disease, AKT1 mutations, and distinct copy number alterations. Additional profiling of hotspot mutations in a panel of special histological subtypes of breast cancer showed that 16% and 6% of papillary and mucinous carcinomas of the breast harboured the SF3B1 K700E mutation. RNA sequencing identified differentially spliced events expressed in tumours with SF3B1 mutations including the protein coding genes TMEM14C, RPL31, DYNL11, UQCC, and ABCC5, and the long non-coding RNA CRNDE. Moreover, SF3B1 mutant cell lines were found to be sensitive to the SF3b complex inhibitor spliceostatin A and treatment resulted in perturbation of the splicing signature. Albeit rare, SF3B1 mutations result in alternative splicing events, and may constitute drivers and a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25424858

  12. Immune Tolerance to Apoptotic Self Is Mediated Primarily by Regulatory B1a Cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, Katherine; Simpson, Joanne; Brown, Sheila; Cowan, Graeme; Gray, David; Gray, Mohini

    2017-01-01

    The chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, develop when tolerance to apoptotic cells (ACs) is lost. We have previously reported that this tolerance is maintained by innate-like, IL-10 secreting regulatory B cells. Two questions remained. First, do these regulatory B cells belong predominantly to a single subset of steady-state B cells and second, what is their specificity? We report here that innate-like B cells with markers characteristic for B1a cells (CD43 +ve CD19 hi CD5 +ve IgM hi IgD lo ) constitute 80% of splenic and 96% of peritoneal B cells that respond to ACs by secreting IL-10. AC responsive B1a cells secrete self-reactive natural antibodies (NAbs) and IL-10, which is augmented by toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 or TLR9 stimulation. In so doing, they both accelerate the clearance of dying cells by macrophages and inhibit their potential to mount proinflammatory immune responses. While B1a cells make prolonged contact with ACs, they do not require TIM1 or complement to mediate their regulatory function. In an animal model of neural inflammation (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), just 10 5 activated B1a B cells was sufficient to restrain inflammation. Activated B1a B cells also induced antigen-specific T cells to secrete IL-10. Hence, regulatory B1a cells specifically recognize and augment tolerance to apoptotic self via IL-10 and NAbs; but once activated, can also prevent autoimmune mediated inflammation.

  13. Congenital glaucoma and CYP1B1: an old story revisited.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Hessa S; Khan, Arif O; Patel, Nisha; Alkuraya, Hisham; Hashem, Mais; Abdulwahab, Firdous; Ibrahim, Niema; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2018-03-19

    Primary congenital glaucoma is a trabecular meshwork dysgenesis with resultant increased intraocular pressure and ocular damage. CYP1B1 mutations remain the most common identifiable genetic cause. However, important questions about the penetrance of CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma remain unanswered. Furthermore, mutations in other genes have been described although their exact contribution and potential genetic interaction, if any, with CYP1B1 mutations are not fully explored. In this study, we employed modern genomic approaches to re-examine CYP1B1-related congenital glaucoma. A cohort of 193 patients (136 families) diagnosed with congenital glaucoma. We identified biallelic CYP1B1 mutations in 80.8% (87.5 and 66.1% in familial and sporadic cases, respectively, p < 0.0086). The large family size of the study population allowed us to systematically examine penetrance of all identified alleles. With the exception of c.1103G>A (p.R368H), previously reported pathogenic mutations were highly penetrant (91.2%). We conclude from the very low penetrance and genetic epidemiological analyses that c.1103G>A (p.R368H) is unlikely to be a disease-causing recessive mutation in congenital glaucoma as previously reported. All cases that lacked biallelic CYP1B1 mutations underwent whole exome sequencing. No mutations in LTBP2, MYOC or TEK were encountered. On the other hand, mutations were identified in genes linked to other ophthalmic phenotypes, some inclusive of glaucoma, highlighting conditions that might phenotypically overlap with primary congenital glaucoma (SLC4A4, SLC4A11, CPAMD8, and KERA). We also encountered candidate causal variants in genes not previously linked to human diseases: BCO2, TULP2, and DGKQ. Our results both expand and refine the genetic spectrum of congenital glaucoma with important clinical implications.

  14. Rare versus common variants in pharmacogenetics: SLCO1B1 variation and methotrexate disposition

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Laura B.; Bruun, Gitte H.; Yang, Wenjian; Treviño, Lisa R.; Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul; Cheng, Cheng; Rosner, Gary L.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Fan, Yiping; Sparreboom, Alex; Mikkelsen, Torben S.; Corydon, Thomas J.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2012-01-01

    Methotrexate is used to treat autoimmune diseases and malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Inter-individual variation in clearance of methotrexate results in heterogeneous systemic exposure, clinical efficacy, and toxicity. In a genome-wide association study of children with ALL, we identified SLCO1B1 as harboring multiple common polymorphisms associated with methotrexate clearance. The extent of influence of rare versus common variants on pharmacogenomic phenotypes remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that rare variants in SLCO1B1 could affect methotrexate clearance and compared the influence of common versus rare variants in addition to clinical covariates on clearance. From deep resequencing of SLCO1B1 exons in 699 children, we identified 93 SNPs, 15 of which were non-synonymous (NS). Three of these NS SNPs were common, with a minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%, one had low frequency (MAF 1%–5%), and 11 were rare (MAF <1%). NS SNPs (common or rare) predicted to be functionally damaging were more likely to be found among patients with the lowest methotrexate clearance than patients with high clearance. We verified lower function in vitro of four SLCO1B1 haplotypes that were associated with reduced methotrexate clearance. In a multivariate stepwise regression analysis adjusting for other genetic and non-genetic covariates, SLCO1B1 variants accounted for 10.7% of the population variability in clearance. Of that variability, common NS variants accounted for the majority, but rare damaging NS variants constituted 17.8% of SLCO1B1's effects (1.9% of total variation) and had larger effect sizes than common NS variants. Our results show that rare variants are likely to have an important effect on pharmacogenetic phenotypes. PMID:22147369

  15. Cdc2/cyclin B1 regulates centrosomal Nlp proteolysis and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuelian; Jin, Shunqian; Song, Yongmei; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-11-01

    The formation of proper mitotic spindles is required for appropriate chromosome segregation during cell division. Aberrant spindle formation often causes aneuploidy and results in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of regulating spindle formation and chromosome separation remains to be further defined. Centrosomal Nlp (ninein-like protein) is a recently characterized BRCA1-regulated centrosomal protein and plays an important role in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. In this study, we show that Nlp can be phosphorylated by cell cycle protein kinase Cdc2/cyclin B1. The phosphorylation sites of Nlp are mapped at Ser185 and Ser589. Interestingly, the Cdc2/cyclin B1 phosphorylation site Ser185 of Nlp is required for its recognition by PLK1, which enable Nlp depart from centrosomes to allow the establishment of a mitotic scaffold at the onset of mitosis . PLK1 fails to dissociate the Nlp mutant lacking Ser185 from centrosome, suggesting that Cdc2/cyclin B1 might serve as a primary kinase of PLK1 in regulating Nlp subcellular localization. However, the phosphorylation at the site Ser589 by Cdc2/cyclin B1 plays an important role in Nlp protein stability probably due to its effect on protein degradation. Furthermore, we show that deregulated expression or subcellular localization of Nlp lead to multinuclei in cells, indicating that scheduled levels of Nlp and proper subcellular localization of Nlp are critical for successful completion of normal cell mitosis, These findings demonstrate that Cdc2/cyclin B1 is a key regulator in maintaining appropriate degradation and subcellular localization of Nlp, providing novel insights into understanding on the role of Cdc2/cyclin B1 in mitotic progression.

  16. Hydrolysed fumonisin B1 and N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-fumonisin B1: stability and catabolic fate under simulated human gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Hahn, Irene; Varga, Elisabeth; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Falavigna, Claudia; Calani, Luca; Berthiller, Franz; Del Rio, Daniele; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2015-02-01

    Food processing may induce thermal degradation of fumonisins in corn via Maillard-type reactions, or alkaline hydrolysis via loss of the two tricarballylic acid moieties. In the former case, N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-fumonisin B(1) (NDF) can be formed, while the latter derivative is called hydrolysed fumonisin B(1) (HFB(1)). The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about the gastrointestinal stability of HFB(1) and NDF in humans. Due to the lack of standard, NDF was chemically synthesised and cleaned up in high purity to be used for further experiments. While NDF is already partially cleaved (about 41%) during simulated digestion, it remained rather stable towards human colon microflora. In contrast to this, HFB(1) is partially metabolised by the colon microflora to unknown compounds after 24 h of fermentation, as seen by a loss of about 22%. Concluding, the cleavage of NDF during digestion as well as the likely metabolisation of HFB(1) emphasise the need for animal trials to ascertain their toxicity in vivo.

  17. Structure investigation of maltacine B1a, B1b, B2a and B2b: cyclic peptide lactones of the maltacine complex from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Hagelin, Gunnar

    2005-04-01

    A new complex of cyclic peptide lactone antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis, which we named maltacines, has recently been described. The structure elucidation of four of them is reported in this paper. The amino acid sequences and structures of the peptides were found by MSn of the ring-opened linear peptides that gave uninterrupted sequences of Bn and Y''n ions. The identities of three unknown residues in the sequences were solved by a combination of derivatization with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), high-resolution mass spectrometry and H/D exchange. The nature and position of the cyclic structure were revealed by a chemoselective ring opening with Na18OH and was found to be a lactone formed between a hydroxyl of residue number 4 and the C-terminal amino acid number 12. For verification of the structure of the B2+ ion, peptides with different combinations of P/Q and P/K at the N-terminus were synthesized. The structures of the four peptides were found to be as follows: B1a/B2a, cyclo-4,12(P-Q-Y-HNLeu-A-E-T-Y-Orn-103-Y-I-OH); and B1b/B2b, cyclo-4,12(P-Q-Y-HNLeu-A-E-T-Y-K-103-Y-I-OH). Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparison of genetic variations of the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 genes among five ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Suhg; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Na, Han Sung; Koh, In Song; Chung, Myeon Woo; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2015-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP; gene symbol, SLCO) transporters are generally involved in the uptake of multiple drugs and their metabolites at most epithelial barriers. The pattern of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these transporters may be determinants of interindividual variability in drug disposition and response. The objective of this study was to define the distribution of SNPs of three SLCO genes, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1, in a Korean population and other ethnic groups. The study was screened using the Illumina GoldenGate assay for genomic DNA from 450 interethnic subjects, including 11 pharmacogenetic core variants and 76 HapMap tagging SNPs. The genotype distribution of the Korean population was similar to East Asian populations, but significantly different from African American and European American cohorts. These interethnic differences will be useful information for prospective studies, including genetic association and pharmacogenetic studies of drug metabolism by SLCO families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhalational botulism in rhesus macaques exposed to botulinum neurotoxin complex serotypes A1 and B1.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Daniel C; Barnewall, Roy E; Vassar, Michelle L; Niemuth, Nancy; Metcalfe, Karen; House, Robert V; Henderson, Ian; Shearer, Jeffry D

    2010-09-01

    A recombinant botulinum vaccine (rBV A/B) is being developed for protection against inhalational intoxication with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) complex serotype A, subtype A1 (BoNT/A1), and BoNT serotype B, subtype B1 (BoNT/B1). A critical component for evaluating rBV A/B efficacy will be the use of animal models in which the pathophysiology and dose-response relationships following aerosol exposure to well-characterized BoNT are thoroughly understood and documented. This study was designed to estimate inhaled 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) and to estimate 50% lethal exposure concentrations relative to time (LCt(50)) in rhesus macaques exposed to well-characterized BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1. During the course of this study, clinical observations, body weights, clinical hematology results, clinical chemistry results, circulating neurotoxin levels, and telemetric parameters were documented to aid in the understanding of disease progression. The inhaled LD(50) and LCt(50) for BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 in rhesus macaques were determined using well-characterized challenge material. Clinical observations were consistent with the recognized pattern of botulism disease progression. A dose response was demonstrated with regard to the onset of these clinical signs for both BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1. Dose-related changes in physiologic parameters measured by telemetry were also observed. In contrast, notable changes in body weight, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters were not observed. Circulating levels of BoNT/B1 were detected in animals exposed to the highest levels of BoNT/B1; however, BoNT/A1 was not detected in the circulation at any aerosol exposure level. The rhesus macaque aerosol challenge model will be used for future evaluations of rBV A/B efficacy against inhalational BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 intoxication.

  20. Studies on tridecaptin B(1), a lipopeptide with activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stephen A; Lohans, Christopher T; van Belkum, Marco J; Bels, Manon A; Vederas, John C

    2015-06-07

    Previously other groups had reported that Paenibacillus polymyxa NRRL B-30507 produces SRCAM 37, a type IIA bacteriocin with antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni. Genome sequencing and isolation of antimicrobial compounds from this P. polymyxa strain show that the antimicrobial activity is due to polymyxins and tridecaptin B1. The complete structural assignment, synthesis, and antimicrobial profile of tridecaptin B1 is reported, as well as the putative gene cluster responsible for its biosynthesis. This peptide displays strong activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a finding that is timely to the current problem of antibiotic resistance.

  1. A New Orbit for Comet C/1865 B1 (Great Southern Comet of 1865)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Comet C/1865 B1 (Great southern comet of 1865), observed only in the southern hemisphere, is one of a large number of comets with parabolic orbits. Given that there are 202 observations in right ascension and 165 in declination it proves possible to calculate a better orbit than that Körber published in 1887, the orbit used in various catalogs and data bases. C/1865 B1's orbit is hyperbolic and statistically distinguishable from a parabola. This object, therefore, cannot be considered an NEO. The comet has a small perihelion distance of 0.026 AU.

  2. Twitching motility and biofilm formation are associated with tonB1 in Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Cursino, Luciana; Li, Yaxin; Zaini, Paulo A; De La Fuente, Leonardo; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J

    2009-10-01

    A mutation in the Xylella fastidiosa tonB1 gene resulted in loss of twitching motility and in significantly less biofilm formation as compared with a wild type. The altered motility and biofilm phenotypes were restored by complementation with a functional copy of the gene. The mutation affected virulence as measured by Pierce's disease symptoms on grapevines. The role of TonB1 in twitching and biofilm formation appears to be independent of the characteristic iron-uptake function of this protein. This is the first report demonstrating a functional role for a tonB homolog in X. fastidiosa.

  3. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins.

  4. Modification of nanocellulose by poly-lysine can inhibit the effect of fumonisin B1 on mouse liver cells.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Ali; Yasini Ardakani, Seyed Ali; Shahdadi, Hossein; Balal Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 is an important mycotoxin, mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides. It has toxic effects on liver, brain, and kidney cells. The first aim of this study was to synthesize nanocellulose modified with poly-lysine (NMPL), and the second aim was to evaluate the adsorption of fumonisin B1 by NMPL. As third aim, the function of mouse liver cells was investigated after exposure to fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B1+ NMPL. In this study, NMPL was prepared using cross-linker, and then incubated with fumonisin B1 at controlled conditions. After incubation, the adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were evaluated in each condition. Next, mouse liver cells were separately exposed to fumonisin B1, NMPL, and (fumonisin B1+NMPL). Then, the level of aniline aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was evaluated. It was found that both adsorption and release of fumonisin B1 were not affected by temperature and incubation time, but affected by pH and concentration of NMPL. Also, this study showed NMPL could adsorb fumonisin B1 in different foodstuffs. Importantly, although the levels of ALT and AST were increased when the cells were treated with fumonisin B1 alone, they were not affected when exposed to NMPL or (fumonisin B1+NMPL). The authors suggest that NMPL is a good adsorbent to remove and inhibit fumonisin B1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing an aflatoxin B1 gene signature in rat archival tissues.

    PubMed

    Merrick, B Alex; Auerbach, Scott S; Stockton, Patricia S; Foley, Julie F; Malarkey, David E; Sills, Robert C; Irwin, Richard D; Tice, Raymond R

    2012-05-21

    Archival tissues from laboratory studies represent a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between genomic changes and agent-induced disease. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived from microarray data and associated with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used in the microarray study. The 14 genes evaluated were Adam8, Cdh13, Ddit4l, Mybl2, Akr7a3, Akr7a2, Fhit, Wwox, Abcb1b, Abcc3, Cxcl1, Gsta5, Grin2c, and the C8orf46 homologue. The qPCR FFPE liver results were compared to the original liver microarray data and to qPCR results using RNA from fresh frozen liver. Archival liver paraffin blocks yielded 30 to 50 μg of degraded RNA that ranged in size from 0.1 to 4 kB. qPCR results from FFPE and fresh frozen liver samples were positively correlated (p ≤ 0.05) by regression analysis and showed good agreement in direction and proportion of change with microarray data for 11 of 14 genes. All 14 transcripts could be amplified from FFPE kidney RNA except the glutamate receptor gene Grin2c; however, only Abcb1b was significantly upregulated from control. Abundant constitutive transcripts, S18 and β-actin, could be amplified from lung FFPE samples, but the narrow RNA size range (25-500 bp length) prevented consistent detection of target transcripts. Overall, a discrete gene signature derived from prior transcript profiling and representing cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and xenosensor and detoxication pathways was successfully applied to archival liver and kidney by qPCR and indicated that gene expression changes in response to subchronic AFB1 exposure occurred predominantly in the liver, the primary target for AFB1-induced

  6. Feasibility of detecting Aflatoxin B1 in single maize kernels using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feasibility of detecting Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in single maize kernel inoculated with Aspergillus flavus conidia in the field, as well as its spatial distribution in the kernels, was assessed using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique. Firstly, an image mask was applied to a pixel-b...

  7. 26 CFR 1.381(b)-1 - Operating rules applicable to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the purpose of winding up its affairs, paying its debts, and distributing any remaining balance of... DISTRIBUTION OR TRANSFER PURSUANT TO § 1.381(b)-1(b)(2),” and must include: [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF DISTRIBUTOR OR TRANSFEROR CORPORATION] AND [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER...

  8. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....410(b)-1(b)(2). (6) Integration with Social Security Act. See section 401(a)(5) and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to integration of plans with the Social Security Act. (7) Different age and..., all the employees of corporations or trades and businesses whose employees are treated as employed by...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2522(b)-1 - Charitable and similar gifts; nonresidents not citizens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charitable and similar gifts; nonresidents not... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(b)-1 Charitable and similar gifts; nonresidents not citizens. (a) The deduction for charitable and...

  10. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  11. Regression of Aflatoxin B1-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinomas by Reduced Glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novi, Anna M.

    1981-05-01

    Reduced glutathione administered to rats bearing aflatoxin B1-induced liver tumors caused regression of tumor growth and resulted in survival of the animals. Since glutathione is a harmless natural product, it merits further investigation as a potential antitumor drug for humans.

  12. Microbial Secondary Metabolite, Phlegmacin B1, as a Novel Inhibitor of Insect Chitinolytic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Tian; Duan, Yanwei; Lu, Xinhua; Yang, Qing

    2017-05-17

    Periodic chitin remodeling during insect growth and development requires a synergistic action of two glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family enzymes, GH18 chitinase and GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Inhibiting either or both of these enzymes is a promising strategy for pest control and management. In this study, OfChi-h (a GH18 chitinase) and OfHex1 (a GH20 Hex) from Ostrinia furnacalis were used to screen a library of microbial secondary metabolites. Phlegmacin B 1 was found to be the inhibitor of both OfChi-h and OfHex1 with K i values of 5.5 μM and 26 μM, respectively. Injection and feeding experiments demonstrated that phlegmacin B 1 has insecticidal effect on O. furnacalis's larvae. Phlegmacin B 1 was predicted to bind to the active pockets of both OfChi-h and OfHex1. Phlegmacin B 1 also showed moderate inhibitory activities against other bacterial and insect GH18 enzymes. This work provides an example of exploiting microbial secondary metabolites as potential pest control and management agents.

  13. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-1 - Maintenance of an inconsistent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or nonrecognition, as the case may be, in the year of the error, and (ii) such inconsistent position... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Maintenance of an inconsistent position. 1.1311....1311(b)-1 Maintenance of an inconsistent position. (a) In general. Under the circumstances stated in...

  14. 26 CFR 49.4262(b)-1 - Exclusion of certain travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be the average mileage of the established route traveled by the carrier between given points under... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exclusion of certain travel. 49.4262(b)-1... Exclusion of certain travel. (a) In general. Under section 4262(b) taxable transportation does not include...

  15. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid... enjoyed by members of the public. (b) Media correspondents holding valid Department of State press... the Department of State building. (c) Media correspondents, with or without a Department of State...

  16. Targeting Sulfotransferase (SULT) 2B1b as a Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Roswell Park shared resource to arrange for sample analysis. Determine requirements for analysis: Completed, several samples of LNCaP with siRNA-based...SULT2b1knocked down greater than 80% were submitted to The Roswell park shared resource for lipid analysis Cell lines used: wt  LNCaP,  VCaP

  17. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term in...

  18. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  19. Effect of the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1 on bread and pasta quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain protein concentration (GPC) affects wheat nutritional value and several critical parameters for bread and pasta quality. A gene designated Gpc-B1, which is not functional in common and durum wheat cultivars, was recently identified in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The functional allele o...

  20. Chemical and Toxicological Fate of Fumonisin B1 during Extrusion Processing of Corn Grits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two batches of flaking corn grits were prepared by growing Fusarium verticillioides to contain low and high levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1), Batch-1 at 9.7 ppm and Batch-2 at 50 ppm FB1 as determined by HPLC. These two batches were extruded (Batch-1E; Batch-2E) or extruded with 10% w/w glucose supplem...

  1. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid... enjoyed by members of the public. (b) Media correspondents holding valid Department of State press... the Department of State building. (c) Media correspondents, with or without a Department of State...

  2. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid... enjoyed by members of the public. (b) Media correspondents holding valid Department of State press... the Department of State building. (c) Media correspondents, with or without a Department of State...

  3. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid... enjoyed by members of the public. (b) Media correspondents holding valid Department of State press... the Department of State building. (c) Media correspondents, with or without a Department of State...

  4. 22 CFR 9b.1 - Press access to the Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUILDING PASSES § 9b.1 Press access to the Department of State. (a) Media correspondents without valid... enjoyed by members of the public. (b) Media correspondents holding valid Department of State press... the Department of State building. (c) Media correspondents, with or without a Department of State...

  5. 76 FR 6792 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B1; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B1; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings... announces the redesignations of three Federal buildings. DATES: Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires June 30, 2011. The building redesignations remain in effect until canceled or superseded by...

  6. 146. View of oil filter room in basement (Room B1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. View of oil filter room in basement (Room B-1) where oil used in lubrication in generator room is cleaned and recycled. The two tanks in the foreground each have capacities of 2,100 gallons. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  7. 17 CFR 270.30b1-5 - Quarterly report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30b1-5 Quarterly report. Every registered management investment company, other than a small business investment company registered on Form N-5 (§§ 239.... A registered management investment company that has filed a registration statement with the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.989(b)-1 Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate...

  9. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Export Trade Corporations § 1.989(b)-1 Definition of weighted average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted...

  10. In vivo metabolism of fumonisin B1 to N-acylated ceramide-like compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins found in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) metabolism to ceramide-like cytotoxic N-acylated FB1 (NAFB1) compounds has been shown in vitro, but in vivo metabolism has not been reported. Therefore, male Sprague-Dawley rats (2/group) were given 5 da...

  11. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting Aflatoxin B1 of maize kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The feasibility of detecting the Aflatoxin B1 in maize kernels inoculated with Aspergillus flavus conidia in the field was assessed using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique. After pixel-level calibration, wavelength dependent offset, the masking method was adopted to reduce the noise and ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.691(b)-1 - Allowance of deductions and credit in respect to decedents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income in Respect of Decedents § 1.691(b)-1..., and taxes described in sections 162, 163, 164, and 212 for which the decedent (or a prior decedent... to pay such obligation, as a deduction by the person who by bequest, devise, or inheritance from the...

  13. 17 CFR 270.34b-1 - Sales literature deemed to be misleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales literature deemed to be... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.34b-1 Sales literature deemed to be misleading. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter, or other sales literature addressed to or...

  14. 17 CFR 270.34b-1 - Sales literature deemed to be misleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales literature deemed to be... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.34b-1 Sales literature deemed to be misleading. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter, or other sales literature addressed to or...

  15. 17 CFR 270.34b-1 - Sales literature deemed to be misleading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales literature deemed to be... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.34b-1 Sales literature deemed to be misleading. Any advertisement, pamphlet, circular, form letter, or other sales literature addressed to or...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3302(b)-1 - Additional credit against tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional credit against tax. 31.3302(b)-1... credit against tax. (a) In general. In addition to the credit against the tax allowable for contributions... credit allowable against the tax for such year shall be the aggregate of the additional credits allowable...

  17. Pulmonary interstitial fibrosis with evidence of aflatoxin B1 in lung tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorackova, I.; Pichova, V.

    Three cases of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, two in agricultural workers and one in a textile worker, are reported. In lung samples of all three patients the presence of aflatoxin B1 was demonstrated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). A possible occupational risk of aflatoxin exposure via the respiratory tract is suggested.

  18. 26 CFR 1.50B-1 - Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee. (c) Trade or business expenses. The term “WIN expenses” includes only salaries and wages which... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. 1... INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-1 Definitions of...

  19. O2(b1∑+g) relaxation in active medium of oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstov, G. I.; Zagidullin, M. V.; Khvatov, N. A.; Medvedkov, I. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    Rate constants for the removal of O2 b1∑+g by collisions with O2, N2, CO2 and H2O have been determined at temperature 297 K. O2(b1 ∑+g) was excited by pulses from a tunable dye laser, and the deactivation kinetics were followed by observing the temporal behavior of the b1∑+g - X3∑-g fluorescence. The removal rate constants for CO2, N2 and H2O were not strongly dependent on temperature, and could be represented by the expressions kCO2=(1.8+/-0.05)×10-16 kN2=(2.2 +/- 0.2)×10-15, and kH2O=(6.12+/-0.67)×10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Rate constant for O2(b1∑+ ) removal by O2(X), being orders of magnitude lower, represented by the fitted expression kO2=(3.67 +/- 0.06)×10-17 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. All of the rate constants measured at room temperature were found to be in good agreement with previously reported values.

  20. 26 CFR 1.514(b)-1 - Definition of debt-financed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Example 2. X, an exempt college, owns a four story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. In 1971, the lower two stories of the building are used to house computers which are used by X... in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The gross income derived by X from the building is $6,000...

  1. 26 CFR 1.514(b)-1 - Definition of debt-financed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Example 2. X, an exempt college, owns a four story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. In 1971, the lower two stories of the building are used to house computers which are used by X... in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The gross income derived by X from the building is $6,000...

  2. 26 CFR 1.514(b)-1 - Definition of debt-financed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Example 2. X, an exempt college, owns a four story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. In 1971, the lower two stories of the building are used to house computers which are used by X... in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The gross income derived by X from the building is $6,000...

  3. 26 CFR 1.514(b)-1 - Definition of debt-financed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Example 2. X, an exempt college, owns a four story office building which has been purchased with borrowed funds. In 1971, the lower two stories of the building are used to house computers which are used by X... in section 514(b)(1) (A), (B), (C), or (D). The gross income derived by X from the building is $6,000...

  4. Role of TonB1 in pyoverdine-mediated signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Lamont, Iain L

    2009-09-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Uptake of ferripyoverdine in P. aeruginosa PAO1 occurs via the FpvA receptor protein and requires the energy-transducing protein TonB1. Interaction of (ferri)pyoverdine with FpvA activates pyoverdine gene expression in a signaling process involving the cytoplasmic-membrane-spanning anti-sigma factor FpvR and the sigma factor PvdS. Here, we show that mutation of a region of FpvA that interacts with TonB1 (the TonB box) prevents this signaling process, as well as inhibiting bacterial growth in the presence of the iron-chelating compound ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Signaling via wild-type FpvA was also eliminated in strains lacking TonB1 but was unaffected in strains lacking either (or both) of two other TonB proteins in P. aeruginosa, TonB2 and TonB3. An absence of pyoverdine-mediated signaling corresponded with proteolysis of PvdS. These data show that interactions between FpvA and TonB1 are required for (ferri)pyoverdine signal transduction, as well as for ferripyoverdine transport, consistent with a mechanistic link between the signaling and transport functions of FpvA.

  5. Role of TonB1 in Pyoverdine-Mediated Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Matt; Lamont, Iain L.

    2009-01-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Uptake of ferripyoverdine in P. aeruginosa PAO1 occurs via the FpvA receptor protein and requires the energy-transducing protein TonB1. Interaction of (ferri)pyoverdine with FpvA activates pyoverdine gene expression in a signaling process involving the cytoplasmic-membrane-spanning anti-sigma factor FpvR and the sigma factor PvdS. Here, we show that mutation of a region of FpvA that interacts with TonB1 (the TonB box) prevents this signaling process, as well as inhibiting bacterial growth in the presence of the iron-chelating compound ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Signaling via wild-type FpvA was also eliminated in strains lacking TonB1 but was unaffected in strains lacking either (or both) of two other TonB proteins in P. aeruginosa, TonB2 and TonB3. An absence of pyoverdine-mediated signaling corresponded with proteolysis of PvdS. These data show that interactions between FpvA and TonB1 are required for (ferri)pyoverdine signal transduction, as well as for ferripyoverdine transport, consistent with a mechanistic link between the signaling and transport functions of FpvA. PMID:19592589

  6. Selection and application of strand displacement probes for a fumonisin B1 aptamer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme, mainly on contaminated maize and maize products. In this study a solid surface chain displacement strategy was used to isolate oligonucleotide displacement probes for a FB1 aptamer. The probes were used as the basis for the development ...

  7. Reduction of fumonisin B1 in corn grits by twin-screw extrusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn and corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the most common, causes animal diseases and there is evidence suggesting that it increases the risk of certain cancers and birth defects in humans that are highly dependent on contaminated corn as a diet staple. There...

  8. Role of human and mouse HspB1 in metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, G M; Kaur, P; Asea, A

    2012-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a group of physiologically-essential, highly-conserved proteins that are induced by heat shock, as well as by other environmental and pathophysiological stressors. The twentyseven kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27; HspB1) is highly expressed in tumor tissues of patients diagnosed with cancer and expression levels correlate with poor prognosis. HspB1 plays a dual role in cancer and promotes both cancer development by suppressing host anti-cancer response, such as apoptosis and senescence, and facilitates the enhanced expression of metastastic genes. HspB1-mediated protection from tumor cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs occurs through several mechanisms, including decreased production of reactive oxygen species, restoration of protein homeostasis and promotion of cell survival by protein folding, stabilization of actin-cytoskeleton, delayed release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of activation of caspase-3. High levels of HSP expression affect tumor susceptibility to adjuvant cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, hyperthermia, and radiation. This review highlights the most recent findings and role of HspB1 in metastasis.

  9. Spiral MR fingerprinting at 7T with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    PubMed

    Buonincontri, Guido; Schulte, Rolf F; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting is an efficient, new approach for quantitative imaging with MR. We aimed to extend this technique to cases with B1+ inhomogeneities within the imaging volume. Previous approaches have used abrupt changes in flip angles to estimate the B1+ field simultaneously with T1 and T2, using a Cartesian approach in a small-animal scanner at 4.7T. Here, we evaluated whether a similar approach would be suitable for imaging human brains using spiral readouts with a 7T scanner. We found that our modified scheme could significantly reduce the adverse effects of B1+ inhomogeneities even in extreme cases, reducing both the bias and the variance in T2 estimations by an order of magnitude when compared to literature methods. Acquisitions used less than 1.5W/kg SAR and could be performed in 12s per slice. In conclusion, our approach can be used to perform quantitative imaging of the brain at 7T in a short time, simultaneously estimating the B1+ profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between water activity and temperature on the Aspergillus flavus transcriptome and aflatoxin B1 production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of Aspergillus flavus colonization of maize kernels under different water activity (aw; 0.99 and 0.91) and temperature (30 and 37°C) conditions on (a) aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production and (b) impacts on the transcriptome using RNAseq. This study...

  11. CYP1B1 and MYOC Mutations in Vietnamese Primary Congenital Glaucoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Do, Tan; Shei, William; Chau, Pham Thi Minh; Trang, Doan Le; Yong, Victor H K; Ng, Xiao Yu; Chen, Yue Ming; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga N

    2016-05-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, OMIM 231300), the most common glaucoma in infancy, is caused by developmental defects in the anterior chamber angle. The 3 implicated genes are cytochrome P450 family I subfamily B polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1), latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 2 (LTBP2), and myocilin (MYOC). In this study, we sought to determine CYP1B1 and MYOC sequence variations in a Vietnamese cohort of index cases with PCG and their families. Thirty Vietnamese subjects with PCG and 120 normal Vietnamese subjects were recruited. PCG was defined by the presence of at least 2 of the following clinical manifestations: increased corneal diameter (>10 mm at birth), corneal edema, Haab's striae, optic disc changes, and absence of other ocular or systemic diseases associated with childhood glaucoma. The coding exons, intron and exon boundaries, and untranslated regions of CYP1B1 and MYOC genes were PCR amplified and subjected to bidirectional sequencing in all subjects. We identified 2 homozygous and 3 heterozygous CYP1B1 sequence alterations in our study subjects. Among the 5 mutations identified, 2 (p.H279L and p.L283F) were novel mutations, whereas 3 (p.A121_S122insDRPAFA, p.L107V, and p.V320L) had been previously reported in PCG cases. None of these mutations was observed in any of the 120 controls. Haplotypes generated with 6 non-disease-causing intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms detected in CYP1B1 indicated that the most common haplotype in Vietnamese population is similar to that found in Chinese and Japanese. The genotype-phenotype correlation showed no significant difference between mutation and no-mutation groups for quantitative clinical features (presenting intraocular pressure, corneal diameter, number of surgeries performed, the cup-to-disc ratio) as well as for qualitative factors (bilateral cases, phenotype severity, and the prognosis) (P>0.05). Five out of 30 families with PCG (16.7%) had disease attributable to CYP1B1 alterations

  12. 17 CFR 270.30b1-1 - Semi-annual report for registered management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registered management investment companies. 270.30b1-1 Section 270.30b1-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....30b1-1 Semi-annual report for registered management investment companies. Every registered management... management investment company that has filed a registration statement with the Commission registering its...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records and...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records and...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records and...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records and...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other agencies. 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information... regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4). (d) Records and...

  18. The aflatoxin B1 -fumonisin B1 toxicity in BRL-3A hepatocytes is associated to induction of cytochrome P450 activity and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mary, Verónica S; Arias, Silvina L; Otaiza, Santiago N; Velez, Pilar A; Rubinstein, Héctor R; Theumer, Martín G

    2017-06-01

    Human oral exposure to aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is associated with increased hepatocellular carcinoma. Although evidence suggested interactive AFB 1 -FB 1 hepatotoxicity, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly unidentified. This work was aimed at evaluating the possible AFB 1 -FB 1 interplay to induce genetic and cell cycle toxicities in BRL-3A rat hepatocytes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) involvement, and the AFB 1 metabolizing pathways cytochrome P450 (CYP) and arachidonic acid (ArAc) metabolism as ROS contributors. Flow cytometry of stained BRL-3A hepatocytes was used to study the cell cycle (propidium iodide), ROS intracellular production (DCFH-DA, HE, DAF-2 DA), and phospholipase A activity (staining with bis-BODIPY FL C11-PC). The CYP1A activity was assessed by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. Despite a 48-h exposure to FB 1 (30 μM) not being genotoxic, the AFB 1 (20 μM)-induced micronucleus frequency was overcome by the AFB 1 -FB 1 mixture (MIX), presumably showing toxin interaction. The mycotoxins blocked G1/S-phase, but only MIX caused cell death. Overall, the oxidative stress led these alterations as the pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced such toxic effects. While AFB 1 had a major input to the MIX pro-oxidant activity, with CYP and ArAc metabolism being ROS contributors, these pathways were not involved in the FB 1 -elicited weak oxidative stress. The MIX-induced micronucleus frequency in N-acetyl-l-cysteine pretreated cells was greater than that caused by AFB 1 without antioxidants, suggesting enhanced AFB 1 direct genotoxicity probably owing to the higher CYP activity and ArAc metabolism found in MIX. The metabolic pathways modulation by AFB 1 -FB 1 mixtures could raise its hepatocarcinogenic properties. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analysis of fumonisin B1 removal by microorganisms in co-occurrence with aflatoxin B1 and the nature of the binding process.

    PubMed

    Pizzolitto, Romina P; Salvano, Mario A; Dalcero, Ana M

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT 1891 and Lactobacillus acidophilus 24 to remove fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) from liquid medium; to determine the nature of the mechanism involved in FB(1)-microorganism interaction and to analyze whether the presence of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) interferes with the removal of FB(1) and vice versa. The results obtained indicated that: (i) both microorganisms were able to remove FB(1) from liquid medium; (ii) the removal was a fast and reversible process; (iii) cell viability was not necessary; (iv) the amount of FB(1) removed was both toxin- and microorganism concentration-dependent; (v) the process did not involve chemical modification of FB(1) molecules; and (vi) cell wall structural integrity of the microorganisms was required for FB(1) removal. Consequently, we propose that the mechanism involved in the removal of FB(1) is a physical adsorption (physisorption) of the toxin molecule to cell wall components of the microorganisms. It is highly probable that FB(1) and AFB(1) co-occur in contaminated foods, since the fungal genera Aspergillus and Fusarium frequently occur simultaneously. Therefore, we analyzed whether the presence of AFB(1) interferes with the removal of FB(1) by the microorganisms previously evaluated, and vice versa. Studies of co-occurrence of both mycotoxins clearly showed that they did not compete for binding sites on the microorganism cell wall and the presence of one toxin did not modify the efficiency of the organism in the removal of the other mycotoxin. These findings may be useful for optimization of mycotoxin binding and provide an important contribution to research on microorganisms with ability to remove these secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A Theoretical Study of 8-Chloro-9-Hydroxy-Aflatoxin B1, the Conversion Product of Aflatoxin B1 by Neutral Electrolyzed Water

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo-González, René; Méndez-Albores, Abraham; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, René; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies of 8-chloro-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (2) were carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT). This molecule is the reaction product of the treatment of aflatoxin B1 (1) with hypochlorous acid, from neutral electrolyzed water. Determination of the structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the reaction product allowed its theoretical characterization. In order to elucidate the formation process of 2, two reaction pathways were evaluated—the first one considering only ionic species (Cl+ and OH−) and the second one taking into account the entire hypochlorous acid molecule (HOCl). Both pathways were studied theoretically in gas and solution phases. In the first suggested pathway, the reaction involves the addition of chlorenium ion to 1 forming a non-classic carbocation assisted by anchimeric effect of the nearest aromatic system, and then a nucleophilic attack to the intermediate by the hydroxide ion. In the second studied pathway, as a first step, the attack of the double bond from the furanic moiety of 1 to the hypochlorous acid is considered, accomplishing the same non-classical carbocation, and again in the second step, a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion. In order to validate both reaction pathways, the atomic charges, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were obtained for both substrate and product. The corresponding data imply that the C9 atom is the more suitable site of the substrate to interact with the hydroxide ion. It was demonstrated by theoretical calculations that a vicinal and anti chlorohydrin is produced in the terminal furan ring. Data of the studied compound indicate an important reduction in the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the target molecule, as demonstrated previously by our research group using different in vitro assays. PMID:27455324