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Sample records for a1c blood pressure

  1. Outcome analysis of hemoglobin A1c, weight, and blood pressure in a VA diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    North, Susan L; Palmer, Glen A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of a specific diabetes education class (Basics) on hemoglobin A1c values, weight, and systolic blood pressure. In this retrospective study, the researchers compared 2 groups of male veterans with a recent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. One group received diabetes group education (n = 175) over a 4-month period, and the other received standard diabetes management follow-up (n = 184). Outpatient clinic setting in the Midwest. Basics class compared with standard level of care. Pre- and post-laboratory values for hemoglobin A1c, weight, and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and follow-up univariate statistics for significant differences. Findings revealed significant differences in hemoglobin A1c (P < .001) and weight (P < .001) in the treatment group compared with the control group. No significant difference was found in systolic blood pressure readings between the 2 groups. There was a significant difference in weight change between groups, with the treatment group demonstrating greater weight loss. There was an association between participation in the Basics diabetes education curriculum and reduction of hemoglobin A1c values. Some participants also had added benefit of significant weight loss. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. HbA1c, systolic blood pressure variability and diabetic retinopathy in Asian type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Foo, Valencia; Quah, Joanne; Cheung, Gemmy; Tan, Ngiap Chun; Ma Zar, Kyi Lin; Chan, Choi Mun; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Tien Yin, Wong; Tan, Gavin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between variability in HbA1c or systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diabetes-specific moderate retinopathy in Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A retrospective study was conducted of 172 cases of moderate diabetic retinopathy (DR) cases and 226 controls without DR, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Serial HbA1c and SBP (range 3-6 readings) over the 2 years prior to photographic screening of DR were collected. Intrapersonal mean and SD values for HbA1c (iM-HbA1c and iSD-HbA1c) and SBP (iM-SBP and iSD-SBP) were derived. Moderate DR was assessed from digital retinal photographs and defined as levels >43 using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Cases of moderate DR had higher iM-HbA1c (8.2 % vs 7.3 %; P = 0.001), iSD-HbA1c (1.22 vs 0.64; P = 0.001), iM-SBP (136.8 vs 129.6 mmHg; P = 0.001) and iSD-SBP (13.3 vs 11.1; P = 0.002) than controls. In the multivariate regression model adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, duration of diabetes, SBP, and HbA1c, iM-HbA1c and iM-SBP were significantly associated with moderate DR (odds ratio [OR] 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.37-2.36; and OR 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.05, respectively). Neither iSD-HbA1c nor iSD-SBP were associated with moderate DR. When stratified by HbA1c <7 %, only iSD-SBP remained significantly associated with moderate DR (OR 1.11, 95 % CI 1.01-1.21). In a cohort of Asian patients with T2D, both higher mean HbA1c levels and SBP, but not their variability, were associated with moderate DR. Among those with good glycemic control, wider variability of SBP is associated with moderate DR. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Measurement of HbA1c in Gingival Crevicular Blood Using a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Michael A.; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rosedale, Mary; Netterwald, Jane; Wang, Hangli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To validate an ion exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in gingival crevicular blood (GCB) spotted on filter paper, for use in screening dental patients for diabetes. Methods We collected the GCB specimens for this study from the oral cavities of patients during dental visits, using rigorous strategies to obtain GCB that was as free of debris as possible. The analytical performance of the HPLC method was determined by measuring the precision, linearity, carryover, stability of HbA1c in GCB, and correlation of HbA1c results in GCB specimens with finger-stick blood (FSB) specimens spotted on filter paper. Results The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the inter- and intrarun precision of the method were less than 2.0%. Linearity ranged between 4.2% and 12.4%; carryover was less than 2.0%, and the stability of the specimen was 6 days at 4°C and as many as 14 days at −70°C. Linear regression analysis comparing the HbA1c results in GCB with FSB yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.993, a slope of 0.981, and an intercept of 0.13. The Bland-Altman plot showed no difference in the HbA1c results from the GCB and FSB specimens at normal, prediabetes, and diabetes HbA1c levels. Conclusion We validated an HPLC method for measuring HbA1c in GCB; this method can be used to screen dental patients for diabetes. PMID:26489673

  4. Measurement of HbA1c in Gingival Crevicular Blood Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Procedure.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Michael A; Strauss, Shiela M; Rosedale, Mary; Netterwald, Jane; Wang, Hangli

    2015-01-01

    To validate an ion exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in gingival crevicular blood (GCB) spotted on filter paper, for use in screening dental patients for diabetes. We collected the GCB specimens for this study from the oral cavities of patients during dental visits, using rigorous strategies to obtain GCB that was as free of debris as possible. The analytical performance of the HPLC method was determined by measuring the precision, linearity, carryover, stability of HbA1c in GCB, and correlation of HbA1c results in GCB specimens with finger-stick blood (FSB) specimens spotted on filter paper. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the inter- and intrarun precision of the method were less than 2.0%. Linearity ranged between 4.2% and 12.4%; carryover was less than 2.0%, and the stability of the specimen was 6 days at 4°C and as many as 14 days at -70°C. Linear regression analysis comparing the HbA1c results in GCB with FSB yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.993, a slope of 0.981, and an intercept of 0.13. The Bland-Altman plot showed no difference in the HbA1c results from the GCB and FSB specimens at normal, prediabetes, and diabetes HbA1c levels. We validated an HPLC method for measuring HbA1c in GCB; this method can be used to screen dental patients for diabetes. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  5. Concordance of haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and C-reactive protein between children and their parents in Chinese households.

    PubMed

    Dong, F; Howard, A G; Herring, A H; Adair, L S; Thompson, A L; Popkin, B M; Aiello, A E; Zhang, B; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2017-10-01

    China has the world's highest diabetes prevalence, which along with hypertension and inflammation continues to grow particularly among children. Little is known about the strength of the association of these cardiometabolic risk factors between parents and their children; thus, the potential of household-based strategies to reduce risk is unknown. The objective of the study is to examine the parent-child association for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large, geographically diverse Chinese sample. In 940 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17 years) who participated in the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey, we measured each individual's HbA1c and CRP using fasting blood and BP. We used sex-specific random-effects linear regression to examine the parent-child association for these risk factors, accounting for within-family clustering. Child's HbA1c was positively associated with parental HbA1c. Beta coefficients ranged from 0.06 (95% CI 0.03-0.12) for father-daughter to 0.43 (95% CI 0.28-0.58) for mother-son pairs. We also detected a positive mother-daughter association for BP and positive father-child associations for CRP. The statistically significant parent-child association for HbA1c, BP and CRP in Chinese families suggests that household-based interventions could be useful for confronting the high rates of diabetes, hypertension and inflammation in China. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  6. A diabetes scorecard does not improve HbA(1c), blood pressure, lipids, aspirin usage, exercise and diabetes knowledge over 9 months: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Irwig, M S; Sood, P; Ni, D; Amass, T; Khurana, P S; Jayanthi, V V; Wang, L; Adler, S M

    2012-09-01

    To test (1) whether a diabetes scorecard can improve glycaemic control, blood pressure control, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage and exercise; (2) if the scorecard will motivate and/or educate patients to improve their scores for subsequent visits; and (3) whether the scorecard will improve rates of clinical inertia. Five physicians enrolled 103 patients ≥ 40 years old with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)] to randomly receive either a diabetes scorecard or not during four clinical visits over a 9-month period. The population was predominantly urban with a disproportionately higher percentage of black people than the general population. Our scorecard assigned points to six clinical variables, with a perfect total score of 100 points corresponding to meeting all targets. The primary outcomes were total scores and HbA(1c) in the scorecard and control groups at 9 months. There were no significant differences between the control and scorecard groups at visits 1 and 4 in total score, HbA(1c) , blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage, exercise or knowledge about diabetic targets. By visit 4 both the control and scorecard groups had statistically significant improvements with their mean total score (9 and 7 points, respectively), HbA(1c) [-9 mmol/mol (-0.8%) and -15 mmol/mol (-1.4%), respectively] and aspirin usage (33% increase and 16% increase, respectively). Rates of clinical inertia were low throughout the study. A diabetes scorecard did not improve glycaemic control, blood pressure control, LDL cholesterol, aspirin usage, exercise or diabetic knowledge in an urban population with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  7. Considerably decreased risk of cardiovascular disease with combined reductions in HbA1c, blood pressure and blood lipids in type 2 diabetes: Report from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

    PubMed

    Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Zethelius, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Cederholm, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Assess the effect of risk factors changes on risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes selected from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Observational study of 13,477 females and males aged 30-75 years, with baseline HbA1c 41-67 mmol/mol, systolic blood pressure 122-154 mmHg and ratio non-HDL:HDL 1.7-4.1, followed for mean 6.5 years until 2012. Four groups were created: a reference group (n = 6757) with increasing final versus baseline HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL cholesterol during the study period, and three groups with decreasing HbA1c (n = 1925), HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (n = 2050) or HbA1c and systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL (n = 2745). Relative risk reduction for fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular disease was 35% with decrease in HbA1c only (mean 6 to final 49 mmol/mol), 56% with decrease in HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (mean 12 to final 128 mmHg) and 75% with combined decreases in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL (mean 0.8 to final 2.1), all p < 0.001 adjusting for clinical characteristics, other risk factors, treatments and previous cardiovascular disease. Similar risk reductions were found for fatal/nonfatal coronary heart disease, fatal cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and also in a subgroup of 3038 patients with albuminuria. Considerable risk reductions for cardiovascular disease and mortality were seen with combined long-term risk factor improvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes ...

  9. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sargrad, Karin R; Homko, Carol; Mozzoli, Maria; Boden, Guenther

    2005-04-01

    Extremely low carbohydrate/high protein diets are popular methods of weight loss. Compliance with these diets is poor and long-term effectiveness and the safety of these diets for patients with type 2 diabetes is not known. The objective of the current study was to evaluate effects of less extreme changes in carbohydrate or protein diets on weight, insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipid levels), and renal function in obese inner-city patients with type 2 diabetes. Study patients were admitted to the General Clinical Research Center for 24 hours for initial tests including a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (for measurement of insulin sensitivity), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements (for assessment of body composition), indirect calorimetry (for measurement of REE), electronic blood pressure monitoring, and blood chemistries to measure blood lipids levels along with renal and hepatic functions. Six patients with type 2 diabetes (five women and one man) were randomly assigned to the high-protein diet (40% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 30% fat) and six patients (four women and two men) to the high-carbohydrate diet (55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 30% fat). All patients returned to the General Clinical Research Center weekly for monitoring of food records; dietary compliance; and measurements of body weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose. After 8 weeks on these diets, all patients were readmitted to the General Clinical Research Center for the same series of tests. Twelve study patients were taught to select either the high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet and were followed for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Statistical significance was assessed using two-tailed Student's t tests and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Both the high-carbohydrate and high-protein groups lost weight (-2.2+/-0.9 kg, -2.5+/-1.6 kg

  10. Country of birth modifies the associations of body mass and hemoglobin A1c with office blood pressure in Middle Eastern immigrants and native Swedes.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Louise; Nilsson, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Immigrant populations from the Middle East are at high risk of obesity and diabetes, but paradoxically hypertension is reported to be less prevalent. Studies of the risk factors for hypertension in these populations are scarce. The aim was to study the distribution of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in the Middle East immigrant population compared with native Swedes. A population-based, cross-sectional study of men and women, aged 30-75 years, born in Iraq or Sweden, was conducted in 2010-2012 in Malmö, Sweden. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected. In participants born in Iraq (n = 1311) vs. participants born in Sweden (n = 698), without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the metabolic syndrome (MetS) was more prevalent in the Iraqis (49.2 vs. 40.3%, P < 0.001). Iraqis presented with higher prevalence rates of all but one MetS entity: elevated blood pressure (BP; 46.0 vs. 61.3%, P < 0.001, data adjusted for age, sex and antihypertensive medication). Being born in Iraq independently decreased the risk of elevated SBP and DBP. Furthermore, higher BMI, waist circumference, pulse rate and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values presented weaker associations with SBP and DBP in Iraqis than in Swedes. These relationships were confirmed by interactions with the country of birth. BP-regulating mechanisms seem to differ in the Middle Eastern compared with a nonmigrated native European population. Further studies are needed for reaching a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to CVD in populations of mixed ethnic backgrounds.

  11. HEMOGLOBIN A1C, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND LDL-CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AMONG HISPANIC/LATINO ADULTS WITH DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDY/STUDY OF LATINOS (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Corsino, Leonor; Daviglus, Martha L; Gallo, Linda C; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A; Llabre, Maria M; Reina, Samantha A; Savage, Peter J; Schneiderman, Neil; Talavera, Gregory A; Cowie, Catherine C

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics. Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The overall prevalence of A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), BP <130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C <100 mg/dL was 43.0, 48.7, and 36.6%, respectively, with 8.4% meeting all three targets. Younger adults aged 18 to 39 years with diabetes were less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) or LDL-C <100 mg/dL compared to those aged 65 to 74 years; younger adults were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg (P<.05 for all). Individuals of Mexican heritage were significantly less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) compared to those with Cuban heritage, but they were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg compared to those with Dominican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican heritage (P<.05 for all); there was no difference in LDL-C by heritage. Overall, 38.2% of adults with diabetes were taking a statin, and 50.5% were taking ACE/ARB medications. Hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C control are suboptimal among Hispanic/Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population. A1c = hemoglobin A1c; ABC = hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; ACE

  12. Predictive ability of visit-to-visit variability in HbA1c and systolic blood pressure for the development of microalbuminuria and retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Takao, Toshiko; Suka, Machi; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-01

    We explored whether visit-to-visit variability in both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) simultaneously predicted the development of microalbuminuria and retinopathy, and whether the predictive ability of these measurements changed according to mean HbA1c and SBP levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on 243 type 2 diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria and 486 without retinopathy at the first visit and within 1year thereafter. The two cohorts were followed up from 1995 until 2012. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models. Microalbuminuria developed in 84 patients and retinopathy in 108. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the development of microalbuminuria associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) and variation independent of mean (VIM) of both HbA1c and SBP significantly increased. In participants with a mean SBP <130mmHg, the HRs for the development of retinopathy associated with CV and VIM of HbA1c were abruptly elevated and significant compared with those with a mean SBP ≥130mmHg. Visit-to-visit variability in both HbA1c and SBP simultaneously predict the development of microalbuminuria. HbA1c variability may predict the development of retinopathy when the mean SBP is normal (<130mmHg). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HEMOGLOBIN A1C, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND LDL-CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AMONG HISPANIC/LATINO ADULTS WITH DIABETES: RESULTS FROM THE HISPANIC COMMUNITY HEALTH STUDY/STUDY OF LATINOS (HCHS/SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Corsino, Leonor; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gallo, Linda C.; Espinoza Giacinto, Rebeca A.; Llabre, Maria M.; Reina, Samantha A.; Savage, Peter J.; Schneiderman, Neil; Talavera, Gregory A.; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics. Methods Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The overall prevalence of A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), BP <130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C <100 mg/dL was 43.0, 48.7, and 36.6%, respectively, with 8.4% meeting all three targets. Younger adults aged 18 to 39 years with diabetes were less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) or LDL-C <100 mg/dL compared to those aged 65 to 74 years; younger adults were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg (P<.05 for all). Individuals of Mexican heritage were significantly less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) compared to those with Cuban heritage, but they were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg compared to those with Dominican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican heritage (P<.05 for all); there was no difference in LDL-C by heritage. Overall, 38.2% of adults with diabetes were taking a statin, and 50.5% were taking ACE/ARB medications. Conclusion Hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C control are suboptimal among Hispanic/Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population. PMID:28816530

  14. Medical school-based teaching kitchen improves HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol for patients with type 2 diabetes: Results from a novel randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Monlezun, Dominique J; Kasprowicz, Eric; Tosh, Katherine W; Nix, Jenni; Urday, Pedro; Tice, Daphne; Sarris, Leah; Harlan, Timothy S

    2015-08-01

    A medical school-based teaching kitchen sought to establish proof-of-principle for its hands-on Mediterranean diet (MD)-based cooking and nutrition curriculum for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) allocated 27 patients with T2D between the control and GCCM arms. Mixed effects linear regression with repeated measures was used to investigate differences from baseline to 6 months. The primary and secondary endpoints were HbA1c -0.3% (-27 mmol/mol) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) -10 mmHg and a 25% improved responses in dietary habits and attitudes and competencies in healthy nutrition. Compared to the control group, the GCCM group had superior HbA1c reduction (-0.4% vs. -0.3%, p = 0.575) that was not statistically significant. There were significantly greater reductions in the GCCM vs. control group for DBP (-4 vs. 7 mmHg, p=0.037) and total cholesterol (-14 vs. 17 mg/dL, p = 0.044). There was a greater proportion increase though not significant of GCCM subjects compared to controls who mostly believed they could eat correct portions (18% vs. -11%, p = 0.124), and who used nutrition panels to make food choices (34% vs. 0%, p = 0.745). This is the first known RCT demonstrating improved biometrics using a novel MD-based hands on cooking and nutrition curriculum for patients with T2D. These results suggest subsequent clinical trials are warranted on the grounds of documented feasibility and clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  16. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors and blood donors with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this observational study, 23 non-diabetic blood donors and 21 blood donors with type 2 diabetes donated 475 mL whole blood and were followed prospectively for nine weeks. Each week blood samples were collected and analyzed for changes in HbA1c using three secondary reference measurement procedures. Results Twelve non-diabetic blood donors (52.2%) and 10 (58.8%) blood donors with type 2 diabetes had a significant reduction in HbA1c following blood donation (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). All non-diabetic blood donors with a normal ferritin concentration predonation had a significant reduction in HbA1c. In the non-diabetic group the maximum reduction was -11.9%, in the type 2 diabetes group -12.0%. When eligible to donate again, 52.2% of the non-diabetic blood donors and 41.2% of the blood donors with type 2 diabetes had HbA1c concentrations significantly lower compared to their predonation concentration (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes contributing to whole blood donation programs can be at risk of falsely lowered HbA1c. This could lead to a wrong interpretation of their glycemic control by their general practitioner or internist. PMID:28118412

  17. Effect of Multifactorial Treatment Targets and Relative Importance of Hemoglobin A1c, Blood Pressure, and Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol on Cardiovascular Diseases in Chinese Primary Care Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-08-17

    The relative effect of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) ("ABC" factors) on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association of key clinical parameters on CVD risk using a multifactorial optimal control approach in Chinese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 144 271 Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus primary care patients, aged 18 to 79 and without prior clinical diagnosis of CVD in 2008-2011. Cox regressions were conducted to examine the association between the combinations of ABC targets (hemoglobin A1c <7%, blood pressure <130/90 mm Hg, and LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L) and risks of CVD (overall), coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Achieving more ABC targets incrementally reduced the incidence of total CVD and individual disease including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, irrespective of other patient characteristics. Compared with suboptimal control in all ABC levels, achieving any 1, 2, and all 3 ABC targets reduced the relative risk of CVD by 13% to 42%, 31% to 52%, and 55%, respectively. Among those achieving only 1 ABC target, LDL-C reduction was associated with the greatest CVD risk reduction (42%), followed by blood pressure reduction (18%), and hemoglobin A1c reduction (13%). To achieve the greatest risk reduction for the incidence of CVD, the ultimate goal of treatment should be to achieve target control of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C. If it is not possible to achieve all 3 targets, efforts should be prioritized on treating the LDL-C to minimize CVD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Association of Postmortem Blood Hemoglobin A1c Levels With Diabetic Conditions in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    A1c ( HbA1c ) at selected time intervals during the 52-day period. Postmortem blood specimens from 34 aviation accident pilot fatalities were also...analyzed. Some of these pilots had a known history of diabetes. Results. HbA1c values in blood from volunteers did not significantly change for up to 52...days. The HbA1c concentration in postmortem blood samples from pilots ranged from 3.9-10.5%. Only one pilot with a HbA1c over 6.0% did not have a

  19. Analysis of Hemoglobin A1c from Dried Blood Spot Samples with the Tina-quant® II Immunoturbidimetric Method

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Trevor G.; Warber, Kimbrough D.; Roberts, Billy D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been endorsed as a tool for the diagnosis of diabetes. This test requires instrumentation that may not be available in underdeveloped areas. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected by finger stick procedures offer a mechanism to transport samples to laboratories that do measure HbA1c. Methods Whole blood (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) was applied to Ahlstrom 226 filter paper. These DBS samples were compared to whole blood samples using the Roche Tina-quant® II immunoturbidometric assay. Hemoglobin A1c stability on DBS was assessed at three temperatures—4, 25, and 40°C—for up to 9 days. A 44-day study was also done for DBS at 20–25°C. Results The Tina-quant® II DBS method showed excellent agreement with whole blood HbA1c results (r2 = 0.99) with a slight positive mean bias of 0.08 ± 0.04% HbA1c (95% confidence interval). The variation in HbA1c on DBS samples subjected to different temperatures and times did not exceed 5.6%. Conclusions Dried blood spot samples represent an alternative to whole blood for HbA1c by measurement when transporting whole blood is not feasible. PMID:20307383

  20. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  1. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  2. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  3. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c by 1.05% (p = 0.004). Significant reductions of both endpoints were maintained in all subgroup analyses. Additionally, the data suggest that patients with an FBG ≥200 mg/dL may see a greater benefit. A mean FBG reduction of 109.9 mg/dL was observed in this population (p ≤ 0.0001). The Egger statistic showed publication bias with FBG but not with HbA1c (p = 0.010 and p = 0.602, respectively). These results support the use of oral aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better

  4. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  5. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. Objectives We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Methods Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Results Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p < 0.01). Conclusions Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia. PMID:22985301

  6. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Li Jin; Shen, Ying; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Rui Yan; Zhang, Qi; Shen, Wei Feng

    2012-09-17

    Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson's r = 0.307, p < 0.01). Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.

  7. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low blood pressure on standing up (orthostatic, or postural, hypotension). This is a sudden drop in blood ... progressive damage to the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, ...

  9. Frequency of self-monitoring blood glucose and attainment of HbA1c target values.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Prestes, Mariana; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2016-02-01

    Test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent in Argentina, around 50 % of diabetes treatment cost; the frequency of their use is closely associated with hyperglycemia treatment. However, the favorable impact of SMBG on attainment of HbA1c goal in different treatment conditions remains controversial. We therefore attempted to estimate the relationship between use of SMBG test strips and degree of attainment of metabolic control in an institution of our social security subsector (SSS) in which provision is fully covered and submitted to a regular audit system. Observational retrospective study using information of 657 patients with T2DM (period 2009-2010) from the database of the Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Program (DICARO) of one institution of our SSS. DICARO provides-with an audit system-100 % coverage for all drugs and keeps records of clinical, metabolic and treatment data from every patient. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG increased as a function of treatment intensification: Monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. In every condition, the number was larger in people with target HbA1c levels. Test strips represented the larger percentage of total prescription cost. In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG; in every condition tested, targeted HbA1c values were associated with greater strip use. Patient education and prescription audit may optimize its use and treatment outcomes.

  10. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  11. Effect of once-weekly dulaglutide on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patient subpopulations by gender, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Gallwitz, Baptist; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Thieu, Vivian; Garcia-Perez, Luis-Emilio; Pavo, Imre; Yu, Maria; Robertson, Kenneth E; Zhang, Nan; Giorgino, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the dulaglutide clinical development programme (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (<5, ≥5 years and <10, ≥10 years), and baseline HbA1c (<8.5%, ≥8.5%) in pooled and individual studies. Changes from baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials. In the pooled analysis of patients treated with dulaglutide 1.5 mg at 6 months, the reductions in HbA1c from baseline were similar across gender (men: least squares [LS] mean -1.26% [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.36, -1.16]; women: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.24]) and among duration of diabetes subgroups (<5 years: LS mean -1.32% [95% CI -1.43, -1.22]; ≥5 and <10 years: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.22]; ≥10 years: -1.24% [95% CI -1.35, -1.14]). Patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% had greater HbA1c reductions than patients with baseline HbA1c <8.5%, (≥8.5%: LS mean -1.86% [95% CI -1.97, -1.75]; <8.5%: LS mean -1.02% [95% CI -1.12, -0.93]). Reductions in fasting blood glucose (FBG) were consistent with HbA1c changes. Similar results were observed with dulaglutide 0.75 mg. In general, body weight changes were similar among duration of diabetes and in baseline HbA1c subgroups, respectively; women had a numerically greater weight loss or less weight gain than men with both dulaglutide doses. There was no clinically meaningful difference in hypoglycaemia trends by gender or duration of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia incidence and rate were generally lower in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% than in those with <8.5%, except for the AWARD-4 study (combination with mealtime insulin). Across the AWARD studies, dulaglutide demonstrated significant improvements in glycaemic control

  12. [Blood pressure measurement].

    PubMed

    Bang, Lia Evi; Wiinberg, Niels

    2009-06-08

    Blood pressure measurement should follow recommended procedures, otherwise incorrect diagnoses will follow resulting in incorrect treatment and cardiovascular events. The standard for clinical blood pressure measurement is the auscultatory method, but mercury sphygmomanometers can still be used. Blood pressure measurement at home using 24-hour or home blood pressure has documented a better reproducibility and predicts cardiovascular event more precisely than clinic blood pressure. 24-hour measurement or home blood pressure measurement should be performed in patients with suspected hypertension without hypertensive organ damage to reveal white-coat hypertension.

  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...

  14. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... also make blood pressure rise. Eating too much sodium Unhealthy eating patterns, particularly eating too much sodium, ... you an adult who is curious about how sodium affects your blood pressure? This study is testing ...

  16. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to low blood pressure are an abnormally low heart rate ( bradycardia ), problems with heart valves , heart attack and ... occurred. Is low blood pressure related to low heart rate? Find out . This content was last reviewed October ...

  17. High blood pressure - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  18. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  19. HbA1c values calculated from blood glucose levels using truncated Fourier series and implementation in standard SQL database language.

    PubMed

    Temsch, W; Luger, A; Riedl, M

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical model to calculate HbA1c values based on self-measured blood glucose and past HbA1c levels, thereby enabling patients to monitor diabetes therapy between scheduled checkups. This method could help physicians to make treatment decisions if implemented in a system where glucose data are transferred to a remote server. The method, however, cannot replace HbA1c measurements; past HbA1c values are needed to gauge the method. The mathematical model of HbA1c formation was developed based on biochemical principles. Unlike an existing HbA1c formula, the new model respects the decreasing contribution of older glucose levels to current HbA1c values. About 12 standard SQL statements embedded in a php program were used to perform Fourier transform. Regression analysis was used to gauge results with previous HbA1c values. The method can be readily implemented in any SQL database. The predicted HbA1c values thus obtained were in accordance with measured values. They also matched the results of the HbA1c formula in the elevated range. By contrast, the formula was too "optimistic" in the range of better glycemic control. Individual analysis of two subjects improved the accuracy of values and reflected the bias introduced by different glucometers and individual measurement habits.

  20. Quantitative, single-step dual measurement of hemoglobin A1c and total hemoglobin in human whole blood using a gold sandwich immunochromatographic assay for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shu Hwang; Rambeli, Musalman; Thevarajah, T Malathi; Alias, Yatimah Binti; Khor, Sook Mei

    2016-04-15

    We describe a gold nanoparticle-based sandwich immunoassay for the dual detection and measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and total hemoglobin in the whole blood (without pretreatment) in a single step for personalized medicine. The optimized antibody-functionalized gold nanoparticles immunoreact simultaneously with HbA1c and total hemoglobin to form a sandwich at distinctive test lines to transduce visible signals. The applicability of this method as a personal management tool was demonstrated by establishing a calibration curve to relate % HbA1c, a useful value for type 2 diabetes management, to the signal ratio of captured HbA1c to all other forms of hemoglobin. The platform showed excellent selectivity (100%) toward HbA1c at distinctive test lines when challenged with HbA0, glycated HbA0 and HbA2. The reproducibility of the measurement was good (6.02%) owing to the dual measurement of HbA1c and total hemoglobin. A blood sample stability test revealed that the quantitative measurement of % HbA1c was consistent and no false-positive results were detected. Also, this method distinguished the blood sample with elevated HbF from the normal samples and the variants. The findings of this study highlight the potential of a lateral flow immunosensor as a simple, inexpensive, consistent, and convenient strategy for the dual measurement of HbA1c and total Hb to provide useful % HbA1c values for better on-site diabetes care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of total and A1c-glycosylated hemoglobin in human whole blood using sandwich immunoassays on polydimethylsiloxane-based antibody microarrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Han; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jing; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2012-10-16

    The percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (%GHbA1c) in human whole blood indicates the average plasma glucose concentration over a prolonged period of time and is used to diagnose diabetes. However, detecting GHbA1c in the whole blood using immunoassays has limited detection sensitivity due to its low percentage in total hemoglobin (tHb) and interference from various glycan moieties in the sample. We have developed a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody microarray on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate modified with fluorinated compounds to detect tHb and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c) in human whole blood without sample pretreatment. A polyclonal antibody against hemoglobin (Hb) immobilized on PDMS is used as a common capture probe to enrich all forms of Hb followed by detection via monoclonal anti-Hb and specific monoclonal anti-GHbA1c antibodies for tHb and GHbA1c detection, respectively. This method prevents the use of glycan binding molecules and dramatically reduces the background interference, yielding a detection limit of 3.58 ng/mL for tHb and 0.20 ng/mL for GHbA1c. The fluorinated modification on PDMS is superior to the glass substrate and eliminates the need for the blocking step which is required in commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Moreover, the detection sensitivity for GHbA1c is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher, but the required sample amount is 25 times less than the commercial method. On the basis of patient sample data, a good linear correlation between %GHbA1c values determined by our method and the certified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method is shown with R(2) > 0.98, indicating the great promise of the developed method for clinical applications.

  2. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  3. Do high blood glucose peaks contribute to higher HbA1c? Results from repeated continuous glucose measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Ulf, Samuelsson; Ragnar, Hanas; Arne, Whiss Per; Johnny, Ludvigsson

    2008-08-01

    HbA1c levels are influenced by the glycemic control of previous 2-3 months. Sometimes patients have surprisingly low HbA1c in spite of many correctly measured high blood glucose values, which is difficult to explain. As glucose sensors give an objective picture based on glucose readings several times per minute over 24 hours, we used the area under the curve (AUC) of such subcutaneous glucose profiles to evaluate their relationship with HbA1c. Thirty-two patients were randomized into two study arms, one open and the other blinded. Both arms had 8 pump users and 8 patients with multiple daily injections (MDI). After three months the two arms crossed over. Both study arms wore a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for 3 days every 2 weeks. HbA1c was determined before and after each 3-month study period. There was no relationship between HbA1c and s.c. glucose AUC or between HbA1c and the number of peaks >15.0 mmol/L when all CGMS profiles during the 6 months were taken together. Children on MDI showed a positive relationship between HbA1c and AUC (P<0.01) as well as the number of peaks (P<0.01). Children with a negative relationship between HbA1c and AUC generally had fewer fluctuations in blood glucose values, whereas children with a positive relationship had wide fluctuations. between s.c. glucose AUC and HbA1c, the results indicate that wide blood glucose fluctuations may be related to high HbA1c values. Therefore, complications and therapeutic interventions should aim at reducing such fluctuations. Although there was no relationship between s.c. glucose AUC and HbA1c, the results indicate that wide blood glucose fluctuations may be related to high HbA1c values. Therefore, complications and therapeutic interventions should aim at reducing such fluctuations.

  4. Gold nanoparticles-coated magnetic microspheres as affinity matrix for detection of hemoglobin A1c in blood by microfluidic immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Peng; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-08-15

    A novel microfluidic immunoassay system for specific detection of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was developed based on a three-component shell/shell/core structured magnetic nanocomposite Au/chitosan/Fe(3)O(4), which was synthesized with easy handling feature of Fe(3)O(4) by magnet, high affinity for gold nanoparticles of chitosan and good immobilization ability for anti-human hemoglobin-A1c antibody (HbA1c mAb) of assembled colloidal gold nanoparticles. The resulting HbA1c mAb/Au/chitosan/Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles were then introduced into microfluidic devices coupled with a gold nanoband microelectrode as electrochemical detector. After that, three-step rapid immunoreactions were carried out in the sequence of HbA1c, anti-human hemoglobin antibodies (Hb mAb) and the secondary alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated antibody within 20 min. The current response of 1-naphtol obtained from the reaction between the secondary AP-conjugated antibody and 1-naphthyl phosphate (1-NP) increased proportionally to the HbA1c concentration. Under optimized electrophoresis and detection conditions, HbA1c responded linearly in the concentration of 0.05-1.5 μg mL(-1), with the detection limit of 0.025 μg mL(-1). This system was successfully employed for detection of HbA1c in blood with good accuracy and renewable ability. The proposed method proved its potential use in clinical immunoassay of HbA1c. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  6. Relationship between HgbA1c and myocardial blood flow reserve in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: noninvasive assessment using real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Runqing; Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Nhola, Lara F; Mulvagh, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) and myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, we prospectively enrolled 24 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent adenosine stress by real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE). HgbA1c was measured at time of RTMPE. Microbubble velocity (β min(-1)), myocardial blood flow (MBF, mL/min/g), and myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) were quantified. Quantitative MCE analysis was feasible in all patients (272/384 segments, 71%). Those with HgbA1c > 7.1% had significantly lower βreserve and MBFR than those with HgbA1c ≤ 7.1% (P < 0.05). In patients with suspected CAD, there was a significant inverse correlation between MBFR and HgbA1c (r = -0.279, P = 0.01); however, in those with known CAD, this relationship was not significant (r = -0.117, P = 0.129). Using a MBFR cutoff value > 2 as normal, HgbA1c > 7.1% significantly increased the risk for abnormal MBFR, (adjusted odds ratio: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.12-3.35, P = 0.02). Optimal glycemic control is associated with preservation of MBFR as determined by RTMPE, in T2DM patients at risk for CAD.

  7. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  8. Differential effects of blood insulin and HbA1c on cerebral amyloid burden and neurodegeneration in nondiabetic cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yi, Dahyun; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Hyunwoong; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lower insulin or higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in blood are associated with increased cerebral beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration in nondiabetic cognitively normal (CN) older adults. A total of 205 nondiabetic CN older adults underwent comprehensive clinical assessment, [ 11 C]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET), [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling for fasting insulin and HbA1c measurement. Lower blood insulin was significantly associated with increased Aβ positivity rates and decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the AD-signature region. In contrast, higher HbA1c levels were not associated with Aβ positivity rates but were significantly associated with higher rates of having neurodegeneration in the AD-signature regions. Our results suggest different roles of insulin and HbA1c in AD pathogenesis, in that decreased blood insulin below optimal levels may contribute to increasing cerebral Aβ deposition and neurodegeneration whereas impaired glycemic control may aggravate neurodegeneration through a nonamyloid mechanism in nondiabetic CN older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparability of HbA1c and lipids measured with dried blood spot versus venous samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood lipids are important determinants of risk in patients with diabetes. Standard analysis methods based upon venous blood samples can be logistically challenging in resource-poor settings where much of the diabetes epidemic is occurring. Dried blood spots (DBS) provide a simple alternative method for sample collection but the comparability of data from analyses based on DBS is not well established. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to define the association of findings for HbA1c and blood lipids for analyses based upon standard methods compared to DBS. The Cochrane, Embase and Medline databases were searched for relevant reports and summary regression lines were estimated. Results 705 abstracts were found by the initial electronic search with 6 further reports identified by manual review of the full papers. 16 studies provided data for one or more outcomes of interest. There was a close agreement between the results for HbA1c assays based on venous and DBS samples (DBS = 0.9858venous + 0.3809), except for assays based upon affinity chromatography. Significant adjustment was required for assays of total cholesterol (DBS = 0.6807venous + 1.151) but results for triglycerides (DBS = 0.9557venous + 0.1427) were directly comparable. Conclusions For HbA1c and selected blood lipids, assays based on DBS samples are clearly associated with assays based on standard venous samples. There are, however, significant uncertainties about the nature of these associations and there is a need for standardisation of the sample collection, transportation, storage and analysis methods before the technique can be considered mainstream. This should be a research priority because better elucidation of metabolic risks in resource poor settings, where venous sampling is infeasible, will be key to addressing the global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25045323

  10. High Blood Pressure and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact sheet on high blood pressure . Watch interactive animations of how blood pressure works . See all the ... Matter • Find Tools & Resources HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ...

  11. Automated Blood Pressure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.

  12. [Aging and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Romeu; Themudo Barata, J L

    2008-01-01

    High blood pressure is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and has a high prevalence in the older individuals becoming in a risk factor associated with high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among these population. This study has the objective to analyze the changes in the cardiovascular system inherent to the aging process, that provoke the increase of blood pressure levels with the advance of age and that can origin hypertension. With the aging process, changes in the anatomy and cardiovascular physiology occur, even in the absence of illness. High blood pressure is characterized as a systemic condition that involves the presence of structural changes of the arteries and the myocardium, associated to an endotelial and baroreceptors dysfunction.

  13. Blood Glucagon Levels Predict the Hemoglobin A1c Response to Saxagliptin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Hu, Yun; Li, Feng-Fei; Liu, Bing-Li; Su, Xiao-Fei; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used as second-option medications when metformin fails. Variance of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) response to DPP-4 inhibitions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed, but the characteristics which predict the response to DPP-4 inhibitor therapy are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of α- and β-cell functions which might predict the efficacy of saxagliptin and facilitate personalization of treatment. We studied 60 patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control [HbA1c7.0-13.0% (53-119 mmol/mol)) with metformin alone. The patients were treated with saxagliptin (5 mg, daily) and metformin (1000-2000 mg as former) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out at baseline and endpoint to evaluate α- and β-cell functions, and blood C-peptide, insulin, glucagon levels were tested. Blood glucose, HbA1c and weight were also observed. Significant reduction of weight, HbA1c and glucagon was observed after 12-week treatment, while C-peptide, insulin and homeostasis model assessment-β increased (P < 0.05). Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that baseline HbA1c and 30 min-glucagon were correlated with the HbA1c response to saxagliptin, while the weight loss was correlated with gender, age and fasting-insulin level. Further analysis showed the 30 min-glucagon of 49.1 pmol/L was the optimal cutoff value to predict the efficacy of saxagliptin. Saxagliptin added to metformin significantly improved glycemic control and α- and β-cell function. Blood glucagon level was a good predicting factor for the HbA1c response to saxagliptin, and it will help appropriate patient selection. Chinese Clinical Trial Register identifier, ChiCTR-PPR-15007045.

  14. Smart blood pressure holter.

    PubMed

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  15. Evaluation of a next generation direct whole blood enzymatic assay for hemoglobin A1c on the ARCHITECT c8000 chemistry system.

    PubMed

    Teodoro-Morrison, Tracy; Janssen, Marcel J W; Mols, Jasper; Hendrickx, Ben H E; Velmans, Mathieu H; Lotz, Johannes; Lackner, Karl; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Armbruster, David; Maine, Gregory; Yip, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes requires an accurate, precise and robust test measurement system. Currently, immunoassay and HPLC are the most popular methods for HbA1c quantification, noting however the limitations associated with some platforms, such as imprecision or interference from common hemoglobin variants. Abbott Diagnostics has introduced a fully automated direct enzymatic method for the quantification of HbA1c from whole blood on the ARCHITECT chemistry system. Here we completed a method evaluation of the ARCHITECT HbA1c enzymatic assay for imprecision, accuracy, method comparison, interference from hemoglobin variants and specimen stability. This was completed at three independent clinical laboratories in North America and Europe. The total imprecision ranged from 0.5% to 2.2% CV with low and high level control materials. Around the diagnostic cut-off of 48 mmol/mol, the total imprecision was 0.6% CV. Mean bias using reference samples from IFCC and CAP ranged from -1.1 to 1.0 mmol/mol. The enzymatic assay also showed excellent agreement with HPLC methods, with slopes of 1.01 and correlation coefficients ranging from 0.984 to 0.996 compared to Menarini Adams HA-8160, Bio-Rad Variant II and Variant II Turbo instruments. Finally, no significant effect was observed for erythrocyte sedimentation or interference from common hemoglobin variants in patient samples containing heterozygous HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE, and up to 10% HbF. The ARCHITECT enzymatic assay for HbA1c is a robust and fully automated method that meets the performance requirements to support the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

  16. [Evaluation of DCA vantage for rapid in-clinic measurement of HbA1c on capillary blood in young type 1 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    El Arabi, H; Willems, D; Mélot, C; Dorchy, H

    2013-01-01

    Rapid in clinic measurement of glycated hemoglogin (HbA1c) allows to determine the level of metabolic control within a few minutes on capillary blood. We have evaluated the new DCA Vantage (Siemens) based on an immunological technique, replacing the DCA 2000+ (Siemens). The study included 120 unselected young type 1 diabetic patients, with different degrees of metabolic control. The DCA Vantage was compared with the HPLC system (Menarini HA 8160) whose deviation from the DCCT was < 0.1% across the clinical range. The mean underestimation of the DCA Vantage was -0.40%. The agreement limits (+/- 1.96 SD) were between 0.14% and -0.93%; this means +/- 0.53% around -0.40%. In conclusion, the DCA Vantage underestimates HbA1c levels; however it met the acceptance criteria of having a coefficient of variation < 3%.

  17. Measurement of HbA1c in multicentre diabetes trials - should blood samples be tested locally or sent to a central laboratory: an agreement analysis.

    PubMed

    Arch, Barbara N; Blair, Joanne; McKay, Andrew; Gregory, John W; Newland, Paul; Gamble, Carrol

    2016-10-24

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important outcome measure in diabetes clinical trials. For multicentre designs, HbA1c can be measured locally at participating centres or by sending blood samples to a central laboratory. This study analyses the agreement between local and central measurements, using 1-year follow-up data collected in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of newly diagnosed children with type I diabetes. HbA1c measurements were routinely analysed both locally and centrally at baseline and then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and the data reported in mmol/mol. Agreement was assessed by calculating the bias and 95 % limits of agreement, using the Bland-Altman analysis method. A predetermined benchmark for clinically acceptable margin of error between measurements was subjectively set as ±10 % for HbA1c. The percentage of pairs of measurements that were classified as clinically acceptable was calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the agreement within centres. Treatment group was not considered. Five hundred and ninety pairs of measurement, representing 255 children and 15 trial centres across four follow-up time points, were compared. There was no significant bias: local measurements were an average of 0.16 mmol/mol (SD = 4.5, 95 % CI -0.2 to 0.5) higher than central. The 95 % limits of agreement were -8.6 to 9.0 mmol/mol (local minus central). Eighty percent of local measurements were within ±10 % of corresponding central measurements. Some trial centres were more varied in the differences observed between local and central measurements: IQRs ranging from 3 to 9 mmol/mol; none indicated systematic bias. Variation in agreement between HbA1c measurements was greater than had been expected although no overall bias was detected and standard deviations were similar. Discrepancies were present across all participating centres. These findings have implications for the comparison of standards of clinical care between centres

  18. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.

  19. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  20. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  1. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  2. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Nov 13,2017 Understanding the difference ... your blood moving through your blood vessels, your heart rate is the number of times your heart beats ...

  3. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Kidneys & How They Work High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure ... have their blood pressure checked. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  4. A Mediterranean diet improves HbA1c but not fasting blood glucose compared to alternative dietary strategies: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, P; Achana, F; Troughton, J; Gray, L J; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2014-06-01

    Overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to lose weight for optimal glucose management, yet many find this difficult. Determining whether alterations in dietary patterns irrespective of weight loss can aid glucose control has not been fully investigated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to determine the effects of a Mediterranean diet compared to other dietary interventions on glycaemic control irrespective of weight loss. Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials that included a Mediterranean diet intervention. The interventions included all major components of the Mediterranean diet and were carried out in free-living individuals at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Network meta-analysis compared all interventions with one another at the same time as maintaining randomisation. Analyses were conducted within a Bayesian framework. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, seven examined fasting blood glucose (n = 972), six examined fasting insulin (n = 1330) and three examined HbA1c (n = 487). None of the interventions were significantly better than the others in lowering glucose parameters. The Mediterranean diet reduced HbA1c significantly compared to usual care but not compared to the Palaeolithic diet. The effect of alterations in dietary practice irrespective of weight loss on glycaemic control cannot be concluded from the present review. The need for further research in this area is apparent because no firm conclusions about relative effectiveness of interventions could be drawn as a result of the paucity of the evidence. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Carotid interventions and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hirschl, Mirko; Kundi, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Arterial baroreceptors are pressure sensors found in the carotid sinus near the bifurcation of the carotid artery and in the aortic arch. Carotid interventions, whether endovascular or surgical, affect this complicated control system and the post-interventional blood pressure behavior. Comparisons between the intervention techniques, however, are challenging due to the varying measurement methods, duration of observation, and patient populations. The question as to which interventional method is preferable, if undisturbed regulation of blood pressure is concerned, still remains unanswered. The fact that blood pressure events (i.e., hemodynamic instability, hypertension, unstable blood pressure) frequently occur both immediately after intervention and in the long term, mandates a particularly careful cardiopulmonary and blood pressure monitoring. Direct and indirect measurements of baroreceptor sensitivity can be helpful in identifying high-risk patients, although the association to hard clinical endpoints is rarely documented for methodological reasons.

  7. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth (congenital). Common examples include: Coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the large blood vessel of the heart called the aorta) Patent ductus arteriosus (blood vessel between the aorta ...

  8. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  9. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  10. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. Controlling your high blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Controlling hypertension ... when you wake up. For people with very high blood pressure, this is when they are most at risk ... 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed ...

  12. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing High Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Jan 10,2018 When your doctor ... checkup. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  13. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    PubMed

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  14. Blood pressure variability of two ambulatory blood pressure monitors.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Meyers, Kevin E C; Cucchiara, Andrew J; Sawinski, Deirdre L; Townsend, Raymond R

    2014-04-01

    There are no data on the evaluation of blood pressure (BP) variability comparing two ambulatory blood pressure monitoring monitors worn at the same time. Hence, this study was carried out to compare variability of BP in healthy untreated adults using two ambulatory BP monitors worn at the same time over an 8-h period. An Accutorr device was used to measure office BP in the dominant and nondominant arms of 24 participants.Simultaneous 8-h BP and heart rate data were measured in 24 untreated adult volunteers by Mobil-O-Graph (worn for an additional 16 h after removing the Spacelabs monitor) and Spacelabs with both random (N=12) and nonrandom (N=12) assignment of each device to the dominant arm. Average real variability (ARV), SD, coefficient of variation, and variation independent of mean were calculated for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (PP). Whether the Mobil-O-Graph was applied to the dominant or the nondominant arm, the ARV of mean systolic (P=0.003 nonrandomized; P=0.010 randomized) and PP (P=0.009 nonrandomized; P=0.005 randomized) remained significantly higher than the Spacelabs device, whereas the ARV of the mean arterial pressure was not significantly different. The average BP readings and ARVs for systolic blood pressure and PP obtained by the Mobil-O-Graph were considerably higher for the daytime than the night-time. Given the emerging interest in the effect of BP variability on health outcomes, the accuracy of its measurement is important. Our study raises concerns about the accuracy of pooling international ambulatory blood pressure monitoring variability data using different devices.

  15. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hypertension tends to worsen with age and you cannot ...

  16. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  17. Choosing Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... 14, 2016. Fisher NDL, et al. Renin inhibitors. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2011;13:662. Wong GWK, et al. Blood ... blockers (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism) and potassium-sparing diuretics. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2011;13:644. Mann JFE. Choice of therapy ...

  18. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  19. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine? Your doctor has prescribed medicine to help lower your blood pressure. You also need to make the ...

  20. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  1. Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Arterial pressure compared with ambient bodily-fluid pressure. Implanted apparatus, capable of measuring blood pressure of patient, includes differential-pressure transducer connected to pressure sensor positioned in major artery. Electrical signal is function of differential pressure between blood-pressure sensor and reference-pressure sensor transmitted through skin of patient to recorder or indicator.

  2. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  3. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  4. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  5. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney disease is diagnosed with urine and blood tests . Health care providers measure blood pressure with a blood pressure ... the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood test to estimate how much blood the kidneys filter ...

  6. The Environment and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Brook, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    A host of environmental factors can significantly increase arterial blood pressure (BP) including cold temperature, high altitude, loud noises, and ambient air pollutants. Although brief exposures acutely elevate BP, over the long term, chronic exposures may be capable of promoting the development of sustained hypertension. Given their omnipresent nature, environmental factors may play a role in worsening BP control and heightening overall cardiovascular risk at the global public health level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  8. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    MedlinePlus

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  9. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... coffee and other beverages varies by brand and method of preparation. Also, if you have high blood pressure, avoid caffeine right before activities that naturally increase your blood pressure, ...

  10. Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2013;2:e004473. Getting active to control high blood pressure. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ ...

  11. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend <0.0001). The associations remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure, heart rate, and lipids (P = 0.004), and the difference in cfPWV between the highest and the lowest quintiles of HbA1c was 0.31 m/s. Fasting glucose and 2 h OGTT were not associated with cfPWV in the multivariate analyses. HbA1c showed additive effects with fasting glucose or 2 h OGTT on cfPWV. In addition, age and blood pressure significantly modified the associations between HbA1c and cfPWV (P for interactions <0.0001 for age; and  = 0.019 for blood pressure). The associations were stronger in subjects who were older (≥60 y; P for trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  12. Blood pressure measurement: sitting and standing?

    PubMed

    Richard Conti, C

    2008-09-01

    Prior to discussing some thoughts about positional changes in blood pressure, I'd like to comment on the measurement of blood pressure.It is rare for a medical student, a resident-in-training, a cardiovascular fellow-in-training, or even a practicing or academic cardiologist to take the patient's blood pressure. I would even go so far as to say that it is uncommon for a registered nurse to measure blood pressure. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of an assay of seven biochemical items, HbA1c, and hematocrit using a small amount of blood collected from the fingertip.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Sugimoto; Masaru, Akimoto; Akira, Hayakawa; Eisaku, Hokazono; Susumu, Osawa

    2012-01-18

    Lifestyle-related diseases in Japan account for 30% of the entire medical expenditure of the country and cause 60% of all deaths. For the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, medical examination by laboratory tests on metabolic syndrome is important. To undertake examination by collection of blood from a fingertip, we developed the "Well Kit". About 65 μl of blood collected from a fingertip was diluted with buffer solution, which contained two internal standard materials. The kit also separated corpuscles and diluted plasma with a special filter. It measured the obtained diluted plasma using the JCA-BM2250. This measurement system was evaluated for the quantitative analysis of 8 items. The uncertainties of tested items of this measurement system were 1.7% to 6.4%. The coefficients of correlation of all tested items between this measurement value and the venous plasma sample value were 0.876-0.991, and hematocrit was 0.958. This system for testing blood collected from a fingertip is simple to use and can be applied in testing for metabolic syndrome. In addition, this testing system is useful in the medical examination of the personal healthcare and inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  15. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... per day (fasting or pre-breakfast, pre-lunch, pre-dinner, and bedtime). The straight black line shows an A1C measurement of 7.0 percent. The blue line shows an example of how blood glucose test results might look from self-monitoring four times ...

  16. Blood pressure reprogramming adapter assists signal recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.

  17. Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) recorded in routine clinical practice is relatively inaccurate and associated with higher readings compared to BP measured in research studies in accordance with standardized measurement guidelines. The increase in routine office BP is the result of several factors, especially the presence of office staff, which tends to make patients nervous and also allows for conversation to occur. With the disappearance of the mercury sphygmomanometer because of environmental concerns, there is greater use of oscillometric BP recorders, both in the office setting and elsewhere. Although oscillometric devices may reduce some aspects of observer BP measurement error in the clinical setting, they are still associated with higher BP readings, known as white coat hypertension (for diagnosis) or white coat effect (with treated hypertension). Now that fully automated sphygmomanometers are available which are capable of recording several readings with the patient resting quietly, there is no longer any need to have office staff present when BP is being recorded. Such readings are called automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and they are both more accurate than conventional manual office BP and not associated with the white coat phenomena. AOBP readings are also similar to the awake ambulatory BP and home BP, both of which are relatively good predictors of cardiovascular risk. The available evidence suggests that AOBP should now replace manual or electronic office BP readings when screening patients for hypertension and also after antihypertensive drug therapy is initiated. PMID:29625508

  18. Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G

    2018-04-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) recorded in routine clinical practice is relatively inaccurate and associated with higher readings compared to BP measured in research studies in accordance with standardized measurement guidelines. The increase in routine office BP is the result of several factors, especially the presence of office staff, which tends to make patients nervous and also allows for conversation to occur. With the disappearance of the mercury sphygmomanometer because of environmental concerns, there is greater use of oscillometric BP recorders, both in the office setting and elsewhere. Although oscillometric devices may reduce some aspects of observer BP measurement error in the clinical setting, they are still associated with higher BP readings, known as white coat hypertension (for diagnosis) or white coat effect (with treated hypertension). Now that fully automated sphygmomanometers are available which are capable of recording several readings with the patient resting quietly, there is no longer any need to have office staff present when BP is being recorded. Such readings are called automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and they are both more accurate than conventional manual office BP and not associated with the white coat phenomena. AOBP readings are also similar to the awake ambulatory BP and home BP, both of which are relatively good predictors of cardiovascular risk. The available evidence suggests that AOBP should now replace manual or electronic office BP readings when screening patients for hypertension and also after antihypertensive drug therapy is initiated. Copyright © 2018. The Korean Society of Cardiology.

  19. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  20. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  1. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  2. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  3. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  4. 10 Ways to Control High Blood Pressure without Medication

    MedlinePlus

    10 ways to control high blood pressure without medication By making these 10 lifestyle changes, you can lower your blood pressure and reduce ... treating your high blood pressure. If you successfully control your blood pressure with a healthy lifestyle, you ...

  5. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  6. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-24

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0006 Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss Richard D. Branson, RRT University of Cincinnati...Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2011 – October 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss 5a...used to treat hypovolemia and cardiac arrest. Preclinical trials demonstrate that ITPR increases venous return and thereby restores blood pressure and

  7. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0006 Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss Richard D. Branson, RRT University of Cincinnati...Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2011 – October 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss 5a...used to treat hypovolemia and cardiac arrest. Preclinical trials demonstrate that ITPR increases venous return and thereby restores blood pressure and

  8. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  9. Life style as a blood pressure determinant.

    PubMed

    Staessen, J A; Bieniaszewski, L; Pardaens, K; Petrov, V; Thijs, L; Fagard, R

    1996-09-01

    In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary output, and smoking were not associated with blood pressure. Controlled intervention studies have proven that weight reduction, endurance training and alcohol abstinence effectively reduce blood pressure. In the light of these intervention studies, the Belgian findings and the published work highlight the potential of preventive strategies aimed at these major life style factors.

  10. Beyond HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  11. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  12. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  14. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  15. SPAKling insight into blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Bueno, María; Gamba, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is one of the most important health problems in industrialized cities. Blood pressure levels are influenced by renal salt handling and salt reabsorption in the kidney. In this Closeup, Castañeda-Bueno and Gamba discuss the work from Alessi and coworkers on the in vivo roles of the SPAK kinase in defining blood pressure levels. PMID:20112249

  16. Churches as High Blood Pressure Control Centers

    PubMed Central

    Kong, B. Wayne; Miller, Joseph M.; Smoot, Roland T.

    1982-01-01

    High blood pressure, a severe medical problem in the black community, can be controlled to a significant degree by proper medication. Discovery of hypertension and continuing thereapy, however, are difficult. The establishment of churches as high blood pressure control centers is a promising approach to overcome these deficits. The initial experiences with the creation of such a program are presented.

  17. Ambulatory or home measurement of blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Gosse, Philippe; Coulon, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and home blood pressure (HBPM) monitoring have been shown to be superior to conventional measurement of blood pressure in terms of reproducibility, relationship to the impact of high blood pressure on target organs, and the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, these 2 techniques have yet to find their place in the diagnosis of hypertension and during evaluation of the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment. Although these 2 methods do not give identical results in approximately 20% of cases, their diagnostic performance and prognostic value are quite comparable. Although ABPM remains a valuable tool in clinical research, its utilization in routine clinical practice is limited by cost and availability. HBPM is increasingly employed for informed and well-managed patients, and it can help to improve control of the patient's blood pressure. Physicians involved in the management of hypertensive patients should be aware of its value in order to assist patients in their care.

  18. Impacts of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Ohno, Yoichi; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2018-03-01

    To assess the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on central blood pressure, an important determinant of cardiovascular events. Canagliflozin, Empagliflozin or Luseogliflozin was given for 102 type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and nephropathy. Central blood pressure was evaluated by radial tonometry. Clinical parameters were followed for 6 months. Three differing sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors similarly reduced brachial and central blood pressures, casual blood sugar, haemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria without significant changes in pulse rate and lipid profiles. Central systolic blood pressure was associated with the decreases in albuminuria by sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors. Comparable influences of various sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on central blood pressure suggest class effects.

  19. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    PubMed

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  20. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  1. Blood Pressure Measurement Guidelines for Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical therapists wish to play an important role as primary health care providers. The purpose of this paper is to present recommended guidelines for blood pressure measurement by physical therapists and physical therapist assistants. PMID:21637392

  2. Blood pressure measurement guidelines for physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Frese, Ethel M; Fick, Ann; Sadowsky, H Steven

    2011-06-01

    Vital sign measurement and assessment are important components of the review of systems in a physical therapy examination for individuals with and without documented cardiopulmonary disease. The measurement of blood pressure gives the therapist information regarding the patient's baseline cardiovascular status, response to exercise/activity, and guides exercise prescription. Accurate measurement of blood pressure is critical for making appropriate clinical decisions especially if physical therapists wish to play an important role as primary health care providers. The purpose of this paper is to present recommended guidelines for blood pressure measurement by physical therapists and physical therapist assistants.

  3. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  5. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The ... limits. Reduce stress by recognizing where you have control You can’t control all the outside events ...

  6. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  7. An underwater blood pressure measuring device.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Arne; Kuch, Benjamin; L'abbate, Antonio; Wagner, Matthias; Dario, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of arterial blood pressure is an important vital sign for monitoring the circulation. However, up to now no instrument has been available that enables the measurement of blood pressure underwater. The present paper details a novel, oscillometric, automatic digital blood pressure (BP) measurement device especially designed for this purpose. It consists mainly of analogue and digital electronics in a lexan housing that is rated to a depth of up to 200 metres' sea water, a cuff and a solenoid for inflation of the cuff with air supplied from a scuba tank. An integrated differential pressure sensor, exposed to the same ambient pressure as the cuff, allows accurate BP measurement. Calculation of systolic and diastolic pressures is based on the analysis of pressure oscillations recorded during the deflation. In hyperbaric chamber tests to pressures up to 405 kPa, BP measurements taken with the prototype were comparable to those obtained with established manual and automated methods. Swimming pool tests confirmed the correct functioning of the system underwater. The quality of the recorded pressure oscillations was very good even at 10 metres' fresh water, and allowed determination of diastolic and systolic pressure values. Based on these results we envisage that this device will lead to a better understanding of human cardiovascular physiology in underwater and hyperbaric environments.

  8. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  9. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Intaglietta, Marcos; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test. Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation) showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05), when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05). Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be associated with a level of endothelial dysfunction that interferes with the antihypertensive effect of HbA1c. PMID:19066010

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  11. Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Accurately Measure Blood Pressure Using a Blood Pressure Simulator Arm

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ginelle A.; Haack, Sally L.; North, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. Methods. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. Results. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; p<0.001). However, there was no difference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Conclusions. Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign. PMID:23788809

  12. Assessing pharmacy students' ability to accurately measure blood pressure using a blood pressure simulator arm.

    PubMed

    Bottenberg, Michelle M; Bryant, Ginelle A; Haack, Sally L; North, Andrew M

    2013-06-12

    To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; p<0.001). However, there was no difference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign.

  13. Attenuation in invasive blood pressure measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Ercole, A

    2006-05-01

    Poor fidelity invasive arterial blood pressure (IABP) traces are a frequent practical problem. It is common practice to describe any such trace as being 'damped'; the resonance behaviour of IABP measurement systems having been extensively described in the literature. However, as poor quality arterial blood pressure signals are seen even with optimal pressure transduction circuits, this cannot be the sole mechanism. In this commentary the classical lumped-parameter Windkessel model is extended by postulating an additional impedance proximal to the site of IABP measurement. This impedance represents any mechanical obstruction to laminar flow. Equations are presented relating measured and actual arterial blood pressures in terms of the model impedances. The reactive properties of such a partial obstruction may lead to an IABP trace that is superficially similar in appearance to the case of an over-damped measurement system. However, this phenomenon should be termed 'attenuation' rather than 'damping' and is probably more common. The distinction is of practical importance as the behaviour of the measured systolic and diastolic pressures is different -- both are systematically underestimated and the mean arterial pressure is thus not preserved. Furthermore, this error varies inversely with the peripheral vascular resistance of the tissues distal to the measurement point, therefore apparently magnifying the effect of vasodilatation on blood pressure or derived quantities.

  14. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p < 0.05). Thirty-one patients (88.6%) had isolated nighttime hypertension, and 53 patients (73.6%) were non-dippers. All systolic blood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p < 0.05). Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with severity of obesity. Obesity was associated with severity of hypertension, higher diastolic blood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  15. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  16. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount ...

  17. Is glycine effective against elevated blood pressure?

    PubMed

    El Hafidi, Mohammed; Pérez, Israel; Baños, Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Glycine, a non-essential amino acid, has been found to protect against oxidative stress in several pathological situations, and it is required for the biosynthesis of structural proteins such as elastin. As hypertension is a disease in which free radicals and large vessel elasticity are involved, this article will examine the possible mechanisms by which glycine may protect against high blood pressure. The addition of glycine to the diet reduces high blood pressure in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome. Also, glycine supplemented to the low protein diet of rat dams during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on blood pressure in their offspring. The mechanism by which glycine decreases high blood pressure can be attributed to its participation in the reduction of the generation of free radicals, increasing the availability of nitric oxide. In addition, as glycine is required for a number of critical metabolic pathways, such as the synthesis of the structural proteins collagen and elastin, the perturbation of these leads to impaired elastin formation in the aorta. This involves changes in the aorta's elastic properties, which would contribute to the development of hypertension. The use of glycine to lower high blood pressure could have a significant clinical impact in patients with the metabolic syndrome and with limited resources. On the other hand, more studies are needed to explore the beneficial effect of glycine in other models of hypertension and to investigate possible side-effects of treatment with glycine.

  18. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  19. Insight of Human Stroke from blood flow and blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Stroke is is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the world. It is well believed that stroke is caused by the disturbance of cerebrovascular autoregulation. We investigate the blood flow on the left and right middle cerebral artery and beat-to-beat blood pressure simultaneously measured from the finger, for both subjects with stroke and healthy subjects. Synchronization technique is used to distinguish the difference between these two groups.

  20. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  2. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  3. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  4. The chronobiology of blood pressure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pears, Suzanne; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes the literature to date on the subject of the chronobiology of blood pressure in pregnancy, and more specifically, in the common disease state of high blood pressure in pregnancy or preeclampsia. While the guidelines for treating hypertension in pregnancy use absolute measures to start treatment, they do not take into account the important rhythms of hypertension including nighttime and daytime readings. These variations are likely to have strong impacts on pregnancy outcomes, risk and long-term hypertension risk. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  6. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  7. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device. The...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device. The...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device. The...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  14. A wireless blood pressure monitoring system for personal health management.

    PubMed

    Li, Wun-Jin; Luo, Yuan-Long; Chang, Yao-Shun; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a wireless blood pressure monitoring system which provides a useful tool for users to measure and manage their daily blood pressure values. This system includes an ARM-based blood pressure monitor with a ZigBee wireless transmission module and a PC-based management unit with graphic user interface and database. The wireless blood pressure monitor can measure the blood pressure and heart rate and then store and forward the measuring information to the management unit through the ZigBee wireless transmission. On the management unit, user can easy to see their blood pressure variation in the past using a line chart. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement has been verified by a commercial blood pressure simulator and shown the bias of systolic blood pressure is ≤ 1 mmHg and the bias of diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 1.4 mmHg.

  15. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    MedlinePlus

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  16. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A; Knop, F K; Piro, S; Rabuazzo, A M; Purrello, F

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (<39 mmol/mol), were studied. Fasting blood samples for lipid profiles, fatty liver index (FLI), bioimpedance analysis, ultrasound scan of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, similar FLI, reduced prevalence of and less severe hepatic steatosis, lower BARD score, increased percent fat and lower total body muscle mass. In comparison to controls, subjects with diabetes showed: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and triglycerides levels, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, higher BARD score, and higher total body muscle mass. Moreover, HbA1c was correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Copyright © 2014

  17. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl− absorption and HCO3− secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3− secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl− absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-mediated Na+ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure. PMID:29285423

  18. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Wall, Susan M

    2017-12-01

    Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl - absorption and HCO 3 - secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO 3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO 3 - secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl - absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na + channel (ENaC)-mediated Na + absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  19. Blood pressure measurement and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    System is described that employs solid state circuitry to transmit visual display of patient's blood pressure. Response of sphygmomanometer cuff and microphone provide input signals. Signals and their amplitudes, from turn-on time to turn-off time, are continuously fed to data transmitter which transmits to display device.

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  1. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  2. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  3. The Effect of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjian; Bo, Yacong; Wang, Xi; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Xule; Han, Zhanying; Qiu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The findings of clinical studies concerning the association between anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent. In order to provide a more precise estimate of the overall effect of anthocyanins on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials about anthocyanins supplementation and BP. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (until October 2015) were searched to identify potential studies with information on anthocyanins extract supplementation and arterial BP. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a summary statistic. Net changes in SBP and DBP between anthocyanins supplementation and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta regression was used to explore the potential moderators of effect size. The publication bias was assessed using Begger's Funnel plots and Egger's tests; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Finally, 6 clinical studies with 472 participants for the effect of anthocyanins consumption on BP were included in the present meta-analysis. There is no significant effect on either SBP (WMD: 1.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: −3.17 to 5.47, I2 = 56%) or DBP (WMD: 1.06 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.71 to 2.83, I2 = 0%) following supplementation with anthocyanins. In summary, results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of supplementation with anthocyanins in improving blood pressure. Further well-designed large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long follow-up period are needed to verify the association of anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure. PMID:27082604

  4. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

    2018-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P < 0.01) and average real variability (P < 0.05) of systolic blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P < 0.001). A positive correlation of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone with 24-h-average real variability of systolic BP was observed in the entire primary hyperparathyroidism patients group (P = 0.04, P  = 0.02; respectively). Systolic blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive

  7. Health Instruction Packages: How to Take a Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Carolyn; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach dental hygiene students, nursing students, and the general public how to measure blood pressure. The first module, "Can You Take a Blood Pressure?" by Carolyn Lancaster, defines blood pressure, distinguishes between systolic and diastolic pressure and…

  8. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body. (b...

  12. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  13. Associations between glycaemic deterioration and aortic stiffness and central blood pressure: the ADDITION-PRO Study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Nanna B; Rasmussen, Signe S; Wiinberg, Niels; Vistisen, Dorte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Pedersen, Erling B; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    In the context of screening for diabetes, we examined levels of central haemodynamics among individuals with different levels of diabetes risk and analysed the impact of glycated haemoglobin A (HbA1c) and HbA1c changes on central haemodynamics. A Danish population-based stepwise screening programme for diabetes including a diabetes risk score (DRS) questionnaire and glucose measurements identified seven groups of individuals at increasing levels of diabetes risk. After 7.8 years of follow-up, 2048 individuals underwent aortic stiffness assessment by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and assessment of central blood pressure (BP). We compared differences in central haemodynamics at follow-up between the diabetes risk groups and analysed the impact of HbA1c at screening and HbA1c change on central haemodynamics at follow-up adjusting for relevant confounders. At screening, median age was 59.0 years, and median HbA1c was 5.7%. At follow-up, median aPWV was 8.0 m/s, and median central SBP was 123.5 mmHg. Among individuals with high DRS, aPWV, central SBP and DBP, and pulse pressure were higher in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance than normal glucose tolerance. Per 1%-point higher HbA1c at screening, aPWV was 0.23 m/s (95% confidence interval: 0.00; 0.46) higher, and central DBP was 1.35 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.19; 2.51) lower, whereas HbA1c change was not associated with any of the central haemodynamics. Dysglycaemia is associated with future aortic stiffness. However, glycaemic deterioration over 7.8 years does not affect aortic stiffness or central BP independently of other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  14. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  15. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  16. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas R; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2012-08-15

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease attributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently additional trials had conflicting results. To determine the effect of flavanol-rich chocolate or cocoa products on blood pressure in people with or without hypertension. We searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2011: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition we searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in each trial in consultation with a third author. Random effects meta-analyses on all studies fitting the inclusion criteria were conducted using Review Manager version 5.1 and Stata version 12. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analyses and univariate meta-regression analysis of several variables including dosage of flavanol content (total or monomers) in chocolate or cocoa products, blinding, baseline blood pressure, theobromine content, sugar content, body-mass-index (BMI), duration and age. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of the 20 studies involving 856 mainly healthy participants revealed a statistically significant blood pressure reducing effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products compared with control

  17. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  18. [Association between higher blood pressure level in children and adult blood pressure: 17 years follow-up results].

    PubMed

    Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Yang, Jun; Ren, Jie; Liu, Wei-Min; Xu, Xiang-Lin; Xiong, Su-E

    2008-03-01

    Essential hypertension may begin at childhood. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors of hypertension and detect the evolvement tracking of blood pressure in childhood. In this study, we followed up blood pressure changes in 4623 school children (6 - 15 years-old) from 1987 to 2005 in Hanzhong rural area. A total of 152 children were grouped to higher blood pressure group [systolic blood pressure (P(SBP)) >or= 75(th) (P(75))] and 140 children grouped to normal blood pressure group [P(SBP) < 50(th) (P(50))] and their blood pressure were re-measure 18-years later. The total follow-up rate was 70.2%. Follow-up blood pressure was significantly higher in higher blood pressure group at baseline than that in normal blood pressure group at baseline (P < 0.05). The hypertension rate at follow up was significantly higher in higher blood pressure group at baseline than that in normal blood pressure group at baseline (28.0% vs. 4.1%, P < 0.01). The risk for hypertension was 6.88 greater in higher blood pressure group at baseline than that in normal blood pressure group at baseline. Higher blood pressure at childhood is a risk of developing hypertension at adulthood.

  19. Static magnetic field blood pressure buffering, baroreflex vs. vascular blood pressure control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gmitrov, Juraj

    2010-02-01

    We compared the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) and verapamil, a potent vascular calcium channel blocking agent, on sudden elevation in blood pressure in conjunction with arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and microcirculation. Forty-four experiments were performed on conscious rabbits sedated using pentobarbital intravenous (i.v.) infusion (5 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). Mean femoral artery blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, BRS and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, estimated using microphotoelectric plethysmography (MPPG), were simultaneously measured after a 40 min exposure of the sinocarotid baroreceptors to 350 mT SMF, generated by Nd(2)-Fe(14)-B magnets, or 30 min of verapamil i.v. administration (20 microg kg(-1) min(-1)). BRS was assessed from heart rate and MAP responses to i.v. bolus of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. The decrease in phenylephrine-induced abrupt elevation in MAP (DeltaMAP(AE)) was significantly larger after verapamil than after SMF exposure. DeltaMAP(AE) inversely correlated with verapamil-induced significant increase in DeltaMPPG (r = 0.53, p < 0.000) and with SMF-induced significant increase in DeltaBRS (r = 0.47, p < 0.016). Our results suggest that verapamil-potentiated vascular blood pressure buffering mechanism was more effective than SMF-potentiated baroreflex-mediated blood pressure buffering mechanism, and a potential benefit of both approaches in cardiovascular conditions with abrupt high elevation in blood pressure.

  20. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  1. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  2. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  3. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  4. HealthLines: Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... on. By Shana Potash, Staff Writer, NLM High blood pressure is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease ( ...

  5. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  6. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  7. [Development of a continuous blood pressure monitoring and recording system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Yong; Gao, Shumei; Song, Yilin

    2012-09-01

    A small experimental system is constructed with working principle of continuous blood pressure monitoring based on the volume compensation method. The preliminary experimental results show that the system can collect blood pressure signals at the radial artery effectively. The digital PID algorithm can track the variation of blood pressure. And the accuracy of continuous blood pressure detecting achieve the level of same kind of product.

  8. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous...

  16. Get the Most Out of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public-use blood pressure measurement: The kiosk quandary. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2014;8:739. Padwal RS, et al. Comparison ... to daytime ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Journal of the American ... 2015;9:123. Blood pressure monitors: Validations, papers ...

  17. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pattern of blood pressure in postmenopausal women with hypertension in Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2014;24:153. April 28, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/expert-answers/menopause-and-high-blood-pressure/FAQ- ...

  18. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought ... night may be at higher risk of developing high blood pressure or worsening already high blood pressure. There's also ...

  19. Osteopenia is associated with glycemic levels and blood pressure in Chinese postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qihong; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Kang; Yan, Wenhua; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lv, Zhaohui; Wang, Baoan; Gu, Weijun; Ba, Jianming; Mu, Yiming

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present study was to explore the relationships between osteopenia and dyslipidemia, glycemic levels or blood pressure in postmenopausal Chinese women. A total of 4080 women aged 42-85 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, which was nested in an ongoing longitudinal (REACTION) study. Calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was performed and QUS T score was calculated to assess bone mineral density. Osteopenia was defined as a T score ≤-1.0. The relationship between osteopenia and dyslipidemia, glycemic levels or blood pressure was investigated. The prevalence of osteopenia was significantly lower in subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥8.0 mmol/L, postprandial blood glucose (PBG) ≥15.0 mmol/L, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) 6.5-7.5 %, HbA1C ≥7.5 %. These relationships remained significant after controlling for multiple factors. Moreover, significant trend between osteopenia and SBP, FBG, PBG and HbA1C was observed in women. In contrast, no significant associations between osteopenia and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were found, and no significant trend relationship between osteopenia and DBP, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C was found in postmenopausal Chinese women. The present study showed a relationship between SBP, FBG, PBG, HbA1C and osteopenia in postmenopausal Chinese women, while no significant relationship was observed between dyslipidemia, DBP and osteopenia, even after controlling for multiple confounding factors.

  20. Clinical aspects of blood pressure autorhythmometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.; Halberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Self-measurements made by a 55-year-old physician with mild to moderate hypertension of ten years' duration are considered. The physician had been in excellent health until age 45 when sustained elevation of blood pressure up to 180/100 mmHg and a slight aortic diastolic murmur were noted. On the basis of the investigation it is suggested that physical and mental performance measures provide an objective basis for assessing the desirability of a given physiological change. Such studies will have to be complemented by a search for long-term effects.

  1. Blood Pressure Regulation: Every Adaptation is an Integration?

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Limberg, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    This focused review serves to explore relevant issues in regard to blood pressure regulation and by doing so, provides the initial stimulus paper for the Thematic Review series “Blood Pressure Regulation” to be published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology over the coming months. In this introduction, we highlight how variable normal blood pressure can be and challenge the reader to take another look at some key concepts related to blood pressure regulation. We point out that there is frequently an underappreciated balance between peripheral vasodilation and systemic blood pressure regulation and ask the question: Are changes in blood pressure, in effect, reasonable and integrated adaptations to the physiological challenge at hand? We conclude with the idea that blood pressure regulatory systems are both flexible and redundant; ensuring a wide variety of activities associated with life can be accompanied by a perfusion pressure that can serve multiple masters. PMID:23558925

  2. Automatic Blood Pressure Measurements During Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.

  3. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (P<0.001) and 3.3/3.5 mm Hg (P<0.01). The reduction of resting blood pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P<0.001 for all). Systemic vascular resistance decreased by 7.1% (P<0.05), plasma norepinephrine by 29% (P<0.001), and plasma renin activity by 20% (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 1.2 kg (P<0.001), waist circumference by 2.8 cm (P<0.001), percent body fat by 1.4% (P<0.001), and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance by 0.31 U (P<0.01); HDL cholesterol increased by 0.032 mmol/L(-1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Blood pressure variability in man: its relation to high blood pressure, age and baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Ferrari, A; Gregorini, L; Parati, G; Pomidossi, G; Bertinieri, G; Grassi, G; Zanchetti, A

    1980-12-01

    1. Intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate were recorded for 24 h in ambulant hospitalized patients of variable age who had normal blood pressure or essential hypertension. Mean 24 h values, standard deviations and variation coefficient were obtained as the averages of values separately analysed for 48 consecutive half-hour periods. 2. In older subjects standard deviation and variation coefficient for mean arterial pressure were greater than in younger subjects with similar pressure values, whereas standard deviation and variation coefficient for mean arterial pressure were greater than in younger subjects with similar pressure values, whereas standard deviation aations and variation coefficient were obtained as the averages of values separately analysed for 48 consecurive half-hour periods. 2. In older subjects standard deviation and variation coefficient for mean arterial pressure were greater than in younger subjects with similar pressure values, whereas standard deviation and variation coefficient for heart rate were smaller. 3. In hypertensive subjects standard deviation for mean arterial pressure was greater than in normotensive subjects of similar ages, but this was not the case for variation coefficient, which was slightly smaller in the former than in the latter group. Normotensive and hypertensive subjects showed no difference in standard deviation and variation coefficient for heart rate. 4. In both normotensive and hypertensive subjects standard deviation and even more so variation coefficient were slightly or not related to arterial baroreflex sensitivity as measured by various methods (phenylephrine, neck suction etc.). 5. It is concluded that blood pressure variability increases and heart rate variability decreases with age, but that changes in variability are not so obvious in hypertension. Also, differences in variability among subjects are only marginally explained by differences in baroreflex function.

  5. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose.

  6. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for hypertension diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Gijón Conde, T; Banegas, J R

    2017-01-01

    The early and accurate diagnosis of hypertension is essential given its importance in the development of cardiovascular disease. The boundaries between normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension are arbitrary and based on the benefits of treating exceeding those of not treating. Conventional BP measurement at the clinic only offers information of a particular time and presents multiple biases dependent on inherent variability of BP and measurement technique itself. Multiple studies have demonstrated the prognosis superiority in the development of cardiovascular disease of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), allows detection of white coat hypertension, avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and the detection of patients with masked hypertension who are at risk of underdetection and undertreatment. ABPM also assess nightime BP and circadian variability, providing additional prognostic value. ABPM is recognized in the diagnosis of hypertension in 2011 British NICE Guidelines, very argued at the 2013 European Society of Hypertension guidelines, and recommended in the US Preventive Services Task Force in 2015, 2016 Canadian Guidelines and the 2016 Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (PAPPS). Its generalization is likely to be only a matter of time. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Drugs affecting blood pressure variability: an update.

    PubMed

    Hocht, Christian; Del Mauro, Julieta Sofia; Bertera, Facundo Martín; Taira, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure variability (BPV) is considered nowadays a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clinical evidences support that short-term and long-term BPV independently contribute to target organ damage, cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with hypertension or diabetes. Attenuation of excessive fluctuations of systolic and diastolic BPV has been suggested as an additional therapeutic target in cardiovascular prevention. A growing number of preclinical and clinical studies have focused in the assessment of drug effects or other interventions on the different types of BPV and their contribution in the prevention of cardiovascular events. Prospective clinical trials have shown that antihypertensive classes differ in their ability to control excessive BP fluctuations with an impact in clinical outcomes. Current evidences suggest that calcium channel blockers are more effective than other blood pressure lowering drugs for the reduction of short-term, mid-term and long-term BPV. In order to increase actual knowledge regarding the therapeutic significance of BPV in cardiovascular disease, there is a need for additional clinical studies specifically designed for the study of the relevance of short-term and long-term BPV control by antihypertensive drugs.

  8. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. E-health blood pressure control program.

    PubMed

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care.

  10. Blood pressure and urolithiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Nikolis, Louis; Seideman, Casey; Palmer, Lane S; Singer, Pamela; Chorny, Nataliya; Frank, Rachel; Infante, Lulette; Sethna, Christine B

    2017-02-01

    Urolithiasis is a condition that is most commonly found in adults, but is becoming increasingly prevalent in children. Little is known about the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and urolithiasis in children. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between urolithiasis and BP, and to determine the association of BP with 24-h urine parameters in children. We retrospectively analyzed BP and 24-h urine data from children <18 years with and without urolithiasis from 2004 to 2015 at a single tertiary center. Children with a diagnosis of non-glomerular hematuria without history of urolithiasis were chosen as the control group. Non-stone formers were excluded if they presented with any abnormal 24-h urine data or kidney disease. Casual BP, BP index (BPi), and 24-h urine parameters were compared between groups using t-tests. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for age, sex and body mass index (BMI) z-score evaluated the association of BP with urolithiasis and urine electrolytes. The urolithiasis group (N = 71) was significantly older, taller and heavier than the non-stone former group (N = 53) (Table). Systolic BP and diastolic BP in stone formers were significantly greater than in non-stone formers, respectively (p = 0.019). Additionally, systolic BPi was significantly higher in the urolithiasis group (p = 0.03) but there was no significant difference in diastolic BPi (p = 0.45). Urolithiasis was a significant predictor of systolic BPi in the adjusted model (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.001-0.07). In stone formers, systolic BP and systolic BPi were directly associated with 24-h urine sodium, oxalate/1.73 m 2 , and uric acid (all p < 0.05). Urine calcium was not associated with any BP parameter. The findings are consistent with previous studies in adults that examined the correlation between blood pressure and kidney stones. The results of this study also showed that blood pressure was positively associated with urine sodium, oxalate, and uric acid

  11. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  12. Providing best practice in manual blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Obrey

    This article discusses the practical skills and underpinning knowledge needed when manually taking a patients blood pressure. The author defines blood pressure and the terms systolic and diastolic and explores the purpose of manual measurement. The article also goes on to examine what is meant by normal blood pressure, hypertension and hypotension, as well as factors that may influence blood pressure measurement. There is a brief outline of the equipment used for manually measuring blood pressure, followed by some factors that may affect the accuracy of the final reading. The author also highlights the different positions used for taking blood pressure and the arguments surrounding their respective merits. Finally, the article includes a practical step-by-step guide to manual blood pressure measurement.

  13. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  14. Correlates of blood pressure in Yanomami Indians of northwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J

    1993-01-01

    We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood

  15. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Bassem Abou; Al-Hajj, Fatima; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Ziade, Fouad; El-Rajab, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. Aims: The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls), and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Results: Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively) (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90th and 95th percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately), was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. Conclusions: We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure. PMID:22540059

  16. A survey of blood pressure in Lebanese children and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Bassem Abou; Al-Hajj, Fatima; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Ziade, Fouad; El-Rajab, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure varies between populations due to ethnic and environmental factors. Therefore, normal blood pressure values should be determined for different populations. The aim of this survey was to produce blood pressure nomograms for Lebanese children in order to establish distribution curves of blood pressure by age and sex. We conducted a survey of blood pressure in 5710 Lebanese schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years (2918 boys and 2792 girls), and studied the distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these children and adolescents. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer using a standardized technique. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure had a positive correlation with weight, height, age, and body mass index (r= 0.648, 0.643, 0.582, and 0.44, respectively) (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys compared to girls of corresponding ages. However, the average annual increase in systolic blood pressure was 2.86 mm Hg in boys and 2.63 mm Hg in girls, whereas the annual increase in diastolic blood pressure was 1.72 mm Hg in boys and 1.48 mm Hg in girls. The prevalence of high and high-normal blood pressure at the upper limit of normal (between the 90(th) and 95(th) percentile, at risk of future hypertension if not managed adequately), was 10.5% in boys and 6.9% in girls, with similar distributions among the two sexes. We present the first age-specific reference values for blood pressure of Lebanese children aged 5 to 15 years based on a good representative sample. The use of these reference values should help pediatricians identify children with normal, high-normal and high blood pressure.

  17. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.

  18. Current Status of HbA1c Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua; Yi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is formed via non-enzymatic glycosylation reactions at the α–amino group of βVal1 residues in the tetrameric Hb, and it can reflect the ambient glycemic level over the past two to three months. A variety of HbA1c detection methods, including chromatography, immunoassay, enzymatic measurement, electrochemical sensor and capillary electrophoresis have been developed and used in research laboratories and in clinics as well. In this review, we summarize the current status of HbA1c biosensors based on the recognition of the sugar moiety on the protein and also their applications in the whole blood sample measurements. PMID:28777351

  19. Introversion associated with large differences between screening blood pressure and home blood pressure measurement: The Ohasama study.

    PubMed

    Hozawa, Atsushi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Obara, Taku; Metoki, Hirohito; Kikuya, Masahiro; Asayama, Kei; Totsune, Kazuhito; Hashimoto, Junichiro; Hoshi, Haruhisa; Arai, Yumiko; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Toru; Imai, Yutaka

    2006-11-01

    To explore the effect of personality on screening blood pressures measured in clinical settings and home blood pressure measurements. From 1997 to 1999, 699 participants underwent screening and home blood pressure measurements and completed the Japanese version of the short-form Eysenck personality questionnaire. An increased screening blood pressure was defined as screening blood pressure > or = 140/90 mmHg and an increased home blood pressure was defined as home blood pressure > or = 135/85 mmHg. Participants with lower extroversion scores (i.e., introversion) showed a greater difference between screening and home systolic blood pressure. The association between introversion and differences was statistically significant, even after adjustment for other possible factors (younger age, female, wide screening pulse pressure, never smoked, and no antihypertensive medication). The adjusted means of SBP differences were 7.3 and 4.4 mmHg among the lowest and highest extroversion quartiles, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Other personality scores (psychoticism or neuroticism) were not associated with screening and home blood pressure differences. The incorporation of an extroversion score in the basic model consisting of the above factors that affected the difference between screening and home blood pressure slightly improved the prediction of a high home blood pressure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased by 0.037 among participants with high screening blood pressure and 0.006 for those with normal screening blood pressure compared with the basic model. Physicians may need to be aware of 'introverted' patients who have high blood pressure in clinic settings, because they have the potential for 'white-coat' hypertension.

  20. Analytical evaluation of the ADAMS™ A1c HA 8180 thalassemia mode high-pressure liquid chromatography analyser for the measurement of HbA2 and HbF.

    PubMed

    Urrechaga, E

    2016-12-01

    ADAMS ™ A1cHA-8180T is a HPLC system; within 3.5 min, it quantifies HbF, HbA 2 , and HbA 0 and flags abnormal peaks. We evaluate its analytical performance for routine estimation of HbA 2 and HbF, and critical tests were performed for identifying β-thalassemia carriers. Trueness imprecision, carry over, linearity, and effect of anemia were evaluated according to ICLH, ICLS, or manufacture's guidelines. Comparison (ADAMS ™ A1c HA-8160T) was performed by running 400 samples from healthy subjects, 30 alpha and 80 beta carriers (range: 1.9-5.7 %). Trueness - HbA 2 2.7 %, bias 0.81 %; HbA 2 5.8 %, bias 0.38 %. HbA 2 4.0% is not affected by Hb in the range 221-40 g/L. Carry over was negligible. Within run: normal control - CV 1.5 %, high control - CV 0.9 %.Within laboratory: normal control - total CV% 1.59%; high control - 0.92 %. Linearity - y = 1.034x - 0.17, R 2  = 0.998 (range: 2.8-4.8%).Method comparison - y = 0.93x + 0.22, R 2  = 0.997. HbF imprecision CVs between 0.66 and 1.24% and trueness between 0 and 2.8%. Linearity - y = 1.088x - 0.27, R 2  = 0.999 (0.1-5.7%). ADAMS ™ A1c HA-8180T provides a rapid and reliable separation of HbA 2 . The measurement is accurate and reproducible, which is needed because of the slight difference between normal and pathological values. The gap in HbA 2 values between normal subjects and β-thalassemia carriers makes this an appropriate method for rapid screening for carriers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Blood pressure in 6 Yanomami villages].

    PubMed

    Mancilha-Carvalho, J J; Sousa e Silva, N A; Carvalho, J V; Lima, J A

    1991-06-01

    To investigate in Yanomami Indians that not add salt to food, the relationship between blood pressure (BP), biological variables (age, body weight, height and pulse) and urinary electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++). We studied 125 males and 129 females from six villages on Surucuru plateau and on Catrimani and Ajarani rivers region in the state of Roraima, north Brazil. Two BP measurements were made and the mean of them were used in data analysis. None hypertensive was found. Systolic BP decreased with age and correlated with body weight, pulse and urinary Na+. Diastolic BP only correlated with body weight. Height, urinary K+, Ca++ and Mg++ did not correlate with BP. There was no hypertension nor increase of BP with increasing age in these isolated Yanomami.

  2. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  3. Improving Blood Pressure Control Using Smart Technology.

    PubMed

    Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Arora, Anupama; Coombs, Nicholas C; Holloway, Barbara; Mullette, Elizabeth J; Garland, Robin; Walsh Bishop-Green, Shannon; Penso, Jerry; Coon, Patricia J

    2018-03-01

    The authors sought to determine if wireless oscillometric home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) that integrates with smartphone technology improves blood pressure (BP) control among patients with new or existing uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A prospective observational cohort study monitored BP control before and after an educational intervention and introduction to HBPM. Patients in the intervention group were instructed to track their BP using a smartphone device three to seven times per week. Cases were matched to controls at a 1:3 allocation ratio on several clinical characteristics over the same period and received usual care. The proportion of patients with controlled BP was compared between groups at pre- and postintervention, ∼9 months later. Results and Materials: The total study population included 484 patients with mean age 60 years (range 23-102 years), 47.7% female, and 84.6% Caucasian. Mean preintervention BP was 137.8 mm Hg systolic and 81.4 mm Hg diastolic. Mean BP control rates improved for patients who received HBPM from 42% to 67% compared with matched control patients who improved from 59% to 67% (p < 0.01). HBPM with smartphone technology has the potential to improve HTN management among patients with uncontrolled or newly diagnosed HTN. Technology needs to be easy to use and operate and would work best when integrated into local electronic health record systems. In systems without this capability, medical assistants or other personnel may be trained to facilitate the process. Nurse navigator involvement was instrumental in bridging communication between the patients and provider.

  4. Pomegranate Consumption and Blood Pressure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit with diverse medicinal properties. Several lines of experimental and clinical evidence have shown that pomegranate intake helps lowering blood pressure (BP) through different mechanisms. This study aimed to present a narrative review on the anti-hypertensive properties of different parts of pomegranate such as pomegranate juice (PJ), pomegranate peels (PP), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and the mechanisms and phytochemicals responsible for these effects. A review on the efficacy of consuming different parts of pomegranate (juice, peels, fruit extract and seed oil) in lowering BP has been performed. To find relevant studies, a search in PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus up from inception to May 4, 2015 was performed. Human, animals and in vitro studies investigating the anti-hypertensive effects of pomegranate were included in the search. Findings arising from animal and clinical studies have shown pomegranate juice can reduce BP in both short-term and long-term course. These effects are accompanied by antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic actions that collectively improve cardiovascular health. The anti-hypertensive effects have been reported for both pomegranate juice and seed oil. Both systolic and diastolic pressures are affected. Pomegranate juice possesses antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Accurate blood pressure recording: is it difficult?

    PubMed

    Bhalla, A; Singh, R; D'cruz, S; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

    2005-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard guidelines issued by the BHS.

  6. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  7. Current status of achieving blood pressure target and its clinical correlates in Japanese type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroki; Araki, Shin-Ichi; Kawai, Koichi; Hirao, Koichi; Kurihara, Yoshio; Seino, Hiroaki; Takamura, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Hidekatsu; Okada, Akira; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-21

    To investigate the current status of achieved blood pressure levels in association with the number of antihypertensive drug classes as of 2013, and to explore the clinical correlates with achievement of target blood pressure in a large-scale cohort of Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. A nationwide survey was conducted including 12,811 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were divided by achieved blood pressure, <130/80 or 140/90 mmHg, and the number of drug classes taken. The percentages achieving a blood pressure of <130/80 or 140/90 mmHg were 52.0% and 86.1%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, if defined as ≥130/80 mmHg or treated, became 67.9%. Among subjects taking antihypertensive drugs, a blood pressure of <130/80 or <140/90 mmHg was 46.7% and 83.2%, respectively. The percentages of <130/80 mmHg were 55.9% without drugs, 47.1% on 1, 42.5% on 2, 47.2% on 3, and 56.8% on ≥4 drugs, respectively. The most prescribed drugs were renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, followed by calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and β-blockers. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a blood pressure <130/80 mmHg was associated with lower values in age, body mass index, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate, higher proportions on targets for HbA 1C and lipids, and less retinopathy. In type 2 diabetes, hypertension is common and only 52% achieved <130/80 mmHg, indicating a difficulty in blood pressure lowering. This was correlated with difficulties in glycemic and lipid management, obesity, and vascular complications, implying these clustering to be a serious problem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions of social context to blood pressure: findings from a multilevel analysis of social capital and systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, few studies have quantified the effect of residential context on blood pressure. Although these studies have emphasized the importance of socioeconomic influences such as education or poverty levels, the association between the features of social structure such as social capital and blood pressure remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether social capital was associated with systolic blood pressure after controlling for individual potential confounders. We analyzed data from the Shimane Study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding the missing data and data of participants taking hypertension medication, we conducted a multilevel analysis of the data for 335 individuals nested within 30 postcode sectors. Systolic blood pressure increased with increasing age and body mass index. We also found that a higher systolic blood pressure was observed among smokers and those taking medication for diabetes. Regarding the contextual effects of social capital, systolic blood pressure increased with an increasing proportion of lack of fairness, after adjustment for individual confounders. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the association between social capital and systolic blood pressure by using a multilevel methodological framework. Surprisingly, we found that lack of fairness had a strong effect on systolic blood pressure. However, we could not find any significant associations between other items of social capital and systolic blood pressure. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which lack of fairness may have an effect on systolic blood pressure.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, R.

    1927-01-01

    1. Van Leersum's range for the normal blood pressure in the rabbit, as recorded by his method, is confirmed. 2. Van Leersum's conclusion concerning the influence of a liver diet on the blood pressure of the rabbit is not substantiated by his data, since the fluctuations of blood pressure he obtained do not surpass his own recorded figures for normal animals. 3. Fluctuations of systolic blood pressure beyond the "normal" range are not necessary for the production of experimental atherosclerosis of the aorta in rabbits. Inversely, egg yolk feeding experiments in rabbits in which atherosclerosis of varying degree, even extreme, is obtained, are not accompanied by an elevation of blood pressure outside the "normal" range. 4. The fluctuations of blood pressure observed during experimental atherosclerosis do not simulate the condition of essential hypertension in man. PMID:19869349

  10. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  11. Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: Comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Uyen D T; Tran, Truong X; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2017-01-01

    HbA1c has been introduced as a complementary diagnostic test for diabetes, but its impact on disease prevalence is unknown. This study evaluated the concordance between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes in the general population. The study was designed as a population based investigation, with participants being sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and analyzed within 4 hours after collection. HbA1c was measured with high pressure liquid chromatography (Arkray Adams, Japan). FPG was measured by the hexokinase method (Advia Autoanalyzer; Bayer Diagnostics, Germany). Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. Prediabetes was classified as HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. The study included 3523 individuals (2356 women) aged 30 years and above. Based on the HbA1c test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 9.7% (95%CI, 8.7-10.7%; n = 342) and 34.6% (33.0-36.2; n = 1219), respectively. Based on the FPG test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 6.3% (95%CI, 5.5-7.2%; n = 223) and 12.1% (11.1-13.2; n = 427). Among the 427 individuals identified by FPG as "pre-diabetes", 28.6% were classified as diabetes by HbA1c test. The weighted kappa statistic of concordance between HbA1c and FPG was 0.55, with most of the discordance being in the prediabetes group. These data indicate that there is a significant discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes between FPG and HbA1c measurements, and the discordance could have significant impact on clinical practice. FPG appears to underestimate the burden of undiagnosed diabetes.

  12. [Blood pressure variability: clinical interest or simple curiosity?].

    PubMed

    Ciaroni, Stefano

    2007-03-14

    Blood pressure variability is a physiological phenomenon influenced by many internal and external factors. This variability could be also influenced by pathological conditions such as arterial hypertension. Two forms must be mainly distinguished: the blood pressure variability at long and short-term. The latter could only be studied by continuous recordings. In this article will be analysed the interest of measuring blood pressure variability, its cardiovascular prognosis and the therapeutic tools when it is increased.

  13. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  14. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    PubMed

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target <120 mm Hg) and standard (target <140 mm Hg) SBP control in 9361 older adults with high blood pressure at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular disease events. All-cause death and incident chronic kidney disease were secondary outcomes. This post hoc analysis examined whether the effects of the SBP intervention differed by baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (-5.93 ± 6.25 vs. -1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (-6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (-7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control.

  17. Elevated HbA1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Predicting Diabetes Incidence Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lipska, Kasia J.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Gill, Thomas M.; Kanaya, Alka; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Koster, Annemarie; Johnson, Karen C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara; De Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which measures—impaired fasting glucose (IFG), elevated HbA1c, or both—best predict incident diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we selected individuals without diabetes, and we defined IFG (100–125 mg/dL) and elevated HbA1c (5.7–6.4%) per American Diabetes Association guidelines. Incident diabetes was based on self-report, use of antihyperglycemic medicines, or HbA1c ≥6.5% during 7 years of follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, site, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, and physical activity. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for models with IFG and with both IFG and elevated HbA1c. RESULTS Among 1,690 adults (mean age 76.5, 46% men, 32% black), 183 (10.8%) developed diabetes over 7 years. Adjusted odds ratios of diabetes were 6.2 (95% CI 4.4–8.8) in those with IFG (versus those with fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <100 mg/dL) and 11.3 (7.8–16.4) in those with elevated HbA1c (versus those with HbA1c <5.7%). When FPG and HbA1c were considered together, odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.3) in those with IFG only, 8.0 (4.8–13.2) in those with elevated HbA1c only, and 26.2 (16.3–42.1) in those with both IFG and elevated HbA1c (versus those with normal FPG and HbA1c). Addition of elevated HbA1c to the model with IFG resulted in improved discrimination and calibration. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with both IFG and elevated HbA1c have a substantially increased odds of developing diabetes over 7 years. Combined screening with FPG and HbA1c may identify older adults at very high risk for diabetes. PMID:24135387

  18. [Importance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adolescent hypertension].

    PubMed

    Páll, Dénes; Juhász, Mária; Katona, Eva; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Komonyi, Eva; Fülesdi, Béla; Paragh, György

    2009-12-06

    The prevalence of adolescent hypertension is increasing. The national epidemiological study found 2.5% prevalence, while it is 4.5% according to the newest international survey. Repeated casual blood pressure measurements, but not ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is needed for the diagnosis of adolescent hypertension on the basis of the presently available European guideline. At the last decade growing evidence came into light for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adolescence. These data show better correlation with end-organ damages than casual measurements. In patients with hypertension diagnosed based on repeated casual blood pressure measurements, 24-hour monitoring showed normal blood pressure in 21-47%, so this is the rate of white coat hypertension. Masked hypertension can also be diagnosed with the help of this method, which has a prevalence of 7-11%. We can also get useful data for secondary forms of hypertension. Until the appearance of the new European guidelines, more frequent use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is affordable. The confirmation of the diagnosis based on elevated casual blood pressure data is important. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is suggested in cases suspicious for white coat or masked hypertension, in cases of target organ damages or therapy resistant hypertension. Before administration of pharmaceutical therapy in adolescence hypertension - according to author's opinion - ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is absolutely necessary.

  19. Association of betaine with blood pressure in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Xiurong; Chu, Hong; Bai, Youwei; Sun, Zhuxing; Gao, Chaoqing; Zheng, Lemin; Yang, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying elevated blood pressure in dialysis patients are complex as a variety of non-traditional factors are involved. We sought to explore the association of circulating betaine, a compound widely distributed in food, with blood pressure in dialysis patients. We used baseline data of an ongoing cohort study involving patients on hemodialysis. Plasma betaine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 327 subjects. Blood pressure level was determined by intradialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 11.9 years, and 58.4% were male. Average interdialytic ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 138.4 ± 22.7 mm Hg and 84.4 ± 12.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean plasma betaine level was 37.6 μmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of betaine with both systolic blood pressure (β = -3.66, P = .003) and diastolic blood pressure (β = -2.00, P = .004). The associations persisted even after extensive adjustment for cardiovascular covariates. Subgroup analysis revealed that the association between betaine and blood pressure was mainly limited to female patients. Our data suggest that alteration of circulating betaine possibly contributes to blood pressure regulation in these patients. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family History Prevention Healthy Living Medical Conditions Publications Journal Articles Program Publications CDC Addresses High Blood Pressure Educational Materials For Patients For Professionals FAQs Other ...

  1. Home blood pressure monitoring in heart transplant recipients: comparison with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Pierre; Kreitmann, Bernard; Habib, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    How reliable is home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) in heart transplant recipients is not known. Possibly, it may underestimate hypertensive burden, because blood pressure (BP) nondipper profile is frequent among these patients. This prospective study has been designed to determine whether HBPM adequately identifies hypertension in heart transplant recipients. We compared HBPM with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the diagnosis of uncontrolled hypertension in 74 patients 13.5±6.7 years after heart transplantation. HBPM was measured with a validated semiautomatic device twice every morning and twice every evening on 7 consecutive days, within 15 days of ABPM. We also measured the relationship between HBPM, ABPM, and organ damage as measured by albuminuria and left ventricular mass. A nondipper profile was found in 53 (72%) patients. HBPM and ABPM were close according to Pearson bivariate correlations. There was no significant correlation between left ventricular mass and BP either at HBPM or ABPM. Proteinuria significantly correlated with systolic BP either at HBPM (R=0.42; P=0.0002) or ABPM (R=0.25; P=0.03). HBPM adequately classified 61 of 74 (82%) patients as hypertensives or as nonhypertensives or controlled hypertensives. Despite a high prevalence of nondipper profile, HBPM gives a reliable estimate of BP burden in most heart transplant recipients. Thus, our results strongly suggest that HBPM is useful for the long-term follow-up of heart transplant recipients.

  2. Blood Pressure, Perfusion Pressure, and Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Memarzadeh, Farnaz; Ying-Lai, Mei; Chung, Jessica; Azen, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the cross-sectional relationship between blood pressure, perfusion pressure, and prevalence of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in an adult Latino population. Methods. Participants aged 40 years and older (N = 6130) from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES), a large, population-based study of self-identified adult Latinos, underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a complete ocular and clinical examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the covariate-adjusted association of OAG with systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures and perfusion pressures. Covariates included age, intraocular pressure, history of glaucoma treatment including medications and surgery, and history of blood pressure and treatment of blood pressure including use of medications. Results. Low systolic (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5), diastolic (OR = 1.9), and mean (OR = 3.6) perfusion pressures and low diastolic blood pressure (OR = 1.9) were associated with a higher prevalence of OAG in LALES participants. Higher systolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure were associated with a higher prevalence of OAG. There was no relationship between the prevalence of OAG and the presence of a history of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. Low diastolic, systolic and mean perfusion pressures, low diastolic blood pressure, and high systolic and mean arterial blood pressures are associated with a higher prevalence of OAG in adult Latinos. PMID:20089880

  3. Optic nerve head blood flow response to reduced ocular perfusion pressure by alteration of either the blood pressure or intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cull, Grant A; Fortune, Brad

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that blood flow autoregulation in the optic nerve head has less reserve to maintain normal blood flow in the face of blood pressure-induced ocular perfusion pressure decrease than a similar magnitude intraocular pressure-induced ocular perfusion pressure decrease. Twelve normal non-human primates were anesthetized by continuous intravenous infusion of pentobarbital. Optic nerve blood flow was monitored by laser speckle flowgraphy. In the first group of animals (n = 6), the experimental eye intraocular pressure was maintained at 10 mmHg using a saline reservoir connected to the anterior chamber. The blood pressure was gradually reduced by a slow injection of pentobarbital. In the second group (n = 6), the intraocular pressure was slowly increased from 10 mmHg to 50 mmHg by raising the reservoir. In both experimental groups, optic nerve head blood flow was measured continuously. The blood pressure and intraocular pressure were simultaneously recorded in all experiments. The optic nerve head blood flow showed significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.021, repeat measures analysis of variance). It declined significantly more in the blood pressure group compared to the intraocular pressure group when the ocular perfusion pressure was reduced to 35 mmHg (p < 0.045) and below. There was also a significant interaction between blood flow changes and the ocular perfusion pressure treatment (p = 0.004, adjusted Greenhouse & Geisser univariate test), indicating the gradually enlarged blood flow difference between the two groups was due to the ocular perfusion pressure decrease. The results show that optic nerve head blood flow is more susceptible to an ocular perfusion pressure decrease induced by lowering the blood pressure compared with that induced by increasing the intraocular pressure. This blood flow autoregulation capacity vulnerability to low blood pressure may provide experimental evidence related to the

  4. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    PubMed

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  5. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  6. Hyperkalemia in young children: blood pressure checked?

    PubMed

    Hollander, Richard; Mortier, Geert; van Hoeck, Koen

    2016-12-01

    Hyperkalemia in young children is a rare phenomenon and in many cases caused by hemolysis in the specimen due to difficulties in obtaining a sample. However, hyperkalemia can also be a sign of a rare Mendelian syndrome known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. This disease is characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (with normal anion gap) despite normal glomerular filtration. Full recovery of these abnormalities with thiazide diuretics is essential not to miss the diagnosis of this syndrome. We describe two young patients with hyperkalemia as an incidental finding who were subsequently diagnosed with this rare endocrine disorder. Genetic testing revealed mutations in two recently discovered genes, the study of which has helped to unravel the pathophysiologic pathways. In patients with hyperkalemia and a normal glomerular filtration rate, the clinician should actively search for abnormalities in blood pressure since recognizing this condition can lead to simple, cheap, and effective treatment. What is Known: • True Hyperkalemia is rare in pediatrics and can be a sign of FHHt. What is New: • KLHL3 & CUL3 are recently discovered genes helping unravel the pathophysiologic pathway of FHHt.

  7. Continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training is as effective as moderate- to high-intensity exercise training at lowering blood HbA(1c) in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, D; Dendale, P; Jonkers, R A M; Beelen, M; Manders, R J F; Corluy, L; Mullens, A; Berger, J; Meeusen, R; van Loon, L J C

    2009-09-01

    Exercise represents an effective interventional strategy to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. However, the impact of exercise intensity on the benefits of exercise training remains to be established. In the present study, we compared the clinical benefits of 6 months of continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training with those of continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise training, matched for energy expenditure, in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Fifty male obese type 2 diabetes patients (age 59 +/- 8 years, BMI 32 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6 month continuous endurance-type exercise training programme. All participants performed three supervised exercise sessions per week, either 55 min at 50% of whole body peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak (low to moderate intensity) or 40 min at 75% of VO(2)peak (moderate to high intensity). Oral glucose tolerance, blood glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile, body composition, maximal workload capacity, whole body and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and skeletal muscle fibre type composition were assessed before and after 2 and 6 months of intervention. The entire 6 month intervention programme was completed by 37 participants. Continuous endurance-type exercise training reduced blood glycated haemoglobin levels, LDL-cholesterol concentrations, body weight and leg fat mass, and increased VO(2)peak, lean muscle mass and skeletal muscle cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase activity (p < 0.05). No differences were observed between the groups training at low to moderate or moderate to high intensity. When matched for energy cost, prolonged continuous low- to moderate-intensity endurance-type exercise training is equally effective as continuous moderate- to high-intensity training in lowering blood glycated haemoglobin and increasing whole body and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in obese type 2 diabetes patients. ISRCTN32206301 None.

  8. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    , Jung et al. found that these parameters are equally flawed with CKD. Intriguingly, this suggests that anemia affects indirect measures of glycemic exposure not only by its association with more rapid erythrocyte turnover, but, more generally, also as a marker of a catabolic state with altered plasma protein turnover. How, then, should we assess a given diabetic person's degree of glycemic control in the presence of CKD (or of anemia, which, per Jung et al., was, even without CKD, also associated with a reduction in the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose)? Jung et al. suggest the use of continuous glucose monitoring to estimate average glucose. Although becoming recognized as an important tool, this technology is not as generally available as the simpler self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). In an earlier analysis of potential complexities of HbA1c as a measure of glycemic exposure, we showed that self-monitored plasma glucose profiles suggest that approximately 10% of individuals with diabetes have HbA1c substantially above and another 10% have HbA1c substantially below those that may be anticipated based on mean glucose levels. In clinical practice, then, we should consider encouraging older people with diabetes and CKD to perform SMBG to more adequately interpret HbA1c results. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11–3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36–8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:21577346

  10. Development of a cuffless blood pressure measurement system.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Liang-Yu; Kao, Yao-Lin; Tsai, Wen-Ya; Hu, Weichih

    2012-01-01

    This study constructs a novel blood pressure measurement device without the air cuff to overcome the problem of discomfort and portability. The proposed device measures the blood pressure through a mechanism that is made of silicon rubber and pressure transducer. The system uses a microcontroller to control the measurement procedure and to perform the necessary computation. To verify the feasibility of the constructed device, ten young volunteers were recruited. Ten blood pressure readings were obtained using the new system and were compared with ten blood pressure readings from bedside monitor (Spacelabs Medical, model 90367). The results indicated that, when all the readings were included, the mean pressure, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure from the new system were all higher than those from bedside monitor. The correlation coefficients between these two were 0.15, 0.18 and 0.29, for mean, systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively. After excluding irregular apparatus utilization, the correlation coefficient increased to 0.71, 0.60 and 0.41 for diastolic pressure, mean pressure and systolic pressure, respectively. We can conclude from these results that the accuracy can be improved effectively by defining the user regulation more precisely. The above mentioned irregular apparatus utilization factors can be identified and eliminated by the microprocessor to provide a reliable blood pressure measurement in practical applications in the future.

  11. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin A1c Testing: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes in Ontario means that there will be growing demand for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing to monitor glycemic control for the management of this chronic disease. Testing HbA1c where patients receive their diabetes care may improve system efficiency if the results from point-of-care HbA1c testing are comparable to those from laboratory HbA1c measurements. Objectives To review the correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement in patients with diabetes in clinical settings. Data Sources The literature search included studies published between January 2003 and June 2013. Search terms included glycohemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, point of care, and diabetes. Review Methods Studies were included if participants had diabetes; if they compared point-of-care HbA1c devices (licensed by Health Canada and available in Canada) with laboratory HbA1c measurement (reference method); if they performed point-of-care HbA1c testing using capillary blood samples (finger pricks) and laboratory HbA1c measurement using venous blood samples within 7 days; and if they reported a correlation coefficient between point-of-care HbA1c and laboratory HbA1c results. Results Three point-of-care HbA1c devices were reviewed in this analysis: Bayer's A1cNow+, Bio-Rad's In2it, and Siemens’ DCA Vantage. Five observational studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed a positive correlation between point-of-care HbA1c testing and laboratory HbA1c measurement (correlation coefficient, 0.967; 95% confidence interval, 0.960–0.973). Limitations Outcomes were limited to the correlation coefficient, as this was a commonly reported measure of analytical performance in the literature. Results should be interpreted with caution due to risk of bias related to selection of participants, reference standards, and the multiple steps involved in POC HbA1c testing. Conclusions Moderate quality evidence showed a positive

  12. The Effect of Job Strain on Nighttime Blood Pressure Dipping among Men and Women with High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin-bo; Blumenthal, James A.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure. Methods The sample consisted of 122 blue collar and white collar workers (men=72, women=50). Job psychological demands, job control and social support were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire. Job strain was assessed by the ratio of job demands/job control. Nighttime blood pressure dipping was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed on three workdays. Results Men with high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure from awake to sleep than those with low job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the salient component of job strain associated with blood pressure dipping (p=.03). Conclusions High job strain is associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22460541

  13. High Blood Pressure and Sex: Overcome the Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    High blood pressure and sex: Overcome the challenges Treatment for high blood pressure and satisfaction with sex can go hand in hand — if you're ... signs or symptoms. But the impact on your sex life may be obvious. Although sexual activity is ...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1110 Blood pressure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff...

  20. Blood pressure as a prognostic factor after acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Tikhonoff, Valérie; Zhang, Haifeng; Richart, Tom; Staessen, Jan A

    2009-10-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide and is the complication of hypertension that is most directly linked to blood pressure. Hypertension affects nearly 30% of the world's population; therefore, reducing blood pressure is key for the prevention of stroke. Unlike the established role of hypertension as a risk factor for stroke, the prognostic importance of blood pressure in determining outcome after acute stroke is unclear. The acute hypertensive response occurs in more than 50% of all patients with acute stroke and is associated with poor prognosis. The relation between the outcome of acute stroke and blood pressure is U-shaped, with the best outcome at systolic blood-pressure levels ranging from about 140 to 180 mm Hg. The evidence that decreasing blood pressure in hypertensive patients with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke improves prognosis needs further confirmation. Whether raising blood pressure to improve perfusion of ischaemic brain areas is beneficial remains even more uncertain. Present guidelines for the management of blood pressure in patients with acute stroke are not evidence-based, but results from ongoing trials might provide more informed recommendations for the future.

  1. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  2. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... stroke This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  3. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  4. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... tips . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  6. Socioeconomic disadvantage and change in blood pressure associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Diez Roux, Ana V; Chambless, Lloyd; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Arnett, Donna; Eigenbrodt, Marsha; Nieto, F Javier; Szklo, Moyses; Sorlie, Paul

    2002-08-06

    Few studies have examined how the longitudinal change in blood pressure associated with aging differs across social groups within industrialized countries. Data from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study were used to investigate differences in the incidence of hypertension and in aging-related changes in blood pressure by neighborhood and individual socioeconomic factors over a 9-year follow-up. Disadvantage in multiple socioeconomic dimensions was associated with the greatest risk of developing hypertension (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] and 95% CI: HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.75 in whites and HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.13 in blacks). Aging-related increases in systolic blood pressure were inversely associated with socioeconomic position in whites (mean [SEM] 5-year increase in systolic blood pressure 7 [0.7] mm Hg in the most disadvantaged category and 5.4 [0.4] mm Hg in the most advantaged category). In whites, low socioeconomic position was also associated with more rapid declines in diastolic blood pressure after 50 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in hypertension incidence and changes in systolic blood pressure were reduced after adjustment for baseline blood pressure. The change in blood pressure associated with aging varies by social groups within the United States.

  7. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela Mc; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm Jm; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. A representative population-based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to <7mmol/L or HbA1c ≥5.7 to <6.5%. Complete data were available on 939 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was higher, but not significantly so, by HbA1c (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5, 6.8) vs FPG (3.5%, 2.4, 5.1). Overall 79 individuals had diabetes by either measure, but only 21 on both. The prevalence of prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis in this population would have major

  8. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela MC; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm JM; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Background Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. Methods A representative population–based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to <7mmol/L or HbA1c ≥5.7 to <6.5%. Results Complete data were available on 939 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was higher, but not significantly so, by HbA1c (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5, 6.8) vs FPG (3.5%, 2.4, 5.1). Overall 79 individuals had diabetes by either measure, but only 21 on both. The prevalence of prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and

  9. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p < 0.3] and diastolic [p < 0.02]). Nevertheless, such alterations were found to modify the amplitude of the Korotkoff sound, which can manifest itself as an apparent change in arterial blood pressure that is readily discerned by the human ear. The increase in diastolic pressure for the cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  10. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-12-01

    Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.

  11. Relationship of glycemia control to lipid and blood pressure lowering and atherosclerosis: the SANDS experience.

    PubMed

    Mete, Mihriye; Wilson, Charlton; Lee, Elisa T; Silverman, Angela; Russell, Marie; Stylianou, Mario; Umans, Jason G; Wang, Wenyu; Howard, Wm J; Ratner, Robert E; Howard, Barbara V; Fleg, Jerome L

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease prevention for patients with type 2 diabetes is accomplished through hypertension and dyslipidemia management. Although studies have established strategies for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP), none have examined whether glycemia influences ability to achieve lipid and BP targets. This post hoc analysis from the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study examines the role of baseline glycemia in achieving standard and aggressive targets and outcomes after 36 months. Diabetic individuals aged > 40 years with no cardiovascular events (n = 499) were randomized to aggressive versus standard targets for LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and systolic BP (SBP). Management algorithms were used for both groups. Carotid ultrasound and echocardiography were performed at baseline and after 36 months. No differences were observed in baseline hemoglobin A1c between treatment groups nor any significant change in A1c after 36 months in either group. Baseline A1c, however, was significantly and negatively related to achieving LDL-C (P = .007), non-HDL-C (P = .03) and SBP targets (P = .007) and to changes in LDL-C (P = .007), non-HDL-C (P = .03) and SBP (P = .001) in both groups. Baseline A1c failed to predict progression of carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) (P = .42) or left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (P = .10), nor was it related to the effects of lipid and BP lowering on CIMT and LVMI over 36 months. In diabetic adults with no cardiovascular disease events, A1c was negatively associated with ability to achieve LDL-C, non-HDL-C and SBP goals but was not independently related to treatment-associated changes in CIMT or LVMI over 36 months. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  13. Blood pressure and pain sensitivity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Sammantha; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure is associated with diminished pain sensitivity. While this finding is well established in adults, it is less clear when the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges across the life course. Evidence suggests this phenomenon may exist during childhood. Children (N = 309; 56% boys) aged 10-15 years and their parents participated. Blood pressure readings were taken during a resting baseline. Maximum pain intensity was rated using a visual analogue scale (rated 0-10) in response to a finger prick pain induction. Parent-measured resting blood pressure was inversely associated with boys' pain ratings only. Cross-sectionally, lower pain ratings were related to higher SBP, univariately. Longitudinally, pain ratings predicted higher DBP, even after controlling for covariates. Determining when and how the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges may elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  15. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  16. Transient but not sustained blood pressure increments by occupational noise. An ambulatory blood pressure measurement study.

    PubMed

    Fogari, R; Zoppi, A; Corradi, L; Marasi, G; Vanasia, A; Zanchetti, A

    2001-06-01

    Studies on the effects of chronic exposure to industrial noise on clinic blood pressure (BP) at rest have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational noise exposure on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in normotensive subjects. We studied 476 normotensive workers, aged 20-50 years (systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90), at a metallurgical factory; 238 were exposed to high levels of noise (> 85 dB), while 238 were not exposed (< 80 dB). Clinical evaluation included measurements of casual BP (by standard mercury sphygmomanometer, Korotkoff sound phase I and V) and heart rate (HR) (by pulse palpation), body height and weight. All subjects underwent a 24 h non-invasive ABP monitoring (by SpaceLabs 90207 recorder; SpaceLabs, Redmond, Washington, USA) twice within 14 days: one during a normal working day and one during a non-working day. Measurements were performed every 15 min. Computed analysis of individual recordings provided average SBP, DBP and HR values for 24 h, daytime working hours (0800-1700 h), daytime non-working hours (1700-2300 h) and night-time (2300-0800 h). No significant difference in clinic SBP, DBP and HR was observed between exposed and non-exposed subjects. Results obtained by ABP monitoring showed in the exposed workers: (a) a higher SBP (by a mean of 6 mmHg, P < 0.0001 versus controls) and DBP (by a mean of 3 mmHg, P < 0.0001) during the time of exposure and the following 2 or 3 h, whereas no difference between the two groups was found during the non-working day; (b) an increase in HR, which was present not only during the time of exposure to noise (+3.7 beats-per-minute (bpm), P < 0.0001 versus controls), but also during the non-working hours (+2.8 bpm, P < 0.001) and during the day-time hours of the non-working day (+2.8 bpm, P < 0.003); (c) a significant increase in BP variability throughout the working day. These findings suggest that in normotensive subjects

  17. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  18. Novel blood pressure and pulse pressure estimation based on pulse transit time and stroke volume approximation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonnyong; Sohn, JangJay; Park, Jonghyun; Yang, SeungMan; Lee, Saram; Kim, Hee Chan

    2018-06-18

    Non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitors are of great interest to the medical community due to their value in hypertension management. Recently, studies have shown the potential of pulse pressure as a therapeutic target for hypertension, but not enough attention has been given to non-invasive continuous monitoring of pulse pressure. Although accurate pulse pressure estimation can be of direct value to hypertension management and indirectly to the estimation of systolic blood pressure, as it is the sum of pulse pressure and diastolic blood pressure, only a few inadequate methods of pulse pressure estimation have been proposed. We present a novel, non-invasive blood pressure and pulse pressure estimation method based on pulse transit time and pre-ejection period. Pre-ejection period and pulse transit time were measured non-invasively using electrocardiogram, seismocardiogram, and photoplethysmogram measured from the torso. The proposed method used the 2-element Windkessel model to model pulse pressure with the ratio of stroke volume, approximated by pre-ejection period, and arterial compliance, estimated by pulse transit time. Diastolic blood pressure was estimated using pulse transit time, and systolic blood pressure was estimated as the sum of the two estimates. The estimation method was verified in 11 subjects in two separate conditions with induced cardiovascular response and the results were compared against a reference measurement and values obtained from a previously proposed method. The proposed method yielded high agreement with the reference (pulse pressure correlation with reference R ≥ 0.927, diastolic blood pressure correlation with reference R ≥ 0.854, systolic blood pressure correlation with reference R ≥ 0.914) and high estimation accuracy in pulse pressure (mean root-mean-squared error ≤ 3.46 mmHg) and blood pressure (mean root-mean-squared error ≤ 6.31 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure and ≤ 8.41

  19. Direct measurement of capillary blood pressure in the human lip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, S. E.; Tucker, B. J.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we developed and tested a new procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood pressures above heart level in humans. Capillary and postcapillary venule blood pressures were measured directly in 13 human subjects by use of the servonulling micropressure technique adapted for micropuncture of lip capillaries. Pressure waveforms were recorded in 40 separate capillary vessels and 14 separate postcapillary venules over periods ranging from 5 to 64 s. Localization and determination of capillary and postcapillary vessels were ascertained anatomically before pressure measurements. Capillary pressure was 33.2 +/- 1.5 (SE) mm Hg in lips of subjects seated upright. Repeated micropunctures of the same vessel gave an average coefficient of variation of 0.072. Postcapillary venule pressure was 18.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg. This procedure produces a direct and reproducible means of measuring microvascular blood pressures in a vascular bed above heart level in humans.

  20. Blood pressure in firefighters, police officers, and other emergency responders.

    PubMed

    Kales, Stefanos N; Tsismenakis, Antonios J; Zhang, Chunbai; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2009-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increased risk begins in the prehypertensive range and increases further with higher pressures. The strenuous duties of emergency responders (firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel) can interact with their personal risk profiles, including elevated blood pressure, to precipitate acute cardiovascular events. Approximately three-quarters of emergency responders have prehypertension or hypertension, a proportion which is expected to increase, based on the obesity epidemic. Elevated blood pressure is also inadequately controlled in these professionals and strongly linked to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Notably, the majority of incident cardiovascular disease events occur in responders who are initially prehypertensive or only mildly hypertensive and whose average premorbid blood pressures are in the range in which many physicians would hesitate to prescribe medications (140-146/88-92). Laws mandating public benefits for emergency responders with cardiovascular disease provide an additional rationale for aggressively controlling their blood pressure. This review provides a background on emergency responders, summarizes occupational risk factors for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome, their prevalence of elevated blood pressure, and evidence linking hypertension with adverse outcomes in these professions. Next, discrepancies between relatively outdated medical standards for emergency responders and current, evidence-based guidelines for blood pressure management in the general public are highlighted. Finally, a workplace-oriented approach for blood pressure control among emergency responders is proposed, based on the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

  1. [Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes mellitus in adolescents with overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Hernández, Aleida; Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Garrido-Magaña, Eulalia; Fiorentini-Fayad, Gigliola Margaretta; Nishimura-Meguro, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 it was introduced a new diagnostic criteria based on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) greater than or equal to 6.5 % in the adult population; some studies suggest that the cutoff may be smaller in pediatric population. The objective was to determine the utility of HbA1c greater than or equal to 6.5 % as a diagnostic test for DM in Mexican adolescents with overweight or obesity. Full somatometry was performed. Also, Tanner stage, blood pressure, blood glucose, glucose tolerance curve (GTC) and HbA1c were analyzed. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values and ROC curve were calculated for the diagnosis of DM with HbA1c. 109 adolescents between 10 and 16 years referred for obesity or overweight plus comorbidities were studied; 58 % were females, the age was of 13 ± 1.74 years, the BMI percentile 95.3, and the HbA1c 5.73 ± 0.9 %. It was made a diagnosis of DM in 9 cases (8.3 %), prediabetes in 8 (7.3 %) and normal glucose tolerance in 92 (84.4 %). The HbA1c mean was 5.6 ± 0.04, 5.7 ± 0.4, and 5.6 ± 0.73 %, respectively. HbA1c greater than or equal to 6.5 % had a sensitivity of 12.5 %, a specificity of 89.8 %, a PPV of 10.65 and a NPV of 14.28. The best cutoff point for diagnosing DM through ROC curve was 5.45 %, with a sensitivity of 62.5 %, a specificity of 57.1 %, PPV 2.53 and NPV 33.3. The level of HbA1c greater than or equal to 6.5 % had low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of DM. A lower cutoff point is insufficient to use HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion. These results are consistent with the ones of other journals.

  2. Blood pressure in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Robert W; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Perrone, Ronald D; Torres, Vicente E; Braun, William E; Steinman, Theodore I; Winklhofer, Franz T; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G; Hogan, Marie C; Miskulin, Dana C; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F; Grantham, Jared J; Harris, Peter C; Flessner, Michael F; Bae, Kyongtae T; Moore, Charity G; Chapman, Arlene B

    2014-12-11

    Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002). In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As

  3. Grandparental education, parental education and adolescent blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Man Ki; Schooling, C Mary; Leung, Gabriel M; Subramanian, Subu V

    2016-09-01

    Maternal and paternal education could affect childhood blood pressure differently. Grandparental education might also play a role. Disentangling their contribution to childhood blood pressure may shed light on the persistence of disparities and potential windows of intervention. Using 5604 participants from a Chinese birth cohort born in 1997 and followed-up until ~13years (68% of follow-up), we examined the associations of parental education and grandparental education with age-, sex, and height-specific blood pressure z-scores or prehypertension status. Parental education was inversely associated with adolescent systolic (-0.11 z-score, equivalent to -1.17mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19 to -0.04 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.07 z-score, equivalent to -0.79mmHg, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.04). The magnitude of association was similar for maternal or paternal education. Grandparental education was not associated with adolescent blood pressure. No association with prehypertension was found. In an economically developed non-Western setting, both maternal and paternal, but not grandparental, education was associated with adolescent blood pressure. Blood pressure may be responsive to contemporary family socioeconomic conditions that may be scrutinized for suitable interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review compares blood pressure measurements obtained in the clinic with those obtained outside the clinic to predict cardiovascular and renal injury and outcomes. Recent findings Data are accumulating that suggest that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a superior prognostic marker compared to blood pressures obtained in the clinic. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can detect white coat hypertension and masked hypertension which results in less misclassification of blood pressures. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a marker of cardiovascular end points in CKD. Non dipping is associated with proteinuria and lower GFR. Although non-dipping is associated with more ESRD and cardiovascular events, adjustment for other risk factors removes the prognostic significance of non-dipping. For patients with CKD, not on dialysis, 24 hour ambulatory BP of <125/75 mm Hg, daytime ambulatory of <130/85 mm Hg and nighttime ambulatory BP of <110/70 mm Hg appear to be reasonable goal BP targets. In the management of hypertension in patients with CKD, control of hypertension is important. Ambulatory BP monitoring may be useful to assign more aggressive treatment to patients with masked hypertension and withdraw antihypertensive therapy in patients with white-coat hypertension. Summary Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can refine cardiovascular and renal risk assessment in all stages of chronic kidney disease. The independent prognostic role of non-dipping is unclear. PMID:17868791

  6. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social support, stress, and blood pressure in black adults.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, D S; Croft, J B; James, S A; Keenan, N L; Browning, S R; Garrett, J M; Curtis, A B

    1997-09-01

    Psychosocial factors arising from socioeconomic disadvantage and discrimination may contribute to the excess risk of elevated blood pressure in African-Americans. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of social support and stress with blood pressure in a community-based sample of 25-to 50-year-old black adults in Pitt County, NC. A stratified random sample of dwellings was selected in 1988, and 1,784 black adults (80% of those eligible) were interviewed. Analyses were sex specific and adjusted for age, obesity, and waist/hip ratio. In separate analyses of emotional support, instrumental support, and stress with blood pressure, all associations were in the predicted direction (inverse for support, direct for stress) but were stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Differences in systolic blood pressure associated with low support or high stress ranged from 5.2 to 3.6 mmHg in women and 3.5 to 2.5 mmHg in men. In simultaneous regression analyses of support and stress, each of the separate effects was reduced for women, but a sizable aggregate effect of low support and high stress remained [+7.2 mmHg (95% confidence limits = +1.3, +13.1) for systolic blood pressure and +4.0 mmHg (95% confidence limits = +0.1, +7.9) for diastolic blood pressure.

  8. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    PubMed

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P < 0.01 in almost all groups). Boys and girls advanced in sexual maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  9. [Breast feeding and systemic blood pressure in infants].

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Martha A; Díaz-De-León, Luz V; Guízar-Mendoza, Juan M; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cipriano-González, Marisol; Díaz-Pérez, Raúl; Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca O; De-la-Roca-Chiapas, José María; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure levels in childhood influence these levels in adulthood, and breastfeeding has been considered such as a cardioprotective. We evaluated the association between blood pressure levels and feeding type in a group of infants. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study in term infants with appropriate weight at birth, to compare blood pressure levels in those children with exclusively breastfeeding, mixed-feeding and formula feeding. The comparison of groups was performed using ANOVA and multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with mean arterial blood pressure levels. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. We included 20 men and 24 women per group. Infant Formula Feeding had higher current weight and weight gain compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure levels, as well as respiratory and heart rate were higher in the groups of exclusively formula feeding and mixed-feeding than in those with exclusively breastfeeding (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis identified that variables associated with mean blood pressure levels were current body mass index, weight gain and formula feeding. Infants in breastfeeding show lower blood pressure, BMI and weight gain.

  10. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  11. Regulation of choroidal blood flow during combined changes in intraocular pressure and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Polska, Elzbieta; Simader, Christian; Weigert, Günter; Doelemeyer, Arno; Kolodjaschna, Julia; Scharmann, Ole; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2007-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that human choroidal blood flow (ChBF) may depend, not only on ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), but also on absolute mean arterial pressure (MAP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). There were two study days in an open design. On the first day, OPP was varied by elevating IOP during a squatting-induced increase in MAP (28 subjects). On the second day, only the IOP was increased (17 subjects). IOP was raised in stepwise increments by using the suction cup Subfoveal ChBF (laser Doppler flowmetry), MAP, and IOP were assessed, and OPP was calculated as (2/3)(MAP - IOP). For correlation analysis, data from all subjects were pooled according to IOP and MAP, and correlation analyses were performed. When data from study day 1 were grouped according to IOP, no correlation was observed between ChBF and MAP; but ChBFs were lower, the higher the IOP (P < 0.001). When data were grouped according to MAP, a significant correlation was found between ChBF and IOP (P < 0.001), but correlations were independent of MAP. When data of study day 2 were pooled according to IOP, a correlation between ChBF and OPP was seen only at IOP > 40 mm Hg (P < 0.05). The data confirm previously published observations that the choroid shows some autoregulatory capacity during changes in OPP. In addition, the data indicate that the choroid regulates its blood flow better during exercise-induced changes in MAP than during an experimental increase in IOP.

  12. Blood pressure and neuropsychological test performance in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alsumali, Adnan; Mekary, Rania A; Seeger, John; Regestein, Quentin

    2016-06-01

    To study the association between blood pressure and neuropsychological test performance in healthy postmenopausal women. Data from 88 healthy postmenopausal women aged 46-73 years, who were not experiencing hot flashes, and who had participated in a prior drug trial, were analyzed to find whether baseline blood pressure was associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological testing done at 3 follow-up visits separated by 4 weeks. Factor analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of neuropsychological test performance. Mixed linear modeling was used to evaluate the association between baseline blood pressure and repeatedly measured neuropsychological test performance at follow-up in a complete case analysis (n=53). In a sensitivity analysis (n=88), multiple-imputation using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was used to account for missing data (blood pressure results) for some visits. The variables recording neuropsychological test performance were reduced to two main factors (Factor 1=selective attention; Factor 2=complex processing). In the complete case analysis, the association between a 20-mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure and Factor 1 remained statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders, before adjusting for systolic blood pressure (slope=0.60; 95%CI=0.04,1.16), and after adjusting for systolic blood pressure (slope=0.76; 95%CI=0.06, 1.47). The positive slopes indicated an increase in the time spent performing a given task (i.e., a decrease in neuropsychological test performance). No other significant associations were found between systolic blood pressure and either factor. The results did not materially change after applying the multiple-imputation method. An increase in diastolic blood pressure was associated with a decrease in neuropsychological test performance among older healthy postmenopausal women experiencing hot flashes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    PubMed

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  14. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  15. Effects of psychological distress on blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, S; Weinrich, M; Hardin, S; Gleaton, J; Pesut, D J; Garrison, C

    2000-10-01

    This cross-sectional survey measured relationships among blood pressure and measures of psychologic distress, family structure, and economic status in a sample of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo. Spielberger's Anger Scale and Derogatis' Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Data analysis revealed 5% of the 1079 adolescents were hypertensive. Multiple regression analyses revealed the following predictors of higher diastolic blood pressure: African-American race, recipient of subsidized lunch, exposure to Hurricane Hugo, and higher anger-in scores in males. The effects of a catastrophic event such as a hurricane on blood pressure and the effects of introjected anger have implications for both health care consumers and providers.

  16. Blood Pressure Regulation XI: Overview and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Peter B.; Chapleau, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    While the importance of regulating arterial blood pressure within a ‘normal’ range is widely appreciated, the definition of ‘normal’ and the means by which humans and other species regulate blood pressure under various conditions remain hotly debated. The effects of diverse physiological, pathological and environmental challenges on blood pressure and the mechanisms that attempt to maintain it at an optimal level are reviewed and critically analyzed in a series of articles published in this themed issue of the European Journal of Applied Physiology. We summarize here the major points made in these reviews, with emphasis on unifying concepts of regulatory mechanisms and future directions for research. PMID:24463603

  17. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal’s blood pressure

  18. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure

  19. Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, J D; Tuxen, D; Sale, D G; Moroz, J R; Sutton, J R

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to record the blood pressure response to heavy weight-lifting exercise in five experienced body builders. Blood pressure was directly recorded by means of a capacitance transducer connected to a catheter in the brachial artery. Intrathoracic pressure with the Valsalva maneuver was recorded as mouth pressure by having the subject maintain an open glottis while expiring against a column of Hg during the lifts. Exercises included single-arm curls, overhead presses, and both double- and single-leg presses performed to failure at 80, 90, 95, and 100% of maximum. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures rose rapidly to extremely high values during the concentric contraction phase for each lift and declined with the eccentric contraction. The greatest peak pressures occurred during the double-leg press where the mean value for the group was 320/250 mmHg, with pressures in one subject exceeding 480/350 mmHg. Peak pressures with the single-arm curl exercise reached a mean group value of 255/190 mmHg when repetitions were continued to failure. Mouth pressures of 30-50 Torr during a single maximum lift, or as subjects approached failure with a submaximal weight, indicate that a portion of the observed increase in blood pressure was caused by a Valsalva maneuver. It was concluded that when healthy young subjects perform weight-lifting exercises the mechanical compression of blood vessels combines with a potent pressor response and a Valsalva response to produce extreme elevations in blood pressure. Pressures are extreme even when exercise is performed with a relatively small muscle mass.

  20. Orthostatic blood pressure regulation predicts classroom effort in children.

    PubMed

    Carapetian, Stephanie; Siedlarz, Monika; Jackson, Sandra; Perlmuter, Lawrence C

    2008-04-01

    The increase in orthostatic systolic blood pressure associated with the shift in posture from lying to standing requires several compensatory mechanisms to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion. Decreased efficiency in the various mechanisms controlling orthostatic blood pressure regulation can result in dizziness, lightheadedness, and syncope. The degree of effectiveness of orthostatic systolic blood pressure regulation (OBPR) serves as a marker for a variety of problems including fatigue, depression, anxiety, reduced attention, impulsive behavior and reduced volition. In normal children, an insufficient increase in systolic blood pressure in response to upright posture is predictive of mild cognitive and affective problems. The present study examined orthostatic systolic blood pressure regulation in relation to yearlong teachers' evaluations of academic grades and effort in 7-11 year old children. Poorer systolic blood pressure regulation in response to orthostasis was associated with reduced levels of classroom effort, while academic grades were spared. Converging evidence from clinical as well as experimental studies suggests that the linkage between (OBPR) and effort may be partially mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, altered release of neurotransmitters, or reduced cerebral blood flow.

  1. [Current clinical aspects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Cuéllar-Álvarez, José; Villegas-Herrera, Karla Montserrat; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is the prevalentest disease worldwide that significantly increases cardiovascular risk. An early diagnosis together to achieve goals decreases the risk of complications significatly. Recently have been updated the diagnostic criteria for hypertension and the introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The introduction into clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was to assist the diagnosis of «white coat hypertension» and «masked hypertension». Today has also shown that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is better than the traditional method of recording blood pressure in the office, to the diagnosis and to adequate control and adjustment of drug treatment. Also there have been introduced important new concepts such as isloted nocturnal hypertension, morning blood pressure elevation altered and altered patterns of nocturnal dip in blood pressure; which have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have shown significant prognostic value in some stocks. There are still other concepts on which further study is needed to properly establish their introduction to clinical practice as hypertensive load variability, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition to setting values according to further clinical studies in populations such as elderly and children. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. [Blood pressure variability and left ventricular hypertrophy in arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Amodeo, C; Martins, S M; Silva Júnior, O; Barros, L M; Batlouni, M; Sousa, J E

    1993-05-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular hypertrophy correlation with blood pressure variability during day and night time as well as throughout the 24h period. Fifteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension underwent to bi-dimensional echocardiographic study and to 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitorization. Left ventricular mass was calculated according to previous validated formulas. The standard deviation of the mean blood pressures during day-time, night-time and 24h period was taken as blood pressure variability indices. The mean age of the group was 42 years old; 9 patients were male and all were white. This study showed that only the systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability during the 24h period correlated significantly with left ventricular mass, (r = 0.53 and p < 0.05; r = 0.58 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was no significant correlation of the day-time and night-time pressures variability with left ventricular mass. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability during the 24h period may be one of the many determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with mild to moderate hypertension.

  3. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    PubMed

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  4. Both high and low HbA1c predict incident heart failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Parry, Helen M; Deshmukh, Harshal; Levin, Daniel; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Elder, Douglas H J; Morris, Andrew D; Struthers, Allan D; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Lang, Chim C

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for heart failure development, but the relationship between incident heart failure and antecedent glycemia has not been evaluated. The Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study study holds data for 8683 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dispensed prescribing, hospital admission data, and echocardiography reports were linked to extract incident heart failure cases from December 1998 to August 2011. All available HbA1c measures until heart failure development or end of study were used to model HbA1c time-dependently. Individuals were observed from study enrolment until heart failure development or end of study. Proportional hazard regression calculated heart failure development risk associated with specific HbA1c ranges accounting for comorbidities associated with heart failure, including blood pressure, body mass index, and coronary artery disease. Seven hundred and one individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (8%) developed heart failure during follow up (mean 5.5 years, ±2.8 years). Time-updated analysis with longitudinal HbA1c showed that both HbA1c <6% (hazard ratio =1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-1.86; P value <0.0001) and HbA1c >10% (hazard ratio =1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-2.16; P value <0.0001) were independently associated with the risk of heart failure. Both high and low HbA1c predicted heart failure development in our cohort, forming a U-shaped relationship. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p <0.05). Furthermore, a positive correlation was seen between nocturnal urine output and nocturnal mean arterial pressure (r = 0.32, p <0.001). Nocturnal urine output was significantly higher during wet nights than dry nights (p <0.001). However, no significant difference was found in mean arterial pressure between wet and dry nights. Nocturnal mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in children with enuresis with polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  6. Implications of Blood Pressure Measurement Technique for Implementation of Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2017-02-03

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was reduced by 25% when blood pressure (BP) was targeted to 120 mm Hg systolic compared with 140 mm Hg systolic in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT); however, BP was measured using a research technique. SPRINT specified 5 minutes of seated rest in a quiet room followed by 3 oscillometric measurements without an observer in the room. The relationship of this research-grade methodology to routine BP measurements is not known. Among 275 people with chronic kidney disease who had BP <140/90 mm Hg when they came to the clinic, we measured BP as in SPRINT and recorded BP on the same day without specification of seated rest. Compared with routine measurement, the research-grade systolic BP was 12.7 mm Hg lower with wide limits of agreement (-46.1 to 20.7 mm Hg). Research grade systolic BP was 7.9 mm Hg lower than daytime ambulatory systolic BP and had wide agreement limits (-33.2 to 17.4 mm Hg). Whereas the routine, research-grade, and daytime ambulatory systolic BP were all related to echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, the strength of the relationship between research-grade and daytime ambulatory systolic BP to left ventricular hypertrophy was similar and stronger than the strength of the relationship between routine systolic BP and left ventricular hypertrophy. Taken together, these results suggest that translation of the SPRINT results will require measurement of BP as performed in that trial. Instead of an algebraic manipulation of routine clinic measurements, the SPRINT methodology of BP measurement would be needed at minimum if implementation of the SPRINT results were to be deployed in the population at large. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed. PMID:27275173

  8. Factors Associated with Blood Pressure Variability Based on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Subjects with Hypertension in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yu, YanXia; Liang, Dehong; Jia, En-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the factors associated with blood pressure variability in a multi-ethnicity prospective study in China to gain more evidence to guide the prevention and management of hypertension through risk factor intervention. A total of 318 consecutive adult subjects aged 29-94 years with suspected or known hypertension were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure variability measurements were based on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. To measure short-term reading-to-reading blood pressure variability in this study, we used the standard deviation(SD) of the blood pressure to estimate the blood pressure variability. The SDs of the blood pressure in this study ranged from 5.425 to 32.25, with a median of 10.81 (quartile range, 8.90-12.46). No significant difference regarding the level distribution of blood pressure variability was found across the various ethnicities. Spearman correlation analyses indicated that the SD of blood pressure was positively correlated with DSBP (r=0.302, p=<0.001), NSBP (r=0.383, p=<0.001), NDBP (r=0.230, p=<0.001), and FBG (r=0.129, p=0.023) and was negatively correlated with triglyceride (r=-0.289, p=<0.001), CR (r=-0.242, p=<0.001), HDL-C (r=-0.230, p=<0.001), LDL-C (r=-0.186, p=0.001), and apolipoprotein B levels (r=-0.157, p=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that triglycerides (β=-0.217, p=<0.001), NSBP (β=0.174, p=0.003), FBG (β=0.128, p=0.024), DDBP (β=-0.128, p=0.022), and apolipoprotein A (β=-0.116, p=0.036) were significantly and independently associated with the blood pressure variability. In this study, blood pressure variability was significantly associated with not only blood pressure levels but also patient demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  10. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D

    1983-03-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device. The... electrical signal related to the electrical or mechanical changes produced in the transducer. (b...

  12. Automated analysis of blood pressure measurements (Korotkov sound)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.

  13. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  14. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure levels: incidental or causal association?

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Rouse, I L; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Vandongen, R

    1988-09-01

    Evidence that nutrients other than the major cations may influence blood pressure levels stems from studies of acculturated vegetarians and from randomized controlled dietary trials. Earlier studies of vegetarians focused on religious groups and on vegans, making it difficult to know whether their lower blood pressures were due to diet per se or to other aspects of lifestyle. Seventh-day Adventist vegetarians showed significantly less hypertension and lower blood pressures compared with Mormon omnivores, effects which were independent of differences in obesity and not due to altered sodium intake. Subsequently, controlled dietary intervention studies in healthy normotensive omnivores provided more direct evidence for a blood pressure-lowering effect of a lactoovovegetarian diet with reversible changes of 5-6 mm Hg systolic and 2-3 mm Hg diastolic occurring over 6-wk periods. Similar dietary effects in mild hypertensive subjects provides impetus for identifying the responsible nutrients.

  15. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata. We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing. In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator. In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  16. [Design of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Zhang, D L; Bai, H W; Zhang, D A

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a kind of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit. The auto-acquisition of blood-pressure parameter controlled by 89C2051 single chip microcomputer is accomplished by collecting and processing the driving signal of LCD. The circuit that is successfully applied in the home unit of telemedicine system has the simple and reliable properties.

  17. Job strain, blood pressure and response to uncontrollable stress.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M; Joekes, K

    1999-02-01

    The association between cardiovascular disease risk and job strain (high-demand, low-control work) may be mediated by heightened physiological stress responsivity. We hypothesized that high levels of job strain lead to increased cardiovascular responses to uncontrollable but not controllable stressors. Associations between job strain and blood pressure reductions after the working day (unwinding) were also assessed. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioral tasks, and ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate during a working day and evening. We studied 162 school teachers (60 men, 102 women) selected from a larger survey as experiencing high or low job strain. Blood pressure, heart rate and electrodermal responses to an externally paced (uncontrollable) task and a self-paced (controllable) task were assessed. Blood pressure was monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. The groups of subjects with high and low job strain did not differ in demographic factors, body mass or resting cardiovascular activity. Blood pressure reactions to the uncontrollable task were greater in high than low job-strain groups, but responses to the controllable task were not significantly different between groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between groups over the working day, but decreased to a greater extent in the evening in subjects with low job strain. Job strain is associated with a heightened blood pressure response to uncontrollable but not controllable tasks. The failure of subjects with high job strain to show reduced blood pressure in the evening may be a manifestation of chronic allostatic load.

  18. Association between active commuting and elevated blood pressure in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Fábio da Silva; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Souza, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the association between active commuting and blood pressure in adolescents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with high school students from public education network in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from 6039 students (14 to 19 years) were collected using a questionnaire. “Physically inactive” were considered those who reported not to walk or ride a bicycle to and from school on any day of the past week, and/or those who, regardless of the weekly frequency of practice this type of activity, reported the duration of commuting to school was less than 20 minutes (round trip). The high blood pressure was obtained by Omron HEM 742 equipment. Adolescents with high blood pressure were defined as those with higher blood pressure or equal to the 95th percentile for age, sex and height. Regression logistic analyses were used to assess the association between active commuting and high blood pressure, considering adjustments for the following confounders: sex, age, overweight, total physical activity, socioeconomic level, place of residence. Results The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.3%, and 79.3% were considered insufficiently active in commuting. There was an association between high blood pressure and active commuting only among those living in rural areas (OR = 6.498; 95% CI = 1.513-27.900), and the same was not observed among those living in urban areas (OR = 1.113; 95% CI = 0.812-1.526). Conclusion Active commuting can be considered a protective factor for high blood pressure in adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:29364363

  19. Adiposity and Blood Pressure in 110 000 Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gnatiuc, Louisa; Halsey, Jim; Herrington, William G.; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Peto, Richard; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the importance of general versus central markers of adiposity to blood pressure, leading to suggestions that population-specific adiposity thresholds may be needed. We examined the relevance of adiposity to blood pressure among 111 911 men and women who, when recruited into the Mexico City Prospective Study, were aged 35 to 89 years, had no chronic disease, and were not taking antihypertensives. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 2 markers of general adiposity (body mass index and height-adjusted weight) and 4 markers of central adiposity (waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, and waist:height ratio), adjusted for relevant confounders. Mean (SD) adiposity levels were: body mass index (28.7±4.5 kg/m2), height-adjusted weight (70.2±11.2 kg), waist circumference (93.3±10.6 cm), hip circumference (104.0±9.0 cm), waist:hip ratio (0.90±0.06), and waist:height ratio (0.60±0.07). Associations with blood pressure were linear with no threshold levels below which lower general or central adiposity was not associated with lower blood pressure. On average, each 1 SD higher measured adiposity marker was associated with a 3 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and 2 mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure (SEs <0.1 mm Hg), but for the waist:hip ratio, associations were only approximately half as strong. General adiposity associations were independent of central adiposity, but central adiposity associations were substantially reduced by adjustment for general adiposity. Findings were similar for men and women. In Mexican adults, often overweight or obese, markers of general adiposity were stronger independent predictors of blood pressure than measured markers of central adiposity, with no threshold effects. PMID:28223471

  20. APOL1 and blood pressure changes in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G

    2017-10-01

    APOL1 risk variants have been shown to be associated with kidney disease and hypertension. In this study, Chen and colleagues assess the association of these risk variants with longitudinal blood pressure in young adults. We review the current literature on association of these alleles with blood pressure and propose future directions to resolve the existing controversies. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between active commuting and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santana, Fábio da Silva; Palmeira, Aline Cabral; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Souza, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the association between active commuting and blood pressure in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with high school students from public education network in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from 6039 students (14 to 19 years) were collected using a questionnaire. "Physically inactive" were considered those who reported not to walk or ride a bicycle to and from school on any day of the past week, and/or those who, regardless of the weekly frequency of practice this type of activity, reported the duration of commuting to school was less than 20 minutes (round trip). The high blood pressure was obtained by Omron HEM 742 equipment. Adolescents with high blood pressure were defined as those with higher blood pressure or equal to the 95th percentile for age, sex and height. Regression logistic analyses were used to assess the association between active commuting and high blood pressure, considering adjustments for the following confounders: sex, age, overweight, total physical activity, socioeconomic level, place of residence. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.3%, and 79.3% were considered insufficiently active in commuting. There was an association between high blood pressure and active commuting only among those living in rural areas (OR = 6.498; 95% CI = 1.513-27.900), and the same was not observed among those living in urban areas (OR = 1.113; 95% CI = 0.812-1.526). Active commuting can be considered a protective factor for high blood pressure in adolescents living in rural areas.

  2. [How does salt intake influence blood pressure? Associated aetiopathogenic mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F

    2017-12-15

    Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is far more common in adults, experts link childhood obesity to rising rates of childhood hypertension. In some ... Weight A Primer on Preemies Kidney Diseases in Childhood Coarctation of the Aorta Overweight and Obesity Carbohydrates and Sugar Kids and Exercise Word! Blood ...

  5. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  6. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section 870.1140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood...

  8. Impact of calibration on estimates of central blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Soender, T K; Van Bortel, L M; Møller, J E; Lambrechtsen, J; Hangaard, J; Egstrup, K

    2012-12-01

    Using the Sphygmocor device it is recommended that the radial pressure wave is calibrated for brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However it has been suggested that brachial-to-radial pressure amplification causes underestimation of central blood pressures (BPs) using this calibration. In the present study we examined if different calibrations had an impact on estimates of central BPs and on the clinical interpretation of our results. On the basis of ambulatory BP measurements, patients were categorized into patients with controlled, uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. We first calibrated the radial pressure wave as recommended and afterwards recalibrated the same pressure wave using brachial DBP and calculated mean arterial pressure. Recalibration of the pressure wave generated significantly higher estimates of central SBP (P=0.0003 and P<0.0001 at baseline and P=0.0001 and P=0.0002 after 6 months). Using recommended calibration we found a significant change in central SBP in both treatment groups (P=0.05 and P=0.01), however, after recalibrating significance was lost in patients with resistant hypertension (P=0.15). We conclude that calibration with DBP and mean arterial pressure produces higher estimates of central BPs than recommended calibration. The present study also shows that this difference between the two calibration methods can produce more than a systematic error and has an impact on interpretation of clinical results.

  9. Anger Expression and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starner, Tamie M.; Peters, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical significance of childhood hypertension is important as elevated pressures during childhood are found to follow a progressively increasing track into adulthood. Little work has been done to examine the relationship of emotions and emotional behavioral factors to the development of hypertension in children. Using the Roy Adaptation…

  10. CPAP therapy for patients with sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes mellitus improves control of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jamie Chung Mei; Lai, Agnes Yuen Kwan; Tam, Terence Chi Chun; Yuen, Michele Mae Ann; Lam, Karen Siu Ling; Ip, Mary Sau Man

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment of OSA may have a positive impact on cardiometabolic profile. This study investigates the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on glycemic control and cardiometabolic parameters in patients with diabetes. Diabetic patients, who were newly diagnosed of OSA with an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 and HbA1c ≥7%, were randomly assigned to either CPAP treatment or no treatment (control) for 3 months. Measurements included HbA1c, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipids, urinary albumin, and peripheral arterial tonometry (to assess endothelial function). Sixty-four patients (52 men) were randomized, with mean (±SD) age of 55.0 ± 9.6 years, body mass index of 29.9 ± 5.3 kg/m 2 , HbA1c of 8.1 ± 1.1%, and AHI of 45.3 ± 23.2 events/h. In the intention-to-treat analysis, no significant change in HbA1c but reduction of systolic (10 mmHg (-18 to -2), p < 0.05) and diastolic (6 mmHg (-11 to -1), p < 0.05) blood pressures were found in the CPAP group compared to the control group. Excluding those with medication changes or initiated dietary program during the study period and those who dropped out, CPAP treatment decreased HbA1c (intervention group, n = 27; control group, n = 26) by 0.4% (-0.7 to -0.1), p = 0.027. In patients with type 2 DM and moderate to severe OSA, 3 months of CPAP therapy did not decrease HbA1c but lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In view of a potentially limited effect size of CPAP treatment on glycemic control, sample size estimation for future randomized controlled studies must make adequate allowance for influence from external factors of medications/diet and CPAP use.

  11. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  12. White-Coat Hypertension: When Blood Pressure Rises at the Doctor's Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure rises at the doctor's office My blood pressure is always higher in the doctor's office than it is at home. ... coat hypertension. White coat hypertension occurs when the blood pressure readings at your doctor's office are higher than ...

  13. Relationship of hemoglobin A1c to mortality in nonsmoking insurance applicants.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert L; Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Magee, Mark E; Suarez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Determine the relationship between hemoglobin A1c value and 5-year, all-cause mortality in nonsmoking life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death Index, mortality was examined in 286,443 non-smoking insurance applicants aged 40 and up for whom blood samples for hemoglobin A1c were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. Results were stratified by hemoglobin A1c value, gender and age bands 40 to 59, 60 to 69 and 70 and up. Increased mortality is apparent at hemoglobin A1c values of 6% and above, is linear, and on a percentage basis decreases with age. Hemoglobin A1c values less than 5% also are associated with increased mortality. Absolute mortality rates for females with elevated hemoglobin A1c are generally lower than rates for males, although mortality relative to the gender-specific reference group with hemoglobin A1c of 5% to 5.9% is generally the same for both. The importance of even small elevations of hemoglobin A1c above 5.9% is apparent. For screening, it is the degree of blood sugar elevation as measured by hemoglobin A1c rather than any diagnostic label that is critical in risk assessment.

  14. Increase of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Induced by Blood Pressure Measurements during Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Frigy, Attila; Magdás, Annamária; Moga, Victor-Dan; Coteț, Ioana Georgiana; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Szilágyi, László

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The possible effect of blood pressure measurements per se on heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in the setting of concomitant ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and Holter ECG monitoring (HM). Methods. In 25 hypertensive patients (14 women and 11 men, mean age: 58.1 years), 24-hour combined ABPM and HM were performed. For every blood pressure measurement, 2-minute ECG segments (before, during, and after measurement) were analyzed to obtain time domain parameters of HRV: SDNN and rMSSD. Mean of normal RR intervals (MNN), SDNN/MNN, and rMSSD/MNN were calculated, too. Parameter variations related to blood pressure measurements were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons. Results. 2281 measurements (1518 during the day and 763 during the night) were included in the analysis. Both SDNN and SDNN/MNN had a constant (the same for 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime values) and significant change related to blood pressure measurements: an increase during measurements and a decrease after them ( p < 0.01 for any variation). Conclusion. In the setting of combined ABPM and HM, the blood pressure measurement itself produces an increase in short-term heart rate variability. Clarifying the physiological basis and the possible clinical value of this phenomenon needs further studies.

  15. The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wuopio, Jonas; Östgren, Carl Johan; Länne, Toste; Lind, Lars; Ruge, Toralph; Carlsson, Axel C; Larsson, Anders; Nyström, Fredrik H; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2018-02-28

    Endostatin, cleaved from collagen XVIII in the extracellular matrix, is a promising circulating biomarker for cardiovascular damage. It possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic functions and has even been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation. Less is known if endostatin levels relate to circadian blood pressure patterns. In the present paper we studied the association between circulating levels of endostatin and nocturnal dipping in blood pressure. We used the CARDIPP-study, a cohort of middle aged, type 2 diabetics (n = 593, 32% women), with data on both 24-hour and office blood pressure, serum-endostatin, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident major cardiovascular events. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a >10% difference between day- and night-time blood pressures. Two-hundred four participants (34%) were classified as non-dippers. The mean endostatin levels were significantly higher in non-dippers compared to dippers (mean ± standard deviation: 62.6 ± 1.8 µg/l vs. 58.7 ± 1.6 µg/l, respectively, p = .007). Higher serum levels of endostatin were associated with a diminished decline in nocturnal blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, mean systolic day blood pressure, hypertension treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (regression coefficient per SD increase of endostatin -0.01, 95% CI, -0.02-(-0.001), p = .03). Structural equation modelling analyses suggest that endostatin mediates 7% of the association between non-dipping and major cardiovascular events. We found an independent association between higher circulating levels of endostatin and a reduced difference between day- and night-time systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet endostatin mediated only a small portion of the association between non-dipping and cardiovascular events arguing against a clinical utility of our findings.

  16. Life-course blood pressure in relation to brain volumes

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Schneider, Andrea L. C.; Wruck, Lisa; Griswold, Michael; Coker, Laura H.; Alonso, Alvaro; Jack, Clifford R.; Knopman, David; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The impact of blood pressure on brain volumes may be time- or pattern-dependent. METHODS In 1678 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study, we quantified the association between measures and patterns of blood pressure over three time points (~24 or ~15 years prior and concurrent with neuroimaging) with late life brain volumes. RESULTS Higher diastolic blood pressure ~24 years prior, higher systolic and pulse pressure ~15 years prior, and consistently elevated or rising systolic blood pressure from ~15 years prior to concurrent with neuroimaging, but not blood pressures measured concurrent with neuroimaging, were associated with smaller volumes. The pattern of hypertension ~15 years prior and hypotension concurrent with neuroimaging was associated with smaller volumes in regions preferentially affected by Alzheimer’s disease (e.g., hippocampus: −0.27 standard units, 95%CI:−0.51,−0.03). DISCUSSION Hypertension 15 to 24 years prior is relevant to current brain volumes. Hypertension followed by hypotension appears particularly detrimental. PMID:27139841

  17. Improvement of Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation by Azilsartan

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Background Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a potent antihypertensive effect. Methods In a multicenter, prospective, open-label study, 265 patients with poor blood pressure control despite treatment with other angiotensin II receptor blockers were switched to 20 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on standard dosages) or 40 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on high dosages). Results Blood pressure was 149/83 mm Hg before switching and was significantly reduced from 1 month after switching until final assessment (132/76 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The pulse rate was 72/min before switching and increased significantly from 3 months after switching until final assessment (74/min, P < 0.005). A significant decrease of home morning systolic and diastolic pressure was observed from 1 and 3 months, respectively. Home morning blood pressure was 143/82 mm Hg before switching and 130/76 mm Hg at final assessment (P < 0.01). The morning-evening difference of systolic blood pressure decreased from 14.6 to 6.6 mm Hg after switching (P = 0.09). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after switching, and serum uric acid was significantly increased at 12 months. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Azilsartan significantly reduced the blood pressure and decreased diurnal variation in patients responding poorly to other angiotensin II receptor blockers. PMID:29238433

  18. Improvement of Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation by Azilsartan.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a potent antihypertensive effect. In a multicenter, prospective, open-label study, 265 patients with poor blood pressure control despite treatment with other angiotensin II receptor blockers were switched to 20 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on standard dosages) or 40 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on high dosages). Blood pressure was 149/83 mm Hg before switching and was significantly reduced from 1 month after switching until final assessment (132/76 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The pulse rate was 72/min before switching and increased significantly from 3 months after switching until final assessment (74/min, P < 0.005). A significant decrease of home morning systolic and diastolic pressure was observed from 1 and 3 months, respectively. Home morning blood pressure was 143/82 mm Hg before switching and 130/76 mm Hg at final assessment (P < 0.01). The morning-evening difference of systolic blood pressure decreased from 14.6 to 6.6 mm Hg after switching (P = 0.09). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after switching, and serum uric acid was significantly increased at 12 months. No serious adverse events occurred. Azilsartan significantly reduced the blood pressure and decreased diurnal variation in patients responding poorly to other angiotensin II receptor blockers.

  19. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; P<0.001 for both). The agreement between the methods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  20. Blood pressure as a therapeutic target in stroke.

    PubMed

    Armario, Pedro; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Stroke, as a clinical manifestation of the cardiovascular diseases, is one of the leading causes of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. Hypertension is by far, the most important risk factor for stroke. Epidemiological data indicate that the risk of stroke increases with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure elevation, from levels of 115/75 mmHg. It is also evident that most adults worldwide have values above these limits, thus emphasizing the importance of blood pressure as a risk factor for stroke. Clinical trials of antihypertensive treatment, both in studies that have compared active drugs against placebo or in those comparing different types of drugs have clearly demonstrated a protective effect of blood pressure reduction in the prevention of stroke. The degree of protection is directly related to blood pressure reduction and, the lower the level, the better the prognosis. Although data on secondary stroke prevention are scarcer, studies also seem to indicate that lowering blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment protects against stroke recurrence. At the present moment there is still uncertainty on 2 different aspects regarding the relationship between antihypertensive treatment and stroke. First, the blood pressure management during acute stroke has not adequately investigated in clinical trials. Second, the possibility of a protective role of specific types of antihypertensive drugs beyond blood pressure reduction is a matter of debate. Independently of these unresolved issues, prevention of hypertension development by lifestyle changes and adequate treatment and control to the hypertensive population will be a very effective measure in reducing stroke incidence, stroke recurrence, and stroke mortality.

  1. Blood Pressure Associates with Standing Balance in Elderly Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Pasma, Jantsje H.; Bijlsma, Astrid Y.; Klip, Janneke M.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Muller, Majon; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197) and continuously (subsample, n = 58) before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1) the ability to maintain standing balance; 2) self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3) history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. Results Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. Conclusion Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care. PMID:25222275

  2. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types.

    PubMed

    Sembiring, Krisnarta; Ramayani, Oke Rina; Lubis, Munar

    2018-02-15

    Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire. Stature and blood pressure data were collected along with demographic data and sleep disorder questionnaire. Analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression. P - value < 0.05 was considered significant. Seventy-six samples were obtained with mean age 13.9 (SD 1.14) years - old. Dyssomnia proportion and hypertension were 72/76 and 20/76 respectively. Mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 111.1 (SD 16.46) mmHg and 70.3 (SD 11.98) mmHg respectively. Mean SDSC score was 49.7 (SD 8.96), and the most frequent dyssomnia type was disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Age and sex were not the risk factors of hypertension in dyssomnia. There was a significant difference in mean SBP (P = 0.006) and DBP (P = 0.022) based on dyssomnia types. Combination dyssomnia type had the highest mean blood pressure among dyssomnia types. There is a significant difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types.

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and blood pressure changes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Roberts, James M.; Catov, Janet M.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Stone, Roslyn A.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, only one study to date has linked air pollution to blood pressure changes during pregnancy, a period of dramatic cardiovascular function changes. Objectives We examined whether maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants, including particles of less than 10 µm (PM10) or 2.5 µm diameter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), in each trimester of pregnancy are associated with magnitude of rise of blood pressure between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy in a prospectively followed cohort of 1684 pregnant women in Allegheny County, PA. Methods Air pollution measures for maternal ZIP code areas were derived using Kriging interpolation. Using logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the associations between air pollution exposures and blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy. Results First trimester PM10 and ozone exposures were associated with blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy, most strongly in non-smokers. Per interquartile increases in first trimester PM10 and O3 concentrations were associated with mean increases in systolic blood pressure of 1.88 mmHg (95% CI = 0.84 to 2.93) and 1.84 (95% CI = 1.05 to 4.63), respectively, and in diastolic blood pressure of 0.63 mmHg (95% CI= −0.50 to 1.76) and 1.13 (95% CI= −0.46 to 2.71) in non-smokers. Conclusions Our novel finding suggests that first trimester PM10 and O3 air pollution exposures increase blood pressure in the later stages of pregnancy. These changes may play a role in mediating the relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. PMID:22835955

  4. Blood pressure measurements in the ankle are not equivalent to blood pressure measurements in the arm.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lara Nicole; Wells, Mike; Sliwa, Karen

    2014-07-25

    Blood pressure (BP) is often measured on the ankle in the emergency department (ED), but this has never been shown to be an acceptable alternative to measurements performed on the arm. To establish whether the differences between arm and ankle non-invasive BP measurements were clinically relevant (i.e. a difference of ≥10 mmHg). This was a prospective cross-sectional study in an urban ED making use of a convenience sample of 201 patients (18 - 50 years of age) who were not in need of emergency medical treatment. BP was measured in the supine position on both arms and ankles with the correct size cuff according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The arm and ankle BP measurements were compared. There was a clinically and statistically significant difference between arm and ankle systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (-13 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -28 - 1 mmHg and -5 mmHg, 95% CI -13 - 4 mmHg, respectively), with less difference in diastolic BP (DBP) (2 mmHg, 95% CI -7 - 10 mmHg). Only 37% of SBP measurements and 83% of MAP measurements were within an error range of 10 mmHg, while 95% of DBP measurements agreed within 10 mmHg. While the average differences (or the bias) were generally not large, large variations in individual patients (indicating poor precision) made the prediction of arm BP from ankle measurements unreliable. Ankle BP cannot be used as a substitute for arm BP in the ED.

  5. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  6. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1) assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2) detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3) compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5%) and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration) on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI) for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54) and 2.51 (1.46-4.31), in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37). OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98) and 0.41 (0.19-0.85) in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437) with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. PMID

  7. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  8. Medical students and measuring blood pressure: Results from the American Medical Association Blood Pressure Check Challenge.

    PubMed

    Rakotz, Michael K; Townsend, Raymond R; Yang, Jianing; Alpert, Bruce S; Heneghan, Kathleen A; Wynia, Matthew; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2017-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is the most common procedure performed in clinical practice. Accurate BP measurement is critical if patient care is to be delivered with the highest quality, as stressed in published guidelines. Physician training in BP measurement is often limited to a brief demonstration during medical school without retraining in residency, fellowship, or clinical practice to maintain skills. One hundred fifty-nine students from medical schools in 37 states attending the American Medical Association's House of Delegates Meeting in June 2015 were assessed on an 11-element skillset on BP measurement. Only one student demonstrated proficiency on all 11 skills. The mean number of elements performed properly was 4.1. The findings suggest that changes in medical school curriculum emphasizing BP measurement are needed for medical students to become, and remain, proficient in BP measurement. Measuring BP correctly should be taught and reinforced throughout medical school, residency, and the entire career of clinicians. © 2017 American Medical Association. Journal of Clinical Hypertension published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Microbiome and Blood Pressure: Can Microbes Regulate Our Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Al Khodor, Souhaila; Reichert, Bernd; Shatat, Ibrahim F.

    2017-01-01

    The surfaces of the human body are heavily populated by a highly diverse microbial ecosystem termed the microbiota. The largest and richest among these highly heterogeneous populations of microbes is the gut microbiota. The collection of microbes and their genes, called the microbiome, has been studied intensely through the past few years using novel metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics approaches. This has enhanced our understanding of how the microbiome affects our metabolic, immunologic, neurologic, and endocrine homeostasis. Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide; it contributes to stroke, heart disease, kidney failure, premature death, and disability. Recently, studies in humans and animals have shown that alterations in microbiota and its metabolites are associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review, we compile the recent findings and hypotheses describing the interplay between the microbiome and blood pressure, and we highlight some prospects by which utilization of microbiome-related techniques may be incorporated to better understand the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension. PMID:28674682

  10. The influence of age and diabetes on the skin blood flow response to local pressure.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Bains, Gurinder S; Prowse, Michelle; Mc Lellan, Katie; Ethiraju, Gomathi; Lee, Scott; Gunda, Shashi; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie

    2009-07-01

    Previous data has shown that when pressure is applied to the skin of the ankle and on the foot, there is a reactive increase in circulation. In the present investigation, these studies were expanded to look at the response of the hand, back, and foot to applied pressure. Ten young subjects whose average age was 26.5+/-3.3 yrs, 10 older subjects whose average age was 73.3+/-19.7 yrs and 10 people with diabetes whose average age was 60.1+/-5.7 yrs participated in the study. There was no statistical difference in the height or weight of the subjects. Hemoglobin A1c of the group with Diabetes averaged 6.98+/-1.15% with the mean duration of diabetes 13.6+/-9.5 yrs. An infrared laser Doppler flow meter was used to measure circulation on the hand, lower back, and on the bottom of the foot during applications of pressure at 15, 30, 45, and 60 kPa. For all three areas of the body, circulation was significantly less in the group with diabetes than the other two groups (p<0.05). When pressure was applied at 15 kPa, the blood flow to the skin initially decreased, but then increased in the younger subjects and in the older subjects but did not increase in subjects with diabetes for any area of the body. Further, after pressure was released, for any of the four pressures examined here, while the younger subjects showed a pronounced reactive hyperemia, subjects with diabetes showed a diminished hyperemia not proportional to the pressure that was applied. It appears that the normal protective mechanism of a pressure induced hyperemia is absent or diminished in patients with diabetes with more effect on the periphery than on the core area of the body. More importantly, after pressure was applied and released, subjects with diabetes lacked a proportional hyperemia to recovery form the transient ischemia of the pressure.

  11. Influence of insulin sensitivity and secretion on glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiemin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Yuqian; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differential effects of insulin sensitivity and secretion on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) at 24-32weeks of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional, sequential case series study was performed in pregnant women with an abnormal 50-g oral glucose-screening test. Hemoglobin A1c and GA measurements were taken during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%β), insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), and modified insulinogenic index were calculated to assess insulin sensitivity and secretory function. A total of 713 pregnant women were enrolled. The GDM group had lower ISOGTT and insulinogenic index scores, and a higher HOMA-IR score. Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Glycated albumin was negatively correlated with insulinogenic index and HOMA-%β. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was independently associated with diastolic pressure, 0- and 120-minute glucose, and HOMA-IR; GA was independently associated with 0- and 120-minute glucose. Compared with HbA1c, GA is more closely correlated with fasting and postprandial glucose, regardless of insulin resistance and blood pressure, and might be a better monitoring index in women with GDM. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial.

    PubMed

    Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Zoller, Marco; Chmiel Moshinsky, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-04-14

    Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary.Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Randomised controlled study. 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). EXPECTED RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467.

  13. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment

  14. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  15. Self-monitored blood pressure: a role in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Padfield, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of blood pressure is increasing in popularity and most international guidelines on the management of hypertension approve cautious use of the technique in the assessment of potentially hypertensive individuals. A recent editorial in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggested that it was "appropriate to encourage the widespread use of self recorded BP as an important adjunct to the clinical care of the patient with hypertension". Such a statement is based on increasing evidence that self-monitoring of blood pressure gives similar information to daytime ambulatory blood pressure -- a now well-established technology in the management of hypertension. Suggested strategies for the use of self-monitoring of blood pressure include monitoring in individuals whose clinical risk status is low enough that they need not necessarily be given medical therapy simply on the basis of a clinic pressure (i.e. at a 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease below 20%). The threshold for defining 'normotension/hypertension' is now regarded as being broadly similar for ABPM and SBPM and is set at 135/85 mmHg. In a recent meta-analysis of all available studies the average difference between these techniques, using the same patients, is -1.7/1.2 mmHg. There is some evidence that careful use of self-monitoring may improve blood pressure control in patients who are otherwise resistant to care. Self-monitoring of blood pressure has now been shown in at least one major prospective study to predict outcome better than clinic pressures and in that setting it now has equivalence to the use of ABPM. There remain issues regarding the availability of validated devices, the quality of training of patients in their use and the possibility that inaccurate recording might occur, either deliberately or by accident. Self-monitoring of blood pressure may well not give the same readings as carefully measured blood pressure by research nurses but its use is clearly superior to

  16. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  17. Dark chocolate for children's blood pressure: randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eunice K; Quach, Jon; Mensah, Fiona K; Sung, Valerie; Cheung, Michael; Wake, Melissa

    2012-07-01

    Higher adult blood pressure, even without hypertension, predicts cardiovascular outcomes, and is predicted by childhood blood pressure. Regular dark chocolate intake lowers blood pressure in adults, but effects in children are unknown. To examine the feasibility of school-based provision of dark chocolate and its short-term efficacy in reducing mean group blood pressure. 194 children (aged 10-12 years) were randomised by class to intervention (7 g dark chocolate daily for 7 weeks, n=124) or control (n=70) groups; 98% and 93% provided baseline and follow-up measurements, respectively. Intervention and control students had similar systolic (mean difference 1.7 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.6 to 4.1) and diastolic (-1.2 mm Hg, 95% CI -3.6 to 1.3) blood pressure, anthropometry and well-being at outcome. Results show that providing dark chocolate is feasible and acceptable in the school setting. For a definitive trial, the authors recommend a larger sample, endovascular function measures, and consideration of higher antioxidant 'dose' by virtue of duration and/or content.

  18. [Assessment of resistant hypertension with home blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Marui, Fabiane Rosa Rezende H; Bombig, Maria Teresa Nogueira; Francisco, Yoná Afonso; Thalenberg, José Marcos; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Souza, Dilma de; Costa, Francisco de Assis; Izar, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos de Camargo; Póvoa, Rui

    2010-10-01

    ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is considered the gold standard for the diagnostic confirmation of resistant hypertension (RH). However, home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) has been considered an option, because of its lower cost and greater comfort. to compare the values obtained by HBPM with those obtained by ABPM in the identification of patients with resistant hypertension. a total of 51 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were selected. All were adults of both genders and were undergoing treatment in an outpatient referral clinic from January 2007 to September 2009. Casual office blood pressure (BP), 24-hour ABPM, and HBPM were performed according to current guidelines, with a maximum two-week interval between the methods. the comparison of ABPM (mean daytime) with HBPM showed a good correlation between them, both for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): SBP r = 0.70, CI = 0.51-0.82, DBP r = 0.69, CI = 0.52-0.81. RH was confirmed by ABPM in 33 patients and by HBPM in 37, with no significant difference between the methods. according to the results obtained, we conclude that HBPM is a method that can be used as an alternative to ABPM for the diagnostic confirmation of RH.

  19. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  20. Low blood pressure in vegetarians: the possible role of potassium.

    PubMed

    Ophir, O; Peer, G; Gilad, J; Blum, M; Aviram, A

    1983-05-01

    Ninety-eight confirmed adult vegetarians were examined against a matched group of nonvegetarians living in the same urban environment in order to evaluate the prevalence of arterial hypertension. The average blood pressure was 126/77 for the vegetarians and 147/88 for the control group (p less than 0.05). Significantly lower blood pressure was found in every decade of age. Only 2% of the vegetarians had hypertension (higher than 160/95) as compared to 26% hypertensives in the nonvegetarians. These differences in blood pressure were maintained also when individuals with the same "relative weight" were compared. Family history of hypertension was similar in both groups. Analysis of factors such as coffee drinking and smoking did not favor reduced blood pressure among the vegetarian group. Sodium and potassium intake were evaluated from their ratios to creatinine in a single urine sample. It was evident that both groups excreted the same amounts of sodium, while potassium excretion was significantly higher in the vegetarians. In view of the increasing evidence that potassium plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure it is concluded that the protective antihypertensive factor in the vegetarian diet is the presence of high amounts of potassium.

  1. Emotional reactivity and blood pressure elevations: anxiety as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Ifeagwazi, Chuka Mike; Egberi, Helen Eleh; Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika

    2018-06-01

    There is a strong link between emotional reactivity and hypertension, yet little research to date has examined mediators of this relationship. Ourstudy  investigated the mediating roleof anxiety on the relationship between emotional reactivity and blood pressure elevations. Participants were226 hypertensive patients (93 men and 133 women, Mean age = 53.09, SD = 13.88 years), purposivelydrawn from the General Outpatient Department in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, , Nigeria. .  Measures for data collection were Emotional Reactivity Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Mercury Sphygmomanometer. Hayes PROCESS macro for SPSS which uses a regression-based, path-analytical framework, was employed in analysing the data. Results showed that emotional reactivity was positively associated with blood pressure elevations. Anxiety was positively associated with blood pressure elevations. Anxiety also fully mediated the relationship between emotional reactivity and blood pressure elevations, even after adjusting for the control variables (e.g., age, family history of hypertension, and educational status). The finding suggests that being less emotionally reactive is associated with a decrease in disabling influences of anxiety, thereby contributing to lower levels of mean arterial blood pressure. The findings may be helpful  in improving prevention, control and management of hypertension in healthcare.

  2. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canad

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models weremore » used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood

  3. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  4. Reducing the Blood Pressure-Related Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: Impact of Achievable Improvements in Blood Pressure Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Shakia T; Loehr, Laura R; Butler, Kenneth R; Chakladar, Sujatro; Chang, Patricia P; Folsom, Aaron R; Heiss, Gerardo; MacLehose, Richard F; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Avery, Christy L

    2015-10-27

    US blood pressure reduction policies are largely restricted to hypertensive populations and associated benefits are often estimated based on unrealistic interventions. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate incidence rate differences contrasting the impact of 2 pragmatic hypothetical interventions to reduce coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure (HF) incidence: (1) a population-wide intervention that reduced systolic blood pressure by 1 mm Hg and (2) targeted interventions that reduced the prevalence of unaware, untreated, or uncontrolled blood pressure above goal (per Eighth Joint National Committee treatment thresholds) by 10%. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n=15 744; 45 to 64 years at baseline, 1987-1989), incident coronary heart disease and stroke were adjudicated by physician panels. Incident HF was defined as the first hospitalization with discharge diagnosis code of "428." A 10% proportional reduction in unaware, untreated, or uncontrolled blood pressure above goal resulted in ≈4.61, 3.55, and 11.01 fewer HF events per 100,000 person-years in African Americans, and 3.77, 1.63, and 4.44 fewer HF events per 100 000 person-years, respectively, in whites. In contrast, a 1 mm Hg population-wide systolic blood pressure reduction was associated with 20.3 and 13.3 fewer HF events per 100 000 person-years in African Americans and whites, respectively. Estimated event reductions for coronary heart disease and stroke were smaller than for HF, but followed a similar pattern for both population-wide and targeted interventions. Modest population-wide shifts in systolic blood pressure could have a substantial impact on cardiovascular disease incidence and should be developed in parallel with interventions targeting populations with blood pressure above goal. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. The ABCs of diabetes: diabetes self-management education program for African Americans affects A1C, lipid-lowering agent prescriptions, and emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Magee, Michelle; Bowling, Andrea; Copeland, James; Fokar, Ali; Pasquale, Patricia; Youssef, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a concise community-based program on diabetes self-management education (DSME), according to frequency of emergency department visits and knowledge of, prescriptions for, and control of A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A free community-based DSME program was placed in a public library. Adults with diabetes (N, 360) consented to participate in this prospective nonrandomized cohort study with preintervention-postintervention design. The small-group interactive DSME (two 2.5-hour classes) focused on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors and facilitating communication with the primary care physician. An increase in knowledge of American Diabetes Association-recommended targets for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol from baseline to postintervention was seen among participants. Significant clinical outcomes included reduction in self-reported emergency department visits and reduction in mean A1C. However, despite an increase in prescriptions written for lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol did not change. Participants who started on insulin were more likely to achieve or maintain A1C < 7% compared to those who either did not take or stopped taking insulin during the study. Offering DSME classes for African Americans at a public library was feasible and significantly affected 6-month clinical outcomes, including a reduction in A1C, an increased likelihood of attaining a target A1C of < 7% if insulin was started during the study period, and a two-thirds reduction in emergency department visits for uncontrolled diabetes. Observed results suggest that partnering with community-based organizations such as public libraries offers an accessible and well-received location for offering DSME programs.

  6. Hba1c, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control in People with Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huanhuan; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Sasaki, Naoko; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kochi, Takeshi; Imai, Teppei; Okino, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kashino, Ikuko; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Aims The control of blood glucose levels, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels reduces the risk of diabetes complications; however, data are scarce on control status of these factors among workers with diabetes. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of participants with diabetes who meet glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), BP, and LDL-C recommendations, and to investigate correlates of poor glycemic control in a large working population in Japan. Methods The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health (J-ECOH) Study is an ongoing cohort investigation, consisting mainly of employees in large manufacturing companies. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 3,070 employees with diabetes (2,854 men and 216 women) aged 20–69 years who attended periodic health examinations. BP was measured and recorded using different company protocols. Risk factor targets were defined using both American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines (HbA1c < 7.0%, BP < 140/90 mmHg, and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL) and Japan Diabetes Society (JDS) guidelines (HbA1c < 7.0%, BP < 130/80 mmHg, and LDL-C < 120 mg/dL). Logistic regression models were used to explore correlates of poor glycemic control (defined as HbA1c ≥ 8.0%). Results The percentages of participants who met ADA (and JDS) targets were 44.9% (44.9%) for HbA1c, 76.6% (36.3%) for BP, 27.1% (56.2%) for LDL-C, and 11.2% (10.8%) for simultaneous control of all three risk factors. Younger age, obesity, smoking, and uncontrolled dyslipidemia were associated with poor glycemic control. The adjusted odds ratio of poor glycemic control was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.46–0.73) for participants with treated but uncontrolled hypertension, and 0.47 (0.33–0.66) for participants with treated and controlled hypertension, as compared with participants without hypertension. There was no significant difference in HbA1c levels between participants with treated but uncontrolled hypertension and

  7. Global standardisation of HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leslie C

    2008-12-01

    HbA1c is used for assessing glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. It is also used for treatment goals and as a target for therapeutic intervention. The Direct Control and Complications Trial in the USA showed that HbA1c can be used to predict the risk of complications. Hence, it is important for HbA1c assays to be standardised. The National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) in the USA was formed in 1996 so that HbA1c results from different laboratories would be comparable to those reported in the DCCT study. There were also HbA1c standardisation programmes in Sweden and Japan. These three standardisation programmes are, in fact, direct comparison methods (DCMs), and yield different HbA1c results. In 1994, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) established a Working Group on Standardisation of HbA1c. This working group has developed a global HbA1c reference system with very much improved intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Recommendations have been made to report HbA1c results as IFCC-HbA1c values in SI units (mmol HbA1c/mol Hb) and NGSP-HbA1c (%) as well as estimated average glucose (eAG), once a tight relationship has been shown to exist between eAG and HbA1c.

  8. SGLT2 inhibitors: their potential reduction in blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Maliha, George; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising treatment option for diabetes and its common comorbidity, hypertension. Emerging data suggests that the SGLT2 inhibitors provide a meaningful reduction in blood pressure, although the precise mechanism of the blood pressure drop remains incompletely elucidated. Based on current data, the blood pressure reduction is partially due to a combination of diuresis, nephron remodeling, reduction in arterial stiffness, and weight loss. While current trials are underway focusing on cardiovascular endpoints, the SGLT2 inhibitors present a novel treatment modality for diabetes and its associated hypertension as well as an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood pressure reactivity in the evaluation of resting blood pressure and mood responses to pindolol and propranolol in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Potempa, K M; Fogg, L F; Fish, A F; Kravitz, H M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship of blood pressure reactivity during exercise to treatment responsiveness to two commonly used beta-adrenergic blocking agents, propranolol and pindolol. Prospective, placebo-controlled, balanced, cross-over clinical trial. University-affiliated medical center. A convenience sample of 19 white male subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension were studied. The mean age was 63.4 years (SD = 5.2). The mean resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 158.6 mm Hg (SD = 12.3) and mean resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 96.4 mm Hg (SD = 8.6). They had no clinical evidence of secondary hypertension, diabetes, heart, liver, pulmonary, or renal disease. Resting blood pressure; blood pressure reactivity to exercise; self-report measures of depressive symptoms, and mood disturbances. Antihypertensive medication was tapered off and subjects were free of all prescription drugs for 2 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to propranolol-pindolol or pindolol-propranolol group. Each 4- to 6-week treatment phase was preceded by a 2-week placebo phase. At the end of the initial placebo phase and each active drug treatment phase, subjects were assessed for depression and mood disturbances by use of standardized measures and were given a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Resting blood pressure was assessed weekly and before each exercise test. Significant relationships between DBP reactivity to exercise during the placebo phase and the degree of blood pressure and mood responsiveness to pindolol and propranolol treatment were observed. Subjects demonstrating high DBP reactivity required high doses of beta-blocker for resting DBP reduction, and these subjects showed the least change in mood at high doses. Similar patterns were found for the relationship of SBP reactivity and blood pressure and mood responsiveness to drug treatment, but these relationships were not statistically significant

  10. Blood pressure and serum creatinine in obese female.

    PubMed

    Asrin, M; Nessa, A; Hasan, M I; Das, R K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in developed as well as in developing countries. This analytical cross sectional study was carried out to document the relation between blood pressure, serum creatinine and body mass index in female and to assess potential health differences among obese female and normal weight female. This study was done in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Seventy female persons volunteered as subjects. Among them 35 were within normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m²) and 35 were obese (BMI≥30kg/m²). Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Measurement of body mass index and blood pressure were done as per procedure. Serum creatinine level was estimated by enzymatic colorimetric method. The results were calculated and analyzed by using SPSS (statistical package for social science, version 17.0), scientific electronic calculator and simultaneously with a computer assisted program like Microsoft excel. Unpaired 't' test was applied to find the significance of difference regarding serum creatinine and blood pressure levels in obese female. The value of p was 1% to indicate highly significant and 5% to indicate simply significant or statistically significant. The mean±SE of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were 135.71±1.58mmHg, 88.74±0.95mmHg and 1.03±0.01mg/dl respectively; significant at 1% level for obese group of BMI (p<0.0001). The examinations and biochemical investigations revealed that high BMI is significantly related to increased levels of serum creatinine & blood pressure in obese female which indicate the obese subjects are prone to cardiovascular & metabolic risk.

  11. Dietary glycine and blood pressure: the International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure12345

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ian J; Daviglus, Martha L; Chan, Queenie; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available data have indicated independent direct relations of dietary animal protein and meat to the blood pressure (BP) of individuals. Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess whether BP is associated with the intake of dietary amino acids higher relatively in animal than in vegetable protein (alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, methionine, and threonine). Design: The study was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study that involved 4680 persons aged 40–59 y from 17 random population samples in the People's Republic of China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. BP was measured 8 times at 4 visits; dietary data (83 nutrients and 18 amino acids) were from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections. Results: Dietary glycine and alanine (the percentage of total protein intake) were considered singly related directly to BP; with these 2 amino acids together in regression models (from model 1, which was controlled for age, sex, and sample, to model 5, which was controlled for 16 possible confounders), glycine, but not alanine, was significantly related to BP. Estimated average BP differences associated with a 2-SD higher glycine intake (0.71 g/24 h) were 2.0–3.0-mm Hg systolic BP (z = 2.97–4.32) stronger in Western than in East Asian participants. In Westerners, meat was the main dietary source of glycine but not in East Asians (Chinese: grains/flour and rice/noodles; Japanese: fish/shellfish and rice/noodles). Conclusion: Dietary glycine may have an independent adverse effect on BP, which possibly contributes to direct relations of animal protein and meat to BP. PMID:23656904

  12. Detection of blood pressure increments in active elderly individuals: the role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maselli, M; Giantin, V; Franchin, A; Zanatta, F; Sarti, S; Corradin, M L; Tramontano, A; Stifani, B; Sergi, G; Manzato, E

    2014-08-01

    Physiological aging can lead to an increase in blood pressure (BP) over time even in regularly exercising elders. Office BP measurements (OBPM) might be unable to detect these BP variations. The aim of this study was to analyze BP changes over 3.5 years in active elders using ABPM. The study involved 80 active subjects ≥65 years old who exercised regularly. At baseline and again 3.5 years later, all subjects had lab tests, weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE) recorded; they underwent OBPM, ABPM and physical activity assessment. Over 3.5 years, our sample's mean weight, BMI, body composition, REE, albumin, and physical activity levels, did not change significantly. The prevalence of hypertension detected by OBPM dropped from 68.8% to 61.3%. ABPM revealed an increase in mean 24-h BP (Δsystolic: 5.3 ± 13.6 mmHg; p = 0.001; Δdiastolic: 1.8 ± 6.7 mmHg; p = 0.018) and mean daytime BP (Δsystolic: 5.8 ± 13.5 mmHg; p = 0.001; Δdiastolic: 1.9 ± 7.1 mmHg; p = 0.022); the prevalence of hypertension detected by ABPM increased from 50% to 65%, also due to an increase (from 8.8% to 16.3%) in masked hypertension. There was no correlation between BP changes and changes in body composition and REE. BP tends to increase over time in active elders, regardless of changes in body composition or level of physical activity. ABPM is an appropriate method for detecting these BP variations in active elders and to reveal cases of masked hypertension that might otherwise escape detection by OBPM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated compared to manual office blood pressure and to home blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, Jan; Seidlerová, Jitka; Kratochvíl, Zdeněk; Karnosová, Petra; Hronová, Markéta; Mayer, Otto

    2016-08-01

    We studied the relationships of automated blood pressure (BP), measured in the healthcare centre, with manual office BP and home BP. Stable outpatients treated for hypertension were measured automatically, seated alone in a quiet room, six times after a 5 min rest with the BpTRU device, and immediately afterwards using the auscultatory method. Home BP was measured in a subgroup during 7 days preceding the visit. The automated, office and home BP values were 131.2 ± 21.8/77.8 ± 12.1 mmHg, 146.9 ± 20.8/85.8 ± 12.4 mmHg and 137.7 ± 17.7/79.4 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Limits of agreement between office and automated BP (2 SDs in Bland-Altman plots) were +42.6 to -12.6/+22.6 to -6.6 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP; for home and automated BP they were +45.8 to -25.8/+20.8 to -12.6 mmHg. For patients with two visits, intraclass correlation coefficients of BP values measured during the first and second visits were 0.66/0.72 for systolic/diastolic automated BP and 0.68/0.74 for systolic/diastolic office BP. Automated BP was lower than home BP and no more closely related to home BP than to office BP. It did not show better repeatability than office BP. Whether automated BP and the "white-coat effect", calculated cas the office BP-automated BP difference, have clinical and prognostic importance deserves further studies.

  14. Simultaneous compared with sequential blood pressure measurement results in smaller inter-arm blood pressure differences.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, Niels V; Lodestijn, Sophie; Nanninga, Stephanie; van Montfrans, Gert A; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

    2013-11-01

    There are currently few recommendations on how to assess inter-arm blood pressure (BP) differences. The authors compared simultaneous with sequential measurement on mean BP, inter-arm BP differences, and within-visit reproducibility in 240 patients stratified according to age (<50 or ≥60 years) and BP (<140/90 mm Hg or ≥140/90 mm Hg). Three simultaneous and three sequential BP measurements were taken in each patient. Starting measurement type and starting arm for sequential measurements were randomized. Mean BP and inter-arm BP differences of the first pair and reproducibility of inter-arm BP differences of the first and second pair were compared between both methods. Mean systolic BP was 1.3±7.5 mm Hg lower during sequential compared with simultaneous measurement (P<.01). However, the first sequential measurement was on average higher than the second, suggesting an order effect. Absolute systolic inter-arm BP differences were smaller on simultaneous (6.2±6.7/3.3±3.5 mm Hg) compared with sequential BP measurement (7.8±7.3/4.6±5.6 mm Hg, P<.01 for both). Within-visit reproducibility was identical (both r=0.60). Simultaneous measurement of BP at both arms reduces order effects and results in smaller inter-arm BP differences, thereby potentially reducing unnecessary referral and diagnostic procedures. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Renal Nerve Stimulation-Induced Blood Pressure Changes Predict Ambulatory Blood Pressure Response After Renal Denervation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mark R; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Gal, Pim; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Persu, Alexandre; Staessen, Jan A; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Elvan, Arif

    2016-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) response to renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable and its effectiveness debated. A procedural end point for RDN may improve consistency of response. The objective of the current analysis was to look for the association between renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced BP increase before and after RDN and changes in ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) after RDN. Fourteen patients with drug-resistant hypertension referred for RDN were included. RNS was performed under general anesthesia at 4 sites in the right and left renal arteries, both before and immediately after RDN. RNS-induced BP changes were monitored and correlated to changes in ambulatory BP at a follow-up of 3 to 6 months after RDN. RNS resulted in a systolic BP increase of 50±27 mm Hg before RDN and systolic BP increase of 13±16 mm Hg after RDN (P<0.001). Average systolic ABPM was 153±11 mm Hg before RDN and decreased to 137±10 mm Hg at 3- to 6-month follow-up (P=0.003). Changes in RNS-induced BP increase before versus immediately after RDN and changes in ABPM before versus 3 to 6 months after RDN were correlated, both for systolic BP (R=0.77, P=0.001) and diastolic BP (R=0.79, P=0.001). RNS-induced maximum BP increase before RDN had a correlation of R=0.61 (P=0.020) for systolic and R=0.71 (P=0.004) for diastolic ABPM changes. RNS-induced BP changes before versus after RDN were correlated with changes in 24-hour ABPM 3 to 6 months after RDN. RNS should be tested as an acute end point to assess the efficacy of RDN and predict BP response to RDN. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP <120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, mean SBP: 121.5 mm Hg) versus <140 (standard treatment, mean SBP: 134.6 mm Hg) reduced cardiovascular events 25%. SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP <140 mm Hg. To examine these assumptions, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012 data were analyzed on 3 groups of adults with treated hypertension: group 1 consisted of SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP <140; 68.3%, 74.8%, and 83.4% of the controlled subset had SBP <130. Mean SBPs in those controlled to <140 were 123.3, 120.9, and 118.9, respectively. Among US adults with treated hypertension, (1) the SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP <140, SBP values were within <3 mm Hg of SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is <130, especially for the SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP <140 could approximate SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovsky, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Wang, Jiguang; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-05-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (P<0.001), but BP load did not substantially refine risk prediction based on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net reclassification improvement ≤0.28%; integrated discrimination improvement ≤0.001%). Systolic/diastolic BP load of 40.0/42.3% or 91.8/73.6 mm Hg×h conferred a 10-year risk of a composite cardiovascular end point similar to a 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP of 130/80 mm Hg. In analyses dichotomized according to these thresholds, increased BP load did not refine risk prediction in the whole study population (R(2)≤0.051) or in untreated participants with 24-hour ambulatory normotension (R(2)≤0.034). In conclusion, BP load does not improve risk stratification based on 24-hour BP level. This also applies to subjects with normal 24-hour BP for whom BP load was proposed to be particularly useful in risk stratification.

  18. Amino Acids That Centrally Influence Blood Pressure and Regional Blood Flow in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Functional roles of amino acids have increasingly become the focus of research. This paper summarizes amino acids that influence cardiovascular system via the brain of conscious rats. This paper firstly describes why amino acids are selected and outlines how the brain regulates blood pressure and regional blood flow. This section includes a concise history of amino acid neurotransmitters in cardiovascular research and summarizes brain areas where chemical stimulations produce blood pressure changes mainly in anesthetized animals. This is followed by comments about findings regarding several newly examined amino acids with intracisternal stimulation in conscious rats that produce changes in blood pressure. The same pressor or depressor response to central amino acid stimulations can be produced by distinct mechanisms at central and peripheral levels, which will be briefly explained. Thereafter, cardiovascular actions of some of amino acids at the mechanism level will be discussed based upon findings of pharmacological and regional blood flow measurements. Several examined amino acids in addition to the established neurotransmitter amino acids appear to differentially activate brain structures to produce changes in blood pressure and regional blood flows. They may have physiological roles in the healthy brain, but pathological roles in the brain with cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke where the blood-brain barrier is broken. PMID:22690328

  19. Reduction of Blood Pressure by AT1 Receptor Decoy Peptides.

    PubMed

    Re, Richard N; Chen, Ben; Alam, Jawed; Cook, Julia L

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified the binding of the chaperone protein gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) to a sequence on the carboxy-terminus of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor (AT1R) and showed that this binding enhances AT1R trafficking to the cell surface as well as angiotensin signaling. In this study, we treated sodium-depleted mice with decoy peptides consisting either of a fusion of the cell-penetrating peptide penetratin and the GABARAP/AT1R binding sequence or penetratin fused to a mutated AT1R sequence. We used telemetry to measure blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic pressure fell during the 24 hours following decoy peptide injection but not after control peptide injection. Active cell-penetrating decoy peptide decreased 24-hour average systolic blood pressure from 129.8 ± 4.7 mmHg to 125.0 ± 6.0 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation). Diastolic blood pressure fell from 99.0 ± 7.1 mmHg to 95.0 ± 9.2 mmHg (n=5). Administration of the control peptide raised systolic blood pressure from 128.7 ± 1.3 mmHg to 131.7 ± 2.9 mmHg and diastolic pressure from 93.9 ± 4.5 mmHg to 95.9 ± 4.2 mmHg (n=5). The decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after active peptide administration were statistically significant compared to control peptide administration (P<0.05, two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum test). These results indicate the physiological and potentially therapeutic relevance of inhibitors of GABARAP/AT1R binding.

  20. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  1. Migration and geographic variations in blood pressure in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Elford, J; Phillips, A; Thomson, A G; Shaper, A G

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the relative contributions of factors acting at different stages in life to regional differences in adult blood pressure. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study (British regional heart study). SETTING--One general practice in each of 24 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--7735 Men aged 40-59 years when screened in 1978-80 whose geographic zone of birth and zone of examination were classified as south of England, midlands and Wales, north of England, and Scotland. Non-migrants (n = 3144) were born in the town where they were examined; internal migrants (n = 4147) were born in Great Britain but not in the town where they were examined; and international migrants (n = 422) were born outside Great Britain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and height. RESULTS--Regardless of where they were born, men living in the south of England had lower mean blood pressures than men living in Scotland (142.5/80.1 v 148.1/85.2 mm Hg). The effects of the place of birth and place of examination on adult blood pressure were examined in a multiple regression model. For internal migrants the modelled increase in mean systolic blood pressure across adjacent zones of examination was 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.9); for adjacent zones of birth the corresponding increase was 0.1 mm Hg (-0.7 to 0.7). The place of examination seemed to be a far more important determinant of mean adult blood pressure than the place of birth. Height is an accepted marker of genetic and early life influences. Regional differences in height were therefore analysed to test whether the multiple regression model could correctly distinguish between the influence of place of birth and place of examination. As expected, men born in Scotland were shorter on average than men born in the south of England irrespective of where they lived in Britain (172.6 cm v 175.1 cm for internal migrants). CONCLUSION--Regional variations in blood pressure were strongly influenced by

  2. Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Lawrence J.; Wright, Jackson T.; Greene, Tom; Agodoa, Lawrence Y.; Astor, Brad C.; Bakris, George L.; Cleveland, William H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Contreras, Gabriel; Faulkner, Marquetta L.; Gabbai, Francis B.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Hebert, Lee A.; Jamerson, Kenneth A.; Kopple, Joel D.; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Lea, Janice P.; Lewis, Julia B.; Lipkowitz, Michael S.; Massry, Shaul G.; Miller, Edgar R.; Norris, Keith; Phillips, Robert A.; Pogue, Velvie A.; Randall, Otelio S.; Rostand, Stephen G.; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw J.; Toto, Robert D.; Wang, Xuelei

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In observational studies, the relationship between blood pressure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is direct and progressive. The burden of hypertension-related chronic kidney disease and ESRD is especially high among black patients. Yet few trials have tested whether intensive blood-pressure control retards the progression of chronic kidney disease among black patients. METHODS We randomly assigned 1094 black patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease to receive either intensive or standard blood-pressure control. After completing the trial phase, patients were invited to enroll in a cohort phase in which the blood-pressure target was less than 130/80 mm Hg. The primary clinical outcome in the cohort phase was the progression of chronic kidney disease, which was defined as a doubling of the serum creatinine level, a diagnosis of ESRD, or death. Follow-up ranged from 8.8 to 12.2 years. RESULTS During the trial phase, the mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg in the intensive-control group and 141/86 mm Hg in the standard-control group. During the cohort phase, corresponding mean blood pressures were 131/78 mm Hg and 134/78 mm Hg. In both phases, there was no significant between-group difference in the risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio in the intensive-control group, 0.91; P = 0.27). However, the effects differed according to the baseline level of proteinuria (P = 0.02 for interaction), with a potential benefit in patients with a protein-to-creatinine ratio of more than 0.22 (hazard ratio, 0.73; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In overall analyses, intensive blood-pressure control had no effect on kidney disease progression. However, there may be differential effects of intensive blood-pressure control in patients with and those without baseline proteinuria. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, and others.) PMID:20818902

  3. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J C; Crawford, W J; Alexander, P C; Anduze, A L; Gelbart, S S

    1980-03-01

    Marihuana inhalation was accompanied by increased heart rate and decreased intraocular and blood pressure in 18 subjects with heterogenous glaucomas. The hypotensive effects appeared in 60 to 90 minutes as the decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) appeared to follow the decrease in blood pressure. In addition to any local effect, the mechanism of lowered to any local effect, the mechanism of lowered IOP may also involve the decreased pressure perfusing the ciliary body vasculature as a result of the peripheral vasodilatory properties of marihuana. Postural hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, and alterations in mental status occurred with such frequency as to mitigate against the routine used in the general glaucoma population. Our data indicate that further research should be directed to local means of delivering the ocular hypotensive cannabinoid to the glaucomatous eye.

  4. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine,more » showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.« less

  5. Is High Blood Pressure Self-Protection for the Brain?

    PubMed

    Warnert, Esther A H; Rodrigues, Jonathan C L; Burchell, Amy E; Neumann, Sandra; Ratcliffe, Laura E K; Manghat, Nathan E; Harris, Ashley D; Adams, Zoe; Nightingale, Angus K; Wise, Richard G; Paton, Julian F R; Hart, Emma C

    2016-12-09

    Data from animal models of hypertension indicate that high blood pressure may develop as a vital mechanism to maintain adequate blood flow to the brain. We propose that congenital vascular variants of the posterior cerebral circulation and cerebral hypoperfusion could partially explain the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, which remains enigmatic in 95% of patients. To evaluate the role of the cerebral circulation in the pathophysiology of hypertension. We completed a series of retrospective and mechanistic case-control magnetic resonance imaging and physiological studies in normotensive and hypertensive humans (n=259). Interestingly, in humans with hypertension, we report a higher prevalence of congenital cerebrovascular variants; vertebral artery hypoplasia, and an incomplete posterior circle of Willis, which were coupled with increased cerebral vascular resistance, reduced cerebral blood flow, and a higher incidence of lacunar type infarcts. Causally, cerebral vascular resistance was elevated before the onset of hypertension and elevated sympathetic nerve activity (n=126). Interestingly, untreated hypertensive patients (n=20) had a cerebral blood flow similar to age-matched controls (n=28). However, participants receiving antihypertensive therapy (with blood pressure controlled below target levels) had reduced cerebral perfusion (n=19). Finally, elevated cerebral vascular resistance was a predictor of hypertension, suggesting that it may be a novel prognostic or diagnostic marker (n=126). Our data indicate that congenital cerebrovascular variants in the posterior circulation and the associated cerebral hypoperfusion may be a factor in triggering hypertension. Therefore, lowering blood pressure may worsen cerebral perfusion in susceptible individuals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Central pulse pressure but not brachial blood pressure is the predominant factor affecting aortic arterial stiffness].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Kai; Ye, Ping; Bai, Yong-Yi; Luo, Lei-Ming; Wu, Hong-Mei; Gao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the differences in central hemodynamic indices between hypertensive and normotensive subjects and identify the blood pressure index that the most strongly correlate with arterial stiffness and vascular damage markers. A cohort of 820 hypertensive patients and 820 normotensive individuals matched for age and gender were enrolled in this study. We measured carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx) and central blood pressures using pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry. Plasma homocysteine (HCY), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were also tested in these subjects. In both hypertensive and normotensive subjects, the central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were significantly lower than brachial SBP and PP; this PP amplification was significantly lower in the normotensives (9.85∓6.55 mmHg) than in the hypertensives (12.64∓6.69 mmHg), but the amplification ratios were comparable between the two groups. Blood pressure and age were closely related with aortic arterial stiffness. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV and AIx, and showed significantly lowered PP amplification ratio with age. Central PP was more strongly related to arterial stiffness and vascular damage markers than the other pressure indices. Multivariate analyses revealed that carotid-femoral PWV and aortic AIx were strongly influenced by central PP but not by the mean blood pressure or brachial PP. The central PP is a more direct indicator of central arterial stiffness and a better marker of vascular aging than other blood pressure variables. These findings support the use of central blood pressure as a treatment target in future trials.

  7. Blood pressure responses of wild giraffes studied by radio telemetry.

    PubMed

    Van Citters, R L; Kemper, W S; Franklin, D L

    1966-04-15

    Blood pressure was telemetered from transducers chronically implanted in the carotid arteries of two adult, wild, male giraffes captured and released near Kiboko, Kenya. Cerebral perfusion pressure ranged from 280/180 mm-Hg while the animal was lying with its head on the ground to 125/75 mm-Hg when it was standing erect; it varied between these levels during spontaneous activity such as walking, grazing, and running.

  8. Sex, Prescribing Practices and Guideline Recommended, Blood Pressure, and LDL Cholesterol Targets at Baseline in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Michelle F.; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E.; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera A.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Lopes, Neuza; Jacobs, Alice K.; Study Group, BARI 2D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Research has shown less aggressive treatment and poorer control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women than men. Methods. We analyzed sex differences in pharmacotherapy strategies and attainment of goals for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and established coronary artery disease enrolled into the BARI 2D trial. Results. Similar numbers of drugs were prescribed in both women and men. Women were less frequent on metformin or sulfonylurea and more likely to take insulin and to be on higher doses of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) than men. After adjusting for baseline differences and treatment prescribed, women were less likely to achieve goals for HbA1c (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57, 0.88) and LDL-C (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.53, 0.78). More antihypertensives were prescribed to women, and yet BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg did not differ by sex. Conclusions. Women entering the BARI 2D trial were as aggressively treated with drugs as men. Despite equivalent treatment, women less frequently met targets for HbA1c and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that there may be sex differences in response to drug therapies used to treat diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:25873955

  9. Federal Bureau of Prisons clinical pharmacy program improves patient A1C.

    PubMed

    Bingham, J Tyler; Mallette, Jeff J

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) currently has over 13,000 patients with diabetes and has placed an emphasis on preventing and delaying the onset or progression of diabetes-related complications. In an ongoing effort to improve patient outcomes, BOP has implemented a nationwide, dynamic system of pharmacist-delivered patient care services via pharmacist clinicians working under the auspices of a physician-pharmacist collaborative practice agreement (CPA). The BOP Clinical Pharmacy Workgroup targets improved patient outcomes via oversight and support of institution pharmacist clinicians and physicians in establishing and maintaining physician-pharmacist CPAs. A primary emphasis is diabetes and the pharmacist-run clinic clinical outcomes data are presented. Seventy (nearly one-half) of eligible BOP pharmacists at 37 institutions offer pharmacist-delivered patient care services via an approved CPA. In total, BOP has 111 active physician-pharmacist CPAs. Pharmacist-run diabetes clinic outcomes from 5 institutions have been reported to date. A total of 126 patients were enrolled. Patient's hemoglobin A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol level are measured before (i.e., when accepted in the diabetes clinic) and after pharmacist-delivered care has been provided. The pharmacist-run diabetes clinics reported an average baseline A1C of 10.6% and produced an average outcome decrease in A1C of 2.3% from baseline. Specific pharmacist clinic interventions found to have the greatest impact are: 1) timely medication adjustment when indicated to help patients meet outcome goals; and 2) timely follow-up after a change in therapy is made (often within 1-2 weeks) with continued medication adjustment when indicated until outcome goal is achieved. BOP pharmacists have become respected and trusted clinicians within the team medicine model. As demonstrated by the pharmacist-run diabetes clinic outcomes, pharmacist clinicians are a valued link to the improvement of patient outcomes

  10. Increased blood pressures in veterans with post traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Khoshdel, Alireza; Avakh, Farhad; Rahmani, Arash

    2016-08-01

    Objective Veterans of war affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to compare brachial and central blood pressures between veterans with PTSD and controls. Method In this case-control study on veterans of Iran-Iraq war, 50 veterans with PTSD and 50 veterans as controls were selected from an outpatient clinic and matched for age ±3 years. Exclusion criteria were malignancies, severe anatomical defects such as amputated extremities, history of PTSD before serving in war, comorbid psychiatric disorders other than anxiety or depressive disorders. Detailed history was taken concerning medical and social aspects. Beck Depression Inventory was used for depressive symptoms. Brachial blood pressures were measured using both auscultatory and oscillometric devices. Measures of central hemodynamics were estimated accordingly. Data on lipid profile were collected either through medical records or newly required lab tests. Results Brachial systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures as well as estimated central systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly higher in the PTSD group. Beck Depression Inventory scores, frequency of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were significantly higher in the PTSD group. PTSD status was an independent predictor of both brachial and central systolic and diastolic pressures. Conclusions We demonstrated increased measures of blood pressure in veterans with PTSD independent of depression and other risk factors. Further research is warranted to confirm our results.

  11. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Garner, Rochelle E; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25-1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74mmHg, 95% CI=0.30-1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44-0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32-0.85, p=0.01). This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure and hypertension. However, the significance and

  12. Poor Long-Term Blood Pressure Control after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zahuranec, Darin B.; Wing, Jeffrey J.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Menon, Ravi S.; Fernandez, Stephen J.; Burgess, Richard E.; Sobotka, Ian A.; German, Laura; Trouth, Anna J.; Shara, Nawar M.; Gibbons, M. Chris; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Kidwell, Chelsea S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypertension is the most important risk factor associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We explored racial differences in blood pressure (BP) control after ICH and assessed predictors of BP control at presentation, 30 days, and 1 year in a prospective cohort study. Methods Subjects with spontaneous ICH were identified from the DiffErenCes in the Imaging of Primary Hemorrhage based on Ethnicity or Race (DECIPHER) Project. Blood pressure was compared by race at each time point. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine predictors of presenting mean arterial pressure (MAP), and longitudinal linear regression was used to assess predictors of MAP at follow-up. Results A total of 162 patients were included (mean age 59, 53% male, 77% black). MAP at presentation was 9.6 mmHg higher in blacks than whites despite adjustment for confounders (p=0.065). Fewer than 20% of patients had normal blood pressure (<120/80 mmHg) at 30 days or 1 year. While there was no difference at 30 days (p=0.331), blacks were more likely than whites to have Stage I/II hypertension at one year (p=0.036). Factors associated with lower MAP at follow-up in multivariable analysis were being married at baseline (p=0.032) and living in a facility (versus personal residence) at the time of BP measurement (p=0.023). Conclusions Long-term blood pressure control is inadequate in patients following ICH, particularly in blacks. Further studies are needed to understand the role of social support and barriers to control to identify optimal approaches to improve blood pressure in this high-risk population. PMID:22903494

  13. Fat induced hypertension in rabbits. Effects of dietary fibre on blood pressure and blood lipid concentration.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, P G; Husbands, D R

    1980-04-01

    Rabbits were fed diets containing 200 g.kg-1 coconut oil, palm oil, or safflower oil. Some of the diets also contained 200 g.kg-1 cellulose. The blood pressure was measured daily by a non-invasive technique for the 2 month duration of the experiment. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast at intervals during the experiment and analysed for lipids. Blood pressure was always increased by a fat-enriched diet. This effect was diminished and delayed by adding cellulose to the diets, though cellulose itself had no effect on the blood pressure in the absence of fat. There was a modest negative correlation between fasting serum triglyceride concentration and the blood pressure in animals fed fat enriched diets without added cellulose, but not in animals fed diets containing both fat and cellulose. These results coupled with those of Wright, Burstyn and Gibney may serve partly to explain the observation that vegetarians have lower blood pressures than omnivores, the latter consuming diets which are relatively richer in fats and poorer in fibre than the former.

  14. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Lean, Obese and Diabetic Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shikha, Deep; Singla, Montish; Walia, Rachna; Potter, Natia; Umpaichitra, Vatcharapan; Mercado, Arlene; Winer, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine if children and adolescents who have obesity (Ob) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) of relatively short duration have impaired cardiovascular function compared with lean subjects using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure as a surrogate measure of evaluation. Methods We enrolled 100 African-Caribbean subjects (45 males/55 females), mean ages 14.4-15.2 years (range 11.8-18.5 years) and Tanner stage 4.2-4.8. Mean BMI for the Ob (n = 40), T2DM (n = 39) and lean (n = 21) groups were 40.3, 34.2 and 20.8, respectively (p < 0.01, Ob and T2DM vs. lean). Mean hemoglobin A1c in lean and Ob was 5.4 and 5.5% compared to 8.8% in T2DM (p < 0.001, T2DM vs. lean and Ob). Ambulatory blood pressure was recorded every 20 min over 24 h using Spacelabs 70207. Results Mean 24-hour, daytime and nighttime systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in Ob and T2DM compared with lean subjects (mean 24-hour 117 and 120 vs. 109 mm Hg; daytime 121 and 123 vs. 113 mm Hg; and nighttime 109 and 115 vs. 101 mm Hg; p < 0.01 for all time periods). The nocturnal systolic dip in Ob and T2DM did not differ from that of lean, whereas nocturnal diastolic dip decreased significantly in Ob and T2DM compared to lean (11.5 and 10.4 vs. 20.6 mm Hg; p < 0.01). Mean pulse pressure was significantly increased in the Ob and T2DM groups compared to lean subjects (51 and 54 vs. 45 mm Hg; p < 0.01). Conclusion Adolescent Ob and T2DM groups share adverse risk factors, which may be harbingers of adult cardiovascular events. PMID:26195970

  15. Unanticipated error in HbA(1c) measurement on the HLC-723 G7 analyzer.

    PubMed

    van den Ouweland, Johannes M W; de Keijzer, Marinus H; van Daal, Henny

    2010-04-01

    Investigation of falsely elevated HbA(1c) measurements on the HLC-723 G7 analyser. Comparison of HbA(1c) in blood samples that were diluted either in hemolysis reagent or water. HbA(1c) results became falsely elevated when samples were diluted in hemolysis reagent, but not in water. QC-procedures failed to detect this error as calibrator and QC samples were manually diluted in water, according to manufacturer's instructions, whereas patient samples were automatically diluted using hemolysing reagent. After replacement of the instruments' sample-loop and rotor seal comparable HbA(1c) results were obtained, irrespective of dilution with hemolysing reagent or water. This case illustrates the importance of treating calibrator and QC materials similar to routine patient samples in order to prevent unnoticed drift in patient HbA(1c) results. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  18. [Correlation between long time systolic blood pressure variability and short time systolic blood pressure in aged population].

    PubMed

    An, Shasha; Zheng, Xiaoming; Li, Zhifang; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Wu, Aiping; Wang, Ruixia; Tao, Jie; Gao, Xinying; Wu, Shouling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the correlation between long time systolic blood pressure variability(SBPV)and short time SBPV in aged population. A total of 752 subjects aged ≥60 years of Kailuan Group who took part in 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 health examination were included by cluster sampling method.Long time SBPV was calculated by standard deviation of mean systolic blood pressure measured in 2006-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011 and 2012-2013, standard deviation represents short time systolic blood pressure which is derived from 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The observation population was divided into three groups according to the third tertiles of the time systolic blood pressure variability: the first point(<9.09 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)), second point (≥9.09 mmHg, and <14.29 mmHg), and third point (≥14.29 mmHg). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between long time systolic blood pressure variability and short time systolic blood pressure. (1) The participants' age were (67.0±5.7) years old (284 women). (2) The 24 hours and daytime SSD were (14.7±4.0) mmHg, (14.7±3.5) mmHg, (15.7±4.4) mmHg (P=0.010) and (14.1±4.4) mmHg, (14.2±3.5) mmHg and (15.4±4.6) mmHg (P<0.001) according to the tertiles of long time systolic blood pressure variability, respectively, nighttime SSD were (12.0±4.4) mmHg, (11.8±4.8) mmHg and (11.9±4.9) mmHg (P=0.900). (3) Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the tertiles of long time SSD was the risk factor for increasing daytime SSD>14.00 mmHg (OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.03-2.23, P=0.037), but not a risk factor for increasing 24 hours SSD>14.41 mmHg (OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.75-1.61, P=0.639) and nighttime SSD>11.11 mmHg (OR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.67-1.42, P=0.899). Increased long time SBPV is a risk factor for increasing daytime SBPV.

  19. The Role of Central Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Management of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Adrian; Patarroyo-Aponte, Gabriel; Rahman, Mahboob

    2018-04-19

    Central blood pressure is a novel predictor of cardiovascular risk that can be measured in the clinical setting using currently available technology. This paper will review current available methods of central blood pressure monitoring as well as its impact in cardiac and renal disease. Both aortic and carotid systolic blood pressure are independently associated with cardiovascular mortality and serious cardiac events. Furthermore, studies show that systolic aortic blood pressure has been shown to be superior predictor of cardiovascular as compared to brachial blood pressure. Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin axis may have a beneficial effect on central blood pressure; however, long term studies evaluating the impact of lowering central blood pressure on clinical outcomes are lacking. Central blood pressure is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk. As more studies emerge demonstrating the value of central blood pressure as a therapeutic target, it is possible that targeting central blood pressure may become an important part of the armamentarium to lower cardiovascular risk.

  20. Home blood pressure variability on one occasion is a novel factor associated with arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Michiaki; Ushigome, Emi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Tanaka, Toru; Atsuta, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Masayoshi; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that not only mean blood pressure but also variability in blood pressure might be related to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between home blood pressure variability on one occasion and markers of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between the s.d. of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 332 patients with type 2 diabetes, and we evaluated whether the SD of clinic- or home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion was an independent determinant of PWV by multivariate linear regression analysis, after adjustment for known risk factors for arterial stiffness, including sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking status, drinking alcohol, presence of antihypertensive medication, average systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure, heart rate and PWV (r=0.259, P<0.0001) were positively correlated with the s.d. of morning home blood pressure on one occasion. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that age, average morning home-measured systolic blood pressure (P=0.0019), heart rate and the s.d. of morning home-measured systolic blood pressure on one occasion (P=0.0159) were independently associated with PWV. In conclusion, home blood pressure variability on one occasion was correlated with PWV, independent of other known risk factors, in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Relations of Blood Pressure and Head Injury to Regional Cerebral Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Allyssa J.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Wendell, Carrington R.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults -69% men, 90% white, mean age= 66.9 years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  2. The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of

  3. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, amore » negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.« less

  4. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and intraoperative blood pressure.

    PubMed

    van Haelst, Ingrid M M; van Klei, Wilton A; Doodeman, Hieronymus J; Kalkman, Cor J; Egberts, Toine C G

    2012-02-01

    The influence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on blood pressure is poorly understood. We hypothesized that if SSRIs have an influence on blood pressure, this might become manifest in changes in intraoperative blood pressure. We aimed to study the association between perioperative use of SSRIs and changes in intraoperative blood pressure by measuring the occurrence of intraoperative hyper- and hypotension. We conducted a retrospective observational follow-up study among patients who underwent elective primary total hip arthroplasty. The index group included users of SSRIs. The reference group included a random sample (ratio 1:3) of nonusers of an antidepressant agent. The outcome was the occurrence of intraoperative hypo- and hypertensive episodes (number, mean and total duration, and area under the curve (AUC)). The outcome was adjusted for confounding factors using regression techniques. The index group included 20 users of an SSRI. The reference group included 60 nonusers. Users of SSRIs showed fewer intraoperative hypotensive episodes, a shorter mean and total duration, and a smaller AUC when compared to the reference group. After adjustment for confounders, SSRI use was associated with a significantly shorter total duration of hypotension: mean difference of -29.4 min (95% confidence interval (CI) -50.4 to -8.3). Two users of an SSRI and two patients in the reference group had a hypertensive episode. Continuation of treatment with SSRIs before surgery was associated with a briefer duration of intraoperative hypotension.

  5. Circadian pattern of blood pressure in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Hem Prabha; Singh, R K; Singh, Urmila; Mehrotra, Seema; Verma, N S; Baranwal, Neelam

    2011-08-01

    AIMS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; To find out the circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive pregnant women and in women with preeclampsia. A cross-sectional prospective observational case control study. Blood pressure was sampled in thirty-five normotensive pregnant women (control) and thirty five preeclamptic women (study group) by using non-invasive automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring machine for 72 h. Blood pressure (BP) was not constant over 24 h period and it oscillated from time to time in control group. BP was maximum during early part of afternoon. However, in preeclampsia besides quantitative increase in BP, circadian BP oscillations were less pronounced and in around 50% subjects BP was maximum during evening and night hours. Both systolic and diastolic BP showed definite reproducible circadian pattern in both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. This pattern both quantitatively and qualitatively was different in preeclamptic women. Standardized 24 h BP monitoring allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hypertensive status and is important for timing and dosing of antihypertensive medications.

  6. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850 Section 870.2850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2850 Extravascular...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1130...

  8. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  9. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  10. Interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure in patients with intradialytic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Peter N; Toto, Robert; Inrig, Jula K

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is common in hemodialysis patients and contributes to this population's high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with intradialytic hypertension, or increases in blood pressure during hemodialysis, have been shown to have the highest risk for these outcomes. The purpose of this review is to describe new findings that shed light on the epidemiology and pathophysiology of intradialytic hypertension and discuss how a better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to improved blood pressure management and outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Our laboratory demonstrated that intradialytic hypertension occurs at least sporadically in most hemodialysis patients, but in 25% of patients it occurs in over 31% of their hemodialysis treatments. We also identified that, compared with hemodialysis patients without intradialytic hypertension, those with intradialytic hypertension have worse endothelial cell function and have higher interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure. Pilot study data show that carvedilol reduces the frequency of intradialytic hypertension and improves endothelial cell dysfunction. Intradialytic hypertension is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, impaired endothelial cell function, and higher overall blood pressure burden. Further investigation is required to determine whether interventions aimed at preventing or treating intradialytic hypertension improve long-term outcomes.

  11. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-02

    test the effects of drugs, exercise, or other stimuli, whereby an increase or decrease in the ratio may indicate an improvement or worsening of systolic...even though high blood pressure in animals can be symptomatic of a variety of diseases including chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism , Cushing’s

  12. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  13. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  14. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Your Heart and Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, James W.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of learning modules to instruct the general public in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The first module, by James W. Woods, presents a medical definition of high blood pressure, reviews its causes and effects, and discusses its treatment. A script to a slide version of this…

  15. Relationship between BMI and blood pressure in girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Zuhal

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between BMI and blood pressure as this is of crucial interest in evaluating both public health and the clinical impact of the so-called obesity epidemic. Data were gathered from 1899 children aged between 6 and 14 years, analysing and evaluating a possible relationship between BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values for both girls and boys. Each child was classified on the basis of age- and sex-specific BMI percentile as normal weight (<85th percentile), overweight (95th percentile). In comparisons among age BMI percentile groups, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were higher in obese and overweight groups than in normal weight groups for both sexes. Although BMI among girls was higher than among boys in all three percentile groups, there were no significant differences between sexes with respect to blood pressure values. The present findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in order to prevent future related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  16. Blood Pressure: Does It Have a Daily Pattern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... better associated with the cardiovascular risk profile? American Journal of Hypertension. 2014;27:680. Birkenhager AM, et al. Causes and consequences of a non-dipping blood pressure profile. Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 2007;65:127. Feb. 24, 2018 ...

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure and adherence monitoring: diagnosing pseudoresistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire

    2014-01-01

    A small proportion of the treated hypertensive population consistently has a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite a triple therapy including a diuretic, a calcium channel blocker, and a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system. According to guidelines, these patients have so-called resistant hypertension. The prevalence of this clinical condition is higher in tertiary than primary care centers and often is associated with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and sleep apnea syndrome. Exclusion of pseudoresistant hypertension using ambulatory or home blood pressure monitoring is a crucial step in the investigation of patients with resistant hypertension. Thus, among the multiple factors to consider when investigating patients with resistant hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be performed very early. Among other factors to consider, physicians should investigate patient adherence to therapy, assess the adequacy of treatment, exclude interfering factors, and, finally, look for secondary forms of hypertension. Poor adherence to therapy accounts for 30% to 50% of cases of resistance to therapy depending on the methodology used to diagnose adherence problems. This review discusses the clinical factors implicated in the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension with a particular emphasis on pseudoresistance, drug adherence, and the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for the diagnosis and management of resistant hypertension.

  18. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  19. A device and method for rapid indirect measurement of human systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-12-01

    An indirect blood pressure measuring device and method were evolved for human use. This system is capable of providing 30 measurements each of systolic and diastolic pressures per minute. The system utilizes two brachial blood pressure cuffs (one on ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Blood Pressure Control -- Helping Patients Take Their Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Blood Pressure Control Helping Patients Take Their Medicine Language: English (US) ... pressure and only about half have it under control (less than 140/90 mmHg). Blood pressure medicine ( ...

  1. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Poirier, Paul; Wielgosz, Andreas; Morrison, Howard; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Di, Chen; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Oguz, Aytekin; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Ismail, Noorhassim; Lanas, Fernando; Puoane, Thandi; Diaz, Rafael; Kelishadi, Roya; Iqbal, Romaina; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Khatib, Rasha; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for <3 g per day; P<0.001 for interaction). The slope of association was steeper for persons with hypertension (2.49 mm Hg per gram) than for those without hypertension (1.30 mm Hg per gram, P<0.001 for interaction) and was steeper with increased age (2.97 mm Hg per gram at >55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).

  2. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  4. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p<0.05). Higher levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin were observed in pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure students when compared with their normotensive peers (p<0.01). The increases in red blood cell and hemoglobin were significantly associated with high blood pressure after adjusting for confounding factors. The ORs (95% CI) of each of the increases were 2.44 (1.52-3.92) and 1.04 (1.03-1.06), respectively. No statistical association between total bilirubin and high blood pressure was observed (p>0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluctuation of blood pressure and pulse rate during colostomy irrigation.

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, S; Noto, T; Tajima, T; Mitomi, T; Miyazaki, T; Numata, M

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of colostomy irrigation on the vital signs of patients with left colostomy. Twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for cancer of the lower rectum and had left lower quadrant end colostomy were included in this study. Subjective symptoms, blood pressure, and pulse rate during the first irrigation were investigated. Fluctuation of blood pressure during instillation was 8.0/8.5 mmHg (average) and 25.0/17.9 mmHg during evacuation. Fluctuation of pulse rate was 5.5 per minute (average) during instillation and 11.5 per minute during evacuation. The number of subjects who showed more than 20% fluctuation of systolic pressure was 12 (54.5 percent) and that of diastolic pressure was 14 (63.6 percent). One of 22 patients complained of illness during irrigation. Although colostomy irrigation showed no significant effects on vital signs in the majority of patients, it caused a significant reduction in both blood pressure and pulse rate in a small number of patients. Careful attention should be paid to vital signs considering the possibility of such effects, especially on the initial irrigation.

  6. Pulse pressure and diabetes treatments: Blood pressure and pulse pressure difference among glucose lowering modality groups in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alemi, Hamid; Khaloo, Pegah; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Rabizadeh, Soghra; Salehi, Salome Sadat; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Meftah, Neda; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher pulse pressure. In this study, we assessed and compared effects of classic diabetes treatments on pulse pressure (PP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.In a retrospective cohort study, 718 non-hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were selected and divided into 4 groups including metformin, insulin, glibenclamide+metformin, and metformin+insulin. They were followed for 4 consecutive visits lasting about 45.5 months. Effects of drug regimens on pulse and blood pressure over time were assessed separately and compared in regression models with generalized estimating equation method and were adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, sex, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).Studied groups had no significant change in PP, SBP, and DBP over time. No significant difference in PP and DBP among studied groups was observed (PP:P = 0.090; DBP:P = 0.063). Pairwise comparisons of PP, SBP, and DBP showed no statistically significant contrast between any 2 studied groups. Interactions of time and treatment were not different among groups.Our results demonstrate patients using metformin got higher PP and SBP over time. Averagely, pulse and blood pressure among groups were not different. Trends of variation in pulse and blood pressure were not different among studied diabetes treatments.

  7. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  8. The diagnostic value of supine blood pressure in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Banak, Małgorzata; Wójcik, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Correct blood pressure (BP) measurement is crucial in the diagnosis of arterial hypertension (AH), and controversy exists whether supine BP should be treated as equal to sitting BP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of supine BP to sitting BP and ambulatory BP with regard to identification of diagnostic cut-offs for hypertension. This study included 280 patients with AH (mean age: 44.3 ±10.6 years). The following measurements of BP were performed and analyzed: 1) sitting office blood pressure measurement (OSBP and ODBP); 2) supine BP (supSBP and supDBP), measured automatically (5 times with a 2-minute interval) during evaluation by the Niccomo device (Medis, Germany); 3) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. The mean supSBP and supDBP were found to be lower than OSBP and ODBP (130.9 ±14.2 vs. 136.6 ±15.5 mm Hg and 84.8 ±9.4 vs. 87.8 ±10.2 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.000001). The correlations between ABP and supBP/OBP were moderate and strong (correlation coefficients in range 0.55-0.76). The ROC analysis revealed that mean supBP ≥ 130/80 mm Hg was more precise than OBP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg in diagnosing hypertension (AUC: 0.820 vs. 0.550; sensitivity 80.7% vs. 57.4%; specificity 83.2% vs. 52.7%; p < 0.0001) and the additive value derived mostly from its higher predictive power of identifying patients with increased night-time BP. In young and middle-aged hypertensive patients the blood pressure during a 10-minute supine rest was lower than in the sitting position. The supine blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mm Hg was found to be a specific and sensitive threshold for hypertension.

  9. Evaluation of Daily Blood Pressure Alteration in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Polat Canbolat, Ismail; Belen, Erdal; Bayyigit, Akif; Helvaci, Aysen; Kilickesmez, Kadriye

    2017-09-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfunction in the general population. The relationship between overt thyroid dysfunction and hypertension is generally understood. Besides high blood pressure, non-dipper hypertension is known to increase cardiovascular risk. Our aim is to investigate daily blood pressure changes and the frequency of non-dipping patterns in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty-nine patients without hypertension with subclinical hypothyroidism were compared with 50 healthy sex- and age-matched controls using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were significantly higher in the subclinic hypothyroidism group, and there was no difference between free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels which could be predicted as a result of the study design. Levels of mean diastolic, daytime diastolic, nighttime diastolic and nighttime systolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the subclinic hypothyroidism group (p = 0.001 for mean, daytime and nighttime diastolic and p = 0.01 for nighttime systolic). Diastolic non-dipping occurred more frequently in the subclinic hypothyroidism group [subclinical hypothyroidism group 24 patients (49%), control group 13 patients (26%), p = 0.01]. On multivariate analysis, subclinical hypothyroidism was independently associated with diastolic non-dipping (95% confidence interval 1.162-8.053, odds ratio 1.182, p = 0.024). Our study found that both the frequency of diastolic non-dipping pattern and diastolic blood pressure increase with subclinical hypothyroidism. Therfore, it would appear that searching for non-dipping pattern can add valuable information for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

  10. Significance of blood pressure variability in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nishant Raj; Bian, Yu-Yao; Shou, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the characteristics of blood pressure variability (BPV) and sepsis and to investigate changes in blood pressure and its value on the severity of illness in patients with sepsis. Blood parameters, APACHE II score, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were analyzed in 89 patients with sepsis. In patients with APACHE II score>19, the values of systolic blood pressure (SBPV), diasystolic blood pressure (DBPV), non-dipper percentage, cortisol (COR), lactate (LAC), platelet count (PLT) and glucose (GLU) were significantly higher than in those with APACHE II score ≤19 (P<0.05), whereas the values of procalcitonin (PCT), white blood cell (WBC), creatinine (Cr), PaO2, C-reactive protein (CRP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that APACHE II scores correlated significantly with SBPV and DBPV (P<0.01, r=0.732 and P<0.01, r=0.762). SBPV and DBPV were correlated with COR (P=0.018 and r=0.318; P=0.008 and r=0.353 respectively). However, SBPV and DBPV were not correlated with TNF-α, IL-10, and PCT (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis of SBPV, DBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was used to predict prognosis in terms of survival and non-survival rates. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) showed that DBPV was a better predictor of survival rate with an AUC value of 0.890. However, AUC of SBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was 0.746, 0.831 and 0.915, respectively. The values of SBPV, DBPV and non-dipper percentage are higher in patients with sepsis. DBPV and SBPV can be used to predict the survival rate of patients with sepsis.

  11. Predicting failure to follow-up screened high blood pressure in Japan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Tsujimura, Yuka; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of working-age individuals who did not follow-up for possible hypertension that was detected in the population-based screening. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using the database of health insurance claims and health checkups from several health insurance societies for employees in Japan. Screened participants aged ≥20 years, with possible hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and without known antihypertensive treatment, were included. The outcome was lack of clinical follow-up for possible hypertension within 6 months of the latest screening. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors. Among 17,173 participants (15,793 males and 1380 females) who were identified as possible hypertensives, 89.7 and 82.3% of them, respectively, did not consult physicians for screened possible hypertension. Predictors of no clinical follow-up for males included younger age, lower body mass index (BMI), lower hemoglobin A1c and milder hypertension. Predictors for females included younger age, lower BMI and being insured. Approximately 80% of participants failed to consult physicians even with positive screening results. Younger individuals with lower BMI are at high risk of no clinical follow-up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cerebral blood velocity regulation during progressive blood loss compared with lower body negative pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Rickards, Caroline A; Johnson, Blair D; Harvey, Ronée E; Convertino, Victor A; Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N

    2015-09-15

    Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is often used to simulate blood loss in humans. It is unknown if cerebral blood flow responses to actual blood loss are analogous to simulated blood loss during LBNP. Nine healthy men were studied at baseline, during three levels of LBNP (5 min at -15, -30, and -45 mmHg), and during three levels of blood loss (333, 667, and 1,000 ml). LBNP and blood loss conditions were randomized. Intra-arterial mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP was similar to that during blood loss (P ≥ 0.42). Central venous pressure (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 4.0 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8, and 0.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.1 ± 0.9 mmHg for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P ≤ 0.003) and stroke volume (71 ± 4 vs. 80 ± 3, 60 ± 3 vs. 74 ± 3, and 51 ± 2 vs. 68 ± 4 ml for levels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, P ≤ 0.002) were lower during LBNP than blood loss. Despite differences in central venous pressure, middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) and cerebrovascular conductance were similar between LBNP and blood loss at each level (MCAv at level 3: 62 ± 6 vs. 66 ± 5 cm/s, P = 0.37; cerebrovascular conductance at level 3: 0.72 ± 0.05 vs. 0.73 ± 0.05 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.53). While the slope of the MAP-MCAv relationship was slightly different between LBNP and blood loss (0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.66 ± 0.04 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively, P = 0.05), time domain gain between MAP and MCAv at maximal LBNP/blood loss (P = 0.23) and low-frequency MAP-mean MCAv transfer function coherence, gain, and phase were similar (P ≥ 0.10). Our results suggest that cerebral hemodynamic responses to LBNP to -45 mmHg and blood loss up to 1,000 ml follow a similar trajectory, and the arterial pressure-cerebral blood velocity relationship is not altered from baseline under these conditions.

  13. Face cooling increases blood pressure during central hypovolemia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Blair D; Sackett, James R; Sarker, Suman; Schlader, Zachary J

    2017-11-01

    A reduction in central blood volume can lead to cardiovascular decompensation (i.e., failure to maintain blood pressure). Cooling the forehead and cheeks using ice water raises blood pressure. Therefore, face cooling (FC) could be used to mitigate decreases in blood pressure during central hypovolemia. We tested the hypothesis that FC during central hypovolemia induced by lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) would increase blood pressure. Ten healthy participants (22 ± 2 yr, three women, seven men) completed two randomized LBNP trials on separate days. Trials began with 30 mmHg of LBNP for 6 min. Then, a 2.5-liter plastic bag of ice water (0 ± 0°C) (LBNP+FC) or thermoneutral water (34 ± 1°C) (LBNP+Sham) was placed on the forehead, eyes, and cheeks during 15 min of LBNP at 30 mmHg. Forehead temperature was lower during LBNP+FC than LBNP+Sham, with the greatest difference at 21 min of LBNP (11.1 ± 1.6 vs. 33.9 ± 1.4°C, P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was greater during LBNP+FC than LBNP+Sham, with the greatest difference at 8 min of LBNP (98 ± 15 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.001). Cardiac output was higher during LBNP+FC than LBNP+Sham with the greatest difference at 18 min of LBNP (5.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.0 liter/min, P = 0.005). Forearm cutaneous vascular resistance was greater during LBNP+FC than LBNP+Sham, with the greatest difference at 15 min of LBNP (7.2 ± 3.4 vs. 4.9 ± 2.7 mmHg/perfusion units (PU), P < 0.001). Face cooling during LBNP increases blood pressure through increases in cardiac output and vascular resistance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  15. [Invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an aneroid pressure system in cattle].

    PubMed

    Mosing, M; Franz, S; Iff, I; Schwendenwein, I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an electronic pressure transducer (EPT) or an aneroid pressure system (APS) in cattle. A catheter was placed in the auricular artery of 11 adult cattle and connected to a pressure transducer via pressure line. The aneroid system was connected to the same catheter using a three-way stop-cock in the pressure line. On five occasions three consecutive measurements were performed with the APS. The mean blood pressure values of the EPT were recorded before each individual measurement. Values from each device were compared using Passing and Bablok regression of agreement and a Bland and Altman difference plot. One hundred and forty-seven paired measurements were analysed. The average bias between the two methods (EPT vs. APS) was -1.6 mmHg (95 % confidence interval [CI]: -3.0 to -0.2 mmHg). The coefficient of correlation was 1.0084. The aneroid system showed an almost perfect agreement with the EPT. This study shows that it can be used in a clinical setting as well as under field conditions to measure arterial blood pressure in cattle.

  16. Effects of acute blood pressure elevation on biochemical-metabolic parameters in individuals with hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Days Oliveira; Santos, Sara Patrícia O; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta S; Valente, Flávia Mariana; Giannini, Marcela Cavichiolo; Gregório, Michele Lima; De Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi S; Vilela-Martin, José Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a common clinical situation that presents a high rate of morbidity and mortality and it is characterized by symptomatic rise of blood pressure (BP), systolic (SBP) ≥ 180 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP) ≥ 120 mmHg. It is classified as emergency (HE) or hypertensive urgency (HU). There is no description of laboratory findings in patients who present acute BP elevation. Thus, this study had the objective to assess the biochemical-metabolic parameters of patients with HC. We studied 74 normotensive individuals (NT), 74 controlled hypertensive patients (ContrHT), 50 subjects with HU, and 78 with HE for evaluating biochemical-metabolic parameters. HE occurs in older individuals and more frequently in those with known hypertension. More patients with HE had dyslipidemia than those with HU (58% vs. 38%). The diastolic BP and heart rate were higher in the HE group (120 mmHg and 87 bpm) compared to ContrHT (71 mmHg and 71 bpm; p < 0.0001) and NT groups (75 mmHg and 68 bpm; p < 0.0001). Glycemia was higher in HE vs. NT and ContrHT (p < 0.05). HDL cholesterol was lower in HE than NT (p = 0.0088). Potassium was lower in HE vs. NT, ContrHT and HU groups (p < 0.05). Creatinine was higher in the HC group vs. NT and ContrHT (p < 0.05). The GFR was significantly lower in HE group vs. HU, ContrHT and NT (p < 0.001). In conclusion, individuals with HC show biochemical alterations when compared to ContrHT and NT. Acute BP elevations are associated with hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and higher potassium and creatinine levels and lower renal function. Abbreviations BMI = body mass index BP = blood pressure CH = hypertensive crisis ContrHT = controlled hypertensive DBP = diastolic blood pressure GFR = glomerular filtration rate HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin HDLc = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HE = hypertensive emergency HPLC = high-performance liquid chromatography HR = heart rate HU = hypertensive urgency JNC 7 = VII Joint National Committee on the Detection

  17. The influence of blood pressure management on neurological outcome in endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M; Espelund, U S; Juul, N; Yoo, A J; Sørensen, L H; Sørensen, K E; Johnsen, S P; Andersen, G; Simonsen, C Z

    2018-06-01

    Observational studies have suggested that low blood pressure and blood pressure variability may partially explain adverse neurological outcome after endovascular therapy with general anaesthesia (GA) for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to further examine whether blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy are associated with neurological outcome. The GOLIATH trial randomised 128 patients to either GA or conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin Score. The haemodynamic protocol aimed at keeping the systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and mean blood pressure >70 mm Hg during the procedure. Blood pressure related parameters of interest included 20% reduction in mean blood pressure; mean blood pressure <70 mm Hg, <80 mm Hg, and <90 mm Hg, respectively; time with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg; procedural minimum and maximum mean and systolic blood pressure; mean blood pressure at the time of groin puncture; postreperfusion mean blood pressure; blood pressure variability; and use of vasopressors. Sensitivity analyses were performed in the subgroup of reperfused patients. Procedural average mean and systolic blood pressures were higher in the conscious sedation group (P<0.001). The number of patients with mean blood pressure <70-90 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, blood pressure variability, and use of vasopressors were all higher in the GA group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant association between any of the examined blood pressure related parameters and the modified Rankin Score in the overall patient population, and in the subgroup of patients with full reperfusion. We found no statistically significant association between blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy and neurological outcome. NCT 02317237. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Raisins compared with other snack effects on glycemia and blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W; Weiter, Kathy M; Christian, Amber L; Ritchey, Michelle B; Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    To compare effects of raisin snacks with conventional snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial compared 3-times-a-day consumption of raisins with intake of processed snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. Men and women were randomized to snacks (n = 15) or raisins (n = 31). Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly affected by intake of raisins or snacks. Mean subject post prandial glucose levels were significantly reduced by raisin intake at 12 weeks; changes with raisin intake were -13.1 mg/dL (P = 0.003 vs baseline; P = 0.03 vs snacks). Eating raisins significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (-0.12%; P = 0.004), a significantly greater level decrease than seen with snack intake (P = 0.036). Snack intake did not significantly affect subject systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP). Raisin intake was associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks with mean changes of -6.0 to 10.2 mmHg; all these changes were statistically significant (P = 0.015 to 0.001). Raisins were associated with significantly greater changes in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks than snacks (P < 0.05). Body weight did not significantly change within or between groups. Regular consumption of raisins may reduce glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors, including BP rate.

  19. Impact of baseline systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability: the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Li, Zhifang; Yang, Yuling; Chen, Guojuan; Wang, Chunxue; Wu, Yuntao; Ruan, Chunyu; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wu, Shouling

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in a general population. This is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Study participants attended a face-to-face interview every 2 years. Blood pressure variability was defined using the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of all SBP values at baseline and follow-up visits. The coefficient of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean SBP. We used multivariate linear regression models to test the relationships between SBP and standard deviation, and between SBP and coefficient of variation. Approximately 43,360 participants (mean age: 48.2±11.5 years) were selected. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for potential confounders, baseline SBPs <120 mmHg were inversely related to standard deviation (P<0.001) and coefficient of variation (P<0.001). In contrast, baseline SBPs ≥140 mmHg were significantly positively associated with standard deviation (P<0.001) and coefficient of variation (P<0.001). Baseline SBPs of 120-140 mmHg were associated with the lowest standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The associations between baseline SBP and standard deviation, and between SBP and coefficient of variation during follow-ups showed a U curve. Both lower and higher baseline SBPs were associated with increased blood pressure variability. To control blood pressure variability, a good target SBP range for a general population might be 120-139 mmHg.

  20. Control of blood pressure in Scotland: the rule of halves.

    PubMed

    Smith, W C; Lee, A J; Crombie, I K; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1990-04-14

    Audit of detection, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults in Scotland. Cross sectional survey with random population sampling. General practice centres in 22 Scottish districts. 5123 Men and 5236 women aged 40-59 in the Scottish heart health study, randomly selected from 22 districts throughout Scotland, of whom 1262 men and 1061 women had hypertension (defined as receiving antihypertensive treatment or with blood pressure above defined cut off points). Hypertension (assessed by standardised recording, questionnaire on diagnosis, and antihypertensive drug treatment) according to criteria of the World Health Organisation (receiving antihypertensive treatment or blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg, or both) and to modified criteria of the British Hypertension Society. In half the men with blood pressure greater than or equal to 160/95 mm Hg hypertension was undetected (670/1262, 53%), in half of those in whom it had been detected it was untreated (250/592, 42%), and in half of those receiving treatment it was not controlled (172/342, 50%). In women the numbers were: 486/1061, 46%; 188/575, 33%; and 155/387, 40% respectively. Assessment of blood pressure according to the British Hypertension Society's recommendations showed an improvement, but in only a quarter of men and 42% of women was hypertension detected and treated satisfactorily (142/561, 215/514 respectively). The detection and control of hypertension in Scotland is unsatisfactory, affecting management of this and other conditions, such as high blood cholesterol concentration, whose measurement is opportunistic and selective and depends on recognition of other risk factors.

  1. Berberine reduced blood pressure and improved vasodilation in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Guang; Liang, Liang; Zhang, Yin-Bin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Bai, Yun-Gang; Dai, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Man-Jiang; Wang, Zhong-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypertension are considered to be the two leading risk factors for vascular disease in diabetic patients. However, few pharmacologic agents could provide a combinational therapy for controlling hyperglycemia and hypertension at the same time in diabetes. The objectives of this study are to investigate whether berberine treatment could directly reduce blood pressure and identify the molecular mechanism underlying the vascular protection of berberine in diabetic rats. Berberine was intragastrically administered with different dosages of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day to diabetic rats for 8 weeks since the injection of streptozotocin. The endothelium-dependent/-independent relaxation in middle cerebral arteries was investigated. The activity of large-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel (BK Ca ) was investigated by recording whole-cell currents, analyzing single-channel activities and assessing the expressions of α- and β1-subunit at protein or mRNA levels. Results of the study suggest that chronic administration of 100 mg/kg/day berberine not only lowered blood glucose but also reduced blood pressure and improved vasodilation in diabetic rats. Furthermore, berberine markedly increased the function and expression of BK Ca β1-subunit in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from diabetic rats or when exposed to hyperglycemia condition. The present study provided initial evidences that berberine reduced blood pressure and improved vasodilation in diabetic rats by activation of BK Ca channel in VSMCs, which suggested that berberine might provide a combinational therapy for controlling hyperglycemia and blood pressure in diabetes. Furthermore, our work indicated that activation of BK Ca channel might be the underlying mechanism responsible for the vascular protection of berberine in diabetes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Synchronization patterns in cerebral blood flow and peripheral blood pressure under minor stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen C.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene; Novak, Vera

    2003-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. The autoregulation of cerebral blood flow that adapts to changes in systemic blood pressure is impaired after stroke. We investigate blood flow velocities (BFV) from right and left middle cerebral arteries (MCA) and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) simultaneously measured from the finger, in 13 stroke and 11 healthy subjects using the mean value statistics and phase synchronization method. We find an increase in the vascular resistance and a much stronger cross-correlation with a time lag up to 20 seconds with the instantaneous phase increment of the BFV and BP signals for the subjects with stroke compared to healthy subjects.

  3. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBFmore » varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.« less

  4. Are Ethnic Disparities in HbA1c Levels Explained by Mental Wellbeing? Analysis of Population-Based Data from the Health Survey for England.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo

    2018-02-01

    It is unclear how ethnic differences in HbA 1c levels are affected by individual variations in mental wellbeing. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the extent to which HbA 1c disparities between Caucasian and South Asian adults are mediated by various aspects of positive psychological functioning. Data from the 2014 Health Survey for England was analysed using bootstrapping methods. A total of 3894 UK residents with HbA 1c data were eligible to participate. Mental wellbeing was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. To reduce bias BMI, blood pressure, diabetes status, and other factors were treated as covariates. Ethnicity directly predicted blood sugar control (unadjusted coefficient -2.15; 95% CI -3.64, -0.67), with Caucasians generating lower average HbA 1c levels (37.68 mmol/mol (5.6%)) compared to South Asians (39.87 mmol/mol (5.8%)). This association was mediated by positive mental wellbeing, specifically concerning perceived vigour (unadjusted effect 0.30; 95% CI 0.13, 0.58): South Asians felt more energetic than Caucasians (unadjusted coefficient -0.32; 95% CI -0.49, -0.16), and greater perceived energy predicted lower HbA 1c levels (unadjusted coefficient -0.92; 95% CI -1.29, -0.55). This mediator effect accounted for just over 14% of the HbA 1c variance and was negated after adjusting for BMI. Caucasian experience better HbA 1c levels compared with their South Asian counterparts. However, this association is partly confounded by individual differences in perceived energy levels, which is implicated in better glycaemic control, and appears to serve a protective function in South Asians.

  5. The efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachman, P. N. R.; Akrom; Darmawan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a conditions caused by metabolic abnormalities include central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. HbA1c examination is required to study the long-term glycemic status and to prevent diabetic complications of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk. This research performed using an experimental randomized single - blind controlled trial design. A total of 99 outpatients at the Jetis I Public Health Center, Yogyakarta, Indonesia with metabolic syndrome risk were divided into three groups: The control group received placebo and two treatment groups received black seed oil orally at dose of 1.5 mL/day and 3 mL/day, respectively, for 20 days. The clinical conditions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, BMI, blood glucose serum and HbA1c levels were examined on day 0 and 21. The results obtained were analyzed with one-way ANOVA test. The mean of HbA1c levels of all groups before treatment was higher than the normal values and there was no significant difference in HbA1c value on day 0. Administration of 1.5 and 3 mL/day of black seed oil for 20 days decreased (p<0.05) HbA1c levels. It can be concluded that administration of black cumin seed oil and hypoglycemic drug combination for 20 days in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome may reduce to HbA1c levels.

  6. Current aspects in hemoglobin A1c detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shu Hwang; Thevarajah, M; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei

    2015-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between blood lead level and blood pressure in aborigines and others in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsien-Wen; Lai, Li-Hsing; Chou, Sze-Yuan; Wu, Fang-Yang

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the blood lead level (BLL) and blood pressure among aborigines and non-aborigines in central Taiwan, a community-based survey that included demographic data, medical history, and blood chemistry analyses was conducted among 2,565 adults during an annual health examination. BLLs were analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). There was a dose response among the non-aborigines (high BLL odds ratio = 2.97, compared with low BLL) but not among aborigines. Based on multiple linear regression models, BLLs were positively correlated with both systolic (an increase of 0.85 mm Hg/microg/dL) and diastolic (an increase of 0.48 mm Hg/microg/dL) blood pressures after adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. BLLs were higher among aborigines than non-aborigines and were significantly correlated with blood pressure, particularly systolic pressure. The association should be considered causal.

  8. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  13. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial.

    PubMed

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels

    2018-01-17

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A1c Gear: Laboratory quality HbA1c measurement at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Ejilemele, Adetoun; Unabia, Jamie; Ju, Hyunsu; Petersen, John R

    2015-05-20

    HbA1c is an important part of assessing the diabetic control and since the use of point-of-care devices for monitoring HbA1c is increasing, it is important to determine how these devices compare to the central laboratory. One hundred and twenty patient samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant™II and one POC analyzer (Sakae A1c Gear). Three patient sample pools containing ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% HbA1c levels were run over 20 days. Three reagent lots and three instruments were evaluated for the A1c Gear. The 120 patient samples showed strong correlation (R(2)>0.989) when compared to the Variant™II with means=8.06% and 7.81%, for Variant IIand A1c Gear, respectively. Changing reagent lots or instruments had no impact for the A1c Gear. The ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% pools within-run and between-run imprecision was between 0.87-1.33% and 1.03-1.32%, and 1.41-2.35% and 1.24-1.89% with total imprecision of 1.67-2.35% and 1.61-2.31% for the A1c Gear and Variant II, respectively. The A1c Gear showed a small negative bias (0.25% HbA1c) across HbA1c measurement ranges of <11.5%. This bias was, however, acceptable and not considered to be clinically significant. The A1c Gear meets the criteria of total CV <3% leading us to the conclusion that the A1c Gear can give results as precise as the laboratory at the POC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hypoglycemia Reduction and Changes in Hemoglobin A1c in the ASPIRE In-Home Study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Garg, Satish K; Bode, Bruce W; Bailey, Timothy S; Ahmann, Andrew J; Schultz, Kenneth A; Welsh, John B; Shin, John J

    2015-08-01

    ASPIRE In-Home randomized 247 subjects with type 1 diabetes to sensor-augmented pump therapy with or without the Threshold Suspend (TS) feature, which interrupts insulin delivery at a preset sensor glucose value. We studied the effects of TS on nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in relation to baseline hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and change in A1C during the study. NH event rates and mean area under curve (AUC) of NH events were evaluated at different levels of baseline A1C (<7%, 7-8%, and >8%) and at different levels of changes in A1C (less than -0.3% [decreased], -0.3% to 0.3% [stable], and >0.3% [increased]), in the TS Group compared with the Control Group (sensor-augmented pump only). In the TS Group, 27.9% of the NH events were accompanied by a confirmatory blood glucose value, compared with 39.3% in the Control Group. Among subjects with baseline A1C levels of <7% or 7-8%, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates than those in the Control Group (P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Among subjects with decreased or stable A1C levels, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates, and the events had lower AUCs (P≤0.001 for each). Among subjects with increased A1C levels, those in the TS Group had NH events with significantly lower AUCs (P<0.001). Use of the TS feature was associated with decreases in the rate and severity (as measured by AUC) of NH events in many subjects, including those with low baseline A1C levels and those whose A1C values decreased during the study period. Use of the TS feature can help protect against hypoglycemia in those wishing to intensify diabetes management to achieve target glucose levels.

  16. The intraventricular filling vortex under heightened aortic blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsen, Nicholas; Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Hypertension, or high aortic blood pressure, can induce structural changes in the left ventricle (LV) such as concentric hypertrophy. Previous studies have identified that the intraventricular filling vortex serves as an effective means of blood transport during diastolic filling. However, a fundamental understanding of how hypertension affects this vortex is unavailable. This knowledge can be useful for improving diagnosis and treatment of related heart disease conditions, including hypertensive heart failure. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that the circulation of the filling vortex would diminish with increased aortic pressure. Using a LV physical model within a left heart simulator, we performed hemodynamic measurements to acquire pressure and volumetric inflow profiles and 2D particle image velocimetry to visualize the intraventricular flow fields. Peak aortic pressures of 120 mm Hg, 140 mm Hg, and 160 mm Hg were each tested at heart rates of 70, 100, and 110 beats per minute, under: 1) reduced ejection fraction (EF), and 2) constant EF. Our results indicate that peak vortex circulation is reduced under elevated aortic pressures. Hemodynamics and characteristics of the intraventricular filling vortex in all examined experimental cases will be presented.

  17. Effects of elevated artificial pneumoperitoneum pressure on invasive blood pressure and levels of blood gases.

    PubMed

    Hypolito, Octavio; Azevedo, João Luiz; Gama, Fernanda; Azevedo, Otavio; Miyahira, Susana Abe; Pires, Oscar César; Caldeira, Fabiana Alvarenga; Silva, Thamiris

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the clinical, hemodynamic, gas analysis and metabolic repercussions of high transient pressures of pneumoperitoneum for a short period of time to ensure greater security for introduction of the first trocar. sixty-seven patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures were studied and randomly distributed in P12 group: n=30 (intraperitoneal pressure [IPP] 12mmHg) and P20 group: n=37 (IPP of 20mmHg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was evaluated by catheterization of the radial artery; and through gas analysis, pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3) and alkalinity (BE) were evaluated. These parameters were measured in both groups at time zero before pneumoperitoneum (TP0); at time 1 (TP1) when IPP reaches 12mmHg in both groups; at time 2 (TP2) after five min with IPP=12mmHg in P12 and after 5min with IPP=20mmHg at P20; and at time 3 (TP3) after 10min with IPP=12mmHg in P12 and with return of IPP from 20 to 12mmHg, starting 10min after TP1 in P20. Different values from those considered normal for all parameters assessed, or the appearance of atypical organic phenomena, were considered as clinical changes. there were statistically significant differences in P20 group in MAP, pH, HCO3 and BE, but within normal limits. No clinical and pathological changes were observed. high and transient intra-abdominal pressure causes changes in MAP, pH, HCO3 and BE, but without any clinical impact on the patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  19. Could Blood Pressure Phobia Go Beyond the White Coat Effect?

    PubMed

    Dillon, Kathleen M; Seacat, Jason D; Saucier, Cory D; Doyle-Campbell, Courtney J

    2015-11-01

    While it is known that excessive anxiety surrounding the measuring of blood pressure may preclude an accurate measurement, it is not known whether it could also lead to phobic avoidance behavior. Self-reported information was collected on 125 individuals who made postings on 5 internet-based medical forums. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that these individuals reported experiencing intense fear associated with the measuring of blood pressure, that was excessive or irrational and which contributed to avoidance of medical treatment and interference with life decisions. Based on these preliminary observations, we are speculating that these symptoms could be considered consistent with a diagnosis of a Specific Phobia. Investigations using quantitative methods, representative samples, and standardized clinical instruments need to be conducted before definitive conclusions can be reached. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Shift work and night work: what effect on blood pressure?].

    PubMed

    Cassat, M; Wuerzner, G; Burnier, M

    2015-09-09

    Shift work has become more and more common for the last thirty years. By definition, shift work disturbs the circadian rhythm and the internal clock. Even if the pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood, a greater cardiovascular risk has been attributed to shift work. Cross-sectional and cohort studies have identified an association between shift work and an elevated blood pressure. Shift workers also present a higher incidence of hypertension and progression than day workers. Unfortunately, the heterogeneity of the studies, the multiple confounding factors, as well as the complexity to achieve a suitable comparison group make it impossible to draw firm clinical evidence. Nevertheless, this population needs a medical follow-up focused on the cardiovascular risks and blood pressure.

  1. Bio-functional pickles that reduce blood pressure of rats.

    PubMed

    Oda, Kohei; Imanishi, Takanori; Yamane, Yoshito; Ueno, Yoshie; Mori, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Addition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides to the pickles was studied in order to develop a new type of pickles that reduce blood pressure. Based on the outcome of these studies, a new type of fermentation bed composed of rice bran and white miso has been successfully developed. The advantage of such pickles is that they not only contain both GABA and ACE-inhibitory peptides, but also that their taste and flavor are excellent, with colors close to the original ones. The new type of pickles could temporarily reduce blood pressure in two types of rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats and NaCl-sensitive model rats. Thus, the newly developed pickles appear to be beneficial for pickle business.

  2. Risk Associated with Pulse Pressure on Out-of-Office Blood Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu-Mei; Aparicio, Lucas S.; Liu, Yan-Ping; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases with pulse pressure (PP). However, PP remains an elusive cardiovascular risk factor with findings being inconsistent between studies. The 2013 ESH/ESC guideline proposed that PP is useful in stratification and suggested a threshold of 60 mm Hg, which is 10 mm Hg higher compared to that in the 2007 guideline; however, no justification for this increase was provided. Methodology Published thresholds of PP are based on office blood pressure measurement and often on arbitrary categorical analyses. In the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO), we determined outcome-driven thresholds for PP based on ambulatory or home blood pressure measurement, respectively. Results The main findings were that for people aged <60 years, PP did not refine risk stratification, whereas in older people the thresholds were 64 and 76 mm Hg for the ambulatory and home PP, respectively. However, PP provided little added predictive value over and beyond classical risk factors. PMID:26587443

  3. Prediction of blood pressure and blood flow in stenosed renal arteries using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhunjhunwala, Pooja; Padole, P. M.; Thombre, S. B.; Sane, Atul

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made to develop a diagnostive tool for renal artery stenosis (RAS) which is inexpensive and in-vitro. To analyse the effects of increase in the degree of severity of stenosis on hypertension and blood flow, haemodynamic parameters are studied by performing numerical simulations. A total of 16 stenosed models with varying degree of stenosis severity from 0-97.11% are assessed numerically. Blood is modelled as a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid using the Carreau model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to compute the values of flow parameters like maximum velocity and maximum pressure attained by blood due to stenosis under pulsatile flow. These values are further used to compute the increase in blood pressure and decrease in available blood flow to kidney. The computed available blood flow and secondary hypertension for varying extent of stenosis are mapped by curve fitting technique using MATLAB and a mathematical model is developed. Based on these mathematical models, a quantification tool is developed for tentative prediction of probable availability of blood flow to the kidney and severity of stenosis if secondary hypertension is known.

  4. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  5. High blood pressure and insulin resistance: influence of ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, E; Haffner, S M; Stern, M P; Mitchell, B D; Natali, A; Hazuda, H P; Patterson, J K

    1991-06-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia links non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity, and hypertension, each an insulin-resistant state in its own right. Insulin resistance predicts the occurrence of NIDDM, and plays a major role in its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinaemia may also predict hypertension in a sample (n = 2905) of the mixed population of San Antonio, in which hyperinsulinaemia and NIDDM are more prevalent among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic whites. Whilst in the whole sample the hypertensives had significantly (P less than 0.001) higher plasma insulin concentrations than the normotensives, high blood pressure was significantly (P less than 0.01) more frequent among non-Hispanic whites than Mexican-Americans regardless of diabetes status. After adjusting for factors (age, sex, body mass, and body fat distribution) known to affect insulin levels, a direct relationship between post-glucose plasma insulin concentrations and prevalence of hypertension was still present in both ethnic groups. In Mexican-Americans, however, the standardized prevalence of hypertension was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower at any given insulin concentration. Post-glucose plasma glucose levels also were directly related to hypertension prevalence in both groups; again, the regression line was shifted downward and, furthermore, less steep (P less than 0.02) in Mexican-Americans, suggesting relative protection against the negative effect of hyperglycaemia on blood pressure. Dyslipidaemia (higher total cholesterol and triglyceride, and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations) was strongly associated with hyperinsulinaemia and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. After adjusting for plasma insulin, only hypertriglyceridaemia was associated with high