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Sample records for a1bweak blood group

  1. Molecular blood grouping of donors.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    For many decades, hemagglutination has been the sole means to type blood donors. Since the first blood group gene cloning in the early 1990s, knowledge on the molecular basis of most red blood cell, platelet and neutrophil antigens brought the possibility of using nucleotide-based techniques to predict phenotype. This review will summarized methodologies available to genotype blood groups from laboratory developed assays to commercially available platforms, and how proficiency assays become more present. The author will also share her vision of the transfusion medicine future. The field is presently at the crossroads, bringing new perspectives to a century old practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Group Antibodies in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Doris; Nimrod, Carl

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective survey of the frequency, nature, and effect of blood group antibodies on obstetrical outcome was conducted over 4 years in a large community hospital. A total of 189 antibodies were identified in 165 patients. Twenty clinically significant outcomes occurred, including three stillbirths. All clinically significant cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn were caused by Rh antibodies. PMID:21229104

  3. A brief history of human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Farhud, Dariush D; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed.

  4. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  5. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (P<0.001). However, Rh type was not associated with brucellosis infection. Thus, there is a relationship between blood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  6. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai

    1980-01-01

    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  7. ABO blood groups and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Çildağ, Songül; Kara, Yasemin; Şentürk, Taşkın

    2017-12-01

    Various genetic and environmental risk factors have been shown to be associated with the incidence of rheumatic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases poorly understood. Several studies have shown associations of ABO blood groups with various diseases. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between the types of rheumatic diseases and ABO and Rh blood groups. The study included the patients, followed up at the Immunology-Rheumatology clinic between January 2016 and December 2016 for diagnosis of rheumatic disease, who had an ABO Rh blood data. Age, gender, type of rheumatic disease, ABO Rh blood groups were recorded. When 823 patients were assessed for blood types, 42.5% patients had A type, 33.2% had O type, 15.4% had B type, and 8.9% had AB type. There was significant difference in the distribution of blood types in rheumatic diseases. While SpA, vasculitis, UCTD, Behçet's and RA were more common in the patients with A blood type; FMF, SLE, SSc and SjS were more common in the patients with O blood type. In addition, the blood type where all the diseases are observed the least commonly was AB. There was significant difference in the distribution of Rh factor in rheumatic diseases. 92.2% patients were Rh positive and 7.8% patients were Rh negative. In our study, we thought that the higher incidence of different rheumatic diseases in different blood types was associated with different genetic predisposition.

  8. Blood cholinesterase levels in a group of Malaysian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Balabaskaran, S; Delilkan, A E; Ong, L H

    1994-12-01

    Data on blood cholinesterase levels in the Malaysian population is lacking. The spectrophotometric method of Ellman was used to determine the red cell, plasma and whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) levels in 407 Malaysian blood donors. The mean+1SD for plasma ChE in females (n = 48) was 2.37 + 0.70 umol/min/ml and 2.76 + 0.75 umol/min/ml in males (n = 359). The mean plasma ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.001). The mean+1SD for red cell ChE in females was 9.01 + 1.20 umol/min/ml whereas in males it was 7.69 +1.30 umol/min/ml (the mean red cell ChE in females was higher than in males, p < 0.0001). The mean+1SD for whole blood ChE for females was 4.31+ 0.58 umol/min/ml and for males it was 4.95 + 0.71 umol/min/ml. The mean whole blood ChE in males was higher than in females (p < 0.0001). Sex influenced the plasma, red cell and whole blood ChE. In males the plasma ChE was affected by the race factor. The mean+1SD plasma ChE for the Malay, Chinese and Indian were 2.92 + 0.80, 2.73 + 0.71 and 2.61+ 0.73 respectively (p < 0.002). The age factor in males affected the red cell ChE with 7.88 + 1.32 in the (30-69) age group and 7.47 + 1.23 in the (15-29) age group (p < 0.005). The whole blood ChE in females was affected by blood groups. The mean+1SD whole blood ChE for blood groups A,B and O were 4.19 + 0.42, 3.93 + 0.46 and 4.49 + 0.62 respectively (p < 0.03). The significant difference is between the ChE of group B and O, but the ChE of group A could not be determined to be different from group B or O. These results serve as guidelines for our local population in the evaluation of cholinesterase levels with regard to pesticide poisoning, liver biosynthetic capacity and unusual sensitivity to succinylcholine.

  9. A survey on blood group determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhika, K.; Sowjanya, S. J.; Ramya, T.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of blood group is an essential factor in critical conditions before performing blood transfer. At presently tests are conducted by lab technicians manually in the laboratory. When the test is done by technicians with large samples it becomes monotonous to do and sometimes it leads to incorrect results and even its time consuming to get the result. The research survey proposal is to reduce the physical work to identify the blood group with a paper-based device. The paper is having a long thermometer with two ends. By using this we can detect the blood type by changing the color of the paper. Chemical reactions between dye, Bromo creosol green, and blood serum proteins, were performed to test the blood sample. The paper becomes teal or brown color, depending on whether the association of antibodies and antigens are present. It gives the result within 30 seconds, which is quicker than traditional detection system. The tested blood sample had a good accuracy rate.

  10. Duffy Blood Group Genotyping in Thai Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Intharanut, Kamphon; Siriphanthong, Kanokpol; Nathalang, Siriporn; Kupatawintu, Pawinee

    2015-01-01

    Background Duffy (FY) blood group genotyping is important in transfusion medicine because Duffy alloantibodies are associated with delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. In this study, FY allele frequencies in Thai blood donors were determined by in-house PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), and the probability of obtaining compatible blood for alloimmunized patients was assessed. Methods Five hundred blood samples from Thai blood donors of the National Blood Centre, Thai Red Cross Society, were included. Only 200 samples were tested with anti-Fya and anti-Fyb using the gel technique. All 500 samples and four samples from a Guinea family with the Fy(a-b-) phenotype were genotyped by using PCR-SSP. Additionally, the probability of obtaining antigen-negative red blood cells (RBCs) for alloimmunized patients was calculated according to the estimated FY allele frequencies. Results The FY phenotyping and genotyping results were in 100% concordance. The allele frequencies of FY*A and FY*B in 500 central Thais were 0.962 (962/1,000) and 0.038 (38/1,000), respectively. Although the Fy(a-b-) phenotype was not observed in this study, FY*BES/FY*BES was identified by PCR-SSP in the Guinea family and was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Conclusions Our results confirm the high frequency of the FY*A allele in the Thai population, similar to that of Asian populations. At least 500 Thai blood donors are needed to obtain two units of antigen-negative RBCs for the Fy(a-b+) phenotype. PMID:26354350

  11. The Diego blood group system: a review.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    The Diego blood group system (DI) currently encompasses 22 antigens. Three of the antigens are of high prevalence and the other 19 are of low prevalence. The antigens of the Diego blood group system are carried on the erythroid band 3 protein anion exchanger 1 (AE1), the product of a single gene, SLC4A1 (solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1). AE1 is a member of a family of three anion exchangers or transporters expressed in a variety of tissues. This protein is involved in carbon dioxide transport from tissues to lungs. It is also found in the kidney,where it is involved in acid secretion. Antibodies to Diego system antigens with the exception of anti-Dia, -Dib, -Wra, -ELO and-DISK do not seem to be of clinical significance for transfusion or of importance in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

  12. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  17. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping...

  18. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping...

  19. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping...

  20. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping...

  1. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping...

  2. Human microbiota, blood group antigens, and disease.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Sumner, Susan C J

    2018-05-01

    Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia." Discovery and exploration of the brain-gut-microbiota axis have provided new insights into functional diseases of the gut, autoimmune and stress-related disorders, and the role of probiotics in treating certain affective disorders; it may even explain some aspects of autism. Research into dietary effects on the human gut microbiota led to its classification into three proposed enterotypes, but also revealed the surprising role of blood group antigens in shaping those populations. Blood group antigens have previously been associated with disease risks; their subsequent association with the microbiota may reveal mechanisms that lead to development of nutritional interventions and improved treatment modalities. Further exploration of associations between specific enteric microbes and specific metabolites will foster new dietary interventions, treatment modalities, and genetic therapies, and inevitably, their application in personalized healthcare strategies. This article is categorized under: Laboratory Methods and Technologies > Metabolomics Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine > Translational Medicine Physiology > Mammalian Physiology in Health

  3. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  4. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Suraya, Faryal; Jamil, Badar; Rouq, Fwziah Al; Meo, Anusha Sultan; Sattar, Kamran; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Alasiri, Saleh A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Knowledge", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "ABO blood type", "Rhesus" blood type and "breast cancer". The research documents in which "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded. Blood group "A" has high incidence of breast cancer (45.88%), blood group "O" has (31.69%); "B" (16.16%) and blood group "AB" has (6.27%) incidence of breast cancer. Blood group "A" has highest and blood group "AB" has least association with breast cancer. Furthermore, "Rhesus +ve" blood group has high incidence of breast cancer (88.31%) and "Rhesus -ve" blood group has least association with breast cancer (11.68%). Blood group "A" and "Rhesus +ve" have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type "AB" and "Rhesus -ve" are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group "A" and "Rh +ve" as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  5. Distribution of ABO Blood Groups and Coronary Artery Calcium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Zhou, Bing-Yang; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Liu, Geng; Dong, Qian; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-06-01

    ABO blood groups have been confirmed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease. However, whether ABO blood group is correlated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) is still unknown. 301 patients with coronary artery calcium score (CACS) assessed by computed tomography were consecutively enrolled and divided into two groups: with calcium group (CACS>0, n=104) and without calcium group (CACS=0, n=197). Distribution of ABO blood groups was evaluated between the two groups. The percentage of A blood type was significantly higher (p=0.008) and O blood type was significantly lower (p=0.037) in the calcium group. Univariate regression analysis showed that age, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, A blood type were positively correlated with CAC, and O blood type was inversely associated with CAC. Multivariate regression analysis showed that A blood type was independently associated with CAC (odds ratio: 2.217, 95% confidence interval: 1.260-3.900, p=0.006) even after further adjustment for variables that were clearly different between the two groups. Our data has suggested for the first time that A blood type was an independent risk marker for CAC. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is There an Association between Keloids and Blood Groups?

    PubMed

    Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Saka, Bayaki; Kombaté, Koussaké; Akakpo, Sefako; Egbohou, Palakiyem; Tchangaï-Walla, Kissem; Pitche, Palokinam

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible associations between the blood groups ABO and Rhesus systems and the presence of keloids in patients with black skin. Method. This case-control study was conducted between September 2007 and August 2011 comparing dermatologic outpatients with keloids to matched controls recruited in preanesthetic consultation at Tokoin Teaching Hospital of Lomé (Togo). Results. The distribution of different ABO blood groups and Rhesus blood groups in both groups (cases versus controls) was not significantly different. This distribution of different blood groups was superimposed on the general population of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Center of Lomé. Univariate analysis between each blood group and the presence of keloid does not yield any statistically significant association between blood groups and presence of keloids in the subjects. Conclusion. The study shows no significant association between blood groups and the presence of keloids in our patients. Further investigation needs to be conducted to elucidate this hypothesis further by conducting multicenter studies of several ethnic groups.

  7. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, R A; Simpson, M B; Rosse, W F

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined.

  8. ABO blood groups and malaria related clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Deepa; Alwar, Vanamala A; Rameshkumar, Karuna; Ross, Cecil

    2011-03-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate the blood groups and clinical presentations in malaria patients and to understand the differential host susceptibility in malaria. From October 2007 to September 2008, malaria positive patients' samples were evaluated in this study. Hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, and platelet count of each patient were done on an automated cell counter. After determining the blood groups, malarial species and the severity of clinical course were correlated. A total of 100 patients were included in the study, of which 63 cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and 37 cases were positive for P. vivax infection and 11 patients had mixed infection. The results of the blood groups showed 22 - 'A' group, 42 - 'B' group, 35 - 'O' group and 1 was 'AB' group. When the clinical courses between different groups were compared using the following parameters for severe infection--a parasitic load of >10/1000 RBCs, severe anemia with hemoglobin < 6 g%, platelet count of <10,000/mm3, hepato or splenomegaly or clinical signs of severe malaria such as fever >101°F and other organ involvement, it was observed that 'O' group had an advantage over other the groups. The difference in rosetting ability between red blood cells of different 'ABO' blood groups with a diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells was due to the differential host susceptibility. 'O' group had an advantage over the other three blood groups. Based on literature and the results of this study, the diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells is suggested as the basis for the differential host susceptibility.

  9. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Gandini, Giorgio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Skafidas, Spyros; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico

    2017-06-01

    Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. The study population consisted of 52 recreational, middle-aged, Caucasian athletes (mean age: 49±13 years, body mass index, 23.4±2.3 kg/m 2 ), regularly engaged in endurance activity. The athletes participated to a scientific event called "Run for Science" (R4S), entailing the completion of a 21.1 km (half-marathon) run under competing conditions. The ABO blood type status of the participants was provided by the local Service of Transfusion Medicine. In univariate analysis, running performance was significantly associated with age and weekly training, but not with body mass index. In multiple linear regression analysis, age and weekly training remained significantly associated with running performance. The ABO blood group status was also found to be independently associated with running time, with O blood type athletes performing better than those with non-O blood groups. Overall, age, weekly training and O blood group type explained 62.2% of the total variance of running performance (age, 41.6%; training regimen, 10.5%; ABO blood group, 10.1%). The results of our study show that recreational athletes with O blood group have better endurance performance compared to those with non-O blood group types. This finding may provide additional support to the putative evolutionary advantages of carrying the O blood group.

  10. ABO blood groups and psychiatric disorders: a Croatian study.

    PubMed

    Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Vuk, Tomislav; Ivezić, Ena; Jukić, Irena; Bingulac-Popović, Jasna; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-02-15

    The prevalence of ABO alleles is different in different populations, and many studies have shown a correlation between the occurrences of some diseases and different genotypes of ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between psychiatric syndromes and ABO blood groups. This case-control study involved 156 psychiatric patients and 303 healthy, unrelated, voluntary blood donors. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood on a QIAcube device using a QIAamp DNA Blood mini QIAcube kit. ABO genotyping on five basic ABO alleles was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Compared with healthy subjects, a significantly higher proportion of psychiatric patients had AB blood group (χ 2 =9.359, df=3, p=0.025) and, accordingly, a significantly higher incidence of A1B genotype (χ 2 =8.226, df=3, p=0.042). The odds ratio showed that psychiatric disorders occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other blood groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of ABO blood groups among patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Likewise, no correlations were found between ABO blood groups and other characteristics of the psychiatric patients (sex, psychiatric heredity, somatic comorbidity, suicidality). The results of this study support the hypothesis of an association between psychiatric disorders and ABO blood groups. The probability is that psychiatric disorders will occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other ABO blood groups in the Croatian population.

  11. A transcriptome-based examination of blood group expression

    PubMed Central

    Noh, S.-J.; Lee, Y.T.; Byrnes, C.; Miller, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades, red cell biologists witnessed a vast expansion of genetic-based information pertaining to blood group antigens and their carrier molecules. Genetic progress has led to a better comprehension of the associated antigens. To assist with studies concerning the integrated regulation and function of blood groups, transcript levels for each of the 36 associated genes were studied. Profiles using mRNA from directly sampled reticulocytes and cultured primary erythroblasts are summarized in this report. Transcriptome profiles suggest a highly regulated pattern of blood group gene expression during erythroid differentiation and ontogeny. Approximately one-third of the blood group carrier genes are transcribed in an erythroid-specific fashion. Low-level and indistinct expression was noted for most of the carbohydrate-associated genes. Methods are now being developed to further explore and manipulate expression of the blood group genes at all stages of human erythropoiesis. PMID:20685146

  12. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ABO blood groups, Rhesus negativity, and primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hamlyn, A. N.; Morris, J. S.; Sherlock, S.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of blood groups and Rhesus negativity in 91 British patients with primary biliary cirrhosis was compared with a sample of registered blood donors. There were no significant differences from the expected proportions calculated from the control groups. Although the number of cases studied is small the analysis does not confirm previous reports of an excess of A group in the disease. If a genetic basis exists for primary biliary cirrhosis alternative markers must be found. PMID:4211827

  14. Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Devanand

    2014-10-01

    Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen-antibody reactions in their bloodstream. To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I' (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique.

  15. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) and concomitantly, indicating the association of parasite invasion with the amount of H antigen present on the surface of erythrocyte. Thus, the question arises, could H antigen be involved in P. falciparum invasion? To evaluate erythrocyte invasion inhibition, 'O' group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-treated cultures and was found to be similar with the mean percent parasitemia demonstrated by the Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  16. Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

    PubMed

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Vukmirovic, Mihailo; Radojevic, Nemanja; Zornic, Nenad; Banzic, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Kostic, Dusan; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival. From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.220). Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.

  17. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D

    1983-03-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio.

  18. Red blood cell microparticles and blood group antigens: an analysis by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Canellini, Giorgia; Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Crettaz, David; Lion, Niels; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The storage of blood induces the formation of erythrocytes-derived microparticles. Their pathogenic role in blood transfusion is not known so far, especially the risk to trigger alloantibody production in the recipient. This work aims to study the expression of clinically significant blood group antigens on the surface of red blood cells microparticles. Material and methods Red blood cells contained in erythrocyte concentrates were stained with specific antibodies directed against blood group antigens and routinely used in immunohematology practice. After inducing erythrocytes vesiculation with calcium ionophore, the presence of blood group antigens was analysed by flow cytometry. Results The expression of several blood group antigens from the RH, KEL, JK, FY, MNS, LE and LU systems was detected on erythrocyte microparticles. The presence of M (MNS1), N (MNS2) and s (MNS4) antigens could not be demonstrated by flow cytometry, despite that glycophorin A and B were identified on microparticles using anti-CD235a and anti-MNS3. Discussion We conclude that blood group antigens are localized on erythrocytes-derived microparticles and probably keep their immunogenicity because of their capacity to bind specific antibody. Selective segregation process during vesiculation or their ability to elicit an immune response in vivo has to be tested by further studies. PMID:22890266

  19. [Association of abo blood groups with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Huidobro M, Andrea; Torres C, Demetrio; Paredes, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood systems are associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2). Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is a model to study DM. To study the association between GDM and ABO and Rhesus groups. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1,078 women who gave birth to a singleton in Talca Regional Hospital, Chile, during 2008. We analyzed personal, obstetric, medical data and ABO and Rh blood groups. GDM was diagnosed in 6.6% of women. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with GDM. There were no differences in Rh blood groups (p = 0.604), while ABO groups were different between GDM and controls. B antigen was present in 3% of GDM women and in 10.8% of controls (p = 0.037), with an odds ratio of 0.25 after adjusting for other associated risk factors (p = 0.06). ABO group is suggested as a possible protector marker for GDM.

  20. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group “A” and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  1. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  2. [Research advances of genomic GYP coding MNS blood group antigens].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Li; Zhao, Wei-Jun

    2012-02-01

    The MNS blood group system includes more than 40 antigens, and the M, N, S and s antigens are the most significant ones in the system. The antigenic determinants of M and N antigens lie on the top of GPA on the surface of red blood cells, while the antigenic determinants of S and s antigens lie on the top of GPB on the surface of red blood cells. The GYPA gene coding GPA and the GYPB gene coding GPB locate at the longarm of chromosome 4 and display 95% homologus sequence, meanwhile both genes locate closely to GYPE gene that did not express product. These three genes formed "GYPA-GYPB-GYPE" structure called GYP genome. This review focuses on the molecular basis of genomic GYP and the variety of GYP genome in the expression of diversity MNS blood group antigens. The molecular basis of Miltenberger hybrid glycophorin polymorphism is specifically expounded.

  3. Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2015-01-01

    The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.

  4. Presumed Group B Streptococcal Meningitis After Epidural Blood Patch.

    PubMed

    Beilin, Yaakov; Spitzer, Yelena

    2015-06-15

    Bacterial meningitis after epidural catheter placement is rare. We describe a case in which a parturient received labor epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery complicated by dural puncture. The patient developed postdural puncture headache and underwent 2 separate epidural blood patch procedures. She subsequently developed a headache with fever and focal neurologic deficits. She was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics for presumed meningitis, and she made a full recovery. Blood cultures subsequently grew group B streptococcus.

  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli blood group A interactions intensify diarrheal severity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Kuhlmann, F Matthew; Chakroborty, Subhra; Bourgeois, A Louis; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Tumala, Brunda; Vickers, Tim J; Sack, David A; DeNearing, Barbara; Harro, Clayton D; Wright, W Shea; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Ciorba, Matthew A; Santhanam, Srikanth; Porter, Chad K; Gutierrez, Ramiro L; Prouty, Michael G; Riddle, Mark S; Polino, Alexander; Sheikh, Alaullah; Donowitz, Mark; Fleckenstein, James M

    2018-05-17

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, that may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, have not been elucidated. We demonstrate that when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete a novel adhesin molecule, EtpA. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and non-canonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we also show that EtpA interacts specifically with glycans expressed on intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A individuals, and that EtpA-mediated bacterial-host interactions accelerate bacterial adhesion and the effective delivery both heat-labile and heat-stable toxins of ETEC. Collectively, these data provide additional insight into the complex molecular basis of severe ETEC diarrheal illness that may inform rational design of vaccines to protect those at highest risk.

  6. Glioblastoma and ABO blood groups: further evidence of an association between the distribution of blood group antigens and brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Hiasat, Mohammad Y; Al-Qaralleh, Mohammed A; Ababneh, Emad I

    2017-10-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumour that usually leads to death. Several studies have reported a link between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and a risk of developing specific types of cancer, although no consensus has been reached. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma. The study cohort consisted of 115 glioblastoma patients who were diagnosed at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between 2004 and 2015. Three different patient populations made up three control groups and these were selected from among patients at the same institution between 2014 and 2015 as follows: 3,847 healthy blood donors, 654 accidental trauma patients admitted to the Departments of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics, and 230 age- and sex-matched control subjects recruited blindly from the Departments of Paediatrics and Internal Medicine. There was a significant association between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma. Post hoc residual analysis revealed that individuals with group A had a higher than expected chance of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O had a lower than expected chance. Furthermore, individuals with group A were found to be at a 1.62- to 2.28-fold increased risk of developing glioblastoma compared to individuals with group O. In the present study, we demonstrate that, in Jordan, individuals with group A have an increased risk of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O have a reduced risk. These findings suggest that the distribution of ABO blood group antigens is associated with a risk of brain tumours and may play an important role in their development. However, further clinical and experimental investigations are required to confirm this association.

  7. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Romy M W; Mohamed, Abdulrahman B O; Pelkmans, Leonie; Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H Coenraad; de Laat, H Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII.

  8. Thrombin Generating Capacity and Phenotypic Association in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hindawi, Salwa; Hemker, H. Coenraad; de Laat, H. Bas; Huskens, Dana; Al Dieri, Raed

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. This could be explained by the lower levels of FVIII and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels in O individuals. We investigated the relationship between blood groups, thrombin generation (TG), prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. Plasma levels of VWF, FVIII, antithrombin, fibrinogen, prothrombin and α2Macroglobulin (α2M) levels were determined. TG was measured in platelet rich (PRP) and platelet poor plasma (PPP) of 217 healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. VWF and FVIII levels were lower (75% and 78%) and α2M levels were higher (125%) in the O group. TG is 10% lower in the O group in PPP and PRP. Less prothrombin was converted in the O group (86%) and the thrombin decay capacity was lower as well. In the O group, α2M plays a significantly larger role in the inhibition of thrombin (126%). In conclusion, TG is lower in the O group due to lower prothrombin conversion, and a larger contribution of α2M to thrombin inactivation. The former is unrelated to platelet function because it is similar in PRP and PPP, but can be explained by the lower levels of FVIII. PMID:26509437

  9. Molecular genotyping of Indian blood group system antigens in Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Gogri, Harita; Pitale, Pranali; Madkaikar, Manisha; Kulkarni, Swati

    2018-04-11

    Haemagglutination has been the gold standard for defining the blood group status. However, these tests depend upon the availability of specific and reliable antisera. Potent antisera for extended phenotyping are very costly, weakly reacting or available in limited stocks and unavailable for some blood group systems like Indian, Dombrock, Coltan, Diego etc. The Indian blood group system consists of two antithetical antigens, In a and In b . The In a /In b polymorphism arises from 252C > G missense mutation in the CD44 gene. This knowledge has allowed the development of molecular methods for genotyping IN alleles. Blood samples were collected from 715 blood donors from Mumbai. DNA was extracted using phenol-chloroform method and genotyping for Indian (In a /IN*01, In b /IN*02) blood group alleles was done by Sequence Specific PCR. Seventeen donors among 715 were heterozygous for In a antigen i.e. In (a+b+). The In a antigen positivity was confirmed serologically, using anti-In a prepared in-house and the genotype-phenotype results were concordant. The frequency of In a (2.37%) was higher than Caucasians and comparable to those reported among Indians of Bombay. This is the first study reporting molecular screening of Indian blood group antigens in Indian population. The frequency of In a and In b antigens was found to be 2.37% and 100% respectively. Red cells of In a positive donors can be used as in-house reagent red cells for screening and identification of corresponding antibodies. Thus, DNA based methods will help in large scale screening of donors to identify rare blood groups, when commercial antisera are unavailable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    PubMed

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system...

  16. [Detection and analysis of anti-Rh blood group antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-jun; Wu, Yong; Chen, Bao-chan; Liu, Yan

    2008-06-01

    To study the prevalence and distribution of anti-Rh blood group antibodies in Chinese population and its clinical significance. Irregular antibodies were screened and identified by Microcolum Gel Coomb's test. For those identified as positive anti-Rh samples, monoclonal antibodies (anti-D, -C, -c, -E and -e) were used to identify the specific antigen and confirm the accuracy of the irregular antibody tests. The titers, Ig-types and 37 Degrees Celsius-reactivity were tested to confirm its clinical significance. For evaluation of the origin of irregular antibodies, histories of pregnancy and transfusion were reviewed. For the newborns who had positive antibodies, their mothers were tested simultaneously to confirm the origin of the antibodies. 47 out of 54 000 (0.087%) patients were identified as positive with Rh blood group antibodies.Of them, 27 cases had history of pregnancy, 13 had transfusion and 1 had the histories of both. 6 newborns had antibodies derived form their mothers. The specificity of the antibody was as follows: 29 with anti-E (61.70%), 8 with anti-D (17.02%), anti-cE 5(10.64%), 4 with anti-c (8.51%) and 1 with anti-C (2.13%). All the 47 Rh blood group antibodies were IgG or IgG+IgM, and were reactive to red blood cells with corresponding antigens at 37 Degrees Celsius, with a highest titer of 1:4 096. The prevalence of Rh antibodies is lower in Chinese population as compared with that in White population.Of all the antibodies, anti-E is most frequently identified and anti-D was declining. Alloimmunization by pregnancy and transfusion is the major cause of Rh antibody production. Rh blood group antibodies derived from mothers are the major cause of Non-ABO-HDN.

  17. An ABO blood grouping discrepancy: Probable B(A) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Anubhav; Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2017-06-01

    In B(A) phenotype, an autosomal dominant phenotype, there is a weak A expression on group B RBCs. We herein report a case of a probable B(A) phenotype in a first time 20-year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card (Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland). The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. The cell grouping was A weak B RhD positive while the serum grouping was B. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. It was a group II ABO discrepancy with or without group IV discrepancy. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. One lot of anti-A was showing 'weak +' agglutination while the other lot was showing 'negative' reaction with the donor RBCs by tube technique. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin. Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B(A) phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The prognostic value of ABO blood group in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system are expressed on red blood cell membranes as well as on the surface of several other normal and pathological cells and tissues. Following the first clinical observations more than 60 years ago, the role of ABO blood group in cancer biology has been intensely studied by several investigators, and it is now widely recognised that ABO antigens are associated with the risk of developing several types of tumours, namely pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether this association also affects the clinical outcome of cancer patients is less certain. In this narrative review, based on literature data, we discuss the role of ABO blood types as prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the association is also analysed. PMID:26674825

  19. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  20. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  1. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman origin...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman origin...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman origin...

  4. ABO blood group and vascular disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Sironi, Anna Paola; Ageno, Walter; Crestani, Silvia; Franchini, Massimo

    2014-02-01

    It has been well known for many years that the ABO blood group has a major influence on hemostasis, through its influence on von Willebrand factor and, consequently, factor VIII plasma levels. Although the relationship between non-O blood type and the risk of venous thromboembolism is nowadays also well established, the association with arterial thrombotic events (i.e., myocardial infarction [MI] and ischemic stroke) is less well characterized. To elucidate the latter issue, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. After an electronic search strategy using MEDLINE and EMBASE and a manual review of abstract books of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis and of reference lists of all retrieved articles, 28 studies were finally included in our systematic review. The prevalence of non-O blood group was significantly higher in patients with MI (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.40; p < 0.001) and ischemic stroke (pooled OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.35; p = 0.03) than in controls. The restriction of the analysis to high quality studies only confirmed the association with MI (pooled OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.32) but not with ischemic stroke (pooled OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.94-1.74). In conclusion, the results of our meta-analysis confirm the existing literature evidence of a weak association between non-O blood group and vascular arterial thrombosis, in particular myocardial ischemia. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups in some population groups from India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sabita; Gorakshakar, Ajit C; Vasantha, K; Nadkarni, Anita; Italia, Yazdi; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2014-01-01

    Indian population is characterized by the presence of various castes and tribal groups. Various genetic polymorphisms have been used to differentiate among these groups. Amongst these, the ABO blood group system has been extensively studied. There is no information on molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups from India. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to characterize the common A, B and O alleles by molecular analysis in some Indian population groups. One hundred samples from the mixed population from Mumbai, 101 samples from the Dhodia tribe and 100 samples from the Parsi community were included in this study. Initially, the samples were phenotyped by standard serologic techniques. PCR followed by single strand conformational polymorphsim (SSCP) was used for molecular ABO genotyping. Samples showing atypical SSCP patterns were further analysed by DNA sequencing to characterize rare alleles. Seven common ABO alleles with 19 different genotypes were found in the mixed population. The Dhodias showed 12 different ABO genotypes and the Parsis revealed 15 different ABO genotypes with six common ABO alleles identified in each of them. Two rare alleles were also identified. This study reports the distribution of molecular genotypes of ABO alleles among some population groups from India. Considering the extremely heterogeneous nature of the Indian population, in terms of various genotype markers like blood groups, red cell enzymes, etc., many more ABO alleles are likely to be encountered.

  6. Molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups in some population groups from India

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sabita; Gorakshakar, Ajit C.; Vasantha, K.; Nadkarni, Anita; Italia, Yazdi; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Indian population is characterized by the presence of various castes and tribal groups. Various genetic polymorphisms have been used to differentiate among these groups. Amongst these, the ABO blood group system has been extensively studied. There is no information on molecular genotyping of ABO blood groups from India. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to characterize the common A, B and O alleles by molecular analysis in some Indian population groups. Methods: One hundred samples from the mixed population from Mumbai, 101 samples from the Dhodia tribe and 100 samples from the Parsi community were included in this study. Initially, the samples were phenotyped by standard serologic techniques. PCR followed by single strand conformational polymorphsim (SSCP) was used for molecular ABO genotyping. Samples showing atypical SSCP patterns were further analysed by DNA sequencing to characterize rare alleles. Results: Seven common ABO alleles with 19 different genotypes were found in the mixed population. The Dhodias showed 12 different ABO genotypes and the Parsis revealed 15 different ABO genotypes with six common ABO alleles identified in each of them. Two rare alleles were also identified. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports the distribution of molecular genotypes of ABO alleles among some population groups from India. Considering the extremely heterogeneous nature of the Indian population, in terms of various genotype markers like blood groups, red cell enzymes, etc., many more ABO alleles are likely to be encountered. PMID:24604045

  7. Molecular basis of the Duffy blood group system

    PubMed Central

    Höher, Gabriela; Fiegenbaum, Marilu; Almeida, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    ACKR1, located on chromosome 1q23.2, is the gene that encodes a glycoprotein expressing the Duffy blood group antigens. This gene is transcribed in two mRNA variants yielding two isoforms, encoding proteins with 338 and 336 amino acids. This review provides a general overview of the Duffy blood group to characterise and elucidate the genetic basis of this system. The Fya and Fyb antigens are encoded by co-dominant FY*A (FY*01) and FY*B (FY*02) alleles, which differ by c.125G>A (rs12075), defining the Fy(a+b−), Fy(a−b+) and Fy(a+b+) phenotypes. The Fy(a−b−) phenotype that occurs in Africans provides an explanation for the apparent absence of Plasmodium vivax in this region: this phenotype arises from homozygosity for the FY*B allele carrying a point mutation c.1-67T>C (rs2814778), which prevents Fyb antigen expression only in red blood cells. The same mutation has also been found on the FY*A allele, but it is very rare. The Fy(a−b−) phenotype in Europeans and Asians arises from mutations in the coding region of the FY*A or FY*B allele, preventing Duffy antigen expression on any cell in the body and thus are true Duffy null phenotypes. According to the International Society for Blood Transfusion, ten alleles are associated with the null expression of the Fy antigens. Furthermore, different allelic forms of FY*B modify Fyb antigen expression, which may result in very weak or equivocal serology results. The mostly common found variants, c.265C>T (rs34599082) and c.298G>A (rs13962) -previously defined in combination only with the FY*B allele - have already been observed in the FY*A allele. Thus, six alleles have been recognised and associated with weak expression of the Fy antigens. Considering the importance of the Duffy blood group system in clinical medicine, additional studies via molecular biology approaches must be performed to resolve and clarify the discrepant results that are present in the erythrocyte phenotyping. PMID:28151395

  8. Molecular basis of the Duffy blood group system.

    PubMed

    Höher, Gabriela; Fiegenbaum, Marilu; Almeida, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    ACKR1, located on chromosome 1q23.2, is the gene that encodes a glycoprotein expressing the Duffy blood group antigens. This gene is transcribed in two mRNA variants yielding two isoforms, encoding proteins with 338 and 336 amino acids. This review provides a general overview of the Duffy blood group to characterise and elucidate the genetic basis of this system. The Fy a and Fy b antigens are encoded by co-dominant FY*A (FY*01) and FY*B (FY*02) alleles, which differ by c.125G>A (rs12075), defining the Fy(a+b-), Fy(a-b+) and Fy(a+b+) phenotypes. The Fy(a-b-) phenotype that occurs in Africans provides an explanation for the apparent absence of Plasmodium vivax in this region: this phenotype arises from homozygosity for the FY*B allele carrying a point mutation c.1-67T>C (rs2814778), which prevents Fy b antigen expression only in red blood cells. The same mutation has also been found on the FY*A allele, but it is very rare. The Fy(a-b-) phenotype in Europeans and Asians arises from mutations in the coding region of the FY*A or FY*B allele, preventing Duffy antigen expression on any cell in the body and thus are true Duffy null phenotypes. According to the International Society for Blood Transfusion, ten alleles are associated with the null expression of the Fy antigens. Furthermore, different allelic forms of FY*B modify Fy b antigen expression, which may result in very weak or equivocal serology results. The mostly common found variants, c.265C>T (rs34599082) and c.298G>A (rs13962) -previously defined in combination only with the FY*B allele - have already been observed in the FY*A allele. Thus, six alleles have been recognised and associated with weak expression of the Fy antigens. Considering the importance of the Duffy blood group system in clinical medicine, additional studies via molecular biology approaches must be performed to resolve and clarify the discrepant results that are present in the erythrocyte phenotyping.

  9. Paper-based device for rapid typing of secondary human blood groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaosi; Then, Whui Lyn; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of bioactive paper for typing of secondary human blood groups. Our recent work on using bioactive paper for human blood typing has led to the discovery of a new method for identifying haemagglutination of red blood cells. The primary human blood groups, i.e., ABO and RhD groups, have been successfully typed with this method. Clinically, however, many secondary blood groups can also cause fatal blood transfusion accidents, despite the fact that the haemagglutination reactions of secondary blood groups are generally weaker than those of the primary blood groups. We describe the design of a user-friendly sensor for rapid typing of secondary blood groups using bioactive paper. We also present mechanistic insights into interactions between secondary blood group antibodies and red blood cells obtained using confocal microscopy. Haemagglutination patterns under different conditions are revealed for optimization of the assay conditions.

  10. Frequency of different blood groups and its association with BMI and blood pressure among the female medical students of Faisalabad.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Shireen; Zia, Sadaf; Tariq, Sundus

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of different blood groups among female medical students and to find the association of blood groups and body mass index with blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was performed at the University Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from March to April 2016, and comprised female medical students. Participants were divided into groups on the basis of their ABO blood groups and on body mass index criteria. Blood groups were determined by simple conventional slide method. Blood pressure was estimated by manual auscultatory technique with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Data was analysed usingSPSS20. There were 145 students with an overall mean age of18.4±0.75 years (range: 17-23 years). Blood group B was the predominant group 65(44.8%). Besides, 130(89.6%) subjects were rhesus positive and 23(53%) subjects of blood group O were pre-hypertensive. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant positive association of blood group O with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002, 0.001). However, subsequent logistic regression showed significant association only with diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001). Relative risk of pre-hypertension for obese (p=0.001) was greater than non-obese subjects. Body mass index was significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.004, 0.042). Blood group B was the most common blood group. Blood group O was associated with diastolic pre-hypertension, while body mass index was associated with both systolic and diastolic pre-hypertension.

  11. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  12. HEMOLYSIS AND HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA IN ABO BLOOD GROUP HETEROSPECIFIC NEONATES

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Michael; Hammerman, Cathy; Vreman, Hendrik J; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K

    2010-01-01

    Objective We quantified hemolysis and determined the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in direct antiglobulin titer (DAT) positive, ABO heterospecific neonates and compared variables among O-A and O-B subgroups. Study design Plasma total bilirubin (PTB) was determined predischarge and more frequently if clinically warranted, in DAT positive, blood group A or B neonates of group O mothers. Heme catabolism (and therefore bilirubin production) was indexed by blood carboxyhemoglobin corrected for inspired carbon monoxide (COHbc). Hyperbilirubinemia was defined as any PTB concentration >95th percentile on the hour-of-life-specific bilirubin nomogram. Results Of 164 neonates, 111 were O-A and 53 O-B. Overall, 85 (51.8%) developed hyperbilirubinemia, which tended to be more prevalent in the O-B than O-A neonates (62.3% vs. 46.8% respectively, p=0.053). Importantly, more O-B than O-A newborns developed hyperbilirubinemia at <24 hours (93.9% vs. 48.1%, p<0.0001). COHbc values were globally higher than our previously published newborn values. Babies who developed hyperbilirubinemia had higher COHbc values than the already high values of those non-hyperbilirubinemic, and O-B newborns tended to have higher values than O-A counterparts. Conclusions DAT positive, ABO heterospecificity is associated with increased hemolysis and a high incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. O-B heterospecificity tends to confer even higher risk than O-A counterparts. PMID:20598320

  13. JAL (RH48) blood group antigen: serologic observations

    PubMed Central

    Lomas-Francis, Christine; Alcantara, Denden; Westhoff, Connie; Uehlinger, Joan; Valvasori, Marilia; Castilho, Lillian; Reid, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND JAL (RH48) is a low-prevalence antigen in the Rh blood group system and anti-JAL has caused hemolytic disease of the newborn. JAL is associated with either a haplotype carrying depressed C and e antigens or one carrying depressed c and e antigens. Blood samples from JAL+ people were tested, published serologic findings were confirmed, serologic studies were extended to include expression of other Rh antigens, and the antibody specificities produced by three sensitized JAL+ probands are reported. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Red blood cell (RBC) samples from 17 (12 probands) JAL+ persons were tested by hemagglutination using standard methods. RESULTS RBCs from both the Caucasian JAL+ probands had the (C)(e) haplotype and weakened C, e, hrB, and hrS antigens. JAL+ samples from black persons had the (c)(e) haplotype and expressed weakened c, e, f, V, VS, hrB, and hrS antigens. Plasma from three sensitized c+e+ JAL+ probands contained alloanti-c, alloanti-e, or alloantibody of apparent anti-Rh17 specificity. This study shows that this alloanti-Rh17–like antibody recognizes the high-prevalence antigen antithetical to JAL that has been named CEST. CONCLUSIONS The presence of the JAL antigen has a quantitative (weakening) effect on the expression of C, e, hrB, and hrS antigens in Caucasian persons and of c, e, f, V, VS, hrB, and hrS antigens in people of black African ancestry. A qualitative effect also was demonstrated by the presence of alloanti-c or alloanti-e in the plasma of two transfused c+e+ patients and by an antibody (anti-CEST) that recognizes the high-prevalence antigen antithetical to JAL. PMID:19192256

  14. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  15. Relationship between ABO blood groups and head and neck cancer among Greek patients.

    PubMed

    Kakava, Kassiani; Karelas, Ioannis; Koutrafouris, Ioannis; Damianidis, Savvas; Stampouloglou, Paulos; Papadakis, Georgios; Xenos, Antonios; Krania, Foteini; Sarof, Paulos; Tasopoulos, Georgios; Petridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers. 195 diagnosed cases and 801 controls were selected from a Greek tertiary cancer center. Information regarding type of head and neck cancer and ABO blood group was collected and registered. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by A, B and AB among the controls, whereas blood group A followed by O, B and AB was most prevalent among cancer patients. The difference among the distribution between the cases and controls was statistically significant in blood group A (p<0.05), whereas blood group A had 1.52-fold higher risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to people of other blood groups. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of head and neck cancers.

  16. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  17. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Meo, S A; Rouq, F A; Suraya, F; Zaidi, S Z

    2016-01-01

    The phenotypic "ABO" blood groups are inherited antigenic substances which are found on the surface of red blood cells in addition to other tissues. Certain hypothesis advocates that genetic predisposition like "ABO" blood group would be associated with occurrence of diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with type 2 diabetes. We identified 47 research documents in a data based search including ISI-Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed. Literature was explored using the key terms including "ABO blood groups" "type 2 diabetes". Studies in which "ABO" blood types and diabetes mellitus were discussed included without restrictions of research documents, types, status and language of the publications. Finally, 15 publications which matched our criteria were included, and remaining studies were excluded. Blood group "B" was associated with high incidence of type 2 diabetes and blood group "O" has a minimum association with type 2 diabetes. Blood group "A" and "AB" were almost equally distributed in both diabetic and non-diabetic population. However, we were unable to find an association between "Rh+ve" and "Rh-ve" blood groups with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with blood group "B" are at high risk while individuals with blood group "O" are at low peril of evolving type 2 diabetes. It is suggested that subjects with blood group "B" should be closely monitored by physicians as these subjects have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  18. ABO and Rh blood group genotypes in a cohort of Saudi stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, M; Jawdat, D; Alaskar, A; Cereb, N; Hajeer, A H

    2018-04-01

    The ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are the most frequently studied genetic markers in a large group of people. Blood type frequencies vary in different racial/ethnic groups. Our objective was to investigate the distribution of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups by molecular typing method in a population of Saudi stem cell donors. Our data indicate that the most common blood group in our population is group O followed by group A then group B, and finally, the least common is group AB. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  20. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.

    1986-05-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with ..beta..-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked ..beta..1-4more » to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAc..beta..1-4(NeuAc..cap alpha..2-3)Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc..beta..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside.« less

  1. Fingerprints as an Alternative Method to Determine ABO and Rh Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sonam; Deuja, Sajana; Alam, Munna; Karmacharya, Poonam; Mondal, Monami

    2017-01-01

    Blood grouping is conventionally done with invasive method by taking blood samples. The objective of this study is to determine blood group with uninvasive procedure by taking fingerprints of the participants and know the associations between their fingerprints and blood groups. Seven hundred participants of both genders with no any age limitation from Manipal Teaching Hospital and Manipal College of Medical Sciences were randomly selected. The blood grouping was done by cross reacting blood sample with the antibodies. The fingerprints were taken with the help of stamp pad imprinting the finger ridges over A4 size white papers. The loop, whorl and arch patterns were studied. O+ve blood group 224 (32%) was most prevalent among 700 participants. The loop pattern was highly distributed 3708 (53%) in all blood groups except in A-ve blood group with highest distribution of whorl 20 (40%). The mean comparisons of specific fingerprint in total and also in individual fingers with different ABO and ABO-Rh blood groups showed no any statistical association with P>0.05. However, the loop distribution in individual finger was highest in right middle finger (M) of B-ve blood group 5 (10%). The whorl distribution in individual finger was highest in right index (I), left thumb (T) and left ring (R) fingers of AB+ve blood group 20 (5.5% each). Similarly, the arch distribution was highest in right index fingers of A-ve blood group 3 (6%). The mean comparison of different fingerprints with ABO and Rh blood groups showed no significant statistical association concluding fingerprints cannot be used for blood grouping.

  2. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  3. Frequency of ABO/Rhesus Blood Groups in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Oner, Can; Dogan, Burcu; Telatar, Berrin; Celik Yagan, Canan Fidan; Oguz, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between ABO/Rh blood groups and diabetes mellitus is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ABO/Rhesus blood groups and diabetes in Turkish population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Istanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Education and Training Hospital's Diabetes Units. The study group was composed of 421 patients with type-1 diabetes, 484 patients with type-2 diabetes and 432 controls. Blood samples were collected and tested for ABO/Rhesus blood groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17.0. A significant association was found between blood groups and diabetes mellitus. The frequency of AB blood group was significantly higher in type-1 diabetics; and A blood group was significantly higher in type-2 diabetics. Furthermore, Rh negativity were significantly more frequent in type-2 diabetics.

  4. Study on ABO and RhD blood grouping: Comparison between conventional tile method and a new solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit).

    PubMed

    Yousuf, R; Abdul Ghani, S A; Abdul Khalid, N; Leong, C F

    2018-04-01

    'InTec Blood Grouping Test kit' using solid-phase technology is a new method which may be used at outdoor blood donation site or at bed side as an alternative to the conventional tile method in view of its stability at room temperature and fulfilled the criteria as point of care test. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of this solid phase method (InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit) with the conventional tile method in determining the ABO and RhD blood group of healthy donors. A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard. For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively. The 'InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.

  5. [Hypertension in Dutch and English ethnic minorities. Blood pressure better controlled in English groups than in Dutch groups].

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton E; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William K; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    To compare blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension in white Dutch and Dutch of Suriname-hindustani and Suriname-creole ethnic derivation with corresponding ethnic minority groups in England and to assess the quality of hypertension treatment in these groups. Retrospective; comparison of cross-sectional studies. Secondary analyses were performed on data from 3 population-based studies with 13,999 participants in total of European, African of South-Asian origin from England and the Netherlands. English South-Asian men and women had lower blood pressure and lower prevalence of hypertension than people of South-Asian origin in the Netherlands (Suriname-hindustani), except for systolic blood pressure in men of Indian extraction in England. There was no difference in systolic blood pressure between groups of African origin in the Netherlands and England. Diastolic blood pressure levels, however, were lower in English men and women of African origin than in people of African origin in the Netherlands (Suriname-creole). White Dutch had higher systolic blood pressure levels, but lower diastolic blood pressure levels than white English men and women. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension between the white groups. In persons being treated for hypertension, a substantially lower percentage of the Suriname-hindustani and Suriname-creole persons in the Netherlands had well controlled blood pressure (lower than 140/90 mmHg) than their English equivalents, with the exception of English of Indian extraction. There were marked differences in blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension between comparable ethnic groups in England and the Netherlands. The relatively poor blood pressure control in Dutch ethnic minority groups partly explained the relatively high blood pressure levels in these groups.

  6. ABO blood group and risk of cancer: A register-based cohort study of 1.6 million blood donors.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nyrén, Olof; Ullum, Henrik; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pawitan, Yudi; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-10-01

    The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. We estimated associations between different ABO blood groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Cheiloscopic Patterns and ABO Blood Groups among South Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Khanapure, Sneha; Suhas, H G; Potdar, Shrudha; Sam, George; Sudeep, C B; Arjun, M R

    2017-07-01

    Human beings have few characteristics that are unique from others. Lip prints are one of such feature. They are not changed throughout the life and are not influenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. According to the various antigen-antibody reactions in the bloodstream, different individuals have specific blood groups. To study the distribution of lip print patterns among individuals with different ABO and Rh blood groups and also to know the relation between their characters and blood groups. In the present study, lip prints were collected randomly from 85 individuals, and their blood group matching was performed. This is to identify the most common lip print type and to know any association between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of lip prints was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. It was observed that in individuals with B+, A+, and O- blood groups, predominant pattern was Type IV and individuals having blood group O+ and AB+ common lip print pattern was Type II. This study showed strong association between lip print patterns and ABO blood groups as some blood groups were not included in statistical analysis; further studies including larger sample are essential to substantiate the results. Correlating lip print with blood group helps in identification of the suspects. Along with lip prints, another biological record that remains unchanged throughout the lifetime of a person is the blood group. Determining the blood group of a person from the samples obtained at the site of crime and also recovering lip prints from site can help identify a person.

  8. Is there an association of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor with alopecia areata?

    PubMed

    İslamoğlu, Zeynep Gizem Kaya; Unal, Mehmet

    2018-01-15

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by noncicatricial hair loss localized on hair, beard, mustache, eyebrow, eyelash, and sometimes on the body. Although etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, many studies show remarkable associations between various diseases and ABO blood groups. However, there is no study with AA and blood groups. Healthy people and patients with AA were included in this study. A total of 155 patients with AA and 299 healthy controls were included in the study. ABO blood group distribution in patients with AA and distribution of healthy donors were similar. However, Rhesus factor positivity in the AA group was significantly higher than in healthy donors. The relationship between stress and AA was high as known. But, ABO blood group and Rhesus factor were not in a significant connection with stress. We conclude that there was no association between ABO blood group and AA, but the observed distribution of Rhesus blood group differed slightly but significantly from that of the healthy population. The result of the study shows a small but statistically significant difference in the Rh blood group between patients with AA and the healthy population blood groups. This result is important because it suggests that genetic factors may influence the development of AA. The role of blood groups in the development of AA remains to be determined. We believe that the studies which will be carried out in other centers with wider series will be more valuable to support this hypothesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Noninvasive Antenatal Determination of Fetal Blood Group Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition characterized by a decreased lifespan of fetal red blood cells caused by maternally produced allospecific antibodies transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. The antibodies bind to the corresponding blood group antigens on fetal red blood cells and induce hemolysis. Cell-free DNA derived from the conceptus circulates in maternal blood. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), it can be determined if this cell-free fetal DNA encodes the corresponding blood group antigen that is the target of the maternal allospecific antibodies. This determination carries no risk to the fetus. It is important to determine if the fetus is at risk of hemolysis to enable timely intervention. Many tests for blood groups are based solely on the presence or absence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Antenatal determination of fetal blood group by NGS analysis holds advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determination based on allele specific amplification. PMID:26511760

  10. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  11. Relative Susceptibilities of ABO Blood Groups to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Afoakwah, Richmond; Aubyn, Edmond; Prah, James; Nwaefuna, Ekene Kwabena; Boampong, Johnson N

    2016-01-01

    The clinical outcome of falciparum malaria in endemic areas is influenced by erythrocyte polymorphisms including the ABO blood groups. Studies have reported association of ABO blood group to resistance, susceptibility, and severity of P. falciparum malaria infection. Individuals with blood group "A" have been found to be highly susceptible to falciparum malaria whereas blood group "O" is said to confer protection against complicated cases. We analyzed samples from 293 young children less than six years old with malaria in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. It was observed that group O was present in about 16.1% of complicated cases weighed against 40.9% of uncomplicated controls. Individuals with complicated malaria were about twice likely to be of blood groups A and B compared to group O (A versus O, OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.59-2.26, P < 0.0001; B versus O, OR = 1.82. 95% CI = 1.57-2.23, P < 0.0001). Blood group O participants with complicated diseases had low parasitaemia compared to the other blood groups (P < 0.0001). This may give blood group O individuals a survival advantage over the other groups in complicated malaria as suggested. Participants with complicated falciparum malaria were generally anaemic and younger than those with uncomplicated disease.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Primary Fingerprint Pattern in Different Blood Group and Gender in Nepalese

    PubMed Central

    Maharjan, Niroj; Adhikari, Nischita; Shrestha, Pragya

    2018-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics, the study of epidermal ridges on palm, sole, and digits, is considered as most effective and reliable evidence of identification. The fingerprints were studied in 300 Nepalese of known blood groups of different ages and classified into primary patterns and then analyzed statistically. In both sexes, incidence of loops was highest in ABO blood group and Rh +ve blood types, followed by whorls and arches, while the incidence of whorls was highest followed by loops and arches in Rh −ve blood types. Loops were higher in all blood groups except “A –ve” and “B –ve” where whorls were predominant. The fingerprint pattern in Rh blood types of blood group “A” was statistically significant while in others it was insignificant. In middle and little finger, loops were higher whereas in ring finger whorls were higher in all blood groups. Whorls were higher in thumb and index finger except in blood group “O” where loops were predominant. This study concludes that distribution of primary pattern of fingerprint is not related to gender and blood group but is related to individual digits. PMID:29593909

  13. ABO blood grouping: A potential risk factor for early childhood caries - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G

    2018-01-01

    The paradigm of etiology of early childhood caries (ECC) is shifting toward genetics. Of various inherited factors, blood group of an individual is genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine if blood group of an individual will serve as a potential risk factor in the development of ECC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai. Blood samples were collected from a total of 500 children <71 months of age for determination of the blood group. Of which 96 children (24 per blood group) were randomly selected and were included in the study. Oral screening of the selected children was done by a pediatric dentist who was blinded to the blood group of the children. Decayed, extracted, and filling index was noted. Details on other associated factors for the development of ECC such as the socioeconomic status, oral hygiene measures, diet, and feeding practices were collected by directly interviewing the parents through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey test with significance level set at 0.05. Intergroup analysis of the associated factors showed no significant differences between the children of different blood groups. A statistically significant relation was noted between the blood groups and development of ECC (P = 0.025). Blood group is a potential risk indicator for the development of ECC.

  14. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique.

    PubMed

    Ramnarayan, Bk; Manjunath, M; Joshi, Anagha Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption-elution technique with some modifications. Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual.

  15. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Kemal; Oztürk, Perihan; Gül, Mustafa; Benderli, Yasemin Cihan; Cölgeçen, Emine; Inci, Rahime

    2013-09-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been carried out to explain the genetics and immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD). There is still insufficient understanding of its etiopathogenesis, but substantial genetic and immune system abnormalities have been suggested. Several studies have shown remarkable associations of ABO blood groups with various diseases. This study investigated the relationship between ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups and Behçet's disease in Turkish patients. Clinical data on gender, ABO, and Rhesus blood type of patients with BD were collected at the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115 patients with BD were assessed for their association with ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and compared with the distribution of the blood groups of 25,701 healthy donors admitted to the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital Blood Center in 2010 and 2011. The distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in patients with BD was similar to the healthy donors. No relationship was found between ABO or Rhesus blood groups and BD at our hospital. Further studies with a larger series and in different centers may be valuable for identifying the association between ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and BD.

  16. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Arzu; Unal, Dilek; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karahan, Samet; Aykas, Fatma; Mutlu, Hasan; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

  17. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  18. The Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Farideh; Moini, Ashraf; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Daliri, Leila; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak; Hosseini, Rihaneh

    2018-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that affects quality of life for women. Several studies have revealed that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Iranian women with endometriosis who presented to two referral infertility centers in Tehran, Iran. In this case-control study, women who referred to Royan Institute and Arash Women's Hospital for diagnostic laparoscopy between 2013 and 2014 were assessed. Based on the laparoscopy findings, we categorized the women into two groups: endometriosis and control (women without endometriosis and normal pelvis). Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used for data analysis. In this study, we assessed 433 women, of which 213 patients were assigned to the endometriosis group while the remaining 220 subjects comprised the control group. The most frequent ABO blood group was O (40.6%). The least frequent blood group was AB (4.8%). In terms of Rh blood group, Rh+ (90.1%) was more frequent than Rh- (9.9%). There was no significant correlation between ABO (P=0.091) and Rh (P=0.55) blood groups and risk of endometriosis. Also, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regards to the stage of endometriosis and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Although the O blood group was less dominant in Iranian women with endometriosis, we observed no significant correlation between the risk of endometriosis and the ABO and Rh blood groups. Endometriosis severity was not correlated to any of these blood groups. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  19. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  20. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    PubMed

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  1. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  2. Correlation of ABO blood groups with spontaneous recanalization in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Liang; Zhou, Bing-Yang; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Luo, Zhu-Rong; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between ABO blood groups and cardiovascular disease, the association of ABO blood type with spontaneous recanalization (SR) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been previously investigated. We performed an initial exploratory study on the association of ABO blood groups with the presence of SR in 1209 patients with AMI. They were divided into two groups according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grades: no-SR group (TIMI 0-1, n = 442) and SR group (TIMI 2-3, n = 767). To confirm our primary findings, data from a second AMI population (n = 200) was analyzed. In the initial data, SR group had a significantly higher percentage of blood type O and a lower percentage of blood type A compared to the no-SR group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that blood type O was positively associated with SR (odds ratio: 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.87, p = .02), and this finding was confirmed in our second population. The present study demonstrates that blood type O was independently and positively associated with an open culprit artery in patients with AMI, suggesting that the ABO blood type is not only associated with the susceptibility to coronary artery disease but also to spontaneous reperfusion in AMI patients.

  3. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  4. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening. Aim: To find out the correlation between the transfusion transmitted diseases and blood groups and the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & syphilis among the apparently healthy human blood donors. Study, Setting & Design: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of a tertiary health care teaching centre for a period of four years. Material and Methods: All voluntary and replacement donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HIV-1 & 2, HBsAg, HCV and Syphilis. Anti–HIV -1 & 2, HBsAg & anti - HCV was tested using the appropriate Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using micro–elisa kit supplied by J.Mitra & Co.Ltd. The seropositive samples were again tested on ELISA kits of RFCL &/or BIORAD for further confirmation & ruling out any false positive or false negative results. The rapid plasma reagain (RPR) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. Statistical Analysis: The data entry was carried out using Microsoft office excel worksheet and was analysed by percentage and comparison. Results: Total of 6000 donors were screened which included voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV (0.1833 %), HCV (1.28%), HBsAg (1.5833 %) and syphilis (0.4333 %) was detected. In the study done it was also noted - that the NEGATIVE blood groups were more prone to TTIs. Blood group A negative was more prone to TTIs with HIV, HBsAg and VDRL while blood group B negative was more affected by HCV. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of these infections shows that routine screening is a must for blood and blood product safe transfusion. Do negative blood groups predispose to TTIs? A finding which makes us think…. PMID

  5. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-09-01

    Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening. To find out the correlation between the transfusion transmitted diseases and blood groups and the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & syphilis among the apparently healthy human blood donors. Study, Setting & Design: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of a tertiary health care teaching centre for a period of four years. All voluntary and replacement donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HIV-1 & 2, HBsAg, HCV and Syphilis. Anti-HIV -1 & 2, HBsAg & anti - HCV was tested using the appropriate Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using micro-elisa kit supplied by J.Mitra & Co.Ltd. The seropositive samples were again tested on ELISA kits of RFCL &/or BIORAD for further confirmation & ruling out any false positive or false negative results. The rapid plasma reagain (RPR) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. The data entry was carried out using Microsoft office excel worksheet and was analysed by percentage and comparison. Total of 6000 donors were screened which included voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV (0.1833 %), HCV (1.28%), HBsAg (1.5833 %) and syphilis (0.4333 %) was detected. In the study done it was also noted - that the NEGATIVE blood groups were more prone to TTIs. Blood group A negative was more prone to TTIs with HIV, HBsAg and VDRL while blood group B negative was more affected by HCV. Seroprevalence of these infections shows that routine screening is a must for blood and blood product safe transfusion. Do negative blood groups predispose to TTIs? A finding which makes us think….

  6. Ethical issues in umbilical cord blood banking. Working Group on Ethical Issues in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaalund, V; Kodish, E; Marshall, M F; Reisner, E G; Wilfond, B S; Wolpe, P R

    1997-09-17

    Banking umbilical cord blood (UCB) to be used as a source of stem cells for transplantation is associated with a set of ethical issues. An examination of these issues is needed to inform public policy and to raise the awareness of prospective parents, clinicians, and investigators. Individuals with expertise in anthropology, blood banking, bone marrow transplantation, ethics, law, obstetrics, pediatrics, and the social sciences were invited to join the Working Group on Ethical Issues in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking. Members were assigned topics to present to the Working Group. Following independent reviews, background materials were sent to the Working Group. Individual presentations of topics at a 2-day meeting were followed by extensive group discussions in which consensus emerged. A writing committee then drafted a document that was circulated to the entire Working Group. After 3 rounds of comments over several months, all but 1 member of the Working Group agreed with the presentation of our conclusions. (1) Umbilical cord blood technology is promising although it has several investigational aspects; (2) during this investigational phase, secure linkage should be maintained of stored UCB to the identity of the donor; (3) UCB banking for autologous use is associated with even greater uncertainty than banking for allogeneic use; (4) marketing practices for UCB banking in the private sector need close attention; (5) more data are needed to ensure that recruitment for banking and use of UCB are equitable; and (6) the process of obtaining informed consent for collection of UCB should begin before labor and delivery.

  7. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio of group O was higher than others, while the

  8. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S - s - of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk a-b- (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  9. Structural Basis for the ABO Blood-Group Dependence of Plasmodium falciparum Rosetting

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Audrey; Raynal, Bertrand; England, Patrick; Cohen, Jacques H.; Bertrand, Olivier; Peyrard, Thierry; Bentley, Graham A.; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2012-01-01

    The ABO blood group influences susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent evidence indicates that the protective effect of group O operates by virtue of reduced rosetting of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) with uninfected RBCs. Rosetting is mediated by a subgroup of PfEMP1 adhesins, with RBC binding being assigned to the N-terminal DBL1α1 domain. Here, we identify the ABO blood group as the main receptor for VarO rosetting, with a marked preference for group A over group B, which in turn is preferred to group O RBCs. We show that recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 and NTS-DBL1α1-CIDR1γ reproduce the VarO-iRBC blood group preference and document direct binding to blood group trisaccharides by surface plasmon resonance. More detailed RBC subgroup analysis showed preferred binding to group A1, weaker binding to groups A2 and B, and least binding to groups Ax and O. The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the PfEMP1-VarO Head region, NTS-DBL1α1-CIDR1γ, reveals extensive contacts between the DBL1α1 and CIDR1γ and shows that the NTS-DBL1α1 hinge region is essential for RBC binding. Computer docking of the blood group trisaccharides and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis localized the RBC-binding site to the face opposite to the heparin-binding site of NTS-DBLα1. RBC binding involves residues that are conserved between rosette-forming PfEMP1 adhesins, opening novel opportunities for intervention against severe malaria. By deciphering the structural basis of blood group preferences in rosetting, we provide a link between ABO blood grouppolymorphisms and rosette-forming adhesins, consistent with the selective role of falciparum malaria on human genetic makeup. PMID:22807674

  10. ABO blood group and chronic pancreatitis risk in the NAPS2 cohort.

    PubMed

    Greer, Julia B; LaRusch, Jessica; Brand, Randall E; O'Connell, Michael R; Yadav, Dhiraj; Whitcomb, David C

    2011-11-01

    A risk association has been observed between non-O blood groups and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Chronic pancreatitis also increases risk for pancreatic cancer, raising questions as to whether non-O blood groups are a risk for chronic pancreatitis and whether the pathophysiologic pathways are linked. Our goal was to determine whether ABO blood group may affect the risk of chronic pancreatitis. The study cohort included chronic pancreatitis patients (n = 499) and healthy controls (n = 631) from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 study. Genotyping was performed using Sequenom assay of rs8176746 A/C and rs505922 C/T to classify participants into ABO blood groups. O blood group was nonsignificantly more common among cases (44.7% vs 42.0%; P = 0.36), particularly among cases with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis (49.3% vs 42%; P = 0.060). Alcoholic patients without coexisting high-risk PRSS1, CFTR, or SPINK1 variants had a significant overrepresentation of O blood type when compared with controls (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.17; P = 0.01). A, B, and AB blood groups were not associated with a greater likelihood of having chronic pancreatitis and may decrease the risk of chronic pancreatitis in individuals who are very heavy drinkers. These results suggest that the mechanism linking non-O blood type with pancreatic pathology is specific to carcinogenesis.

  11. Histopathological Study of Central Nervous System Lesions: Emphasizing Association of Neoplasms with ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Kumarguru, B N; Pallavi, P; Sunila; Manjunath, G V; Vasan, T S; Rajalakshmi, B R

    2017-04-01

    The Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions show considerable geographic and racial variations with respect to the incidence and the pattern of distribution of lesions. The ABO blood status is a readily accessible factor in genetic constitution of the patients. It has been shown to be associated with many diseases. But the influence of blood group status on the pathogenesis of brain tumours is still unclear. To study various histopathological patterns of CNS lesions and to evaluate the association of CNS tumours with the distribution of ABO blood groups in documented cases. In the present study, 147 cases were analyzed. It was an analytical type of study, done at JSS Medical College, Mysore, over a period of 2 years and 8 months from January 2009 to August 2011. Histopathology slides were routinely stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain. Special stains were performed in selected cases. Blood group of the patients and the control group were documented. Blood group distribution pattern was assessed in relation to histopathological diagnosis of various CNS tumours. Histopathological diagnosis of 147 cases included neoplastic lesions (84.35%) and non-neoplastic lesions (15.64%). Neoplastic lesions (84.35%) constituted the majority, which included neuroepithelial tumours (29.25%) as predominant pattern. Non-neoplastic lesions constituted only 15.64%, which included inflammatory lesion (8.16%) as the predominant pattern. ABO blood group data was available in 92 cases (84.4%) of neoplastic lesions, which included 71 cases (48.29%) of primary CNS neoplasms categorized according to WHO grades. The control group constituted 21,067 healthy voluntary donors. Blood group O was the most frequent blood group in neoplastic lesions (40.21%) and primary CNS neoplasms categorized according to WHO grades (45.07%). The association between the CNS neoplasms and ABO blood groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.055). But a definite change in the pattern of distribution of ABO

  12. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  13. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn's disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-09-01

    The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6-1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (p<0.001). CD patients with blood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04-18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.96; p=0.040). ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX.

  14. ABO blood groups and risk for obesity in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aboel-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alanazi, Arwa R; Alanazi, Abdullah S; Alruwili, Asma N

    2016-12-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases. Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood group and risk for obesity. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and obesity in apparently healthy attendees of primary healthcare (PHC) centers in Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 401 participants aged 15 years and older attending three randomly selected PHC centers in Arar city. Data were collected by means of personal interview using a predesigned questionnaire. Anthropometric examination included height and weight measurements with calculation of BMI. ABO and Rh blood groups were determined. The majority of the participants were female (70.8%). The mean±SD age was 28.6±9.1 years. Only 5.7% were underweight. Both normal and overweight participants were equal in number and constituted 28.4%, whereas obese individuals constituted 37.4% with a mean BMI of 28.56±8.0. Blood group O was the most common (44.1%), followed by A (30.9%), B (18.7%), and AB (6.2%). Rh-positive cases constituted 87.0%. Blood group O was the most common type among the obese individuals (44.7%), followed by A, B, and AB groups (30, 20, and 5.3%, respectively). BMI was highest (28.8±9.2) in blood group O. There were no statistically significant differences between different ABO blood groups as regards BMI, Rh, and sex. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between Rh type and BMI. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is high in the population attending PHC centers of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. There is no association between overweight, obesity, and ABO blood groups or Rh.

  15. Phenotypic and allelic distribution of the ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups in the Cameroonian population.

    PubMed

    Ndoula, S T; Noubiap, J J N; Nansseu, J R N; Wonkam, A

    2014-06-01

    Data on blood group phenotypes are important for blood transfusion programs, for disease association and population genetics studies. This study aimed at reporting the phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) groups in various ethnolinguistic groups in the Cameroonians. We obtained ABO and Rhesus blood groups and self-identified ethnicity from 14,546 Cameroonian students. Ethnicity was classified in seven major ethnolinguistic groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian/West Atlantic, Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Grassfield, Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Mbam and Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu/Equatorial. ABO allelic frequencies were determined using the Bernstein method. Differences in phenotypic distribution of blood groups were assessed using the chi-square test; a P value <0.05 being considered as statistically significant. The frequencies of the antigens of blood groups O, A, B and AB were 48.62%, 25.07%, 21.86% and 4.45%, respectively. Rhesus-positive was 96.32%. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B genes were 0.6978, 0.1605 and 0.1416, respectively. Phenotypic frequencies of the blood groups in the general study population and in the different ethnolinguistic groups were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations (P > 0.05). The frequencies of O, A, and B blood phenotypes were significantly lower, respectively, in the Nilo-Saharan group (P = 0.009), the Niger-Kordofanian/Benue-Congo/Bantu groups (P = 0.021) and the Niger-Kordofanian/West-Atlantic group. AB blood group was most frequent in the Niger-Kordofanian/Adamawa-Ubangui group (P = 0.024). Our study provides the first data on ethnic distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in the Cameroonian population and suggests that its general profile is similar to those of several sub-Saharan African populations. We found some significant differences in phenotypic distribution amongst major ethnolinguistic groups

  16. ABO blood group phenotype frequency estimation using molecular phenotyping in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Kanthaswamy, S; Ng, J; Oldt, R F; Valdivia, L; Houghton, P; Smith, D G

    2017-11-01

    A much larger sample (N = 2369) was used to evaluate a previously reported distribution of the A, AB and B blood group phenotypes in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques from six different regional populations. These samples, acquired from 15 different breeding and research facilities in the United States, were analyzed using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay that targets single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for the macaque A, B and AB phenotypes. The frequency distributions of blood group phenotypes of the two species differ significantly from each other and significant regional differentiation within the geographic ranges of each species was also observed. The B blood group phenotype was prevalent in rhesus macaques, especially those from India, while the frequencies of the A, B and AB phenotypes varied significantly among cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions. The Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, despite having originated in Indonesia, showed significant (P ≪ .01) divergence from the Indonesian animals at the ABO blood group locus. Most Mauritian animals belonged to the B blood group while the Indonesian animals were mostly A. The close similarity in blood group frequency distributions between the Chinese rhesus and Indochinese cynomolgus macaques demonstrates that the introgression between these two species extends beyond the zone of intergradation in Indochina. This study underscores the importance of ABO blood group phenotyping of the domestic supply of macaques and their biospecimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ABO-Rh blood groups distribution in cardiac syndrome X patients.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef; Nemati, Mohaddeseh; Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein Seyed

    2012-07-01

    Data on frequency distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients are not available. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in these patients. A total of 247 CSX patients' records were reviewed in a cross-sectional study from 2006 to 2010. One hundred forty six patients (59.1%) were female, and the mean patient age was 52 ± 11 years. The frequency of ABO-Rh blood groups was compared to the frequency of these blood groups in the West-Azerbaijan province, Iran; general population. Blood groups distribution among CSX patients showed phenotypes A, B, AB, O and Rh negative as 33.1%, 21.9%, 9.3%, 35.8%, and 7.9%, respectively. According to our results, there were no differences in ABO-Rh blood groups distribution between CSX patients and normal population. These data suggest that ABO-Rh blood groups might be unassociated with CSX.

  18. A research on relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index among Turkish seafarers.

    PubMed

    Nas, Selçuk; Fışkın, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate and to reveal the relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index (BMI) and obesity among Turkish seafarers by using the health examination reports data obtained from 2009 to 2016. The data on age, gender, weight, height and blood groups obtained from 298,247 medical examination reports of Turkish seafarers were used with the official permission of Directorate General of Health for Border and Coastal Areas. Only 116,871 reports included blood group data. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to survey relationship between variables. The results of the study were compared with other studies in the related literature. It has been revealed that AB Rh (-) group was associated the highest mean BMI value (mean: 25.952). It is suggested that seafarers with AB Rh (-) blood group, who have the highest mean BMI value, should pay special attention to their weight.

  19. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  20. Genotyping of the Duffy Blood Group among Plasmodium knowlesi-Infected Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Jeremy Ryan; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik

    2014-01-01

    The Duffy blood group is of major interest in clinical medicine as it plays an important role in Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infection. In the present study, the distribution of Duffy blood group genotypes and allelic frequencies among P. knowlesi infected patients as well as healthy individuals in Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The blood group of 60 healthy blood donors and 51 P. knowlesi malaria patients were genotyped using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR). The data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test in order to assess the significance of the variables. Our results show a high proportion of the FY*A/FY*A genotype (>85% for both groups) and a high frequency of the FY*A allele (>90% for both groups). The FY*A/FY*A genotype was the most predominant genotype in both infected and healthy blood samples. The genotype frequency did not differ significantly between the donor blood and the malaria patient groups. Also, there was no significant correlation between susceptibility to P. knowlesi infection with any Duffy blood genotype. PMID:25268233

  1. Gastroduodenal Ulcers and ABO Blood Group: the Japan Nurses' Health Study (JNHS).

    PubMed

    Alkebsi, Lobna; Ideno, Yuki; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Sato, Yasunori; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2018-01-05

    Although several studies have shown that blood type O is associated with increased risk of peptic ulcer, few studies have investigated these associations in Japan. We sought to investigate the association between the ABO blood group and risk of gastroduodenal ulcers (GDU) using combined analysis of both retrospective and prospective data from a large cohort study of Japanese women, the Japan Nurses' Health Study (JNHS; n = 15,019). The impact of the ABO blood group on GDU risk was examined using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with women with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB), women with blood type O had a significantly increased risk of GDU from birth (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.34). Moreover, the highest cumulative incidence of GDU was observed in women born pre-1956 with blood type O. In a subgroup analysis stratified by birth year (pre-1956 or post-1955), the multivariable-adjusted HR of women with blood type O was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.00-1.49) and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.35) in the pre-1956 and post-1955 groups, respectively. In this large, combined, ambispective cohort study of Japanese women, older women with blood type O had a higher risk of developing GDU than those with other blood types.

  2. Gastroduodenal Ulcers and ABO Blood Group: the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (JNHS)

    PubMed Central

    Ideno, Yuki; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Sato, Yasunori; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2018-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown that blood type O is associated with increased risk of peptic ulcer, few studies have investigated these associations in Japan. We sought to investigate the association between the ABO blood group and risk of gastroduodenal ulcers (GDU) using combined analysis of both retrospective and prospective data from a large cohort study of Japanese women, the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (JNHS; n = 15,019). Methods The impact of the ABO blood group on GDU risk was examined using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Compared with women with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB), women with blood type O had a significantly increased risk of GDU from birth (multivariable-adjusted HR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04–1.34). Moreover, the highest cumulative incidence of GDU was observed in women born pre-1956 with blood type O. In a subgroup analysis stratified by birth year (pre-1956 or post-1955), the multivariable-adjusted HR of women with blood type O was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.00–1.49) and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98–1.35) in the pre-1956 and post-1955 groups, respectively. Conclusion In this large, combined, ambispective cohort study of Japanese women, older women with blood type O had a higher risk of developing GDU than those with other blood types. PMID:29093357

  3. Relation of ABO blood groups to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis: an Gensini score assessment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Luo, Song-Hui; Li, Xiao-Lin; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Rui-Xia; Li, Sha; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Chen, Juan; Zeng, Rui-Xiang; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Although the study on the relationship between ABO blood groups and coronary atherosclerosis has a long history, few data is available regarding ABO to severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large cohort study. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relation of the ABO blood groups to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by Gensini score (GS) in a large Chinese cohort undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 2919 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled, and their baseline characteristics and ABO blood groups were collected. The GS was calculated as 1st tertile (0-10), 2nd tertile (11-36), 3rd tertile (>36) according to angiographic results. The relation of the ABO blood groups to GS was investigated. The frequency of blood group A was significantly higher in the upper GS tertiles (24.4% vs. 28.2% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.032). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that blood group A was independently associated with GS (β = 0.043, p = 0.017). Likewise, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that group A remained significantly associated with mid-high GS (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.80, p = 0.001), and the group O was showed as a protective factor (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.92, p = 0.004). In this large Chinese cohort study, the data indicated that there was an association between ABO blood groups and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Moreover, the blood group A was an independent risk factor for serious coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of blood groups with ovarian reserve and outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Awartani, Khalid; Al Ghabshi, Rahma; Al Shankiti, Hanan; Al Dossari, Mohamed; Coskun, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    The association between ABO blood groups and ovarian reserve in infertile patients has been a point of controversy. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of certain blood groups with ovarian reserve and response to treatment in patients undergoing infertility treatment. Retrospective medical record review. Infertility clinic in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) unit at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh Saudi Arabia. All patients under 40 years of age who attended the infertility clinic at a tertiary care centre in 2010 and underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in 2010 and 2011 were divided into groups according to blood type, and clinical parameters were compared. The association between blood groups and ovarian reserve using day 3 luteinzing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and antral follical count (AFC). In 424 patients who underwent 566 IVF cycles, age, LH, FSH and AFC were similar among the different blood groups (P=.9, .1, .5, respectively). with controlled ovarian stimulation, no difference was observed among the four groups in menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) dose or the duration of stimulation. The number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, and number of embryos transferred were similar. There was no difference in the cancellation rate or pregnancy rate among the groups. There was no significant association between blood type and ovarian reserve or response during IVF treatment in our population. Anti-Mullerian hormone levels are best correlated with ovarian reserve testing. Unavailability of AMH levels. Retrospective design.

  5. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  6. The relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens in saliva.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Seop; Chung, Sung-Chang; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens. Unstimulated whole saliva and oral rinse samples were obtained from 180 healthy subjects. These samples were plated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine oral Candida carriage. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on whole saliva samples to determine the secretor status of blood group antigens. The oral Candida carriage rate was found to be 45.0%. The sensitivity of the concentrated rinse culture proved to be superior. Oral Candida carriage was not significantly related to the blood group or secretor status of ABH or Lewis antigens. No significant relationship was found between oral Candida carriage and salivary flow rate. However, smoking affected oral Candida carriage. Oral Candida carriage in healthy individuals is not significantly related to blood group or secretor status.

  7. Evaluation of targeted exome sequencing for 28 protein-based blood group systems, including the homologous gene systems, for blood group genotyping.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, Elizna M; Lopez, Genghis H; McGowan, Eunike C; Millard, Glenda M; O'Brien, Helen; Roulis, Eileen V; Liew, Yew-Wah; Martin, Jacqueline R; McGrath, Kelli A; Powley, Tanya; Flower, Robert L; Hyland, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Blood group single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping probes for a limited range of polymorphisms. This study investigated whether massively parallel sequencing (also known as next-generation sequencing), with a targeted exome strategy, provides an extended blood group genotype and the extent to which massively parallel sequencing correctly genotypes in homologous gene systems, such as RH and MNS. Donor samples (n = 28) that were extensively phenotyped and genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism typing, were analyzed using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel and MiSeq platform. Genes for 28 protein-based blood group systems, GATA1, and KLF1 were analyzed. Copy number variation analysis was used to characterize complex structural variants in the GYPC and RH systems. The average sequencing depth per target region was 66.2 ± 39.8. Each sample harbored on average 43 ± 9 variants, of which 10 ± 3 were used for genotyping. For the 28 samples, massively parallel sequencing variant sequences correctly matched expected sequences based on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Copy number variation analysis defined the Rh C/c alleles and complex RHD hybrids. Hybrid RHD*D-CE-D variants were correctly identified, but copy number variation analysis did not confidently distinguish between D and CE exon deletion versus rearrangement. The targeted exome sequencing strategy employed extended the range of blood group genotypes detected compared with single nucleotide polymorphism typing. This single-test format included detection of complex MNS hybrid cases and, with copy number variation analysis, defined RH hybrid genes along with the RHCE*C allele hitherto difficult to resolve by variant detection. The approach is economical compared with whole-genome sequencing and is suitable for a red blood cell reference laboratory setting. © 2017 AABB.

  8. Relation of ABO Blood Groups to the Plaque Characteristic of Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xingtao; Zou, Yongpeng; Li, Lulu; Chen, Shuyuan; Hou, Jingbo; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The ABO blood types related to morphological characteristics of atherosclerosis plaque are not clear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between ABO blood groups and the coronary plaque characteristic. We retrospectively identified the target lesions in 392 acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent optical coherence tomography examination before stenting. Subjects were divided into different groups according to different blood types. The fibrous cap thickness was significantly thicker in O type compared with non-O type (0.075 ± 0.033 mm versus 0.061 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the incidence of thin-cap fibroatheroma was also significantly higher in O type compared with non-O type (51.0% versus 71.5%, p < 0.001). The O type showed a significantly larger minimum lumen area [1.26 (0.82, 2.13) versus 1.05 (0.67, 1.82), p = 0.020] and minimum lumen diameter [1.03 (0.74, 1.31) versus 0.95 (0.66, 1.25), p = 0.039] compared with non-O type. There were no differences found in incidence of lipid plaque, plaque rupture, and thrombus between different blood type groups even between O type and non-O type group ( p > 0.05). The plaques of O type blood group were exhibited more stably compared with non-O type blood group. Moreover, the non-O type blood group have more serious coronary artery stenosis than O type blood group.

  9. Effects of hydroformylation treatment on the storage time and blood group antigen expressions of reagent red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Xiaolin; Guan, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Ma, Chunya; Chen, Linfeng; Wang, Deqing

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of hydroformylation treatment on the storage time and blood group antigen expressions of reagent red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs from healthy donors were treated by using various final concentrations of paraformaldehyde (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0%) and glutaraldehyde (0.01%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0%), and one aliquot was used as control (untreated with aldehydes). Supernatant free hemoglobin (FHb) levels in all groups stored at 4 °C were detected every week, and the optimal procedure was selected. Expression of blood group antigens on RBCs treated by the optimal procedure was determined, and the total scores of blood group antigens were calculated. 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% Glutaraldehyde groups were ruled out directly due to serious crosslinking and aggregation of RBCs. As the extension of time, FHb levels in other 11 groups gradually increased (p<0.01 or p<0.05). FHb level in 0.025% glutaraldehyde group was significantly lower than that in other groups after 13 weeks (p<0.01), and the antigen strength of Fy(b), Jk(b), and Le(b) decreased slightly compared with those before treatment and storage (p<0.05), and there was no significant change for antigen strength of A, B, D, C, E, c, e, M, N, S, s, k, P1, Fy(a), Jk(a), and Le(a) (p>0.05). 0.025% Glutaraldehyde treatment can provide optimal protection for the membrane of RBCs and keep hemolysis at a low level after 13 weeks storage, and the majority of blood group antigen systems are not significantly affected, and the slight decline of Fy(b), Jk(b), and Le(b) antigen strength was acceptable for classical serological tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T.; Gowd, T. Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. Objective: To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. Results: In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (p<0.001). Subjects with A+ and O- blood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups. PMID:25478445

  11. [Diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants].

    PubMed

    Baranyay, Ferenc; Bethlen, Klára

    2002-01-20

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having modified blood group substances are widely studied (Kannagi, 1988, Hakomori, 1999). A 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital in terminal state with unsusceptible circulatory failure. At autopsy the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with diffuse blackberried colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Antibody to Breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient had O blood group according to her blood group phenotype. The authors used lectins with and without blood group antigen (BGA) specificity and monoclonal antibodies, too. They found that the B blood group specific Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin I lectin and the anti-B mab were labelled intensively all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow. The A BGAs (with anti-A mab and Dolichos biflorus agglutinin) were completely negative. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The authors propose, that the survived carcinoma cells found place of refuge from the immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow, where the complement mediated tumor cell lysis, immune-rejection was not effective.

  12. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Sr, Ashwinirani; Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T; Gowd, T Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-10-01

    The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (p<0.001). Subjects with A+ and O- blood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups.

  13. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  14. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of gene polymorphisms in ABO blood group chromosomal regions and menstrual disorders

    PubMed Central

    SU, YONG; KONG, GUI-LIAN; SU, YA-LI; ZHOU, YAN; LV, LI-FANG; WANG, QIONG; HUANG, BAO-PING; ZHENG, RUI-ZHI; LI, QUAN-ZHONG; YUAN, HUI-JUAN; ZHAO, ZHI-GANG

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located near the gene of the ABO blood group play an important role in the genetic aetiology of menstrual disorders (MDs). Polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction technology was used to detect eight SNPs near the ABO gene location on the chromosomes in 250 cases of MD and 250 cases of normal menstruation. The differences in the distribution of each genotype, as well as the allele frequency in the normal and control groups, were analysed using Pearson's χ2 test to search for disease-associated loci. SHEsis software was used to analyse the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies and to inspect the correlation between haplotypes and the disease. Compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution frequencies of the rs657152 locus of the ABO blood group gene and the rs17250673 locus of the tumour necrosis factor cofactor 2 (TRAF2) gene, which is located downstream of the ABO gene. The allele distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci in the ABO blood group gene exhibited significant differences between the groups. Dominant and recessive genetic model analysis of each locus revealed that the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences from the control group in the genotype distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci, respectively. These results indicate that the ABO blood group gene and TRAF2 gene may be a cause of MDs. PMID:26136981

  16. Molecular bases of the ABO blood groups of Indians from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Franco, R F; Simões, B P; Guerreiro, J F; Santos, S E; Zago, M A

    1994-01-01

    Phenotype studies of ABO blood groups in most Amerindian populations revealed the exclusive presence of group O. Since group O is the result of the absence of glycosyltransferase activity, its molecular bases may be heterogeneous. We carried out ABO blood group genotyping by analysis of DNA of 30 Indians from 2 Amazonian tribes (Yanomami and Arara), and compared the findings with other populations (Caucasians and Blacks). Two segments of the glycosyltransferase gene were amplified by PCR and digested with KpnI or AluI to detect deletion or base change at positions 258 and 700, respectively. For all subjects, the gene basis of blood group O is the deletion of a single nucleotide at position 258 of the glycosyltransferase A gene, similar to that observed in Caucasoids and Negroids. DNA sequencing of limited regions of the gene supports this conclusion. This finding does not exclude, however, that a heterogeneity of the O allele may be revealed by a more extensive analysis.

  17. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  18. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pooja Vijay; Vanishree, M; Anila, K; Hunasgi, Santosh; Suryadevra, Sri Sujan; Kardalkar, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine blood groups and Rhesus factor from dentin and pulp using absorption-elution (AE) technique in different time periods at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 cases, 30 patients each at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were included in the study. The samples consisted of males and females with age ranging 13–60 years. Patient's blood group was checked and was considered as “control.” The dentin and pulp of extracted teeth were tested for the presence of ABO/Rh antigen, at respective time periods by AE technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed in proportion. For comparison, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for the small sample. Results: Blood group antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected in dentin and pulp up to 12 months. For both ABO and Rh factor, dentin and pulp showed 100% sensitivity for the samples tested at 0 month and showed a gradual decrease in the sensitivity as time period increased. The sensitivity of pulp was better than dentin for both the blood grouping systems and ABO blood group antigens were better detected than Rh antigens. Conclusion: In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result. PMID:27721625

  19. Determination of ABO blood grouping and Rhesus factor from tooth material.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pooja Vijay; Vanishree, M; Anila, K; Hunasgi, Santosh; Suryadevra, Sri Sujan; Kardalkar, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine blood groups and Rhesus factor from dentin and pulp using absorption-elution (AE) technique in different time periods at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. A total of 150 cases, 30 patients each at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were included in the study. The samples consisted of males and females with age ranging 13-60 years. Patient's blood group was checked and was considered as "control." The dentin and pulp of extracted teeth were tested for the presence of ABO/Rh antigen, at respective time periods by AE technique. Data were analyzed in proportion. For comparison, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for the small sample. Blood group antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected in dentin and pulp up to 12 months. For both ABO and Rh factor, dentin and pulp showed 100% sensitivity for the samples tested at 0 month and showed a gradual decrease in the sensitivity as time period increased. The sensitivity of pulp was better than dentin for both the blood grouping systems and ABO blood group antigens were better detected than Rh antigens. In dentin and pulp, the antigens of ABO and Rh factor were detected up to 12 months but showed a progressive decrease in the antigenicity as the time period increased. When compared the results obtained of dentin and pulp in ABO and Rh factor grouping showed similar results with no statistical significance. The sensitivity of ABO blood grouping was better than Rh factor blood grouping and showed a statistically significant result.

  20. Determination of age, sex, and blood group from a single tooth.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Amit K; Parhar, Swati; Thind, Gagandeep; Sharma, Aman; Sharma, Divya

    2017-01-01

    Human identification is one of the most challenging subjects that human has been confronted with. Through the ages, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search of human identity. Data in the form of age, gender, and blood group might provide vital clues in such investigations. In the recent times, it has been often desirable to preserve tissues for further investigations following the unfolding of certain events or discovery of new data. Hence, it is important to gather as much data as possible using less tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine age, sex, and ABO blood group of individual from a single tooth, to determine the effect of different environmental conditions, and to extract maximum information also at the same time preserving some tissue for the further investigation whenever needed. The study sample consisted of sixty teeth divided into four groups under different environmental conditions and time. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the buccolingual plane along the midline. Longitudinal ground sections of each tooth were prepared for age determination from cemental lines. Pulp removed was divided into two halves thereafter sex and blood group was determined. For correlation of age between estimated age and actual age, using cemental lines Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied. Further for determination of both sex and blood group between groups, Chi-square test was applied. A strong positive correlation was found between the estimated age and actual age of the study groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the actual and determined sex and blood group of the study groups. Although age, sex, and blood group are more reliably determined in freshly extracted teeth, these variables may be of significant help in identification even after a period of 6 weeks postextraction.

  1. ABO Blood Group and Endometrial Carcinoma: A Preliminary Single-Center Experience from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alsabban, Mohannad; Abuzaid, Mohammed; Alomar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Salem, Hany

    2017-12-18

    Inherited ABO blood groups have been shown to play possible contributions in the pathogenesis of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic carcinomas. With regard to gynecologic carcinomas, there is a confined number of studies that explored the relationship between ABO blood group and endometrial carcinoma (EC) in the PubMed-indexed literature. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has ever been conducted in Saudi Arabia. Our study has two objectives: (I) to determine the prevalence of ABO blood groups among Saudi patients with EC, and (II) to explore the relationship between ABO blood group and several clinico-pathological prognostic parameters (namely: menopausal status [age], body mass index [BMI], tumor grade, FIGO [Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique] stage and recurrence) in Saudi patients with EC. A retrospective cross-sectional study from 01-January-2010 to 31-July-2014 was conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - a referral tertiary healthcare institute. One-hundred and fourteen patients (n=114) were included in the study. Clinico-pathological data were extrapolated from medical records, and their association with ABO blood groups were evaluated. Categorical data were presented as number of cases (n) and percentages (%). Two-tailed Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis. For all purposes, p values <0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. The mean age and BMI were 59.5 ± 10.8 years (range: 31 - 90) and 36.6 ± 8.6 kg/m 2 (range: 17 - 60), respectively. The vast majority of patients were post-menopausal (86%), had BMI >28 kg/m 2 (84.2%), diagnosed with early FIGO stage I-II (76.3%) and developed no recurrence (86.8%). The frequencies of ABO blood group types A, B, AB, and O were 28.1%, 12.3%, 3.5% and 56.1%, respectively. When ABO blood groups were analyzed as four different types (A, B, AB and O), O-type was the most common ABO blood group in pre- and post

  2. Effect of group counseling on depression, compliance and blood sugar level in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Feiyan; Yan, Jin; Hu, Ping'an; Xia, Miaojuan; Liu, Hua; Gu, Can

    2015-08-01

    To establish an interference mode of group counseling for diabetic patients with depression and to evaluate the effectiveness of this mode on depression, treatment compliance and blood sugar level in the patients.
 One hundred diabetic patients with depression were randomly divided into a counseling group and a control group (n=50 per group). Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was applied to all the patients. The interference mode of group counseling was established through literature review, expert consultation or interview. The counseling group received counseling for 8 times within 2 months.
 There was a significant difference in the SDS scores at 0, 3, 6 or 12 months after the intervention between the 2 groups (P<0.001). For the counseling group, there was a significant difference in the SDS scores between pre-intervention and 3, 6 or 12 months after intervention (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the SDS scores between any two time points after the intervention (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the compliance between any two time points after the intervention (P<0.05). Fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG) or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly different at any two time points after the intervention (P<0.05).
 Group counseling can improve depression, compliance and blood sugar control in the diabetic patients.

  3. Associations between ABO blood groups and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: influence on resection status and survival.

    PubMed

    El Jellas, Khadija; Hoem, Dag; Hagen, Kristin G; Kalvenes, May Britt; Aziz, Sura; Steine, Solrun J; Immervoll, Heike; Johansson, Stefan; Molven, Anders

    2017-07-01

    Both serology-based and genetic studies have reported an association between pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood groups. We have investigated this relationship in a cohort of pancreatic cancer patients from Western Norway (n = 237) and two control materials (healthy blood donors, n = 379; unselected hospitalized patients, n = 6149). When comparing patient and blood donor ABO allele frequencies, we found only the A 1 allele to be associated with significantly higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (23.8% vs. 17.9%; OR = 1.43, P = 0.018). Analyzing phenotypes, blood group A was more frequent among PDAC cases than blood donors (50.8% vs. 40.6%; OR = 1.51, P = 0.021), an enrichment fully explained by the A 1 subgroup. Blood group O frequency was lower in cases than in blood donors (33.8% vs. 42.7%; OR = 0.69, P = 0.039). This lower frequency was confirmed when cases were compared to hospitalized patients (33.8% vs. 42.9%; OR = 0.68, P = 0.012). Results for blood group B varied according to which control cohort was used for comparison. When patients were classified according to surgical treatment, the enrichment of blood group A was most prominent among unresected cases (54.0%), who also had the lowest prevalence of O (28.7%). There was a statistically significant better survival (P = 0.04) for blood group O cases than non-O cases among unresected but not among resected patients. Secretor status did not show an association with PDAC or survival. Our study demonstrates that pancreatic cancer risk is influenced by ABO status, in particular blood groups O and A 1 , and that this association may reflect also in tumor resectability and survival. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  5. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between ABO blood groups and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Nakashima, Jun; Okubo, Hidenori; Satake, Naoya; Takizawa, Issei; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Hamada, Riu; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated associations between ABO blood groups and prognosis in various types of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). A total of 555 patients with prostate cancer who underwent RP were included in the study. No patients received neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant therapy. The effect of ABO blood groups on BCR was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. During the follow-up period (mean, 52.0 months), 166 patients (29.9%) experienced BCR, with a 5-year BCR-free rate of 67.3%. Although the ABO blood group was not a significantly associated with BCR in the univariate analysis, it was an independent predictor of BCR in the multivariate analysis: blood type O patients had a significantly lower risk of BCR compared to type A patients (Hazard ratio, 0.608; 95% confidence interval, 0.410-0.902; P = 0.014). Further analyses revealed that surgical margin status confounded the assessment of the association between the ABO blood group and BCR. In the analyses of patients with a negative surgical margin, the 5-year BCR-free rate in blood type O patients was a significantly higher than that in type A patients (91.2% vs. 71.0%; P = 0.026). Blood type O is significantly associated with a decreased risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association.

  7. ABO blood group in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: influence in the site of thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Natália Mastantuono; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Soares, Rosangela Paula Silva; de Andrade, Danieli Castro Oliveira; Bonfá, Eloísa; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications associated with presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) but additional factors would also induce thrombosis. ABO (H) blood groups are known to be closely related to thrombosis, especially non-O blood type with venous events. The aim of this study was to investigate possible role of ABO (H) blood types in the thrombotic events in primary APS (PAPS). Seventy PAPS patients were selected for the study and were divided according to ABO blood group in: O PAPS (n = 26) and non-O PAPS (n = 44). ABO blood group phenotyping was performed by indirect technique. aPL anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-βeta2 glycoprotein-1 (aβ2GPI) and the concentrations and activities of von Willebrand factor (VWF) were measured with ELISA. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) was detected by coagulation assays. A significant higher frequency of venous events was observed in non-O PAPS group (72.7 vs. 46.2 %, p = 0.040). In contrast, the frequency of arterial events was significantly higher in the O PAPS compared to the non-O PAPS group (69.2 vs. 36.4 %, respectively; p = 0.013). Frequencies of aCL, LA, aβ2GPI and triple aPL positivity were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). VWF antigen (75.54 ± 8.68 vs. 79.51 ± 7.07 IU/dl, p = 0.041) and activity (70.23 ± 11.96 vs. 77.92 ± 13.67 %, p = 0.020) were decreased in O PAPS compared to non-O blood group. VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratio was similar among groups (p > 0.05). This is the first report that confirms the role of ABO blood system in thrombosis of PAPS and suggests that non-O blood group was related with venous events and O blood group with arterial thrombosis.

  8. A Newly Recognized Blood Group in Domestic Shorthair Cats: The Mik Red Cell Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Nicole M.; Blais, Marie-Claude; Harris, Kimberly; Oakley, Donna A.; Aronson, Lillian R.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring alloantibodies produced against A and B red cell antigens in cats can cause acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Blood incompatibilities, unrelated to the AB blood group system, have also been suspected after blood transfusions through routine crossmatch testing or as a result of hemolytic transfusion reactions. Hypothesis Incompatible crossmatch results among AB compatible cats signify the presence of a naturally occurring alloantibody against a newly identified blood antigen in a group of previously never transfused blood donor cats. The associated alloantibody is clinically important based upon a hemolytic transfusion reaction after inadvertent transfusion of red cells expressing this red cell antigen in a feline renal transplant recipient that lacks this red cell antigen. Methods Blood donor and nonblood donor cats were evaluated for the presence of auto- and alloantibodies using direct antiglobulin and crossmatch tests, respectively, and were blood typed for AB blood group status. Both standard tube and novel gel column techniques were used. Results Plasma from 3 of 65 cats and 1 feline renal transplant recipient caused incompatible crossmatch test results with AB compatible erythrocytes indicating these cats formed an alloantibody against a red cell antigen they lack, termed Mik. The 3 donors and the renal transplant recipient were crossmatch-compatible with one another. Tube and gel column crossmatch test results were similar. Conclusions and Clinical Importance The absence of this novel Mik red cell antigen can be associated with naturally occurring anti-Mik alloantibodies and can elicit an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction after an AB-matched blood transfusion. PMID:17427390

  9. Correlation of ABO and Rh blood groups with transfusion administration and fever onset after hip surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Brdar, Radivoj; Petronic, Ivana; Nikolic, Dejan; Golubovic, Zoran; Bukva, Bojan; Radlovic, Vladimir; Abramovic, Dusan; Ducic, Sinisa; Colovic, Hristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate distribution of ABO and Rh blood type groups in children after hip surgery regarding transfusion administration and fever presence. Four types of ABO blood groups (A; B; AB; O) and 2 types of Rh blood groups (Rh+; Rh-) were evaluated in group with administered transfusion (tr+) and without given transfusion (tr-); and in group with fever (fev+) and without fever (fev-), in 146 children after hip surgery. Tr+ and fev+ groups were divided into 3 groups (0-24h; 25-48h; 49-72h): for tr+ group (Group 1, Group 2, Group 3), and for fev+ group (Group A, Group B, Group C). AB blood group significantly decreased in Group 1 (χ2= 6.44; p<0.05) and A blood group in Group 3 in tr+ group (χ2= 7.68; p<0.01). O blood group significantly increased in Group 3 in tr+ group (χ2= 9.96; p<0.01). AB blood group significantly decreased in Groups B (χ2= 12.2; p<0.01) and C (χ2= 4.2; p<0.05) in fev+ versus fevgroup. B blood group significantly increased in Group C (χ2= 34.4; p<0.01) in fev+group. Administration of transfusion and fever onset in pediatric patients undergoing surgical correction of the hip is not influenced by the ABO and Rh blood groups system in humans. There is correlation between distribution of ABO blood groups with the time of transfusion administration and fever onset in children after hip surgery.

  10. Detection of rare blood group, Bombay (Oh) phenotype patients and management by acute normovolemic hemodilution.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Navaid, Seema; Peethambarakshan, A; Agrawal, Kalpana; Khan, Athar

    2015-01-01

    Due to lack of correct blood grouping practices, the rare Bombay Oh phenotype may be missed, subjecting patients to the risk of severe hemolytic transfusion reaction. In the absence of blood donor registry, transfusion management of patients needing immediate surgery is a challenge. This study presents detection of rare Bombay Oh phenotype patients and their management by acute peri-operative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in a hospital from central India. Blood grouping of patients and blood donors with a standard tube method was carried out and samples identified as rare Bombay phenotype were confirmed by saliva inhibition test. Surgical management of cases needing transfusion was done by ANH, as per the British Committee for Standards in Hematology guidelines. The incidence of Bombay phenotype was 0.002% or 1 in 51,924 in the study. Amongst three cases (patients) identified as Bombay phenotype, one was Bombay Oh, Rh negative. Two cases were missed in the first instance and one case actually did not require transfusion. In the absence of a blood donor registry for Bombay phenotype, the cases needing transfusion were successfully managed with ANH in the operation theatre. A simple test like blood grouping should be done with serious intention with incorporation of both forward and reverse grouping, so that no patient receives wrong blood leading to fatal hemolysis due to transfusion. ANH is a cost-effective transfusion option for suitable patients. Appropriate clinical decision making, use of strategies to decrease peri-operative blood losses and cost-effective country based planning could be more widely applied to improve clinical transfusion practice.

  11. Relevance of blood groups in transfusion of sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Noizat-Pirenne, France

    2013-03-01

    Blood groups are clinically significant in sickle cell disease (SCD) as transfusion remains a key treatment in this pathology. The occurrence of a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is not rare and is a life-threatening event. The main cause of DHTR is the production of alloantibodies against red blood cell antigens. The high rate of alloimmunization in SCD patients is mainly due to the differences of red blood groups between patients of African descent, and the frequently Caucasian donors. From an immuno-haematological point of view, DHTR in SCD patients has specific features: classical antibodies known to be haemolytic can be encountered, but otherwise non significant antibodies, autoantibodies and antibodies related to partial and rare blood groups are also frequently found in individuals of African descent. In some cases, there are no detectable antibodies. As alloimmunization remains the main cause of DHTR, it is extremely important to promote blood donation by individuals of African ancestry to make appropriate blood available. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  13. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial.

    PubMed

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels

    2018-01-17

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparison in anesthetic effects of propofol among patients with different ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Du, Yiri; Shi, Haixia; Yu, Jianshe

    2017-05-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate anesthetic effects of propofol in patients with different blood groups.A total of 72 participants were enrolled from patients arranged for surgeries of cholecystectomy, tonsillectomy, and spinal operation. Each blood group (A, B, AB, and O) contained 18 participants. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) were assayed with Philips monitor. These indexes were observed before propofol anesthesia (T0), and then were recorded when concentration of propofol was 1 μg/mL (T1), 2 μg/mL (T2), 3 μg/mL (T3), and 4 μg/mL (T4). The differences in MAP, HR, and BIS at T0 among groups were compared with the χ test. Multiple comparisons were adopted to calculate the differences in MAP, HR, and BIS between groups at T1, T2, T3, and T4.No significant differences in age, sex, and weight of all groups were found (P > .05). Before propofol anesthesia (T0), all the participants exhibited no differences in MAP, HR, and BIS (P > .05). Subsequently, we found obvious differences in ΔMAP, ΔHR, and ΔBIS between groups. The patients in the B blood group showed highest ΔMAP and ΔHR at each time point (P < .05 for both). As for ΔBIS, patients in A blood group exhibited highest value at T3 and T4 (P < .05).The blood group remarkably affects the anesthetic effects of propofol.

  15. Living-related liver transplantation in Diego blood group disparity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Futagawa, Y; Wakiyama, S; Matsumoto, M; Shiba, H; Gocho, T; Ishida, Y; Yanaga, K

    2013-03-01

    To date, only limited cases of Diego blood group disparity in liver transplantation have been reported, and no cases with a long-term clinical course have been documented. Herein, we report a case of Diego blood group disparity in liver transplantation with details of long-term follow-up. The recipient was a 47-year-old woman with primary biliary cirrhosis; her 18-year-old daughter was the donor. Both recipient and donor were of blood type O according to the ABO blood group system. Preoperative serological tests showed the presence of antibodies against the Di(a) antigen only in the recipient, and not in the donor. Thus, the Diego phenotype was Di(a+) in the donor and Di(a-) in the recipient. Living-related liver transplantation was performed in July 2009. Immediate graft function was obtained, and no signs of humoral or cellular rejection were observed during the postoperative period. Further, anti-Di(a) antibodies were not detected throughout the postoperative course. The patient is alive and shows no signs of humoral rejection 34 months after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation has been performed successfully in cases of Diego blood group disparity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Application of melting curve to analyze genotype of Duffy blood group antigen Fy-a/b].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Hong, Ying; Gong, Tian-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to establish the real-time multiple-PCR with melting curve analysis for Duffy blood group Fy-a/b genotyping. According to the sequence of mRNA coding for β-actin and Fy-a/b, the primers of β-actin and Fy-a/b were synthesized. The real-time multiple-PCR with melting curve analysis for Fy-a/b genotyping was established. The Fy-a/b genotyping of 198 blood donors in Chinese Chengdu area has been investigated by melting curve analysis and PCR-SSP. The results showed that the results of Fy-a/b genotype by melting curve analysis were consistent with PCR-SSP. In all of 198 donors in Chinese Chengdu, 178 were Fy(a) (+) (89.9%), 19 were Fy(a) (+) Fy(b) (+) (9.6%), and 1 was Fy(b) (+) (0.5%). The gene frequency of Fy(a) was 0.947, while that of Fy(b) was 0.053. It is concluded that the genotyping method of Duffy blood group with melting curve analysis is established, which can be used as a high-throughput screening tool for Duffy blood group genotyping; and the Fy(a) genotype is the major of Duffy blood group of donors in Chinese Chengdu area.

  17. Association of ABO blood groups and Rh factor with retinal and choroidal thickness.

    PubMed

    Teberik, Kuddusi; Eski, Mehmet Tahir

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate if ABO blood group and Rh factor have an effect on retinal and choroidal thickness. This study was designed prospectively. Retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal, and choroidal thicknesses were measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal and choroidal thickness measurements (one subfoveal, three temporal, and three nasal) were obtained at 500-μm intervals up to 1500 μm with the caliper system. In this study, 109 male and 151 female, 260 individuals in total were included. There were 125 subjects in group A, 29 in group B, 34 in group AB, and 72 in group O. Rh factor was positive in 194 subjects and negative in 66. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age (p = 0.667). The groups did not show any statistical difference in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. There was significant difference found for mean retinal thickness at temporal 1000 μm when four groups were compared (p = 0.037). No statistically significant difference was detected for the remaining retinal and choroidal sectoral regions. The groups did not statistically significantly differ concerning Rh factor (p > 0.05). Although we found a significant difference in retinal thickness in the temporal retina between group B with group A and group O, we suggest that both blood group and Rh factor have no effect on retinal and choroidal thickness.

  18. Do ABO Blood Group Antigens Hamper the Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Guido; Hult, Annika; von Bahr, Lena; Alm, Jessica J.; Heldring, Nina; Hamad, Osama A.; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Larsson, Stella; Teramura, Yuji; Roelofs, Helene; Nilsson, Bo; Fibbe, Willem E.; Olsson, Martin L.; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Investigation into predictors for treatment outcome is essential to improve the clinical efficacy of therapeutic multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We therefore studied the possible harmful impact of immunogenic ABO blood groups antigens – genetically governed antigenic determinants – at all given steps of MSC-therapy, from cell isolation and preparation for clinical use, to final recipient outcome. We found that clinical MSCs do not inherently express or upregulate ABO blood group antigens after inflammatory challenge or in vitro differentiation. Although antigen adsorption from standard culture supplements was minimal, MSCs adsorbed small quantities of ABO antigen from fresh human AB plasma (ABP), dependent on antigen concentration and adsorption time. Compared to cells washed in non-immunogenic human serum albumin (HSA), MSCs washed with ABP elicited stronger blood responses after exposure to blood from healthy O donors in vitro, containing high titers of ABO antibodies. Clinical evaluation of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients found only very low titers of anti-A/B agglutination in these strongly immunocompromised patients at the time of MSC treatment. Patient analysis revealed a trend for lower clinical response in blood group O recipients treated with ABP-exposed MSC products, but not with HSA-exposed products. We conclude, that clinical grade MSCs are ABO-neutral, but the ABP used for washing and infusion of MSCs can contaminate the cells with immunogenic ABO substance and should therefore be substituted by non-immunogenic HSA, particularly when cells are given to immunocompentent individuals. PMID:24454787

  19. Do ABO blood group antigens hamper the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Moll, Guido; Hult, Annika; von Bahr, Lena; Alm, Jessica J; Heldring, Nina; Hamad, Osama A; Stenbeck-Funke, Lillemor; Larsson, Stella; Teramura, Yuji; Roelofs, Helene; Nilsson, Bo; Fibbe, Willem E; Olsson, Martin L; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Investigation into predictors for treatment outcome is essential to improve the clinical efficacy of therapeutic multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We therefore studied the possible harmful impact of immunogenic ABO blood groups antigens - genetically governed antigenic determinants - at all given steps of MSC-therapy, from cell isolation and preparation for clinical use, to final recipient outcome. We found that clinical MSCs do not inherently express or upregulate ABO blood group antigens after inflammatory challenge or in vitro differentiation. Although antigen adsorption from standard culture supplements was minimal, MSCs adsorbed small quantities of ABO antigen from fresh human AB plasma (ABP), dependent on antigen concentration and adsorption time. Compared to cells washed in non-immunogenic human serum albumin (HSA), MSCs washed with ABP elicited stronger blood responses after exposure to blood from healthy O donors in vitro, containing high titers of ABO antibodies. Clinical evaluation of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients found only very low titers of anti-A/B agglutination in these strongly immunocompromised patients at the time of MSC treatment. Patient analysis revealed a trend for lower clinical response in blood group O recipients treated with ABP-exposed MSC products, but not with HSA-exposed products. We conclude, that clinical grade MSCs are ABO-neutral, but the ABP used for washing and infusion of MSCs can contaminate the cells with immunogenic ABO substance and should therefore be substituted by non-immunogenic HSA, particularly when cells are given to immunocompentent individuals.

  20. Prevalance of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups in Blood Donors: A Study from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand.

    PubMed

    Garg, Parul; Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer

    2014-12-01

    Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group 'O' and 'A' had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System.

  1. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P < 0.001), LDL-C ((2.89 ± 1.18) mmol/L vs. (2.60 ± 1.05) mmol/L, P = 0.002) and CRP ((7.74 ± 7.32) mg/L vs. (2.93 ± 2.19)mg/L, P < 0.001) as well as higher proportion of history of hypertension (57.0% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.001), history of diabetes (29.6% vs. 9.6%, P < 0.001), family history of CHD (35.3% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.001) and smoking (51.0% vs. 38.2%, P < 0.001). Logistic analysis indicated that ABO blood groups were associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P < 0.001), this result remained after adjustment for the conventional CHD risk factors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.05-2.52, P = 0.047). In addition, there were significant differences of Gensini score between non-O subjects and group O subjects in the CHD group, and MACE at 1-year follow-up was similar between ABO blood groups of CHD individuals. ABO blood groups are associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population.

  2. [Evaluation of blood grouping in ABO and Rh systems in health facilities in Benin].

    PubMed

    Anani, L Y; Lafia, E; Ahlonsou, F; Sogbohossou, P; Bigot, A; Fagbohoun, J; Meton, A; Adjaka, A; Latoundji, S; Py, J-Y; Zohoun, I S

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to assess the modalities of blood typing achievement in Benin with the view of their improvement. On the basis of a questionnaire including the detailed operative process, a prospective investigation has been achieved in public and private health centers laboratories. It came out that the execution of ABO and Rh blood typing took place globally on the fringe of the standards. We note that 72.4% of the private laboratories and 48.9% of the public ones lacked at least one equipment and 51.3% at least one material for blood withdrawal; 38.2% of the laboratories did not respect blood withdrawal standards; 1.32% of the laboratories applied the 4×2 rule. The assessment revealed that respectively 10.8% and 30.7% of the blood centers and non-blood centers achieved the globular test solely; the same 40.5% and 46.2% used reagents of different brands. Anti-A1 and anti-H sera, and A1 and A2 red cells were not available in any laboratory. More than 64% of laboratories have senior technicians and biomedical analysis engineers but only 6.6% of the laboratories were directed by biologists, and 9.2% of the laboratories function with only one technician. Instead of some assets, the laboratories assessment noted important non-conformities we ought to raise as a matter of urgency. It is a challenge whose resolution must give blood transfusion centers a reference position relatively to blood grouping when facing blood typing difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and Mode of Inheritance of the Dal Blood Group in Dogs in North America.

    PubMed

    Goulet, S; Giger, U; Arsenault, J; Abrams-Ogg, A; Euler, C C; Blais, M-C

    2017-05-01

    The Dal blood group system was identified a decade ago by the accidental sensitization of a Dal- Dalmatian with a Dal+ blood transfusion. Similar Dal-related blood incompatibilities have been suspected in other Dalmatians, Doberman Pinschers, and other breeds. To determine the prevalence and mode of inheritance of the Dal antigen expression in dogs. A total of 1130 dogs including 128 Dalmatians, 432 Doberman Pinschers, 21 Shih Tzus, and 549 dogs of other breeds including 228 blood donors were recruited from North America between 2008 and 2015. Prospectively, dogs were blood typed for Dal applying a gel column technique using polyclonal canine anti-Dal sera. Pedigrees from 8 typed families were analyzed. The prevalence of the Dal+ blood type varied between 85.6 and 100% in Dalmatians and 43.3-78.6% in Doberman Pinschers depending on geographical area. Dal- dogs were identified mostly in Dalmatians (15/128; 11.7%), Doberman Pinschers (183/432; 42.4%), and Shih Tzus (12/21; 57.1%), and sporadically in mixed-breed dogs (3/122; 2.5%), Lhasa Apsos (1/6) and Bichon Frises (1/3). Only 6/245 (2.4%) blood donors were found to be Dal-, including 5 Doberman Pinschers. The mode of inheritance of the Dal+ phenotype was determined to be autosomal dominant. The high percentage of Dal- Doberman Pinchers, Dalmatians and Shih Tzus increases their risk of being sensitized by a blood transfusion from the common Dal+ donor. Extended Dal typing is recommended in those breeds and in dogs when blood incompatibility problems arise after initial transfusions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Sensitive typing of reverse ABO blood groups with a waveguide-mode sensor.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Torahiko; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takei, Masami; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-07-01

    Portable, on-site blood typing methods will help provide life-saving blood transfusions to patients during an emergency or natural calamity, such as significant earthquakes. We have previously developed waveguide-mode (WM) sensors for forward ABO and Rh(D) blood typing and detection of antibodies against hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. In this study, we evaluated a WM-sensor for reverse ABO blood typing. Since reverse ABO blood typing is a method for detection of antibodies against type A and type B oligosaccharide antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), we fixed a synthetic type A or type B trisaccharide antigen on the sensor chip of the WM sensor. We obtained significant changes in the reflectance spectra from a WM sensor on type A antigen with type B plasma and type O plasma and on type B antigen with type A plasma and type O plasma, and no spectrum changes on type A antigen or type B antigen with type AB plasma. Signal enhancement with the addition of a peroxidase reaction failed to increase the sensitivity for detection on oligosaccharide chips. By utilizing hemagglutination detection using regent type A and type B RBCs, we successfully determined reverse ABO blood groups with higher sensitivity compared to a method using oligosaccharide antigens. Thus, functionality of a portable device utilizing a WM sensor can be expanded to include reverse ABO blood typing and, in combination with forward ABO typing and antivirus antibody detection, may be useful for on-site blood testing in emergency settings. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a sensor for the blood AB0 group antibodies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, D. V.; Kiselev, G. A.; Moiseev, M. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Yaminskiy, I. V.

    2012-02-01

    Control the content of the blood group antibodies in the plasma of the recipient is an important task in modern transplantation. In this paper we proposed to use micromechanical cantilever sensors for detection of the low concentrations of AB0 blood group antibodies in serum. The technique of chemical modification of cantilever surface to create the receptor layer was developed. The apparatus, which provides data acquisition from multiple microconsoles simultaneously was created. We carried out experiments by the detection in a solution the β antibodies with a concentration of 300 times less than the native content of antibodies in the blood. Change in surface stress due to formation of antigen-antibody complexes on the cantilever surface was 0.075 N/m. The resulting lateral strain, apparently, induced by repulsion between the complexes during the sorption of antibodies in layer of antigens, immobilized on the surface. The possibility of regeneration of sensory layer for repeated measurements was shown.

  6. Relative Risks of Thrombosis and Bleeding in Different ABO Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The ABO blood group system is composed of complex carbohydrate molecules (i.e., the A, B, and H determinants) that are widely expressed on the surface of red blood cells and in a variety of other cell and tissues. Along with their pivotal role in transfusion and transplantation medicine, the ABO antigens participate in many other physiological processes and, in particular, are important determinants of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII circulating plasma levels. The precise influence of the ABO system on hemostasis has led the way to the investigation of a putative implication in the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Along with the underlying molecular mechanisms, the current knowledge on the role of ABO blood group antigens in both the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk will be summarized in this narrative review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Prevalence of Diego blood group antigen and the antibody in three ethnic population groups in Klang valley of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R

    2013-01-01

    Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.

  8. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  9. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the Food and Drug Administration. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. 864.9160 Section 864.9160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the Food and Drug Administration. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. 864.9160 Section 864.9160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  11. Constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and Duffy blood group alleles in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosower, N.S.; Gerad, L.; Goldstein, M.

    1995-04-24

    Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in unrelated schizophrenic patients, unrelated controls and patients and family members in multiplex families. The size-distribution of chromosome 1 heterochromatic region (1qH, C-band variants) among 21 unrelated schizophrenic patients was different from that found in a group of 46 controls. The patient group had 1qH variants of smaller size than the control group (P < 0.01). Incubation of phytohemagglutinin-treated blood lymphocytes with 5-azacytidine (which causes decondensation and extension of the heterochromatin) led to a lesser degree of heterochromatin decondensation in a group of patients than in the controls (7 schizophrenic, 9 controls, P < 0.01).more » The distribution of phenotypes of Duffy blood group system (whose locus is linked to the 1qH region) among 28 schizophrenic patients was also different from that in the general population. Cosegregation of schizophrenia with a 1qH (C-band) variant and Duffy blood group allele was observed in one of six multiplex families. The overall results suggest that alterations within the Duffy/1qH region are involved in schizophrenia in some cases. This region contains the locus of D5 dopamine receptor pseudogene 2 (1q21.1), which is transcribed in normal lymphocytes. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.« less

  12. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    PubMed

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (p<0.05). In Dokki, 20% of the studied group had blood lead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead level<10μg/dL (p<0.05). Those living in Helwan area, those with bad health habits, and those living in housing with increased exposure were at a statistically significantly higher risk of having blood lead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and blood groups in a population of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Leske, M Cristina

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship of hypertension and diabetes with the ABO, Rhesus, and Duffy blood groups, which are known markers of African ancestry. Population-based study. A random sample of 1253 Barbados residents, > or = 40 years of age. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive treatment; type 2 diabetes was defined as a glycosylated hemoglobin level >10% and/or a history of treatment in those >30 years of age. In logistic regression analyses, elevated diastolic blood pressure was positively associated with years of age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval CI 1.02-1.05), the Rhesus D+ antigen (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.21-5.97) and body mass index (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.96), but negatively associated with the ABO blood group A allele (OR 0.68, 95% CI .48-.97). A separate logistic regression model indicated that the likelihood of diabetes increased with years of age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04), hypertension (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10-2.20), body mass index (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.29-2.20), and waist-hip ratio (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.75), but decreased with presence of the Rhesus C+ antigen (OR .66, 95% CI .44-.97). The associations of diabetes and hypertension to these blood groups support possible genetic influences on both conditions in this and similar African-origin populations; however, further investigations in other settings are necessary to more fully elucidate these findings.

  14. Application of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in rapid Diego blood group genotyping.

    PubMed

    Novaretti, M C Z; Ruiz, A S; Dorlhiac-Llacer, P E; Chamone, D A F

    2010-01-01

    The paucity of appropriate reagents for serologic typing of the Diego blood group antigens has prompted the development of a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for Diego blood group genotyping. In this study, we phenotyped 4326 donor blood samples for Di(a) using semiautomated equipment. All 157 Di(a+) samples were then genotyped by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for DI*02 because of anti-Di(b) scarcity. Of the 4326 samples, we simultaneously tested 160 samples for Di(a) and Di(b) serology, and DI*01 and DI*02 by PCR-SSP and by real-time PCR. We used the same primers for Diego genotyping by real-time PCR and PCR-SSP. Melting curve profiles obtained using the dissociation software of the real-time PCR apparatus enabled the discrimination of Diego alleles. Of the total samples tested, 4169 blood donors, 96.4 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.8-96.9%), were homozygous for DI*02 and 157, 3.6 percent (95% CI, 3.1%-4.2%), were heterozygous DI*01/02. No blood donor was found to be homozygous for DI*01 in this study. The calculated DI*01 and DI*02 allele frequencies were 0.0181 (95% CI, 0.0173-0.0189) and 0.9819 (95% CI, 0.9791-0.9847), respectively, showing a good fit for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was full concordance among Diego phenotype results by PCR-SSP and real-time PCR. DI*01 and DI*02 allele determination with SYBR Green I and thermal cycler technology are useful methods for Diego determination. The real-time PCR with SYBR Green I melting temperature protocol can be used as a rapid screening tool for DI*01 and DI*02 blood group genotyping.

  15. The association of ABO blood groups with extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian patients suffering from chronic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Carević, Vedran; Radić, Mislav; Fabijanić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to: 1) examine the relationship between ABO blood groups and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 2) compare ABO blood groups distribution in CAD patients and general population, 3) examine possible differences in traditional risk factors frequency in CAD patients with different ABO blood groups. In the 646 chronic CAD patients (72.4% males) coronary angiograms were scored by quantitative assessment using multiple angiographic scoring system, Traditional risk factors were self reported or measured by standard methods. ABO blood distribution of patients was compared with group of 651 healthy blood donors (74.6% males). Among all ABO blood group patients there was no significant difference between the extent of coronary atherosclerosis with regard to all the three scoring systems: number of affected coronary arteries (P = 0.857), Gensini score (P = 0.818), and number of segments narrowed > 50% (P = 0.781). There was no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution between CAD patients and healthy blood donors. Among CAD patients, men with blood group AB were significantly younger than their pairs with non-AB blood groups (P = 0.008). Among CAD patients with AB blood group, males < 50 yrs were significantly overrepresented when compared with the non-AB groups (P = 0.003). No association between ABO blood groups and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian CAD patients is observed. Observation that AB blood group might possibly identify Croatian males at risk to develop the premature CAD has to be tested in larger cohort of patients.

  16. INRA, a new high-frequency antigen in the INDIAN (IN023) blood group system

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sanmukh R.; Sheladiya, Ankita; Mendapara-Dobariya, Kinjal V.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The INDIAN blood group system comprises 4 antigens sensitive to enzymes and 2-aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide (AET). AIM: The patient's antibody was investigated for its specificity to the high-frequency antigens (HFA) of this system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Low ionic strength solution (LISS)-tube/LISS-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) methods were used. The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) were tested with antisera to HFA. Her antibody was tested with RBCs lacking the HFA. Furthermore, it was tested with RBCs as untreated or treated with enzyme or AET. The genetic sequence was studied for mutation in CD44 gene that encodes INDIAN antigens. RESULTS: The patient was grouped A1B, RhD+, antibody screening test positive, direct antiglobulin test negative. A negative autocontrol test had suggested to the alloantibody being present. Antibody had agglutinated RBCs in LISS-tube at RT and by LISS-IAT at 37°C. The RBCs of the 11-cell panel, those lacking HFA and from 50 random donors, were agglutinated by her antibody indicating its specificity to the HFA, though the RBCs of Lu (a-b-)/In (Lu) type showed a weaker reaction. The patient's RBCs were agglutinated by antisera to a number of the enzyme-sensitive HFA, including those of INDIAN blood groups. The antibody showed reduced reactivity with the RBCs treated with papain, chymotrypsin, and AET but resistant to trypsin and dithiothreitol. The patient's genetic sequence revealed a novel homozygous mutation 449G>A in exon 5 of CD44. CONCLUSION: The antibody to enzyme sensitive HFA was tested for serological and molecular genetics studies and found to be directed to the novel HFA, named as INRA of the INDIAN blood group system and was assigned a numerical symbol IN: 005 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). PMID:28970678

  17. INRA, a new high-frequency antigen in the INDIAN (IN023) blood group system.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Sheladiya, Ankita; Mendapara-Dobariya, Kinjal V

    2017-01-01

    The INDIAN blood group system comprises 4 antigens sensitive to enzymes and 2-aminoethyl isothiouronium bromide (AET). The patient's antibody was investigated for its specificity to the high-frequency antigens (HFA) of this system. Low ionic strength solution (LISS)-tube/LISS-indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) methods were used. The patient's red blood cells (RBCs) were tested with antisera to HFA. Her antibody was tested with RBCs lacking the HFA. Furthermore, it was tested with RBCs as untreated or treated with enzyme or AET. The genetic sequence was studied for mutation in CD44 gene that encodes INDIAN antigens. The patient was grouped A1B, RhD+, antibody screening test positive, direct antiglobulin test negative. A negative autocontrol test had suggested to the alloantibody being present. Antibody had agglutinated RBCs in LISS-tube at RT and by LISS-IAT at 37°C. The RBCs of the 11-cell panel, those lacking HFA and from 50 random donors, were agglutinated by her antibody indicating its specificity to the HFA, though the RBCs of Lu (a-b-)/In (Lu) type showed a weaker reaction. The patient's RBCs were agglutinated by antisera to a number of the enzyme-sensitive HFA, including those of INDIAN blood groups. The antibody showed reduced reactivity with the RBCs treated with papain, chymotrypsin, and AET but resistant to trypsin and dithiothreitol. The patient's genetic sequence revealed a novel homozygous mutation 449G>A in exon 5 of CD44 . The antibody to enzyme sensitive HFA was tested for serological and molecular genetics studies and found to be directed to the novel HFA, named as INRA of the INDIAN blood group system and was assigned a numerical symbol IN: 005 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).

  18. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world.

  19. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    PubMed

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  20. High circulating osteoprotegerin levels are associated with non-zero blood groups.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elod Erno; Varga-Fekete, Timea; Puskas, Attila; Kelemen, Piroska; Brassai, Zoltan; Szekeres-Csiki, Katalin; Gombos, Timea; Csanyi, Maria Csilla; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2016-05-26

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) form complex within endothelial cells and following secretion. The nature of blood group antigens strongly influences the levels of circulating VWF, but there is no available data concerning its ascendancy on OPG levels. We aimed to assess the relationship of AB0 blood groups with OPG, VWF levels (VWF: Ag) and collagen binding activity (VWF: CB) in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Functional and laboratory parameters of 105 PAD patients and 109 controls were examined. Results of OPG, VWF: Ag, VWF: CB (ELISA-s) were analysed by comparative statistics, together with clinical data. OPG levels were higher in patients than in controls (4.64 ng/mL vs. 3.68 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Among patients elevation was marked in the presence of critical limb ischemia (5.19 ng/mL vs. 4.20 ng/mL, p = 0.011). The OPG in patients correlated positively with VWF: Ag and VWF: CB (r = 0.26, p = 0.008; r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and negatively with ankle-brachial pressure index (r = -0.22, p = 0.023). Furthermore, OPG was significantly elevated in non-0 blood groups compared to 0-groups both in patients and controls (4.95 ng/mL vs. 3.90 ng/mL, p = 0.012 and 4.09 ng/mL vs. 3.40 ng/mL, p = 0.002). OPG levels are associated to blood group phenotypes and higher in non-0 individuals. Increased OPG levels in PAD characterize disease severity. The significant correlation between OPG and VWF:CB might have functional importance in an atherothrombosis-prone biological environment.

  1. Molecular – genetic variance of RH blood group system within human population of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lasić, Lejla; Lojo-Kadrić, Naida; Silajdžić, Elma; Pojskić, Lejla; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Pojskić, Naris

    2013-01-01

    There are two major theories for inheritance of Rh blood group system: Fisher – Race theory and Wiener theory. Aim of this study was identifying frequency of RHDCE alleles in Bosnian – Herzegovinian population and introduction of this method in screening for Rh phenotype in B&H since this type of analysis was not used for blood typing in B&H before. Rh blood group was typed by Polymerase Chain Reaction, using the protocols and primers previously established by other authors, then carrying out electrophoresis in 2-3% agarose gel. Percentage of Rh positive individuals in our sample is 84.48%, while the percentage of Rh negative individuals is 15.52%. Inter-rater agreement statistic showed perfect agreement (K=1) between the results of Rh blood system detection based on serological and molecular-genetics methods. In conclusion, molecular – genetic methods are suitable for prenatal genotyping and specific cases while standard serological method is suitable for high-throughput of samples. PMID:23448604

  2. Position of human blood group O(H) and phenotype-determining enzymes in growth and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2018-05-12

    The human ABO(H) blood group phenotypes arise from the evolutionarily oldest genetic system found in primate populations. While the blood group antigen A is considered the ancestral primordial structure, under the selective pressure of life-threatening diseases blood group O(H) came to dominate as the most frequently occurring blood group worldwide. Non-O(H) phenotypes demonstrate impaired formation of adaptive and innate immunoglobulin specificities due to clonal selection and phenotype formation in plasma proteins. Compared with individuals with blood group O(H), blood group A individuals not only have a significantly higher risk of developing certain types of cancer but also exhibit high susceptibility to malaria tropica or infection by Plasmodium falciparum. The phenotype-determining blood group A glycotransferase(s), which affect the levels of anti-A/Tn cross-reactive immunoglobulins in phenotypic glycosidic accommodation, might also mediate adhesion and entry of the parasite to host cells via trans-species O-GalNAc glycosylation of abundantly expressed serine residues that arise throughout the parasite's life cycle, while excluding the possibility of antibody formation against the resulting hybrid Tn antigen. In contrast, human blood group O(H), lacking this enzyme, is indicated to confer a survival advantage regarding the overall risk of developing cancer, and individuals with this blood group rarely develop life-threatening infections involving evolutionarily selective malaria strains. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values <0.05 being corrected for multiple comparisons (pc). No statistically significant differences were found for the ABO (X 2 : 2.635; p-value=0.451), Secretor (X 2 : 0.056; p-value=0.812) or Lewis (X 2 : 2.092; p-value=0.351) histo-blood group phenotypes between patients and controls. However, B plus AB Secretor phenotypes were prevalent in pooled data from megaesophagus and megacolon patients (OR: 5.381; 95% CI: 1.230-23.529; p-value=0.011; pc=0.022) in comparison to A plus O Secretor phenotypes. The tissue antigen variability resulting from the combined action of ABO and

  4. Structures for the ABO(H) Blood Group: Which Textbook Is Correct?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, John M.

    2007-09-01

    Six textbooks and two Internet sites show different structures for the A, B, and O(H) antigens of the ABO(H) blood group. However, none of the structures identified as the A, B, and O(H) antigens are correct. The O(H) antigen is a disaccharide, on which the trisaccharide A and B antigens are synthesized. The structures shown in the textbooks and at the Internet sites contain the O(H), A, and B antigens attached at the nonreducing end of various heterosaccharide cores of glycoproteins and glycolipids that are not a part of the specific blood group. This article emphasizes the correct molecular structures because it is important to distinguish between those carbohydrates that make up the antigens and those that are not part of the antigenic structures.

  5. Classification of Blood-Group Antibodies as β2M or γ Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, M.; Polley, Margaret J.; Hunter, Denise A.; Mollison, P. L.

    1962-01-01

    Thirty selected blood-group antibodies (excluding anti-A and anti-B) have been classified as β2M (19S γ) globulin, γ (7S γ) globulin or mixtures, using the following three methods: fractionation on a DEAE-cellulose column; indirect anti-globulin tests, using specific anti-β2M-globulin and anti-γ-globulin sera; and treatment with 2-mercapto-ethanol. With only minor exceptions, results obtained with the three methods were in agreement. Most blood-group antibodies within the Le, MNSs and P systems appear to be `naturally occurring' and these were found to be β2M globulin. Blood-group antibodies within the Rh, K and Jk systems, which had arisen after an antigenic stimulus, were usually γ globulin but were occasionally β2M globulin. Antibodies composed of β2M globulin usually behave as agglutinins but may behave as incomplete antibodies (e.g. some examples of anti-Jka); conversely, antibodies composed of γ globulin usually behave as incomplete antibodies but may behave as agglutinins (e.g. an example of anti-M). The ability to bind complement seems to be related more to the blood-group specificity of the particular antibody than to its molecular size. For example, anti-Jka, when composed either of γ or β2M globulin, seems invariably to bind complement, whereas potent anti-M or anti-Rh, whether composed of γ or β2M globulin, do not bind complement. PMID:14011076

  6. Impact of sickle cell trait on the thrombotic risk associated with non-O blood groups in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sagir G; Kagu, Modu B; Ibrahim, Umma A; Bukar, Audu A

    2015-10-01

    The non-O blood group is an established risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while controversy surrounds the role of sickle cell trait (SCT) as a risk factor for DVT. We hypothesised that if SCT is a risk factor for DVT, individuals with non-O blood groups and SCT (Hb AS) would have a higher risk of DVT than their counterparts with non-O blood groups and normal haemoglobin phenotype (Hb AA). We retrospectively analysed the prevalence of SCT and non-O blood groups among 148 DVT patients with control subjects in order to determine the role of SCT as a risk factor for DVT and its impact on the risk of DVT among patients with non-O blood groups. In comparison with control subjects, DVT patients had significantly higher prevalences of SCT (35.1% vs 27.7%, p=0.04) and non-O blood groups (68.9% vs 45.9%, p=0.02). The odds ratios for DVT due to SCT, non-O blood groups with normal Hb phenotype (Hb AA) and non-O blood groups with SCT (Hb AS) were 1.3, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. These results suggest that SCT by itself is a weak risk factor for DVT but it has the potential of escalating the DVT risk among patients with non-O blood groups. The combined effects of elevated clotting factors (non-O group effect) and increased clotting factor activation (SCT effect) were responsible for the escalated DVT risk among patients with co-inheritance of non-O blood groups and SCT. Co-inheritance of SCT and non-O blood group is, therefore, an important mixed risk factor for DVT. This should be taken into account when assessing DVT risk profiles of patients in Africa and other parts of the world where the SCT is prevalent.

  7. A dye-assisted paper-based point-of-care assay for fast and reliable blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Qiu, Xiaopei; Zou, Yurui; Ye, Yanyao; Qi, Chao; Zou, Lingyun; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Yang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yang; Luo, Yang

    2017-03-15

    Fast and simultaneous forward and reverse blood grouping has long remained elusive. Forward blood grouping detects antigens on red blood cells, whereas reverse grouping identifies specific antibodies present in plasma. We developed a paper-based assay using immobilized antibodies and bromocresol green dye for rapid and reliable blood grouping, where dye-assisted color changes corresponding to distinct blood components provide a visual readout. ABO antigens and five major Rhesus antigens could be detected within 30 s, and simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood grouping using small volumes (100 μl) of whole blood was achieved within 2 min through on-chip plasma separation without centrifugation. A machine-learning method was developed to classify the spectral plots corresponding to dye-based color changes, which enabled reproducible automatic grouping. Using optimized operating parameters, the dye-assisted paper assay exhibited comparable accuracy and reproducibility to the classical gel-card assays in grouping 3550 human blood samples. When translated to the assembly line and low-cost manufacturing, the proposed approach may be developed into a cost-effective and robust universal blood-grouping platform. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Donors' blood group declaration before donation can be used as a tool for electronic crossmatching.

    PubMed

    Arslan, O

    2005-12-01

    Electronic crossmatching (E-XM) is used to detect ABO incompatibility. In developing countries, as many of the donations are from first-time donors, it is difficult to guarantee the accuracy of the ABO/Rh label on these units to use them for E-XM. This problem was overcome with a new software 'hemosoft', using donors' blood group declaration before donation as a tool for E-XM. During registration, donors either declare their blood group or give no comment. For, ABO/Rh grouping, either two results from different donations or only one in concordant with the declaration before donation is needed. If there is a conflict, second typing is performed from the unit segment. If donors give no declaration, two different technicians perform typing, one from the sample tube and the other from the unit segment. Of 18,618 donations performed, 640 (3%) were repeated and the rest were first-time donations. In 16,327, typing was performed once, as the blood group declaration and the typing results were identical. In 2407, grouping was performed twice, as donors gave no declaration or conflicts between declaration and typing results were found. No labelling or wrong unit-release errors were detected in units donated, typed and labelled in our centre. In 26,402 donations, 16,314 (61.8%) E-XMs were performed. No major haemolytic transfusion reaction was recorded. Donors' ABO/Rh declaration before donation can be used as a tool for E-XM, instead of the requirement for serological confirmation or a second donation to guarantee grouping.

  9. Lack of association between Kidd blood group system and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Capriolli, Tiago Verri; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    The Kidd blood group system has three antigens, Jk a , Jk b and Jk3, found on red blood cells and on endothelial cells of the inner lining of blood vessels in the renal medulla. These are known as urea transporter B (UT-B). Researchers have found that individuals carrying the Jk(a-b-) or Jk-null (UT-B null) phenotypes have a lower urine-concentrating capability and risk of severe renal impairment. This study evaluated the distribution of the Kidd phenotypes in patients with chronic kidney disease and a possible association of Kidd antigens with the development of renal disease. Jk a and Jk b antigens were phenotyped using the gel column agglutination test (ID-cards Bio-RAD) in 197 patients with chronic kidney disease and 444 blood donors, as the control group. The phenotype and antigen frequencies between patients and controls were evaluated using the Chi-square method with Yates correction and logistic regression after adjustments for gender and age. No differences were observed between the Kidd phenotypes frequency distribution between patients with chronic kidney disease and blood donors [Jk(a-b+)=22.3% and 27.2%; Jk(a+b-)=30.5% and 24.3%; Jk(a+b+)=47.25% and 48.4%, respectively]. The distribution of Kidd phenotypes found in the studied population is expected for Caucasians; Jk a and Jk b antigens and phenotypes were not found to be related to susceptibility for chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms as internal controls in prenatal diagnosis of fetal blood groups.

    PubMed

    Doescher, Andrea; Petershofen, Eduard K; Wagner, Franz F; Schunter, Markus; Müller, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate amplification of fetal DNA. We evaluated the routine inclusion of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as internal reference in our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) settings to obtain a positive internal control for fetal DNA. DNA from 223 plasma samples of pregnant women was screened for RHD Exons 3, 4, 5, and 7 in a multiplex PCR including 52 SNPs divided into four primer pools. Amplicons were analyzed by single-base extension and the GeneScan method in a genetic analyzer. Results of D screening were compared to standard RHD genotyping of amniotic fluid or real-time PCR of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. The vast majority of all samples (97.8%) demonstrated differences in maternal and fetal SNP patterns when tested with four primer pools. These differences were not observed in less than 2.2% of the samples most probably due to an extraction failure for adequate amounts of fetal DNA. Comparison of the fetal genotypes with independent results did not reveal a single false-negative case among samples (n = 42) with positive internal control and negative fetal RHD typing. Coamplification of 52 SNPs with RHD-specific sequences for fetal blood group determination introduces a valid positive control for the amplification of fetal DNA to avoid false-negative results. This new approach does not require a paternal blood sample. It may also be applicable to other assays for fetal genotyping in maternal blood samples. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Human Group C Rotavirus VP8*s Recognize Type A Histo-Blood Group Antigens as Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Lihong; Qi, Jianxun; Li, Dandi; Wang, Mengxuan; Cong, Xin; Peng, Ruchao; Chai, Wengang; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hong; Wen, Hongling; Gao, George F; Tan, Ming; Duan, Zhaojun

    2018-06-01

    Group/species C rotaviruses (RVCs) have been identified as important pathogens of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children, family-based outbreaks, as well as animal infections. However, little is known regarding their host-specific interaction, infection, and pathogenesis. In this study, we performed serial studies to characterize the function and structural features of a human G4P[2] RVC VP8* that is responsible for the host receptor interaction. Glycan microarrays demonstrated that the human RVC VP8* recognizes type A histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which was confirmed by synthetic glycan-/saliva-based binding assays and hemagglutination of red blood cells, establishing a paradigm of RVC VP8*-glycan interactions. Furthermore, the high-resolution crystal structure of the human RVC VP8* was solved, showing a typical galectin-like structure consisting of two β-sheets but with significant differences from cogent proteins of group A rotaviruses (RVAs). The VP8* in complex with a type A trisaccharide displays a novel ligand binding site that consists of a particular set of amino acid residues of the C-D, G-H, and K-L loops. RVC VP8* interacts with type A HBGAs through a unique mechanism compared with that used by RVAs. Our findings shed light on the host-virus interaction and the coevolution of RVCs and will facilitate the development of specific antivirals and vaccines. IMPORTANCE Group/species C rotaviruses (RVCs), members of Reoviridae family, infect both humans and animals, but our knowledge about the host factors that control host susceptibility and specificity is rudimentary. In this work, we characterized the glycan binding specificity and structural basis of a human RVC that recognizes type A HBGAs. We found that human RVC VP8*, the rotavirus host ligand binding domain that shares only ∼15% homology with the VP8* domains of RVAs, recognizes type A HBGA at an as-yet-unknown glycan binding site through a mechanism distinct from that used by RVAs. Our new

  12. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  13. Allelic Prevalence of ABO Blood Group Genes in Iranian Azari Population

    PubMed Central

    Nojavan, Mohammad; Shamsasenjan, Karrim; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Torabi, Seyd Esmail; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction ABO blood group system is the most important blood group in transfusion and has been widely used in population studies. Several molecular techniques for ABO allele’s detection are widely used for distinguishing various alleles of glycosyl transferase locus on chromosome 9. Methods 744 randomly selected samples from Azari donors of East Azerbaijan province (Iran) were examined using well-adjusted multiplex allele- specific PCR ABO genotyping technique. Results The results were consistent for all individuals. The ABO blood group genotype of 744 healthy Azari blood donors was: 25.8% AA/AO (2), 7.6% AO (1), 1.6% BB, 11.3% B0 (1), 10% AB, 9.3% 0(1)0(1) and 15.3%0(1)0(2). The highest genotype frequency belonged to O01/O02 genotype (15.3%) and the lowest frequency belonged to A101/A102 genotype (0.4%). Conclusions: The frequencies of ABO alleles didn’t show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions The frequencies of ABO alleles didn’t show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05). PMID:23678461

  14. Relationship between somatotype and blood pressure in a group of institutionalized Venezuelan elders.

    PubMed

    Herrera, H; Rebato, E; Hernández, R; Hernández-Valera, Y; Alfonso-Sánchez, M A

    2004-01-01

    Somatotype, as an indirect measure of estimating body composition, provides an easy and comprehensive picture of body shape. Multiple investigations have shown the existence of an association between somatotype components and cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of somatotype with blood pressure during ageing. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype and both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were recorded. The sample included 809 healthy institutionalized elders (370 males and 439 females) from geriatric units in Caracas, Venezuela. Ages ranged from 60 to 102 years. Product-moment correlation coefficients between somatotype components and both blood pressure readings were calculated. Principal component analysis and homogeneity analysis by means of alternative least squares tests were also performed. Females were more endomorphic and mesomorphic than males. Males were more ectomorphic than females. SBP showed a downward tendency with age in males, while in females the tendency was for the SBP to increase. Correlations among variables were from low to moderate and ranged from -0.37 to +0.34 in males, and from -0.18 to +0.32 in females. Correlations tended to be stronger in the younger age group and differences between sexes were found. A negative tendency in the correlation between ectomorphy and both SBP and DBP was found, except for the oldest age group, for which the correlation was positive. Endomorphy and mesomorphy showed a stable correlation pattern with blood pressure in males, while in females this pattern was more irregular and less consistent. Individuals with high levels of SBP and DBP had mean somatotypes, which were similar to those of other male groups characterized by myocardial infarct, coronary heart disease and the risk of hypertension, indicating that these somatotypes may be associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In particular, our results indicate that individuals who

  15. Allelic Prevalence of ABO Blood Group Genes in Iranian Azari Population.

    PubMed

    Nojavan, Mohammad; Shamsasenjan, Karrim; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Torabi, Seyd Esmail; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood group system is the most important blood group in transfusion and has been widely used in population studies. Several molecular techniques for ABO allele's detection are widely used for distinguishing various alleles of glycosyl transferase locus on chromosome 9. 744 randomly selected samples from Azari donors of East Azerbaijan province (Iran) were examined using well-adjusted multiplex allele- specific PCR ABO genotyping technique. The results were consistent for all individuals. The ABO blood group genotype of 744 healthy Azari blood donors was: 25.8% AA/AO (2), 7.6% AO (1), 1.6% BB, 11.3% B0 (1), 10% AB, 9.3% 0(1)0(1) and 15.3%0(1)0(2). The highest genotype frequency belonged to O01/O02 genotype (15.3%) and the lowest frequency belonged to A101/A102 genotype (0.4%). The frequencies of ABO alleles didn't show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05). The frequencies of ABO alleles didn't show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05).

  16. Recombinant blood group proteins for use in antibody screening and identification tests.

    PubMed

    Seltsam, Axel; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2009-11-01

    The present review elucidates the potentials of recombinant blood group proteins (BGPs) for red blood cell (RBC) antibody detection and identification in pretransfusion testing and the achievements in this field so far. Many BGPs have been eukaryotically and prokaryotically expressed in sufficient quantity and quality for RBC antibody testing. Recombinant BGPs can be incorporated in soluble protein reagents or solid-phase assays such as ELISA, color-coded microsphere and protein microarray chip-based techniques. Because novel recombinant protein-based assays use single antigens, a positive reaction of a serum with the recombinant protein directly indicates the presence and specificity of the target antibody. Inversely, conventional RBC-based assays use panels of human RBCs carrying a huge number of blood group antigens at the same time and require negative reactions of samples with antigen-negative cells for indirect determination of antibody specificity. Because of their capacity for single-step, direct RBC antibody determination, recombinant protein-based assays may greatly facilitate and accelerate the identification of common and rare RBC antibodies.

  17. How good is the obesity associated with blood groups in a cohort of female university going students?

    PubMed

    Jawed, Shireen; Atta, Komal; Tariq, Saba; Amir, Farah

    2018-01-01

    To find out frequency of obesity in female University students in Faisalabad and to investigate its association with blood groups of ABO system. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample size of 200 female University students, recruited from the Faisalabad based institutes from May 2017 to July 2017. Relevant information was taken by administering questionnaire. Height in meters and weight in kg were taken by stadiometer. BMI was calculated using formula BMI=weight in kg/height m 2 . Blood groups were determined by classic (antigen-antibody agglutination test). The data was analyzed through SPSS 20. Descriptive were presented as mean± SD and association of BMI with blood groups was assessed by regression analysis. P value ≤0.05 deemed statistically significant. Out of students, 192 attempted the questionnaire and participated in study (96% response rate), 30% of the 192 females were obese, distribution of ABO blood group showed 43%, followed by O, A and AB. 90% were Rh positive and 10% were Rh negative. Blood group O showed a trend towards obesity and blood group AB showed a trend towards lean body. The blood group O showed the significant positive association with obesity. Population with blood group O showed greatest susceptibility to be overweight and obese.

  18. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  19. Why group & save? Blood transfusion at low-risk elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Stock, Owen; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Women undergoing elective caesarean section (CS) routinely have a group and save ordered as part of their preoperative assessment, whereas women with expected vaginal birth do not. Our aim was therefore to determine the rate of blood transfusion at elective CS compared with vaginal birth in a large Australian maternity hospital. A retrospective cohort study was performed using routinely collected de-identified data of 35 477 women, over 4 years, who delivered at the Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. After excluding women with established risk factors for transfusion, the likelihood of blood transfusion following elective CS was significantly lower compared to vaginal birth (aOR 0.47 (0.29, 0.77)). © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Association of Duffy Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms with IL8 Gene in Chronic Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis. PMID:24386171

  1. Association of duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis.

  2. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  3. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in school-aged Chinese in Taipei City and relationship between ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chen, Liang-Kung; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2003-08-01

    To explore the seropositive rate of antibodies against H. pylori (anti-HP) in Taipei City and to compare the relationship of ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection. In 1993, high school students in Shih-Lin District were randomly selected for blood samplings by their registration number at school. In addition, similar procedures were performed on the well-children clinics of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Besides, randomly selected sera from the adults who took the physical examination were recruited for evaluation. Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects before blood samplings and parents were simultaneously informed for those who were younger than 18-year-old. Blood tests for anti-HP and ABO blood groupings were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chi square tests were used for the comparisons between seroprevalence of H. pylori and ABO blood groups. Totally, 685 subjects were recruited (260 children aged 1-14 years, 425 high school students aged 15-18 years) were evaluated, and another 88 adult healthy volunteers were studied as well for comparison. The age-specific seropositive rate of anti-HP was 1.3 % at age 1-5 years, 7.7 % at age 6-10 years, and 11.5 % at age 11-14 years. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was abruptly increased in young adolescence: 18.6 % at age 15 years, 28.1 % at age 16 years, 32.4 % at age 17 years and 41.0 % at age 18 years, respectively. In the 425 high school students, ABO blood groupings were performed, which disclosed 48.5 % (206/425) of blood group O, 24 % (102/425) of blood group A, 21.8 % (93/425) of blood group B and 5.6 % (24/425) of blood group AB. In comparison of the subjects with blood group O and the other blood groups, no statistical significance could be identified in the seroprevalence of H. pylori (P=0.99). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Taipei City in adults is similar to the developed countries, and the abrupt increase of H. pylori during high school may be

  4. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in school-aged Chinese in Taipei City and relationship between ABO blood groups

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tzee-Chung; Chen, Liang-Kung; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the seropositive rate of antibodies against H. pylori (anti-HP) in Taipei City and to compare the relationship of ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection. METHODS: In 1993, high school students in Shih-Lin District were randomly selected for blood samplings by their registration number at school. In addition, similar procedures were performed on the well-children clinics of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Besides, randomly selected sera from the adults who took the physical examination were recruited for evaluation. Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects before blood samplings and parents were simultaneously informed for those who were younger than 18-year-old. Blood tests for anti-HP and ABO blood groupings were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chi square tests were used for the comparisons between seroprevalence of H. pylori and ABO blood groups. RESULTS: Totally, 685 subjects were recruited (260 children aged 1-14 years, 425 high school students aged 15-18 years) were evaluated, and another 88 adult healthy volunteers were studied as well for comparison. The age-specific seropositive rate of anti-HP was 1.3% at age 1-5 years, 7.7% at age 6-10 years, and 11.5% at age 11-14 years. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was abruptly increased in young adolescence: 18.6% at age 15 years, 28.1% at age 16 years, 32.4% at age 17 years and 41.0% at age 18 years, respectively. In the 425 high school students, ABO blood groupings were performed, which disclosed 48.5% (206/425) of blood group O, 24% (102/425) of blood group A, 21.8% (93/425) of blood group B and 5.6% (24/425) of blood group AB. In comparison of the subjects with blood group O and the other blood groups, no statistical significance could be identified in the seroprevalence of H. pylori (P = 0.99). CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Taipei City in adults is similar to the developed countries, and the abrupt increase of H. pylori during

  5. Toxoplasmosis-associated difference in intelligence and personality in men depends on their Rhesus blood group but not ABO blood group.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence.

  6. Toxoplasmosis-Associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Preiss, Marek; Klose, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii influences the behaviour of infected animals and probably also personality of infected humans. Subjects with a Rhesus-positive blood group are protected against certain behavioural effects associated with Toxoplasma infection, including the deterioration of reaction times and personality factor shift. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we searched for differences in the toxoplasmosis-associated effects between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by testing 502 soldiers with two personality tests and two intelligence tests. The infected subjects expressed lower levels of all potentially pathognomic factors measured with the N-70 questionnaire and in neurasthenia measured with NEO-PI-R. The RhD-positive, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed lower while RhD-negative, Toxoplasma-infected subjects expressed higher intelligence than their Toxoplasma-free peers. The observed Toxoplasma-associated differences were always larger in RhD-negative than in RhD-positive subjects. Conclusions RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence. PMID:23593448

  7. Are blood group isoantigens lost from malignant prostatic epithelium? Immunohistochemical support for the preservation of the H isoantigen.

    PubMed Central

    Vowden, P.; Lowe, A. D.; Lennox, E. S.; Bleehen, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies while demonstrating the presence of blood group isoantigens on normal prostatic epithelium have failed to identify such antigens on malignant prostatic tissue. Using a series of blood group specific monoclonal antibodies directed towards the A, B, H and Y antigens we have reinvestigated blood group isoantigen expression in both benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Results obtained from areas of benign prostatic hypertrophy are in broad agreement with those published however though we were unable to detect either A or B blood group isoantigens Type 2H and Y isoantigens were identified in 10 of the 12 tumours. These findings, while differing from previously reported results, lend support to the suggested connection between ontogenesis, oncogenesis and blood group isoantigen expression and also support the proposed link between Type 2 structures and malignant transformation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2421753

  8. Miltenberger blood group typing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis in Thai population.

    PubMed

    Vongsakulyanon, A; Kitpoka, P; Kunakorn, M; Srikhirin, T

    2015-12-01

    To develop reliable and convenient methods for Miltenberger (Mi(a) ) blood group typing. To apply real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) melting curve analysis to Mi(a) blood group typing. The Mi(a) blood group is the collective set of glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi(a+) blood is common among East Asians and is also found in the Thai population. Incompatible Mi(a) blood transfusions pose the risk of life-threatening haemolysis; therefore, Mi(a) blood group typing is necessary in ethnicities where the Mi(a) blood group is prevalent. One hundred and forty-three blood samples from Thai blood donors were used in the study. The samples included 50 Mi(a+) samples and 93 Mi(a-) samples, which were defined by serology. The samples were typed by Mi(a) typing qPCR, and 50 Mi(a+) samples were sequenced to identify the Mi(a) subtypes. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was performed to define GP.Mur. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping were tested on a conventional PCR platform. The results of Mi(a) typing qPCR were all concordant with serology. Sequencing of the 50 Mi(a+) samples revealed 47 GP.Mur samples and 3 GP.Hop or Bun samples. Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was the supplementary test used to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. Both Mi(a) typing and Mi(a) subtyping performed well using a conventional PCR platform. Mi(a) typing qPCR correctly identified Mi(a) blood groups in a Thai population with the feasibility of Mi(a) subtype discrimination, and Mi(a) subtyping qPCR was able to further define GP.Mur from other Mi(a) subtypes. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Production of a Recombinant Antibody Specific for i Blood Group Antigen, a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker

    PubMed Central

    Suila, Heli; Tiitinen, Sari; Natunen, Suvi; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Kotovuori, Annika; Reinman, Mirka; Satomaa, Tero; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara; Takkinen, Kristiina; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valmu, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) offer great promise for future regenerative and anti-inflammatory therapies. Panels of functional and phenotypical markers are currently used in characterization of different therapeutic stem cell populations from various sources. The i antigen (linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine) from the Ii blood group system has been suggested as a marker for MSCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). However, there are currently no commercially available antibodies recognizing the i antigen. In the present study, we describe the use of antibody phage display technology to produce recombinant antibodies recognizing a structure from the surface of mesenchymal stem cells. We constructed IgM phage display libraries from the lymphocytes of a donor with an elevated serum anti-i titer. Antibody phage display technology is not dependent on immunization and thus allows the generation of antibodies against poorly immunogenic molecules, such as carbohydrates. Agglutination assays utilizing i antigen–positive red blood cells (RBCs) from UCB revealed six promising single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies, three of which recognized epitopes from the surface of UCB-MSCs in flow cytometric assays. The amino acid sequence of the VH gene segment of B12.2 scFv was highly similar to the VH4.21 gene segment required to encode anti-i specificities. Further characterization of binding properties revealed that the binding of B12.2 hyperphage was inhibited by soluble linear lactosamine oligosaccharide. Based on these findings, we suggest that the B12.2 scFv we have generated is a prominent anti-i antibody that recognizes i antigen on the surface of both UCB-MSCs and RBCs. This binder can thus be utilized in UCB-MSC detection and isolation as well as in blood group serology. PMID:24083089

  10. A novel paper-based assay for the simultaneous determination of Rh typing and forward and reverse ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Noiphung, Julaluk; Talalak, Kwanrutai; Hongwarittorrn, Irin; Pupinyo, Naricha; Thirabowonkitphithan, Pannawich; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-05-15

    We propose a new, paper-based analytical device (PAD) for blood typing that allows for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups on the same device. The device was successfully fabricated by using a combination of wax printing and wax dipping methods. A 1:2 blood dilution was used for forward grouping, whereas whole blood could be used for reverse grouping. A 30% cell suspension of A-cells or B-cells was used for haemagglutination on the reverse grouping side. The total assay time was 10 min. The ratio between the distance of red blood cell movement and plasma separation is the criterion for agglutination and indicates the presence of the corresponding antigen or antibody. The proposed PAD has excellent reproducibility in that the same blood groups, namely A, AB, and O, were reported by using different PADs that were fabricated on the same day (n=10). The accuracy for detecting blood group A (n=12), B (n=13), AB (n=9), O (n=14), and Rh (n=48) typing were 92%, 85%, 89%, 93%, and 96%, respectively, in comparison with the conventional slide test method. The haematocrit of the sample affects the accuracy of the results, and appropriate dilution is suggested before typing. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel method that is straightforward, time-saving, and inexpensive for the simultaneous determination of ABO and Rh blood groups, which is promising for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recommendations of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Heart and Lung Xenotransplantation Working Group.

    PubMed

    Platt, Jeffrey; DiSesa, Verdi; Gail, Dorothy; Massicot-Fisher, Judith

    2002-08-27

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recently convened the Heart and Lung Xenotransplantation Working Group to identify hurdles to the clinical application of xenotransplantation, defined as the use of animal organs or tissue for transplantation, and to recommend possible solutions to these problems. The group consisted of experts in xenotransplantation from academia, industry, and federal agencies, and the discussions focused on those areas within the mission of the NHLBI. The areas covered included immunologic and physiological barriers to xenotransplantation, the limitations of the current animal models, the need for collaboration among groups, the high costs of studies using nonhuman primates and genetic engineering of pigs, and the unique problems of lung xenotransplantation. This report is a summary of those discussions.

  12. Dietary and supplemental maternal methyl-group donor intake and cord blood DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; A S Langie, Sabine; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-02

    Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. LC-MS/MS and pyrosequencing were used to measure global and gene specific methylation, respectively. Dietary intake of methyl-groups before and during pregnancy was associated with changes in LEP, DNMT1, and RXRA cord blood methylation. Statistically significant higher cord blood LEP methylation was observed when mothers started folic acid supplementation more than 6 months before conception compared with 3-6 months before conception (34.6 ± 6.3% vs. 30.1 ± 3.6%, P = 0.011, LEP CpG1) or no folic acid used before conception (16.2 ± 4.4% vs. 13.9 ± 3%, P = 0.036 for LEP CpG3 and 24.5 ± 3.5% vs. 22.2 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045 for LEP mean CpG). Taking folic acid supplements during the entire pregnancy resulted in statistically significantly higher cord blood RXRA methylation as compared with stopping supplementation in the second trimester (12.3 ± 1.9% vs. 11.1 ± 2%, P = 0.008 for RXRA mean CpG). To conclude, long-term folic acid use before and during pregnancy was associated with higher LEP and RXRA cord blood methylation, respectively. To date, pregnant women are advised to take a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/day from 4 weeks before until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Our results suggest significant epigenetic modifications when taking a folic acid supplement beyond the current advice.

  13. Assessment of relationship of ABO blood groups among tobacco induced oral cancer patients of Kanpur Population, Uttar Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Katiyar, Anuradha; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Pandey, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of association between ABO blood groups and malignancy was first discussed by Anderson DE & Haas C. The association between blood group and oral cancer is least explored and hence this study was undertaken to evaluate relationship of ABO blood groups with an increased risk for oral cancer. The present study was conducted at various cancer hospitals in Kanpur. The study samples comprised 100 oral cancer patients and 50 controls with tobacco chewing habit. The information regarding the socio demographic profile, history on tobacco habits, type of oral cancer and ABO blood group profile was obtained from the case sheets of the patients. The frequency of squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher in men (78%) than women (22%) and mostly found in the age range of 45-65 years and also consuming chewing type of tobacco. It was found that out of 100 patients, 53 were of blood group B+ve, 28 of O +ve, 16 of A+ve and 3 had the blood group AB+ve. The high potential risk of developing OSCC was more in B+ve blood group (1.96 times), and relative frequency (%) in blood group O+ve (1.64 times) than in the control group Among locations of oral cancers, squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (25%) and buccal mucosa (15%) was more common in B+ve and Carcinoma of floor of mouth (11%) was more common in O+ve blood group cases. It was found that people with blood group B+ve, followed by O+ve had increased risk of developing OSCC with most prevalent being Well Differentiated OSCC as compared to people of other blood groups. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility against different types of oral cancers. The people with blood group B+ve and O+ve having tobacco chewing habits can be appraised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  14. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    PubMed

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum.

  15. Association of ABO Blood Group and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel; Abaidoo, Chrissie Stansie

    2018-01-01

    ABO blood group and body mass index (BMI) have individually been appraised as risk factors for certain diseases. From statistical perspective, it may be important to examine the relationship between the ABO blood antigen and BMI. This cross-sectional study involved 412 participants aged 18 to 46 at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi. Weight and height of participants were measured for BMI calculation; blood group determination was done using antisera. Blood group O was the most prevalent (51.2%), while Rhesus-positive individuals constituted 90.3%. 6.3% of the participants were obese, while 18.7% were overweight. There was significant (p=0.006) higher prevalence of obesity in females (10.3%) than in males (3.4%). The study did not observe any significant difference by association of ABO blood group with gender (p=0.973), BMI (p=0.307), or Rhesus status (p=0.723). Regarding gender (p=0.400) and BMI (p=0.197), no statistically significant difference was observed between Rhesus blood groups. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, blood type O, and rhesus positive observed among students in this study is largely similar to what has been reported in published studies in Ghana and from other countries. Overweight and obesity were not associated with ABO blood groups or Rhesus in this study. PMID:29780641

  16. Introduction of anticoagulation group to polypropylene film by radiation grafting and its blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chun; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Yongzhi; Zhu, Aiping; Shen, Jian; Lin, Sicong

    2004-04-01

    Based on in vitro tests for an improvement of the blood compatibility of polypropylene (PP) films by grafting O-butyrylchitosan (OBCS), we prepared a novel biocompatible film. The immobilization was accomplished by irradiating with ultraviolet light, OBCS being coated on the film surface to photolyze azide groups, thus cross-linking OBCS and PP together. The grafted sample films were verified by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and the water contact angle measurements. The blood compatibility of the OBCS-grafted PP films was evaluated by platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments and protein adsorption experiments using blank PP film as the control. It demonstrated that blood compatibility of the OBCS-grafted surfaces is better than that of the blank PP. The suitable modifications could be carried out to tailor PP biomaterial to meet the specific needs of different biomedical applications. These results suggest that the photocrosslinkable chitosan developed here has the potential of serving as a new biomaterial in medical use.

  17. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified α1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that α1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups

  18. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. Results: The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A1 donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A1 subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. Conclusion: The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated. PMID:20553427

  19. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between ABO blood/rhesus grouping and hepatitis B and C: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, Abolfazl

    2014-06-01

    During past decades, a connection between hepatitis and the host ABO/Rh blood groups has been always under dispute, with no appropriately designed study yet. This study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood/Rh groups with both hepatitis B and C. In this case-control setting, 200 healthy individuals (controls), 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-B infection (HB) and 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-C infection (HC) were recruited from 2010 to 2013 in Tabriz Sina Hospital. ABO blood and Rh grouping was performed and the results were compared between the case and control groups. Both pair of the control and HB groups and the control and HC groups were matched for their subjects' age and sex. In the control group, 178 subjects (89%) were Rh+ and 22 subjects (11%) were Rh-. In the HB group, there were 180 Rh+ (90%) and 20 Rh- (10%) patients. In the HC group there were 168 Rh+ (84%) and 32 Rh-negative (16%) patients. Both pair of the control and HB groups (p = 0.74), as well as the control and HC groups (p = 0.14) were comparable for the status of Rh. In the control group there were 84 (42%), 32 (16%), 66 (33%) and 18 (9%) subjects with A, B, O and AB blood groups, respectively. The corresponding figures were 84 (42%), 34 (17%), 58 (29%) and 24 (12%) for the HB patients; and 80 (40%), 29 (14.5%), 85 (42.5%) and 6 (3%) for the HC patients. Comparing between the control and HB groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). However, with comparing the control and HC groups, the rate of O blood group was significantly higher in the HC group and concomitantly, the rate of AB blood group was significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.04). Although, there is not a significant association between ABO blood groups and HB, this association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HC.

  1. Increased numbers of total nucleated and CD34+ cells in blood group O cord blood: an analysis of neonatal innate factors in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Byung Jae; Storms, Robert W; Chao, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed neonatal factors that could affect hematopoietic variables of cord blood (CB) donated from Korean neonates. The numbers of total nucleated cells (TNCs), CD34+ cells, and CD34+ cells/TNCs of CB in neonates were compared according to sex, gestational age, birth weight, birth weight centile for gestational age, and ABO blood group. With 11,098 CB units analyzed, blood group O CB showed an increased number of TNCs, CD34+ cells, and CD34+ cells/TNCs compared with other blood groups. Although TNC counts were lower in males, no difference in the number of CD34+ cells was demonstrated because the number of CD34+ cells/TNCs was higher in males. An increase in the gestational age resulted in an increase in the number of TNCs and decreases in the number of CD34+ cells and CD34+ cells/TNCs. The numbers of TNCs, CD34+ cells, and CD34+ cells/TNCs increased according to increased birth weight centile as well as birth weight. CB with blood group O has unique hematologic variables in this large-scale analysis of Korean neonates, although the impact on the storage policies of CB banks or the clinical outcome of transplantation remains to be determined. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration.

    PubMed

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration.

  3. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Liu, Shaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation. PMID:26539555

  4. Relationships between skin cancers and blood groups--link between non-melanomas and ABO/Rh factors.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.

  5. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  6. Opinions about donating blood among those who never gave and those who stopped: a focus group assessment.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sunitha M; King, Melissa R; Glynn, Simone A; Dietz, Stephen K; Caswell, Scott L; Schreiber, George B

    2007-04-01

    Understanding what prevents people from ever donating blood, or having donated, what influenced them to stop, are both equally important in devising recruitment strategies. Enlisting new donors and encouraging previous donors to return are vital to increasing collections. Six racially homogeneous focus groups of never donors and lapsed donors were conducted. Both sexes and a range of age groups were represented. The importance of blood donation as a volunteer activity, deterrents, motivations, awareness of need, and effective recruitment messages were topics discussed. Never donors do not see blood donation as an important volunteer activity on par with others like volunteering at hospitals, schools, and support groups. Fear and inconvenience were major barriers to donating. Better education campaigns to allay fears about donating and workplace drives were considered important motivators. Participants were unaware of the need for blood. Media messages that combine safety of the process along with who it benefits were considered most effective. Messages that target the specific needs of minority communities were considered good motivators for their recruitment. Blood collection agencies should increase awareness that blood donation is a worthwhile and important volunteer activity. Another strategy would be to capitalize on the existing perception that donating blood is like donating money or used clothing, by focusing on the concept of giving something tangible. Along with providing convenient opportunities to donate, blood centers need to effectively convey the need for blood and allay fears about the donation process to increase the current donor pool.

  7. Relationship between ABO blood groups and von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13 and factor VIII in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rios, Danyelle R A; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Figueiredo, Roberta C; Guimarães, Daniela A M; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Simões E Silva, Ana C; Carvalho, Maria G; Gomes, Karina B; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant' Ana

    2012-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that non-O blood groups subjects present an increased VTE risk as compared to those carrying O blood group. The aim of this study was to investigate the ABO blood groups influence on factor VIII (FVIII) activity, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Patients undergoing HD (N=195) and 80 healthy subjects (control group) were eligible for this cross-sectional study. The ABO blood group phenotyping was performed by the reverse technique. FVIII activity was measured through coagulometric method, and VWF and ADAMTS13 antigens were assessed by ELISA. FVIII activity and VWF levels were significantly higher and ADAMTS13 levels was decreased in HD patients, as compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.001, in three cases). HD patients carrying non-O blood groups showed a significant increase in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P < 0.001) when compared to carriers of O blood group. However, no significant difference was observed in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.767). In the control group, increased in FVIII activity (P = 0.001) and VWF levels (P = 0.002) and decreased in ADAMTS13 levels (P = 0.005) were observed in subjects carrying non-O blood groups as compared to carriers of O blood group.Our data confirmed that ABO blood group is an important risk factor for increased procoagulant factors in plasma, as FVIII and VWF. Admitting the possible role of kidneys in ADAMTS13 synthesis or on its metabolism, HD patients were not able to increase ADAMTS13 levels in order to compensate the increase of VWF levels mediated by ABO blood groups. Considering that non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for thrombosis, it is reasonable to admit that A, B and AB HD patients need a careful and continuous follow-up in order to minimize thrombotic events.

  8. Effect of pronase on high-incidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reid, M E; Greeen, C A; Hoffer, J; Øyen, R

    1996-01-01

    Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient's blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to pronase-treated RBCs. When testing human serum against pronase-treated RBCs, it is essential either to use an autocontrol or to perform the testing with an eluate.

  9. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  10. Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kirsten; Palmkvist, Mia; Ch'ng, Junhong; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Wahlgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are expressed on erythrocytes but also on endothelial cells, platelets and serum proteins. Notably, the ABO blood group of a malaria patient determines the development of the disease given that blood group O reduces the probability to succumb in severe malaria, compared to individuals of groups A, B or AB. P. falciparum rosetting and sequestration are mediated by PfEMP1, RIFIN and STEVOR, expressed at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC). Antibodies to these antigens consequently modify the course of a malaria infection by preventing sequestration and promoting phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied rosetting P. falciparum and present evidence of an immune evasion mechanism not previously recognized. We find the accessibility of antibodies to PfEMP1 at the surface of the pRBC to be reduced when P. falciparum forms rosettes in blood group A RBC, as compared to group O RBC. The pRBC surrounds itself with tightly bound normal RBC that makes PfEMP1 inaccessible to antibodies and clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, pRBC of in vitro cloned P. falciparum devoid of ABO blood group dependent rosetting were equally well detected by anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, independent of the blood group utilized for their propagation. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severe forms of malaria may in patients of blood group A depend on the ability of the parasite to mask PfEMP1 from antibody recognition, in so doing evading immune clearance. PMID:26714011

  11. Significance of ABO-Rh blood groups in response and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether ABO-Rh blood groups have significance in the treatment response and prognosis in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. We retrospectively evaluated files of 335 patients with breast cancer who were treated between 2005 and 2010. Demographic data, clinic- pathological findings, treatments employed, treatment response, and overall and disease-free survivals were reviewed. Relationships between clinic-pathological findings and blood groups were evaluated. 329 women and 6 men were included to the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years (range: 26-86). Of the cases, 95% received chemotherapy while 70% were given radiotherapy and 60.9% adjuvant hormone therapy after surgery. Some 63.0% were A blood group, 17.6% O, 14.3% B and 5.1% AB. In addition, 82.0% of the cases were Rh-positive. Mean follow-up was 24.5 months. Median overall and progression-free survival times were 83.9 and 79.5 months, respectively. Overall and disease-free survival times were found to be higher in patients with A and O blood groups (p<0.05). However rates did not differ with the Rh-positive group (p=0.226). In univariate and multivariate analyses, ABO blood groups were identified as factors that had significant effects on overall and disease-survival times (p=0.011 and p=0.002). It was seen that overall and disease-free survival times were higher in breast cancer patients with A and O blood groups when compared to those with other blood groups. It was seen that A and O blood groups had good prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.

  12. Awareness and distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among medical undergraduates in a Nigerian university.

    PubMed

    Akingbola, T S; Yuguda, S; Akinyemi, O O; Olomu, S

    2016-09-01

    In the past two decades the Nigerian government and religious organisations have put more emphasis on knowing the haemoglobin electrophoresis of school children and intending couples respectively. Knowledge of the distribution of blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns among young people is vital for the prevention of haemoglobinopathies in the population and for providing effective blood banking services. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the frequency and awareness of blood group and haemoglobinphenotypes among a new set of fourth year clinical medical and dental students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data, including socio-demographics, self- reported blood group and haemoglobin phenotypes, were obtained from 155 students using a self-administered questionnaire. The ABO, Rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis were determined by the tile (slide) technique and cellulose acetate at alkaline phrespectively. Only 43.9% of the participants knew their blood groups while less than a third (29.7%) knew their haemoglobin phenotypes. knowledge of both their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes was documented in as low as 20.6% of the respondents. The frequency of haemoglobin AA, AS, AC and. CC were 78.0%, 16.8%, 3.9% and 1.3% respectively. Similarly, the distribution of blood groups were: 0 RhD positive - 47.8%;0 RhD negative- 1.9%;ARhD positive- 21.9%; A RhD negative - 1.3%; B RhD positive - 23.2%; B RhD negative -1.3% and AB RhD positive - 2.6%. No participant was AB RhD negative. Participants who bad previously donated blood and those who were females were more likely to know their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes respectively (p<0.05). Awareness of blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among the medical and dental students was poor. Documentation and routine screening for haemoglobinphenotypes as well as blood grouping, accompanied by appropriate counseling should be institutionalised in Nigeriantertiary

  13. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan.

    PubMed

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-07-01

    Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  14. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications. PMID:27177402

  15. [Observation on gene polymorphism of Rh blood group in Chinese Han nationality].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiong-Cai; Wang, Cong-Rong; Wei, Ya-Ming; Zhou, Hua-You; Cao, Qiong; Zhang, Yin-Ze; Jiang, KuReXi; Wu, Da-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2003-12-01

    To observe the gene polymorphism of Rh blood group in unrelated random individuals and families for Chinese Han nationality, polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used to amplify the Rh C/E gene, RhD gene, exons, intron 2 and 10, insert and Rh Box in 160 blood samples of RhD positive unrelated individuals and 71 samples of RhD negative unrelated individuals and 7 samples of families whose probands were RhD-negative. The results showed that RhD genes of RhD-negative individuals with C antigens were polymorphism, three forms were found for D exon including intact, partial deletion and complete deletion exons. Insert fragments and Rh Box were found in most cases of families whose probands were RhD-negative and its inheritance accorded with the Mendel's Law, and it did not affect the expression of RhD gene. "Normal" RhD exon 4 amplifying product was not found in all of the samples. It was concluded that gene structure of the RhD-negative in Chinese was polymorphism, intact, partial deletion and complete deletion exons were found in the individuals with C antigen and probably existed specific D (nf) Ce haplotype. The function of insert was uncertain. The Rh gene sequences of Chinese Han nationality are different from those of Caucasian and the Rh gene library based on Han nationality should be established.

  16. High Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Menstrual Blood: Implications for Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Keiko; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Sakamoto, Ai; Matsuda, Miwa; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium and associated with inflammation and immune abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for endometriosis is not well understood. To address this issue, the present study examined the expression of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 in menstrual blood to investigate its role in the ectopic growth of human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). A total of 139 patients were enrolled in this study; 84 had endometriosis and 55 were nonendometriotic gynecological patients (control). The HMGB1 levels in various fluids were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and RAGE and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) messenger RNA expression in HMGB1- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ESCs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The HMGB1 concentration was higher in menstrual blood than in serum or peritoneal fluid ( P < .001 for both). RAGE was expressed in both normal and ectopic endometrium. Administration of 1000 ng/mL HMGB1 or coadministration of 100 ng/mL HMGB1 and 100 ng/mL LPS induced VEGF production in ESCs relative to the control ( P < .05). These results suggest that menstrual fluid has naturally high levels of HMGB1 and may promote endometriosis following retrograde menstruation when complexed with other factors such as LPS by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis.

  17. Assessment of ABO blood grouping and secretor status in the saliva of the patients with oral potentially malignant disorders.

    PubMed

    Rai, Pragati; Acharya, Swetha; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Secretor status may possibly be one of the factors in the etiopathogenesis of oral precancerous lesions and subsequently cancer. Studies have shown the relationship between the pathogenesis of disease and secretor status. They have made known that secretor status is a possible factor influencing disease status. Studies have revealed the association between blood groups and specific diseases. To assess any association of ABO blood grouping with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and to examine whether there is any difference in the saliva secretor status in the patients with OPMDs and healthy controls. The study consisted of 90 subjects, with 45 patients assigned to two groups (a) Patients with potentially malignant disorders and (b) healthy controls. ABO blood grouping was done and 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected in a sterile test tube. The Wiener agglutination test was performed to analyze the secretor status in both the groups. Chi-square test and odd ratio were used to assess the relationship between ABO blood group and OPMDs. Chi-square test was performed to assess the relationship between secretor status and OPMDs. Probability level was fixed at <0.05. The results demonstrated a statistically significant relation between OPMDs and secretor status (P = 0.00). Eighty-seven percent of patients with OPMDs were nonsecretors, while in the control group sixteen percent of them were nonsecretors. There was no statistically significant relationship between ABO blood groups and OPMDs (P > 0.05). The study confirms the inability to secrete blood group antigens in the saliva of patients with OPMDs which could be regarded as a host risk factor. Results could not propose a relationship between ABO blood group and OPMDs.

  18. Blood Group Antigens on HeLa Cells shown by Mixed Agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Kelus, A.; Gurner, B. W.; Coombs, R. R. A.

    1959-01-01

    The mixed agglutination reaction has been used for investigating the presence of blood group antigens on the surface of human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) cultured for eight years in vitro. The H antigen was demonstrated in the absence of A and B. The MN-type antigen has been found as well as Tja. Treatment of HeLa cells with ficin greatly enhanced the reaction of anti-H and anti-Tja with the corresponding antigens on HeLa cells. The authors failed to show the following antigens: Rh(D) and Rh(c), S, P, Lea, Leb, Lua and Lub. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:14405338

  19. Soluble antigens from group B streptococci induce cytokine production in human blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    von Hunolstein, C; Totolian, A; Alfarone, G; Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Teti, G; Orefici, G

    1997-01-01

    Group B streptococcal antigens stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 production in human blood cultures in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The minimal concentrations of type-specific polysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and group-specific polysaccharide required to produce these effects were, respectively, 0.01, 1, and 10 microg/ml. Cell separation experiments indicated that monocytes were the cell type mainly responsible for cytokine production. Time course studies indicated that TNF-alpha was released before the other cytokines. TNF-alpha, however, did not appear to directly induce IL-1beta, as shown by blockade experiments with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies. IL-6 levels were moderately but significantly decreased by anti-TNF-alpha. These data indicate that several products from group B streptococci are able to directly stimulate human monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. These findings may be clinically relevant, since proinflammatory cytokines can mediate pathophysiologic changes during sepsis. PMID:9317001

  20. ABO blood groups as a prognostic factor for recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Montavon Sartorius, Céline; Schoetzau, Andreas; Kettelhack, Henriette; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F; Fedier, André; Jacob, Francis; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between ABO blood groups (BG) and risk of incidence in cancers including gynecological cancers has been widely studied, showing increased incidence risk for BG A patients. As available data are inconsistent we investigated whether BG and their anti-glycan antibodies (anti-A and anti-B) have prognostic values in gynecological cancers. We retrospectively evaluated 974 patients with gynecological cancers in three cancer centers (Switzerland and Australia) between 1974 and 2014 regarding the relationships between clinico-pathological findings and the BG. Time to disease recurrence was significantly influenced by BG in patients with ovarian (n = 282) and vulvar (n = 67) cancer. BG O or B patients showed a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer relapse compared to A, 59% and 82%, respectively (p = 0.045; HR O vs A = 1.59 (CI 1.01-2.51) and (p = 0.036; HR A vs B = 0.55 (CI 0.32-0.96). Median time to relapse for advanced stage (n = 126) ovarian cancer patients was 18.2 months for BG O and 32.2 for A (p = 0.031; HR O vs A = 2.07 (CI 1.07-4.02)). BG also significantly influenced relapse-free survival in patients with vulvar cancer (p = 0.002), with BG O tending to have increased relapse risk compared to A (p = 0.089). Blood groups hence associate with recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer: women with BG O seem to have a lower ovarian cancer incidence, however are more likely to relapse earlier. The significance of the BG status as a prognostic value is evident and may be helpful to oncologists in prognosticating disease outcome and selecting the appropriate therapy.

  1. End-of-Life Care for Blood Cancers: A Series of Focus Groups With Hematologic Oncologists

    PubMed Central

    Odejide, Oreofe O.; Salas Coronado, Diana Y.; Watts, Corey D.; Wright, Alexi A.; Abel, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Hematologic cancers are associated with aggressive cancer-directed care near death and underuse of hospice and palliative care services. We sought to explore hematologic oncologists' perspectives and decision-making processes regarding end-of-life (EOL) care. Methods: Between September 2013 and January 2014, 20 hematologic oncologists from the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center participated in four focus groups regarding EOL care for leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Focus groups employed a semistructured format with case vignettes and open-ended questions and were followed by thematic analysis. Results: Many participants felt that identifying the EOL phase for patients with hematologic cancers was challenging as a result of the continuing potential for cure with advanced disease and the often rapid pace of decline near death. This difficulty was reported to result in later initiation of EOL care. Barriers to high-quality EOL care were also reported to be multifactorial, including unrealistic expectations from both physicians and patients, long-term patient-physician relationships resulting in difficulty conducting EOL discussions, and inadequacy of existing home-based EOL services. Participants also expressed concern that some EOL quality measures developed for solid tumors may be unacceptable for patients with blood cancers given their unique needs at the EOL (eg, palliative transfusions). Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that hematologic oncologists need better clinical markers for when to initiate EOL care. In addition, current quality measures may be inappropriate for identifying overly aggressive care for patients with blood cancers. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions to improve EOL care for this patient population. PMID:25294393

  2. CD144+ endothelial microparticles as a marker of endothelial injury in neonatal ABO blood group incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hisham A E; Tantawy, Azza A G; El-Farrash, Rania A; Ismail, Eman A; Youssif, Noha M

    2014-04-01

    ABO antigens are expressed on the surfaces of red blood cells and the vascular endothelium. We studied circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) in ABO haemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO HDN) as a marker of endothelial activation to test a hypothesis of possible endothelial injury in neonates with ABO HDN, and its relation with the occurrence and severity of haemolysis. Forty-five neonates with ABO HDN were compared with 20 neonates with Rhesus incompatibility (Rh HDN; haemolytic controls) and 20 healthy neonates with matched mother and infant blood groups (healthy controls). Laboratory investigations were done for markers of haemolysis and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF Ag). EMP (CD144(+)) levels were measured before and after therapy (exchange transfusion and/or phototherapy). vWF Ag and pre-therapy EMP levels were higher in infants with ABO HDN or Rh HDN than in healthy controls, and were significantly higher in babies with ABO HDN than in those with Rh HDN (p<0.05). In ABO HDN, pre-therapy EMP levels were higher in patients with severe hyperbilirubinaemia than in those with mild and moderate disease or those with Rh HDN (p<0.001). Post-therapy EMP levels were lower than pre-therapy levels in both the ABO HDN and Rh HDN groups; however, the decline in EMP levels was particularly evident after exchange transfusion in ABO neonates with severe hyperbilirubinaemia (p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the concentrations of haemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase and indirect bilirubin were independently correlated with pre-therapy EMP levels in ABO HDN. Elevated EMP levels in ABO HDN may reflect an IgG-mediated endothelial injury parallel to the IgG-mediated erythrocyte destruction and could serve as a surrogate marker of vascular dysfunction and disease severity in neonates with this condition.

  3. ABO blood groups as a prognostic factor for recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montavon Sartorius, Céline; Schoetzau, Andreas; Kettelhack, Henriette; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F.; Fedier, André; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between ABO blood groups (BG) and risk of incidence in cancers including gynecological cancers has been widely studied, showing increased incidence risk for BG A patients. As available data are inconsistent we investigated whether BG and their anti-glycan antibodies (anti-A and anti-B) have prognostic values in gynecological cancers. We retrospectively evaluated 974 patients with gynecological cancers in three cancer centers (Switzerland and Australia) between 1974 and 2014 regarding the relationships between clinico-pathological findings and the BG. Time to disease recurrence was significantly influenced by BG in patients with ovarian (n = 282) and vulvar (n = 67) cancer. BG O or B patients showed a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer relapse compared to A, 59% and 82%, respectively (p = 0.045; HR O vs A = 1.59 (CI 1.01–2.51) and (p = 0.036; HR A vs B = 0.55 (CI 0.32–0.96). Median time to relapse for advanced stage (n = 126) ovarian cancer patients was 18.2 months for BG O and 32.2 for A (p = 0.031; HR O vs A = 2.07 (CI 1.07–4.02)). BG also significantly influenced relapse-free survival in patients with vulvar cancer (p = 0.002), with BG O tending to have increased relapse risk compared to A (p = 0.089). Blood groups hence associate with recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer: women with BG O seem to have a lower ovarian cancer incidence, however are more likely to relapse earlier. The significance of the BG status as a prognostic value is evident and may be helpful to oncologists in prognosticating disease outcome and selecting the appropriate therapy. PMID:29596526

  4. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Salvignol, I.; Calvas, P.; Blancher, A.

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r},more » immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  5. The Effect of ABO Blood Groups, Hemoglobinopathy, and Heme Oxygenase-1 Polymorphisms on Malaria Susceptibility and Severity.

    PubMed

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2018-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in tropical areas on the globe. Several factors are associated with susceptibility to malaria and disease severity, including innate immunity such as blood group, hemoglobinopathy, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) polymorphisms. This study was carried out to investigate association among ABO blood group, thalassemia types and HO-1 polymorphisms in malaria. The malarial blood samples were collected from patients along the Thai-Myanmar border. Determination of ABO blood group, thalassemia variants, and HO-1 polymorphisms were performed using agglutination test, low pressure liquid chromatography and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was the major infected malaria species in the study samples. Distribution of ABO blood type in the malaria-infected samples was similar to that in healthy subjects, of which blood type O being most prevalent. Association between blood group A and decreased risk of severe malaria was significant. Six thalassemia types (30%) were detected, i.e. , hemoglobin E (HbE), β-thalassemia, α-thalassemia 1, α-thalassemia 2, HbE with α-thalassemia 2, and β-thalassemia with α-thalassemia 2. Malaria infected samples without thalassemia showed significantly higher risk to severe malaria. The prevalence of HO-1 polymorphisms, S/S, S/L and L/L were 25, 62, and 13%, respectively. Further study with larger sample size is required to confirm the impact of these 3 host genetic factors in malaria patients.

  6. Association of ABO blood groups with von Willebrand factor, factor VIII and ADAMTS-13 in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaogang; Yang, Jiezuan; Guo, Renyong

    2017-09-01

    Coagulative and fibrinolytic disorders appear to be associated with the development of lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif 13 (ADAMTS-13), and factor VIII (FVIII) activity, in association with O and non-O blood groups in patients with lung cancer. Plasma levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13, and FVIII activity were measured in 115 patients with lung cancer and 98 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of the ABO blood groups was also performed for the two groups. Significantly increased VWF levels and FVIII activity, as well as significantly decreased ADAMTS-13 levels, were observed in patients with distant metastasis as compared with those without distant metastasis and the healthy controls. Plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity were significantly increased in subjects with non-O type blood compared with those with type O blood in the two groups. However, a significant decrease in ADAMTS-13 levels was observed only in the control group among those with non-O type blood, compared with those with type O blood. The results of the present study indicate that increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS-13 levels facilitate the invasiveness and metastasis of lung cancer. Non-O blood groups constitute a risk factor for increased VWF and FVIII in plasma. Continued monitoring of VWF and ADAMTS-13 levels, and of FVIII activity in patients with lung cancer with distinct blood groups may help to minimize the incidence of thrombotic events and improve assessment of disease progression.

  7. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran) in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Kahar, Manoj A.; Patel, Rajnikant. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 “O” blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kpa, Kpb, Fya,Fyb, Jkb, S,s, Lua, and Lub antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R1 R1, 40.87%) as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+) and Fy(a-b-) were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+) or Lu(a+b-) phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b-) phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups. PMID:24678176

  8. A rapid and reliable PCR method for genotyping the ABO blood group.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, D S; Dobrovic, A

    1993-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been used extensively as a marker in population studies, epidemiology, and forensic work. However, until the cloning of the gene, it was not possible to determine the genotype of group A and B individuals without recourse to family studies. We have developed a method to determine the ABO genotype directly from human DNA using multiplex PCR and restriction enzyme analysis. Two PCR fragments spanning positions 258 and 700 of the cDNA sequence are amplified. The site at position 258 allows us to differentiate the O allele from the A and B alleles. The site at position 700 allows us to distinguish the B allele from the A and O alleles. Analysis at the two sites thus allows us to distinguish the three alleles. The multiplex PCR product is digested separately with four enzymes, two for each of the sites. The pair of enzymes for each site cut in a reciprocal fashion. Whereas one enzyme for each site is theoretically sufficient for genotyping, the use of complementary pairs of enzymes prevents the assignment of a false genotype as a result of false negative or partial digestion. This method is fast and reliable, does not rely on probing of blots, and should be widely applicable.

  9. Influence of the Rh (D) blood group system on graft survival in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bryan, C F; Mitchell, S I; Lin, H M; Nelson, P W; Shield, C F; Luger, A M; Pierce, G E; Ross, G; Warady, B A; Aeder, M I; Helling, T S; Landreneau, M D; Harrell, K M

    1998-02-27

    The Rh (D) blood group system has not traditionally been considered to be a clinically relevant histocompatibility barrier in transplantation since conflicting results of its clinical importance have been reported. We analyzed 786 consecutive primary cadaveric renal transplants performed by transplant centers in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) between 1990 and 1997. We also analyzed United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data on 26,469 kidney transplants done from April 1994 to June 1996. Multivariate analysis revealed that Rh identity between the recipient and donor was significantly related to better graft outcome (risk ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.61; P=0.0001). Multivariate analysis of the UNOS data revealed that the Rh -/- group may have a positive influence on graft survival with a risk ratio of 0.43 (P=0.14). Multivariate analysis of primary cadaveric renal allografts performed within the Midwest Organ Bank OPO indicates that Rh (D) is a clinically relevant histocompatibility barrier that influences 7-year graft survival.

  10. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the ... Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action ...

  11. Pulse pressure and diabetes treatments: Blood pressure and pulse pressure difference among glucose lowering modality groups in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Hamid; Khaloo, Pegah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rabizadeh, Soghra; Salehi, Salome Sadat; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Meftah, Neda; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher pulse pressure. In this study, we assessed and compared effects of classic diabetes treatments on pulse pressure (PP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.In a retrospective cohort study, 718 non-hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 4 groups including metformin, insulin, glibenclamide+metformin, and metformin+insulin. They were followed for 4 consecutive visits lasting about 45.5 months. Effects of drug regimens on pulse and blood pressure over time were assessed separately and compared in regression models with generalized estimating equation method and were adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, sex, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).Studied groups had no significant change in PP, SBP, and DBP over time. No significant difference in PP and DBP among studied groups was observed (PP:P = 0.090; DBP:P = 0.063). Pairwise comparisons of PP, SBP, and DBP showed no statistically significant contrast between any 2 studied groups. Interactions of time and treatment were not different among groups.Our results demonstrate patients using metformin got higher PP and SBP over time. Averagely, pulse and blood pressure among groups were not different. Trends of variation in pulse and blood pressure were not different among studied diabetes treatments.

  12. Blood pressure measurement reliability among different racial-ethnic groups in a stroke prevention study.

    PubMed

    Estol, Conrado J; Bath, Philip M W; Gorelick, Philip B; Cotton, Daniel; Martin, Renee H; Weber, Michael A; Dahlof, Bjorn

    2014-10-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is commonly not diagnosed, and patients do not achieve target values when treated. Among 20,000 patients encompassing most races-ethnicities, we evaluated BP measurements and treatment response in a stroke prevention trial. Our goal was to identify BP measurement differences between clinical trial and patient determinations and among the racial-ethnic groups. A total of 20,332 patients with ischemic stroke were randomized to receive antiplatelet treatment and 80 mg of telmisartan versus placebo. BP measurements were obtained at the first clinic visit and then 1 and 3 months later and every 6 months thereafter. One week after the first clinic visit, patients were requested to report a BP measurement obtained elsewhere. Measurements at the trial clinics were obtained with the same electronic device. Statistical analysis was used to detect significant differences. The mean patient age was 66 years; 36% were women, and race-ethnicity comprised 58% Whites, 33% Asian, 4.9% Hispanic, and 4% Black. Overall, 74% of patients were hypertensive. BP varied between the race-ethnicity groups, being highest in Hispanics (145/85) and lowest in Blacks (144/82). BP at visits clinic 1, nonclinic 1A, and clinic 2 were, respectively, 144/84, 137/80, and 139/81 mmHg, with the difference between visits 1-2 and visit 1A being significant. BPs were normal in 42% of the cases at visit 1A, and of these, only 44% were normal at visit 1 and 57.6% were normal on visit 2. Similar findings were noted for all race-ethnicity groups. BP values varied among race-ethnicities and showed differences between clinic and patient measurements. This finding questions the reliability of self-reported BP and has implications for BP management in daily clinical practice.

  13. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  14. [Alkaline phosphatase activity in blood group B or O secretors is fluctuated by the dinner intake of previous night].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Makoto; Harajiri, Sanae; Tabata, Shiori; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Muramoto, Yoshimi; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that two intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) isoforms, high molecular mass IAP (HIAP) and normal molecular mass IAP (NIAP), appear in healthy serum with our Triton-PAGE method for determination of ALP isozymes. In addition, HIAP is chiefly present in blood group B or O secretors, and a large amount of NIAP is secreted into the circulation after high-fat meal in blood group B or O secretors. In the present paper, we investigated the relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in early morning with the patient in a fasted state and the dinner intake of previous night. Two types of dinner were prepared; a low-fat meal (520 kcal), and a high-fat meal (1,040 kcal). Subjects ate the 2 types of dinner on different days. The mean ALP activities at 14 h after high-fat meal ingestion in blood group B or O secretors (n=14) from JSCC and IFCC methods were 8.8% and 5.2% higher than those at 14 h after low-fat meal ingestion in blood group B or O secretors, respectively. The increases in ALP activity between after high-fat meal and low-fat meal were nearly identical to the increases in NIAP activity. These results suggest that a high-fat meal is more likely to affect ALP activity at the early morning with the patient in a fasted state in blood group B or O secretors.

  15. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Lewis Blood Group: Individual High-Throughput Sample Profiling to Enhance Conclusions From Functional Studies12

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Dennis; Dotz, Viktoria; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are discussed to play a crucial role in an infant’s development. Lewis blood group epitopes, in particular, seem to remarkably contribute to the beneficial effects of HMO. In this regard, large-scale functional human studies could provide evidence of the variety of results from in vitro investigations, although increasing the amount and complexity of sample and data handling. Therefore, reliable screening approaches are needed. To predict the oligosaccharide pattern in milk, the routine serological Lewis blood group typing of blood samples can be applied due to the close relationship between the biosynthesis of HMO and the Lewis antigens on erythrocytes. However, the actual HMO profile of the individual samples does not necessarily correspond to the serological determinations. This review demonstrates the capabilities of merging the traditional serological Lewis blood group typing with the additional information provided by the comprehensive elucidation of individual HMO patterns by means of state-of-the-art analytics. Deduced from the association of the suggested HMO biosynthesis with the Lewis blood group, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiles of oligosaccharides in individual milk samples exemplify the advantages and the limitations of sample assignment to distinct groups. PMID:22585923

  16. Significance of blood group and social factors in carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population in India.

    PubMed

    Kai, Lee Jun; Raju, Kalyani; Malligere Lingaiah, Harendra Kumar; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    To assess the significance of social factors as risk factors for carcinoma cervix and to determine the significance of blood group to prevalence of carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population of Kolar, Karnataka, India. One hundred cases of carcinoma cervix were included in the study, along with 200 females of the same ages considered as controls. Case details were collected from the hospital record section regarding social factors and blood groups and the data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Blood group B showed the highest number of cases (55 cases) followed by blood group O (29 cases) in carcinoma cervix which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Age of marriage between 11 to 20 years showed highest number of carcinoma cervix cases (77 cases) and this also was statistically significant (p<0.001). Patients with rural background were 75 (p=0.112, odds ratio: 1.54), parity of more than or equal to two constituted 96 cases (p=0.006, odds ratio: 4.07) and Hindu patients were 95 in number (p=0.220, odds ratio: 1.89). Blood group B and age of marriage between 11 and 20 years were significantly associated with carcinoma cervix in our population. Region of residence, parity and religion presented with a altered risk for carcinoma cervix.

  17. Effects of plasma glycosyltransferase on the ABO(H) blood group antigens of human von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Kano, Taiki; Kondo, Kazunao; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsushita, Fumio; Sakai, Kazuya; Matsui, Taei

    2018-04-04

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is one of the plasma protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens, but the combining process of these antigens is not clear. In the present study, we examined whether plasma glycosyltransferase affects the blood group antigens on VWF. VWF expressing H-antigen (H-VWF) from blood group O and bovine serum albumin conjugated with H-antigen (H-BSA) were incubated with recombinant α1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (rA-transferase) and A-plasma with or without an additional UDP-GalNAc. Transformed antigens were detected by western blotting and ELISA, using an anti-A antibody. Both H-VWF and H-BSA acquired the A-antigen after incubation with rA-transferase and UDP-GalNAc. Incubation with A-plasma very weakly converted the H-antigen on BSA and VWF to A-antigen only in the presence of supplemented UDP-GalNAc. This conversion was enhanced on desialylation of H-VWF. These results indicate that sugar chains of plasma VWF can be modified by the external glycosyltransferase, but that plasma glycosyltransferase has no effect on the blood group antigens of VWF due to its low activity and the lack of donor sugars. Further, sialic acid residues of VWF may exert a protective effect against post-translational glycosylation. Our results clearly exclude the possibility that blood group antigens of VWF are constructed extracellularly in plasma.

  18. Determination of ABO blood grouping from human oral squamous epithelium by the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+.

    PubMed

    Noda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Makoto; Tatsumi, Shinji; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki

    2002-03-01

    Using the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+, which employs a dextran polymer reagent for the secondary antibody, the detection of the ABH antigens was attempted in the oral squamous epithelium. This new technique uses monoclonal antibody as a primary antibody and it takes about three hours for staining. The time is much shorter than conventional absorption-elution testing or absorption-inhibition testing for the determination of ABO blood grouping. Secretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity by the antibody, which corresponded to its blood group and anti-H. On the one hand, nonsecretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity only by the antibody that corresponded to its blood group, and at weak intensity only by anti-H. Since human oral squamous epithelium antigens were stained specifically by this method, we can examine the ABO blood group of saliva samples and perform cytodiagnosis at the same time. Our research suggested that the EnVision+ Method is a useful technique for ABO blood grouping of saliva in forensic cases.

  19. Evolution of two Rh blood group-related genes of the amphioxus species Branchiostoma floridae.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takashi; Satou, Masahiro; Saitou, Naruya

    2010-04-01

    We determined cDNAs of two genes that belong to the Rhesus (Rh) blood group gene family in an amphioxus species (Branchiostoma floridae) and designated them Rh-related-1 (RhR-1) and Rh-related-2 (RhR-2). RhR-1 and RhR-2 consisted of 10 and 11 exons, respectively. 3' UTR sequences of RhR-1 were shorter (220-272 bp) than those of RhR-2 (1,505-1,650 bp). CDS lengths were 1,344 and 1,476 bp for RhR-1 and RhR-2, respectively, and the average nucleotide difference between their CDS regions was 0.33. The corresponding regions of Rh genes from exons 2 to 7 were relatively conserved among the chordate species examined in this study. Length difference numbers were in multiples of three, which implies that codon frames were conserved among them, and the same exon/intron boundary phases were observed in those regions. This region was used for the phylogenetic analyses. RhR-1 and RhR-2 formed a cluster on the phylogenetic tree of the Rh gene family. Gene duplication time of RhR-1 and RhR-2 was estimated to be ca. 500 million years ago. It is likely that the four Rh family genes in vertebrates emerged by gene duplications in the common ancestor of vertebrates, and functional differentiation has occurred after the first gene duplication.

  20. Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghasadeghi, Firoozeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2017-04-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a genetic component in the development of PE with estimated heritability around 0.47. Several studies have investigated the association between maternal ABO blood groups (OMIM 110300) and risk of PE, with contradictory results have emerged. Considering that there is no study in this filed from Iranian population, the present case-control study was carried out at Shiraz (south-west Iran). In this study 331 women; 121 pregnant with PE and 210 normotensive pregnant women were included. Using blood group O (for ABO blood groups) or Rh+ (for Rh blood groups) as a reference, odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PE risk were estimated from logistic regression analysis. Although the A (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.39-1.17, P = 0.165), B (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.48-1.53, P = 0.615) and AB (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.37-3.45, P = 0.812) phenotypes showed lower risks compared with the O blood group, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ABO phenotypes and risk of PE. The frequency of Rh- phenotype was higher among PE patients compared with the control group. However, the association was not significant (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.69-4.65, P = 0.229). Adjusted ORs for age of participants and parity did not change the above-mentioned associations. Our present findings indicate that there is no association between ABO and Rh blood groups and risk of PE in Iranian population.

  1. Analysis for genotyping Duffy blood group in inhabitants of Sudan, the Fourth Cataract of the Nile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic polymophisms of the Duffy antigen receptor for the chemokines (DARC) gene successfully protected against blood stage infection by Plasmodium vivax infection. The Fy (a-, b-) phenotype is predominant among African populations, particularly those originating from West Africa, and it is rare among non-African populations. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of four Duffy blood groups based on SNPs (T-33C, G125A, G298A and C5411T) in two local tribes of Sudanese Arabs, the Shagia and Manasir, which are both from the region of the Fourth Nile cataract in Sudan. Methods An analysis of polymorphisms was performed on 217 individuals (126 representatives of the Shagia tribe and 91 of the Manasir). Real-time PCR and TaqMan Genotyping Assays were used to study the prevalence of alleles and genotypes. Results The analysis of allelic and genotype frequency in the T-33C polymorphisms demonstrated a significant dominance of the C allele and CC genotype (OR = 0.53 [0.32-0.88]; p = 0.02) in both tribes. The G125A polymorphism is associated with phenotype Fy(a-, b-) and was identified in 83% of Shagia and 77% of Manasir. With regard to G298A polymorphisms, the genotype frequencies were different between the tribes (p = 0,002) and no single AA homozygote was found. Based on four SNPs examined, 20 combinations of genotypes for the Shagia and Manasir tribes were determined. The genotype CC/AA/GG/CT occurred most often in Shagia tribe (45.9%) but was rare in the Manasir tribe (6.6%) (p < 0.001 Shagia versus Manasir). The FY*AES allele was identified in both analysed tribes. The presence of individuals with the FY*A/FY*A genotype was demonstrated only in the Shagia tribe. Conclusion This is probably the first report showing genotypically Duffy-negative people who carry both FY*BES and FY*AES. The identification of the FY*AES allele in both tribes may be due to admixture of the non-African genetic background. Taken as a whole, allele and genotype

  2. Frequency and correlation of lip prints, fingerprints and ABO blood groups in population of Sriganganagar District, Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpreet; Verma, Pradhuman; Padda, Sarfaraz; Raj, Seetharamaiha Sunder

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the frequency and uniqueness of different lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and ABO Rh blood groups among a semi-urban population of Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. The study was conducted on 1200 healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years. The cheiloscopic and dermatographic data of each subject were obtained and were analysed according to the Suzuki and Tsuchihashi and Henry systems of classification, respectively. Two forensic experts analyzed the patterns independently. The ABO Rh blood group was also recorded for each subject. The Chi square statistical analysis was done and tests were considered significant when p value <0.001 and Cohen kappa test was applied to analyze inter-observer reliability. The B+ blood group was noted as most common in both genders while least common were A- among males and AB- in females. Type II lip pattern was most predominant while the least common was Type I' in males and Type I' and Type V in females. The UL fingerprint pattern was the most common, while RL was least noted in both genders. All the fingerprint patterns showed correlation with different lip print patterns. A correlation was found between different blood groups and lip print patterns except Type I (vertical) lip pattern. A positive correlation was observed between all the blood groups and fingerprint patterns, except for RL pattern. There is an association between lip print patterns, fingerprint patterns and ABO blood groups in both the genders. Thus, correlating the uniqueness of these physical evidences sometimes helps the forensic team members in accurate personal identification or it can at least narrow the search for an individual where there are no possible data referring to the identity of the subject. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

  4. Structural analysis of determinants of histo-blood group antigen binding specificity in genogroup I noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L; Estes, Mary K; Prasad, B V Venkataram

    2014-06-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Susceptibility to the majority of NoV infections is determined by genetically controlled secretor-dependent expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also critical for NoV attachment to host cells. Human NoVs are classified into two major genogroups (genogroup I [GI] and GII), with each genogroup further divided into several genotypes. GII NoVs are more prevalent and exhibit periodic emergence of new variants, suggested to be driven by altered HBGA binding specificities and antigenic drift. Recent epidemiological studies show increased activity among GI NoVs, with some members showing the ability to bind nonsecretor HBGAs. NoVs bind HBGAs through the protruding (P) domain of the major capsid protein VP1. GI NoVs, similar to GII, exhibit significant sequence variations in the P domain; it is unclear how these variations affect HBGA binding specificities. To understand the determinants of possible strain-specific HBGA binding among GI NoVs, we determined the structure of the P domain of a GI.7 clinical isolate and compared it to the previously determined P domain structures of GI.1 and GI.2 strains. Our crystallographic studies revealed significant structural differences, particularly in the loop regions of the GI.7 P domain, altering its surface topography and electrostatic landscape and potentially indicating antigenic variation. The GI.7 strain bound to H- and A-type, Lewis secretor, and Lewis nonsecretor families of HBGAs, allowing us to further elucidate the structural determinants of nonsecretor HBGA binding among GI NoVs and to infer several contrasting and generalizable features of HBGA binding in the GI NoVs. Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown increased prevalence of genogroup I (GI) NoVs. Although secretor-positive status is strongly correlated with NoV infection, cases of NoV infection associated with

  5. Assessment of motivations for return donation among deferred blood donors. American Red Cross ARCNET Study Group.

    PubMed

    Munsterman, K A; Grindon, A J; Sullivan, M T; Trouern-Trend, J; Blackmon, M J; Watkins, J; Williams, A E

    1998-01-01

    The recent addition of a computerized donor deferral registry to American Red Cross blood donation procedures has enabled blood center staffs to identify, before donation, persons who attempt to donate despite previous deferral. The current study investigated reasons that deferred donors return to donate, despite having been notified that they are ineligible. Anonymous mail surveys requesting demographic information, details of last donation or attempted donation, and assessments of incentives for donating were sent to 311 donors presenting inappropriately at blood drives and 849 matched controls in three American Red Cross regions between April and July 1996. Responses were received from a total of 113 deferred donors and 388 matched controls. Analysis of the 49 permanently deferred donors indicated that they were more likely than controls to donate blood to receive test results or to be awarded community service credit. Responses also revealed that some deferred donors may return to donate blood because of a misunderstanding of the deferral message or erroneous recruitment by blood center staff. There is a need before donation for the provision of educational materials regarding the window period of infection and for careful consideration of the use of incentives to attract donors to blood centers. It is also important to provide to donors a clear and consistent message regarding their test results and deferral status.

  6. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Gośliński, Michał; Nowatkowska, Kamila

    2018-03-19

    Energy drinks (EDs) are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years), who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP)-systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP)-as well as heart rate (HR) and blood glucose (BG) measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine), the participants presented a significant increase in DBP ( p = 0.003), by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP ( p = 0.809). No significant changes were noted in HR ( p = 0.750). Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase ( p < 0.001) in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  7. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  8. Comparative study of substrate and product binding to the human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Soya, Naoto; Shoemaker, Glen K; Palcic, Monica M; Klassen, John S

    2009-11-01

    The first comparative thermodynamic study of the human blood group glycosyltransferases, alpha-(1-->3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and alpha-(1-->3)-galactosyltransferase (GTB), interacting with donor substrates, donor and acceptor analogs, and trisaccharide products in vitro is reported. The binding constants, measured at 24 degrees C with the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) assay, provide new insights into these model GTs and their interactions with substrate and product. Notably, the recombinant forms of GTA and GTB used in this study are shown to exist as homodimers, stabilized by noncovalent interactions at neutral pH. In the absence of divalent metal ion, neither GTA nor GTB exhibits any appreciable affinity for its native donors (UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Gal). Upon introduction of Mn(2+), both donors undergo enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis in the presence of either GTA or GTB. Hydrolysis of UDP-GalNAc in the presence of GTA proceeds very rapidly under the solution conditions investigated and a binding constant could not be directly measured. In contrast, the rate of hydrolysis of UDP-Gal in the presence of GTB is significantly slower and, utilizing a modified approach to analyze the ES-MS data, a binding constant of 2 x 10(4) M(-1) was established. GTA and GTB bind the donor analogs UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-Glc with affinities similar to those measured for UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc (GTB only), suggesting that the native donors and donor analogs bind to the GTA and GTB through similar interactions. The binding constant determined for GTA and UDP-GlcNAc (approximately 1 x 10(4) M(-1)), therefore, provides an estimate for the binding constant for GTA and UDP-GalNAc. Binding of GTA and GTB with the A and B trisaccharide products was also investigated for the first time. In the absence of UDP and Mn(2+), both GTA and GTB recognize their respective trisaccharide products but with a low affinity approximately 10(3) M(-1); the presence of UDP and Mn(2

  9. [Analysis of Correlation between IgG Titer of Pregnant Women and Neonatal Hemolytic Complications of Different Blood Groups].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hai-Hui; Huang, Hong-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Pi, You-Jun

    2017-10-01

    To study the relationship between IgG titer of pregnant women and hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN) with different blood groups. Four hundred pregnant women, including pregnant women with type O blood, were selected from May 2014 to January 2015 in our hospital for inspection and a couple of different blood groups, the IgG titer of pregnant women were detected in the inspection process. According to neonatal HDN, newborns were divided into 2 groups: HDN group(85 cases) and non-HDN group(315 cases). The incidence of postpartum neonatal hemolytic disease was tracked and the correlation of IgG titers with HDN were systematically analyzed. In the production and inspection process, the IgG titer in pregnant women was divided into <1:64, 1:64, 1:128, 1:256 and greater than or equal to 1:512 five groups. the comparison of HDN incidence rate in 4 groups of IgG titer >64 and IgG titer <1:64 group showed that the prevalence of ABO hemolytic disease of newborn were 96.9%, 79.6%, 63, 7% and 28.8%, there was a certain correlation of pregnant women IgG titers with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn, that is, with the increase of IgG titer, the incidence of hemolytic disease of newborns increased in certain degree (r=0.8832), the risk in 4 groups of neonatal HDN was higher than that in IgG titer <1:64 of IgG titer >64 HDN group. There is a certain corelation between prevalence of ABO-HDN and IgG titer of pregnant women. For these pregnant women, the control of the pregnant women IgG titer has a positive clinical significance to reduce the incidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  10. Blood pressure monitoring: theory and practice. European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability Teaching Course Proceedings.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Palatini, Paolo; Asmar, Roland; Bilo, Grzegorz; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Head, Geoff; Kario, Kazuomi; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Wang, Jiguang; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-02-01

    The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability organized a Teaching Course on 'Blood Pressure Monitoring: Theory and Practice' during the 2017 ESH Meeting in Milan, Italy. This course performed by 11 international BP monitoring experts covered key topics of BP monitoring, including office BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, home BP monitoring, ambulatory versus home BP, white-coat and masked hypertension, cuff use, and BP variability. This article presents a summary of the proceedings of the ESH BP Monitoring Teaching Course, including essential information, practical issues, and recommendations on the clinical application of BP monitoring methods, aiming to the optimal management of patients with suspected or diagnosed hypertension.

  11. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A ... during pregnancy. Careful testing can prevent a severe anemia in the newborn and jaundice .

  12. Blood pressure and psychological distress among North Africans in France: The role of perceived personal/group discrimination and gender.

    PubMed

    Loose, Florence; Tiboulet, Marie; Maisonneuve, Christelle; Taillandier-Schmitt, Anne; Dambrun, Michael

    2017-09-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and (physical and mental) health indicators among North African women and men living in France. This study included 82 North Africans, aged 18-64 years. Perceived discrimination was measured at both group level (PGD) and personal level (PPD). The physical health indicator was blood pressure. The mental health indicator was self-reported psychological distress. Multiple regression analyses showed that higher levels of PGD predicted higher blood pressure. PPD was not related to blood pressure. PPD was positively related to psychological distress among women, but not among men. PPD and PGD are associated with physical and mental health indicators in different ways among North African women and men in France. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Relationship between ABO blood group and clinicopathological factors and their effect on the survival of Japanese patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Fumiaki; Shimada, Hideaki; Yajima, Satoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Oshima, Yoko; Nanami, Tatsuki; Ito, Masaaki; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have evaluated the association between ABO blood group and the prognosis of various types of cancer; however, little is known about the relationship between ABO blood group and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We investigated how ABO blood group and clinicopathological characteristics are related to the survival of Japanese patients with esophageal SCC. We reviewed the medical records of 181 patients who underwent surgery for esophageal SCC between June, 2004 and December, 2015 and analyzed the association between ABO blood group and clinicopathological factors. Clinicopathological factors were also evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses for possible association with survival. The prevalence of each blood group was as follows: A, 35.5%; B, 22.4%; O, 32.8%; and AB, 8.2%. The 5-year overall survival of all patients was 37.1%. Patients with non-type B blood had significantly worse 5-year overall survival than those with type B blood (30.2 vs. 58.8%, P < 0.05). ABO blood groups were associated with the survival of Japanese patients with esophageal SCC. Patients with non-B blood groups had significantly worse overall survival than those with the B blood group.

  14. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b+CD5+ B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d−/− mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γcnull) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:23943651

  15. Measurement of blood pressure for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in different ethnic groups: one size fits all.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paramjit; Haque, M Sayeed; Martin, Una; Mant, Jonathan; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Heer, Gurdip; Johal, Amanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Schwartz, Claire; Wood, Sally; Greenfield, Sheila M; McManus, Richard J

    2017-02-08

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and prevalence varies by ethnic group. The diagnosis and management of blood pressure are informed by guidelines largely based on data from white populations. This study addressed whether accuracy of blood pressure measurement in terms of diagnosis of hypertension varies by ethnicity by comparing two measurement modalities (clinic blood pressure and home monitoring) with a reference standard of ambulatory BP monitoring in three ethnic groups. Cross-sectional population study (June 2010 - December 2012) with patients (40-75 years) of white British, South Asian and African Caribbean background with and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension recruited from 28 primary care practices. The study compared the test performance of clinic BP (using various protocols) and home-monitoring (1 week) with a reference standard of mean daytime ambulatory measurements using a threshold of 140/90 mmHg for clinic and 135/85 mmHg for out of office measurement. A total of 551 participants had complete data of whom 246 were white British, 147 South Asian and 158 African Caribbean. No consistent difference in accuracy of methods of blood pressure measurement was observed between ethnic groups with or without a prior diagnosis of hypertension: for people without hypertension, clinic measurement using three different methodologies had high specificity (75-97%) but variable sensitivity (33-65%) whereas home monitoring had sensitivity of 68-88% and specificity of 64-80%. For people with hypertension, detection of a raised blood pressure using clinic measurements had sensitivities of 34-69% with specificity of 73-92% and home monitoring had sensitivity (81-88%) and specificity (55-65%). For people without hypertension, ABPM remains the choice for diagnosing hypertension compared to the other modes of BP measurement regardless of ethnicity. Differences in accuracy of home monitoring and clinic monitoring (higher sensitivity

  16. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  17. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID:24847360

  18. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos; Fujita, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru.

  19. Antibodies to AB blood group antigens mimic anti-salivary duct autoantibodies in patients with limited sicca symptoms.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, F; Beroukas, D; Gillis, D; Cavill, D; Bradwell, A; Rischmueller, M; Gordon, T P

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the clinical relevance and pathogenic significance of anti-salivary duct autoantibodies (ASDA) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by examining (1) their frequency in healthy controls, patients with sicca symptoms, and patients with various autoimmune and infective disorders; (2) their localization by confocal microscopy; and (3) their tissue distribution and cross reactivity with blood group antigens. Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) was performed on commercial cryostat sections of monkey parotid salivary gland. Sections were examined by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sera giving positive staining on the ducts were tested by IF on a range of monkey tissues and salivary glands from several mammalian species. Blocking experiments were performed with human erythrocytes of different ABO blood groups and AB antigens. We identified 2 distinct ductal staining patterns. The first resembled ASDA described in earlier studies and showed patchy bright staining of the apical (luminal) surfaces of the ducts and staining of apical cytoplasmic vesicles. The other was only observed with anti-mitochondrial antibody positive sera and stained the mitochondrial-rich ductal epithelium in a distinctive punctate pattern. Antibodies staining the apical surface of ducts were detected rarely in patients with antiRo/La autoantibody-positive primary SS (1/76) and RA (1/36) and were found in only 1115 with RA and secondary SS. ASDA were detected in sera from 13/51 (25.5%) of patients referred to our clinic with limited sicca symptoms who were anti-Ro/La antibody-negative and had no typical clinical or laboratory features of classical primary SS. The apical ductal staining pattern was not observed with sera from 63 healthy controls without sicca symptoms or in patients with autoimmune and infective disorders. Twelve of the 13 patients whose sera gave ASDA-like staining were blood group O and one group A. Ductal staining was abolished in

  20. Adenoid and tonsil surgeries in children: how relevant is pre-operative blood grouping and cross-matching?

    PubMed

    Onotai, Lucky; Lilly-Tariah, Opubo da

    2013-01-01

    As a part of pre-operative evaluation, several otolaryngologists group and cross-match blood routinely for children undergoing adenoid and tonsil surgeries. This practice has generated several debates either in support or against this practice. The aim of this study is to critically evaluate the incidence of post-tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) bleeding and blood transfusions in otherwise healthy children with adenoid/tonsil pathologies conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). A descriptive retrospective study of children who underwent adenoid and tonsil surgeries in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery of UPTH from January 2003 to December 2012. Children with family history of bleeding disorders and derangement of clotting profile as well as different co-morbidity like sickle cell disease were excluded from this study. The patients' data were retrieved from the registers of ENT out-patient clinics, theatre registers and patients case notes. Demographic data, indications for surgery, preoperative investigations, complications and management outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Out of 145 children that had adenoid and tonsil surgeries; only 100 met the criteria for this study. The study subjects included 65 males and 35 females (male: female ratio 1.9:1) belonging to 0-16 years age group (mean age: 3.46 ± 2.82 years). The age group of 3-5 years had the highest (n = 40, 40%) number of surgeries. Adenotonsillectomy was the commonest (n = 85, 85%) surgery performed on patients who had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The commonest (n = 6, 6%) complication was haemorrhage, and only few (n = 3, 3%) patients had blood transfusion. However, mortality was recorded in some (n = 3, 3%) patients. This study confirms that the incidence of post adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy bleeding in otherwise healthy children is low and rarely requires blood transfusion. We can conclude that routine preoperative blood grouping and cross

  1. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes' ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion.

  2. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. Materials and methods We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes’ ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. Results The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. Conclusion These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion. PMID:24333060

  3. Survey of Two New (Kai 1 and Kai 2) and Other Blood Groups in Dogs of North America.

    PubMed

    Euler, C C; Lee, J H; Kim, H Y; Raj, K; Mizukami, K; Giger, U

    2016-09-01

    Based upon serology, >10 canine blood group systems have been reported. We surveyed dogs for dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 and 2 new blood types (Kai 1 and Kai 2), and some samples also were screened for Dal and DEA 3, 4, and 7. Blood samples provided by owners, breeders, animal blood banks, and clinical laboratories were typed for DEA 1 by an immunochromatographic strip technique with a monoclonal antibody and analysis of band intensity. Both new antigens, the Dal and other DEAs (except DEA 7 by tube method), were assessed by a gel column method with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. The same gel column method was applied for alloantibody detection. Of 503 dogs typed, 59.6% were DEA 1+ with 4% weakly, 10% moderately, and 45.6% strongly DEA 1+. Regarding Kai 1 and Kai 2, 94% were Kai 1+/Kai 2-, 5% were Kai 1-/Kai 2- and 1% were Kai 1-/Kai 2+, but none were Kai 1+/Kai 2+. There was no relationship between Kai 1/Kai 2 and other blood types tested. Plasma from DEA 1-, Kai 1-, Kai 2- dogs, or some combination of these contained no detectable alloantibodies against DEA 1 and Kai 1 or Kai, respectively. The new blood types, called Kai 1 and Kai 2, are unrelated to DEA 1, 3, 4, and 7 and Dal. Kai 1+/Kai 2- dogs were most commonly found in North America. The clinical relevance of Kai 1 and Kai 2 in canine transfusion medicine still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Sara K.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Farber, Gregory K.; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Burns, Kristin M.; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C.; Chung, Wendy K.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H.; Forrest, Christopher B.; Gaynor, William J.; Gaies, Michael G.; Go, Alan S.; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R.; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Schwartz, Steven M.; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Working Group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease (CHD) research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of CHD data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in CHD, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the Working Group. PMID:27045129

  5. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-12-03

    ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China PARTICIPANTS: There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21-49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (P<0.001). Compared with other ethnic groups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD-) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD- blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%-0.4%, P<0.001). ABO and RhD blood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics.

    PubMed

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Agrawal, Soma; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K) and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92%) and/or E (32%) at each transfusion. Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients.

  7. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data.

    PubMed

    Muthivhi, T N; Olmsted, M G; Park, H; Sha, M; Raju, V; Mokoena, T; Bloch, E M; Murphy, E L; Reddy, R

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Enhanced blood pressure variability in a high cardiovascular risk group of African Americans: FIT4Life Study.

    PubMed

    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen; Diaz, Keith M; Feairheller, Deborah L; Sturgeon, Kathleen M; Williamson, Sheara; Crabbe, Deborah L; Kashem, Abul; Ahrensfield, Debra; Brown, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) levels in African Americans elicit vascular inflammation resulting in vascular remodeling. BP variability (BPV) correlates with target organ damage. We aimed to investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and BPV in African Americans. Thirty-six African Americans underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). BPV was calculated using the average real variability index. Fasting blood samples were assayed for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and white blood cell (WBC) count. Significant associations between hs-CRP and 24-hour systolic variability (r=0.50; P=.012) and awake systolic variability (r=0.45; P=.02) were identified after adjusting for age, body mass index, and 24-hour mean BP. ABPM variables were compared between the hs-CRP tertile groups. In post-hoc analysis, there was a significant difference in 24-hour and awake periods for both systolic and diastolic variability among the groups. TNF-alpha and WBC count showed no associations with ABPM variables. hs-CRP was associated with systolic variability, and higher levels of hs-CRP were related with greater BPV. Higher inflammatory status influences wider fluctuations in systolic BP, which in turn could facilitate early progression to target organ damage independent of absolute BP levels in African Americans.

  10. AB0 blood groups and rhesus factor expression as prognostic parameters in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer - a retrospective multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Veronika; Polterauer, Stephan; Reinthaller, Alexander; Koelbl, Heinz; Achleitner, Regina; Berger, Astrid; Concin, Nicole

    2018-04-19

    AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression have been associated with carcinogenesis, response to treatment and tumor progression in several malignancies. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression are associated with clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression were evaluated in a retrospective multicenter study including 518 patients with EOC. Their association with patients' survival was assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Neither AB0 blood groups nor Rhesus factor expression were associated with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence-free, cancer-specific, or overall survival. In a subgroup of patients with high-grade serous adenocarcinoma, however, blood groups B and AB were associated with a better 5-year cancer-specific survival rate compared to blood groups A and 0 (60.3 ± 8.6% vs. 43.8 ± 3.6%, p = 0.04). Yet, this was not significant in multivariable analysis. AB0 blood groups and Rhesus factor expression are both neither associated with features of biologically aggressive disease nor clinical outcome in patients with EOC. Further investigation of the role of the blood group B antigen on cancer-specific survival in the subgroup of high-grade serous should be considered.

  11. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Chemical Basis for Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between ABO Blood Groups and Subgroups: Implications for Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, M; Tao, K; Zou, L; Meloncelli, P J; Lowary, T L; Suzuki, K; Boland, D; Larsen, I; Burch, M; Shaw, N; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Afzali, B; Kim, D H; Mengel, M; Shapiro, A M J; West, L J

    2015-10-01

    Blood group ABH(O) carbohydrate antigens are carried by precursor structures denoted type I-IV chains, creating unique antigen epitopes that may differ in expression between circulating erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Characterization of such differences is invaluable in many clinical settings including transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies were generated and epitope specificities were characterized against chemically synthesized type I-IV ABH and related glycans. Antigen expression was detected on endomyocardial biopsies (n = 50) and spleen (n = 11) by immunohistochemical staining and on erythrocytes by flow cytometry. On vascular endothelial cells of heart and spleen, only type II-based ABH antigens were expressed; type III/IV structures were not detected. Type II-based ABH were expressed on erythrocytes of all blood groups. Group A1 and A2 erythrocytes additionally expressed type III/IV precursors, whereas group B and O erythrocytes did not. Intensity of A/B antigen expression differed among group A1 , A2 , A1 B, A2 B and B erythrocytes. On group A2 erythrocytes, type III H structures were largely un-glycosylated with the terminal "A" sugar α-GalNAc. Together, these studies define qualitative and quantitative differences in ABH antigen expression between erythrocytes and vascular tissues. These expression profiles have important implications that must be considered in clinical settings of ABO-incompatible transplantation when interpreting anti-ABO antibodies measured by hemagglutination assays with reagent erythrocytes. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    Context: The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. Aims: The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. Results: For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. Conclusions: The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use. PMID:26417159

  14. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use.

  15. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  16. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  17. [Neurohumoral changes in rats of different aged groups on the background of injection of cryopreserved nucleated cells of cord blood].

    PubMed

    Martynova, Yu V; Babiychuk, V G; Sirotenko, L A; Malova, N G; Babiychuk, L V

    2016-01-01

    The application of the cryopreserved preparation of UCB NCs was accompanied by an enhanced activity of all the neurohumoral regulation elements of heart rate, although the absolute indices in 18- and 24-month-old animals did not reach similar ones in younger age groups. Also we noted an increase of thyroid hormone content in blood serum of aged rats, the level of which decreased with age. In addition, there was shown that the introduction of UCB NCs during animal life cycle (every 6 months) allowed keeping a functional state of the autonomic nervous system at a «young» physiological level.

  18. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  19. ABO blood group antibody levels in infants exposed to mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Guynes, Anthony; Delaney, Meghan; McMullan, David M; Townsend-McCall, Dee; Kemna, Mariska; Boucek, Robert; Law, Yuk M

    2014-01-01

    ABO sensitization is a barrier to ABO-incompatible heart transplantation in infants. We investigate the development of ABO antibodies in infants with and without mechanical circulatory support (MCS) during their waiting period. Although the proportion of patients with antibodies was similar between the groups, the median age at antibody detection was only 9 days (6-198) for MCS vs. 223 days (28-367) for non-MCS patients (P = 0.028), suggesting MCS is associated with earlier ABO antibody detection.

  20. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  1. Differential interaction of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin with pig intestinal brush border glycoproteins depending on their ABH and related blood group antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Balanzino, L E; Barra, J L; Monferran, C G; Cumar, F A

    1994-04-01

    The ability of glycoproteins from pig intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) to bind cholera toxin (CT) or heat-labile toxins from strains of Escherichia coli isolated from human (LTh) or pig (LTp) intestines was studied. Glycoproteins capable of binding the toxins are also recognized by antibodies or lectins specific for ABO(H) blood group and related antigens. Pigs expressing A, H, or I antigenic determinants were used for comparison. The toxin-binding capacity of a glycoprotein depends on the toxin type and the blood group epitope borne by the glycoprotein. LTh and LTp preferably bound to several blood group A-active glycoproteins rather than H-active glycoproteins. By contrast, CT practically did not recognize either blood group A- or blood group H-active glycoproteins, while glycoproteins from pigs expressing I antigenic determinants were able to interact with LTh, LTp, and CT. LTh, LTp, or CT glycoprotein binding was selectively inhibited by specific lectins or monosaccharides. Affinity purification of the toxin binding brush border glycoproteins on the basis of their blood group reactivity suggests that such glycoproteins are hydrolytic enzymes. BBM from A+ pigs contain about 27 times more LTh binding sites, in addition to those recognized by CT, than an equivalent membrane preparation from H+ pigs. The present findings may help clarify some previous unclear results on LTh binding to intestinal BBM glycoproteins obtained by use of animals not typed by their ABO(H) blood group phenotype.

  2. ABO blood groups: A risk factor for left atrial and left atrial appendage thrombogenic milieu in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan; Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xinchun

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified ABO blood groups as predictors of thromboembolic diseases. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), however, potential association between ABO blood groups and the risk of left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombogenic milieu (TM) has not been established. This is a retrospective case-control study that included 125 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) plus TM, as evidenced by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during a period from1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016. The controls were selected randomly from 1072 NVAF without TM at a 1:2 ratio. Potential association between ABO blood groups and TM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk of TM was higher in patients with blood group A (33.6% vs. 20.2% in non-A blood groups, P=0.005). After adjusting for age, sex, oral anticoagulant use, AF type and duration, and relevant functional measures (e.g., NT-pro BNP level, left atrium diameter, and left ventricular ejection fraction), blood group A remained associated with an increased risk of TM (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.4-6.388, P=0.005). Blood group A is an independent risk factor for TM in NVAF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Application of multiplex PCR for the screening of genotyping system for the rare blood groups Fy(a-), s-,k-,Di(b-) and Js(b-)].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Xie, Li; Li, Hailan; Lan, Jiao; Mo, Zhuning; Yang, Ziji; Liu, Fei; Xiao, Ruiping; He, Yunlei; Ye, Luyi; Zhu, Ziyan

    2014-04-01

    To screen rare blood groups Fy(a-), s-, k-, Di(b-) and Js(b-) in an ethnic Zhuang population. Sequence-specific primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites of blood group antigens Fy(b) and s. A specific multiplex PCR system I was established. Multiplex PCR system II was applied to detect alleles antigens Di(b), k, Js(b)1910 and Js(b) 2019 at the same time. The two systems was were used to screen for rare blood group antigens in 4490 randomly selected healthy donors of Guangxi Zhuang ethnic origin. We successfully made the multiplex PCR system I. We detected the rare blood group antigens using the two PCR system. There are five Fy(a-), three s(-), two Di(b-) in 4490 Guangxi zhuang random samples. The multiplex PCR system I has achieved good accuracy and stability. With multiplex PCR systems I and II, 4490 samples were screened. Five Fy(a-), three s(-) and two Di(b-) samples were discovered. Multiplex PCR is an effective methods, which can be used for high throughput screening of rare blood groups. The rare blood types of Guangxi Zhuang ethnic origin obtained through the screening can provide valuable information for compatible blood transfusion. Through screening we obtained precious rare blood type materials which can be used to improve the capability of compatible infusion and reduce the transfusion reactions.

  4. Molecular Relationships and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Viridans Group Streptococci Isolated from Blood of Neutropenic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wisplinghoff, H.; Reinert, R. R.; Cornely, O.; Seifert, H.

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 to May 1998, 57 episodes of bacteremia due to viridans group streptococci were identified in 50 febrile neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Four patients experienced two separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia, and one patient had four separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia. Strains were identified to species level as Streptococcus mitis (n = 37), Streptococcus oralis (n = 19), and Streptococcus salivarius (n = 1). Epidemiologic relatedness of these strains was studied by using PCR-based fingerprinting with M13 and ERIC-2 primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with restriction enzyme SmaI. All strains that were isolated from different patients exhibited unique fingerprint patterns, thus suggesting that viridans group streptococcal bacteremia usually derives from an endogenous source. Cross-transmission of strains between patients could not be established. Four S. mitis isolates recovered during four separate bacteremic episodes in a single patient had identical fingerprint patterns. Susceptibility testing was carried out by broth microdilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited were (in milligrams per liter) as follows: 0.5 (penicillin), 0.5 (amoxicillin), 0.25 (cefotaxime), 2 (chloramphenicol), 4 (erythromycin), 0.5 (clindamycin), ≥32 (tetracycline), ≥32 (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 4 (ciprofloxacin), 0.5 (sparfloxacin), 0.5 (vancomycin), 0.25 (teicoplanin), and 1 (quinupristin-dalfopristin). High-level penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥4 mg/liter) was found in one isolate only, but intermediate penicillin resistance was noted in 11 isolates (19%). Resistance rates to other drugs were as follows: 7% (amoxicillin), 4% (cefotaxime), 4% (chloramphenicol), 32% (erythromycin), 9% (clindamycin), 39% (tetracycline), 68% (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 23% (ciprofloxacin), 0% (sparfloxacin), 0% (vancomycin), 0

  5. Surgery upregulates high mobility group box-1 and disrupts the blood-brain barrier causing cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    PubMed

    He, Hui-Juan; Wang, Yi; Le, Yuan; Duan, Kai-Ming; Yan, Xue-Bin; Liao, Qin; Liao, Yan; Tong, Jian-Bin; Terrando, Niccolò; Ouyang, Wen

    2012-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a growing and largely underestimated problem without defined etiology. Herein, we sought to determine the relationship between cognitive decline, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and inflammation, namely high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), after surgery in aged rats. Aged rats were randomly assigned as surgery group (n = 45, splenectomy under general anesthesia), anesthesia (n = 45, 2% isoflurane for 2 h), and naïve control (n = 15). Markers of inflammation were measured in plasma and brain. Blood-brain barrier ultrastructure and permeability were measured by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and IgG immunohistochemistry. Cognitive function was assessed in a reversal learning version of the Morris water maze (MWM). Surgical trauma under general anesthesia caused distinct changes in systemic and central proinflammatory cytokines. Levels of HMGB1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were significantly upregulated in the hippocampus of operated animals. Immunohistochemistry and TEM showed BBB disruption induced by surgery and anesthesia. These molecular changes were associated with cognitive impairment in latency with the MWM up to postoperative day 3. HMGB1 and RAGE signaling appear pivotal mediators of surgery-induced cognitive decline and may contribute to the changes in BBB permeability after peripheral surgical trauma. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. [Hemolytic anemia caused by graft-versus-host reaction in ABO-nonidentical renal transplants from blood group O donors].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C; Navascués, R A

    2001-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia is one of the side effects associated with cyclosporin and tacrolimus therapy, and three mechanisms have been described to account for hemolytic anemia in patients receiving these drugs: drug induced hemolysis, autoimmune hemolysis and alloimmune hemolysis resulting from donor lymphocytes derived from the allograft (passenger lymphocyte syndrome). We report four cases of renal transplant recipients who developed alloimmune hemolytic anemia due to minor ABO incompatibility while under treatment with cyclosporin (two) and tacrolimus (two). The anti-erythrocyte antibodies responsible for hemolysis were of the IgG isotype and showed anti-A or anti-B specificity. These findings suggest that the hemolysis could be related to alloantibodies derived from the clonal development of donor B lymphocytes in the recipients (microchimerism). In summary, hemolytic anemia due to ABO-minor incompatibility occurs infrequently after renal transplantation. Risks are higher for patients A, B or AB blood group receiving an O blood group graft under treatment with cyclosporin or tacrolimus. Follow-up of these patients is warranted for the early detection and optimal management may be achieved by reduction of immunosuppression and change to mycophenolate mofetil.

  7. Attenuated live cholera vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits significantly higher serum vibriocidal antibody titers in persons of blood group O.

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, R; Avendaño, A; Prado, V; Horwitz, I; Wasserman, S; Losonsky, G; Cryz, S; Kaper, J B; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Persons of blood group O are at increased risk of developing cholera gravis. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety-immunogenicity trial of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in 5- to 9-year-old Chilean children, vibriocidal antibody seroconversion (74% overall) did not differ by blood group. However, the reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) in blood group O vaccines (GMT = 486) was higher than that in non-O vaccines (GMT = 179) (P < 0.02). PMID:7822046

  8. Cloning, sequence, and expression of a blood group B active recombinant alpha-D-galactosidase from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Davis, M O; Hata, D J; Johnson, S A; Jones, D E; Harmata, M A; Evans, M L; Walker, J C; Smith, D S

    1997-07-01

    A cDNA encoding pinto bean alpha-D-galactosidase [E.C. 3.2.1.22] was obtained by amplification of cDNA using highly conserved sequences found in eucaryotic alpha-D-galactosidases. Subsequently a full length Phaseolus cDNA clone was obtained that is 1537 nt long and contains untranslated 5' and 3' sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA has a high degree of homology with other eucaryotic alpha-D-galactosidase genes. The recombinant alpha-D-galactosidase (rGal) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Purified rGal was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and had relative masses of 40.1 and 45.4 kDa under nonreducing and reducing conditions, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of the expressed protein contained the sequence GNGLGQTPPMG corresponding to that deduced from the cDNA sequence. The native molecular weight for rGal was determined to be 32.18 kDa by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. The specific activity of the rGal was 349 mu moles of PNP-alpha-D-galactopyranoside hydrolyzed per mg of pure rGal per min. rGal was highly specific for alpha-D-galactosyl residues and degraded B oligosaccharide. No detectable hemagglutinin or protease activity was present in the preparations. Furthermore, rGal was active against the blood group B antigen on native human erythrocytes in cell suspension assays. The only detectable RBC phenotypic change was loss of the B and P1 epitopes. Recombinant Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-D-galactosidase may have useful biotechnical applications in the potential mass production of enzymatically converted, universally transfusable type O RBCs. alpha-D-galactosidase [E.C. 3.2.1.22] has been purified from a variety of procaryotic and eucaryotic species. Most alpha-D-galactosidases have similar low molecular weight substrate specificities, but activity against high molecular weight substrates is variable. Terminal alpha-D-galactoside residues are present in glycoproteins and glycolipids. Some alpha

  9. Booming Development of Group IV–VI Semiconductors: Fresh Blood of 2D Family

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xing; Zhang, Qi; Gan, Lin; Li, Huiqiao; Xiong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of 2D layered materials (2DLMs), the 2D group IV metal chalcogenides (GIVMCs) have drawn much attention recently due to their earth‐abundant, low‐cost, and environmentally friendly characteristics, thus catering well to the sustainable electronics and optoelectronics applications. In this instructive review, the booming research advancements of 2D GIVMCs in the last few years have been presented. First, the unique crystal and electronic structures are introduced, suggesting novel physical properties. Then the various methods adopted for synthesis of 2D GIVMCs are summarized such as mechanical exfoliation, solvothermal method, and vapor deposition. Furthermore, the review focuses on the applications in field effect transistors and photodetectors based on 2D GIVMCs, and extends to flexible devices. Additionally, the 2D GIVMCs based ternary alloys and heterostructures have also been presented, as well as the applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Finally, the conclusion and outlook have also been presented in the end of the review. PMID:27981008

  10. Evaluation of an automated microplate technique in the Galileo system for ABO and Rh(D) blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiyi; Wan, Feng; Lou, Yufeng; Jin, Jiali; Mao, Weilin

    2014-01-01

    A number of automated devices for pretransfusion testing have recently become available. This study evaluated the Immucor Galileo System, a fully automated device based on the microplate hemagglutination technique for ABO/Rh (D) determinations. Routine ABO/Rh typing tests were performed on 13,045 samples using the Immucor automated instruments. Manual tube method was used to resolve ABO forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. D-negative test results were investigated and confirmed manually by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The system rejected 70 tests for sample inadequacy. 87 samples were read as "No-type-determined" due to forward and reverse grouping discrepancies. 25 tests gave these results because of sample hemolysis. After further tests, we found 34 tests were caused by weakened RBC antibodies, 5 tests were attributable to weak A and/or B antigens, 4 tests were due to mixed-field reactions, and 8 tests had high titer cold agglutinin with blood qualifications which react only at temperatures below 34 degrees C. In the remaining 11 cases, irregular RBC antibodies were identified in 9 samples (seven anti-M and two anti-P) and two subgroups were identified in 2 samples (one A1 and one A2) by a reference laboratory. As for D typing, 2 weak D+ samples missed by automated systems gave negative results, but weak-positive reactions were observed in the IAT. The Immucor Galileo System is reliable and suited for ABO and D blood groups, some reasons may cause a discrepancy in ABO/D typing using a fully automated system. It is suggested that standardization of sample collection may improve the performance of the fully automated system.

  11. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.

  12. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P < 0.001). Effective autoregulation was found in a blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).

  13. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two ... A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A Has only the A antigen on red ...

  14. National Institutes of Health Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Initiative: The Healthcare Delivery Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Bredeson, Christopher; Duarte, Rafael F; Farnia, Stephanie; Ferrey, Susan; Fitzhugh, Courtney; Flowers, Mary E D; Gajewski, James; Gastineau, Dennis; Greenwald, Melissa; Jagasia, Madan; Martin, Patricia; Rizzo, J Douglas; Schmit-Pokorny, Kimberly; Majhail, Navneet S

    2017-05-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at risk for development of late complications and require lifelong monitoring for screening and prevention of late effects. There is an increasing appreciation of the issues related to healthcare delivery and coverage faced by HCT survivors. The 2016 National Institutes of Health Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Initiative included an international and broadly representative Healthcare Delivery Working Group that was tasked with identifying research gaps pertaining to healthcare delivery and to identify initiatives that may yield a better understanding of the long-term value and costs of care for HCT survivors. There is a paucity of literature in this area. Critical areas in need of research include pilot studies of novel and information technology supported models of care delivery and coverage for HCT survivors along with development and validation of instruments that capture patient-reported outcomes. Investment in infrastructure to support this research, such as linkage of databases including electronic health records and routine inclusion of endpoints that will inform analyses focused around care delivery and coverage, is required. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  15. The genes for apolipoprotein all (APOA2) and the Duffy blood group (FY) are linked on chromosome 1 in man.

    PubMed

    Rogne, S; Myklebost, O; Høyheim, B; Olaisen, B; Gedde-Dahl, T

    1989-02-01

    We have cloned a cDNA probe for human apolipoprotein AII and used it to analyze linkage relationships on chromosome 1. We found no recombinations between APOA2 and the gene coding for the Duffy blood group antigens (FY) in the 19 meioses examined. Our maximal lod score is 4.2 at zero recombination rate. K. Berg (1987, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 46:579) found a maximal score of 2.5 at recombination fraction 0.14 in 54 meioses. When results from both studies are combined, the most likely distance between FY and APOA2 is about 10% recombination with a combined lod score of 5.6 for both sexes.

  16. Histo-blood group antigens as receptors for rotavirus, new understanding on rotavirus epidemiology and vaccine strategy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi; Liu, Yang; Tan, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The success of the two rotavirus (RV) vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) in many countries endorses a live attenuated vaccine approach against RVs. However, the lower efficacies of both vaccines in many low- and middle-income countries indicate a need to improve the current RV vaccines. The recent discovery that RVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as potential receptors has significantly advanced our understanding of RV diversity, evolution and epidemiology, providing important new insights into the performances of current RV vaccines in different populations and emphasizing a P-type-based vaccine approach. New understanding of RV diversity and evolution also raises a fundamental question about the ‘Jennerian' approach, which needs to be addressed for future development of live attenuated RV vaccines. Alternative approaches to develop safer and more cost-effective subunit vaccines against RVs are also discussed. PMID:28400594

  17. Altered expression of blood group A and H antigens on red cells from an acute leukemic patient.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, T; Shimano, S; Furukawa, K

    1992-01-01

    Alternate expressions of the blood group A and H antigens on red cells are described in a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The patient's red cells showed mixed field agglutination with anti-A and anti-H sera and lectins, and no agglutination with anti-B serum. The agglutinability of the A red cells with Dolichos biflorus lectin was between A1 and A2 (A intermediate). Inagglutinable red cells were separated with anti-A agglutinin, and the proportion was about 80% of total cells. The agglutinating activity with Ulex europaeus anti-H of red cells, which were inagglutinable with anti-A, was 16 times weaker than that of group O cells. The weaker reaction with Ricinus communis lectin and the stronger reaction with Psathyrella velutina lectin on the inagglutinable cells with anti-A than those on the group O cells suggest that fucosyl alpha (1-2) and galactosyl beta (1-4) residues at the nonreducing end of carbohydrate chains of H antigens on the red cells were diminished, and N-acetylglucosaminyl beta (1-3) residues were sequentially exposed. His saliva contained A and H substances in normal amounts of a secretor. Serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity which converts O red cells to A red cells was the same as those in sera from A1 individuals. These results suggest that the synthesis of H precursors is partially blocked in this patient's red cells.

  18. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based blood group genotyping--the alternative approach.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Christoph; Meyer, Stefan; Frey, Beat M; Vollmert, Caren

    2013-01-01

    Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has previously been reported for high throughput blood group genotyping, those reports are limited to only a few blood group systems. This review describes the development of a large cooperative Swiss-German project, aiming to employ MALDI-TOF MS for the molecular detection of the blood groups Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNSs, a comprehensive collection of low incidence antigens, as well as the platelet and granulocyte antigens HPA and HNA, representing a total of 101 blood group antigens, encoded by 170 alleles, respectively. Recent reports describe MALDI-TOF MS as a technology with short time-to-resolution, ability for high throughput, and cost-efficiency when used in genetic analysis, including forensics, pharmacogenetics, oncology and hematology. Furthermore, Kell and RhD genotyping have been performed on fetal DNA from maternal plasma with excellent results. In summary, this article introduces a new technological approach for high throughput blood group genotyping by means of MALDI-TOF MS. Although all data presented are preliminary, the observed success rates, data quality and concordance with known blood group types are highly impressive, underlining the accuracy and reliability of this cost-efficient high throughput method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bat Caliciviruses and Human Noroviruses Are Antigenically Similar and Have Overlapping Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Debbink, Kari; Beall, Anne; Mallory, Michael L.; Yount, Boyd L.; Graham, Rachel L.; Huynh, Jeremy; Gates, J. Edward; Donaldson, Eric F.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus. We observed that bat norovirus formed virus-like particles and had epitopes and receptor-binding patterns similar to those of human noroviruses. To determine whether these observations stretch across multiple bat caliciviruses, we characterized a novel bat calicivirus, BtCalV/A10/USA/2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 likely represents a novel Caliciviridae genus and is most closely related to "recoviruses." Homology modeling revealed that the capsid sequences of BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 and bat norovirus resembled human norovirus capsid sequences and retained host ligand binding within the receptor-binding domains similar to that seen with human noroviruses. Both caliciviruses bound histo-blood group antigens in patterns that overlapped those seen with human and animal noroviruses. Taken together, our results indicate the potential for bat caliciviruses to bind histo-blood group antigens and overcome a significant barrier to cross-species transmission. Additionally, we have shown that bat norovirus maintains antigenic epitopes similar to those seen with human noroviruses, providing further evidence of evolutionary descent. Our results reiterate the importance of surveillance of wild-animal populations, especially of bats, for novel viral pathogens. PMID:29789360

  20. Toxoplasma and reaction time: role of toxoplasmosis in the origin, preservation and geographical distribution of Rh blood group polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Novotná, M; Havlícek, J; Smith, A P; Kolbeková, P; Skallová, A; Klose, J; Gasová, Z; Písacka, M; Sechovská, M; Flegr, J

    2008-09-01

    The RhD protein which is the RHD gene product and a major component of the Rh blood group system carries the strongest blood group immunogen, the D-antigen. This antigen is absent in a significant minority of the human population (RhD-negatives) due to RHD deletion or alternation. The origin and persistence of this RhD polymorphism is an old evolutionary enigma. Before the advent of modern medicine, the carriers of the rarer allele (e.g. RhD-negative women in the population of RhD-positives or RhD-positive men in the population of RhD-negatives) were at a disadvantage as some of their children (RhD-positive children born to pre-immunized RhD-negative mothers) were at a higher risk of foetal or newborn death or health impairment from haemolytic disease. Therefore, the RhD-polymorphism should be unstable, unless the disadvantage of carriers of the locally less abundant allele is counterbalanced by, for example, higher viability of the heterozygotes. Here we demonstrated for the first time that among Toxoplasma-free subjects the RhD-negative men had faster reaction times than Rh-positive subjects and showed that heterozygous men with both the RhD plus and RhD minus alleles were protected against prolongation of reaction times caused by infection with the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Our results suggest that the balancing selection favouring heterozygotes could explain the origin and stability of the RhD polymorphism. Moreover, an unequal prevalence of toxoplasmosis in different countries could explain pronounced differences in frequencies of RhD-negative phenotype in geographically distinct populations.

  1. Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Flores, R M; Barton, S A; Marty-Gonzalez, L F; Rivas, F; Chakraborty, R

    1999-07-01

    A method for estimating the general rate of nonpaternity in a population was validated using phenotype data on seven blood groups (A1A2BO, MNSs, Rh, Duffy, Lutheran, Kidd, and P) on 396 mother, child, and legal father trios from Nuevo León, Mexico. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci (combined average exclusion probability of 0.694 for specific mother-child phenotype pairs). The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0.118 +/- 0.020. The nonpaternity rates in Nuevo León were also seen to be inversely related with the socioeconomic status of the families, i.e., the highest in the low and the lowest in the high socioeconomic class. We further argue that with the moderately low (69.4%) power of exclusion for these seven blood group systems, the traditional critical values of paternity index (PI > or = 19) were not good indicators of true paternity, since a considerable fraction (307/364) of nonexcluded legal fathers had a paternity index below 19 based on the seven markers. Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers (possibly DNA-based tests) that yield a higher power of exclusion. We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers.

  2. Genetic admixture, social-behavioural factors and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    PubMed

    Klimentidis, Y C; Dulin-Keita, A; Casazza, K; Willig, A L; Allison, D B; Fernandez, J R

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs) in the United States. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social or behavioural factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as AA, European American or Hispanic American. We use body composition, behavioural (diet and physical activity) and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among AAs, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioural measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental aetiology of disparities in blood pressure.

  3. Genetic admixture, social-behavioral factors, and body composition are associated with blood pressure differently by racial-ethnic group among children.

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Allison, David B.; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a progressively earlier age of onset, and disproportionately affects African Americans in the US. It has been difficult to establish the extent to which group differences are due to physiological, genetic, social, or behavioral factors. In this study, we examined the association between blood pressure and these factors among a sample of 294 children, identified as African-, European-, or Hispanic-American. We use body composition, behavioral (diet and physical activity), and survey-based measures (socio-economic status and perceived racial discrimination), as well as genetic admixture based on 142 ancestry informative markers (AIM) to examine associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We find that associations differ by ethnic/racial group. Notably, among African Americans, physical activity and perceived racial discrimination, but not African genetic admixture, are associated with blood pressure, while the association between blood pressure and body fat is nearly absent. We find an association between blood pressure and an AIM near a marker identified by a recent genome-wide association study. Our findings shed light on the differences in risk factors for elevated blood pressure among ethnic/racial groups, and the importance of including social and behavioral measures to grasp the full genetic/environmental etiology of disparities in blood pressure. PMID:21248781

  4. The role of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet food groups in blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Tatiana Pedroso; Steemburgo, Thais; de Almeida, Jussara Carnevale; Dall'Alba, Valesca; Gross, Jorge Luiz; de Azevedo, Mirela Jobim

    2012-07-14

    The role of each Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet component in blood pressure (BP) of patients with diabetes is still uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible associations of the recommended food groups of the DASH diet eating plan with BP values in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 patients with type 2 diabetes (age 61·1 (SD 10·4) years; diabetes duration 13·1 (SD 9·1) years; males 48·4 %; BMI 28·5 (SD 4·3) kg/m(2); HbA1c 7·1 (SD 1·3) %; systolic BP 136·7 (SD 20·0) mmHg; diastolic BP 78·4 (SD 11·8) mmHg) without dietary counselling during the previous 6 months had their dietary intake assessed by 3 d weighed-diet records. Patients were divided into two groups according to BP tertiles: LOW BP (first tertile) and HIGH BP (second plus third tertiles). Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the daily intake of 80 g of fruits per 4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (OR 0·781; 95 % CI 0·617, 0·987; P = 0·039) or 50 g of vegetables per 4184 kJ (1000 kcal) (OR 0·781; 95 % CI 0·618, 0·988; P = 0·040) reduced the chance of the presence of HIGH mean BP (MBP ≥ 92 mmHg) by 22 % each, adjusted for possible confounders. In conclusion, fruit and vegetables were the food groups of the DASH diet associated with reduced BP values in patients with type 2 diabetes, and their consumption might play a protective role against increased BP values.

  5. Cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations and their influence on morphological parameters in blood donors from different age groups from southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Monika; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Błaszczyk, Martyna; Paluch, Joanna; Wojtaś, Włodzimierz; Massanyi, Peter; Stawarz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Due to industrial development, environmental contamination with metals increases which leads to higher human exposure via air, water and food. In order to evaluate the level of the present exposition, the concentrations of metals can be measured in such biological materials as human blood. In this study, we assessed the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in blood samples from male blood donors from southern Poland (Europe) born in 1994 (n=30) and between 1947 and 1955 (n=30). Higher levels of Pb were seen in the group of older men (4.48 vs 2.48μg/L), whereas the Hg levels were lower (1.78 vs 4.28μg/L). Cd concentrations did not differ between age groups (0.56μg/L). The levels of Cd and Pb in older donors were significantly correlated (Spearman R 0.5135). We also observed a positive correlation between the number of red blood cells (RBC) and Hg concentrations in the older group (Spearman R 0.4271). Additionally, we noted numerous correlations among morphological parameters. Based on our results, we can state that metals influence the blood morphology and their concentrations in blood vary among age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. ABO grouping of highly-dilute blood by the absorption-elution technique using nitrocellulose beads--application to a casework investigation.

    PubMed

    Fujitani, N; Matoba, R; Kobayashi, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshida, K; Fukita, K

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports a homicidal case in which the absorption-elution technique using nitrocellulose beads as immunoadsorbents was successfully applied to ABO grouping from highly-diluted blood. A 21-year-old man was found dead in bed while staying in a hotel. He had multiple wounds over the entire body. By autopsy the cause of death was decided to be traumatic shock. The victim's blood group was A. A bucket filled with faint-colored water was found at the scene. By means of the absorption-elution technique using nitrocellulose beads the water was grouped as B. Later, a 32-year-old man staying in the hotel together with the victim was suspected and arrested. The suspect's blood group was B. He confessed that he had injured himself in the hands with a knife during the struggle and washed them in the water.

  7. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  8. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-05-15

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new information needed

  9. Hemolysis related to intravenous immunoglobulins is dependent on the presence of anti-blood group A and B antibodies and individual susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Orell; Fontana, Stefano; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Shebl, Amgad; Spycher, Martin O; Wymann, Sandra; Durn, Billie L; Lawo, John P; Hubsch, Alphonse; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2017-11-01

    Patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) rarely experience symptomatic hemolysis. Although anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins from the product are involved in most cases, the actual mechanisms triggering hemolysis are unclear. A prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial in 57 patients with immune thrombocytopenia treated with IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) was conducted. Twenty-one patients received one infusion (1 g/kg) and 36 received two infusions (2 × 1 g/kg) of IVIG. After a study duration of more than 2 years, no cases of clinically significant hemolysis as defined in the protocol were identified. Data of patients with mild hematologic and biochemical changes were analyzed in more detail. Twelve cases (10/23 patients with blood group A1 and 2/11 patients with blood group B, all having received 2 g/kg IVIG) were adjudicated as mild hemolysis (median hemoglobin [Hb] decrease, -3.0 g/dL); Hb decreases were transient, with partial or full recovery achieved by last visit. Eighteen patients (31.6%), all with non-O blood group, of whom 16 (88.9%) received 2 g/kg IVIG, fulfilled post hoc criteria for hemolytic laboratory reactions. Red blood cell (RBC) eluates of all direct antiglobulin test-positive samples were negative for non-ABO blood group antibodies. Blood groups A and B antigen density on RBCs appeared to be a risk factor for hemolytic laboratory reactions. Platelet response to treatment was observed in 42 patients (74%); eight of 12 patients with complete response had blood group A1. Isoagglutinins are involved in clinically nonsignificant hemolysis after treatment with IVIG, but individual susceptibility varies greatly. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  10. Lack of Norovirus Replication and Histo-Blood Group Antigen Expression in 3-Dimensional Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Andrea L.; Lay, Margarita K.; Hjelm, Brooke E.; Bolick, Alice N.; Sarker, Shameema S.; Atmar, Robert L.; Kingsley, David H.; Arntzen, Charles J.; Estes, Mary K.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. A previous study, which used a 3-dimensional (3-D) intestinal model derived from INT-407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathic effects (CPE). Using the same 3-D model, but with highly purified Norwalk virus (NV), we attempted to replicate this study. Our results showed no evidence of NV replication by real-time PCR of viral RNA or by immunocytochemical detection of viral structural and nonstructural proteins. Immunocytochemical analysis of the 3-D cultures also showed no detectable presence of histo-blood group antigens that participate in NV binding and host tropism. To determine the potential cause of CPE observed in the previous study, we exposed 3-D cultures to lipopolysaccharide concentrations consistent with contaminated stool samples and observed morphologic features similar to CPE. We conclude that the 3-D INT-407 model does not support NV replication. PMID:23622517

  11. Haematopoietic SCT in severe autoimmune diseases: updated guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, J A; Saccardi, R; Allez, M; Ardizzone, S; Arnold, R; Cervera, R; Denton, C; Hawkey, C; Labopin, M; Mancardi, G; Martin, R; Moore, J J; Passweg, J; Peters, C; Rabusin, M; Rovira, M; van Laar, J M; Farge, D

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, the first consensus guidelines for haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in autoimmune diseases (ADs) were published, while an international coordinated clinical programme was launched. These guidelines provided broad principles for the field over the following decade and were accompanied by comprehensive data collection in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) AD Registry. Subsequently, retrospective analyses and prospective phase I/II studies generated evidence to support the feasibility, safety and efficacy of HSCT in several types of severe, treatment-resistant ADs, which became the basis for larger-scale phase II and III studies. In parallel, there has also been an era of immense progress in biological therapy in ADs. The aim of this document is to provide revised and updated guidelines for both the current application and future development of HSCT in ADs in relation to the benefits, risks and health economic considerations of other modern treatments. Patient safety considerations are central to guidance on patient selection and HSCT procedural aspects within appropriately experienced and Joint Accreditation Committee of International Society for Cellular Therapy and EBMT accredited centres. A need for prospective interventional and non-interventional studies, where feasible, along with systematic data reporting, in accordance with EBMT policies and procedures, is emphasized. PMID:22002489

  12. National Institutes of Health Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Initiative: The Healthcare Delivery Working Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Bredeson, Christopher; Duarte, Rafael F; Farnia, Stephanie; Ferrey, Susan; Fitzhugh, Courtney; Flowers, Mary ED; Gajewski, James; Gastineau, Dennis; Greenwald, Melissa; Jagasia, Madan; Martin, Patricia; Rizzo, J Douglas; Schmit-Pokorny, Kimberly; Majhail, Navneet S

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at risk for development of late complications and require lifelong monitoring for screening and prevention of late effects. There is an increasing appreciation of the issues related to healthcare delivery and coverage that are faced by HCT survivors. The 2016 National Institutes of Health Blood and Marrow Transplant Late Effects Initiative included an international and broadly representative Healthcare Delivery Working Group that was tasked with identifying research gaps pertaining to healthcare delivery and to identify initiatives that may yield a better understanding of the long-term value and costs of care for HCT survivors. There is a paucity of literature in this area. Critical areas in need of research include pilot studies of novel and information technology supported models of care delivery and coverage for HCT survivors along with development and validation of instruments that capture patient reported outcomes. Investment in infrastructure to support this research such as linkage of databases including electronic health records and routine inclusion of endpoints that will inform analyses focused around care delivery and coverage are required. PMID:27713091

  13. A rapid and reliable PCR method for genotyping the ABO blood group. II: A2 and O2 alleles.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, D S; Dobrovic, A

    1996-01-01

    PCR permits direct genotyping of individuals at the ABO locus. Several methods have been reported for genotyping ABO that rely on differentiating the A, B, and O alleles at specific base substitutions. However, the O allele as defined by serology comprises at least two alleles (O1 and O2) at the molecular level, and most current ABO genotyping methods only take into account the O1 allele. Determining the presence of the O2 allele is critical, as this not-infrequent allele would be mistyped as an A or a B allele by standard PCR typing methods. Furthermore, none of the methods to date distinguish between the A1 and A2 alleles, even though 10% of all white persons are blood group A2. We have developed a method for genotyping the ABO locus that takes the O2 and A2 alleles into account. Typing for A2 and O2 by diagnostic restriction enzyme digestion is a sensitive, nonradioactive assay that provides a convenient method useful for forensic and paternity testing and for clarifying anomalous serological results.

  14. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  15. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. [Appreciation of selenium concentration in blood and tissues of male rat as a result of diet ingredients changes and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Dolot, Anna; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen B group vitamins on concentration of selenium in blood serum and tissues and activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver of male rats was examined in the conducted experiment. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with granulated mixes. Group I with basic mix containing among other things full grains, Group II with modified mix in which full grains were exchanged for wheat flour and in part with saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. The experiment was conducted for six weeks during which the amount of consumed feeding stuff was calculated currently and once a week body mass of the animals was checked. When the experiment was finished the activity of GSH-Px was determined by spectrophotometric method in blood and liver whereas concentration of selenium in blood serum, muscles and in liver by fluorometric method. It was ascertained that the change of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins was in favour of lowering the amount of selenium in the examined tissues, and the decrease was not only the result of lower amount of the consumed element, but also of its increased usage, forced by the changes taking place under the influence of diet components and its supplementation.

  17. Measurement of haemolysis markers following transfusion of uncrossmatched, low-titre, group O+ whole blood in civilian trauma patients: initial experience at a level 1 trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Seheult, J N; Triulzi, D J; Alarcon, L H; Sperry, J L; Murdock, A; Yazer, M H

    2017-02-01

    The safety of administering uncrossmatched, group O, cold-stored, whole blood (cWB) during civilian trauma resuscitation was evaluated. Male trauma patients with haemorrhage-induced hypotension who received leuko-reduced uncrossmatched group O+, low titre (<50) anti-A and -B, platelet-replete cWB during initial resuscitation were included. The biochemical markers of haemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, haptoglobin, creatinine, serum potassium) were measured on the day of cWB receipt (day 0), and over the next 2 days, reports of transfusion reactions and total blood product administration in first 24 h of admission were recorded. There were 27 non-group O and 17 group O cWB recipients. The median number of cWB units transfused was 1 [interquartile range (IQR): 1-2] in both groups. The median day 0 post-transfusion serum total bilirubin concentration, although still in the normal range, was higher in the non-group O versus group O recipients (1·4 versus 0·5 mg/dL, P < 0·01). There were no significant differences in any of the other biochemical parameters at any other time point. Non-group O recipients received a median of 3 times more red blood cell (RBC) units compared with group O recipients (P = 0·01 RBCs), likely explaining the bilirubin difference on day 0. The median volume of ABO-incompatible plasma transfused to non-group O recipients was 600 mL (IQR: 300-1140 mL). There were no reports of adverse events related to the cWB transfusion in either group. Administration of ≤2 units of cWB in civilian trauma resuscitation was not associated with clinically significant changes in laboratory haemolysis markers. Efficacy will be determined when larger quantities are transfused. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Bat Caliciviruses and Human Noroviruses Are Antigenically Similar and Have Overlapping Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Jacob F; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Debbink, Kari; Beall, Anne; Mallory, Michael L; Yount, Boyd L; Graham, Rachel L; Huynh, Jeremy; Gates, J Edward; Donaldson, Eric F; Baric, Ralph S

    2018-05-22

    Emerging zoonotic viral diseases remain a challenge to global public health. Recent surveillance studies have implicated bats as potential reservoirs for a number of viral pathogens, including coronaviruses and Ebola viruses. Caliciviridae represent a major viral family contributing to emerging diseases in both human and animal populations and have been recently identified in bats. In this study, we blended metagenomics, phylogenetics, homology modeling, and in vitro assays to characterize two novel bat calicivirus (BtCalV) capsid sequences, corresponding to strain BtCalV/A10/USA/2009, identified in Perimyotis subflavus near Little Orleans, MD, and bat norovirus. We observed that bat norovirus formed virus-like particles and had epitopes and receptor-binding patterns similar to those of human noroviruses. To determine whether these observations stretch across multiple bat caliciviruses, we characterized a novel bat calicivirus, BtCalV/A10/USA/2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 likely represents a novel Caliciviridae genus and is most closely related to "recoviruses." Homology modeling revealed that the capsid sequences of BtCalV/A10/USA/2009 and bat norovirus resembled human norovirus capsid sequences and retained host ligand binding within the receptor-binding domains similar to that seen with human noroviruses. Both caliciviruses bound histo-blood group antigens in patterns that overlapped those seen with human and animal noroviruses. Taken together, our results indicate the potential for bat caliciviruses to bind histo-blood group antigens and overcome a significant barrier to cross-species transmission. Additionally, we have shown that bat norovirus maintains antigenic epitopes similar to those seen with human noroviruses, providing further evidence of evolutionary descent. Our results reiterate the importance of surveillance of wild-animal populations, especially of bats, for novel viral pathogens. IMPORTANCE Caliciviruses are

  19. A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin O-Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Escajadillo, Tamara; Olson, Joshua; Luk, Brian T.; Zhang, Liangfang; Nizet, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. SLO can trigger macrophage and neutrophil cell death and/or the inactivation of immune cell functions, and promotes tissue injury and bacterial survival in animal models of infection. In the present work, we describe how the pharmacological presentation of red blood cell (RBC) derived biomimetic nanoparticles (“nanosponges”) can sequester SLO and block the ability of GAS to damage host cells, thereby preserving innate immune function and increasing bacterial clearance in vitro and in vivo. Nanosponge administration protected human neutrophils, macrophages, and keratinocytes against SLO-mediated cytotoxicity. This therapeutic intervention prevented SLO-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased neutrophil extracellular trap formation, allowing increased GAS killing by the respective phagocytic cell types. In a murine model of GAS necrotizing skin infection, local administration of the biomimetic nanosponges was associated with decreased lesion size and reduced bacterial colony-forming unit recovery. Utilization of a toxin decoy and capture platform that inactivates the secreted SLO before it contacts the host cell membrane, presents a novel virulence factor targeted strategy that could be a powerful adjunctive therapy in severe GAS infections where morbidity and mortality are high despite antibiotic treatment. PMID:28769806

  20. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.

  1. The macromolecular properties of blood-group-specific glycoproteins. Characterization of a series of fractions obtained by solvent fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Creeth, J. Michael; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Donald, Alastair S. R.; Morgan, Walter T. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. The glycoprotein components of a human ovarian-cyst fluid were isolated by a solvent [95% (w/w) phenol]-extraction procedure; the phenol-insoluble water-soluble glycoprotein was further fractionated by (NH4)2SO4 and by ethanol to yield eight fractions. 2. The fractions were analysed in terms of amino acids, fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid. Variations occurred, particularly in the proportion of peptide; these were partly correlated with varying extent of serological activity. 3. The fractions were characterized physicochemically in terms of buoyant density and degree of spreading in a density gradient, sedimentation velocity and molecular weight; their partial specific volumes and specific refraction increments were also determined. 4. The fractions showed wide variations in their sedimentation-velocity and density-gradient patterns, and gave evidence of pauci-dispersity in density. The fraction regarded as the most typical blood-group-specific glycoprotein sedimented as a single rapidly spreading peak and was of high molecular weight. 5. Significant correlations were observed between the physical properties of the glycoprotein fractions and the amount of their peptide component. The buoyant densities and sedimentation coefficients varied in a manner that suggested the existence of two families of glycoproteins. 6. It is suggested that variability in the extent of glycosylation, or in the degree of cross-linking, might account for the two families of glycoproteins, and that the extent of cross-linkage might also be a factor determining the solubility of these glycoproteins in hot saturated (NH4)2SO4. ImagesFig. 1.PLATE 1 PMID:4219280

  2. Evaluation of the non-compliance with grouping guidelines which may lead to "wrong blood in tube", an observational study and risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Daurat, A; Boudet, E; Daurat, G; Roger, C; Gris, J-C; Tunez, V; Gaste, M-C; Lefrant, J-Y

    2017-06-01

    In France, blood group determination requires the completion of two samples collected at two different times to detect identity mistake and "wrong blood in tube". The aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the compliance with guidelines and (2) to identify risk factors of non-compliance. Samples for ABO group determination collected between January 1st and December 15th, 2013 in the University hospital of Nîmes, France were analyzed. An ABO group determination demand was considered non-compliant if more than one tube arrived in the laboratory within ten minutes apart. Between May 1st and June 30th 2014, a self-administered questionnaire was offered to the nurses of the hospital on a random day for each service during this period. The aim was to validate the non-compliance criterion and the identification of risk factors using logistic regression. Among the 16,450 analyzed blood samples, the overall compliance rate was 65.1%. Lower compliance rates were found in the surgical services. Independent risk factors for wrong practice were work overload, surgical service and individual intermediate transfusion frequency. More than one third of ABO group determinations did not follow national recommendations, which induces a substantial risk of "wrong blood in tube" and group error. The study revealed major variations among hospital services. Identification of risk factors allows targeted corrective actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Fatty Liver Induced by Excess Orotic Acid on B-Group Vitamin Concentrations of Liver, Blood, and Urine in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Morita, Nobuya; Kawamura, Tomoyo; Tsuji, Ai; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver is caused when rats are given orotic acid of the pyrimidine base in large quantities. The lack of B-group vitamins suppresses the biosynthesis of fatty acids. We investigated how orotic acid-induced fatty liver affects the concentrations of liver, blood, and urine B-group vitamins in rats. The vitamin B6 and B12 concentrations of liver, blood, and urine were not affected by orotic acid-induced fatty liver. Vitamin B2 was measured only in the urine, but was unchanged. The liver, blood, and urine concentrations of niacin and its metabolites fell dramatically. Niacin and its metabolites in the liver, blood, and urine were affected as expected. Although the concentrations of vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin in liver and blood were decreased by orotic acid-induced fatty liver, these urinary excretion amounts showed a specific pattern toward increase. Generally, as for the typical urinary excretion of B-group vitamins, these are excreted when the body is saturated. However, the ability to sustain vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folate, and biotin decreased in fatty liver, which is hypothesized as a specific phenomenon. This metabolic response might occur to prevent an abnormally increased biosynthesis of fatty acids by orotic acid.

  4. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

  5. Specific storage of glycoconjugates with terminal α-galactosyl moieties in the exocrine pancreas of Fabry disease patients with blood group B.

    PubMed

    Rybová, Jitka; Kuchar, Ladislav; Hulková, Helena; Asfaw, Befekadu; Dobrovolný, Robert; Sikora, Jakub; Havlícek, Vladimír; Škultéty, Ludovít; Ledvinová, Jana

    2018-06-01

    Blood group B glycosphingolipids (B-GSLs) are substrates of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). Similar to its major substrate-globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer)-B-GSLs are not degraded and accumulate in the cells of patients affected by an inherited defect of AGAL activity (Fabry disease-FD).The pancreas is a secretory organ known to have high biosynthesis of blood group GSLs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical and structural abnormalities in pancreatic tissue from two male FD patients with blood group B. In both patients, we found major accumulation of a variety of complex B-GSLs carrying predominantly hexa- and hepta-saccharide structures. The subcellular pathology was dominated by deposits containing B-glycoconjugates and autofluorescent ceroid. The contribution of Gb3Cer to the storage was minor. This abnormal storage pattern was specific for the pancreatic acinar epithelial cells. Other pancreatic cell types including those of islets of Langerhans were affected much less or not at all.Altogether, we provide evidence for a key role of B-antigens in the biochemical and morphological pathology of the exocrine pancreas in FD patients with blood group B. We believe that our findings will trigger further studies aimed at assessing the potential pancreatic dysfunction in this disease.

  6. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  7. Organochlorine pesticides levels and associated factors in a group of blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Kuno, Rúbia; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Kussumi, Tereza Atsuko; Nakano, Viviane Emi; Rocha, Sonia Bio; de Oliveira, Maria Celeste Cardeal; de Albuquerque Kimura, Iracema; Gouveia, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is a worldwide public health concern given that high levels of these compounds in humans and animals can lead to serious health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the serum of 547 blood donors in the São Paulo metropolitan region (SPMR) in 2009 and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of these compounds. The OCPs were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were employed to determine the factors associated with higher levels. Only β-HCH and p,p'-DDE had a significant number of samples above the limit of quantification. Factors associated with higher levels of β-HCH were age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 3.1 [1.05-9.09]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 18.27 [6.89-48.91]), and female gender (OR = 0.44 [0.24-0.82] for men). p,p'-DDE levels were associated with age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 2.65 [1.20-3.45]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 4.59 [2.64-7.92]), female gender (OR = 0.86 [0.43-0.94] for men), and previous work with pesticides (OR = 2.88 [1.22-6.84]). Lower levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with an income of 3 to 5 minimum wages (OR = 0.38 [0.19-0.75]) and with intake of foods from animal origin up to twice a week (OR = 0.15 [0.03-0.72]) and more than twice a week (OR = 0.10 [0.02-0.47]). The results of this study indicate that the study group was not exposed to high levels of OCPs.

  8. Perception of low-titer group A plasma and potential barriers to using this product: A blood center's experience serving community and academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Agaronov, Maksim; DiBattista, Anthony; Christenson, Ellen; Miller-Murphy, Richard; Strauss, Donna; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-08-01

    To alleviate the shortage of AB plasma, an alternative plasma product, low-titer group A plasma (LTGAP), is now available. The product is indicated for emergency transfusions when the patient's blood group has not been identified. The product's defining anti-B titers vary across institutions, and at our blood center we define <1:100 as low-titer. We created two surveys and emailed them to hospital blood bank managers, supervisors, and medical directors who currently use LTGAP and those that have not ordered it. We calculated the amount of LTGAP that met our <1:100 cutoff. We searched our inventory database to obtain sales of LTGAP, AB, and all other types of plasma in 2014. We learned from the surveys that the product is safe and being used as indicated for only life or limb-threatening emergencies until patient's blood group is known and specific products can be provided. Most common reasons for not using LTGAP were lack of need in non-trauma hospitals and limiting capabilities in blood bank software. Although sales of LTGAP increased by ~5% by end of the first year since introduction, sales of AB plasma remained relatively steady. LTGAP appears to be a safe alternative to group AB plasma for emergency indications. By reviewing our percentage of group A plasma units that meet our low-titer cutoff and the current interest for the product, we can reduce the amount of units we titer each day by ~30% and can readjust that amount if there is increased interest. Besides lack of familiarity and limitations in computer software to incorporate LTGAP, the steady demand for AB plasma can potentially be attributed to trauma centers ordering more AB plasma than needed and potentially wasting it in nonurgent cases to avoid outdating the product and lack of institutional guidelines on when to switch from AB to type-specific plasma resulting in excess AB plasma being transfused. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Frequencies of blood groups, ABO and Rh D incompatibility in post-delivery women and their liveborn].

    PubMed

    Baiochi, Eduardo; Camano, Luiz; Sass, Nelson; Colas, Osmar Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency of different blood phenotypes and to predict the risk of Rh D alloimmunization and maternal-fetal incompatibility in a Brazilian population living in the West zone of the city of São Paulo-Brazil. This descriptive study evaluated 2,372 post-delivery women and their liveborn during one year. Blood types were analyzed by means of tube agglutination tests. The blood type frequencies were: 50.67 O, 32.17 A, 13.45 B, 3.75 AB, 90.34 Rh D(+) and 9.66 Rh D(-). ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility was detected in 18.4% and Rh D incompatibility in 7%. The fraction of Rh D(-) population at high risk for Rh D alloimmunization was 82%, emphasizing the importance of Rh D alloimmunization profilaxis.

  10. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    PubMed

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  12. Blood Groups in the Species Survival Plan®, European Endangered Species Program, and Managed in situ Populations of Bonobo (Pan paniscus), Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Gorilla (Gorilla ssp.), and Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus ssp.)

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Kathryn C.; Moyse, Jill A.; Lovstad, Jessica N.; Ober, Carole B.; Thompson, Emma E.

    2014-01-01

    Blood groups of humans and great apes long have been considered similar although are not interchangeable between species. In this study, human monoclonal antibody technology was used to assign human ABO blood groups to whole blood samples from great apes housed in North American and European zoos and in situ managed populations, as a practical means to assist blood transfusion situations for these species. From a subset of each of the species (bonobo, common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutans), DNA sequence analysis was performed to determine blood group genotype. Bonobo and common chimpanzee populations were predominantly group A which concurred with historic literature and was confirmed by genotyping. In agreement with historic literature, a smaller number of the common chimpanzees sampled were group O although this O blood group was more often present in wild-origin animals as compared to zoo-born animals. Gorilla blood groups were inconclusive by monoclonal antibody techniques and by genetic studies were inconsistent with any known human blood group. As the genus and specifically the Bornean species, orangutans were identified with all human blood groups, including O, which had not been reported previously. Following this study, it was concluded that blood groups of bonobo, common chimpanzees, and some orangutans can be reliably assessed by human monoclonal antibody technology. However, this technique was not reliable for gorilla or orangutans other than those with blood group A. Even in those species with reliable blood group detection, blood transfusion preparation must include cross-matching to minimize adverse reactions for the patient. PMID:20853409

  13. A uniform method for the simultaneous blood group phenotyping of Fya , Fyb , Jka , Jkb , S, s̅, P1, k applying lateral-flow technique.

    PubMed

    Caesar, A; Meyer, S; Trost, N; Neuenschwander, K; Geisen, C; Frey, B M; Gassner, C; Schwind, P

    2018-02-01

    A lateral flow assay for simultaneous blood group typing of ABO, RhD, C, E, c, e, Cw and K with stable end-point and without centrifugation is in routine use since several years (MDmulticard ® ). The typing of extended phenotype parameters belonging to the Duffy, Kidd, MNSs blood group systems and others, however, has not yet been demonstrated for this technique. Reliable detection of Fy x , a weak Fy b phenotype with a pronounced quantitative reduction of the number of Fy b antigens on the erythrocyte surface, remains a weakness of current serological blood grouping techniques. The performance characteristics of the following reagents were evaluated in donor and patient samples in lateral flow technology (MDmulticard ® ): Anti-Fy a , -Fy b , -Jk a , -Jk b , -S, -s̅, -P1 and -k. The sensitivity to detect Fy x was in addition evaluated with Fy x positive samples, which had been preselected by MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping. All results obtained with the MDmulticard ® were in full accordance with those of the CE-certified reference products for all the eight reagent formulations used: Anti-Fy a , -Fy b , -Jk a , -Jk b , -S, -s̅, -P1 and -k. Also, all Fy x phenotypes of the selected population of 93 positive samples, originally identified by MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping, were reliably detected by the lateral flow assay. Extended phenotype blood group parameters, including the serologically challenging Fy x phenotype, can be determined simultaneously, rapidly and accurately using the lateral flow (MDmulticard ® ) technology, even in cases when IgG class antibodies are the only source of diagnostic antibodies. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Prospective investigation of transfusion transmitted infection in recipients of over 20 000 units of blood. TTI Study Group.

    PubMed

    Regan, F A; Hewitt, P; Barbara, J A; Contreras, M

    2000-02-12

    To follow up recipients of 20 000 units of blood to identify any transmissions of infections through blood transfusion. Follow up study of recipients of transfusion. 22 hospitals in north London. Adult patients who had recently been transfused. Patients had further blood samples taken at 9 months that were tested for markers of hepatitis B and C and HIV and human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type I or II (HTLV) infections. Recent infections were distinguished from pre-existing infections by comparison with blood samples taken before transfusion. 9220 patients were recruited, and 5579 recipients of 21 923 units of blood were followed up. No transfusion transmitted infections were identified. The incidence of transfusion transmitted infections was 0 in 21 043 units (95% confidence interval for risk 0 to 1 in 5706 recipients) for hepatitis B; 0 in 21 800 units (0 to 1 in 5911 recipients) for hepatitis C; 0 in 21 923 units (0 to 1 in 5944 recipients) for HIV; and 0 in 21 902 units (0 to 1 in 5939 recipients) for human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. Three patients acquired hepatitis B during or after hospital admission but not through transfusion; 176 (3%) had pre-existing hepatitis B infection. Sixteen (0.29%) patients had hepatitis C, and five (0.09%) had human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. The current risk of transfusion transmitted infections in the United Kingdom is very small, though hospital acquired infections may arise from sources other than transfusion. A considerable proportion of patients have pre-existing infections.

  15. Diabetes, obesity and non-optimum blood pressure levels in a group of employees of the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, 2003.

    PubMed

    Disdier-Flores, Orville M; Rodríguez-Lugo, Luis A

    2005-06-01

    To estimate the proportion of diabetes, obesity and non-optimum blood pressure levels in a group of employees of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus that participated in a diabetes health fair at the "Centro de Diabetes para Puerto Rico". A total of 113 participants of the diabetes health fair completed a questionnaire to obtain demographic characteristics and the frequency of self-reported diabetes. The nursing staff examined the participants in order to obtain the following clinical characteristics: body mass index, blood pressure and blood glucose levels. The proportion of self-reported diabetes, obesity (> or = 30 kg/m2) and non-optimum blood pressure levels (systolic > or = 20 mm/Hg or diastolic > or = 80 mm/Hg) were 15.4% (95% CI: 8.5% - 25.7%), 80.0% (95% CI: 70.8%-86.9%) and 70.5% (95% CI: 61.1%-78.6%), respectively. Although it was not statistically significant, diabetes was higher among females (15.4%) compared to males (12.0%). All participants with self-reported diabetes were overweight or obese, and 91.7% showed non-optimum blood pressure levels. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.001) was observed between blood pressure levels and body mass index (r = 0.3). The percentage of persons with diabetes, obesity, and non-optimum blood pressure levels in this sample of Medical Sciences Campus employees underscores the need for confirming these results in a larger study and developing strategies focused on reducing health risks in this population.

  16. Targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Claire; Bray, Emma P; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M; Haque, M Sayeed; Hobbs, F D Richard; Jones, Miren I; Jowett, Sue; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Little, Paul; Mant, Jonathan; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2013-03-23

    Self-monitoring of hypertension with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower systolic blood pressure for at least one year. However, few people in high risk groups have been evaluated to date and previous work suggests a smaller effect size in these groups. This trial therefore aims to assess the added value of self-management in high risk groups over and above usual care. The targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR) trial will be a pragmatic primary care based, unblinded, randomised controlled trial of self-management of blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. Eligible patients will have a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease and will be recruited from primary care. Participants will be individually randomised to either usual care or self-management. The primary outcome of the trial will be difference in office SBP between intervention and control groups at 12 months adjusted for baseline SBP and covariates. 540 patients will be sufficient to detect a difference in SBP between self-management and usual care of 5 mmHg with 90% power. Secondary outcomes will include self-efficacy, lifestyle behaviours, health-related quality of life and adverse events. An economic analysis will consider both within trial costs and a model extrapolating the results thereafter. A qualitative analysis will gain insights into patients' views, experiences and decision making processes. The results of the trial will be directly applicable to primary care in the UK. If successful, self-management of blood pressure in people with stroke and other high risk conditions would be applicable to many hundreds of thousands of individuals in the UK and beyond. ISRCTN87171227.

  17. Are central institutional review boards the solution? The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group's report on optimizing the IRB process.

    PubMed

    Mascette, Alice M; Bernard, Gordon R; Dimichele, Donna; Goldner, Jesse A; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Paul A; Leeds, Hilary S; Pearson, Thomas A; Ramsey, Bonnie; Wagner, Todd H

    2012-12-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health convened a working group in June 2011 to examine alternative institutional review board (IRB) models. The working group was held in response to proposed changes in the regulations for government-supported research and the proliferation of multicenter clinical trials where multiple individual reviews may be inefficient. Group members included experts in heart, lung, and blood research, research oversight, bioethics, health economics, regulations, and information technology (IT). The group discussed alternative IRB models, ethical concerns, metrics for evaluating IRBs, IT needs, and economic considerations. Participants noted research gaps in IRB best practices and in metrics. The group arrived at recommendations for process changes, such as defining specific IRB performance requirements in funding announcements, requiring funded researchers to use more efficient alternative IRB models, and developing IT systems to facilitate information sharing and collaboration among IRBs. Despite the success of the National Cancer Institute's central IRB (CIRB), the working group, concerned about the creation costs and unknown cost-efficiency of a new CIRB, and about the risk of shifting the burden of dealing with multiple IRBs from sponsors to research institutions, did not recommend the creation of an NHLBI-funded CIRB.

  18. [Diagnostic performance of T-SPOT.TB on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase on pleural fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy within different age group].

    PubMed

    Xu, H Y; Zhang, D Q; Ye, J R; Su, S S; Xie, Y P; Chen, C S; Li, Y P

    2017-06-27

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of T cell enzyme-linked immuno-spot assay (T-SPOT) on peripheral blood in combination with adenosine deaminase (ADA) on pleural fluid for diagnosis of tuberculous (TB) pleurisy within different age groups. Methods: The data of patients with pleural effusion from the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from April 2012 to November 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and the diagnoses of these patients were histopathologically confirmed through medical thoracoscopy. The cases who had confirmed diagnosis, in the same time, received peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were enrolled. The performance of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in combination with pleural fluid ADA on diagnosing TB pleurisy in the younger patients (16-59 years old) and elderly patients (≥60 years old) were analyzed respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were adopted for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 448 cases were finally enrolled, 341(76.1%) confirmed with TB pleurisy, 224 males, 117 females, (47±19) years old; and 107 (23.9%) classified as non-TB pleurisy, 65 males, 42 females, (61±14) years old. There were 285 cases who were classified as younger group, and the other 163 cases were classified as elderly group. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB were 85.4% (204/239) and 71.7% (33/46) in the younger patients, 76.5% (78/102) and 59.0% (36/61) respectively in the elderly patients. The sensitivity of peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was significantly higher than that in the elderly patients ( P =0.047). The sensitivity and specificity were 99.2% and 95.7% in combination with peripheral blood T-SPOT.TB and pleural fluid ADA respectively in the younger patients. The area under ROC curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB in the younger patients was 0.833, AUC of T-SPOT.TB combined with ADA was 0

  19. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  20. Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting: Is ABO blood group as important as radiation and patient-related factors? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohsen; Namimoghadam, Amir; Korouni, Roghaye; Fashiri, Paria; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Elahimanesh, Farideh; Amiri, Fatemeh; Moradi, Ghobad

    2016-08-01

    Despite the improvements in cancer screening and treatment, it still remains as one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Nausea and vomiting as the side effects of different cancer treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, are multifactorial and could affect the treatment continuation and patient quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the possible linkage between ABO blood groups and radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV), also its incidence and affecting factors.One hundred twenty-eight patients referring to Tohid hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, were selected and the patients and treatment-related factors were determined in a cross-sectional study. Patients' nausea and vomiting were recorded from the onset of treatment until 1 week after treatment accomplishment. Also, previous possible nausea and vomiting were recorded. The frequencies of nausea and vomiting and their peak time were examined during the treatment period.The association between ABO blood group and the incidence of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) were significant and it seems that A blood group patients are the most vulnerable individuals to these symptoms. The association between Rhesus antigen and the time of maximum severity of RINV may indicate that Rhesus antigen affects the time of maximum severity of RINV. The incidence of RINV was not affected by karnofsky performance status, but it was related to the severity of RINV. Furthermore, among the factors affecting the incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting during patient's previous chemotherapy, radiotherapy region, and background gastrointestinal disease were shown to be three important factors.In addition to familiar RINV-affecting factors, ABO blood group may play an important role and these results address the needs for further studies with larger sample size.

  1. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Julia S.; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R.; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K.; Hellberg, Åsa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/Pk-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAcβ3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1k phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1k or P2k erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to Pk patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels. PMID:26055721

  2. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Successful ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation:  Blood Group A1B Donor Into A2B Recipient With Anti-A1 Isoagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients and its relationship with HIV infection, ABO blood groups and life style in a university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Moges, Feleke; Kassu, Afework; Mengistu, Getahun; Adugna, Solomon; Andualem, Berhanu; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Ota, Fusao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) among dyspeptic patients and to assess the relationship between H pylori infection, blood group, HIV infection and life style of the patients. METHODS: In a hospital-based cross-sectional study, patients attending Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Hospital were enrolled. Socio-demographic information was collected using questionnaires. Serum was analyzed for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies using a commercial kit. HIV serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood grouping was performed by slide agglutination tests. RESULTS: A total of 215 dyspeptic patients were included in the study. One hundred and sixteen patients (54%) were females and 99 (46%) were males. Anti-H pylori IgG antibodies were detected in sera of 184 (85.6%) patients. The prevalence was significantly higher in patients aged 50 years and above. Twenty point five percent of the patients were found to be seropositive for HIV. No significant association was found between sex, ABO blood groups, consumption of spicy diets, socio-economic status and seropositivity for H pylori. However, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with H pylori serology. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection is associated with a history of alcohol intake and older age. The effect of different diet, alcohol and socioeconomic status as risk factors for H pylori infection needs further study. PMID:16610007

  5. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  6. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population. PMID:8878591

  7. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance mechanisms among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Alper; Eser, Özgen Köseoğlu; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and erythromycin-penicillin resistance mechanisms of viridans streptococci (VGS) isolates from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases. Fifty VGS blood culture isolates were screened for their antibiotic susceptibilities against penicillin G, erythromycin and tetracycline by E-test. Clindamycin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin susceptibility were performed by broth microdilution method. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance genotypes, ermB and mefA/E, pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x are amplified using PCR method. The clinical isolates included Streptococcus mitis (n. 19), S.oralis (n. 13), S.sanguinis, S.parasanguinis (n. 6, each), S.salivarius, S.vestibularis (n. 2, each), S.constellatus, S.sobrinus (n. 1, each). The percentage resistance against erythromycin and penicillin was 36% and 30%, respectively. The genotypic carriage rate of erythromycin resistance genes were: 56% ermB, 28% mefE, 8% ermB+mefE. Penicillin-resistant isolates carried pbp2b (33.3%) and pbp2x (20%) genes. Twenty-four VGS isolates were recovered from patients with cancer. S.mitis and S.oralis predominated among patients with cancer who had erythromycin and penicillin resistance isolates. The importance of classical antimicrobial agents like penicillin and erythromycin warrants the continuous surveillance of invasive VGS isolates and can guide better treatment options especially in patients with underlying diseases.

  8. Is gentamicin necessary in the antimicrobial treatment for group B streptococcal infections in the elderly? An in vitro study with human blood products.

    PubMed

    Ruppen, Corinne; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2017-03-01

    According to expert opinions, gentamicin should be administered as an adjunct to penicillin against severe group B streptococcal (GBS) infections. Whether the adjunct is important is of particular interest for elderly patients. Not only is the risk of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity higher in elderly persons, but their immune defence to bacterial infections may also be impaired. Time-kill assays with human blood products, such as serum, neutrophilic granulocytes (opsonophagocytic assays) and whole blood from healthy, elderly volunteers were performed to evaluate the effect of gentamicin in combination with penicillin. In time-kill assays with human serum and in opsonophagocytic assays, we saw a trend for faster killing with the penicillin-gentamicin combination therapy. This effect was seen 4 and 6 h after antibiotic exposure but not at time points evaluated at ≥8 h. In whole blood killing assays, no difference in killing rates was observed with adjunctive gentamicin therapy. The criteria for synergism were not fulfilled when the effect of penicillin-gentamicin combinations was compared with that of penicillin monotherapy. Rapid killing of GBS within the first few hours was observed in time-kill assays with human blood products. Considering that elderly people are prone to gentamicin nephrotoxicity and that in severe GBS infection a high penicillin dose is administered every 4-6 h, the prolonged use of adjunctive aminoglycosides in these infections requires caution.

  9. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Reinaldo, Mônica Renata; Sena, Anne de; Granato, Celso F H

    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 500 blood donors were tested from July to September 2014 by serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 49 (9.8%) subjects and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Among the anti-HEV IgG positive subjects, only 1 had anti-HEV IgM while none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG than previously reported in the region. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of antibodies reacting with the antithetical duffy blood group antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b) using recombinant fusion proteins containing the duffy extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha; Branch, Donald R; Denomme, Gregory A

    2006-12-01

    Detecting blood group-specific antibodies in patient sera is essential to the management of blood transfusions or pregnancies. We produced the antithetical forms of the 65 amino acid extracellular domain (ECD) of the Duffy (Fy) blood group protein fused to glutathione sulfotransferase (GST): GST-Fy(a); and GST-Fy(b), differing only in Gly or Asp at position 44, respectively. The purified recombinant proteins were recognized more effectively by reference polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies than the antithetical Fy specificity by either ELISA or immunoblotting. Combined immunoblot and ELISA tests performed at 1:200 dilutions of sera using the recombinant proteins gave results in agreement with undiluted sera and agglutination for 17/19 alloimmunized patients. At 1:200, agglutination detected anti-Fy(a) or anti-Fy(b) in only three of 12 samples that were positive by ELISA. Recombinant ECD-Fy proteins are suitable and sensitive reagents for the detection of anti-Fy that use technology amenable to automation and/or miniaturization and avoid the need for intact red cells.

  11. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Various Age- and Sex-Specific Groups of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Nehete, Pramod N; Nehete, Bharti P; Chitta, Sriram; Williams, Lawrence E; Abee, Christian R

    2017-02-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys. We noted age- and sex-dependent changes in CD28+ (an essential T cell costimulatory molecule) and CD95+ (an apoptotic surface marker) T cells and various levels of cytokines in the plasma. In immune assays of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFNγ and perforin responses were significantly higher in female than in male monkeys and in young adults than in juvenile and geriatric groups, despite similar lymphocyte (particularly T cell) populations in these groups. Our current findings may be useful in exploring Aotus monkeys as a model system for the study of aging, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and age-associated differences in vaccine efficacy, and other challenges particular to pediatric and geriatric patients.

  12. Effects of Prophylactic Foscarnet on Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation and Encephalitis in Cord Blood Transplant Recipients: A Prospective Multicenter Trial with an Historical Control Group.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao; Takano, Kuniko; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Kondo, Tadakazu; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Nakano, Nobuaki; Mori, Takehiko; Uoshima, Nobuhiko; Nagafuji, Koji; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Shibasaki, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Rika; Kato, Koji; Choi, Ilseung; Jo, Yumi; Eto, Tetsuya; Kako, Shinichi; Oshima, Kumi; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is a distinct risk factor for human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation and HHV-6 encephalitis. In a prospective multicenter trial we investigated the effects of prophylactic foscarnet (90 mg/kg i.v. infusion from days 7 to 27 after CBT) on the occurrence of HHV-6 reactivation, HHV-6 encephalitis, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in CBT recipients. Between 2014 and 2016, 57 patients were included in a foscarnet-prophylaxis group. Outcomes were compared with an historical control group who received CBT between 2010 and 2014 (standard-treatment group, n = 63). The cumulative incidence of high-level HHV-6 reactivation, defined as plasma HHV-6 DNA ≥ 10 4 copies/mL, at 60 days after CBT was significantly lower in the foscarnet-prophylaxis group than in the standard-treatment group (18.3% versus 57.3%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that myeloablative preconditioning and standard treatment were significant risk factors for high-level HHV-6 reactivation. The cumulative incidence of HHV-6 encephalitis at 60 days after CBT was not different between the groups (foscarnet-prophylaxis group, 12.4%; standard-treatment group, 4.9%; P = .14). The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and grades III to IV aGVHD at 60 days after CBT were not different between the groups (grades II to IV aGVHD: foscarnet-prophylaxis group, 42.0%; standard-treatment group, 40.5%; P = .96; grades III to IV aGVHD: foscarnet-prophylaxis group, 14.5%; standard-treatment group, 14.5%; P = 1.00). In the setting of this study foscarnet significantly suppressed systemic HHV-6 reactivation in CBT recipients but failed to prevent the development of HHV-6 encephalitis. Suppression of HHV-6 reactivation by foscarnet did not show any effects against the incidence of aGVHD. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in 3.8 million Chinese adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Zhang, S; Liu, M; Wang, Q; Shen, H; Zhang, Y

    2018-04-01

    ABO and Rh blood groups play a vital role in blood transfusion safety and clinical practice and are thought to be linked with disease susceptibility. The results from previous studies that focused on the association between blood groups and HBV infection remain controversial. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection. We assessed the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups in Chinese adults and examined the association between these groups and HBV infection. We did a nationwide cross-sectional study using data from a physical check-up programme from 31 provinces examined between 2010 and 2012. ELISA was used to test for HBsAg in serologic samples. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate aOR of the association between ABO and Rh blood groups and HBV infection. Among 3 827 125 participants, the proportion of participants with blood group A was highest (30.54%), followed by O (30.37%), B (29.42%) and AB (9.66%). A total of 38 907 (1.02%) were Rh-D negative. The prevalence of HBsAg in blood groups O, A, B and AB were 6.34%, 5.55%, 5.18% and 5.06%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 5.65% in Rh-D-positive and 3.96% in Rh-D-negative participants. After controlling for other potential risk factors, multivariate models showed that participants with blood group O (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.20-1.25) were at higher risk of HBV infection compared with group AB. Rh-D-positive participants (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.37-1.52) were at higher risk of HBV infection than Rh-D-negative participants. The associations between ABO/Rh blood groups and HBV infection were similar in subgroup analysis. The proportions of O, A, B and AB blood groups were approximately 3:3:3:1, and nearly 1 in 100 people was Rh-D negative among Chinese adults. Blood group O and Rh-D positivity were both associated with increased HBV infection. The risk of HBV infection and blood safety should be taken into consideration in clinical practice, especially when transfusing

  14. Motivating first-time, group O blood donors to return: Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial of a post-donation telephone interview

    PubMed Central

    France, Janis L.; France, Christopher R.; Carlson, Bruce W.; Kessler, Debra A.; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H.; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    First-time blood donors are essential to the US donor pool, providing nearly a third of all donations. Unfortunately, there are a wide variety of obstacles to repeat donation and new donors are extremely difficult to retain. Because each donor experiences a unique set of deterrents, we developed a post-donation interview based on motivational interview principles in order to flexibly address individual barriers. The primary aim of this randomized clinical trial is to examine retention of first-time, group O blood donors who are randomly assigned to receive either a telephone-delivered interview with motivational and action planning components or a standard-of-care control call approximately six weeks after their donation. Measures of donation attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, and motivational autonomy will be measured before and after the telephone contact using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to controls, donors who receive the telephone interview will be more likely to make a donation attempt over the following year. In addition, we will examine possible mechanisms of action of the interview using key predictors of donation behavior as described by Self Determination Theory (i.e., motivational autonomy) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention). Results of this intervention may help to support a novel strategy to enhance retention of selected blood donors in an effort to better meet the nation’s blood supply needs. PMID:26247570

  15. ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of endometriosis in a French Caucasian population of 633 patients living in the same geographic area.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Bruno; Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20-2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes.

  16. Should African Americans have a lower blood pressure goal than other ethnic groups to prevent organ damage?

    PubMed

    Flack, John M; Okwuosa, Tochukwi; Sudhakar, Rajeev; Ference, Brian; Levy, Phillip

    2012-12-01

    African Americans manifest an inordinately high burden of hypertension, pressure-related target-organ injury (eg, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke), and sub-optimal hypertension control rates to conventional levels (<140/90 mm Hg). A substantive proportion of the excessive premature mortality in African Americans relative to Whites is pressure-related. Randomized prospective pharmacologic hypertension end-point trials have shown invariable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction across a broad range of pre-treatment BP levels down to 110/70 mm Hg with the magnitude of CVD risk reduction across the 5 major antihypertensive drug classes being directly linked to degree of blood pressure (BP) lowering. Pooled endpoint data from pharmacologic hypertension trials in African Americans showed that CVD risk reduction was the same with major antihypertensive drug classes when similar levels of BP were achieved. A lower than conventional BP target for African Americans seems justified and prudent because attainment of lower BP should incrementally lower CVD risk in this high-risk population.

  17. The relation between gastric acid secretion and body habitus, blood groups, smoking, and the subsequent development of dyspepsia and duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Novis, B. H.; Marks, I. N.; Bank, S.; Sloan, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-six students free of gastrointestinal disease were studied to establish normal acid secretion values for healthy male and female students by the augmented histamine test and to re-examine the relationship between gastric acid secretion and ABO blood groups, body weight, fat-free body mass, height, degree of ectomorphy and mesomorphy, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and serum cholesterol. A prospective study was then carried out on gastric acid secretion and the subsequent development after 10 years of duodenal ulcers or dyspepsia. Young, healthy medical students have a fairly high mean basal and maximal acid output. There was very little difference in the mean acid outputs of the various ABO blood groups. A significant correlation was shown between acid output and body weight and fat-free body mass, but not with the other measurements of body build. Basal acid output was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Three students who subsequently developed duodenal ulcers all had a preexistent high level of acid secretion. The acid output was, however, similar in the groups who developed significant or minor dyspepsia or who remained asymptomatic. PMID:4696532

  18. Acetylated sialic acid residues and blood group antigens localise within the epithelium in microvillous atrophy indicating internal accumulation of the glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A D; Brown, A; Hicks, S; Schüller, S; Murch, S H; Walker-Smith, J A; Swallow, D M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Microvillous atrophy, a disorder of intractable diarrhoea in infancy, is characterised by the intestinal epithelial cell abnormalities of abnormal accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive secretory granules within the apical cytoplasm and the presence of microvillous inclusions. The identity of the PAS positive material is not known, and the aim of this paper was to further investigate its composition. Methods: Formaldehyde fixed sections were stained with alcian blue/PAS to identify the acidic or neutral nature of the material, phenylhydrazine blocking was employed to stain specifically for sialic acid, and saponification determined the presence of sialic acid acetylation. The specificity of sialic acid staining was tested by digestion with mild sulphuric acid. Expression of blood group related antigens was tested immunochemically. Results: Alcian blue/PAS staining identified a closely apposed layer of acidic material on the otherwise neutral (PAS positive) brush border in controls. In microvillous atrophy, a triple layer was seen with an outer acidic layer, an unstained brush border region, and accumulation within the epithelium of a neutral glycosubstance that contained acetylated sialic acid. Blood group antigens were detected on the brush border, in mucus, and within goblet cells in controls. In microvillous atrophy they were additionally expressed within the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells mirroring the PAS abnormality. Immuno electron microscopy localised expression to secretory granules. Conclusions: A neutral, blood group antigen positive, glycosubstance that contains acetylated sialic acid accumulates in the epithelium in microvillous atrophy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the direct and indirect constitutive pathways are intact in this disorder and it is speculated that the abnormal staining pattern reflects accumulation of glycocalyx related material. PMID:15542511

  19. Identification of novel rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus B-cell epitopes and their interaction with host histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanhua; Wang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xing; Wei, Houjun; Xue, Jiabin; Xu, Weizhong; Qiu, Rulong

    2016-02-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed. The minimal determinants of the linear B-cell epitopes of VP60 in the P domain, N(326)PISQV(331), D(338)MSFV(342) and K(562)STLVFNL(569), were recognized by one (5H3), four (1B8, 3D11, 4C2 and 4G2) and four mAbs (1D4, 3F7, 5G2 and 6B2), respectively. Sequence alignment showed epitope D(338)MSFV(342) was conserved among all RHDV isolates. Epitopes N(326)PISQV(331) and K(562)STLVFNL(569) were highly conserved among RHDV G1-G6 and variable in RHDV2 strains. Previous studies demonstrated that native viral particles and virus-like particles (VLPs) of RHDV specifically bound to synthetic blood group H type 2 oligosaccharides. We established an oligosaccharide-based assay to analyse the binding of VP60 and epitopes to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Results showed VP60 and its epitopes (aa 326-331 and 338-342) in the P2 subdomain could significantly bind to blood group H type 2. Furthermore, mAbs 1B8 and 5H3 could block RHDV VLP binding to synthetic H type 2. Collectively, these two epitopes might play a key role in the antigenic structure of VP60 and interaction of RHDV and HBGA.

  20. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  1. The Awá-Guajá Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Demographic data, serum protein markers and blood groups.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, S F; Lopes, D E; Santos, S E; Guerreiro, J F

    1998-01-01

    The South-American Indian group Awá-Guajá, currently living in the State of Maranhão (Northeastern Brazil), is one of the most recently contacted Indian groups of the Brazilian Amazon. This group is made up by three partially isolated villages named Awá, Guajá and Juriti, and is characterized by having a young population, in which 47.6% of the individuals range from 0 to 14 years old. The sex ratios (male/female) for people of reproductive age are 1.13 for Awá village, 2.00 for Guajá, 3.33 for Juriti and 1.61 for the tribe as a whole. Fst and heterogeneity analysis show that, despite the small differences observed among villages for the eight genetic systems analyzed, the Awá-Guajá tribe is constituted of only one population. Furthermore, comparisons between Awá-Guajá and Urubú-Kaapor tribes indicate that they are still isolated genetically, in spite of the fact that they share territories.

  2. A dispermic chimera was identified in a healthy man with mixed field agglutination reaction in ABO blood grouping and mosaic 46, XY/46, XX karyotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaozhen; Ying, Yanlin; Xu, Xianguo; Liu, Ying; Chen, Zhimei; Lan, Xiaofei; Ma, Kairong; He, Ji; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing

    2013-04-01

    Chimerism is the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in one organism. Here, we reported the identification of dispermic chimerism in a 25-year-old male. Blood grouping was performed with standard gel centrifugation test cards. ABO and HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci genotyping was determined with PCR sequence-based typing. A quantitative analysis of dual red cells populations was measured by flow cytometer. The karyotype was analyzed by G-banded chromosomes. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis was performed on blood, buccal mucosal and hair shafts samples. A mixed-field agglutination with anti-B antibody was observed with gel centrifugation tests, which showed a double populations of O and B groups RBCs. Two groups RBCs were also observed by flow cytometer with nearly 90% O group cells and 10% B group cells. The normal O01,O02,B101 alleles were identified in DNA sample of the proband. STR analysis revealed three alleles for D8S1179,D3S1358,TH01,D13S317,D16S539,D2S1338,D19S433,TPOX and D18S51 loci. HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci had three alleles and a karyotypic mosaic was found with 60% 46, XY and 40% 46, XX karyotype in the proband. In all studies, the third allele was attributable to a dual paternal contribution. A individual with dispermic chimerism was identified, which would generate by fertilization of an oocyte and the corresponding second polar body by two different sperms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging Research Directions in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: A Report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Adult Congenital Heart Association Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Gurvitz, Michelle; Burns, Kristin M.; Brindis, Ralph; Broberg, Craig S.; Daniels, Curt J.; Fuller, Stephanie M.P.N.; Honein, Margaret A.; Khairy, Paul; Kuehl, Karen S.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mahle, William T.; Mann, Douglas L.; Marelli, Ariane; Newburger, Jane W.; Pearson, Gail D.; Starling, Randall C.; Tringali, Glenn R.; Valente, Anne Marie; Wu, Joseph C.; Califf, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, affecting about 0.8% of live births. Advances in recent decades have allowed >85% of children with CHD to survive to adulthood, creating a growing population of adults with CHD. Little information exists regarding survival, demographics, late outcomes, and comorbidities in this emerging group, and multiple barriers impede research in adult CHD (ACHD). The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Adult Congenital Heart Association convened a multidisciplinary Working Group to identify high-impact research questions in ACHD. This report summarizes the meeting discussions in the broad areas of CHD-related heart failure, vascular disease and multisystem complications. High-priority subtopics identified included heart failure in tetralogy of Fallot, mechanical circulatory support/transplantation, sudden cardiac death, vascular outcomes in coarctation of the aorta, late outcomes in single ventricle disease, cognitive and psychiatric issues, and pregnancy. PMID:27102511

  4. Polymorphisms and allele frequencies of the ABO blood group gene among the Jomon, Epi-Jomon and Okhotsk people in Hokkaido, northern Japan, revealed by ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takehiro; Kazuta, Hisako; Amano, Tetsuya; Ono, Hiroko; Ishida, Hajime; Kodera, Haruto; Matsumura, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Minoru; Dodo, Yukio; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the genetic characteristics of the ancient populations of Hokkaido, northern Japan, polymorphisms of the ABO blood group gene were analyzed for 17 Jomon/Epi-Jomon specimens and 15 Okhotsk specimens using amplified product-length polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Five ABO alleles were identified from the Jomon/ Epi-Jomon and Okhotsk people. Allele frequencies of the Jomon/Epi-Jomon and Okhotsk people were compared with those of the modern Asian, European and Oceanic populations. The genetic relationships inferred from principal component analyses indicated that both Jomon/Epi-Jomon and Okhotsk people are included in the same group as modern Asian populations. However, the genetic characteristics of these ancient populations in Hokkaido were significantly different from each other, which is in agreement with the conclusions from mitochondrial DNA and ABCC11 gene analyses that were previously reported.

  5. The recognition of three different epitopes for the H-type 2 human blood group determinant by lectins of Ulex europaeus, Galactia tenuiflora and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean).

    PubMed

    Du, M H; Spohr, U; Lemieux, R U

    1994-10-01

    The chemical mapping of the regions of H-type 2 human blood group-related trisaccharide (Fuc alpha (1-2)Gal beta (1-4)GlcNAc beta Me) that are recognized by three different lectins, the so-called epitopes, are reviewed together with an account of how and why oligosaccharides form specific complexes with proteins as presently viewed in this laboratory. The occasion is used to report the synthesis of the various mono-O-methyl derivatives of the above trisaccharide that were used in these investigations. Also, Fuc alpha (1-2)Gal beta (1-4)Xyl beta Me was synthesized in order to examine whether or not the hydroxymethyl group of the GlcNAc residue participates in the binding reaction.

  6. ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens, a model for the meaning of oligosaccharide diversity in the face of a changing world.

    PubMed

    Marionneau, S; Cailleau-Thomas, A; Rocher, J; Le Moullac-Vaidye, B; Ruvoën, N; Clément, M; Le Pendu, J

    2001-07-01

    Antigens of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group family have been known for a long time. Yet their biological meaning is still largely obscure. Based on the available knowledge about the genes involved in their biosynthesis and about their tissue distribution in humans and other mammals, we discuss here the selective forces that may maintain or propagate these oligosaccharide antigens. The ABO, alpha 1,2fucosyltransferase and alpha 1,3fucosyltransferase enzyme families have been generated by gene duplications. Members of these families contribute to biosynthesis of the antigens through epistatic interactions. We suggest that the highly polymorphic genes of each family provide intraspecies diversity that allows coping with diverse and rapidly evolving pathogens. In contrast, the genes of low frequency polymorphism are expected to play roles at the cellular level, although they may be dispensable at the individual level. In addition, some members of these three gene families are expected to be functionally redundant and may either provide a reservoir for additional diversity in the future or become inactivated. We also discuss the role of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in pathologies such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but argue that it is merely incidental and devoid of evolutionary impact.

  7. The human Kell blood group binds the erythroid 4.1R protein: new insights into the 4.1R-dependent red cell membrane complex

    PubMed Central

    Azouzi, Slim; Collec, Emmanuel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Summary Protein 4.1R plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. We analysed the expression of Kell blood group protein in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis associated with complete 4.1R deficiency (4.1(−) HE). Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed a severe reduction of Kell. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments from erythrocyte membranes showed a direct interaction between Kell and 4.1R. Using different recombinant domains of 4.1R and the cytoplasmic domain of Kell, we demonstrated that the R46R motif in the juxta-membrane region of Kell binds to lobe B of the 4.1R FERM domain. We also observed that 4.1R deficiency is associated with a reduction of XK and DARC (also termed ACKR1) proteins, the absence of the glycosylated form of the urea transporter B and a slight decrease of band 3. The functional alteration of the 4.1(−) HE erythrocyte membranes was also determined by measuring various transport activities. We documented a slower rate of HCO3−/Cl− exchange, but normal water and ammonia transport across erythrocyte membrane in the absence of 4.1. These findings provide novel insights into the structural organization of blood group antigen proteins into the 4.1R complex of the human red cell membrane. PMID:26455906

  8. Hemocytes and Plasma of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Display a Diverse Repertoire of Sulfated and Blood Group A-modified N-Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Simone; Jin, Chunsheng; Hykollari, Alba; Gregorich, Daniel; Giomarelli, Barbara; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has become a useful model system for glycan-dependent host-parasite interactions due to the hijacking of the oyster galectin CvGal1 for host entry by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, the causative agent of Dermo disease. In this study, we examined the N-glycans of both the hemocytes, which via CvGal1 are the target of the parasite, and the plasma of the oyster. In combination with HPLC fractionation, exoglycosidase digestion, and fragmentation of the glycans, mass spectrometry revealed that the major N-glycans of plasma are simple hybrid structures, sometimes methylated and core α1,6-fucosylated, with terminal β1,3-linked galactose; a remarkable high degree of sulfation of such glycans was observed. Hemocytes express a larger range of glycans, including core-difucosylated paucimannosidic forms, whereas bi- and triantennary glycans were found in both sources, including structures carrying sulfated and methylated variants of the histo-blood group A epitope. The primary features of the oyster whole hemocyte N-glycome were also found in dominin, the major plasma glycoprotein, which had also been identified as a CvGal1 glycoprotein ligand associated with hemocytes. The occurrence of terminal blood group moieties on oyster dominin and on hemocyte surfaces can account in part for their affinity for the endogenous CvGal1. PMID:23824194

  9. Non-O blood groups can be a prognostic marker of in-hospital and long-term major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet Serkan; Ozcan Cetin, Elif Hande; Aras, Dursun; Topaloglu, Serkan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Kisacik, Halil Lutfi; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested ABO blood type locus as an inherited predictor of thrombosis, cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction. However, data is scarce about the impact of non-O blood groups on prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic importance of non-O blood groups in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) METHODS: 1835 consecutive patients who were admitted with acute STEMI between 2010 and 2015 were included and followed-up for a median of 35.6months. The prevalence of hyperlipidemia, total cholesterol, LDL, peak CKMB and no-reflow as well as hospitalization duration were higher in patients with non-O blood groups. Gensini score did not differ between groups. During the in-hospital and long-term follow-up period, MACE, the prevalence of stent thrombosis, non-fatal MI, and mortality were higher in non-O blood groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, non-0 blood groups were demonstrated to be independent predictors of in-hospital (OR:2.085 %CI: 1.328-3.274 p=0.001) and long term MACE (OR:2.257 %CI: 1.325-3.759 p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis according to the long-term MACE free survival revealed a higher occurrence of MACE in non-O blood group compared with O blood group (p<0.001, Chi-square: 22.810). Non-O blood groups were determined to be significant prognostic indicators of short- and long-term cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI. In conjunction with other prognostic factors, evaluation of this parameter may improve the risk categorization and tailoring the individual therapy and follow-up in STEMI patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulse waveform analysis on temporal changes in ocular blood flow due to caffeine intake: a comparative study between habitual and non-habitual groups.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Aishah; Bhatti, Mehwish S; Faye, Ibrahima; Lu, Cheng Kai; Laude, Augustinus; Tang, Tong Boon

    2018-06-06

    To evaluate and compare the temporal changes in pulse waveform parameters of ocular blood flow (OBF) between non-habitual and habitual groups due to caffeine intake. This study was conducted on 19 healthy subjects (non-habitual 8; habitual 11), non-smoking and between 21 and 30 years of age. Using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), three areas of optical nerve head were analyzed which are vessel, tissue, and overall, each with ten pulse waveform parameters, namely mean blur rate (MBR), fluctuation, skew, blowout score (BOS), blowout time (BOT), rising rate, falling rate, flow acceleration index (FAI), acceleration time index (ATI), and resistive index (RI). Two-way mixed ANOVA was used to determine the difference between every two groups where p < 0.05 is considered significant. There were significant differences between the two groups in several ocular pulse waveform parameters, namely MBR (overall, vessel, tissue), BOT (overall), rising rate (overall), and falling rate (vessel), all with p < 0.05. In addition, the ocular pulse waveform parameters, i.e., MBR (overall), skew (tissue), and BOT (tissue) showed significant temporal changes within the non-habitual group, but not within the habitual group. The temporal changes in parameters MBR (vessel, tissue), skew (overall, vessel), BOT (overall, vessel), rising rate (overall), falling rate (overall, vessel), and FAI (tissue) were significant for both groups (habitual and non-habitual) in response to caffeine intake. The experiment results demonstrated caffeine does modulate OBF significantly and response differently in non-habitual and habitual groups. Among all ten parameters, MBR and BOT were identified as the suitable biomarkers to differentiate between the two groups.

  11. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for clinical evaluation of hypertensive patients in primary care: which groups would most benefit?

    PubMed

    Grezzana, Guilherme B; Stein, Airton T; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2017-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure (BP) control levels remain largely out of target among primary healthcare (PHC) patients. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may contribute toward the identification of cardiovascular risk groups. To assess concordance between conventional office BP measurements and 24-h ABPM of hypertension control in cardiovascular risk groups of PHC hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study with 569 hypertensive patients was carried out. The evaluation of BP was performed by a PHC doctor, and the 24-h ABPM was performed by a different and blinded provider. The therapeutic targets for BP followed the guidance of The Eighth Joint National Committee, the Brazilian guideline, and the 2013 European Society of Hypertension. Considering the hypertension control therapeutic targets, the guidelines were not similar and were used to evaluate differences in BP value concordances compared with BP standard measurements. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a conventional BP was used in comparison with ABPM in different cardiovascular risk groups of hypertensive patients. According to the ABPM by European Society of Hypertension guideline, the subgroup of inactive patients (P=0.006), with altered glycemia (P=0.015) and over 30 mg/dl albuminuria (P=0.001), presented discordance among methods. When a conventional BP measurement in comparison with the ABPM results according to the Brazilian ABPM guideline was used, the discordance occurred significantly in inactive (P=0.001) and microalbuminuria more than 30 mg/dl (P=0.022) subgroups. However, in this comparison, a concordance between high-density lipoprotein more than 60 mg/dl (P=0.015) and obesity (P=0.035) subgroups occurred. Uncontrolled glucose levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and the presence of microalbuminuria correspond to some cardiovascular risk groups that would particularly benefit from 24-h

  12. Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VIII-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and Ulex europaeus 1 lectin.

    PubMed

    Little, D; Said, J W; Siegel, R J; Fealy, M; Fishbein, M C

    1986-06-01

    Markers for endothelial cells including Ulex europaeus 1 lectin, blood group A, B, and H, and the prostaglandin metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were evaluated in paraffin secretions from formalin-fixed benign and malignant vascular neoplasms using a variety of immunohistochemical techniques, and results compared with staining for factor VIII-related antigen. Staining for Ulex appeared more sensitive than factor VIII-related antigen in identifying poorly differentiated neoplasms including haemangiosarcomas and spindle cell proliferations in Kaposi's sarcoma. Staining for blood group related antigens correlated with blood group in all cases. Ulex europaeus 1 lectin was the only marker for endothelial cells in lymphangiomas.

  13. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease. Risk factors and blood transfusion influence. French Study Group on Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    de Montalembert, M; Beauvais, P; Bachir, D; Galacteros, F; Girot, R

    1993-03-01

    This study presents a series of 34 sickle cell patients with one or more cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Risk factors were studied in a subgroup of 19 patients whose clinical and biological characteristics were compared to those of a group of 444 sickle cell patients without CVA. The only risk factor discovered was a past history of purulent meningitis, which was significantly more frequent in sickle cell patients than in those without CVA (P < 0.0001). No biological or radiological factor affecting the risk of recurrence was found. The risk of recurrence, neurological defects or death after subsequent CVA justify long-term transfusion treatment in patients presenting with a second CVA. However our study shows that 10 patients who were not transfused after their first CVA had no recurrences, (median follow up = 7.9 years; 2-18 years), providing a basis for discussion on the indications of long-term transfusion therapy for sickle cell patients presenting with their first CVA.

  14. The specificity of the cross-reacting antibodies in blood group O sera which produce mixed agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Franks, D.; Liske, Rosemary

    1968-01-01

    γM cross-reacting antibodies in group O sera produce mixed agglutination with secretor buccal cells, but not with non-secretor cells. The mixed agglutination with sera which also contain immune anti-B is produced only with A buccal cells and B indicator red cells, and not with B buccal cells, and is inhibited by B secretor saliva or galactose, but not by A secretor saliva. Mixed agglutination with sera containing immune anti-A is produced only with B buccal cells and A indicator red cells, and is inhibited by A secretor saliva or 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactose (N-acetyl-D-galactosamine), but not by B secretor saliva. If two sera, one containing immune anti-A and the other containing immune anti-B, are mixed together in equal volumes, mixed agglutination is no longer produced with either A buccal cells (and B indicator red cells) or B buccal cells (and A indicator red cells). These observations are thought to be most readily explicable by the hypothesis that the combining site on the cross-reacting antibody is smaller than on specific anti-A or anti-B, and that it reacts with that part of the antigenic determinant which is common to both A and B antigens. As a consequence of the restricted size of the combining site, it is suggested that cross-reacting antibody will have a lower affinity for A or B antigens than specific anti-A or anti-B does, and competes unsuccessfully with specific anti-A or anti-B for combination with antigen on buccal cells. PMID:5638582

  15. Structural characterization of human galectin-4 C-terminal domain: elucidating the molecular basis for recognition of glycosphingolipids, sulfated saccharides and blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Leffler, Hakon; Nilsson, Ulf J; Blanchard, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Human galectin-4 is a lectin that is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and exhibits metastasis-promoting roles in some cancers. Its tandem-repeat nature exhibits two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains allowing crosslinking by simultaneous binding to sulfated and non-sulfated (but not sialylated) glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins, facilitating stabilization of lipid rafts. Critically, galectin-4 exerts favourable or unfavourable effects depending upon the cancer. Here we report the first X-ray crystallographic structural information on human galectin-4, specifically the C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain of human (galectin-4C) in complex with lactose, lactose-3'-sulfate, 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose. These structures enable elucidation of galectin-4C binding fine-specificity towards sulfated and non-sulfated lacto- and neolacto-series sphingolipids as well as to human blood group antigens. Analysis of the lactose-3'-sulfate complex structure shows that galectin-4C does not recognize the sulfate group using any specific amino acid, but binds the ligand nonetheless. Complex structures with lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose displayed differences in binding interactions exhibited by the non-reducing-end galactose. That of lacto-N-tetraose points outward from the protein surface whereas that of lacto-N-neotetraose interacts directly with the protein. Recognition patterns of human galectin-4C towards lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids are similar to those of human galectin-3; however, detailed scrutiny revealed differences stemming from the extended binding site that offer distinction in ligand profiles of these two galectins. Structural characterization of the complex with 2'-fucosyllactose, a carbohydrate with similarity to the H antigen, and molecular dynamics studies highlight structural features that allow specific recognition of A and B antigens, whilst a lack of interaction with the 2

  16. Priorities for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research: A Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Working Group.

    PubMed

    Khazanie, Prateeti; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Kressin, Nancy R; Wells, Barbara; Wang, Tracy Y; Peterson, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    The Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (CCORs) held a meeting to review how cardiovascular outcomes research had evolved in the decade since the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2004 working group report and to consider future directions. The conference involved representatives from governmental agencies, outcomes research thought leaders, and public and private healthcare partners. The main purposes of this meeting were to (1) advance collaborative high-yield, high-impact outcomes research; (2) identify priorities and barriers to important cardiovascular outcomes research; and (3) define future needs for the field. This report highlights the key topics covered during the meeting, including an examination of the recent history of outcomes research, an evaluation of the current academic climate, and a vision for the future of cardiovascular outcomes research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Patients’ and clinicians’ views on the optimum schedules for self-monitoring of blood pressure: a qualitative focus group and interview study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Sabrina; Hodgkinson, James A; Milner, Siobhan L; Martin, Una; Tompson, Alice; Hobbs, FD Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McManus, Richard J; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood pressure is common but guidance on how it should be carried out varies and it is currently unclear how such guidance is viewed. Aim To explore patients’ and healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) views and experiences of the use of different self-monitoring regimens to determine what is acceptable and feasible, and to inform future recommendations. Design and setting Thirteen focus groups and four HCP interviews were held, with a total of 66 participants (41 patients and 25 HCPs) from primary and secondary care with and without experience of self-monitoring. Method Standard and shortened self-monitoring protocols were both considered. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Patients generally supported structured schedules but with sufficient flexibility to allow adaptation to individual routine. They preferred a shorter (3-day) schedule to longer (7-day) regimens. Although HCPs could describe benefits for patients of using a schedule, they were reluctant to recommend a specific schedule. Concerns surrounded the use of different schedules for diagnosis and subsequent monitoring. Appropriate education was seen as vital by all participants to enable a self-monitoring schedule to be followed at home. Conclusion There is not a ‘one size fits all approach’ to developing the optimum protocol from the perspective of users and those implementing it. An approach whereby patients are asked to complete the minimum number of readings required for accurate blood pressure estimation in a flexible manner seems most likely to succeed. Informative advice and guidance should incorporate such flexibility for patients and professionals alike. PMID:27381484

  18. Patients' and clinicians' views on the optimum schedules for self-monitoring of blood pressure: a qualitative focus group and interview study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sabrina; Hodgkinson, James A; Milner, Siobhan L; Martin, Una; Tompson, Alice; Hobbs, Fd Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McManus, Richard J; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2016-11-01

    Self-monitoring of blood pressure is common but guidance on how it should be carried out varies and it is currently unclear how such guidance is viewed. To explore patients' and healthcare professionals' (HCPs) views and experiences of the use of different self-monitoring regimens to determine what is acceptable and feasible, and to inform future recommendations. Thirteen focus groups and four HCP interviews were held, with a total of 66 participants (41 patients and 25 HCPs) from primary and secondary care with and without experience of self-monitoring. Standard and shortened self-monitoring protocols were both considered. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using the constant comparative method. Patients generally supported structured schedules but with sufficient flexibility to allow adaptation to individual routine. They preferred a shorter (3-day) schedule to longer (7-day) regimens. Although HCPs could describe benefits for patients of using a schedule, they were reluctant to recommend a specific schedule. Concerns surrounded the use of different schedules for diagnosis and subsequent monitoring. Appropriate education was seen as vital by all participants to enable a self-monitoring schedule to be followed at home. There is not a 'one size fits all approach' to developing the optimum protocol from the perspective of users and those implementing it. An approach whereby patients are asked to complete the minimum number of readings required for accurate blood pressure estimation in a flexible manner seems most likely to succeed. Informative advice and guidance should incorporate such flexibility for patients and professionals alike. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  19. MNSs Blood Group Glycophorin Variants in Taiwan: A Genotype-Serotype Correlation Study of ‘Mia’ and Sta with Report of Two New Alleles for Sta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tai-Di; Chen, Ding-Ping; Wang, Wei-Ting; Sun, Chien-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycophorin variants of the MNSs blood group are important in Taiwan. For more than 20 years, screening for the most frequent irregular antibody, anti-‘Mia’, has been conducted by using ‘Mia’(+) RBCs, with a significant success. However, the sensitivity and the specificity of this screening strategy have never been validated, and the true incidences of different glycophorin variants in Taiwan have been in controversy. Also, the significance of another less frequent and usually separately reported variant, Sta, has never been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings We ran a population-based screening (from unselected patients in our hospital) for MNSs blood group glycophorin variants by PCR-sequencing method. GP.Mur (Mil.III) was confirmed by sequence from 57 out of 1027 samples (5.6%), and there was no other Miltenberger subtype glycophorin variant found. Glycophorin variant Sta was found from 35 out of 1027 samples (3.4%). In contrast to anti-‘Mia’, which is the most frequently identified irregular antibody in Taiwan, the prevalence of anti-Sta was only 0.13% as determined by serologic method. In addition, two new alleles for Sta were found and reported. Conclusion/Significance We confirm the long-standing assumption that GP.Mur is the only prevalent Miltenberger subtype in Taiwan. The current anti-‘Mia’ screening method used in Taiwan, although neither sensitive nor specific, is still a suitable practice. Although Sta antigen has a high prevalence in Taiwan, routine screening for anti-Sta is not warranted based on current evidence. PMID:24858913

  20. Standardized peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture assay for determination of drug susceptibilities of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. The RV-43 Study Group, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Virology Committee Resistance Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Japour, A J; Mayers, D L; Johnson, V A; Kuritzkes, D R; Beckett, L A; Arduino, J M; Lane, J; Black, R J; Reichelderfer, P S; D'Aquila, R T

    1993-01-01

    A standardized antiviral drug susceptibility assay for clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates has been developed for use in clinical trials. The protocol is a two-step procedure that first involves cocultivation of patient infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with seronegative phytohemagglutinin-stimulated donor PBMC to obtain an HIV-1 stock. The virus stock is titrated for viral infectivity (50% tissue culture infective dose) by use of serial fourfold virus dilutions in donor PBMC. A standardized inoculum of 1,000 50% tissue culture infective doses per 10(6) cells is used in the second step of the procedure to acutely infect seronegative donor PBMC in a 7-day microtiter plate assay with triplicate wells containing zidovudine (ZDV) concentrations ranging from 0 to 5.0 microM. The ZDV 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reference ZDV-susceptible and ZDV-resistant HIV-1 isolates ranged from 0.002 to 0.113 microM and from 0.15 to > 5.0 microM, respectively. Use of this consensus protocol reduced interlaboratory variability for ZDV IC50 determinations with reference HIV-1 isolates. Among eight laboratories, the coefficient of variation ranged from 0.85 to 1.25 with different PBMC protocols and was reduced to 0.39 to 0.98 with the standardized assay. Among the clinical HIV-1 isolates assayed by the standardized drug susceptibility assay, the median ZDV IC50 increased gradually with more ZDV therapy. This protocol provides an efficient and reproducible means to assess the in vitro susceptibility to antiretroviral agents of virtually all clinical HIV-1 isolates. PMID:8517697

  1. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison.

    PubMed

    Al-Mawali, Adhra; Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p < 0.05), with males having higher mean values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region.

  2. Biosynthesis of the carbohydrate antigenic determinants, Globo H, blood group H, and Lewis b: a role for prostate cancer cell alpha1,2-L-fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Chawda, Ram; Locke, Robert D; Piskorz, Conrad F; Matta, Khushi L

    2002-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells were unique among several human cancer cell lines which include two other prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, in expressing alpha1,2-L-fucosyltransferase (FT) as an exclusive FT activity. Affinity gel-GDP and Sephacryl S100 HR columns were used for a partial purification of this enzyme from 3.9 x 10(9) LNCaP cells (approximately 200-fold; 40% yield). The K(m) value (2.7 mM) for the LacNAc type 2 acceptor was quite similar to the one reported for the cloned blood group H gene-specified alpha1,2-FT [Chandrasekaran et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 8914-8924]. N-Ethylmaleimide was a potent inhibitor (K(i ) 12.5 microM). The enzyme showed four-fold acceptor preference for the LacNAc type 2 unit in comparison to the T-hapten in mucin core 2 structure. Its main features were similar to those of the cloned enzyme: (1) C-6 sulfation of terminal Gal in the LacNAc unit increased the acceptor efficiency, whereas C-6 sialylation abolished acceptor ability; (2) C-6 sulfation of GlcNAc in LacNAc type 2 decreased by 80% the acceptor ability, whereas LacNAc type 1 was unaffected; (3) Lewis x did not serve as an acceptor; (4) the C-4 hydroxyl rather than the C-6 hydroxyl group of the GlcNAc moiety in LacNAc type1 was essential for activity; and (5) the acrylamide copolymer of Galbeta1,3GlcNAcbeta-O-Al was the best acceptor among the acrylamide copolymers. Additionally, highly significant biological features of alpha1,2FT were identified in the present study. The synthesis of Globo H and Lewis b determinants became evident from the fact that Galbeta1,3GalNAcbeta1,3Galalpha-O-Me and Galbeta1,3(Fucalpha1,4)Glc-NAcbeta1,3Galbeta-O-Me served as high-affinity acceptors for this enzyme. Further, D-Fucbeta1,3Gal-NAcbeta1,3Galalpha-O-Me was a very efficient acceptor, indicating that the C-6 hydroxyl group of the terminal Gal moiety in Globo H is not essential for the enzyme activity. Thus, the present study was able to demonstrate three different

  3. HIV-1 RNA Levels and Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in Blood and Non-Blood Compartments from HIV-1–Infected Men and Women enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5077

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rami; Bettendorf, Daniel; Bosch, Ronald J.; Mann, Marita; Katzenstein, David; Cu-Uvin, Susan; D’Aquila, Richard; Frenkel, Lisa; Fiscus, Susan; Coombs, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Detectable HIV-1 in body compartments can lead to transmission and antiretroviral resistance. Although sex differences in viral shedding have been demonstrated, mechanisms and magnitude are unclear. We compared RNA levels in blood, genital-secretions and saliva; and drug resistance in plasma and genital-secretions of men and women starting/changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5077 study. Methods Blood, saliva and genital-secretions (compartment fluids) were collected from HIV-infected adults (≥13 years) at 14 United-States sites, who were initiating or changing ART with plasma viral load (VL) ≥2,000 copies/mL. VL testing was performed on all compartment fluids and HIV resistance genotyping on plasma and genital-secretions. Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate concordance and Fisher’s and McNemar’s exact tests to compare VL between sexes and among compartments. Results Samples were available for 143 subjects; 36% treated (23 men, 29 women) and 64% ‘untreated’ (40 men, 51 women). RNA detection was significantly more frequent in plasma (100%) than genital-secretions (57%) and saliva (64%) (P<0.001). A higher proportion of men had genital shedding versus women (78% versus 41%), and RNA detection was more frequent in saliva versus genital-secretions in women when adjusted for censoring at the limit of assay detection. Inter-compartment fluid VL concordance was low in both sexes. In 22 (13 men, 9 women) paired plasma-genital-secretion genotypes from treated subjects, most had detectable resistance in both plasma (77%) and genital-secretions (68%). Resistance discordance was observed between compartments in 14% of subjects. Conclusions HIV shedding and drug resistance detection prior to initiation/change of ART in ACTG 5077 subjects differed among tissues and between sexes, making the gold standard blood-plasma compartment assessment not fully representative of HIV at other tissue sites

  4. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood ... evaluated? How are blood clots treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. ...

  5. Patients Lacking a KIR-Ligand of HLA Group C1 or C2 Have a Better Outcome after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Losada, Carmen; Martín, Carmen; Gonzalez, Rafael; Manzanares, Bárbara; García-Torres, Estefania; Herrera, Concha

    2017-01-01

    Donor natural killer (NK) cells can destroy residual leukemic cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This effect is based on the interaction of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) of donor NK cells with ligands of the major histocompatibility complex found on the surface of the target cells. HLA-C1 subtypes provide the ligand for KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 and the HLA-C2 subtypes for KIR2DL1. We have studied the probability of relapse (PR) after single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in relation to the potential graft-vs.-leukemia effect mediated by NK cells present in the umbilical cord blood (UCB) by analyzing KIR-ligand and HLA-C typing of the receptor. Data from 33 consecutive patients given a single unit UCBT were included. We have considered two groups of patients based on the absence or the presence of one of the C-ligands for inhibitory KIR and the incompatibility HLA-C1/2 between UCB and patients. Group 1 ( n  = 21): the patient lacks a C-ligand for inhibitory KIR present in UCB NK cells, i.e., patients homozygous C1/C1 or C2/C2. Group 2 ( n  = 12): patients heterozygous C1/C2 in which KIR-mediated graft-vs.-leukemia effect is not expected (presence of both C ligands for inhibitory KIR in the receptor). With a median follow-up post-UCBT of 93 months, patients with absence of a C-ligand for inhibitory KIRs (Group 1) showed a lower actuarial PR than patients with both C-ligands (group 2): 21 ± 10 vs. 68 ± 18% at 2 year and 36 ± 13 vs. 84 ± 14% at 5 years ( p  = 0.025), respectively. In patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the 2-year PR was 36 ± 21% for group 1 and 66 ± 26% for 2 ( p  = 0.038). Furthermore, group 1 had a lower incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease ( p  = 0.04). In the setting of UCBT, the absence of a C-ligand (C1 or C2) of inhibitory KIR in the patient is associated with lower PR, which is probably due to the graft

  6. The influence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in differential recognition of inhibitory acceptor analogs by human ABO(H) blood group A and B glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa P; Seto, Nina O L; Cai, Ye; Leinala, Eeva K; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2003-12-05

    Human ABO(H) blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB catalyze the final monosaccharide addition in the biosynthesis of the human A and B blood group antigens. GTA and GTB utilize a common acceptor, the H antigen disaccharide alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-Galp-OR, but different donors, where GTA transfers GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc and GTB transfers Gal from UDP-Gal. GTA and GTB are two of the most homologous enzymes known to transfer different donors and differ in only 4 amino acid residues, but one in particular (Leu/Met-266) has been shown to dominate the selection between donor sugars. The structures of the A and B glycosyltransferases have been determined to high resolution in complex with two inhibitory acceptor analogs alpha-l-Fucp(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-deoxy)-Galp-OR and alpha-l-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-d-(3-amino)-Galp-OR, in which the 3-hydroxyl moiety of the Gal ring has been replaced by hydrogen or an amino group, respectively. Remarkably, although the 3-deoxy inhibitor occupies the same conformation and position observed for the native H antigen in GTA and GTB, the 3-amino analog is recognized differently by the two enzymes. The 3-amino substitution introduces a novel intramolecular hydrogen bond between O2' on Fuc and N3' on Gal, which alters the minimum-energy conformation of the inhibitor. In the absence of UDP, the 3-amino analog can be accommodated by either GTA or GTB with the l-Fuc residue partially occupying the vacant UDP binding site. However, in the presence of UDP, the analog is forced to abandon the intramolecular hydrogen bond, and the l-Fuc residue is shifted to a less ordered conformation. Further, the residue Leu/Met-266 that was thought important only in distinguishing between donor substrates is observed to interact differently with the 3-amino acceptor analog in GTA and GTB. These observations explain why the 3-deoxy analog acts as a competitive inhibitor of the glycosyltransferase reaction, whereas the 3-amino analog displays complex modes of

  7. Epitope mapping of histo blood group antigens bound to norovirus VLPs using STD NMR experiments reveals fine details of molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Fiege, Brigitte; Leuthold, Mila; Parra, Francisco; Dalton, Kevin P; Meloncelli, Peter J; Lowary, Todd L; Peters, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Attachment of human noroviruses to histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) is thought to be critical for the infection process. Therefore, we have determined binding epitopes of synthetic type 1 to 6 blood group A- and B-tetrasaccharides binding to GII.4 human Norovirus virus like particles (VLPs) using STD NMR experiments. So far, little information is available from crystal structure analysis studies on the interactions of the reducing-end sugars with the protruding domain (P-domain) of the viral coat protein VP1. Here, we show that the reducing-end sugars make notable contacts with the protein surface. The type of glycosidic linkage, and the identity of the sugar at the reducing end modulate HBGA recognition. Most strikingly, type 2 structures yield only very poor saturation transfer indicating impeded binding. This observation is in accordance with previous mass spectrometry based affinity measurements, and can be understood based on recent crystal structure data of a complex of highly homologous GII.4 P-dimers with H-type 2 trisaccharide where the N-acetyl group of the reducing N-acetyl glucosamine residue points towards a loop comprising amino acids Q390 to H395. We suggest that in our case, binding of type 2 A- and B-tetrasaccharides leads to steric conflicts with this loop. In order to identify factors determining L-Fuc recognition, we also synthesized GII.4 VLPs with point mutations D391A and H395A. Prior studies had suggested that these residues, located in a second shell around the L-Fuc binding site, assist L-Fuc binding. STD NMR experiments with L-Fuc and B-trisaccharide in the presence of wild type and mutant VLPs yield virtually identical binding epitopes suggesting that these two mutations do not significantly alter HBGA recognition. Our study emphasizes that recognition of α-(1→2)-linked L-Fuc residues is a conserved feature of GII.4 noroviruses. However, structural variation of the HBGA core structures clearly modulates molecular recognition

  8. The fruRBA Operon Is Necessary for Group A Streptococcal Growth in Fructose and for Resistance to Neutrophil Killing during Growth in Whole Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Kayla M.; Sundar, Ganesh S.; Vega, Luis A.; Belew, Ashton T.; Islam, Emrul; Binet, Rachel; El-Sayed, Najib M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on the availability of nutrients for survival in the host environment. The phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a global regulatory network connecting sugar uptake with signal transduction. Since the fructose PTS has been shown to impact virulence in several streptococci, including the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A Streptococcus [GAS]), we characterized its role in carbon metabolism and pathogenesis in the M1T1 strain 5448. Growth in fructose as a sole carbon source resulted in 103 genes affected transcriptionally, where the fru locus (fruRBA) was the most induced. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that fruRBA formed an operon which was repressed by FruR in the absence of fructose, in addition to being under carbon catabolic repression. Growth assays and carbon utilization profiles revealed that although the entire fru operon was required for growth in fructose, FruA was the main transporter for fructose and also was involved in the utilization of three additional PTS sugars: cellobiose, mannitol, and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The inactivation of sloR, a fruA homolog that also was upregulated in the presence of fructose, failed to reveal a role as a secondary fructose transporter. Whereas the ability of both ΔfruR and ΔfruB mutants to survive in the presence of whole human blood or neutrophils was impaired, the phenotype was not reproduced in murine whole blood, and those mutants were not attenuated in a mouse intraperitoneal infection. Since the ΔfruA mutant exhibited no phenotype in the human or mouse assays, we propose that FruR and FruB are important for GAS survival in a human-specific environment. PMID:26787724

  9. Allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation: analysis of short-term engraftment and acute GVHD incidence in 33 cases. allo-PBPCT Spanish Group.

    PubMed

    Urbano-Ispizua, A; Solano, C; Brunet, S; Hernández, F; Sanz, G; Alegre, A; Petit, J; Besalduch, J; Vivancos, P; Díaz, M A; Moraleda, J M; Carreras, E; Ojeda, E; de la Rubia, J; Benet, I; Domingo-Albós, A; García-Conde, J; Rozman, C

    1996-07-01

    The results of 33 allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cells transplants (allo-PBPCT) in adult patients with hematologic malignancies were analyzed in a retrospective and multicenter study. In 21 of 33 cases (63%) the disease was refractory or in advanced stage and eight of the 33 cases (24%) were second transplants after relapse. Donors were treated with a median of 10 (4-16) micrograms/kg/day of rhG-CSF subcutaneously for 5-7 days. Three required a central venous line for harvesting. Peripheral blood leukapheresis product contained a median of 5.9 (1.8-13) 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells and a median of 309.5 (153-690) 10(6)/kg CD3+ cells. After a myeloablative regimen, all patients received PBPC from HLA-identical donors as the sole source of progenitor cells. Cyclosporin A (CsA) alone (n = 2), CsA and steroids (n = 9), and CsA and methotrexate (MTX) (n = 22) were used for GVHD prophylaxis. Growth factors post-transplant were given to 11 patients (33%). The median follow-up of the patients was 3 months. Actuarial median day for hemopoietic recovery was: neutrophils to >0.5 (>1) x 10(9)/l, day 14 (15); platelets to >20 (>50) x 10(9)/l, day 14 (21). The quantity of CD34+ cells infused did not significantly affect the engraftment kinetics, from a starting cutoff of 2.5 x 10(6)/kg. The speed of neutrophil recovery seemed to be influenced strongly by using rhG-CSF post-transplant and marginally by the type of GVHD prophylaxis. Actuarial probability for grade II-IV acute GVHD of the whole group was 37% (95% Cl, 20-54%).

  10. Secondary elements of blood pH variation can influence the effort effectiveness based on adaptive changes within a group of elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ştefan Adrian; Tomescu, Valeriu; Voidăzan, Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart. Determinations were aimed at adapting the reported biochemical parameters depending on the effort performed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, HCO3, pCO2, pO2, BE, SBE, SBC, Ca++, Mg++, LDH, GPT, T-Pro, and Alb. The mean value of pH found in athletes was 7.41±0.024. The value obtained was significantly correlated to biochemical parameters such as BE (2.32±1.79), SBC (1.67±1.45), SBE (2.70±1.75). However, bicarbonate (HCO3) was statistically significantly related with SBE, SBC, SBE, and pO2, but did not present a strong association with the pH value (p=0.094). However, values such as Alb, Ca++, LDH, BE, SBC are related to pH value as a result of variations in the data submitted. The processed data evidence the fact that blood pH, in this case, is significantly influenced by a number of indices that correlate energy system activity, individual adaptation to effort, and the recovery process. The parameters under investigation (SBE, SBC, SBE, CPK, LDH) are associated with pH changes that could confirm the recovery efficiency of the athlete, along with a possible metabolic acidosis/alkalosis.

  11. The fruRBA Operon Is Necessary for Group A Streptococcal Growth in Fructose and for Resistance to Neutrophil Killing during Growth in Whole Human Blood.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Kayla M; Sundar, Ganesh S; Vega, Luis A; Belew, Ashton T; Islam, Emrul; Binet, Rachel; El-Sayed, Najib M; Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on the availability of nutrients for survival in the host environment. The phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a global regulatory network connecting sugar uptake with signal transduction. Since the fructose PTS has been shown to impact virulence in several streptococci, including the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes(the group A Streptococcus[GAS]), we characterized its role in carbon metabolism and pathogenesis in the M1T1 strain 5448. Growth in fructose as a sole carbon source resulted in 103 genes affected transcriptionally, where the frulocus (fruRBA) was the most induced. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that fruRBA formed an operon which was repressed by FruR in the absence of fructose, in addition to being under carbon catabolic repression. Growth assays and carbon utilization profiles revealed that although the entire fruoperon was required for growth in fructose, FruA was the main transporter for fructose and also was involved in the utilization of three additional PTS sugars: cellobiose, mannitol, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. The inactivation of sloR, a fruA homolog that also was upregulated in the presence of fructose, failed to reveal a role as a secondary fructose transporter. Whereas the ability of both ΔfruR and ΔfruB mutants to survive in the presence of whole human blood or neutrophils was impaired, the phenotype was not reproduced in murine whole blood, and those mutants were not attenuated in a mouse intraperitoneal infection. Since the ΔfruA mutant exhibited no phenotype in the human or mouse assays, we propose that FruR and FruB are important for GAS survival in a human-specific environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Identification of species of viridans group streptococci in clinical blood culture isolates by sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene, rnpB.

    PubMed

    Westling, Katarina; Julander, Inger; Ljungman, Per; Vondracek, Martin; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah

    2008-03-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) cause severe diseases such as infective endocarditis and septicaemia. Genetically, VGS species are very close to each other and it is difficult to identify them to species level with conventional methods. The aims of the present study were to use sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) to identify VGS species in clinical blood culture isolates, and to compare the results with the API 20 Strep system that is based on phenotypical characteristics. Strains from patients with septicaemia or endocarditis were analysed with PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the rnpB gene. Clinical data were registered as well. One hundred and thirty two VGS clinical blood culture isolates from patients with septicaemia (n=95) or infective endocarditis (n=36) were analysed; all but one were identified by rnpB. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii strains were most common in the patients with infective endocarditis. In the isolates from patients with haematological diseases, Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis dominated. In addition in 76 of the isolates it was possible to compare the results from rnpB analysis and the API 20 Strep system. In 39/76 (51%) of the isolates the results were concordant to species level; in 55 isolates there were no results from API 20 Strep. Sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) showed that almost all isolates could be identified. This could be of importance for evaluation of the portal of entry in patients with septicaemia or infective endocarditis.

  13. High expression of high-mobility group box 1 in the blood and lungs is associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Lien, Te-Cheng; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-02-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator in multiple pathological conditions, but the expression of HMGB1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been completely investigated. We aimed to analyze the relationship between HMGB1 expression in blood and lung tissue and the development of COPD. Twenty-eight patients admitted for single pulmonary surgical intervention were enrolled. The expression of HMGB1 in blood and lung tissue was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis and immunohistochemistry stain, respectively. The study patients were divided into smokers with COPD (n = 11), smokers without COPD (n = 8) and non-smoker healthy controls (n = 9). Smokers with COPD compared with smokers without COPD and healthy controls were older in age, with lower post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) ratio (63.1 ± 5.5 vs 77.6 ± 3.6 and 84.5 ± 5.8, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and higher levels of plasma HMGB1 (93.2 ± 139.9 vs 7.3 ± 4.8 and 17.0 ± 19.6 ng/mL, P = 0.016 and P = 0.021, respectively). In smokers with COPD, the numbers and portion of HMGB1-expressing cells in epithelium and submucosal areas were significantly increased. Notably, plasma HMGB1 levels negatively correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV1 /FVC ratio (r = -0.585, P = 0.008) in smokers, but not in non-smokers. In smokers, high expression of HMGB1 in the blood and lungs is related to the lung function impairment and appears to be associated with the development of COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping for RhD negative women stratified into RHD gene deletion or variant groups: comparative accuracy using two blood collection tube types.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Catherine A; Millard, Glenda M; O'Brien, Helen; Schoeman, Elizna M; Lopez, Genghis H; McGowan, Eunike C; Tremellen, Anne; Puddephatt, Rachel; Gaerty, Kirsten; Flower, Robert L; Hyett, Jonathan A; Gardener, Glenn J

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping in Australia to reduce anti-D usage will need to accommodate both prolonged sample transport times and a diverse population demographic harbouring a range of RHD blood group gene variants. We compared RHD genotyping accuracy using two blood sample collection tube types for RhD negative women stratified into deleted RHD gene haplotype and RHD gene variant cohorts. Maternal blood samples were collected into EDTA and cell-free (cf)DNA stabilising (BCT) tubes from two sites, one interstate. Automated DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to amplify RHD exons 5 and 10 and CCR5. Automated analysis flagged maternal RHD variants, which were classified by genotyping. Time between sample collection and processing ranged from 2.9 to 187.5 hours. cfDNA levels increased with time for EDTA (range 0.03-138 ng/μL) but not BCT samples (0.01-3.24 ng/μL). For the 'deleted' cohort (n=647) all fetal RHD genotyping outcomes were concordant, excepting for one unexplained false negative EDTA sample. Matched against cord RhD serology, negative predictive values using BCT and EDTA tubes were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 99.7% for both types. Overall 37.2% of subjects carried an RhD negative baby. The 'variant' cohort (n=15) included one novel RHD and eight hybrid or African pseudogene variants. Review for fetal RHD specific signals, based on one exon, showed three EDTA samples discordant to BCT, attributed to high maternal cfDNA levels arising from prolonged transport times. For the deleted haplotype cohort, fetal RHD genotyping accuracy was comparable for samples collected in EDTA and BCT tubes despite higher cfDNA levels in the EDTA tubes. Capacity to predict fetal RHD genotype for maternal carriers of hybrid or pseudogene RHD variants requires stringent control of cfDNA levels. We conclude that fetal RHD genotyping is feasible in the Australian environment to avoid unnecessary anti

  15. Reduction of Isoagglutinin in Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Using Blood Group A- and B-Specific Immunoaffinity Chromatography: Industry-Scale Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Simon; Gaida, Annette; Spiegl, Nicole; Wymann, Sandra; Antunes, Adriano Marques; Menyawi, Ibrahim El; Zurbriggen, Brigitte; Hubsch, Alphonse; Imboden, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Hemolysis, a rare but potentially serious complication of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, is associated with the presence of antibodies to blood groups A and B (isoagglutinins) in the IVIG product. An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) step in the production process could decrease isoagglutinin levels in IVIG. Our objectives were to compare isoagglutinin levels in a large number of IVIG (Privigen ® ) batches produced with or without IAC and to assess the feasibility of the production process with an IAC step on an industrial scale. The IAC column comprised a blend of anti-A and anti-B resins formed by coupling synthetic blood group antigens (A/B-trisaccharides) to a base bead matrix, and was introduced towards the end of the industrial-scale IVIG manufacturing process. Isoagglutinin levels in IVIG were determined by anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinin direct and indirect methods according to the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and an isoagglutinin flow cytometry assay. IVIG product quality was assessed with respect to the retention of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, specific antibodies, and removal of IgM using standardized procedures. The IAC step reduced isoagglutinins in IVIG by two to three titer steps compared with lots produced without IAC. The median anti-A and anti-B titers with IAC were 1:8 and 1:4, respectively, when measured by the Ph. Eur. direct method, and 1:2 and <1, respectively, when measured by the Ph. Eur. indirect method. The isoagglutinin flow cytometry assay showed an 87-90 % reduction in isoagglutinins in post-IAC versus pre-IAC fractions. IAC alone reduced anti-A and anti-B of the IgMs isotype by 92.5-97.8 % and 95.4-99.2 %, respectively. Other product quality characteristics were similar with and without IAC. IAC is an effective method for reducing isoagglutinin levels in IVIG, and it is feasible on an industrial scale.

  16. The 2.2 A resolution structure of the O(H) blood-group-specific lectin I from Ulex europaeus.

    PubMed

    Audette, G F; Vandonselaar, M; Delbaere, L T

    2000-12-01

    The tertiary and quaternary structure of the lectin I from Ulex europaeus (UE-I) has been determined to 2.2 A resolution. UE-I is a dimeric metalloglycoprotein that binds the H-type 2 human blood group determinant [alpha-L-Fucalpha(1-->2)-beta-D-Galbeta(1-->4)-beta-D-Glc NAcalpha-]. Nine changes from the published amino acid sequence were necessary to account for the electron density. The quaternary structural organization of UE-I is that of the most commonly occurring legume lectin dimer. The tertiary structure of the monomeric subunits is similar to that in the conventional lectin subunit; however, some structural differences are noted. These differences include a four-stranded anti-parallel "S" sheet in UE-I versus the five-stranded S sheet in other lectin monomers. The Ala residue of the Ala-Asp cis-peptide bond present in the carbohydrate-binding site of the conventional lectin monomer is replaced with a Thr in the UE-I structure. Also, a novel disulfide bridge linking Cys115 and Cys150 is present. There are two metallic ions, one calcium and the other manganese, per subunit. N-linked oligosaccharides are at residues 23 and 111 of each subunit. One molecule of R-2-methyl-2, 4-pentanediol (R-MPD) is present in a shallow depression on the surface of each subunit. In order to examine the binding of the H-type 2 blood group determinant by UE-I, its beta-methyl glycoside (H-type 2-OMe) was docked into the binding site of R-MPD. The epitope previously identified for H-type 2-OMe by chemical mapping proved, with only minor adjustment of amino acid residues, to be complementary to the shallow cavity occupied by R-MPD in the structure. Several key interactions have been proposed between the H-type 2-OMe and UE-I. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Validation of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay and its application on the distribution study of the major alleles of 17 blood group systems in Chinese donors from Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanli; Wen, Jizhi; Veldhuisen, Barbera; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Wang, Zhen; Lodén-van Straaten, Martin; Wei, Ling; Luo, Guangping; Fu, Yongshui; van der Schoot, C Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Genotyping platforms for common red blood cell (RBC) antigens have been successfully applied in Caucasian and black populations but not in Chinese populations. In this study, a genotyping assay based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology was applied in a Chinese population to validate the MLPA probes. Subsequently, the comprehensive distribution of 17 blood group systems also was obtained. DNA samples from 200 Chinese donors were extracted and genotyped using the blood-MLPA assay. To confirm the MLPA results, a second independent genotyping assay (ID Core+) was conducted in 40 donors, and serological typing of 14 blood-group antigens was performed in 91 donors. In donors who had abnormal copy numbers of an allele (DI and GYPB) determined by MLPA, additional experiments were performed (polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and flow cytometry analysis). The genotyping results obtained using the blood-MLPA and ID Core+ assays were consistent. Serological data were consistent with the genotyping results except for one donor who had a Lu(a-b-) phenotype. Of the 17 blood group systems, the distribution of the MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Diego, Yt, and Dombrock systems was polymorphic. The Mur and St a antigens of the MNS system were distributed with a frequency of 9% (18 of 200) and 2% (4 of 200), respectively. One donor with chimerism and one who carried a novel DI*02(A845V) allele, which predicts the depression of Di b antigen expression, were identified. The blood-MLPA assay could easily identify the common blood-group alleles and correctly predicted phenotype in the Chinese population. The Mur and St a antigens were distributed with high frequency in a Southern Chinese Han population. © 2016 AABB.