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  1. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c A A A What's in this article? ... de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What It Is A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to monitor long- ...

  2. Changes in HbA1c, body weight, and systolic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes patients initiating dapagliflozin therapy: a primary care database study

    PubMed Central

    Scheerer, Markus F; Rist, Roland; Proske, Orm; Meng, Annika; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) primary care patients initiating dapagliflozin treatment. Methods T2D patients who started dapagliflozin in 985 general and 32 diabetologist practices (Disease Analyzer, Germany: December 2012–October 2014) were analyzed (3- and 6-month follow-up). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify clinical characteristics and comorbidity associated with changes in HbA1c, BW, and SBP. Results The study included 1,169 T2D patients (age: 62.5 years; men: 59.3%; diabetologist care: 23%) with newly initiated dapagliflozin therapy. At the 3-month stage, dapagliflozin significantly reduced HbA1c (−0.8%±1.4%) compared to the baseline (8.5%±1.5%) (P<0.001). Changes were maintained after 6 months (−0.8%±1.5%) (P<0.001). Patients with high baseline HbA1c values (>9%) showed greater reductions in HbA1c than the overall sample (3 months −1.8%, 6 months −1.8%; both P<0.05). BW and SBP also showed statistically significant reductions with dapagliflozin over 3 and 6 months (−2.2 kg, P<0.001; −2.2 mmHg, P=0.003 and −2.5 kg, P<0.001; −2.3 mmHg, P=0.011, respectively). After 3 months, 53% of patients achieved a reduction in both HbA1c and BW; the same holds true for 45% of patients at the 6-month mark. Similar results were observed both in general and diabetologist practices. In multivariate analyses, baseline HbA1c (parameter estimate: −0.6479) and diabetologist care (−0.2553) were independent predictors of HbA1c change (6 months) (all P<0.05). Conclusion T2D patients treated with dapagliflozin therapy achieved statistically significant reductions in HbA1c, BW, and SBP in a real-world primary and diabetologist care setting. The changes were comparable to the results of the dapagliflozin clinical trial program. PMID:27822077

  3. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... few minutes. previous continue What to Expect Either method (finger or heel sticking or vein withdrawal) of ... that since labs and offices may use different methods to measure HbA1c, the range of normal values ...

  4. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and relationship to HbA1c and blood pressure changes in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wilding, John P. H.; Blonde, Lawrence; Polidori, David; Xie, John; Sullivan, Daniel; Usiskin, Keith; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces HbA1c, body weight and systolic BP (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes. As weight loss is known to reduce both HbA1c and SBP, these analyses were performed to evaluate the contribution of weight loss resulting from treatment with canagliflozin to HbA1c and SBP reductions in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Pooled data from four placebo-controlled Phase 3 studies (N=2,250) in patients with type 2 diabetes were used in the analyses. In each study, patients were treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg or canagliflozin 300 mg, once daily for 26 weeks. Changes from baseline in body weight, HbA1c and SBP were measured at week 26, and the contribution of weight loss to the lowering of HbA1c and SBP was obtained using ANCOVA. Results Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced mean body weight, HbA1c and SBP compared with placebo (p<0.001 for each), and more patients had body-weight reductions >0%, ≥5% and ≥10% with canagliflozin treatment than with placebo. Weight-loss-independent and weight-loss-associated mechanisms contributed to HbA1c and SBP lowering with canagliflozin: ~85% of HbA1c lowering and ~60% of SBP lowering was independent of weight loss. Conclusions/interpretation In patients with type 2 diabetes, canagliflozin provided clinically meaningful body-weight reductions, and the weight loss contributed to reductions in HbA1c and SBP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01081834; NCT01106625; NCT01106677; and NCT01106690 PMID:25813214

  5. Effectiveness of PRECEDE model for health education on changes and level of control of HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Individual health education is considered to be essential in the overall care of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), although there is some uncertainty regarding its metabolic control benefits. There have been very few randomized studies on the effects of individual education on normal care in DM2 patients with a control group, and none of these have assessed the long-term results. Therefore, this study aims to use this design to assess the effectiveness of the PRECEDE (Predisposing, Reinforcing, Enabling, Causes in Educational Diagnosis, and Evaluation) education model in the metabolic control and the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods An open community effectiveness study was carried out in 8 urban community health centers in the North-East Madrid Urban Area (Spain). Six hundred patients with DM2 were randomized in two groups: PRECEDE or conventional model for health promotion education. The main outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin A1c, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids and control criteria during the 2-year follow-up period. Results Glycated hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels decreased significantly in the PRECEDE group (multivariate analysis of covariance, with baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c, SBP, and variables showing statistically significant differences between groups at baseline visits). The decrease levels in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were nonsignificant. PRECEDE increased compliance in all control criteria, except for LDL cholesterol. BMI did not change during the study in either of the two models analyzed. Conclusions PRECEDE health education model is a useful method in the overall treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, which contributes to decrease glycated hemoglobin A1c and SBP levels and increase the compliance in all the control criteria, except for LDL cholesterol. Trial registration number Clinical

  6. Multi-ethnic differences in HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density-lipid cholesterol control among South Africans living with type 2 diabetes, after a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Yacob; Shukla, Varada J; Butkow, Neil; Chirwa, Tobias; Raal, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and methods This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from consecutive medical records. The primary outcome was to determine achievements in HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C among ethnic groups using evidence-based goals. Results The mean age of the cohort was 64 (±10.6) years, females represented 55%, and the self-reported diabetes duration was 16 (±10.6) years as at 2013. Black Africans (42.9%, n=112 of 261) were more likely to reach the HbA1c target (<7%) and less likely to have had retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease. Over two-thirds of mixed-ancestry patients attained the BP target (<140/80 mmHg), while 90.2% of Caucasians achieved LDL-C goals (<2.5 mmol/L). Overall, across the ethnic groups studied, we found that HbA1c control deteriorated over time, although BP levels remained the same and LDL-C levels drastically improved. Conclusion There was poor control of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C across all ethnic groups. Although a minority achieved recommended targets, some ethnic groups appeared to have worse control than others. Timely aggressive actions in particularly high-risk ethnic groups will prevent/delay the complications commonly associated with T2DM. PMID:27895508

  7. Blood pressure

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    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  8. Whole Blood Donation Affects the Interpretation of Hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; de Kort, Wim; Bokhorst, Arlinke G.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Slingerland, Robbert J.; Vos, Michel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several factors, including changed dynamics of erythrocyte formation and degradation, can influence the degree of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) formation thereby affecting its use in monitoring diabetes. This study determines the influence of whole blood donation on HbA1c in both non-diabetic blood donors and blood donors with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this observational study, 23 non-diabetic blood donors and 21 blood donors with type 2 diabetes donated 475 mL whole blood and were followed prospectively for nine weeks. Each week blood samples were collected and analyzed for changes in HbA1c using three secondary reference measurement procedures. Results Twelve non-diabetic blood donors (52.2%) and 10 (58.8%) blood donors with type 2 diabetes had a significant reduction in HbA1c following blood donation (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). All non-diabetic blood donors with a normal ferritin concentration predonation had a significant reduction in HbA1c. In the non-diabetic group the maximum reduction was -11.9%, in the type 2 diabetes group -12.0%. When eligible to donate again, 52.2% of the non-diabetic blood donors and 41.2% of the blood donors with type 2 diabetes had HbA1c concentrations significantly lower compared to their predonation concentration (reduction >-4.28%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes contributing to whole blood donation programs can be at risk of falsely lowered HbA1c. This could lead to a wrong interpretation of their glycemic control by their general practitioner or internist. PMID:28118412

  9. Luminol chemiluminescence biosensor for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang-Soo; Lee, JungHoon; Park, Jong-Myeon; Choi, Han Nim; Lee, Won-Yong

    2016-01-15

    Luminol chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor based on boronic acid modified gold substrate has been developed for the determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in human blood samples. In order to selectively capture HbA1c in sample, carboxy-EG6-undecanethiol was self-assembled on a gold thin-film substrate, followed by covalent coupling of 3-aminophenyl boronic acid (3-APBA). The captured HbA1c containing four iron heme groups plays as a catalyst for luminol CL reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and thus the luminol CL response is linearly proportional to the amount of HbA1c captured on the biosensor surface. The present biosensor showed linear dynamic range of HbA1c from 2.5% to 17.0%, which well covers the clinically important concentration range. In addition, the present biosensor exhibited negligible response to interfering species such as hemoglobin, fructose, and sorbitol. The present HbA1c biosensor was applied to the determination of HbA1c in human blood samples and the results were well agreed with that obtained with a conventional method.

  10. Role of Altered Venous Blood Lactate and HbA1c in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, N U; Krishnamurthy, N; Chethan, Chethana; Shilpashree, M K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Being a mirror image of metabolic syndrome, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Increased blood lactate concentration and alterations of substrate utilization are partly involved in development of insulin resistance in GDM. Fetuses born to such mothers have shown low umbilical vein oxygen saturation and low oxygen content and increased lactate concentrations. These changes may certainly reflect enhanced fetal metabolism as a result of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia and therefore, these fetuses deserve intense surveillance at term and during delivery. Ideally, HbA1c should be maintained below 5% during their first trimesters and below 6% during third trimester. We planned to investigate GDM women for their HbA1c levels too. Aim To know if there is any alteration in blood lactate and/or HbA1c levels and to know if there is any correlation between these two parameters in GDM pregnancies, in comparison with the previous studies which measured lactate in cord blood and placental vessels of GDM women. Materials and Methods It was a hospital based prospective study on 40 women with gestational diabetes and 40 age-matched normal pregnant women. We analysed the biochemical and metabolic mileau in these women by estimating venous blood lactate and HbA1c levels. We paid special attention to follow them up regarding maternal complications if any and perinatal outcomes. The independent samples t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were applied. Results GDM mothers showed significantly higher lactate and HbA1c levels than normal pregnant women, both with p<0.001. Blood pressure and fetal birth weight were also significantly higher in GDM group than Normal Pregnant (NP) group, both with p-values of <0.001. Further, this increased lactate levels showed significant positive correlation with HbA1c, blood pressure and fetal birth weight. Conclusion Maternal blood lactate and HbA1c levels have a

  11. Blood pressure measurement

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    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  12. High Blood Pressure

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    ... this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... at higher than normal pressures. What Is Blood Pressure? Click for more information Blood pressure is the ...

  13. High Blood Pressure

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    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  14. A1C test

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    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycohemoglobin test; Hemoglobin A1C; Diabetes - A1C; Diabetic - A1C ... gov/pubmed/26696680 . Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c - blood. ...

  15. Low Blood Pressure

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    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  16. High blood pressure medicines

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    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  17. A1C

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    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  18. Measurement of HbA1c from stored whole blood samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

    PubMed Central

    SELVIN, Elizabeth; CORESH, Josef; ZHU, Hong; FOLSOM, Aaron; STEFFES, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to demonstrate the reliability of HbA1c measurements across two time periods and to compare these measurements with HbA1c distribution in the general US population. Methods HbA1c was measured in 14 069 whole blood samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study using different HPLC instruments during two time periods, namely 2003–2004 and 2007–2008. At the time of measurement, samples had been in storage at –70°C for 14–18 years. To assess differences in values, HbA1c measurements were repeated in 383 samples at both periods. Indirect comparisons were made by comparing our measurements against those from a nationally representative study. Results The coefficients of variation for quality control samples were 1.8% (n = 89) in 2003–2004 and 1.4% (n = 259) in 2007–2008. The correlation between measurements at the two time points was high (r = 0.99), but with a slight bias: 0.29% points higher in 2007–2008 versus 2003–2004 (n = 383; P < 0.0001). The comparison yielded the following Deming regression equation: y(2007–2008) = 0.073+1.034x(2003–2004). After alignment using this equation, the distribution of HbA1c in the ARIC study was similar to that in the national study using fresh samples. Conclusions Measurements of HbA1c from samples stored for 14–18 years are highly reliable when using state-of-the-art HPLC instruments, but with some bias introduced over time. The HbA1c data now available in the ARIC study should be invaluable for investigations into the clinical utility of HbA1c as a diagnostic test for diabetes. PMID:20923494

  19. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  20. Blood Pressure Medicines

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    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  1. Treating High Blood Pressure

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    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  2. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... eAG on their DiabetesPro web site . The NGSP web site also provides a calculator to convert hemoglobin A1c in SI units mmol/mol into percentage. ^ Back to top Is there anything else I should know? The A1c test will not reflect temporary, acute blood glucose increases ...

  3. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. Objectives We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Methods Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Results Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6%) and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8%) were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p < 0.01), but PO2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94%) and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92%) in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p < 0.01). Conclusions Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia. PMID:22985301

  4. Blood Pressure Quiz

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    ... high blood pressure can lead to… stroke. kidney failure. heart attack and heart failure. all of the above. ... high blood pressure can lead to stroke, kidney failure, heart attack and heart failure A is the correct ...

  5. High Blood Pressure Prevention

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    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure Prevention Steps You Can Take You can take steps to prevent high blood pressure by adopting these healthy lifestyle habits. Follow a ...

  6. Low blood pressure

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    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

  7. High blood pressure - infants

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    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  8. Blood Pressure Test

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    ... a minute to complete a single blood pressure measurement. After the procedure The nurse or technician taking ... online record. You can learn your blood pressure measurement as soon as your test is over. A ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  10. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

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    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Mar 22,2017 What do your ... it’s too high for blood pressure High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  11. Low Blood Pressure

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    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low Updated:Dec 13,2016 How ... content was last reviewed October 2016 High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  12. The association between self-monitoring of blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C and testing patterns in community pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Kerry; Evans, Charity; Tran, David; Sevany, Shellina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if pharmacists providing advice on self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to new meter users, based on the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs), resulted in improvements in A1C. SMBG testing patterns and pharmacist interactions were also observed. Methods: A cluster randomized, pilot study was performed, with pharmacies randomized to an intervention or control group. The intervention group provided SMBG education according to the CDA CPGs at baseline, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months; the control group provided usual care. The primary endpoint was the mean change in A1C measured at 6 months. Secondary endpoints included a description of SMBG patterns and lifestyle changes and were determined via a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Thirty-six participants (26 intervention, 10 control) were recruited from 9 pharmacies across Saskatchewan, Canada. Mean A1C decreased by −1.69 and −0.70 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.376). A total of 12 of 26 (46.2%) participants in the intervention group indicated they performed SMBG ≥7 times per week; 75% (9/12) of these were controlled by lifestyle or metformin alone. When applicable, most participants in the intervention group indicated they perform SMBG with exercise (62.5%), during illness (62.5%) and with hypoglycemic symptoms (81.3%) compared with 33.3%, 42.9% and 42.9% in the control group, respectively. Most participants in the intervention group (20/26; 76.9%) reported making lifestyle changes as a result of speaking with the pharmacist, with all indicating that they maintained these changes at 6 months. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study indicate that a larger study examining pharmacist interventions related to SMBG is feasible. Future studies are required to determine patient motivations and further evaluate the role of pharmacists in ensuring best practices to positively influence guideline-based blood glucose

  13. Controlling your high blood pressure

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    ... ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood pressure goes up. When is Your Blood Pressure a Concern? If your blood pressure is high, ...

  14. Markers of glycemic control in the mouse: comparisons of 6-h- and overnight-fasted blood glucoses to Hb A1c.

    PubMed

    Han, Byoung Geun; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Tchekneva, Elena E; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Chieh Allen; Ebrahim, Benyamin; Harris, Raymond C; Kern, Timothy S; Wasserman, David H; Breyer, Matthew D; Qi, Zhonghua

    2008-10-01

    The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

  15. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  16. Blood Pressure Checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An estimated 30 million people in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. But a great many of them are unaware of it because hypertension, in its initial stages, displays no symptoms. Thus, the simply-operated blood pressure checking devices now widely located in public places are useful health aids. The one pictured above, called -Medimax 30, is a direct spinoff from NASA technology developed to monitor astronauts in space. For manned space flights, NASA wanted a compact, highly-reliable, extremely accurate method of checking astronauts' blood pressure without the need for a physician's interpretive skill. NASA's Johnson Space Center and Technology, Inc., a contractor, developed an electronic sound processor that automatically analyzes blood flow sounds to get both systolic (contracting arteries) and diastolic (expanding arteries) blood pressure measurements. NASA granted a patent license for this technology to Advanced Life Sciences, Inc., New York City, manufacturers of Medimax 30.

  17. [Measuring blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Estrada Reventos, Dolors; Pujol Navarro, Ester

    2008-09-01

    High blood pressure is one of the main factors which lead to cardiovascular cerebral-vascular and kidney diseases; therefore, nursing professionals should have enough basic knowledge to enable them to carry out a precocious diagnosis and correct follow-up procedures. Although students in nursing schools are taught how to correctly measure blood pressure, often this teaching does not meet the recommendations provided by different national and international guidelines. Thus it is important to know how to use the correct methodology to measure blood pressure.

  18. Detection of total and A1c-glycosylated hemoglobin in human whole blood using sandwich immunoassays on polydimethylsiloxane-based antibody microarrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Han; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jing; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2012-10-16

    The percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (%GHbA1c) in human whole blood indicates the average plasma glucose concentration over a prolonged period of time and is used to diagnose diabetes. However, detecting GHbA1c in the whole blood using immunoassays has limited detection sensitivity due to its low percentage in total hemoglobin (tHb) and interference from various glycan moieties in the sample. We have developed a sandwich immunoassay using an antibody microarray on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate modified with fluorinated compounds to detect tHb and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c) in human whole blood without sample pretreatment. A polyclonal antibody against hemoglobin (Hb) immobilized on PDMS is used as a common capture probe to enrich all forms of Hb followed by detection via monoclonal anti-Hb and specific monoclonal anti-GHbA1c antibodies for tHb and GHbA1c detection, respectively. This method prevents the use of glycan binding molecules and dramatically reduces the background interference, yielding a detection limit of 3.58 ng/mL for tHb and 0.20 ng/mL for GHbA1c. The fluorinated modification on PDMS is superior to the glass substrate and eliminates the need for the blocking step which is required in commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Moreover, the detection sensitivity for GHbA1c is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher, but the required sample amount is 25 times less than the commercial method. On the basis of patient sample data, a good linear correlation between %GHbA1c values determined by our method and the certified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method is shown with R(2) > 0.98, indicating the great promise of the developed method for clinical applications.

  19. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of observational studies further strengthened the causal relationship between high blood pressure and CVD, and ... disease, and those who have additional known risk factors for CVD. SPRINT will also provide information on ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity and ... blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow breaths to help ...

  3. Choosing Blood Pressure Medications

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    ... doctor might first suggest diuretics, which remove excess water and sodium from your body. That decreases the amount of fluid flowing through your blood vessels, which reduces pressure on your vessel walls. There are three types of diuretics: thiazide, loop ...

  4. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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    ... Alpha blockers, such as prazosin (Minipress) and labetalol Beta blockers, such as atenolol (Tenormin), propranolol (Inderal, Innopran XL, ... drugs used to treat high blood pressure — diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) ...

  5. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

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    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  6. Blood pressure monitors for home

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of blood pressure monitor for home use. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS A digital device will also have a cuff that wraps ... on its own. The screen will show a digital readout of your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ...

  7. Automated Blood Pressure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Vital-2 unit pictured is a semi-automatic device that permits highly accurate blood pressure measurement, even by untrained personnel. Developed by Meditron Instrument Corporation, Milford, New Hampshire, it is based in part on NASA technology found in a similar system designed for automatic monitoring of astronauts' blood pressure. Vital-2 is an advancement over the familiar arm cuff, dial and bulb apparatus customarily used for blood pressure checks. In that method, the physician squeezes the bulb to inflate the arm cuff, which restricts the flow of blood through the arteries. As he eases the pressure on the arm, he listens, through a stethoscope, to the sounds of resumed blood flow as the arteries expand and contract. Taking dial readings related to sound changes, he gets the systolic (contracting) and diastolic (expanding) blood pressure measurements. The accuracy of the method depends on the physician's skill in interpreting the sounds. Hospitals sometimes employ a more accurate procedure, but it is "invasive," involving insertion of a catheter in the artery.

  8. Gold nanoparticles-coated magnetic microspheres as affinity matrix for detection of hemoglobin A1c in blood by microfluidic immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Peng; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-08-15

    A novel microfluidic immunoassay system for specific detection of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was developed based on a three-component shell/shell/core structured magnetic nanocomposite Au/chitosan/Fe(3)O(4), which was synthesized with easy handling feature of Fe(3)O(4) by magnet, high affinity for gold nanoparticles of chitosan and good immobilization ability for anti-human hemoglobin-A1c antibody (HbA1c mAb) of assembled colloidal gold nanoparticles. The resulting HbA1c mAb/Au/chitosan/Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles were then introduced into microfluidic devices coupled with a gold nanoband microelectrode as electrochemical detector. After that, three-step rapid immunoreactions were carried out in the sequence of HbA1c, anti-human hemoglobin antibodies (Hb mAb) and the secondary alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated antibody within 20 min. The current response of 1-naphtol obtained from the reaction between the secondary AP-conjugated antibody and 1-naphthyl phosphate (1-NP) increased proportionally to the HbA1c concentration. Under optimized electrophoresis and detection conditions, HbA1c responded linearly in the concentration of 0.05-1.5 μg mL(-1), with the detection limit of 0.025 μg mL(-1). This system was successfully employed for detection of HbA1c in blood with good accuracy and renewable ability. The proposed method proved its potential use in clinical immunoassay of HbA1c.

  9. Test Your Blood Pressure IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... How High Blood Pressure is Diagnosed BP vs. Heart Rate Low Blood Pressure Resistant Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension High Blood Pressure Myths ... Healthy 6 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 7 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 8 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 9 Warning ...

  10. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Dastani, Mostafa; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Abnous, Khalil; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl) randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1) Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p<0.05). By comparing pre- and post-treatment values among the groups, HbA1c, eAG, LDL-C, and BMI variables showed significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest an HbA1c lowering effect for Nano-curcumin in type-2 diabetes; also, it is partially decrease in serum LDL-C and BMI. PMID:27761427

  11. The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein a-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (22 in ginger group and 19 in control group), received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in ginger group in comparison to baseline, as well as control group, while it increased the level of apolipoprotein A-I (p<0.05). It seems that oral administration of ginger powder supplement can improves fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may have a role in alleviating the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  12. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  13. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Development Lab., Inc.'s E-2000 Neck Baro Reflex System was developed for cardiovascular studies of astronauts. It is regularly used on Space Shuttle Missions, and a parallel version has been developed as a research tool to facilitate studies of blood pressure reflex controls in patients with congestive heart failure, diabetes, etc. An advanced version, the PPC-1000, was developed in 1991, and the technology has been refined substantially. The PPC provides an accurate means of generating pressure for a broad array of laboratory applications. An improved version, the E2010 Barosystem, is anticipated.

  14. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  15. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Jan 18,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  17. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  18. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Apr 7,2017 Knowing the facts ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Web Sites with More Information About High Blood Pressure ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  1. Interaction between Mean Arterial Pressure and HbA1c in Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Hospitalisation: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dahai; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the relationship between mean arterial pressure (MAP), HbA1c, and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalisation risk in type 2 diabetes. Design. Population-based case-control study. Settings. Primary and secondary care level in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Participants. 588 patients with type 2 diabetes from 18 English general practices recording a CV hospitalisation in 2009–2011 were included. Risk-set sampling was used to select 2920 gender, age, and practice matched control type 2 diabetes patients. Main Outcome Measure. Conditional logistic regression was used to explore further dose-response relationships between MAP, HbA1c, and CV hospitalisation risk. Results. The relationship between MAP and CV hospitalisation was nonlinear (P < 0.001 for linearity test). The MAP associated with the lowest CV hospitalisation risk was 97 (95% CI: 93–101) mmHg. An interaction between MAP and HbA1c for increased risk of cardiovascular hospitalisation was observed among those with HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol) and MAP < 97 mmHg. Conclusions. In type 2 diabetes, MAP is a good predictor of CV hospitalisation risk. CV hospitalisation is lowest with a MAP between 93 and 101 mmHg. CV hospitalisation was particularly high among those with both a low MAP and a lower HbA1c. PMID:27382575

  2. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... consistently too high. How your blood pressure and circulatory system work In order to survive and function properly, ... and organs need the oxygenated blood that your circulatory system carries throughout the body. When the heart beats, ...

  3. Automated office blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Godwin, Marshall

    2012-05-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) is gradually disappearing from clinical practice with the mercury sphygmomanometer now considered to be an environmental hazard. Manual BP is also subject to measurement error on the part of the physician/nurse and patient-related anxiety which can result in poor quality BP measurements and office-induced (white coat) hypertension. Automated office (AO) BP with devices such as the BpTRU (BpTRU Medical Devices, Coquitlam, BC) has already replaced conventional manual BP in many primary care practices in Canada and has also attracted interest in other countries where research studies using AOBP have been undertaken. The basic principles of AOBP include multiple readings taken with a fully automated recorder with the patient resting alone in a quiet room. When these principles are followed, office-induced hypertension is eliminated and AOBP exhibits a much stronger correlation with the awake ambulatory BP as compared with routine manual BP measurements. Unlike routine manual BP, AOBP correlates as well with left ventricular mass as does the awake ambulatory BP. AOBP also simplifies the definition of hypertension in that the cut point for a normal AOBP (< 135/85 mm Hg) is the same as for the awake ambulatory BP and home BP. This article summarizes the currently available evidence supporting the use of AOBP in routine clinical practice and proposes an algorithm in which AOBP replaces manual BP for the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  4. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  5. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  6. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... other ways to control blood pressure, including healthy lifestyle choices and maintaining a normal weight, Roth said. Murray said some of the factors responsible for the worldwide increase in high blood pressure are unhealthy diets and obesity. In addition, in developing countries, more people are ...

  8. High blood pressure in women.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  9. Chaos in blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C D; Nafz, B; Persson, P B

    1996-03-01

    A number of control mechanisms are comprised within blood pressure regulation, ranging from events on the cellular level up to circulating hormones. Despite their vast number, blood pressure fluctuations occur preferably within a certain range (under physiological conditions). A specific class of dynamic systems has been extensively studied over the past several years: nonlinear coupled systems, which often reveal a characteristic form of motion termed "chaos". The system is restricted to a certain range in phase space, but the motion is never periodic. The attractor the system moves on has a non-integer dimension. What all chaotic systems have in common is their sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The question arises as to whether blood pressure regulation can be explained by such models. Many efforts have been made to characterise heart rate variability and EEG dynamics by parameters of chaos theory (e.g., fractal dimensions and Lyapunov exponents). These method were successfully applied to dynamics observed in single organs, but very few studies have dealt with blood pressure dynamics. This mini-review first gives an overview on the history of blood pressure dynamics and the methods suitable to characterise the dynamics by means of tools derived from the field of nonlinear dynamics. Then applications to systemic blood pressure are discussed. After a short survey on heart rate variability, which is indirectly reflected in blood pressure variability, some dynamic aspects of resistance vessels are given. Intriguingly, systemic blood pressure reveals a change in fractal dimensions and Lyapunov exponents, when the major short-term control mechanism--the arterial baroreflex--is disrupted. Indeed it seems that cardiovascular time series can be described by tools from nonlinear dynamics [66]. These methods allow a novel description of some important aspects of biological systems. Both the linear and the nonlinear tools complement each other and can be useful in

  10. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart creates as it pumps blood through the circulatory system the force that comes from the arteries resisting ... Relief Yoga: Meditation and Breathing Alcohol Heart and Circulatory System Stop Smoking: Your Personal Plan Why Exercise Is ...

  11. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing High Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Jan 3,2017 When your doctor prescribes ... Download a printable medicine tracker . Quick Tips for Medication Use Understand your medication. Know what it's for, ...

  12. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... all their lives. back to top Types of Medications FDA has approved many medications to treat high ...

  13. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... closely and work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes You can help control your blood pressure by making these healthy lifestyle changes: Follow a healthy diet. Be physically active. ...

  14. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... research group, the International Consortium of Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies, appeared on the same day in Nature Genetics . This other genome-wide association study identified 4 new genetic regions associated with pulse ...

  15. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  16. Blood Pressure and Physical Function

    PubMed Central

    Forbang, Nketi; Ix, Joachim; Criqui, Michael; Rifkin, Dena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension in older adults is a dynamic process, with significant diurnal fluctuation. Little research has been done on the associations between increased short-term blood pressure variability and blunted night-time dipping in respect to decreased physical function in the elderly. Our aim is to use a cross-sectional analysis to illuminate any associations. Methods: A cross-sectional sub-study (mean age: 72, 67.5% female) was performed on selected participants from the San Diego Population Study (Criqui, et al, 2003). Blood pressure was measured both in the office (3 independent blood pressure readings) and using a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring cuff. Blood pressure variability was measured using average real variability (ARV). Physical function was measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) test. Statistical analysis was performed on IBM SPSS Statistics (1911) software. Results: An unadjusted univariate analysis adjusted for age and gender showed associations between 24-hr ARV of SBP (P = .001), 24-hr ARV pulse pressure (P < .001), and percent systolic dipping (P = .011) and SPPB score. After multivariate analysis adjusted for age and gender was performed, the results were substantially attenuated. However, the association of ARV of SBP was not significant with a P-value of .052 and the ARV of pulse pressure remained significant with a P-value of .022. Multivariate hierarchical linear regression models revealed insignificant trends. Conclusions: Increased short-term variability and blunted night-time dipping were associated physical function but were not independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Further research can be done as to the biology of how both age and BMI influence blood pressure patterns. The trends observed in this study may warrant the investigation of abnormal blood pressure patterns in those who are either elderly or have increased BMI.

  17. Wrist Blood Pressure Monitors: Are They Accurate?

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at heart level. Even then, blood pressure measurements taken at the wrist are usually higher and ... a very large arm or find blood pressure measurements painful. In these cases, measuring blood pressure at ...

  18. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  19. Blood pressure regulation: basic concepts.

    PubMed

    Guyton, A C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Jackson, T E; Kastner, P R

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we have attempted to explain the difference between proportional pressure control systems and the renal-blood volume-pressure control mechanism, which is an infinite gain pressure control system. Because of this infinite gain of the kidney mechanism, this mechanism has the capability of returning arterial pressure all the way back to the control leve. Furthermore, this mechanism can override the other pressure control mechanisms because of its extreme control capability. On the other hand, the renal-blood volume mechanism for pressure control itself be controlled by many other factors. These other factors are said to change the pressure "set-point" level of the renal system, and then the renal system automatically brings the pressure to the set-point level. It is especially noteworthy, however, that some of the factors that play extreme roles in short-term pressure control-such as heart strength, vascular capacity, and total peripheral resistance-will not alter the long-term arterial pressure level (unless they in some way concurrently alter the set-point of the kidney mechanism).

  20. Single, community-based blood glucose readings may be a viable alternative for community surveillance of HbA1c and poor glycaemic control in people with known diabetes in resource-poor settings

    PubMed Central

    Reidpath, Daniel D.; Jahan, Nowrozy K.; Mohan, Devi; Allotey, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Background The term HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) is commonly used in relation to diabetes mellitus. The measure gives an indication of the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks or months prior to testing. For most low- and middle-income countries HbA1c measurement in community surveillance is prohibitively expensive. A question arises about the possibility of using a single blood glucose measure for estimating HbA1c and therefore identifying poor glycaemic control in resource-poor settings. Design Using data from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we examined the relationship between HbA1c and a single fasting measure of blood glucose in a non-clinical population of people with known diabetes (n=333). A linear equation for estimating HbA1c from blood glucose was developed. Appropriate blood glucose cut-off values were set for poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥69.4 mmol/mol). Results The HbA1c and blood glucose measures were well correlated (r=0.7). Three blood glucose cut-off values were considered for classifying poor glycaemic control: 8.0, 8.9, and 11.4 mmol/L. A blood glucose of 11.4 had a specificity of 1, but poor sensitivity (0.37); 8.9 had high specificity (0.94) and moderate sensitivity (0.7); 8.0 was associated with good specificity (0.81) and sensitivity (0.75). Conclusions Where HbA1c measurement is too expensive for community surveillance, a single blood glucose measure may be a reasonable alternative. Generalising the specific results from these US data to low resource settings may not be appropriate, but the general approach is worthy of further investigation. PMID:27511810

  1. Blood Pressure Self-Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefan

    2016-10-19

    Blood pressure self-measurement has been used extensively as part of several clinical processes including in the home monitoring setting for mitigating white coat effect and gaining more detailed insights into the blood pressure variability of patients over time. Self-measurement of BP is also being used as part of telemonitoring and telemedicine processes, as well as in the waiting rooms and self-measurement rooms of general practice clinics, specialized hospital department's outpatient clinics, and in other types of care facilitates and institutions.The aim of this review is to provide an overview of where, when, and how blood pressure self-measurement is being used, which official clinical guidelines and procedures are available for its implementation, as well as the opportunities and challenges that are related to its use.

  2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  3. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  4. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  5. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks ...

  6. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  7. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney disease is diagnosed with urine and blood tests. Health care providers measure blood pressure with a blood pressure ... the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood test to estimate how much blood the kidneys filter ...

  8. A1C and eAG

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  9. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to achieve target blood pressure goals with treatment. Overweight You are more likely to develop prehypertension or high blood pressure if you’re overweight or obese . The terms “overweight” and “obese” refer ...

  10. Taking your blood pressure at home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ... sure you are taking your blood pressure correctly. Compare your home machine with the one at your ...

  11. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  12. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... below to read more. High Blood Pressure and Edema : You may notice swelling in some parts of ... blood pressure. This buildup of fluids, called peripheral edema, usually occurs in your ankles, feet, lower legs, ...

  13. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  14. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  16. Searching for baseline blood pressure: A comparison of blood pressure at three different care points.

    PubMed

    Ard, John L; Kendale, Samir

    2016-12-01

    A common approach to blood pressure management in the operating room is to keep the intraoperative, pressures within 20% of baseline blood pressure. One question that arises from this recommendation is; what is a patient's true baseline blood pressure? In order to get a more precise definition of baseline blood pressure, a comparison of the first operating room blood pressure was made with the blood pressure taken in a preoperative holding area before surgery, and the blood pressure taken in pre-surgical testing. (before day of surgery). A database of 2087 adult general anesthesia cases was generated, which contained the blood pressure (BP) in the pre-surgical testing clinic, the first BP in preoperative holding on the day of surgery, and the first BP in the operating room. Comparisons were made between the blood pressures taken at each phase of care. All components of BP taken in the OR were statistically significantly higher (p<0.001 for all comparisons) than in either PST or the holding area, while the BP in the latter locations were not significantly different. This blood pressure difference persists whether or not the patient is taking antihypertensive medications. The higher blood pressure measured in the operating rooms precludes using this measurement to determine baseline blood pressure. Blood pressures taken prior to arrival in the operating room are similar to blood pressures taken before the day of surgery. Blood pressure measurements taken prior to entrance in the operating room can be used to determine baseline blood pressure.

  17. Blood pressure reprogramming adapter assists signal recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vick, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Blood pressure reprogramming adapter separates the two components of a blood pressure signal, a dc pressure signal and an ac Korotkoff sounds signal, so that the Korotkoff sounds are recorded on one channel as received while the dc pressure signal is converted to FM and recorded on a second channel.

  18. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  19. Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heart to the blood pressure . We conclude that when the heart hypertrophies, as a result of the hypertension , the changed cardiac behavior, in turn...Plenary Talks Cardiac and Arterial Contribution to Blood Pressure N.Westerhof, Lab. for Physiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research...Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam Blood pressure and blood flow result from the interaction of the heart, the pump, and the arterial system, the load

  20. Relation of blood volume and blood pressure in orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    A complex but crucial relationship exists between blood volume and blood pressure in human subjects; it has been recognized that in essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma, the relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure is an inverse one. This phenomenon has not been studied in individuals with low normal and reduced blood pressures. Orthostatic intolerance is a commonly encountered abnormality in blood pressure regulation often associated with tachycardia in the standing position. Most of these patients have varying degrees of reduced blood volume. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship previously found between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in pressor states would also hold in orthostatic intolerance. We studied 16 patients with a history of symptomatic orthostatic intolerance associated with an elevation in plasma norepinephrine in the upright posture and hypovolemia in 9 patients and normovolemia in 7 patients. Our studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between plasma volume and diastolic blood pressure in patients with orthostatic intolerance. This finding also holds for the change in diastolic blood pressure in response to upright posture. In this relationship, patients with orthostatic intolerance with high plasma norepinephrine resemble those with essential hypertension, renovascular hypertension, and pheochromocytoma. We conclude that in a variety of conditions at both ends of the blood pressure spectrum, the seemingly paradoxical association of hypovolemia and diastolic blood pressure is preserved.

  1. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  2. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  3. Pressure natriuresis and the renal control of arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Jessica R; Bailey, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    The regulation of extracellular fluid volume by renal sodium excretion lies at the centre of blood pressure homeostasis. Renal perfusion pressure can directly regulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This acute pressure natriuresis response is a uniquely powerful means of stabilizing long-term blood pressure around a set point. By logical extension, deviation from the set point can only be sustained if the pressure natriuresis mechanism is impaired, suggesting that hypertension is caused or sustained by a defect in the relationship between renal perfusion pressure and sodium excretion. Here we describe the role of pressure natriuresis in blood pressure control and outline the cascade of biophysical and paracrine events in the renal medulla that integrate the vascular and tubular response to altered perfusion pressure. Pressure natriuresis is impaired in hypertension and mechanistic insight into dysfunction comes from genetic analysis of blood pressure disorders. Transplantation studies in rats show that blood pressure is determined by the genotype of the kidney and Mendelian hypertension indicates that the distal nephron influences the overall natriuretic efficiency. These approaches and the outcomes of genome-wide-association studies broaden our view of blood pressure control, suggesting that renal sympathetic nerve activity and local inflammation can impair pressure natriuresis to cause hypertension. Understanding how these systems interact is necessary to tackle the global burden of hypertension.

  4. Pressure natriuresis and the renal control of arterial blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Jessica R; Bailey, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of extracellular fluid volume by renal sodium excretion lies at the centre of blood pressure homeostasis. Renal perfusion pressure can directly regulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This acute pressure natriuresis response is a uniquely powerful means of stabilizing long-term blood pressure around a set point. By logical extension, deviation from the set point can only be sustained if the pressure natriuresis mechanism is impaired, suggesting that hypertension is caused or sustained by a defect in the relationship between renal perfusion pressure and sodium excretion. Here we describe the role of pressure natriuresis in blood pressure control and outline the cascade of biophysical and paracrine events in the renal medulla that integrate the vascular and tubular response to altered perfusion pressure. Pressure natriuresis is impaired in hypertension and mechanistic insight into dysfunction comes from genetic analysis of blood pressure disorders. Transplantation studies in rats show that blood pressure is determined by the genotype of the kidney and Mendelian hypertension indicates that the distal nephron influences the overall natriuretic efficiency. These approaches and the outcomes of genome-wide-association studies broaden our view of blood pressure control, suggesting that renal sympathetic nerve activity and local inflammation can impair pressure natriuresis to cause hypertension. Understanding how these systems interact is necessary to tackle the global burden of hypertension. PMID:25107929

  5. Real-Life Stories about High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure Past Issues / Fall ... High Blood Pressure / Keep the Beat Recipes / Real-life Stories About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of ...

  6. High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... and taking medicines , if needed. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension ... Institutes of Health) High Blood Pressure (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Also in Spanish High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ( ...

  7. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors. These lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). ...

  8. Sustained Blood Pressure Responding during Synthetic Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-15

    split-half reliabilities of both heart rate and mean * blood pressure were high during task performance. Significant correlations were observed between... blood pressure responses elicited by :1 16 an anagram task showed a high test-retest reliability, even over an interval of 13 months. Examination of the...8217AD-AI5 733 JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MO DEPT OF PSYCHIATRY F/6 6/5 SUSTAINED BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONDING DURING SYNTHETIC WORK.(U) JUN A2 R L RAY

  9. Biofeedback With Implanted Blood-Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Additional uses found for equipment described in "Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device" (GSC-13042). Implanted with device electronic circuitry that measures, interprets, and transmits data via inductive link through patient's skin to external receiver. Receiver includes audible alarm generator activated when patient's blood pressure exceeds predetermined threshold. Also included in receiver a blood-pressure display, recorder, or both, for use by patient or physician.

  10. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajiv; Dionne, Janis

    2011-02-01

    Recently there have been great advances in the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in children. A major boost has been the publication of normative data for blood pressure in children. ABPM has been able to detect significant differences in blood pressure in many disease states including chronic renal failure, polycystic kidney disease and post renal transplantation and has helped in identifying both white coat hypertension and masked hypertension. Current evidence does suggest that sole reliance on clinic blood pressure might not be always appropriate and ABPM has a definite role in pediatric hypertension.

  11. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most ... pressure. Stress management techniques include exercising, listening to music, focusing on something calm or peaceful, and meditating. ...

  12. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  13. The DASH diet and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Craddick, Shirley R; Elmer, Patricia J; Obarzanek, Eva; Vollmer, William M; Svetkey, Laura P; Swain, Martha C

    2003-11-01

    High blood pressure (also called hypertension) is one of the most important and common risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases. National guidelines recommend that all individuals with blood pressure readings of 120/80 mm Hg or higher adopt healthy lifestyle habits, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, to manage their blood pressure. The DASH diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in fat, has been shown in large, randomized, controlled trials to reduce blood pressure significantly. The DASH diet also has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol and homocysteine levels and to enhance the benefits of antihypertensive drug therapy. The DASH diet should be promoted, along with maintaining healthy weight, reducing sodium intake, increasing regular physical activity, and limiting alcohol intake, for lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of CVD.

  14. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  15. Palpatory Method of Measuring Diastolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Dinesh; Bhaskaran, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most common method for measuring blood pressure is palpatory but only systolic pressure can be measured with this method. In this study we are describing palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure as well. Patients & Methods: We have studied in 200 patients and compared systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures with two methods, auscutatory and palpatory. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by one of the authors with new palpatory method and noted down. Then an independent observer, who was blinded to the palpatory method's values, measured blood pressure by auscultatory method and noted down. The values were compared in term of range and percentage. Results: The difference were analysed and found that 102 (51%) patients had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured by palpatory method, within ± 2 mmHg of auscutatory method, 37 (19%) patients had within ± 4 mmHg, 52 (25%) patients had same readings as with auscutatory method, and in 9 (0.5%) patients it could not be measured. Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too. PMID:21547184

  16. Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.

    PubMed

    Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn; Kokosar, Milana; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jacobsen, Anna Louisa; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Jansson, Per-Anders; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Groop, Leif; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Vaag, Allan; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with the methylation of 711 sites, annotated to, for example, RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.

  17. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Heart & Vascular Lung Blood Sleep Selected Audiences Contact The Health Information Center ... agencies. NHBPEP is coordinated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health. ...

  18. Determinants of Blood Pressure in Navajo Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulehan, John L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Among 580 Navajo adolescents, 11.1 percent of males and 1.6 percent of females had high blood pressure. Blood pressure was related to age in males and to body mass index in females but was not related to level of acculturation or traditionality. Contains 17 references. (SV)

  19. Dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Dumler, Francis

    2009-01-01

    We sought to summarize major recent studies in the field of dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure, and discuss the following trials. INTERSALT: Sodium intake correlates with the rise in blood pressure with age, but not with the prevalence of hypertension. The population study identified a minimal impact of sodium intake on blood pressure (0.9 mm Hg/10 mmol difference in salt intake). DASH: This diet induced significant reductions in blood pressure compared with the control diet. Further decreases were observed with DASH and a 50 mmol/day sodium intake. VANGUARD: Blood pressure was inversely related to urinary potassium, calcium and magnesium but not to sodium excretion. TONE: Cardiovascular events were highest in the usual care group (83%) and lowest in the sodium reduction-plus-weight loss group (56%). META-ANALYSIS: A systematic review of 11 long-term controlled randomized trials reported a small decrease (1.1 mm Hg) in median systolic but not diastolic blood pressure with a reduced dietary sodium intake. In conclusion, (1) sodium restriction in hypertensive patients reduces blood pressure, and (2) the long-term impact of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, mortality, and morbidity remains to be defined.

  20. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Stroke ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  1. Reproductive hormones and blood pressure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, P; Wang, J X

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in cardiovasular changes during human pregnancy and the complicated aetiology of gestational hypertension are unclear. Reproductive hormones have known effects on the cardiovascular system in the non-pregnant state and in animal systems, but their effects in human pregnancy are uncertain. In this study of pregnant women, the effects of serum concentrations of relaxin, progesterone and oestradiol on arterial blood pressure were studied. Higher serum concentrations of progesterone and relaxin, but not oestradiol, in early pregnancy were related to lower mean systolic blood pressures in the second and third trimesters. No relationship was found between hormonal concentrations and diastolic blood pressures. However, women with a diastolic blood pressure of >90 mmHg in late pregnancy showed statistically significant lower relaxin concentrations in early pregnancy in comparison with women whose diastolic blood pressure was blood pressure (P: < 0.0001) and serum relaxin (P: < 0.01) in early pregnancy, but not progesterone, were independently related to systolic blood pressure in late pregnancy. The results support previous experimental and clinical studies. The effect of relaxin may be explained by a possible vasodilatatory action seen in animal studies and appears to be moderate.

  2. Accurate, reproducible measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N R; Chockalingam, A; Fodor, J G; McKay, D W

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild hypertension and the treatment of hypertension require accurate measurement of blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are altered by various factors that influence the patient, the techniques used and the accuracy of the sphygmomanometer. The variability of readings can be reduced if informed patients prepare in advance by emptying their bladder and bowel, by avoiding over-the-counter vasoactive drugs the day of measurement and by avoiding exposure to cold, caffeine consumption, smoking and physical exertion within half an hour before measurement. The use of standardized techniques to measure blood pressure will help to avoid large systematic errors. Poor technique can account for differences in readings of more than 15 mm Hg and ultimately misdiagnosis. Most of the recommended procedures are simple and, when routinely incorporated into clinical practice, require little additional time. The equipment must be appropriate and in good condition. Physicians should have a suitable selection of cuff sizes readily available; the use of the correct cuff size is essential to minimize systematic errors in blood pressure measurement. Semiannual calibration of aneroid sphygmomanometers and annual inspection of mercury sphygmomanometers and blood pressure cuffs are recommended. We review the methods recommended for measuring blood pressure and discuss the factors known to produce large differences in blood pressure readings. PMID:2192791

  3. Salt, blood pressure, and human health.

    PubMed

    Alderman, M H

    2000-11-01

    The positive relation of sodium intake and blood pressure, first recognized a century ago, has been well established in ecological, epidemiological, and experimental human studies. Equally well established is the association of increasing blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Indeed, the pharmacological capacity to reduce blood pressure has produced one of the great public health accomplishments of the 20th century. These two facts-the positive relation of blood pressure to strokes and heat attacks and the positive association of sodium intake to blood pressure-underlie the hypothesis that a reduction in sodium intake, by virtue of its hypotensive effect, might prevent strokes and heart attacks. Moreover, even if the effect on blood pressure were in the range of a 1- to 2-mm Hg decline in blood pressure for every 75- to 100-mmol difference in sodium intake, the impact of such a change, applied to the whole population, would be enormous. The problem with this appealing possibility is that a reduction in salt consumption of this magnitude has other-and sometimes adverse-health consequences. The question, therefore, is whether the beneficial hypotensive effects of sodium restriction will outweigh its hazards. Unfortunately, few data link sodium intake to health outcomes, and that which is available is inconsistent. Without knowledge of the sum of the multiple effects of a reduced sodium diet, no single universal prescription for sodium intake can be scientifically justified.

  4. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes. Photoplethysmography, which measures changes in arterial blood volume, is commonly used to obtain heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. The digitized PPG signals are used as inputs into the beat-to-beat blood

  5. The Birmingham blood pressure school study.

    PubMed Central

    De Giovanni, J. V.; Pentecost, B. L.; Beevers, D. G.; Beevers, M.; Jackson, S. H.; Bannan, L. T.; Osbourne, V. L.; Mathews, K.

    1983-01-01

    Four-hundred and twenty-eight school leavers of 3 ethnic groups (white, black and Asian) were screened for blood pressure, resting pulse rate and general anthropometric characteristics. Asian pupils were both shorter and lighter than the other two groups whilst black males were heavier and taller. There was no significant difference in the mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the 3 groups, although the black pupils had a stronger family history of hypertension, particularly on the mother's side. These observations differ in some respects from other ethnic blood pressure studies and establish values for the local population. PMID:6647172

  6. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    PubMed

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  7. Office and ambulatory blood pressure are independently associated with albuminuria in older subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Andrew; Palmas, Walter; Pickering, Thomas G; Schwartz, Joseph E; Field, Lesley; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Blood pressure strongly predicts microalbuminuria and later progression to renal failure in people with diabetes. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seems to be superior to office blood pressure in predicting progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. The associations of ambulatory blood pressure with office blood pressure and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the association of office blood pressure taken with an automated device and ambulatory blood pressure with spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio in 1180 older people with type 2 diabetes participating in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine Study. Office and awake systolic blood pressure were independently associated with albuminuria (P<0.001 for both) in a multivariate linear regression analysis that adjusted for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, number of antihypertensive medications, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Twelve percent of participants had well-controlled office blood pressure but not ambulatory blood pressure, whereas 14% had well-controlled ambulatory but not office blood pressure. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in these subgroups was intermediate between those with well-controlled or uncontrolled blood pressure by both methods. We found, in a multiethnic group of older subjects with type 2 diabetes, that office systolic blood pressure and awake systolic ambulatory blood pressure exhibited independent associations with degree of albuminuria.

  8. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat foods that are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You should try to limit the amount of sodium that you eat. This means choosing and preparing ...

  10. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  11. Blood pressure and migration in children.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Eyles, E; Prior, I

    1979-03-01

    The effect of migration on childhood blood pressure levels has been studied by comparing children before and after migration to New Zealand with children who stayed at home on the Pacific atolls of Tokelau. Data were collected in 1971 on 502 children (97% response rate) aged 5--14 years resident in Tokelau and follow-up data were collected in New Zealand and in Tokelau in 1975--1977 (respknse rate 91%). No selection factors were detected before migration. After migration, the younger migrants had significantly higher blood pressures and were heavier, but not taller, than the non-migrants. Weight differences explained some but not all of the blood pressure differences. There were no differences in body size between the 2 groups of older children although the older non migrant girls had higher blood pressure than the migrant girls.

  12. Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Circulation. 2007;116:572. Cornelissen VA, et al. Impact of resistance training on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension. ...

  13. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  14. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers Peripherally Acting Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Beta Blockers Brand Name Generic Name Bystolic Nebivolol Timolol Coreg ...

  15. Carotid Stenosis and Ocular Blood Pressure Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Jullian, M.; Kinsner, W.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the human carotid vascular system was developed to study the effects of carotid stenosis on ocular blood pressure and ocular pulse waveform. The model incorporates a non-linear element representing a stenosis. A state variable representation of a reduced model is used in a computer simulation. Results show that carotid stenosis as low as 20% are detectable in the ocular blood pressure waveform.

  16. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  17. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  18. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Sodium & High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure • Home • Get ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart ...

  19. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  20. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  1. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Intaglietta, Marcos; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test. Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation) showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05), when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05). Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be associated with a level of endothelial dysfunction that interferes with the antihypertensive effect of HbA1c. PMID:19066010

  2. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  3. Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M

    1987-01-01

    Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706

  4. Effect of dietary polyphenols from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) pomace on adipose tissue mass, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and plasma monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kazuki; Uematsu, Hiroki; Muroi, Keisuke; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Baba, Minako; Osada, Kyoichi

    2013-01-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) pomace contains procyanidin-rich polyphenols, which are large oligomeric compounds of catechin. We studied the effect of high dose (1%) of dietary hop pomace polyphenols (HPs) in Otsuka Long-EvansTokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. By 70 days, the rats fed HPs tended to have a lower body weight and reduced mesenteric white adipose tissue weight than the rats fed a control diet. Triglyceride levels in both plasma and liver tended to be lower in the HPs-fed group than in the control group. Dietary HPs substantially suppressed the activities of hepatic fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme, through the suppression of SREBP1c mRNA expression in OLETF rats. Moreover, in the HPs-fed group, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and fasting blood glucose levels at 40 days, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at 70 days were significantly lower than those in the control group. Thus, dietary HPs may exert an ameliorative function on hepatic fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory response accompanying the increase of the adipose tissue mass in OLETF rats.

  5. Experimental intrarenal reflux and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    The effect on the blood pressure of experimental vesico-ureteric reflux was investigated in adult female Wistar rats. In 6 rats, reflux with isotonic saline produced a transient rise in systemic blood pressure followed by a fall, with return to normal within 2 min (mean BP readings: 121-130-93 mmHg). In 6 rats during water diuresis, reflux with distilled water produced similar changes (114-120-79 mmHg). In 6 rats in which the ureters were divided before reflux, no rise in blood pressure occurred although in 2 of these the pressure showed a marked fall. The pattern of blood pressure changes which occurred as a result of reflux was similar to that produced by a rapid i.v. injection of a corresponding volume of saline and it was concluded that the changes accompanying reflux are due to pyelovenous backflow. This was confirmed by producing reflux with 5% lissamine green which appeared in the peripheral capillaries within 4 s of the reflux in 3 rats. Slow dilatation of the pelvis with saline in 9 rats showed that rupture of the pelvic epithelium occurred at a mean pressure of 99 mmHg. PMID:607990

  6. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  7. `Sausage string' patterns in blood vessels at high blood pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Eguíluz, Victor M.; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dialtations formed in blood vessels at high blood pressure conditions. Our theory involves the nonlinear stress-strain characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the normal cylindrical geometry of a blood vessel becomes unstable. The theory explains key features observed experimentally, e.g. the limited occurrence of the sausage-string pattern to small arteries and large arterioles, and only in those with small wall-to-lumen ratios.

  8. Estimation of central systolic blood pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Wang, Kang-Ling; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Lung-Ching; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Ding, Philip Yu-An; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2010-06-01

    Current noninvasive techniques for assessing central aortic pressure require the recording of an arterial pressure wave using a high-fidelity applanation tonometer. We therefore developed and validated a novel method to estimate the central aortic systolic pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor alone. Invasive high-fidelity right brachial and central aortic pressure waves, and left-brachial pulse volume plethysmography from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor, were obtained at baseline and 3 min after administration of sublingual nitroglycerin in 100 patients during cardiac catheterization. In the initial 50 patients (Generation Group), Central systolic blood pressure was predicted by a multi-variate prediction model generated from the comprehensive analysis of the invasive brachial pressure wave, including brachial late-systolic shoulder pressure value and parameters related to wave reflection and arterial compliance. Another prediction model was similarly constructed from the noninvasively calibrated pulse volume plethysmography. Both models were validated in the subsequent 50 patients (Validation Group) with results: r=0.98 (P<0.001) and mean difference=0.5+/-4.5 (95% confidence interval -8.3 to 9.3) mm Hg for the invasive model, and r=0.93 (P<0.001) and mean difference=-0.1+/-7.6 (95% confidence interval -15.0 to 14.8) mm Hg for the noninvasive model. Thus, our results indicate that central aortic systolic blood pressure could be estimated by analysis of the noninvasive brachial pressure wave alone from an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

  9. WNK signalling pathways in blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Meena; Kurz, Thimo; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major public health problem affecting more than a billion people worldwide with complications, including stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The regulation of blood pressure is multifactorial reflecting genetic susceptibility, in utero environment and external factors such as obesity and salt intake. In keeping with Arthur Guyton's hypothesis, the kidney plays a key role in blood pressure control and data from clinical studies; physiology and genetics have shown that hypertension is driven a failure of the kidney to excrete excess salt at normal levels of blood pressure. There is a number of rare Mendelian blood pressure syndromes, which have shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in dysregulated ion transport in the distal kidney. One in particular is Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), an autosomal dominant monogenic form of hypertension characterised by high blood pressure, hyperkalemia, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and hypercalciuria. The clinical signs of FHHt are treated by low doses of thiazide diuretic, and it mirrors Gitelman syndrome which features the inverse phenotype of hypotension, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. Gitelman syndrome is caused by loss of function mutations in the thiazide-sensitive Na/Cl cotransporter (NCC); however, FHHt patients do not have mutations in the SCL12A3 locus encoding NCC. Instead, mutations have been identified in genes that have revealed a key signalling pathway that regulates NCC and several other key transporters and ion channels in the kidney that are critical for BP regulation. This is the WNK kinase signalling pathway that is the subject of this review.

  10. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  11. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  12. Blood pressure measurement using finger cuff.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Choi, E; Jeong, H; Kim, K; Park, J

    2005-01-01

    Many research groups have studied blood pressure measurement in finger artery because of its convenience. But, low accuracy prohibits many hypertension patients from using this device. So, we suggest measurement algorithm that measure systolic and diastolic blood pressure in finger artery. And we also develop calibration method that decreases the error from difference of finger circumference by subjects. We apply our methods for 90 subjects (age form 20 to 49, 55 male, 35 female) to test feasibility of our method by AAMI SP10 standard. The mean difference of our system is ±4.7mmHg for systolic pressure, ±4.2mmHg for systolic pressure. It proved that the feasibility of our method is clinically acceptable.(under ±5mmHg).

  13. Blood Pressure in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Arthur J.

    1981-01-01

    In infants the flush and Doppler methods of blood pressure measurement are usually used. The flush method measures mean pressure; the Doppler method, systolic and diastolic pressures. Normal flush values from 1 to 12 months of age do not exceed 100 mm of mercury; Doppler systolic levels do not exceed 113 mm of mercury. Data concerning normal limits for children and adolescents are conflicting. For practical purposes, a persistent pressure of 140 mm of mercury systolic or 90 mm of mercury diastolic in patients more than 10 years of age is indicative of hypertension. In those younger than 10 years, systolic pressure does not normally exceed 130 mm of mercury and diastolic pressure does not normally exceed 85 mm of mercury. Primary hypertension is relatively infrequent in pediatric patients and diagnosis should be made with deliberation and caution. Antihypertensive drug therapy is indicated only for severe hypertension and in selected cases of moderate hypertension. PMID:7245735

  14. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  15. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  16. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  17. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  18. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  19. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  20. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device used to measure blood pressure by changes in the mechanical or electrical properties of the device....

  1. Utility of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Graves, John W; Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi

    2006-11-01

    Diagnosis of hypertension is critically dependent on accurate blood pressure measurement. "Accurate" refers to carefully following the guidelines for blood pressure measurement laid out for children and adults to minimize observer and subject errors that commonly occur in clinical blood pressure measurement. Accurate blood pressure measurement is more important in children and adolescents as the misdiagnosis of hypertension may have a life-long adverse impact on insurability and employment. Automated blood pressure measurement offers multiple advantages in achieving high-quality blood pressure determinations by reducing observer errors. The most commonly used form of automated blood pressure measurement is 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Information on ABPM in children has grown exponentially over the last decade. Normative data exists for diagnosis of hypertension in children using ABPM including a novel method for determining normal values with the LMS method. There is further information about the utility of different determinants of 24-h blood pressure such as dipping status, morning surge and blood pressure load. ABPM has been able to detect significant differences in blood pressure in many disease states in children including chronic renal failure, polycystic kidney disease, solitary functioning kidney, and after renal transplantation. Increasingly nonambulatory automated blood pressure determinations have been used in management of hypertension in children. Although nonambulatory automated readings lack information about nocturnal blood pressure or blood pressure during daily activity, studies have suggested that home automated blood pressure measurements are a helpful adjunct to the usual office blood pressure reading.

  2. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes What is the A1C test? The A1C test ... A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert ...

  3. Glycaemic control is harder to achieve than blood pressure or lipid control in Irish adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cotter, T G; Dinneen, S F; Healy, D A; Bell, M J; Cunningham, A; O'Shea, P M; Dunne, F; O'Brien, T; Finucane, F M

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine the attainment of targets for glycaemic control and vascular risk reduction in an Irish cohort of T1DM adults. Of 797 patients (53% male, mean age 40.3 ± 14.8 years, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6% (69.6 ± 17.8 mmol mol(-1))), 15%, 68% and 62% achieved targets for HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol, respectively.

  4. A wireless blood pressure monitoring system for personal health management.

    PubMed

    Li, Wun-Jin; Luo, Yuan-Long; Chang, Yao-Shun; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a wireless blood pressure monitoring system which provides a useful tool for users to measure and manage their daily blood pressure values. This system includes an ARM-based blood pressure monitor with a ZigBee wireless transmission module and a PC-based management unit with graphic user interface and database. The wireless blood pressure monitor can measure the blood pressure and heart rate and then store and forward the measuring information to the management unit through the ZigBee wireless transmission. On the management unit, user can easy to see their blood pressure variation in the past using a line chart. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement has been verified by a commercial blood pressure simulator and shown the bias of systolic blood pressure is ≤ 1 mmHg and the bias of diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 1.4 mmHg.

  5. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  6. Blood pressure measurement and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    System is described that employs solid state circuitry to transmit visual display of patient's blood pressure. Response of sphygmomanometer cuff and microphone provide input signals. Signals and their amplitudes, from turn-on time to turn-off time, are continuously fed to data transmitter which transmits to display device.

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  8. The Effect of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjian; Bo, Yacong; Wang, Xi; Lu, Wenjie; Wang, Xule; Han, Zhanying; Qiu, Chunguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The findings of clinical studies concerning the association between anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure (BP) are inconsistent. In order to provide a more precise estimate of the overall effect of anthocyanins on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials about anthocyanins supplementation and BP. PubMed, Web of Science, Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (until October 2015) were searched to identify potential studies with information on anthocyanins extract supplementation and arterial BP. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a summary statistic. Net changes in SBP and DBP between anthocyanins supplementation and placebo groups were calculated by subtracting the values at end of follow-up from those at baseline. Meta regression was used to explore the potential moderators of effect size. The publication bias was assessed using Begger's Funnel plots and Egger's tests; P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Finally, 6 clinical studies with 472 participants for the effect of anthocyanins consumption on BP were included in the present meta-analysis. There is no significant effect on either SBP (WMD: 1.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: −3.17 to 5.47, I2 = 56%) or DBP (WMD: 1.06 mm Hg, 95% CI: −0.71 to 2.83, I2 = 0%) following supplementation with anthocyanins. In summary, results from this meta-analysis do not favor any clinical efficacy of supplementation with anthocyanins in improving blood pressure. Further well-designed large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with long follow-up period are needed to verify the association of anthocyanins supplementation and blood pressure. PMID:27082604

  9. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  10. Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Penttilä, Ilkka; Penttilä, Karri; Holm, Päivi; Laitinen, Harri; Ranta, Päivi; Törrönen, Jukka; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The formation of glycohemoglobin, especially the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) fraction, occurs when glucose becomes coupled with the amino acid valine in the β-chain of Hb; this reaction is dependent on the plasma concentration of glucose. Since the early 1970s it has been known that diabetics display higher values OF HbA1C because they have elevated blood glucose concentrations. Thus HbA1c has acquired a very important role in the treatment and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. After the introduction of the first quantitative measurement OF HbA1C, numerous methods for glycohemoglobin have been introduced with different assay principles: From a simple mini-column technique to the very accurate automated high-pressure chromatography and lastly to many automated immunochemical or enzymatic assays. In early days, the results of the quality control reports for HbA1c varied extensively between laboratories, therefore in United States and Canada working groups (WG) of the Diabetes Controls and Complications Trial (DCCT) were set up to standardize the HbA1c assays against the DCCT/National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program reference method based on liquid chromatography. In the 1990s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) appointed a new WG to plan a reference preparation and method for the HBA1c measurement. When the reference procedures were established, in 2004 IFCC recommended that all manufacturers for equipment used in HbA1c assays should calibrate their methods to their proposals. This led to an improvement in the coefficient of variation (CV%) associated with the assay. In this review, we describe the glycation of Hb, methods, standardization of the HbA1c assays, analytical problems, problems with the units in which HbA1c values are expressed, reference values, quality control aspects, target requirements for HbA1c, and the relationship of the plasma glucose values to HbA1c concentrations. We also note that the acceptance

  11. Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Ilkka; Penttilä, Karri; Holm, Päivi; Laitinen, Harri; Ranta, Päivi; Törrönen, Jukka; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2016-06-26

    The formation of glycohemoglobin, especially the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) fraction, occurs when glucose becomes coupled with the amino acid valine in the β-chain of Hb; this reaction is dependent on the plasma concentration of glucose. Since the early 1970s it has been known that diabetics display higher values OF HbA1C because they have elevated blood glucose concentrations. Thus HbA1c has acquired a very important role in the treatment and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. After the introduction of the first quantitative measurement OF HbA1C, numerous methods for glycohemoglobin have been introduced with different assay principles: From a simple mini-column technique to the very accurate automated high-pressure chromatography and lastly to many automated immunochemical or enzymatic assays. In early days, the results of the quality control reports for HbA1c varied extensively between laboratories, therefore in United States and Canada working groups (WG) of the Diabetes Controls and Complications Trial (DCCT) were set up to standardize the HbA1c assays against the DCCT/National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program reference method based on liquid chromatography. In the 1990s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) appointed a new WG to plan a reference preparation and method for the HBA1c measurement. When the reference procedures were established, in 2004 IFCC recommended that all manufacturers for equipment used in HbA1c assays should calibrate their methods to their proposals. This led to an improvement in the coefficient of variation (CV%) associated with the assay. In this review, we describe the glycation of Hb, methods, standardization of the HbA1c assays, analytical problems, problems with the units in which HbA1c values are expressed, reference values, quality control aspects, target requirements for HbA1c, and the relationship of the plasma glucose values to HbA1c concentrations. We also note that the acceptance

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  13. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  14. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    PubMed

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  20. Health Instruction Packages: How to Take a Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Carolyn; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach dental hygiene students, nursing students, and the general public how to measure blood pressure. The first module, "Can You Take a Blood Pressure?" by Carolyn Lancaster, defines blood pressure, distinguishes between systolic and diastolic pressure and…

  1. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure measurement... three pressures can be derived through the use of tranducers placed on the surface of the body....

  2. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  3. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  4. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-24

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets.

  5. The effect of nutrition on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Bellinghieri, Guido; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-08-21

    The incidence and severity of hypertension are affected by nutritional status and intake of many nutrients. Excessive energy intake and obesity are major causes of hypertension. Obesity is associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, possibly other mineralcorticoid activity, insulin resistance, salt-sensitive hypertension and excess salt intake, and reduced kidney function. High sodium chloride intake strongly predisposes to hypertension. Increased alcohol consumption may acutely elevate blood pressure. High intakes of potassium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein, along with exercise and possibly vitamin D, may reduce blood pressure. Less-conclusive studies suggest that amino acids, tea, green coffee bean extract, dark chocolate, and foods high in nitrates may reduce blood pressure. Short-term studies indicate that specialized diets may prevent or ameliorate mild hypertension; most notable are the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and the DASH low-sodium diet. Long-term compliance to these diets remains a major concern.

  6. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  7. Ethanol and blood pressure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, D.C.; Edgar, S.; McCarron, D.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Epidemiologists have identified alcohol as a risk factor in hypertension. Attempts to increase blood pressure in rats with chronic alcohol ingestion have met with mixed results. Some investigators have reported increases in blood pressure while others have reported decreases. Most investigators have given alcohol in the drinking water which produced differences in food intake across groups. To control for food intake, Wister rats were simultaneously pair fed a liquid diet with either ethanol as 35% of calories or a control diet using ARF/Israel pair-feeding devices. At 5 weeks of age, animals on ethanol diets had lower systolic blood pressure than control animals (145 (n-19) vs. 121 (n-19) mmHg). There was no difference in weight between ethanol and control animals. The same pattern of results was apparent at 7 weeks (143 (n-13) vs. 119 (n-13) mmHg) and 9 weeks (147 (n-7) vs. 124 (n-7)). The data indicate that ethanol produces hypotension in rats when food intake is controlled.

  8. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  9. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  10. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  11. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  12. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  13. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  16. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  17. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Dec 13,2016 Understanding the heart-healthy ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  18. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. ... help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  19. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  20. 10 Ways to Control High Blood Pressure without Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) By making these 10 lifestyle changes, you can lower your blood pressure ... or reduce the need for medication. Here are 10 lifestyle changes you can make to lower your ...

  1. Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) and Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Impulsive Behaviors Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Pain Skeleton and Bone Health: Orthopedics and Parkinson’s Skin Changes ... Impulsive Behaviors Orthostatic Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure) Pain Skeleton and Bone Health: Orthopedics and Parkinson’s Skin Changes ...

  2. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  3. Sex differences in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Judith A M; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Wallin, B Gunnar; Hart, Emma C

    2010-08-01

    We tested whether the inter-individual variability in alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure plays a critical role in the sex differences in tonic support of blood pressure by the autonomic nervous system. Blockade of the alpha-adrenergic receptors was achieved via phentolamine and showed a smaller (P < 0.05) decrease in blood pressure in women compared to men, implying that alpha-adrenergic support of blood pressure is less in women than in men.

  4. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1140 Venous blood pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1110 Blood pressure computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  11. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1110 Blood pressure computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  12. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  13. Results of Blood Pressure Screening in White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This report presents blood pressure norms for 18- to 24-year-old White college students, as well as data on the prevalence of high blood pressure for this group. Results were obtained from voluntary blood pressure screening of 1,660 men and 953 women. (IAH)

  14. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1130 - Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. 870.1130 Section 870.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Noninvasive blood pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. A noninvasive blood pressure...

  17. Principles of Blood Pressure Measurement - Current Techniques, Office vs Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurement.

    PubMed

    Vischer, Annina S; Burkard, Thilo

    2016-07-15

    Blood pressure measurement has a long history and a crucial role in clinical medicine. Manual measurement using a mercury sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope remains the Gold Standard. However, this technique is technically demanding and commonly leads to faulty values. Automatic devices have helped to improve and simplify the technical aspects, but a standardised procedure of obtaining comparable measurements remains problematic and may therefore limit their validity in clinical practice. This underlines the importance of less error-prone measurement methods such as ambulatory or home blood pressure measurements and automated office blood pressure measurements. These techniques may help to uncover patients with otherwise unrecognised or overestimated arterial hypertension. Additionally these techniques may yield a better prognostic value.

  18. Blood pressure management in mechanical circulatory support

    PubMed Central

    Adatya, Sirtaz

    2015-01-01

    Durable mechanical support has become widely available for end stage heart failure as destination therapy and as bridge to transplantation. The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) as well as the recognition and management of hypertension in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) is an essential component of optimal clinical care. Strategies for the control of BP in CF-VAD patients are increasingly important as there is an evolving understanding of the connection between hypertension, pump output, and adverse outcomes. As clinical experience grows, optimal BP targets, as well as methods to measure BP in CF-VAD patients have been further defined. PMID:26793332

  19. Clinical aspects of blood pressure autorhythmometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.; Halberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Self-measurements made by a 55-year-old physician with mild to moderate hypertension of ten years' duration are considered. The physician had been in excellent health until age 45 when sustained elevation of blood pressure up to 180/100 mmHg and a slight aortic diastolic murmur were noted. On the basis of the investigation it is suggested that physical and mental performance measures provide an objective basis for assessing the desirability of a given physiological change. Such studies will have to be complemented by a search for long-term effects.

  20. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  1. Automatic Blood Pressure Measurements During Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.

  2. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  6. Association between HbA1c and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly Koreans with normal fasting glucose

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Yong-ho; Song, Bo Mi; Choi, Hansol; Park, Ji Hye; Rhee, Yumie; Kim, Chang Oh

    2017-01-01

    Aim We examined whether glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is associated to carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. Methods Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with a mean age of 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) and HbA1c level below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). They were also free from a history of cardiovascular disease, known type 2 diabetes mellitus or use of anti-diabetes medications. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) using ultrasonography. The association between HbA1c and carotid IMT was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results HbA1c levels were independently and positively associated with carotid IMT (β = 0.020, p = 0.045) after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. However, fasting insulin and glucose levels were not associated with carotid IMT. Conclusion HbA1c levels were positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid IMT, in an elderly population with normoglycemia. Our study suggested that higher HbA1c level is an effective and informative marker of carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly population. PMID:28178313

  7. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change.

  8. E-health blood pressure control program.

    PubMed

    Ahern, David K; Stinson, Lynda J; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Wroblewski, Joseph P; McMurray, Jerome H; Eaton, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Both technological and human factors design requirements for integration of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) into a patient centered medical home (PCMH) model primary care practice are described. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension were given home blood pressure (BP) monitors, and after a three-month run-in period introduced to either a high-tech only (HBPM connectivity to personal health record and tailored Web portal access) or a high-tech/"high-touch" (high-tech solution plus patient navigator [PN]) solution. Features of the Web portal included: BP graphing function, traffic-light feedback system of BP goal attainment, economic incentives for self-monitoring, and dual patient-facing and care-team-facing dashboard functions. The e-health BP control system with PN support was well received by patients, providers, and the healthcare team. Current e-health technology and limited technological literacy of many patients suggest that a PN or some other personnel resource may be required for the adoption of patient-facing technology in primary care.

  9. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  10. Accuracy in Blood Pressure Monitoring: The Effect of Noninvasive Blood Pressure Cuff Inflation on Intra-arterial Blood Pressure Values

    PubMed Central

    Sheshadri, Veena; Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Nagappa, Mahesh; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi

    2017-01-01

    Context: Both invasive and noninvasive blood pressure (invasive arterial blood pressure [IABP] and noninvasive BP [NIBP]) monitors are used perioperatively; however, they often produce different values. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear, and it is possible that the act of cuff inflation itself might affect the IABP values, especially with the recurrent cycling of NIBP cuff. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ipsilateral NIBP cuff inflation on the contralateral IABP values. Settings and Designs: Prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients were studied. The NIBP device was set to cycle every 5 min for a total of 6 times. During each cuff inflation cycle, changes in IABP values from the arterial line in the contralateral arm were recorded. A total of 582 measurements were included for data analysis. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, paired t-test, analysis of variance. Results: Mean (± standard deviation) changes in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean BP with cuff inflation were 6.7 ± 5.9, 2.6 ± 4.0, and 4.0 ± 3.9 mmHg, respectively. We observed an increase of 0–10 mmHg in SBP in majority (73.4%) of cuff inflations. The changes in IABP did not differ between the patients with or without hypertension or with the baseline SBP. Conclusions: This study showed that there is a transient reactive rise in IABP values with NIBP cuff inflation. This is important information in the perioperative and intensive care settings, where both these measurement techniques are routinely used. The exact mechanism for this effect is not known but may be attributed to the pain and discomfort from cuff inflation. PMID:28298779

  11. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  12. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Wang, Jinwei; Tian, Jun; Tang, Xun; Yu, Canqing; Marshall, Roger J; Chen, Dafang; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Lv, Jun; Lee, Liming; Hu, Yonghua

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range) was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  13. The epidemiology of blood pressure and its worldwide management.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Kazem; Emdin, Connor A; MacMahon, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    Despite the vast amount of evidence on the benefits of blood pressure lowering accumulated to date, elevated blood pressure is still the leading risk factor for disease and disability worldwide. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence underpinning the association between blood pressure and a range of conditions. This review focuses on the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Evidence for and against the existence of a J-shaped curve association between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, and differences in the predictive power of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, are described. In addition, global and regional trends in blood pressure levels and management of hypertension are reviewed.

  14. Management of blood pressure in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, John A; Dawson, Jesse; Quinn, Terence J

    2013-08-01

    The importance of elevated or low arterial blood pressure (BP) early after stroke, and the need for pharmacological intervention to control BP, remains controversial. Debate surrounds if, when and how to intervene. This debate is informed by conflicting results from observational data and underpowered clinical trials and substantive outcome data are lacking. Accordingly, management decisions have largely been left up to the individual treating physician and guidelines are based on 'good practice' and theory rather than level 1, grade A evidence. Substantial progress has been made in recent years, particularly in the field of hemorrhagic stroke, where recently presented and soon to completed large-scale trials may finally give us a firm evidence base. For ischemic stroke, many important studies have informed our understanding of the basic pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of BP management in acute stroke and, although not yet constituting a solid 'evidence base', are helping us from the 'cognitive quick-sand' of small studies and personal experiences.

  15. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP. PMID:25432901

  16. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  18. [Hypertensive urgency or high blood pressure variability?

    PubMed

    Rodionov, A V

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive urgency (HU) is a common reason particularly for elderly patients to seek medical advice. Severe asymptomatic hypertension and situational high blood pressure (BP) in patients with its high variability is frequently taken as HU. The use of short-acting antihypertensive drugs is not only indicated in these situations, but it may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE). Over the past decade, increased BP variability is an independent predictor for a higher risk of CVE. Among the major groups of antihypertensive drugs, there are calcium antagonists, mainly amlodipine, which has the greatest potential to reduce BP variability. Thus, calcium antagonists can be considered as first-line drugs for patients with high BP variability.

  19. The relationships between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and renal and endothelial function in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chikara; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakahigashi, Mitsutaka; Kusabe, Makiko; Ueda, Hiroko; Someya, Kazunori; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Shiojima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and endothelial dysfunction are observed in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is therefore assumed that high variability in visit-to-visit blood pressure measurements may be associated with endothelial dysfunction in these patients. The present study investigated the associations between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and renal and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney disease. We analyzed 150 consecutive patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease who visited our outpatient clinic from January 2006 to December 2010. The study examined the relationships between variability in visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure levels or mean systolic blood pressure (M SBP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and flow-mediated dilation, an index of endothelial function. Variability in visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure showed a significant negative association with eGFR, independent of age, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and uric acid, whereas M SBP did not. Similarly, variability in SBP showed a significant negative association with flow-mediated dilation, independent of age, eGFR, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol and M SBP. These data indicate that variability in visit-to-visit blood pressure measurements is associated with impaired renal and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney disease. This finding suggests that reducing blood pressure fluctuations might have beneficial effects in patients with chronic kidney disease, although this point needs to be addressed by future studies.

  20. Blood lead concentrate and blood pressure after CCl/sub 4/ treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Loyke, H.F.

    1985-05-01

    Since Pb has been found to influence blood pressure in rats (Diaz-Rivera and Horn 1945), the pressure and Pb levels were measured in renal hypertensive, spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), normotensive, and CCl/sub 4/ treated and untreated rats to determine whether blood Pb levels are altered in an attempt to characterize the vasodepressor substance and relate those levels to blood pressure.

  1. The Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvancara, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Presents a laboratory experiment designed to help students understand the concept of diastolic blood pressure, the pressure during which the left ventricle of the heart is not contracting. Examines the effect of strenuous exercise on blood pressure. Includes materials needed, procedures, results, and discussion of the results. (MDH)

  2. Effects of Ya-hom on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Suvitayavat, W; Tunglert, S; Thirawarapan, S S; Bunyapraphatsara, N

    2005-03-21

    The effects of Ya-hom, a traditional Thai herbal formulation, on blood pressure were evaluated to verify its use for fainting treatment. Ya-hom has several recipes, which are composed of different medicinal plants in varying ratio. We have selected the most popular commercial preparation to determine the effect on the blood pressure in rats. The water extract of Ya-hom at doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/kg initially transiently decreased pressure and over time, increased blood pressure. The duration of the Ya-hom effect on decreasing and increasing blood pressure was dose dependent. The time to maximal effect of Ya-hom on increasing blood pressure was also dose dependent. Phentolamine attenuated the blood pressure decreasing effect but did not affect the blood pressure increasing effect of Ya-hom. Ya-hom was previously shown to increase aortic ring contraction, which was partially inhibited by phentolamine, and increased atrial contraction. It is possible that phentolamine inhibits the effect of Ya-hom on vascular smooth muscle contraction resulting in a prominent positive inotropic effect. This may be the same reason that phentolamine does not influence the effect of Ya-hom on increasing blood pressure. The dominant effect of Ya-hom on increasing blood pressure supports the use of Ya-hom for the treatment of fainting.

  3. Home blood pressure monitoring: a survey of potential users.

    PubMed

    Kelly, P L; Harrison, D W

    1994-01-01

    Fifty respondents were surveyed using a recently developed questionnaire designed to evaluate the educational needs of the users of self-monitoring blood pressure apparatus. The categories evaluated included each subject's background and family health history, general knowledge about blood pressure, lifestyle factors affecting blood pressure, and factors affecting the measurement of blood pressure, as well as questions about owning a home monitor and recalibration and maintenance factors. The results indicate considerable disparity between the subjects' levels of knowledge about lifestyle factors affecting blood pressure and the subjects' knowledge of factors essential to accurate self-monitoring of blood pressure. The implications of and need for the design of educational training protocols are discussed.

  4. A novel SCFA receptor, the microbiota, and blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pluznick, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis is a complex process which is carefully regulated by a variety of inputs. We recently identified two sensory receptors (Olfactory receptor 78 and G protein couple receptor 41) as novel regulators of blood pressure. Both Olfr78 and Gpr41 are receptors for short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and we showed that propionate (a SCFA) modifies blood pressure in a manner which is differentially modulated by the absence of either Olfr78 or Gpr41. In addition, propionate modifies renin release in an Olfr78-dependent manner. Our study also demonstrated that antibiotic treatment modulates blood pressure in Olfr78 null mice, indicating that SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota likely influence blood pressure regulation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of our recent study and provide a perspective on the implications of the interactions between the gut microbiota and blood pressure control. PMID:24429443

  5. Blood Pressure: Is It Affected by Cold Weather?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your narrowed veins and arteries. In addition to cold weather, blood pressure may also be affected by a sudden change in weather patterns, such as a weather front or a storm. Your body — and blood vessels — ...

  6. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  7. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  8. Blood Pressure and Global Risk Assessment in a Swedish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, Jenny; Larsson, Charlotte A.; Råstam, Lennart; Lindblad, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between SCORE and the 2007 ESH-ESC blood pressure categories and explored achievements of blood pressure goals considering global risk. In 2001–2005, a random sample of inhabitants aged 30–74 years in southwestern Sweden was invited to a survey of cardiovascular risk factors. The study enrolled 2816 participants (participation rate 76%). Blood pressure was categorized according to the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines. Global risk of 10-year CVD death was estimated using the Swedish SCORE chart also accounting for additional risk from diabetes (SCORE-DM). SCORE-DM increased in both sexes from optimal blood pressure to manifest hypertension but did not differ between the normal blood pressure categories. However, SCORE-DM became significantly higher among those with temporarily high blood pressure (men 3.3 SD (1.7), women 1.1 (1.8)) and hypertension (3.6 (2.0), 2.0 (2.0)), compared to optimal blood pressure (1.6 (2.9), 0.6 (1.9)). In the presence of both hypertension and diabetes, high-risk subjects dominated (men 76%, women 61%), and correspondingly a major proportion of patients with known hypertension were at high risk at a blood pressure ≥160/100 mm Hg. These findings have strong implications on blood pressure evaluation in clinical practice and support the use of SCORE to evaluate global risk. PMID:22991653

  9. Get the Most Out of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... sell home blood pressure monitors. An automatic or electronic device is recommended. Discuss the choices with your ... pressure readings by hand. If you have an electronic personal health record, you might choose to record ...

  10. Does Schumann resonance affect our blood pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hayakawa, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether Schumann resonance (SR) affects blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and depression and, if so, whether the putative BP reactivity to SR (BPR-SR) is associated with health-related lifestyle (HLS), disease-related illnesses (DRI), and depression. Methods A sample of 56 adults in Urausu, Hokkaido, Japan, wore an ambulatory BP monitor, except for the time in the shower, for seven consecutive days. They completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form and a health survey questionnaire on HLS and DRI. Group mean differences and within-individual differences in systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), double product (DP), and HR were, respectively, compared between normal and enhanced SR days, using Student’s t-test. Correlations between BPR-SR and other characteristics (i.e. age, gender, HLS, DRI, subjective health, and depression) were analyzed, using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results and discussion Group mean SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP for enhanced SR days were lower than those for normal days (P = 0.005-0.036). DRI was negatively associated with BPR-SR in SBP, DBP, MAP, and DP (P = 0.003-0.024), suggesting a better health status for those who showed lower BP on enhanced SR days. HLS was negatively associated with BPR-SR in DBP and MAP (P = 0.016-0.029). Males showed higher BPR-SR in DBP and MAP than females (P = 0.0044-0.016). Neither subjective health nor depression was significantly associated with BPR-SR. Future studies based on larger sample sizes are planned to see whether possible health effects can be generalized. PMID:16275477

  11. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  12. The importance of sleep blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trefor Owen

    2010-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) varies throughout the day owing to interactions between the sympathetic nervous and the renin-angiotensin systems. When awake BP is controlled by sympathetic nervous system activity but during sleep the renin-angiotensin system becomes more important. The lower BP during sleep is a more powerful predictor of outcome than the awake BP. Certain individuals do not have the fall in BP with sleep and this worsens the outcome. Inadequate handling of sodium by the kidney is an important factor preventing this BP fall. The different drug classes have varying effects on BP during 24 h. Drugs that act independently of the two controlling systems have a similar effect at day and night. Drugs that act on the sympathetic nervous system have a greater effect during the day and little effect during sleep unless the sympathetic system is still active. Drugs that act via the renin-angiotensin system have a greater effect during sleep. Controlling BP during sleep may improve outcome.

  13. Anger and blood pressure readings in children.

    PubMed

    Hauber, R P; Rice, M H; Howell, C C; Carmon, M

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship of state and trait anger measured by the Jacob's Pediatric Anger Scale, patterns of anger expression measured by Jacob's Pediatric Anger Expression Scale, and blood pressure readings (BPR) in 230 third-grade children. Analysis of data revealed significant inverse relationships between anger suppression and diastolic BPR and anger reflection and control and both diastolic and systolic BPR. As anger suppression increased, diastolic BPR decreased. As anger reflection and control increased, both systolic and diastolic BPR decreased. When gender was considered, the relationship between anger reflection and control and systolic BPR was apparent only for girls, whereas the relationship between anger reflection and control and diastolic BPR was apparent only for boys. When correlations were computed based on gender and race, a significant inverse relationship between anger reflection and control and systolic BPR in Black girls was found. The results suggest that the influence of race and gender on the relationships between anger expression and systolic and diastolic BPR, which has been documented in adults, may be present in childhood.

  14. Observer error in blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, P D; Johnson, D L

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment undertaken to determine observer error in measuring blood pressure by the auscultatory method. A microcomputer was used to display a simulated mercury manometer and play back tape-recorded Korotkoff sounds synchronized with the fall of the mercury column. Each observer's readings were entered into the computer, which displayed a histogram of all readings taken up to that point and thus showed the variation among observers. The procedure, which could easily be adapted for use in teaching, was used to test 311 observers drawn from physicians, nurses, medical students, nursing students and others at nine health care institutions in Ottawa. The results showed a strong bias for even-digit readings and standard deviations of roughly 5 to 6 mm Hg. The standard deviation for the systolic readings was somewhat smaller for the physicians as a group than for the nurses (3.5 v. 5.9 mm Hg). However, the standard deviations for the diastolic readings were roughly equal for these two groups (approximately 5.5 mm Hg). Images Fig. 1 PMID:3756693

  15. Dietary potassium and blood pressure in a population.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T; Barrett-Connor, E

    1984-06-01

    A population based study of 685 men and women aged 20 to 79 yr in a predominantly Caucasian community in Southern California found dietary potassium intake estimated from 24-h recall dietary history to be significantly and negatively correlated with age-adjusted systolic pressure in both men and women and with age-adjusted diastolic blood pressure in men. These correlations remained after exclusion of persons taking antihypertension medication or those with categorical hypertension (blood pressure greater than 160/95), and also persisted after adjusting for other dietary variables including alcohol and calcium intake. In women, correlations with blood pressure increased after excluding those taking sex hormones, suggesting that hormonal status may be an important determinant of blood pressure in women and may obscure other relationships. These findings support the etiological relationship of dietary potassium with blood pressure in populations.

  16. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  17. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  18. The Effect of Job Strain on Nighttime Blood Pressure Dipping among Men and Women with High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin-bo; Blumenthal, James A.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure. Methods The sample consisted of 122 blue collar and white collar workers (men=72, women=50). Job psychological demands, job control and social support were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire. Job strain was assessed by the ratio of job demands/job control. Nighttime blood pressure dipping was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed on three workdays. Results Men with high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure from awake to sleep than those with low job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the salient component of job strain associated with blood pressure dipping (p=.03). Conclusions High job strain is associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22460541

  19. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  2. Taking blood pressure: too important to trust to humans?

    PubMed

    Vidt, Donald G; Lang, Richard S; Seballos, Raul J; Misra-Hebert, Anita; Campbell, John; Bena, James F

    2010-10-01

    The measurement of blood pressure in the physician's office is subject to a number of observer errors and also to the "white-coat effect." Automatic devices that measure blood pressure without a human observer in the room can eliminate many of these problems. We argue for greater use of these devices in the physician's office.

  3. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  4. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  5. Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido; Bombelli, Michele; Seravalle, Gino; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Dell'oro, Raffaella; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has gained growing popularity in the diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension for several reasons, such as the lack of the so-called white-coat effect, the greater reproducibility as compared with clinic blood pressure, the ability to provide information on blood pressure phenomena of prognostic value and the closer relationship with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. All the above-mentioned main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are also true for resistant hypertension. In addition, however, in resistant hypertension, blood pressure monitoring allows one to precisely define the diagnosis of this clinical condition, by excluding the presence of white-coat hypertension, which is responsible for a consistent number of "false" resistant hypertensive cases. The approach also allows one to define the patterns of blood pressure variability in this clinical condition, as well as its relationships with target organ damage. Finally, it allows one to assess the effects of therapeutic interventions, such as renal nerves ablation, aimed at improving blood pressure control in this hypertensive state. The present paper will critically review the main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension, with particular emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk hypertensive state.

  6. [Long time regulation of arterial blood pressure: facts and hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Tsyrlin, V A

    2013-01-01

    The date about long time increase of blood pressure in conditions of excessive salt intake, constriction of renal artery in animals with initial low baroreceptor reflex is presented. Arterial hypertension in this case is accompanied by increase activity of sympathetic nervous system. The supposition that arterial baroreceptor reflex place a role in long time regulation of arterial blood pressure is expressed.

  7. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... ارتفاع ضغط الدم - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure Visoki krvni tlak - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) High Blood Pressure 高血压 - 简体中文 ( ...

  8. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... الدم أثناء الحمل - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Visok ... u trudnoći - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy ...

  9. Social Support, Assimilation and Biological Effective Blood Pressure Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Walsh, Patricia Ann

    1987-01-01

    The twin processes of migration and assimilation are highly stressful. This stress can be manifested in elevated blood pressure. According to this study, immigrants receiving high levels of social support had significantly lower blood pressure levels than those receiving less social support. (VM)

  10. Finger blood pressure during leg resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Gomides, R S; Dias, R M R; Souza, D R; Costa, L A R; Ortega, K C; Mion, D; Tinucci, T; de Moraes Forjaz, C L

    2010-08-01

    Blood pressure (BP) assessment during resistance exercise can be useful to avoid high BP, reducing cardiovascular risk, especially in hypertensive individuals. However, non-invasive accurate technique for this purpose is not available. The aim of this study was to compare finger photoplethysmographic (FPP) and intra-arterial BP values and responses during resistance exercise. Eight non-medicated hypertensive subjects (5 males, 30-60 years) were evaluated during pre-exercise resting period and during three sets of the knee extension exercise performed at 80% of 1RM until fatigue. BP was measured simultaneously by FPP and intra-arterial methods. Data are mean+/-SD. Systolic BP was significantly higher with FPP than with intra-arterial: at pre-exercise (157+/-13 vs. 152+/-10 mmHg; p<0.01) and the mean (202+/-29 vs. 198+/-26 mmHg; p<0.01), and the maximal (240+/-26 vs. 234+/-16 mmHg; p<0.05) values achieved during exercise. The increase in systolic BP during resistance exercise was similar between FPP and intra-arterial (+73+/-29 vs. +71+/-18 mmHg; p=0.59). Diastolic BP values and increases were lower with FPP. In conclusion, FPP provides similar values of BP increment during resistance exercise than intra-arterial method. However, it overestimates by 2.6+/-6.1% the maximal systolic BP achieved during this mode of exercise and underestimates by 8.8+/-5.8% the maximal diastolic BP.

  11. [Blood pressure measurement and screening of hypertension in children].

    PubMed

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Burnier, Michel; Paradis, Gilles; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2008-09-10

    Children with elevated blood pressure are at risk of being hypertensive in adulthood and of developing complications such as ventricular hypertrophy. Obesity is a cause of hypertension. Because the prevalence of obesity is increasing, some authors argue that the systematic screening for hypertension in children and adolescents is justified for early prevention and treatment. Sex, age and height all influence children's blood pressure. When elevated blood pressure is identified, complementary investigations and treatment might be necessary. However, due to the difficulties of obtaining a valid estimate of blood pressure, to the moderate tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood, and the rarity of hypertension cases in childhood, the usefulness of systematic screening of hypertension during childhood is still controversial.

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. Blood pressure in Tokelauan children in two contrasting environments.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Eyles, E; Salmond, C; Prior, I

    1978-10-01

    To assess the influence of the environment on blood pressure levels in children, the patterns of blood pressure in Tokelauan children resident in the isolated atolls of Tokelau and in New Zealand are compared. Blood pressure was measured twice by one observer using a random zero sphygmomanometer on 571 (96% response) Tokelauan children resident on the atolls and on 856 (95% response) Tokelauan children resident in New Zealand. After adjusting for cuff size and controlling for age, weight and height, the systolic blood pressure of New Zealand resident children was found to be significantly higher in boys of all ages and in girls under the age of eight. The difference does not appear to be due to selective migration; the association of the heavier weight of the New Zealand resident children with part of this blood pressure difference may be important from a preventive viewpoint.

  14. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of <0.05. Results Most subjects were female (68.7%). There was no significant relationship between gender and food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  15. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring: The GUSTO Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Lek, Ngee; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-11-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother-offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01-0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (-0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (-0.04 to 0.10; P = 0.35), and 0.05 (-0

  16. A Discussion on the Regulation of Blood Flow and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Christopher B; Collier, David J; Shah, Mussadiq; Saxena, Manish; Brier, Timothy J; Kapil, Vikas; Green, David; Lobo, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two kinds of regulation essential to the circulatory system: namely the regulation of blood flow and that of (systemic) arterial blood pressure. It is pointed out that blood flow requirements sub-serve the nutritional needs of the tissues, adequately catered for by keeping blood flow sufficient for the individual oxygen needs. Individual tissue oxygen requirements vary between tissue types, while highly specific for a given individual tissue. Hence, blood flows are distributed between multiple tissues, each with a specific optimum relationship between the rate of oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2). Previous work has illustrated that the individual tissue blood flows are adjusted proportionately, where there are variations in metabolic rate and where arterial oxygen content (CaO2) varies. While arterial blood pressure is essential for the provision of a sufficient pressure gradient to drive blood flow, it is applicable throughout the arterial system at any one time. Furthermore, It is regulated independently of the input resistance to individual tissues (local arterioles), since they are regulated locally, that being the means by which the highly specific adequate local requirement for DO2 is ensured. Since total blood flow is the summation of all the individually regulated tissue blood flows cardiac inflow (venous return) amounts to total tissue blood flow and as the heart puts out what it receives cardiac output is therefore determined at the tissues. Hence, regulation of arterial blood pressure is independent of the distributed independent regulation of individual tissues. It is proposed here that mechanical features of arterial blood pressure regulation will depend rather on the balance between blood volume and venous wall tension, determinants of venous pressure. The potential for this explanation is treated in some detail.

  17. Independent association of HbA(1c) and incident cardiovascular disease in people without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Hill, Catherine L; Wilson, David H; Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gill, Tiffany K; Ruffin, Richard E

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have reported no association between elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) among women without diabetes. This study describes associations between HbA(1c) and new onset CVD in a representative adult population cohort. Assessment of participants in The North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS), a population study of randomly selected adults (age > or =18 years, n = 4,060), included measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, and HbA(1c). A self-completed questionnaire assessed doctor-diagnosed diabetes, CVD and stroke, smoking status, and demographics. The cohort was followed for an average 3.5 years. Of the 2,913 adults free of diabetes at baseline and follow-up, 94 (3.5%) reported new onset coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or stroke. Compared with those with an HbA(1c) < or =5.0%, risk of new onset CVD was increased in those with HbA(1c) 5.4-5.6% (odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4, 4.6), and > or =5.7% (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.4), after adjustment for other risk factors. The association was stronger in women than men (P = 0.03), and attenuated to only a small degree by addition of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, BMI, waist circumference, or smoking to the model. Elevated HbA(1c) is related to new onset CVD over a relatively short follow-up period in both men and women without diabetes and who do not develop diabetes, after adjustment for other major risk factors. Unlike previous studies, this relationship was not substantially attenuated by other traditional risk factors.

  18. Direct measurement of capillary blood pressure in the human lip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, S. E.; Tucker, B. J.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we developed and tested a new procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood pressures above heart level in humans. Capillary and postcapillary venule blood pressures were measured directly in 13 human subjects by use of the servonulling micropressure technique adapted for micropuncture of lip capillaries. Pressure waveforms were recorded in 40 separate capillary vessels and 14 separate postcapillary venules over periods ranging from 5 to 64 s. Localization and determination of capillary and postcapillary vessels were ascertained anatomically before pressure measurements. Capillary pressure was 33.2 +/- 1.5 (SE) mm Hg in lips of subjects seated upright. Repeated micropunctures of the same vessel gave an average coefficient of variation of 0.072. Postcapillary venule pressure was 18.9 +/- 1.6 mm Hg. This procedure produces a direct and reproducible means of measuring microvascular blood pressures in a vascular bed above heart level in humans.

  19. New high blood pressure guidelines create new at-risk classification: changes in blood pressure classification by JNC 7.

    PubMed

    Miller, Edgar R; Jehn, Megan L

    2004-01-01

    High blood pressure has become increasingly prevalent and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) has redefined normal blood pressure as less than 120/80 mm Hg and created a new blood pressure category called "prehypertension" for those with a systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg. This new blood pressure category was created to identify adults considered to be at risk for developing hypertension and to alert both patients and healthcare providers of the importance of adopting lifestyle changes. Recognition of prehypertension provides important opportunities to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  20. ‘Sausage-string’ deformations of blood vessels at high blood pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstrøm, P.; Mikkelsen, R.; Gustafsson, F.; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    1999-12-01

    A new instability is proposed to explain the ‘sausage-string’ patterns of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels at high blood pressure conditions. Our theory provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical geometry of a blood vessel becomes unstable. The theory is related to experimental observations in rats, where high blood pressure is induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II.

  1. Clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements for the prevention and management of high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Elnagar, Noha; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    1. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring (M) provides BP information at many points on any particular day during unrestricted routine daily activities, whereas home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring provides a lot of BP information obtained under fixed times and conditions over a long period of time, thus mean values of HBP provide high reproducibility, and thus an overall superiority compared with ABP.  2. HBP is at least equally or better able than ABP to predict hypertensive target organ damage and prognosis of cardiovascular disease.  3. HBPM allows for ongoing disease monitoring by patients, improves adherence to antihypertensive treatment, and can provide health-care providers with timely clinical data and direct and immediate feedback regarding diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.  4. HBPM provides BP information in relation to time; that is, BP in the morning, in the evening and at night during sleep, and it is an essential tool for the diagnosis of white-coat and masked hypertension.  5. HBPM yields minimal alerting affects and no or minimal placebo effect, and can therefore distinguish small, but significant, serial changes in BP. It is thus the most practical method for monitoring BP in the day-to-day management of hypertension. 6. The superiority of HBPM over ABPM and clinic BPM is apparent from almost all practical and clinical research perspectives.

  2. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Meir; Patron, Amikam; Glik, Zehava; Weiss, Abraham T

    2009-01-01

    Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1) determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2) discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate. PMID:19857254

  3. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-24

    signs, blood tests (chemistries, auto-chemistry panel, lipids, iron, ferritin, complete blood count, coagulation profile, hepatitis B surface antigen... hepatitis A antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody), urine tests (drug screen I-abuse, marijuana, and a pregnancy test), and a 12-lead

  4. Blood Pressure in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Robert W.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Moore, Charity G.; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. RESULTS The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril–telmisartan group and the lisinopril–placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P = 0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (−1.17 vs. −0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly

  5. Factors influencing validation of ambulatory blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Atkins, N; Staessen, J

    1995-11-01

    With the introduction of 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring into clinical practice a vast market for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices has been created. To satisfy this market manufacturers are producing an array of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices. There is no obligation on manufacturers to have such devices validated independently, even though two national protocols, one from the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the other from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), call for independent validation and state the means of doing so. However, many factors can influence the validation procedure. They include compliance to the protocol being employed; the accuracy of the standard; establishing precisely the model being validated; the influences of blood pressure level, age and exercise on device accuracy; the provisions necessary for special populations, such as pregnant women, the elderly and children; the influence of oscillometric versus Korotkoff sound detection and electrocardiographic gating on comparative measurements; the assessment of performance as distinct from accuracy; and the relevance of general factors, such as the algorithm being employed and computer compatibility. Forty-three ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices have been marketed for ambulatory blood pressure measurement and of those only 18 have been validated according to either the BHS or the AAMI protocol. The influence of the factors listed above on the validation studies of those devices will be considered and the relevance of validation procedures to the clinical use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring devices will be discussed.

  6. John Henryism and blood pressure among Nigerian civil servants

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, N.; Bunker, C. H.; Ukoli, F. A.; Kuller, L. H.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Among urban Nigerian civil servants, higher socioeconomic status is related to increased blood pressure. In the United States, the relation between increased blood pressure and low socioeconomic status or low level of education has been found to be potentiated by high effort active coping (John Henryism) among African- Americans. Thus, the potentiating effect of high effort active coping as measured by the John Henryism Active Coping Scale, on socioeconomic status, as measured by job grade, was considered in relation to blood pressure in a Nigerian civil servant population. DESIGN: The influence of John Henryism on the association between educational level or socioeconomic status and increased blood pressure was examined during a comprehensive blood pressure survey. John Henryism refers to a strong behavioural predisposition to actively cope with psychosocial environmental stressors. SETTING: Benin City, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Nigerian civil servant sample of 658 adults, aged 20 to 65 years. MAIN RESULTS: Among those with high John Henryism scores of upper socioeconomic status, whether measured by education level or job grade, there was a trend toward higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, adjusted for age and body mass index, in men and women, though not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This trend is consistent with recent findings of increased blood pressure among women and African- Americans with high John Henryism and high status jobs.   PMID:9616424

  7. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD.

  8. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01) than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01). The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01) after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal's blood pressure

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system, and the other is from the arteries as ... with the kidneys (most commonly), lungs, heart, or circulatory system. These problems can include bronchopulmonary dysplasia , an immaturity ...

  10. Relation with preoperative fructosamine and autonomic nerve function and blood pressure during anesthesia in diabetics: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Goto, Y; Sugiura, Y; Yanagimoto, M; Yasuda, Y; Suzuki, H; Hasegawa, K

    1999-01-01

    Many diabetics may have a high risk involving the cardiovascular system. In an attempt to predict the intraoperative risks of diabetics during anesthesia, we evaluated retrospectively the relationship among the biochemical assay or autonomic nerve function obtained as parts of the preoperative examination, and the blood pressure changes relating to the stimulation of intubation and extubation for anesthesia. In 40 diabetic surgical patients examined the biochemical assay (HbA1c, fructosamine level and blood glucose level) beforehand, the autonomic nerve function was quantified preoperatively by analysis of ECG R-R variability recorded in supine and subsequent standing position using an HRV analyzer, and some parameters of autonomic nerve function especially responsive sympathetic nerve activities were obtained. We assessed the correlation with systolic blood pressure changes in these cases at intubation for general anesthesia comparing to similar conditioned 40 non-diabetics. A diabetics with low vagal activity became larger systolic blood pressure afterdrop at tracheal intubation for anesthesia (r=0.513, p<0.001). Otherwise the blood pressure afterdrop at extubation became larger in a non-diabetics with high sympathetic activity (r=0.502, p<0.001). The preoperative fructosamine concentration in diabetics correlated positively with the responsive sympathetic nerve irritability index; "mRR(sup)-RRmin(std)" (r=0.432, p<0.05) and the responsive sympathetic nerve excitability index; "mRR(sup-std)" (r=0.448, p<0.05). However HbA1c had no correlation with these parameters of autonomic nerve function and blood pressure rise at tracheal intubation. Because of above correlation with blood pressure rise at intubation for anesthesia induction, the preoperative fructosamine examination and the responsive sympathetic nerve function test must be useful preoperative examination for detection of the unexpected heart events of diabetic patients during operation.

  11. Benefit of Blood Pressure Control in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kintscher, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The coexistence of arterial hypertension and diabetes represents a devastating partnership for cardiovascular health. Thus, blood pressure and blood glucose control are essential therapeutic goals to reduce cardiovascular risk and other diabetes-related endpoints in these patients. The major benefit of blood pressure lowering in diabetes comes from a marked reduction of cardiovascular and renal endpoints. New target blood pressure values to achieve maximum cardiovascular and renal protection will be discussed. In addition to the reduction of macrovascular endpoints, blood pressure lowering therapy in diabetic patients has also been discussed to improve microvascular diseases during diabetes, in particular microalbuminuria or diabetic retinopathy. However, current clinical trial evidence is less robust than for macrovascular disease. Clinical studies showed controversial results, and will be discussed. Finally, new data from the ADVANCE-ON study about the long-term, sustained benefit of blood pressure lowering in hypertensive, diabetic patients has been recently published, and will be evaluated in the context of previous evidence. In summary, the present article will discuss selected new topics in the field of hypertension and diabetes focusing on the benefits achieved by blood pressure lowering in these patients.

  12. [Current clinical aspects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Sauza-Sosa, Julio César; Cuéllar-Álvarez, José; Villegas-Herrera, Karla Montserrat; Sierra-Galán, Lilia Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is the prevalentest disease worldwide that significantly increases cardiovascular risk. An early diagnosis together to achieve goals decreases the risk of complications significatly. Recently have been updated the diagnostic criteria for hypertension and the introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The introduction into clinical practice of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was to assist the diagnosis of «white coat hypertension» and «masked hypertension». Today has also shown that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is better than the traditional method of recording blood pressure in the office, to the diagnosis and to adequate control and adjustment of drug treatment. Also there have been introduced important new concepts such as isloted nocturnal hypertension, morning blood pressure elevation altered and altered patterns of nocturnal dip in blood pressure; which have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several studies have shown significant prognostic value in some stocks. There are still other concepts on which further study is needed to properly establish their introduction to clinical practice as hypertensive load variability, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. In addition to setting values according to further clinical studies in populations such as elderly and children.

  13. Higher Blood Pressure Variability in White Coat Hypertension; from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Sungha; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Blood pressure variability (BPV) was recently shown to be a risk factor of stroke. White coat hypertension (WCH) used to be regarded as innocuous, but one long-term follow-up study reported that WCH increased stroke rate compared to normotension (NT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between WCH and BPV. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 1398 subjects from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Registry, who were divided into NT (n=364), masked hypertension (n=122), white coat hypertension (n=254), and sustained hypertension (n=658) groups. Results Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. The average real variability (ARV), a highly sensitive BPV parameter, was highest in the WCH group, followed by the sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, and NT groups. The results persisted after being adjusted for covariates. The WCH vs. sustained hypertension results (adjusted mean±standard error) were as follows: 24-h systolic ARV, 22.9±0.8 vs. 19.4±0.6; 24-h diastolic ARV, 16.8±0.6 vs. 14.3±0.5; daytime systolic ARV, 21.8±0.8 vs. 16.8±0.6; and daytime diastolic ARV, 16.2±0.6 vs. 13.4±0.5 (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion From the registry data, we found that subjects with WCH or masked hypertension had higher BPV than NT. However, long-term follow-up data assessing the clinical influences of WCH on stroke are needed. PMID:27275173

  14. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... in people who are at risk for developing hypertension, a new study finds. "Patients with pre-hypertension [ ...

  15. Theory and practice of manual blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Cork, Alison

    This article outlines the process of taking a manual blood pressure measurement. The author suggests that it is a skill that nursing students should be using in clinical practice rather than relying on automated monitors.

  16. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Costan G; Smith, Kylie J

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease.

  17. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have your blood pressure and calcium levels checked. Calcium channel blockers. When given through an intravenous (IV) line, calcium may decrease the effects of calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine (Adalat CC, Afeditab CR, ...

  18. Automated analysis of blood pressure measurements (Korotkov sound)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.

  19. Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients Study shows higher early death and ... These findings provide further evidence of the potential harms in terms of increased risk of heart attacks, ...

  20. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  1. Religiosity and its relation to blood pressure among selected Kuwaitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Yagoub Yousif

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between blood pressure and the religious practices of Kuwaitis as members of a Muslim society. Religious variables were measured via a sociocultural questionnaire. Blood pressure measurements were taken with a sphygmomanometer. Non-opportunistic samples were taken from 223 Kuwaitis. The difference in religious commitment between Muslim Sunnis and Muslim Shiites was examined using a t-test. Matrix correlation was used to examine the relationship between religious commitment and some other variables. Multiple regression was conducted to determine the effect of religiosity on blood pressure, as well as statistically controlling for other variables such as body mass index, socioeconomic status, smoking, gender and age. It was found that both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were affected by religious commitment and religious activities

  2. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  3. New Approaches to Evaluating and Monitoring Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M; Levy, Phillip D

    2016-06-01

    Digital health innovations for hypertension include cuffless blood pressure sensors, wireless smartphone-enabled upper arm blood pressure monitors, mobile applications, and remote monitoring technologies. Wearable trackers have drawn interest from medical professionals and patients alike. They have the potential to improve hypertension control and medication adherence through easier logging of repeated blood pressure measurements, better connectivity with health-care providers, and medication reminder alerts. With increasing emphasis on home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm hypertension prior to treatment, such devices also can help improve the diagnostic landscape. However, privacy, accuracy, and cost concerns have prevented widespread clinical uptake. To foster implementation, device designers and clinical researchers should collaborate on development of rigorous clinical trials that test cardiovascular outcomes associated with emerging technologies. We review the current literature on mobile health technologies and novel diagnostic and management protocols and make recommendations on how to incorporate these innovations into practice.

  4. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake more than double the recommended daily limit ... did in 1999. Between 1999 and 2012, salt (sodium) consumption rose from about 2,900 milligrams a ...

  5. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition called atrial fibrillation — is present in about one out of five ... blood pressure is the chief culprit, and atrial fibrillation isn’t far behind. Yet there’s good news — ...

  6. High Blood Pressure and Sex: Overcome the Challenges

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment for high blood pressure and satisfaction with sex can go hand in hand — if you're ... signs or symptoms. But the impact on your sex life may be obvious. Although sexual activity is ...

  7. Unusual blood pressure response during standing therapy in tetraplegic man.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Ogata, Toru; Hoshikawa, Shinya; Uematsu, Azusa; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Saitou, Sakiko; Kitamura, Taku; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of an individual with cervical spinal cord injury who showed a unique blood pressure response during passive standing and passive walking-like leg movement, i.e., hypertension with standing and hypotension with leg movement.

  8. High blood pressure in pregnancy and coronary calcification.

    PubMed

    Sabour, Siamak; Franx, Arie; Rutten, Annemarieke; Grobbee, Diederick E; Prokop, Mathias; Bartelink, Marie-Louise; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bots, Michiel L

    2007-04-01

    A considerable proportion of pregnant women develop high blood pressure in pregnancy. Although it is assumed that this condition subsides after pregnancy, many of these women develop the metabolic syndrome later in life and are at increased risk to develop coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis development is considered in between risk factors and occurrence of vascular symptoms. We set out to cross-sectionally study the relation of high blood pressure during pregnancy with risk of coronary calcification. The study population was composed 491 healthy postmenopausal women selected from a population-based cohort study. Information on high blood pressure during pregnancy was obtained using a questionnaire. Between 2004 and 2005, the women underwent a multidetector computed tomography (Philips Mx 8000 IDT 16) to assess coronary calcium. The Agatston score, volume, and mass measurements were used to quantify coronary calcium. A total of 30.7% of the women reported to have had high blood pressure in pregnancy. Body mass index (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.09) and diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.05) were significantly related to a history of high blood pressure in pregnancy. Age was significantly related to increased coronary calcification. Women with a history of high blood pressure during pregnancy had a 57% increased risk of having coronary calcification compared with those women without this condition (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.37). After adjusting for age, the relation did not change (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.53). We concluded that high blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of coronary calcification later in life.

  9. Early life stress and blood pressure levels in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, H; Räikkönen, K; Pesonen, A-K; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Heinonen, K; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G

    2013-02-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term consequences on adult physiological functions. We studied the long-term effects of separation on blood pressure levels in non-obese subjects who were separated temporarily in childhood from their parents during World War II (WWII). The original clinical study cohort consists of people born during 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland. This substudy includes 1361 non-obese subjects (body mass index <30 kg m(-2)). Of these, 192 (14.1%) had been evacuated abroad during WWII. The remaining subjects served as controls. Blood pressure levels and use of blood pressure medication were studied. The separated subjects had significantly higher systolic blood pressure values than the non-separated (148.6+21.5 vs 142.2+19.6 mm Hg, P<0.0001) in adult life. Those subjects separated in early childhood had markedly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in adult life compared with the non-separated (154.6 vs 142.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-14.7; P<0.005 and 90.8 vs 87.7 mm Hg; 95% CI 1.0-7.3; P<0.02, respectively). Systolic blood pressure was also higher in the group separated for a duration of <1 year (151.7 vs 142.2 mm Hg; 95% CI 0.0-12.4; P<0.05) compared with the non-separated. Besides being separated, age at separation and duration of separation also influenced blood pressure levels in adult life. This could be due to early hormonal and metabolic programming, during plastic periods in early life, influencing blood pressure levels in adult life.

  10. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata. We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing. In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator. In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  11. Adiposity and Blood Pressure in 110 000 Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gnatiuc, Louisa; Halsey, Jim; Herrington, William G.; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Lewington, Sarah; Collins, Rory; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Peto, Richard; Kuri-Morales, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the importance of general versus central markers of adiposity to blood pressure, leading to suggestions that population-specific adiposity thresholds may be needed. We examined the relevance of adiposity to blood pressure among 111 911 men and women who, when recruited into the Mexico City Prospective Study, were aged 35 to 89 years, had no chronic disease, and were not taking antihypertensives. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 2 markers of general adiposity (body mass index and height-adjusted weight) and 4 markers of central adiposity (waist circumference, hip circumference, waist:hip ratio, and waist:height ratio), adjusted for relevant confounders. Mean (SD) adiposity levels were: body mass index (28.7±4.5 kg/m2), height-adjusted weight (70.2±11.2 kg), waist circumference (93.3±10.6 cm), hip circumference (104.0±9.0 cm), waist:hip ratio (0.90±0.06), and waist:height ratio (0.60±0.07). Associations with blood pressure were linear with no threshold levels below which lower general or central adiposity was not associated with lower blood pressure. On average, each 1 SD higher measured adiposity marker was associated with a 3 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure and 2 mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure (SEs <0.1 mm Hg), but for the waist:hip ratio, associations were only approximately half as strong. General adiposity associations were independent of central adiposity, but central adiposity associations were substantially reduced by adjustment for general adiposity. Findings were similar for men and women. In Mexican adults, often overweight or obese, markers of general adiposity were stronger independent predictors of blood pressure than measured markers of central adiposity, with no threshold effects. PMID:28223471

  12. Adaptive PI Regulation of Blood Pressure of Hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K Y; Zheng, H; Lavanya, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive PI control of mean blood pressure using vasoactive drugs like SNP. A new algorithm updating variations in time delay and sensitivity of the system is proposed and its effectiveness is discussed. For demonstration, simulations under clinical conditions are carried out and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  13. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  14. Neural and hormonal control of blood pressure in conscious monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K G; Barazanji, M W; Iaffaldano, R

    1990-01-01

    The contribution of the autonomic nervous system, angiotensin II (ANG II), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) to the control of blood pressure (BP) was examined in 12 chronically instrumented tethered monkeys. The vasopressin antagonist, [d(CH2)5AVP] (Manning Compound, MC), the ANG II antagonist, saralasin (SAR), and the ganglionic blocking drug, hexamethonium (Hx), were injected in a random sequence into the left atrium (LA) while BP and heart rate (HR) were monitored. When given as the first antagonist, MC caused a slight decrease in BP; SAR did not significantly decrease BP regardless of the sequence of administration, whereas Hx caused a consistent decrease in blood pressure of 35-50 mmHg. Seven (4 intact and 3 with renal denervation) additional animals were involved in hemorrhage experiments. Blood pressure was reduced to 50-60 mmHg by hemorrhage and then allowed to return spontaneously. Ten to 15 min after the end of the hemorrhage, MC was given. When blood pressure had stabilized, SAR was given. Blood pressure returned to 80-90 mmHg after the hemorrhage. MC did not affect the blood pressure recovery; however, saralasin reduced it to the post-hemorrhage levels. We would conclude that the sympathetic nervous system is the primary controlling mechanism for BP in the conscious primate, with AVP making a minor contribution. The release of renin would appear to be primarily under the control of the sympathetic nervous system.

  15. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function.

  16. Techniques for estimating blood pressure variation using video images.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Norihiro; Obara, Kazuma; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Abe, Makoto; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know about a sudden blood pressure change that occurs in everyday life and may pose a danger to human health. However, monitoring the blood pressure variation in daily life is difficult because a bulky and expensive sensor is needed to measure the blood pressure continuously. In this study, a new non-contact method is proposed to estimate the blood pressure variation using video images. In this method, the pulse propagation time difference or instantaneous phase difference is calculated between two pulse waves obtained from different parts of a subject's body captured by a video camera. The forehead, left cheek, and right hand are selected as regions to obtain pulse waves. Both the pulse propagation time difference and instantaneous phase difference were calculated from the video images of 20 healthy subjects performing the Valsalva maneuver. These indices are considered to have a negative correlation with the blood pressure variation because they approximate the pulse transit time obtained from a photoplethysmograph. However, the experimental results showed that the correlation coefficients between the blood pressure and the proposed indices were approximately 0.6 for the pulse wave obtained from the right hand. This result is considered to be due to the difference in the transmission depth into the skin between the green and infrared light used as light sources for the video image and conventional photoplethysmogram, respectively. In addition, the difference in the innervation of the face and hand may be related to the results.

  17. Novel pressure-gradient driven component for blood extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Khumpuang, S.; Horede, M.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Portable blood analysis devices are usually appreciable for applications in blood diagnostic system. We have designed and fabricated a low-cost and simple deal blood extraction device for a biomedical analysis. The device mainly composes of blood extraction tool and a functional bio-chemical analyzing element. In this work, we report the fabrication and pressure-gradient testing results of the blood extraction tool which consists of painless microneedle array and pressure-gradient tank. Microneedle array was fabricated by X-ray lithography using PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique. The idea of our extraction device was simple but capability which is just to hold a sufficient pressure gradient between the tank and blood vessel. The device can draw the volume of blood up to 237 μl. The device was made of low-cost and disposable materials since it is expected to be used for single blood analysis system. In this work, we introduce design, fabrication and mechanism of the pressure gradient driven component including the extraction test results. The fabrication method of microneedle used in our system is also described.

  18. Effects of high-protein diets on body weight, glycaemic control, blood lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Zeng-Li; Wang, Pei-Yu; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2013-09-14

    High-protein diets are popular for weight management, but the health effects of such diets in diabetic persons are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the effects of high-protein diets on body weight and metabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases for relevant randomised trials up to August 2012. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the net changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. Overall, nine trials including a total of 418 diabetic patients met our inclusion criteria. The study duration ranged from 4 to 24 weeks. The actual intake of dietary protein ranged from 25 to 32% of total energy in the intervention groups and from 15 to 20% in the control groups. Compared with the control diets, high-protein diets resulted in more weight loss (pooled mean difference: 22.08, 95% CI 23.25, 20.90 kg). High-protein diets significantly decreased glycated Hb A1C (HbA1C) levels by 0.52 (95% CI 20.90, 20.14) %, but did not affect the fasting blood glucose levels. There were no differences in lipid profiles. The pooled net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 23.13 (95% CI 26.58, 0.32)mmHg and 21.86 (95% CI 24.26, 0.56) mmHg, respectively. However, two studies reported a large influence on weight loss and HbA1C levels, respectively. In summary, high-protein diets (within 6 months) may have some beneficial effects on weight loss, HbA1C levels and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigations are still required to draw a conclusion.

  19. Impact of calibration on estimates of central blood pressures.

    PubMed

    Soender, T K; Van Bortel, L M; Møller, J E; Lambrechtsen, J; Hangaard, J; Egstrup, K

    2012-12-01

    Using the Sphygmocor device it is recommended that the radial pressure wave is calibrated for brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However it has been suggested that brachial-to-radial pressure amplification causes underestimation of central blood pressures (BPs) using this calibration. In the present study we examined if different calibrations had an impact on estimates of central BPs and on the clinical interpretation of our results. On the basis of ambulatory BP measurements, patients were categorized into patients with controlled, uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. We first calibrated the radial pressure wave as recommended and afterwards recalibrated the same pressure wave using brachial DBP and calculated mean arterial pressure. Recalibration of the pressure wave generated significantly higher estimates of central SBP (P=0.0003 and P<0.0001 at baseline and P=0.0001 and P=0.0002 after 6 months). Using recommended calibration we found a significant change in central SBP in both treatment groups (P=0.05 and P=0.01), however, after recalibrating significance was lost in patients with resistant hypertension (P=0.15). We conclude that calibration with DBP and mean arterial pressure produces higher estimates of central BPs than recommended calibration. The present study also shows that this difference between the two calibration methods can produce more than a systematic error and has an impact on interpretation of clinical results.

  20. Consistent Blood Pressure Control May Cut Rate of Second Stroke in Half

    MedlinePlus

    ... News on Heart.org Learn More Consistent blood pressure control may cut rate of second stroke in ... heart.org and strokeassociation.org Related Images Blood Pressure Check (2) Checking blood pressure using cuff copyright ...

  1. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  2. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  3. Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Numbers: What They Mean Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... time, you're at risk. Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, or millimeters of ...

  4. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications Here’s a rundown on the main types of ...

  5. Anger Expression and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starner, Tamie M.; Peters, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical significance of childhood hypertension is important as elevated pressures during childhood are found to follow a progressively increasing track into adulthood. Little work has been done to examine the relationship of emotions and emotional behavioral factors to the development of hypertension in children. Using the Roy Adaptation…

  6. Fluid balance, renal function, and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Guyton, A C; Young, D B; DeClue, J W; Trippodo, N; Hall, J E

    1975-10-01

    After many detours in the search for the basic mechanism of hypertension, evidence now seems to corroborate the earliest concept that developed in the 1800's, namely, that hypertension almost always results from a tendency of the kidneys to retain water and salt. Animal studies show that the amount of excess body water and salt required to cause hypertension is exceedingly small, and that the hypertensive effect of the excess water and salt may not develop for days or weeks. When vascular constriciton occurs simultaneously, as occurs in the presence of large quantities of angiotensin, the blood volume may be less than normal, but even in these circumstances the fluid volume is relatively increased and is responsible for the hypertension because the vascular constrictont has decreased the capacity of the circulation to a greater extent than the decrease in blood volume.

  7. Prepubertal stature and blood pressure in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S.; Berney, L.; Blane, D.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To test the hypothesis that childhood growth rate is a marker for formation of control mechanisms that influence blood pressure in early old age.
METHODS—Data are from a sample of 149 (74 male) members of Sir John Boyd Orr's survey of British families conducted between 1937 and 1939. Measured heights were collected between ages 5 and 8 years, and in early old age between 1997 and 1998. Multiple linear regression investigated the relations of blood pressure with age and sex standardised childhood height with adjustment for potential confounding factors, including adult height. Inclusion of both childhood and adult heights in the same model was used to estimate growth, as measures of childhood height are relative to adult height.
RESULTS—Mean blood pressures in early old age for those in the shortest childhood height fifth were 167.8 and 76.3 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, respectively. For the tallest fifth they were 150.8 and 63.7 mm Hg, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding factors including adult height, the mean increase for the shortest childhood height fifth compared with the tallest was 28.5 mm Hg for systolic pressure (p = 0.015) and 22.8 mm Hg (p = 0.010) for pulse pressure. The relations of blood pressure with adult height were not statistically significant in the adjusted models.
CONCLUSION—Prepubertal growth rate is associated with the formation of mechanisms associated with the control of blood pressure in later life.

 PMID:10799423

  8. The relationship of electronically monitored physical activity to blood pressure, heart rate, and the circadian blood pressure profile.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, G A; White, W B; McCabe, E J; Giacco, S

    2000-03-01

    We studied how closely changes in electronically monitored physical activity are reflected in changes in blood pressure and heart rate in a group of untreated hypertensive subjects. Thirty-nine hypertensive patients (office blood pressure > 140/ 90 mm Hg) of mean age 57 +/- 10 years (mean +/-SD) wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor and a wrist actigraph simultaneously. Both average and peak activity for 5 min before each valid blood pressure reading were determined, as was average activity for awake and sleep periods, determined by patient kept diaries. For the overall group, awake and 24-h activities were inversely correlated to age (n = 39, r = -0.42; P = 0.01 and n = 39, r = -0.38; P = 0.01, respectively). No correlation was found between group awake activity and group-average blood pressure or heart rate. For individual patients, there was marked variation in the degree of correlation between awake activity measures (both peak and average) and blood pressure and heart rate. The strongest positive correlation was between activity levels and the heart rate-pressure product. Nondipper profile hypertensives had higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives (44 +/- 28 units/min v 25 +/- 20 units/min, df = 37, t = 2.12; P = 0.04), but awake activity levels were similar. The higher sleep activity remained after adjustment for age. These findings indicate that the relationship between actigraphic activity and hemodynamic parameters is highly variable and that the rate-pressure product is the strongest correlate of short-term activity. Furthermore, hypertensives with the nondipper profile have higher sleep activity than dipper hypertensives. These findings stress the need for further study into the role of day-to-day activity in determining ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability.

  9. Type 2 diabetics with higher plasma viscosity exhibit a higher blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Aloulou, Ikram; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle

    2004-01-01

    Among hemorheologic parameters, plasma viscosity is one of the most studied in epidemiology, so that it has emerged as an independent risk factor. In diabetes, plasma viscosity is frequently elevated. For this reason we tried to define characteristics of non-insulin dependent diabetics with high plasma viscosity (>1.45 mPa.s) and whether they were more insulin resistant and/or exhibited other hemorheologic disturbances. 12 subjects (age 56.1+/-11.7; BMI 28.6+/-4.8) were thus found to have a value of plasma viscosity >1.45 mPa.s. They were compared to 20 age and BMI-matched NIDDMs. Patients have similar insulin sensitivity, HbA1c, and fibrinogen. RBC aggregation, rigidity and hematocrit were not significantly different. Whole blood viscosity at high shear rate was slightly higher (p=0.05). When corrected for hematocrit whole blood viscosity is no longer different. However, hematocrit was not lower in subjects with hpl >1.45. By contrast blood pressure was markedly higher (systolic: 177.5+/-2.5 mmHg vs 140+/-8 mmHg, p<10(-8); diastolic 110+/-14 vs 83+/-9 mmHg, p<10(-9); mean 132+/-18 mmHg vs 102+/-7 mmHg p<10(-9)). Therefore, in NIDDM, higher plasma viscosity, regardless insulin resistance and adiposity, is strongly related to blood pressure.

  10. Screening blood pressure measurement in children: are we saving lives?

    PubMed

    Brady, Tammy M; Redwine, Karen M; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-06-01

    Blood Pressure screening in children and adolescents is currently recommended by several prominent medical organizations, including the American Heart Association, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the European Society of Hypertension, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. This practice was recently subject to intense scientific review by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The conclusion of the Task Force was that "current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for primary hypertension in asymptomatic children and adolescents." This commentary provides an alternate interpretation of current evidence for blood pressure screening in children and adolescents and highlights its importance as a part of routine medical care.

  11. Blood Pressure Associates with Standing Balance in Elderly Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Pasma, Jantsje H.; Bijlsma, Astrid Y.; Klip, Janneke M.; Stijntjes, Marjon; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Muller, Majon; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197) and continuously (subsample, n = 58) before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1) the ability to maintain standing balance; 2) self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3) history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. Results Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. Conclusion Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care. PMID:25222275

  12. Visually evoked blood flow responses and interaction with dynamic cerebral autoregulation: correction for blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Gommer, Erik D; Bogaarts, Guy; Martens, Esther G H J; Mess, Werner H; Reulen, Jos P H

    2014-05-01

    Visually evoked flow responses recorded using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are often quantified using a dynamic model of neurovascular coupling. The evoked flow response is seen as the model's response to a visual step input stimulus. However, the continuously active process of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) compensating cerebral blood flow for blood pressure fluctuations may induce changes of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) as well. The effect of blood pressure variability on the flow response is evaluated by separately modeling the dCA-induced effects of beat-to-beat measured blood pressure related CBFV changes. Parameters of 71 subjects are estimated using an existing, well-known second order dynamic neurovascular coupling model proposed by Rosengarten et al., and a new model extending the existing model with a CBFV contributing component as the output of a dCA model driven by blood pressure as input. Both models were evaluated for mean and systolic CBFV responses. The model-to-data fit errors of mean and systolic blood pressure for the new model were significantly lower compared to the existing model: mean: 0.8%±0.6 vs. 2.4%±2.8, p<0.001; systolic: 1.5%±1.2 vs. 2.2%±2.6, p<0.001. The confidence bounds of all estimated neurovascular coupling model parameters were significantly (p<0.005) narrowed for the new model. In conclusion, blood pressure correction of visual evoked flow responses by including cerebral autoregulation in model fitting of averaged responses results in significantly lower fit errors and by that in more reliable model parameter estimation. Blood pressure correction is more effective when mean instead of systolic CBFV responses are used. Measurement and quantification of neurovascular coupling should include beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement.

  13. Pathophysiology of blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Swales, J D

    1979-05-01

    Several of the factors responsible for circulatory control are modified in the elderly. Loss of elasticity of the aortic wall produces a widened pulse pressure and a high incidence of systolic hypertension. Attempts to normalize this may be associated with disabling diastolic hypotension. Arterial baroreceptor sensitivity and responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is reduced. Further, the renal capacity to conserve sodium and water is impaired. All these increase the risks associated with antihypertensive treatment, but do not contra-indicate such treatment.

  14. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves blood pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad; Haghighat, Neda; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Shidfar, Farzad; Heidari, Iraj; Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Soraiya; Eghtesadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to examine the effects of high-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate on lipid profiles, weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, and inflammation in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Sixty individuals [32 in dark chocolate group (DCG) and 28 in white chocolate group (WCG)] with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Subjects were randomized to consume 25 g DCG or WCG for 8 weeks. Changes in weight, blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid profile, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured at the beginning and end of the intervention. This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials. RESULTS In DCC group, compared with baseline, serum levels of Apo A-1 (P = 0.045) was increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.027), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P = 0.025), Apo B (P = 0.012) and Log of hsCRP (P = 0.043) levels were decreased at the end of study. No changes were seen within the WCG in studied parameters. High polyphenol chocolate consumption compared to white chocolate resulted in significant decrease in of systolic (−5.93 ± 6.25 vs. −1.07 ± 7.97 mmHg, P = 0.004) and diastolic blood pressure (−6.4 ± 6.25 vs. 0.17 ± 7.9 mmHg, P = 0.002), FBS (−7.84 ± 19.15 vs. 4.00 ± 20.58 mg/dl, P = 0.019) over the course of 8 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor body mass index and TG levels altered from baseline. CONCLUSION High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving TG levels in hypertensive patients with diabetes and decreasing blood pressure and FBS without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycemic control. PMID:26089927

  15. Renoprotection, renin inhibition, and blood pressure control: the impact of aliskiren on integrated blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Haroon-Ur

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is an important factor in progressive loss of renal function. The kidney can be both a contributor to and a target of HTN. The functional integrity of the kidney is vital for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Chronic activation of the renin system causes HTN and, ultimately, end-organ damage. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) inhibit plasma renin activity (PRA), thereby preventing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I; consequently, the levels of both Ang I and Ang II are reduced. There is no compensatory increase in PRA activity with DRIs as seen with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). There are reasons to speculate that renin inhibition might prove to be a superior strategy for blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system compared with ACEIs or ARBs. Evidence for the efficacy of aliskiren (a DRI) is considered to be relatively strong, based on published, short-term, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials showing that aliskiren is as effective as other antihypertensive agents in reducing blood pressure (BP), with no rebound effects on BP after treatment withdrawal. When combined with diuretics, fully additive BP reduction is seen. When given with an ACEI or ARB, aliskiren produces significant additional BP reduction indicative of complimentary pharmacology and more complete renin-angiotensin system blockade.

  16. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  17. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467 PMID:20398258

  18. Impact of glutathione-HbA1c on HbA1c measurement in diabetes diagnosis via array isoelectric focusing, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and ELISA.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Guo, Chen-Gang; Chen, Lu; Yin, Xiao-Yang; Wu, Yi-Xin; Fan, Liu-Yin; Fan, Hui-Zhi; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2013-10-15

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been proven to be a key biomarker for diabetes screening, and glutathiolation of HbA1c (viz., GSS-HbA1c) has been identified. However, the impact of GSS-HbA1c on the measurement of HbA1c for diabetes screening has not been quantitatively assessed yet. To address the issue, the micropreparative capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) developed in our previous work was used for the high resolution separation and purification of hemoglobin (Hb) species. The main fractions of HbA0, HbA3 and HbA1c extracted from the developed cIEF were identified by validated Mono S method. The proposed GSS-HbA1c fractions in the cIEF were pooled and identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The HbA1c enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was employed for further quantitative analysis of GSS-HbA1c. A total of 34 blood samples with HbA1c levels from 4.2% to 13.4% were assessed via the above comprehensive strategy of IEF-HPLC-MS-ELISA. It was demonstrated that the HbA1c levels detected by cation exchange LC were considerably influenced by the glutathiolation of Hb and the range of detected GSS-HbA1c values was between 0.23% and 0.74%. The results and developed cIEF methods have considerable significances for investigation of diabetes and clinical diagnosis.

  19. High blood pressure and syncope: orthostatic hypotension as a link.

    PubMed

    Rafanelli, Martina; Ungar, Andrea

    2016-06-22

    The prevalence of hypertension increases with the age. Diagnostic criteria are the same as for the young, but in older adults isolated systolic hypertension is more frequent, due to loss of vascular compliance. Blood pressure should be measured on both sides in the seated position, moreover in the supine and upright position to detect orthostatic hypotension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful to detect white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, to tailor the treatment and search for diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure pattern abnormalities. Given that frailty can affect the relationship between blood pressure and mortality, the clinician should properly evaluate and monitor physical performance and cognitive status, throughout specific tools, as the Fried Frailty Phenotype, aiming at a systolic blood pressure target between 130 and 150 mmHg. Before starting hypotensive drugs, a careful risk and benefits' evaluation should be performed given the high risk of hypertension and hypotension consequences and the frequent coexistence of orthostatic hypotension, which predisposes to syncope and falls.

  20. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  1. Placental programming of blood pressure in Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Chitra LS; Fall, Caroline HD; Veena, Sargoor R; Barker, David JP

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the size and shape of the placental surface predict blood pressure in childhood. Methods We studied blood pressure in 471 nine-year-old Indian children whose placental length, breadth and weight were measured in a prospective birth cohort study. Results In the daughters of short mothers (blood pressure (SBP) rose as placental breadth increased (β = 0.69 mmHg/cm, p = 0.05) and as the ratio of placental surface area to birthweight increased (p = 0.0003). In the daughters of tall mothers, SBP rose as the difference between placental length and breadth increased (β = 1.40 mmHg/cm, p = 0.007), that is as the surface became more oval. Among boys, associations with placental size were only statistically significant after adjusting for current BMI and height. After adjustment, SBP rose as placental breadth, area and weight decreased (for breadth β = −0.68 mmHg/cm, p < 0.05 for all three measurements). Conclusions The size and shape of the placental surface predict childhood blood pressure. Blood pressure may be programmed by variation in the normal processes of placentation: these include implantation, expansion of the chorionic surface in mid-gestation and compensatory expansion of the chorionic surface in late gestation. PMID:21166711

  2. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  3. A website for blood pressure measuring devices: dableducational.com.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Eoin

    2003-08-01

    Consumers are faced with an ever-increasing array of blood pressure measuring devices, whether for use in clinical areas or for use by individuals anxious to measure their own blood pressure. Validation protocols that allow for independent evaluation of blood pressure measuring devices are available, and some of the devices on the market have been evaluated according to these protocols. The results of such evaluations have been published periodically in medical journals. However, such surveys are not readily available to the public and to health care authorities with responsibility for purchasing blood pressure measuring equipment for use in clinical medicine, and because of the necessarily lengthy publication process they are no longer up-to-date at the time of publication. Moreover, the results of published validation studies are often flawed because of protocol violations and the conclusions may not be valid. These considerations have been the stimulus for the establishment of an independent non-profit website, which will provide quarterly updates on the accuracy and performance of blood pressure measuring devices on the market as well as an expert assessment of the validation procedures on which recommendations are based. The ethos of the website is primarily educational and it is hoped that it will serve as a forum for the provision of much-needed information that will ultimately improve the management of hypertension. The website is due to be launched shortly and this paper outlines the general principles that have governed its establishment and the facilities that it will provide.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  5. Fluid-filled blood pressure measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; van Brummelen, A G; Noordergraaf, A

    1976-05-01

    The performance of catheter-manometer systems for the measurement of pulsatile pressure has been evaluated by both experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The former approach has shown, on occasion, multiple maxima in the amplitude response. The latter has been approached in a variety of ways, ranging from extreme lumping to application of transmission line theory while employing different configurations in the system's representation. Multiple maxima have also been seen, The present paper identifies the sources of the differences found and compares the relative merits of various theoretical approaches. It introduces the compliance of the system as a figure of merit and provides a simple first-order approximation formula for evaluation of the quality of a system. Damping and impedance matching to improve the system's frequency response were studied. It was found that they were not needed in a very stiff or a very compliant system, nor should one worry about the representation of such a system.

  6. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  7. Combined intensive blood pressure and glycemic control does not produce an additive benefit on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Craven, Timothy E; O'Connor, Patrick J; Karl, Diane; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Hramiak, Irene; Genuth, Saul; Cushman, William C; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Katz, Lois; Schubart, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    A reduction of either blood pressure or glycemia decreases some microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes, and we studied here their combined effects. In total, 4733 older adults with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension were randomly assigned to intensive (systolic blood pressure less than 120 mm Hg) or standard (systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg) blood pressure control, and separately to intensive (HbA1c less than 0.060) or standard (HbA1c 0.070-0.079) glycemic control. Prespecified microvascular outcomes were a composite of renal failure and retinopathy and nine single outcomes. Proportional hazard regression models were used without correction for type I error due to multiple tests. During a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, the primary outcome occurred in 11.4% of intensive and 10.9% of standard blood pressure patients (hazard ratio 1.08), and in 11.1% of intensive and 11.2% of standard glycemia control patients. Intensive blood pressure control only reduced the incidence of microalbuminuria (hazard ratio 0.84), and intensive glycemic control reduced the incidence of macroalbuminuria and a few other microvascular outcomes. There was no interaction between blood pressure and glycemic control, and neither treatment prevented renal failure. Thus, in older patients with established type 2 diabetes and hypertension, intensive blood pressure control improved only 1 of 10 prespecified microvascular outcomes. None of the outcomes were significantly reduced by simultaneous intensive treatment of glycemia and blood pressure, signifying the lack of an additional beneficial effect from combined treatment.

  8. Nonadherence to Recommended Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jack; Gerber, Linda M; Wu, Xian; Mann, Samuel J

    2016-11-01

    Accuracy of blood pressure readings, both in the physician's office and at home, is crucial in properly managing hypertension. Few studies have investigated adherence to measurement guidelines. This study focused on two important aspects of blood pressure measurement: waiting time before measurement and number of readings taken. A total of 103 patients completed self-report questionnaires about office and home blood pressure measurements, with 77% reporting that physician measurements were obtained without waiting, and 56% reporting that only one reading was obtained. The proportions were even higher when measured by a nurse/technician, 96% and 81%, respectively. Home readings were taken without waiting by 60%, and 40% reported taking only a single reading. Most patients received no measurement instructions. Nonadherence to measurement guidelines is common, and may be affecting the validity of readings obtained both in physicians' offices and at home, with significant and potentially harmful effects on treatment decisions.

  9. Management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Daniels, Stephen R; Flynn, Joseph T

    2010-11-01

    Hypertension in childhood is now recognized to be a common and serious problem with a prevalence of 2% to 5%. Large epidemiologic studies have established normative tables for blood pressure beginning in early childhood based on age, gender, and height. Making a diagnosis of hypertension in a child or adolescent identifies an individual at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease who requires specific treatment. Routine blood pressure measurement is recommended at every health care encounter beginning at 3 years of age, but often this is not being accomplished. This measurement is especially important in relation to the obesity epidemic, because approximately one-third of obese children have high blood pressure. Hypertension can be effectively managed with effective lifestyle change and medication when necessary.

  10. The relationship between symptoms and blood pressure during maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Meredith, David J; Pugh, Christopher W; Sutherland, Sheera; Tarassenko, Lionel; Birks, Jacqueline

    2015-10-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a detrimental complication of maintenance hemodialysis, but how it is defined and reported varies widely in the literature. European Best Practice Guideline and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines require symptoms and a mitigating intervention to fulfill the diagnosis, but morbidity and mortality outcomes are largely based on blood pressure alone. Furthermore, little is known about the incidence of asymptomatic hypotension, which may be an important cause of hypoperfusion injury and impaired outcome. Seventy-seven patients were studied over 456 dialysis sessions. Blood pressure was measured at 15-minute intervals throughout the session and compared with post-dialysis symptom questionnaire results using mixed modeling to adjust for repeated measures in the same patient. The frequency of asymptomatic hypotension was estimated by logistic regression using a variety of commonly cited blood pressure metrics that describe IDH. In 113 sessions (25%) where symptoms were recorded on the questionnaire, these appear not to have been reported to dialysis staff. When symptoms were reported (293 sessions [64%]), an intervention invariably followed. Dizziness and cramp were strongly associated with changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), but not diastolic blood pressure. Nausea occurred more frequently in younger patients but was not associated with falls in blood pressure. Thresholds that maximized the probability of an intervention rather than a session remaining asymptomatic were SBP <100 mmHg or a 20% reduction in SBP from baseline. The probability of SBP falling to <100 mmHg in an asymptomatic session was 0.23. Symptoms are frequently not reported by patients who are hypotensive during hemodialysis, which leads to an underestimation of IDH if symptom-based definitions are used. A revised definition of IDH excluding patient-reported symptoms would be in line with literature reporting morbidity and mortality outcomes

  11. Magnesium nitrate attenuates blood pressure rise in SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Gulbe, Anita; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-01-01

    The administration of magnesium supplements and nitrates/nitrites decreases arterial blood pressure and attenuates the development of hypertension-induced complications. This study was performed to examine the effects of treatment with magnesium nitrate on the development of hypertension and its complications in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Male SHR rats with persistent hypertension at the age of 12-13 weeks were allocated to two groups according to their arterial blood pressure. Rats from the control group received purified water, while the experimental animals from the second group received magnesium nitrate dissolved in purified water at a dose of 50 mg/kg. After four weeks of treatment, blood pressure was measured, the anatomical and functional parameters of the heart were recorded using an ultrasonograph, vascular reactivity was assayed in organ bath experiments and the cardioprotective effects of magnesium nitrate administration was assayed in an ex vivo experimental heart infarction model. Treatment with magnesium nitrate significantly increased the nitrate concentration in the plasma (from 62 ± 8 μmol/l to 111 ± 8 μmol/L), and attenuated the increase in the arterial blood pressure. In the control and magnesium nitrate groups, the blood pressure rose by 21 ± 3 mmHg and 6 ± 4 mmHg, respectively. The administration of magnesium nitrate had no effect on the altered vasoreactivity, heart function or the size of the heart infarction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that magnesium nitrate effectively attenuates the rise in arterial blood pressure. However, a longer period of administration or earlier onset of treatment might be needed to delay the development of complications due to hypertension.

  12. Automated compared to manual office blood pressure and to home blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, Jan; Seidlerová, Jitka; Kratochvíl, Zdeněk; Karnosová, Petra; Hronová, Markéta; Mayer, Otto

    2016-08-01

    We studied the relationships of automated blood pressure (BP), measured in the healthcare centre, with manual office BP and home BP. Stable outpatients treated for hypertension were measured automatically, seated alone in a quiet room, six times after a 5 min rest with the BpTRU device, and immediately afterwards using the auscultatory method. Home BP was measured in a subgroup during 7 days preceding the visit. The automated, office and home BP values were 131.2 ± 21.8/77.8 ± 12.1 mmHg, 146.9 ± 20.8/85.8 ± 12.4 mmHg and 137.7 ± 17.7/79.4 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Limits of agreement between office and automated BP (2 SDs in Bland-Altman plots) were +42.6 to -12.6/+22.6 to -6.6 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP; for home and automated BP they were +45.8 to -25.8/+20.8 to -12.6 mmHg. For patients with two visits, intraclass correlation coefficients of BP values measured during the first and second visits were 0.66/0.72 for systolic/diastolic automated BP and 0.68/0.74 for systolic/diastolic office BP. Automated BP was lower than home BP and no more closely related to home BP than to office BP. It did not show better repeatability than office BP. Whether automated BP and the "white-coat effect", calculated cas the office BP-automated BP difference, have clinical and prognostic importance deserves further studies.

  13. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both P<0.05). There were no differences in changes of blood pressure and heart rate rhythms between patients who achieved or did not achieve normotension and regression of left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness. It was concluded that abnormal cardiovascular rhythmicity persists in children with primary hypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  14. Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c): Clinical Applications of a Mathematical Concept

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Melvin Khee Shing

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reflects the cumulative glucose exposure of erythrocytes over a preceding time frame proportional to erythrocyte survival. HbA1c is thus an areal function of the glucose-time curve, an educationally useful concept to aid teaching and clinical judgment. Methods: An ordinary differential equation is formulated as a parsimonious model of HbA1c. The integrated form yields HbA1c as an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of a glucose-time profile. The rate constant of the HbA1c model is then derived using the validated regression equation in the ADAG study that links mean blood glucose and HbA1c with a very high degree of goodness-of-fit. Results: This model has didactic utility to enable patients, biomedical students and clinicians to appreciate how HbA1c may be conceptually inferred from discrete blood glucose values using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) or self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) glucometer readings as shown in the examples. It can be appreciated how hypoglycemia can occur with rapid HbA1c decline despite poor glycemic control. Conclusions: Being independent of laboratory assay pitfalls, computed ‘virtual’ HbA1c serves as an invaluable internal consistency cross-check against laboratory-measured HbA1c discordant with SMBG readings suggestive of inaccurate/fraudulent glucometer records or hematologic disorders including thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy. This model could be implemented within portable glucometers, CGMS devices and even smartphone apps for deriving tentative ‘virtual’ HbA1c from serial glucose readings as an adjunct to measured HbA1c. Such predicted ‘virtual’ HbA1c readily accessible via glucometers may serve as feedback to modify behavior and empower diabetic patients to achieve better glycemic control. PMID:27708483

  15. Knowledge of accurate blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students

    PubMed Central

    Crosley, Angela M.; Rose, James R. La

    2013-01-01

    Objective Blood pressure measurement is a basic clinical procedure. However, studies have shown that many errors are made when health care providers acquire blood pressure readings. Our study assessed knowledge of blood pressure measurement procedures in chiropractic students. Methods This was an observational, descriptive study. A questionnaire based on one created by the American Heart Association was given to 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and final year students (n = 186). A one way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results Of the students 80% were confident that their knowledge of this clinical skill was adequate or better. However, the overall score on the knowledge test of blood pressure–taking skills was 52% (range, 24%–88%). The only significant difference in the mean scores was between the 1st and 2nd year students compared to the 3rd and 4th year students (p < .005). Of the 16 questions given, the following mean scores were: 1st year 10.45, 2nd year 9.75, 3rd year 7.93, and 4th year 8.33. Of the 16 areas tested, 10 were of major concern (test item score <70%), showing the need for frequent retraining of chiropractic students. Conclusion Consistent with studies in other health care disciplines, our research found the knowledge of blood pressure skills to be deficient in our sample. There is a need for subsequent training in our teaching program. PMID:23957320

  16. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  17. Relationship between blood lead levels and blood pressure and its cardiovascular risk implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, J.L.; Schwartz, J.; Landis, J.R.; Harlan, W.R.

    1985-02-01

    The relationship between blood pressure and blood lead levels in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976-1980) has been examined for white males aged 40-59 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, nutritional factors, and blood biochemistries in a multiple linear regression model, the relationship of systolic and diastolic blood pressures to blood lead levels was statistically significant (p < 0.01). There was no evidence of a threshold blood lead level for this relationship. Although these data alone do not prove a causal relationship between low blood lead levels and blood pressure, the findings are consistent with current epidemiologic and animal studies, indicating that a causal reationship is probable. To examine the potential health risks, the multiple logistic risk factor coefficients from the Pooling Project and Framingham studies were used to predict the impact of the 37% decrease in mean blood lead levels which occurred in adult white males from 1976 to 1980. As a result of this blood lead decrease, the calculations predicted a 4.7% decrease in the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction over 10 years, a 6.7% decrease in the incidence of fatal and nonfatal strokes over 10 years, and a 5.5% decrease in the incidence of death from all causes over 11.5 years. In addition, as a result of this blood lead decrease, the predicted number of white males in this age group with hypertension (diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mmHg) decreased by 17.5%.

  18. Relationship between blood pressure and modernity among Ponapeans.

    PubMed

    Patrick, R C; Prior, I A; Smith, J C; Smith, A H

    1983-03-01

    In the Micronesian island of Ponape blood pressures were found in 1947 and again in 1953 to be very low and to show no difference between age groups. As part of the US Trust Territory of the Pacific from 1945, the island had begun to change in the direction of modernity, the changes being most dramatic in the capital town of Kolonia, but no part of the island being unaffected. After a generation of modernization, a cross-sectional study was done to assess the impact of changing way of life on blood pressure. Communities were sampled at three levels of impact of modernization: the capital town of Kolonia, an intermediate area, and a remote area. No differences in salt intake were found for the three areas; but the population in the most modern area was younger and heavier. No consistent ecological differences were found in blood pressure level. Since there is considerable variation in modernity within each area, a Guttman-type scale of individual modernity was developed. No trends of variation of blood pressure with modernization were found to be consistent for both sexes and all areas. However, among males in the most modern area both systolic and diastolic pressures increased consistently with increasing modernity, controlling for age. For diastolic pressures, significant increases were found for all males, Kolonia males, and intermediate area males. When body mass as well as age were controlled, the strength of the trends decreased. But among Kolonia males the increase of diastolic pressure with increasing modernity remained highly significant; that of systolic pressure, marginally significant.

  19. Comparison of two generalized transfer functions for measuring central systolic blood pressure by an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y-T; Cheng, H-M; Sung, S-H; Hu, W-C; Chen, C-H

    2013-03-01

    Central aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP-C) can be estimated from a cuff oscillometric waveform derived during the pulse volume plethysmography (PVP) by applying a device-specific aortic pressure-to-PVP waveform-generalized transfer function (A2P(GTF)). The present study compared the performance of an aortic-to-brachial pressure waveforms generalized transfer function (A2B(GTF)), which is independent of any PVP devices, with an A2P(GTF). Generalized transfer function of aortic-to-brachial (A2B(GTF)) and aortic-to-PVP (A2P(GTF)) were generated from the simultaneously obtained central aortic and brachial pressure waveforms recorded by a high-fidelity dual pressure sensor catheter, and the PVP waveform recorded by a customized noninvasive blood pressure monitor during cardiac catheterization in 40 patients, and were then applied in another 100 patients with simultaneously recorded invasive aortic pressure and noninvasively calibrated (using cuff SBP and diastolic blood pressures) PVP waveforms. The mean difference±s.d. between the noninvasively estimated and invasively recorded SBP-C was -2.1±7.7 mm Hg for A2B(GTF), which was not greater than that of -3.0±7.7 mm Hg for A2P(GTF) (P<0.01). In conclusion, SBP-C can be measured reliably using a noninvasive blood pressure monitor by applying either an A2P(GTF) or A2B(GTF) to a noninvasively calibrated PVP waveform. The performance of an A2B(GTF) is not inferior to that of an A2P(GTF).

  20. Bias and variability in blood pressure measurement with ambulatory recorders.

    PubMed

    Pannarale, G; Bebb, G; Clark, S; Sullivan, A; Foster, C; Coats, A J

    1993-10-01

    This study sought to determine whether patient characteristics such as age, sex, blood pressure, and pulse pressure differently affect the accuracy of an oscillometric (SpaceLabs 90207) and a microphonic (TM2420 version 7) blood pressure monitor. Blood pressure recorded by two oscillometric and two microphonic ambulatory monitors was compared with simultaneous readings by two pairs of trained, blinded observers using random-zero sphygmomanometry. One hundred and eighteen subjects (53 men and 65 women, aged 17 to 94 years; systolic pressure, 89 to 211 mm Hg; diastolic, 44 to 116 mm Hg) were studied. There were no significant differences within each observer pair or between the two observer pairs as well as no correlation between interobserver differences and patient characteristics. The differences between the monitor and trained observers' readings were 2.8 +/- 9.9 mm Hg systolic and 3.9 +/- 6.8 mm Hg diastolic for the SpaceLabs and 5.0 +/- 5.2 mm Hg systolic and 3.4 +/- 6.1 mm Hg diastolic for the TM2420. Patient characteristics that predicted measurement error were defined by multiple regression. For oscillometry, systolic measurement error was highly correlated with systolic pressure, pulse pressure, and subject age. The diastolic error was significantly correlated with pulse pressure, diastolic pressure, and subject sex. For the oscillometric monitor, patient characteristics accounted for 36.6% of the variation of the systolic error and 34.7% of the variation of the diastolic error. For the microphonic monitor, only age correlated with diastolic error, and no significant correlations were seen with systolic error. Patient characteristics accounted for only 1.2% of the systolic and 8.9% of the diastolic error.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Sex, Prescribing Practices and Guideline Recommended, Blood Pressure, and LDL Cholesterol Targets at Baseline in the BARI 2D Trial

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Michelle F.; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E.; Lu, Jiang; Bittner, Vera A.; Brooks, Maria Mori; Lopes, Neuza; Jacobs, Alice K.; Study Group, BARI 2D

    2015-01-01

    Background. Research has shown less aggressive treatment and poorer control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women than men. Methods. We analyzed sex differences in pharmacotherapy strategies and attainment of goals for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and established coronary artery disease enrolled into the BARI 2D trial. Results. Similar numbers of drugs were prescribed in both women and men. Women were less frequent on metformin or sulfonylurea and more likely to take insulin and to be on higher doses of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) than men. After adjusting for baseline differences and treatment prescribed, women were less likely to achieve goals for HbA1c (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57, 0.88) and LDL-C (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.53, 0.78). More antihypertensives were prescribed to women, and yet BP ≤ 130/80 mmHg did not differ by sex. Conclusions. Women entering the BARI 2D trial were as aggressively treated with drugs as men. Despite equivalent treatment, women less frequently met targets for HbA1c and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that there may be sex differences in response to drug therapies used to treat diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. PMID:25873955

  2. Spectral indices of human cerebral blood flow control: responses to augmented blood pressure oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hamner, J W; Cohen, Michael A; Mukai, Seiji; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Taylor, J Andrew

    2004-09-15

    We set out to fully examine the frequency domain relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) was used to create consistent blood pressure oscillations of varying frequency and amplitude to rigorously test for a frequency- and/or amplitude-dependent relationship between arterial pressure and cerebral flow. We also examined the predictions from OLBNP data for the cerebral flow response to the stepwise drop in pressure subsequent to deflation of ischaemic thigh cuffs. We measured spectral powers, cross-spectral coherence, and transfer function gains and phases in arterial pressure and cerebral flow during three amplitudes (0, 20, and 40 mmHg) and three frequencies (0.10, 0.05, and 0.03 Hz) of OLBNP in nine healthy young volunteers. Pressure fluctuations were directly related to OLBNP amplitude and inversely to OLBNP frequency. Although cerebral flow oscillations were increased, they did not demonstrate the same frequency dependence seen in pressure oscillations. The overall pattern of the pressure-flow relation was of decreasing coherence and gain and increasing phase with decreasing frequency, characteristic of a high-pass filter. Coherence between pressure and flow was increased at all frequencies by OLBNP, but was still significantly lower at frequencies below 0.07 Hz despite the augmented pressure input. In addition, predictions of thigh cuff data from spectral estimates were extremely inconsistent and highly variable, suggesting that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent mechanism that may not be fully characterized by linear methods.

  3. Weight loss and blood pressure reduction in obese subjects in response to nutritional guidance using information communication technology.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Kanako; Sakurai, Nozomi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome caused by visceral-fat obesity is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study used a new information communication technology (ICT) to investigate body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) changes in response to nutritional guidance. Obese subjects with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or impaired glucose tolerance received guidance with the ICT method (n = 13) or face-to-face according to conventional methods (n = 39). The effects of the methods were compared. After 12 weeks, significant weight loss and BP reduction were observed in the ICT group. Also, significant higher improvements were observed in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and HbA(1c) in the ICT-group compared with those groups using the conventional method. The effectiveness of the ICT method in reducing BW, BP, total and LDL cholesterol, and HbA(1c) was demonstrated.

  4. [Blood pressure control in the area of surgical interventions].

    PubMed

    Simanski, Olaf; Janda, Matthias; Bajorat, Jörn; Nguyen, Ngon C; Hofmockel, Rainer; Lampe, Bernhard P

    2009-10-01

    For specific surgical interventions, such as aortic stent implantation, it might be temporarily necessary to decrease mean arterial pressure to rather low levels (around 40 mm Hg). Such hypotensive pressure levels are necessary to avoid intra- and postoperative intricacies. Traditionally, the drug Nitroprussidnatrium is used for this task. To adjust the correct amount of drug to reach the target pressure as fast as possible and without overshoot, the anaesthetists typically use empirical knowledge and might need several minutes until the target point is reached. In our research group, an adaptive control system was developed for this task which is able to compute and set the transient drug release automatically. For the design and testing of the adaptive control strategy, the well known Guyton model was implemented into the MATLAB/Simulink development environment. This paper describes the implementation and adaption of the Guyton model to hypotensive pressure control and provides some algorithmic details of the adaptive control strategy for automatic drug delivery in deep hypotension. The designed control system was successfully validated in animal trials (25 trials on 7 pigs). Following this, an additional controller component for increase of blood pressure with the help of the drug Noradrenalin was implemented. It is now possible to increase blood pressure to a specific value to save defined cerebral perfusion pressure for patients with craniocerebral injury. In a second pilot trial, this controller extension was tested in 10 pigs.

  5. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  6. [Childhood's determinants for high blood pressure in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Bucher, Barbara S; Tschumi, Sibyelle; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension has been estimated to affect 20 - 25% of the adult population and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease like coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral artery occlusive disease. In addition, hypertension supports the development and progression of chronic kidney insufficiency. The interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors are felt to influence the level of blood pressure. Epidemiological data in the sixties and seventies demonstrated a correlation between cardiovascular disease and infant mortality in the same population. In the late eighties Barker and coworkers described a strong correlation between low birth weight and increased risk for the development of cardiovascular complications. It has been supposed that factors influencing the intrauterine growth and development can lead to adult cardiovascular diseases, known as the concept of "fetal programming". Beside the effect of fetal programming, multiple (preventable and non-preventable) factors determine the blood pressure level in childhood, which will define adult blood pressure level through the blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood. Hence, the prevention of cardiovascular disease in adulthood begins in childhood through identification of preventable risk factors as for example obesity and passive smoking and recognition of risk groups like small for gestational age or preterm children.

  7. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  8. Automated office blood pressure measurement in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Martin G.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Dawes, Martin; Godwin, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide FPs with detailed knowledge of automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement, its potential role in primary care, and its proper use in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Sources of information Comprehensive monitoring and collection of scientific articles on AOBP by the authors since its introduction. Main message Automated office blood pressure measurement maintains a role for blood pressure (BP) readings taken in the office setting. Clinical research studies have reported a substantially stronger relationship between awake ambulatory BP measurement and AOBP measurement compared with manual BP recorded during routine visits to the patient’s physician. Automated office blood pressure measurement produces mean BP values comparable to awake ambulatory BP and home BP values. Compared with routine manual office BP measurement, AOBP correlates more strongly with awake ambulatory BP measurement, shows less digit preference, is more consistent from visit to visit, is similar both within and outside of the physician’s office, virtually eliminates office-induced hypertension, and is associated with less masked hypertension. It is estimated that more than 25% of Canadian primary care physicians are now using AOBP measurement in their office practices. The use of AOBP to diagnose hypertension has been recommended by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program since 2010. Conclusion There is now sufficient evidence to incorporate AOBP measurement into primary care as an alternative to manual BP measurement. PMID:24522674

  9. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  10. Could Mom's Pre-Pregnancy Blood Pressure Predict Baby's Gender?

    MedlinePlus

    ... program director, Dept. of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Lenox Hill Human Reproduction, New York City; Jan. 12, 2016, American Journal of Hypertension HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: High Blood Pressure ...

  11. [High blood pressure care: beyond the clinical setting].

    PubMed

    Ordúñez García, Pedro; Pérez Flores, Enrique; Hospedales, James

    2010-10-01

    The recommendations from the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) were compared with those of a recent article by Aram V. Chobanian, Chairman of the JNC 7. The purpose was to identify the changes that this author proposed and determine how they might affect clinical work, as well as the health services and public health implications. The JNC 7 and the article in question coincide on all essential points, except that the article is more flexible when it comes to the use of diuretics at the start of treatment for high blood pressure. Chronic disease management should take place in health systems with primary care approach, where the epidemiology of such diseases and scientific advances in prevention offer an excellent opportunity for redesigning the health services and making them more effective. High blood pressure, as a public health problem, demands health interventions aimed not only at reducing harm but modifying its etiologic determinants. The challenge is to recognize that an integrated approach to clinical medicine, health services, and public health would offer an attractive opportunity to interrupt and prevent the continuous and costly vicious circle that managing high blood pressure and its complications implies.

  12. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  13. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  14. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  15. Inflight Patient Monitoring/Blood Pressure Measurement Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    PAGE 109 ADR DOSTUCGFlORK 1. PORT NUMUew p. GOVY ACCESSIN NO 0. PRECIPIENT’S CATALOG UMUNER SAM-TR-75-9 I6 % V 4. TITLE (&" &"lie) U. TYRE or REPORT...and reflect the ultrasonic energy. For blood pressure measurements the pneumatic cuff with attached sphygmomanometer is secured around the arm, and

  16. Wavelet-based analysis of blood pressure dynamics in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. N.; Anisimov, A. A.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Berdnikova, V. A.; Kuznecova, A. S.; Matasova, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Using a wavelet-based approach, we study stress-induced reactions in the blood pressure dynamics in rats. Further, we consider how the level of the nitric oxide (NO) influences the heart rate variability. Clear distinctions for male and female rats are reported.

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Your Heart and Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, James W.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of learning modules to instruct the general public in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The first module, by James W. Woods, presents a medical definition of high blood pressure, reviews its causes and effects, and discusses its treatment. A script to a slide version of this…

  18. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  19. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H.

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  20. Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment.

  1. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  2. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  3. Heterogeneous behavior of lipids according to HbA1c levels undermines the plausibility of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes: data from a nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may cluster in type 1 diabetes, analogously to the metabolic syndrome described in type 2 diabetes. The threshold of HbA1c above which lipid variables start changing behavior is unclear. This study aims to 1) assess the behavior of dyslipidemia according to HbA1c values; 2) detect a threshold of HbA1c beyond which lipids start to change and 3) compare the clustering of lipids and other non-lipid CVRF among strata of HbA1c individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods Effects of HbA1c quintiles (1st: ≤7.4%; 2nd: 7.5-8.5%; 3rd: 8.6-9.6%; 4th: 9.7-11.3%; and 5th: >11.5%) and covariates (gender, BMI, blood pressure, insulin daily dose, lipids, statin use, diabetes duration) on dyslipidemia were studied in 1275 individuals from the Brazilian multi-centre type 1 diabetes study and 171 normal controls. Results Body size and blood pressure were not correlated to lipids and glycemic control. OR (99% CI) for high-LDL were 2.07 (1.21-3.54) and 2.51 (1.46-4.31), in the 4th and 5th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia increased in the 5th quintile of HbA1c, OR 2.76 (1.20-6.37). OR of low-HDL-cholesterol were 0.48 (0.24-0.98) and 0.41 (0.19-0.85) in the 3rd and 4th HbA1c quintiles, respectively. HDL-cholesterol correlated positively (0.437) with HbA1c in the 3rd quintile. HDL-cholesterol and insulin dose correlated inversely in all levels of glycemic control. Conclusions Correlation of serum lipids with HbA1c is heterogeneous across the spectrum of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes individuals. LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides worsened alongside HbA1c with distinct thresholds. Association of lower HDL-cholesterol with higher daily insulin dose is consistent and it points out to a role of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in the pathophysiology of the CVRF clustering. These data suggest diverse pathophysiological processes depending on HbA1c, refuting a unified explanation for cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes. PMID

  4. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  5. Lead, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead has been shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure in males in the NHANES 2 survey and in numerous other studies. This study confirms the association in males ages 20 to 74 and documents a singificant, although weaker, association in females as well. Prospective cardiovascular disease studies such as the Framingham study indicate that increases in blood pressure should be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Using electrocardiogram data from NHANES 2, this study confirms the expected association oflead with left ventricular hypertrophy. The logistic risk coefficients from the Framingham study can be combined with the study's association between lead and blood pressure to examine its implication for more serious outcomes. The results suggest that a halving of the population mean blood lead level would reduce myocardial infarctions by approximately 24,000 events per year and incidence of all cardiovascular disease by over 100,000. These numbers suggest a small attributable risk compared ot the vast incidence of cardiovascular disease in the US, but a large attributable risk compared to most environmental toxins. Several biological mechanisms have been identified, with different implications for the use of bone lead as an exposure measure.

  6. Renalase Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure by Metabolizing Circulating Adrenaline

    PubMed Central

    Desir, Gary V.; Tang, LieQi; Wang, Peili; Li, Guoyong; Sampaio‐Maia, Benedita; Quelhas‐Santos, Janete; Pestana, Manuel; Velazquez, Heino

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is acutely regulated by the sympathetic nervous system through the action of vasoactive hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Renalase, a recently described, secreted flavoprotein, acutely decreases systemic pressure when administered in vivo. Single‐nucleotide polymorphisms present in the gene are associated with hypertension, cardiac disease, and diabetes. Although renalase's crystal structure was recently solved, its natural substrate(s) remains undefined. Methods and Results Using in vitro enzymatic assays and in vivo administration of recombinant renalase, we show that the protein functions as a flavin adenine dinucleotide– and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent oxidase that lowers blood pressure by degrading plasma epinephrine. The enzyme also metabolizes the dopamine precursor l‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine but has low activity against dopamine and does not metabolize norepinephrine. To test if epinephrine and l‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine were renalase's only substrates, 17 246 unique small molecules were screened. Although the search revealed no additional, naturally occurring compounds, it identified dobutamine, isoproterenol, and α‐methyldopa as substrates of renalase. Mutational analysis was used to test if renalase's hypotensive effect correlated with its enzymatic activity. Single–amino acid mutations that decrease its enzymatic activity to varying degrees comparably reduce its hypotensive effect. Conclusions Renalase metabolizes circulating epinephrine and l‐3,4‐dihydroxyphenylalanine, and its capacity to decrease blood pressure is directly correlated to its enzymatic activity. These findings highlight a previously unrecognized mechanism for epinephrine metabolism and blood pressure regulation, expand our understanding of the sympathetic nervous system, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of hypertension. (J Am Heart Assoc

  7. Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia on Hemoglobin A1c Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nitin; Mishra, T.K.; Singh, Tejinder

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia in India. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used in diabetic patients as an index of glycemic control reflecting glucose levels of the previous 3 months. Like blood sugar levels, HbA1c levels are also affected by the presence of variant hemoglobins, hemolytic anemias, nutritional anemias, uremia, pregnancy, and acute blood loss. However, reports on the effects of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels are inconsistent. We conducted a study to analyze the effects of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels and to assess whether treatment of iron deficiency anemia affects HbA1c levels. Methods Fifty patients confirmed to have iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in this study. HbA1c and absolute HbA1c levels were measured both at baseline and at 2 months after treatment, and these values were compared with those in the control population. Results The mean baseline HbA1c level in anemic patients (4.6%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (5.5%, p<0.05). A significant increase was observed in the patients' absolute HbA1c levels at 2 months after treatment (0.29 g/dL vs. 0.73 g/dL, p<0.01). There was a significant difference between the baseline values of patients and controls (0.29 g/dL vs. 0.74 g/dL, p<0.01). Conclusions In contrast to the observations of previous studies, ours showed that HbA1c levels and absolute HbA1c levels increased with treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This could be attributable to nutritional deficiency and/or certain unknown variables. Further studies are warranted. PMID:22259774

  8. Effect of exercise on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Fagard, Robert H; Cornelissen, Véronique A

    2007-02-01

    Several large epidemiological studies have reported an inverse relationship between blood pressure and physical activity. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity. We performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions in resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P<0.001) and 3.3/3.5 mmHg (P<0.01). The reduction in resting blood pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P<0.001 for all). Systemic vascular resistance decreased by 7.1% (P<0.05), plasma norepinephrine by 29% (P<0.001), and plasma renin activity by 20% (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 1.2 kg (P<0.001), waist circumference by 2.8 cm (P<0.001), percentage body fat by 1.4% (P<0.001) and the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance by 0.31 units (P<0.01); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.032 mmol/l (P<0.05). Resistance training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction in blood pressure of 3.2 (P=0.10)/3.5 (P<0.01) mmHg associated with exercise. Endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction in systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. The few available data suggest that resistance training can reduce blood pressure. Exercise is a cornerstone therapy for the prevention, treatment and control of hypertension.

  9. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of /sup 133/Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial /sup 133/Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic /sup 133/Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications.

  10. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  15. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy.

  16. Blood pressure control versus atrial fibrillation management in stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Carmine; Sada, Lidia; Volpe, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for atrial fibrillation which in turn is the most prevalent concomitant condition in hypertensive patients. While both these pathological conditions are independent risk factors for stroke, the association of hypertension and atrial fibrillation increases the incidence of disabling strokes. Moreover, documented or silent atrial fibrillation doubles the rate of cardiovascular death. Lowering blood pressure is strongly recommended, particularly for primary stroke prevention. However, a relatively small percentage of hypertensive patients still achieve the recommended blood pressure goals. The management of atrial fibrillation with respect to stroke prevention is changing. New oral anticoagulants represent a major advancement in long-term anticoagulation therapy in non valvular atrial fibrillation. They have several benefits over warfarin, including improved adherence to the anticoagulation therapy. This is an important issue since non-adherence to stroke prevention medications is a risk factor for first and recurrent strokes.

  17. A blood pressure survey in Nuevo Laredo, Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Caamano, A G; Cooper, R; Cedres, L; Barriero, L A; Dominquez, R C

    1982-01-01

    A blood pressure survey was carried out in 1976 in the city of Nuevo Laredo, Mexico, which involved 6,351 persons 30-69 years old. The study sample was recruited so as to represent an approximation of the overall distribution of occupational classes in the urban population. Members of the population sample were relatively young and of low educational attainment. To the extent that comparisons among surveys are feasible, mean blood pressure levels and hypertension rates were roughly comparable to those found in the white population of the United States. Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from the survey, a trend toward somewhat higher hypertension rates within the professional and managerial class was observed in some age groups in Laredo. PMID:7063591

  18. Risk Associated with Pulse Pressure on Out-of-Office Blood Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu-Mei; Aparicio, Lucas S.; Liu, Yan-Ping; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W.; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases with pulse pressure (PP). However, PP remains an elusive cardiovascular risk factor with findings being inconsistent between studies. The 2013 ESH/ESC guideline proposed that PP is useful in stratification and suggested a threshold of 60 mm Hg, which is 10 mm Hg higher compared to that in the 2007 guideline; however, no justification for this increase was provided. Methodology Published thresholds of PP are based on office blood pressure measurement and often on arbitrary categorical analyses. In the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO), we determined outcome-driven thresholds for PP based on ambulatory or home blood pressure measurement, respectively. Results The main findings were that for people aged <60 years, PP did not refine risk stratification, whereas in older people the thresholds were 64 and 76 mm Hg for the ambulatory and home PP, respectively. However, PP provided little added predictive value over and beyond classical risk factors. PMID:26587443

  19. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  20. Prospective blood pressure measurement in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    David, V G; Yadav, B; Jeyaseelan, L; Deborah, M N; Jacob, S; Alexander, S; Varughese, S; John, G T

    2014-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control at home is difficult when managed only with office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM). In this prospective study, the reliability of BP measurements in renal transplant patients with OBPM and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) was compared with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) as the gold standard. Adult patients who had living-related renal transplantation from March 2007 to February 2008 had BP measured by two methods; OBPM and ABPM at pretransplantation, 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), and 9(th) months and all the three methods: OBPM, ABPM, and HBPM at 6 months after transplantation. A total of 49 patients, age 35 ± 11 years, on prednisolone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate were evaluated. A total of 39 were males (79.6%). Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) measured by OBPM were higher than HBPM when compared with ABPM. When assessed using OBPM and awake ABPM, both SBP and DBP were significantly overestimated by OBPM with mean difference of 3-12 mm Hg by office SBP and 6-8 mm Hg for office DBP. When HBPM was compared with mean ABPM at 6 months both the SBP and DBP were overestimated by and 7 mm Hg respectively. At 6 months post transplantation, when compared with ABPM, OBPM was more specific than HBPM in diagnosing hypertension (98% specificity, Kappa: 0.88 vs. 89% specificity, Kappa: 0.71). HBPM was superior to OBPM in identifying patients achieving goal BP (89% specificity, Kappa: 0.71 vs. 50% specificity Kappa: 0.54). In the absence of a gold standard for comparison the latent class model analysis still showed that ABPM was the best tool for diagnosing hypertension and monitoring patients reaching targeted control. OBPM remains an important tool for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in renal transplant recipients. HBPM and ABPM could be used to achieve BP control.

  1. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  2. Dietary patterns and blood pressure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, K

    1999-11-01

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent risk factor for vascular disease, particularly among African Americans. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study demonstrated that providing diets with 8-10 fruits and vegetables and 2-3 low-fat dairy foods per day significantly lowered blood pressure. A recent reanalysis showed even stronger effects for African Americans. Studies are needed to translate these findings into methods of effecting dietary change in high-risk populations.

  3. Self-Organization of Blood Pressure Regulation: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Levrard, Thibaud; Courcinous, Sandrine; Victor, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure regulation is a prime example of homeostatic regulation. However, some characteristics of the cardiovascular system better match a non-linear self-organized system than a homeostatic one. To determine whether blood pressure regulation is self-organized, we repeated the seminal demonstration of self-organized control of movement, but applied it to the cardiovascular system. We looked for two distinctive features peculiar to self-organization: non-equilibrium phase transitions and hysteresis in their occurrence when the system is challenged. We challenged the cardiovascular system by means of slow, 20-min Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down tilt table tests in random order. We continuously determined the phase between oscillations at the breathing frequency of Total Peripheral Resistances and Heart Rate Variability by means of cross-spectral analysis. We looked for a significant phase drift during these procedures, which signed a non-equilibrium phase transition. We determined at which head-up tilt angle it occurred. We checked that this angle was significantly different between Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down to demonstrate hysteresis. We observed a significant non-equilibrium phase transition in nine healthy volunteers out of 11 with significant hysteresis (48.1 ± 7.5° and 21.8 ± 3.9° during Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down, respectively, p < 0.05). Our study shows experimental evidence of self-organized short-term blood pressure regulation. It provides new insights into blood pressure regulation and its related disorders. PMID:27065880

  4. Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Hassan; Taghavi Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Amini, Mohamad; Ramezani Mehrian, Majid; Mokhayeri, Yaser; Yunesian, Masud

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between intakes of fluoride (F) from drinking water and blood pressure has not yet been reported. We examined the relationship of F in ground water resources (GWRs) of Iran with the blood pressure of Iranian population in an ecologic study. The mean F data of the GWRs (as a surrogate for F levels in drinking water) were derived from a previously conducted study. The hypertension prevalence and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP) of Iranian population by different provinces and genders were also derived from the provincial report of non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance of Iran. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the hypertension prevalence of males (r = 0.48, p = 0.007), females (r = 0.36, p = 0.048), and overall (r = 0.495, p = 0.005). Also, statistically significant positive correlations between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the mean SBP of males (r = 0.431, p = 0.018), and a borderline correlation with females (r = 0.352, p = 0.057) were found. In conclusion, we found the increase of hypertension prevalence and the SBP mean with the increase of F level in the GWRs of Iranian population.

  5. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure status in children: comparing alternate limit sources.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cynthia S; Poffenbarger, Tim S; Samuels, Joshua A

    2011-12-01

    The American Heart Association has included alternate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) limits for children published by Wühl in 2002. These updated limits employ the same pediatric cohort data as the previous ABP limits published by Soergel in 1997 but differ in analysis technique. The implications of changing ABP limit source on the diagnosis of hypertension has yet to be examined in a large pediatric cohort. We reviewed 741 ABP monitorings performed in children referred to our hypertension clinic between 1991-2007. Hypertension was defined as 24-h mean blood pressure ≥ 95 th percentile or 24-h blood pressure load ≥ 25%, by Soergel and Wühl limits separately. Six hundred seventy-three (91%) children were classified the same by both limit sources. Wühl limits were more likely than Soergel to classify a child as hypertensive (443 vs. 409, respectively). There was an increased classification of prehypertension and decreased white-coat hypertension by the Wühl method, whereas ambulatory and severe hypertension counts remained relatively the same by both limits sources. The use of either limit source will not significantly affect most clinical outcomes but should remain consistent over long-term research projects. Collection of new normative data from a larger, multiethnic population is needed for better measurement of ABP in children.

  7. Connexin 50 mutation lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Šeda, O; Liška, F; Pravenec, M; Vernerová, Z; Kazdová, L; Křenová, D; Zídek, V; Šedová, L; Krupková, M; Křen, V

    2016-10-26

    We assessed the effect of the previously uncovered gap junction protein alpha 8 (Gja8) mutation present in spontaneously hypertensive rat - dominant cataract (SHR-Dca) strain on blood pressure, metabolic profile, and heart and renal transcriptomes. Adult, standard chow-fed male rats of SHR and SHR-Dca strains were used. We found a significant, consistent 10-15 mmHg decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in SHR-Dca compared with SHR (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively; repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With immunohistochemistry, we were able to localize Gja8 in heart, kidney, aorta, liver, and lungs, mostly in endothelium; with no differences in expression between strains. SHR-Dca rats showed decreased body weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and basal insulin sensitivity in muscle. There were 21 transcripts common to the sets of 303 transcripts in kidney and 487 in heart showing >1.2-fold difference in expression between SHR and SHR-Dca. Tumor necrosis factor was the most significant upstream regulator and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligand-receptor interactions was the common enriched and downregulated canonical pathway both in heart and kidney of SHR-Dca. The connexin50 mutation L7Q lowers blood pressure in the SHR-Dca strain, decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leads to substantial transcriptome changes in heart and kidney.

  8. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; p<0.05) and -2.84 mmHg (CI, -5.33 to -0.33 mmHg; p<0.05), respectively, after the 8-week intervention. The corresponding net change in renin activity was -1.17 ng/mL/h for the nattokinase group compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, nattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  9. Central aortic blood pressure and augmentation index during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fujime, Mika; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Okaue, Yuko; Koyama, Shinsuke; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that pregnancy-related changes are more pronounced in central hemodynamics, and both central aortic systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and augmentation index (AIx) are independent from brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP) in normal pregnant subjects. In 830 healthy pregnant women from 12 to 36 weeks gestation, we measured cSBP and AIx-75 (AIx at heart rate of 75 beats per minute) non-invasively by pulse waveforms of the radial artery using an automated applanation tonometric system. In 69 pregnant women, we recorded these data longitudinally. cSBP and AIx-75 significantly declined during pregnancy, reaching its nadir in mid-pregnancy and rising towards term. Pregnancy-related changes were more pronounced in AIx-75 compared with cSBP, but less evident in bSBP. AIx-75, but not cSBP, was independent from bSBP throughout pregnancy. cSBP and AIx-75, but not bSBP, were significantly increased in healthy pregnant women older than 35 years. This study established normal values for pulse wave analysis parameters throughout pregnancy, and indicated that pulse wave analysis might offer additional and independent information about maternal arterial compliance to conventional brachial blood pressure measurements. These data may be used as the basis for further investigation into the role of pulse wave analysis in the assessment, management and prediction of disorders, which might interfere with pregnancy-related cardiovascular adaptations.

  10. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  11. Blood pressure concordance in older married Mexican-American couples.

    PubMed

    Peek, M Kristen; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2003-11-01

    There is a strong link between marital status and health. What has been lacking in previous literature is the attention to health similarities or concordance in health between married adults, especially in older ethnic couples. To address the issue of health concordance, the investigators examined the extent to which blood pressure is concordant between older Mexican-American spouses. Using Wave 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (n=553 married couples), ordinary least squares and logistic regression were conducted to assess the degree of similarity between married adults for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (measured as an average and as percent hypertensive). Strong associations were found between spouses for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (correlation coefficient=0.32 and 0.34, respectively). These associations remain even when spouse age, weight, and health characteristics are included in the models. With life expectancy and the time spent in marriage increasing, examining the concordance in health between older adults becomes increasingly important to target older spouses at risk for declines in health.

  12. [Outpatient blood pressure monitoring is not always necessary].

    PubMed

    Divisón Garrote, J A

    It is clear that clinical measurements of blood pressure can lead to errors in the diagnostic process and follow-up of patients with hypertension. Scientific societies recommend other measurement methods, such as home measurements and outpatient monitoring. Outpatient monitoring might be the golden standard but, nowadays has an important limitation-its availability. Home measurements solve 80-90% of the doubts of the diagnostic process and follow-up of patients with hypertension, and its higher availability and acceptance by the patient are clear. Home measurements should be used in the diagnostic process of arterial hypertension as a screening test for white coat hypertension and masked hypertension. They should be used as a screening test for resistant hypertension in the follow-up of patients with high blood pressure. Besides, in the follow-up of patients with hypertension home measurements have shown that they can contribute to treatment adherence, reduce clinical inertia and make data teletransmission possible, aspects that have proven to help improve the degree of control of hypertensive patients. Therefore, home measurements would be the treatment of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of most patients with hypertension. We should consider home measurements and outpatient monitoring as complementary methods for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with high blood pressure.

  13. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  14. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-11-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.

  15. Bayesian fusion algorithm for improved oscillometric blood pressure estimation.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, Mohamad; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z; Bolic, Miodrag; Rajan, Sreeraman; Batkin, Izmail

    2016-11-01

    A variety of oscillometric algorithms have been recently proposed in the literature for estimation of blood pressure (BP). However, these algorithms possess specific strengths and weaknesses that should be taken into account before selecting the most appropriate one. In this paper, we propose a fusion method to exploit the advantages of the oscillometric algorithms and circumvent their limitations. The proposed fusion method is based on the computation of the weighted arithmetic mean of the oscillometric algorithms estimates, and the weights are obtained using a Bayesian approach by minimizing the mean square error. The proposed approach is used to fuse four different oscillometric blood pressure estimation algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a pilot dataset of 150 oscillometric recordings from 10 subjects. It is found that the mean error and standard deviation of error are reduced relative to the individual estimation algorithms by up to 7 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of systolic pressure, respectively, and by up to 2 mmHg and 3 mmHg in estimation of diastolic pressure, respectively.

  16. How far should we lower blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hansson, L

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years several large intervention trials have addressed the treatment of hypertension in the elderly and how far blood pressure should be lowered in such patients. The positive results of intervention against high blood pressure in the elderly has resulted in a positive attitude towards treatment and today this is an accepted and highly effective medical intervention. Both stroke and coronary morbidity have been shown to be positively affected as has total mortality. The specific issue, how far to lower blood pressure in the elderly was probably best addressed in the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) stduy in which about a third of the patients, i.e. >6,000 patients, were > or =65 years of age. In most of the early intervention studies of antihypertensive treatment in elderly patients diuretics or beta-blockers or the two in combination were used as the therapy by which blood pressure was lowered. However, novel therapies, in particular calcium antagonists, have shown benefits of the same magnitude as the older therapies, e.g. in the STONE trial, the Syst-Eur study, the Syst-China study and the STOP-Hypertension-2 study. In the latter study a regimen based on either of two ACE inhibitors was also shown to be equally effective as conventional treatment, based on diuretics and/or betablockers, in the elderly. These trials will be briefly reviewed here as will the SCOPE study which is an ogoing trial in which hypertensive patients aged 70-89 years are being treated with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist under double-blind and placebo-controlled conditions. It can be concluded that a wealth of information, based on large intervention trials, has been accumulated during the last decade. It is quite obvious that the elderly hypertensive patients benefit from antihypertensive treatment to at least the same extent as the young and middle-aged. It appears that blood pressure ought to be lowered down to normotensive values also in the elderly in order

  17. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure.

  18. Blood lead concentration, renal function, and blood pressure in London civil servants.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Yeoman, W B; Fletcher, A E; Markowe, H L; Marmot, M G; Rose, G; Semmence, A; Shipley, M J; Bulpitt, C J

    1990-01-01

    Blood lead concentration was measured in 398 male and 133 female London civil servants not subject to industrial exposure to heavy metals. The relation between blood lead and serum creatinine concentrations and blood pressure were examined. Blood lead concentration ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 mumol/l with a geometric mean concentrations of 0.58 mumol/l in men and 0.46 mumol/l in women (p less than 0.001). In women blood lead concentration increased with age (r = +0.27; p = 0.002). In the two sexes blood lead concentration was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked a day (men r = +0.17 and women r = +0.22; p less than or equal to 0.01), with the reported number of alcoholic beverages consumed a day (men r = +0.34 and women r = 0.23; p less than 0.01), and with serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (men r = +0.23 and women r = +0.14; for men p less than 0.01). Blood lead concentration was not correlated with body weight, body mass index, and employment grade. In men 14% of the variance of blood lead concentration was explained by the significant and independent contributions of smoking and alcohol intake and in women 16% by age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In men serum creatinine concentration tended to rise by 0.6 mumol/l (95% confidence interval from -0.2 to +1.36 mumol/l) for each 25% increment in blood lead concentration. In men and women the correlations between blood lead concentration and systolic and diastolic blood did not approach statistical significance. In conclusion, in subjects not exposed to heavy metals at work gender, age, smoking, and alcohol intake are determinants of blood lead concentration. At a low level of exposure, lead accumulation may slightly impair renal function, whereas blood pressure does not seem to be importantly influenced. Alternatively, a slight impairment of renal function may give rise to an increase in blood lead concentration. PMID:1974456

  19. Increases in intramuscular pressure raise arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Smith, S. A.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the role of intramuscular pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors and chemically sensitive metaboreceptors in affecting the blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in humans. Sixteen subjects performed incremental (20 W/min) cycle exercise to fatigue under four conditions: control, exercise with thigh cuff occlusion of 90 Torr (Cuff occlusion), exercise with lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 45 Torr, and a combination of thigh cuff occlusion and LBPP (combination). Indexes of central command (heart rate, oxygen uptake, ratings of perceived exertion, and electromyographic activity), cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were not significantly different between the four conditions. Mechanical stimulation during LBPP and combination conditions resulted in significant elevations in intramuscular pressure and mean arterial pressure from control at rest and throughout the incremental exercise protocol (P < 0.05). Conversely, there existed no significant changes in mean arterial pressure when the metaboreflex was stimulated by cuff occlusion. These findings suggest that under normal conditions the mechanoreflex is tonically active and is the primary mediator of exercise pressor reflex-induced alterations in arterial blood pressure during submaximal dynamic exercise in humans.

  20. Long term results of gastrectomy with respect to blood lipids, blood pressure, weight and living habits.

    PubMed

    Glober, G A; Rhoads, G G; Liu, F; Kagan, A

    1974-06-01

    A sample of ambulant Japanese-American men (ages 45-69 years), was divided into those having a previous partial gastrectomy and a control non-gastrectomy population. Three-hundred-and-forty-seven men with a history of partial gastrectomy weighed less and had lower values for serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood pressure than did the control population of 7,598 men. The depressed lipid and blood pressure values could not be entirely explained by the reduced weight. Likewise, none of these differences appeared related to diet or living habits. Those operated on for gastric ulcer had, on the average, lower systolic pressures than duodenal ulcer patients and those with gastrojejunal anastamoses had lower cholesterol levels than patients with a gastroduodenostomy.

  1. Activity-adjusted 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiac remodeling in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Amin, Raouf; Somers, Virend K; McConnell, Keith; Willging, Paul; Myer, Charles; Sherman, Marc; McPhail, Gary; Morgenthal, Ashley; Fenchel, Matthew; Bean, Judy; Kimball, Thomas; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Questions remain as to whether pediatric sleep disordered breathing increases the risk for elevated blood pressure and blood pressure-dependent cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that activity-adjusted morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure are significantly higher in children with sleep disordered breathing than in healthy controls and that these blood pressure parameters relate to left ventricular remodeling. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure parameters were compared between groups. The associations between blood pressure and left ventricular relative wall thickness and mass were measured. 140 children met the inclusion criteria. In children with apnea hypopnea index <5 per hour, a significant difference from controls was the morning blood surge. Significant increases in blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were evident in those whom the apnea hypopnea index exceeded 5 per hour. Sleep disordered breathing and body mass index had similar effect on blood pressure parameters except for nocturnal diastolic blood pressure, where sleep disordered breathing had a significantly greater effect than body mass index. Diurnal and nocturnal systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure predicted the changes in left ventricular relative wall thickness. Therefore, sleep disordered breathing in children who are otherwise healthy is independently associated with an increase in morning blood pressure surge, blood pressure load, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. The association between left ventricular remodeling and 24-hour blood pressure highlights the role of sleep disordered breathing in increasing cardiovascular morbidity.

  2. Blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    D'Aragon, Frederick; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Meade, Maureen O; Lauzier, François; Adhikari, Neill K J; Briel, Matthias; Lalu, Manoj; Kanji, Salmaan; Asfar, Pierre; Turgeon, Alexis F; Fox-Robichaud, Alison; Marshall, John C; Lamontagne, François

    2015-06-01

    Physicians often prescribe vasopressors to correct pathological vasodilation and improve tissue perfusion in patients with septic shock, but the evidence to inform practice on vasopressor dosing is weak. We undertook a systematic review of clinical studies evaluating different blood pressure targets for the dosing of vasopressors in septic shock. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL (to November 2013), reference lists from included articles, and trial registries for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational and crossover intervention studies comparing different blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy in septic shock. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies and extracted data on standardized forms. We identified 2 RCTs and 10 crossover trials but no observational studies meeting our criteria. Only one RCT measured clinical outcomes after comparing mean arterial pressure targets of 80 to 85 mmHg versus 65 to 70 mmHg. There was no effect on 28-day mortality, but confidence intervals were wide (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.84 - 1.38). In contrast, this intervention was associated with a greater risk of atrial fibrillation (relative risk, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.18 - 4.72) and a lower risk of renal replacement therapy in hypertensive patients (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57 - 1.0). Crossover trials suggest that achieving higher blood pressure targets by increasing vasopressor doses increases heart rate and cardiac index with no effect on serum lactate. Our findings underscore the paucity of clinical evidence to guide the administration of vasopressors in critically ill patients with septic shock. Further rigorous research is needed to establish an evidence base for vasopressor administration in this population.

  3. TSC for hemorrhagic shock: effects on cytokines and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Stennett, Amanda K; Gainer, John L

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that administering trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) as a treatment of hemorrhagic shock leads to increased whole-body oxygen consumption and survival as well as protection of the liver and kidney. It has been suggested that TSC increases oxygen delivery by increasing the diffusivity of oxygen through plasma. However, as with any novel mechanism of action, there are always questions about whether the results could also be ascribed to other, previously described mechanisms of action. This study was designed to look at some aspects of that by examining the effect of different TSC dosing regimens on the blood pressure and the production of cytokines after hemorrhage because both responses have been reported with compounds that act via other mechanisms. In a constant-pressure rat model of hemorrhagic shock, it was seen that a singe bolus injection of TSC results in an immediate but transient increase in the arterial blood pressure. This is similar to the effect reported previously for using 100% oxygen. It was also found that if the TSC injections were repeated periodically over an hour, a sustained increase in the blood pressure would occur. Because inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in mortality and tissue damage, it has been suggested that TSC may affect the production of cytokines. Thus, the effect of TSC on the production of TNF-alpha and IL-10 was also examined. The data show that treatment with TSC results in lower concentrations of TNF-alpha in the liver and spleen as well as lower concentrations of IL-10 in the spleen. Again, similar effects on other cytokines have been seen with 100% oxygen. These results support the hypothesis that the effects of TSC on hemorrhagic shock are mediated via an effect on oxygen.

  4. Ambient noise interferes with auscultatory blood pressure measurement during exercise.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, J T; Tuller, B; Williams, D F

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the acoustical characteristics of the Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds) were altered during exercise and/or masked by the ambient noise. After signing informed consent, 11 subjects (8 females, 3 males; 27 +/- 2 yr; 166.2 +/- 3.2 cm; 62 +/- 5 kg; means +/- SD) underwent a cycle ergometer exercise test that increased in workload by 30 W every 3 min until volitional fatigue. Heart rate, auscultatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and oxygen consumption were monitored 1 and 2 min into each work stage. The auscultatory K-sounds were recorded with a microphone mounted in a stethoscope tube for later frequency (Hz) and sound pressure level (dB SPL) analysis. Frequency and SPL of ambient noise (99 +/- 13 Hz and 64 +/- 1 db at maximum, respectively) increased during the exercise test to magnitudes similar to the SBP and DBP K-sounds (166 Hz, 66 db; and 128 Hz, 69 db, respectively). Additionally, the ambient noise was responsible for a significant damping of the frequency and SPL of the measured blood pressure K-sounds and a rise in the measured frequency of the SBP K-sounds. Furthermore, we observed "inaudible" K-sounds at lower frequencies than adjoining audible K-sounds (100 Hz vs 126 Hz), supporting the known underestimation of SBP by auscultation. The increase in ambient noise during exercise testing dampens and may mask the auscultatory K-sounds, thus making detection of the proper K-sounds during exercise difficult at best. Furthermore, the presence of inaudible K-sounds may further explain the published discrepancies between auscultatory and intraarterial blood pressure measurements during exercise.

  5. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  6. Effect of Intensive Versus Standard Clinic-Based Hypertension Management on Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Results From the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    PubMed

    Drawz, Paul E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bello, Natalie A; Cushman, William C; Dwyer, Jamie P; Fine, Lawrence J; Goff, David C; Haley, William E; Krousel-Wood, Marie; McWilliams, Andrew; Rifkin, Dena E; Slinin, Yelena; Taylor, Addison; Townsend, Raymond; Wall, Barry; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    The effect of clinic-based intensive hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is unknown. The goal of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) ambulatory BP ancillary study was to evaluate the effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based BP targets on ambulatory BP. Ambulatory BP was obtained within 3 weeks of the 27-month study visit in 897 SPRINT participants. Intensive treatment resulted in lower clinic systolic BP (mean difference between groups=16.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 14.1-17.8 mm Hg), nighttime systolic BP (mean difference=9.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 7.7-11.5 mm Hg), daytime systolic BP (mean difference=12.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 10.6-13.9 mm Hg), and 24-hour systolic BP (mean difference=11.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 9.7-12.8 mm Hg). The night/day systolic BP ratio was similar between the intensive (0.92±0.09) and standard-treatment groups (0.91±0.09). There was considerable lack of agreement within participants between clinic systolic BP and daytime ambulatory systolic BP with wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, targeting a systolic BP of <120 mm Hg, when compared with <140 mm Hg, resulted in lower nighttime, daytime, and 24-hour systolic BP, but did not change the night/day systolic BP ratio. Ambulatory BP monitoring may be required to assess the effect of targeted hypertension therapy on out of office BP. Further studies are needed to assess whether targeting hypertension therapy based on ambulatory BP improves clinical outcomes.

  7. Effect of octreotide on 24-h blood pressure profile in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Barzon, L; Boscaro, M; Casiglia, E; Sonino, N

    1998-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of octreotide, a somatostatin analog drug potentially able to inhibit growth hormone (GH), on the circadian blood pressure profile in a group of patients with acromegaly. Ten patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma were studied before and 6 months after treatment with subcutaneous octreotide 0.2 to 0.6 mg/day. Twenty-four hour blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min at daytime (07:00 to 22:59) and every 30 min at nighttime (23:00 to 06:59) using a TM-2420 recorder. No correlation was found between GH levels and 24-h blood pressure in baseline conditions. Untreated patients had a significant nocturnal decrease of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01), and all showed a circadian systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. During octreotide treatment, 24 h as well as nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly increased (P < .05), whereas daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change. Treated patients did not have a nocturnal decline in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P = NS), and eight lost their systolic or diastolic blood pressure rhythm. In conclusion, blood pressure circadian rhythm seems to be maintained in acromegaly. Octreotide treatment is associated with an increase of 24-h and nighttime blood pressure, and with loss of circadian blood pressure rhythm. Splanchnic vasoconstriction by this drug, shifting blood to peripheral vessels, may explain this phenomenon.

  8. Nocturnal blood pressure and intraocular pressure measurement in glaucoma patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Follmann, P; Palotás, C; Süveges, I; Petrovits, A

    Daytime and nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) values and systemic blood pressure (BP) values were compared in 60 non-glaucomatous controls, 54 glaucoma patients with normal visual field, and 46 glaucoma patients with visual field loss. The daytime IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer and the nocturnal IOP with a Bio-Rad-Tono-Pen 2. The BP was measured with either a mercury manometer or with a Meditech ABPM-02 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, which took BP readings at 60 minute intervals. A tendency towards increasing IOP and decreasing BP was detected in the non-glaucomatous controls, within normal limits, and pathological changes of IOP and BP were observed with a significantly high occurrence (5% > P > 2%; Pearson's chi 2-test) in the glaucoma group with visual field loss.

  9. Healthy Blood Pressure "It's worth the effort!" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Healthy Blood Pressure: "It's worth the effort!" Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... How long had I been walking around with it?" she wonders. A cardiologist put her on two ...

  10. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... Truth Campaign" Urges Women To Take Good Blood Pressure Seriously February is American Heart Month, and the ...

  11. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  12. Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hispanics, Blacks Less Likely to Get High Blood Pressure Treatment: Study Less than half from any group ... less likely than whites to get high blood pressure under control, a new study suggests. Researchers reviewed ...

  13. Student Reactions During a Campus-Wide Blood Pressure Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Carol; Hertz, Dorith

    1978-01-01

    This blood pressure screening program met the goals of (1) detecting and treating asymptomatic hypertension among college students and (2) alerting the university community about high blood pressure. (MM)

  14. Association of blood pressure with blood viscosity in american indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    de Simone, Giovanni; Devereux, Richard B; Chinali, Marcello; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Welty, Thomas K

    2005-04-01

    Abnormalities in whole blood viscosity (WBV) have been implicated in hypertension. This study analyzes relations between WBV and blood pressure in the Strong Heart Study population of American Indians. We examined 676 participants (489 women, age 62+/-7 years) without prevalent cardiovascular disease or use of antihypertensive medications, digoxin, or aspirin. WBV was calculated from hematocrit and plasma protein concentration, at a shear rate of 208 seconds(-1), by a validated equation. Forty eight percent of participants were obese, 43% had diabetes, 19% had hypertension, and 30% were current smokers. WBV was higher in men, smokers, and participants with central obesity, but it was not associated with hypertension or diabetes, even accounting for confounders. After adjusting for gender, age, center, smoking, obesity, diabetes, and plasma creatinine, WBV was negatively related to pulse pressure (beta=-0.13; P<0.001) and systolic pressure (beta=-0.09; P<0.02), mainly because of negative relations with hematocrit (beta=-0.11 and -0.10). Among hypertensive individuals, pulse pressure was positively related to age, diabetes, and female gender but not to WBV (multiple R=0.63; P<0.0001); in contrast, in normotensive individuals, pulse pressure was related negatively to WBV or hematocrit, independent of body mass index, without relation to diabetes (R=0.42; P<0.0001). Thus, under normal physiological conditions, in vivo WBV is negatively related pulse pressure. In contrast, the presence of arterial hypertension makes this relation less evident.

  15. Baseline predictors of central aortic blood pressure: a PEAR substudy.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Rebecca F; Shah, Niren K; Smith, Steven M; Wen, Xuerong; Gong, Yan; Gums, John G; Nichols, Wilmer W; Chapman, Arlene B; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie; Epstein, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Elevated central systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and appears superior to peripheral BP for long term risk prediction. The objective of this study was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with central pressures in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We prospectively examined peripheral BP, central aortic BP, and arterial wall properties and wave reflection in 57 subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. Significant predictors of central SBP included height, smoking status, heart rate (HR), and peripheral systolic BP (SBP), while central diastolic BP (DBP) was explained by peripheral DBP and HR. These variables accounted for nearly all of the variability in central SBP and central DBP (R(2) = 0.94 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively). Central pulse pressure variability was largely explained by gender, ex-smoking status, HR, peripheral SBP, and peripheral DBP (R(2) = 0.94). Central augmented pressure had a direct relationship with smoking status, peripheral SBP, and duration of hypertension, whereas it was indirectly related to height, HR, and peripheral DBP. Easily obtainable demographic and clinical factors are associated with central pressures in essential hypertensive persons. These relationships should be considered in future studies to improve assessment of BP to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality.

  16. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    PubMed

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  17. Sodium, potassium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Paul K

    2014-08-01

    The scientific underpinning for recommended levels of dietary sodium and potassium intake is of great importance to healthcare providers and policy decision-makers. Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses confirm the capacity of dietary sodium reduction and potassium supplementation to reduce blood pressure with no harmful effects on blood lipid levels in customary clinical settings. Blood pressure is thought to be a good surrogate for cardiovascular disease events and the most important preventable risk factor for mortality and disability-adjusted life years. Cohort analyses and related pooling studies that have been used to explore the relationship between dietary Na and CVD were all based on secondary analyses of datasets that were not designed for this purpose. Most are of insufficient quality to provide dependable information. The limited information available from clinical trial experience and cohort studies of higher quality suggests a reduction in dietary Na decreases CVD morbidity and mortality. Modeling studies suggest that a small reduction in dietary sodium would result in a sizable general population health benefit. Some countries have experienced a progressive decline in average dietary sodium consumption. However, there is no evidence of a corresponding trend in the United States, and almost the entire population is failing to meet dietary sodium and potassium guideline recommendations.

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in spinal cord injury: clinical practicability.

    PubMed

    Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-05-01

    Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population.

  19. Artificial arterial blood pressure artifact models and an evaluation of a robust blood pressure and heart rate estimator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiao; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D

    2009-01-01

    Background Within the intensive care unit (ICU), arterial blood pressure (ABP) is typically recorded at different (and sometimes uneven) sampling frequencies, and from different sensors, and is often corrupted by different artifacts and noise which are often non-Gaussian, nonlinear and nonstationary. Extracting robust parameters from such signals, and providing confidences in the estimates is therefore difficult and requires an adaptive filtering approach which accounts for artifact types. Methods Using a large ICU database, and over 6000 hours of simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (ECG) and ABP waveforms sampled at 125 Hz from a 437 patient subset, we documented six general types of ABP artifact. We describe a new ABP signal quality index (SQI), based upon the combination of two previously reported signal quality measures weighted together. One index measures morphological normality, and the other degradation due to noise. After extracting a 6084-hour subset of clean data using our SQI, we evaluated a new robust tracking algorithm for estimating blood pressure and heart rate (HR) based upon a Kalman Filter (KF) with an update sequence modified by the KF innovation sequence and the value of the SQI. In order to do this, we have created six novel models of different categories of artifacts that we have identified in our ABP waveform data. These artifact models were then injected into clean ABP waveforms in a controlled manner. Clinical blood pressure (systolic, mean and diastolic) estimates were then made from the ABP waveforms for both clean and corrupted data. The mean absolute error for systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure was then calculated for different levels of artifact pollution to provide estimates of expected errors given a single value of the SQI. Results Our artifact models demonstrate that artifact types have differing effects on systolic, diastolic and mean ABP estimates. We show that, for most artifact types, diastolic ABP estimates are

  20. Differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Ayodele, Olugbenga E.; Alebiosu, C. Olutayo; Salako, Babatunde L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases has been shown to be higher for systolic blood pressure than diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians with primary hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a prospective observational study carried out at the Medical Outpatient Department of the State Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of 185 consecutive patients (65 males, 120 females), aged 35-85 years with primary hypertension who had been on drugs one- to 25 years prior to the onset of the study. Clinic blood pressure control was assessed during a year period. Six consecutive clinic blood pressure readings were recorded for each patient and the average calculated (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure separately). Patients were classified into subgroups based on the pattern of blood pressure control. RESULTS: Clinic systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was controlled in 58 patients (31.4%). Systolic blood pressure control was less frequent than diastolic blood pressure control (35.7% versus 51.4%, p<0.05). Patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure were significantly older than patients with only uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (66.7+/-7.4 versus 52.9+/-8.7 years, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Systolic blood pressure is less frequently controlled than diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians treated for primary hypertension. This may increase the patient's risk of developing stroke, and cardiovascular and renal complications. PMID:15040512

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Elevated Blood Pressure, Overweight, and Dyslipidemia in Adolescent and Young Adults in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Christine P.; Wu, Lee S.F.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; West, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic disease begins early in life, yet population data are sparse on potential causal factors in children and young adults in South Asia. Methods We assessed risk factors for chronic disease in two population cohorts, aged 9–23 years, in rural Nepal. Assessed variables included short height (less than −2 z), high body mass index (BMI) (z>0.42), waist circumference (WC) >90 cm (male) or 80 cm (female) or age-adjusted child cutoff], high blood pressure (>120/80 mmHg), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>7%), blood lipids [triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol], diet, smoking, alcohol, and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. Results The population was stunted (46%) and few were overweight (∼2%–4% with high BMI or WC). Twelve percent had high blood pressure. Plasma hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL) affected ∼8.5%, and 78% had low HDL-C concentrations <40 mg/dL (male) or <50 mg/dL (female)], while few (≤3%) had elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL), glucose, and HbA1c. Females were at higher risk than males for high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–2.3] and overweight (4.2; 3.0–5.8), but had lower risk of dyslipidemia (0.7; 0.6–0.9). Ethnic plains Madheshi were less likely to be overweight (0.3; 0.2–0.4), but had greater risk of dyslipidemia (1.4; 1.1–1.7) versus those of Hill origin. Some dietary factors were significantly associated with high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, but not overweight. Conclusions Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure are emerging health concerns among young adults in rural Nepal. PMID:23682595

  2. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  7. Subjective Stress and Coping Resources Interact To Predict Blood Pressure Reactivity in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of subjective stress and coping resources on blood pressure reactivity among black college students. The interactive effects of subjective stress and coping resources predicted diastolic blood pressure reactivity. Higher levels of problem-focused coping related to more marked diastolic blood pressure changes under conditions…

  8. [Instrumentation for blood pressure measurements: historical aspects, concepts and sources of error].

    PubMed

    de Araujo, T L; Arcuri, E A; Martins, E

    1998-04-01

    According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  9. Systolic Blood Pressure Accuracy Enhancement in the Electronic Palpation Method Using Pulse Waveform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    1 of 4 SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE ACCURACY ENHANCEMENT IN THE ELECTRONIC PALPATION METHOD USING PULSE WAVEFORM H. S. S. Sorvoja1, R. A. Myllylä1...systolic blood pressure measurements based on pulse waveform. A set of measurement was carried out with elderly cardiac surgery patients. The experiments... blood pressure . Systolic pressure errors were defined and correlations with other specific values, like pressure rise time, pulse wave velocity

  10. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  11. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  12. Dietary sodium and health: more than just blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, William B; Edwards, David G; Jurkovitz, Claudine T; Weintraub, William S

    2015-03-17

    Sodium is essential for cellular homeostasis and physiological function. Excess dietary sodium has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP). Salt sensitivity of BP varies widely, but certain subgroups tend to be more salt sensitive. The mechanisms underlying sodium-induced increases in BP are not completely understood but may involve alterations in renal function, fluid volume, fluid-regulatory hormones, the vasculature, cardiac function, and the autonomic nervous system. Recent pre-clinical and clinical data support that even in the absence of an increase in BP, excess dietary sodium can adversely affect target organs, including the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and brain. In this review, the investigators review these issues and the epidemiological research relating dietary sodium to BP and cardiovascular health outcomes, addressing recent controversies. They also provide information and strategies for reducing dietary sodium.

  13. Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.

    PubMed

    Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses.

  14. Pressure ulcers in palliative ward patients: hyponatremia and low blood pressure as indicators of risk

    PubMed Central

    Sternal, Danuta; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Prevention strategies for pressure ulcer formation remain critical in patients with an advanced illness. We analyzed factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in a palliative care ward setting. Patients and methods This study was a retrospective analysis of 329 consecutive patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 70.4±11.8 years (range: 30–96 years, median 70.0 years; 55.3% women), who were admitted to the Palliative Care Department between July 2012 and May 2014. Results Patients were hospitalized for mean of 24.8±31.4 days (1–310 days, median 14 days). A total of 256 patients (77.8%) died in the ward and 73 patients (22.2%) were discharged. Two hundred and six patients (62.6%) did not develop pressure ulcers during their stay in the ward, 84 patients (25.5%) were admitted with pressure ulcers, and 39 patients (11.9%) developed pressure ulcers in the ward. Four factors assessed at admission appear to predict the development of pressure ulcers in the multivariate logistic regression model: Waterlow score (odds ratio [OR] =1.140, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.057–1.229, P=0.001), transfer from other hospital wards (OR =2.938, 95% CI =1.339–6.448, P=0.007), hemoglobin level (OR =0.814, 95% CI =0.693–0.956, P=0.012), and systolic blood pressure (OR =0.976, 95% CI =0.955–0.997, P=0.023). Five other factors assessed during hospitalization appear to be associated with pressure ulcer development: mean evening body temperature (OR =3.830, 95% CI =1.729–8.486, P=0.001), mean Waterlow score (OR =1.194, 95% CI =1.092–1.306, P<0.001), the lowest recorded sodium concentration (OR =0.880, 95% CI =0.814–0.951, P=0.001), mean systolic blood pressure (OR =0.956, 95% CI =0.929–0.984, P=0.003), and the lowest recorded hemoglobin level (OR =0.803, 95% CI =0.672–0.960, P=0.016). Conclusion Hyponatremia and low blood pressure may contribute to the formation of pressure ulcers in patients with an

  15. The evolution of blood pressure and the rise of mankind.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Kevin; Kunter, Uta; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    Why is it that only human beings continuously perform acts of heroism? Looking back at our evolutionary history can offer us some potentially useful insight. This review highlights some of the major steps in our evolution-more specifically, the evolution of high blood pressure. When we were fish, the first kidney was developed to create a standardized internal 'milieu' preserving the primordial sea within us. When we conquered land as amphibians, the evolution of the lung required a low systemic blood pressure, which explains why early land vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles) are such low performers. Gaining independence from water required the evolution of an impermeable skin and a water-retaining kidney. The latter was accomplished twice with two different solutions in the two major branches of vertebrate evolution: mammals excrete nitrogenous waste products as urea, which can be utilized by the kidney as an osmotic agent to produce more concentrated urine. Dinosaurs and birds have a distinct nitrogen metabolism and excrete nitrogen as water-insoluble uric acid-therefore, their kidneys cannot use urea to concentrate as well. Instead, some birds have developed the capability to reabsorb water from their cloacae. The convergent development of a separate small circulation of the lung in mammals and birds allowed for the evolution of 'high blood-pressure animals' with better capillarization of the peripheral tissues allowing high endurance performance. Finally, we investigate why mankind outperforms any other mammal on earth and why, to this day, we continue to perform acts of heroism on our eternal quest for personal bliss.

  16. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  17. Exercise blood pressure and the risk of future hypertension.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, L; Mortensen, L; Kanckos, C; Ljungman, C; Mehlig, K; Manhem, K

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify which blood pressure measurement during exercise is the best predictor of future hypertension. Further we aimed to create a risk chart to facilitate the evaluation of blood pressure reaction during exercise testing. A number (n=1047) of exercise tests by bicycle ergometry, performed in 1996 and 1997 were analysed. In 2007-2008, 606 patients without hypertension at the time of the exercise test were sent a questionnaire aimed to identify current hypertension. The response rate was 58% (n=352). During the 10-12 years between exercise test and questionnaire, 23% developed hypertension. The strongest predictors of future hypertension were systolic blood pressure (SBP) before exercise (odds ratios (OR) 1.63 (1.31-2.01) for 10 mm Hg difference) in combination with the increase of SBP over time during exercise testing (OR 1.12 (1.01-1.24) steeper increase for every 1 mm Hg min(-1)). A high SBP before exercise and a steep rise in SBP over time represented a higher risk of developing hypertension. A risk chart based on SBP before exercise, increase of SBP over time and body mass index was created. SBP before exercise, maximal SBP during exercise and SBP at 100 W were significant single predictors of future hypertension and the prediction by maximal SBP was improved by adjusting for time/power at which SBP max was reached during exercise testing. Recovery ratio (maximal SBP/SBP 4 min after exercise) was not predictive of future hypertension.

  18. The elusiveness of population-wide high blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Whelton, Paul K

    2015-03-18

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is highly prevalent in the US general population, especially in those who are old, African American, or socially disadvantaged. Prevalence is also high and increasing worldwide. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension have improved over time, but there is still considerable room for improvement. The optimal solution to this health challenge varies by country. Several nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are well proven as effective means to prevent hypertension and improve control rates in those with established hypertension. Better prevention and control of hypertension will yield substantial general population health benefits and remain high priorities in public health.

  19. Dietary factors and higher blood pressure in African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Queenie; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Adverse blood pressure (BP) is a major independent risk factor for epidemic cardiovascular diseases affecting almost one third of the US adult population. This review synthesizes results from studies published over the past few years on BP differences and prevalent hypertension between US blacks and whites and their different intakes of foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and dairy products) and micronutrients (e.g., vitamin D, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus). Studies have consistently reported higher prevalence of adverse BP levels and hypertension and less favorable dietary intakes in blacks than in whites, but the influence of specific dietary factors on high BP risk for blacks remains unclear.

  20. Table salt and blood pressure in Greek children.

    PubMed

    Adamopoulos, P N; Chaniotis, F; Kodoyianis, S; Boutsicakis, J; Madalos, P; Kassos, D; Gatos, A; Moulopoulos, S

    1987-12-01

    The habit of adding table salt was studied in a random sample of 2209 children 6-18 years old. Of these 10% routinely added table salt to prepared food before tasting it (group A), 29% after tasting it (group B) and 61% ate their food as it was prepared, without additional use of table salt (group C). Group A had higher blood pressure (BP), prevalence of systolic BP greater than or equal to 130 mmHG and body mass index (BMI) than groups B and C (P less than 0.0001). These differences were also observed in group B versus C (P less than 0.0001).

  1. Maternal blood pressure in pregnancy and newborn irritability.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, J S; Woodson, R H; da Costa Woodson, E M

    1978-07-01

    The neonatal period is being recognized as an important period for the development of patterns of interaction between mother and infant, and infant state has been shown to have a significant impact on mother--infant interactions. A major dimension of infant state, with implications for this interaction and for the development of later behaviour disorders, is the infant's irritability. Research with Navajo, Malay, Chinese and Tamil mothers and infants showed that normal variation in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy was related to newborn irritability as assessed with the Brazelton Scale. This relationship is discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.

  2. Engineering studies of vectorcardiographs in blood pressure measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The following projects involving cardiovascular instrumentation were conducted: (1) the development and fabrication of a three-dimensional display measurement system for vectorcardiograms, (2) the development and fabrication of a cardiovascular monitoring system to noninvasively monitor beat-by-beat the blood pressure and heart rate using aortic pulse wave velocity, (3) the development of software for an interactive system to analyze systolic time interval data, and (4) the development of microprocessor-based physiologic instrumentation, focussing initially on EKG rhythm analysis. Brief descriptions of these projects were given.

  3. Engineering studies of vectorcardiographs in blood pressure measuring systems, appendix 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a cardiovascular monitoring system to noninvasively monitor the blood pressure and heart rate using pulse wave velocity was described. The following topics were covered: (1) pulse wave velocity as a measure of arterial blood pressure, (2) diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity in humans, (3) transducer development for blood pressure measuring device, and (4) cardiovascular monitoring system. It was found, in experiments on dogs, that the pulse wave velocity is linearly related to diastolic blood pressure over a wide range of blood pressure and in the presence of many physiological perturbations. A similar relationship was observed in normal, young human males over a moderate range of pressures. Past methods for monitoring blood pressure and a new method based on pulse wave velocity determination were described. Two systems were tested: a Doppler ultrasonic transducer and a photoelectric plethysmograph. A cardiovascular monitoring system was described, including operating instructions.

  4. Diabetes mellitus, hemoglobin A1C, and the incidence of total joint arthroplasty infection.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard; Williams, Kelly M; Marcantonio, Andrew J; Specht, Lawrence M; Tilzey, John F; Healy, William L

    2012-05-01

    Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) than patients without diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are a marker for blood glucose control in diabetic patients. A total of 3468 patients underwent 4241 primary or revision total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty at one institution. Hemoglobin A1c levels were examined to evaluate if there was a correlation between the control of HbA1c and infection after TJA. There were a total of 46 infections (28 deep and 18 superficial [9 cellulitis and 9 operative abscesses]). Twelve (3.43%) occurred in diabetic patients (n = 350; 8.3%) and 34 (0.87%) in nondiabetic patients (n = 3891; 91.7%) (P < .001). There were 9 deep (2.6%) infections in diabetic patients and 19 (0.49%) in nondiabetic patients. In noninfected, diabetic patients, HbA1c level ranged from 4.7% to 15.1% (mean, 6.92%). In infected diabetic patients, HbA1c level ranged from 5.1% to 11.7% (mean, 7.2%) (P < .445). The average HbA1c level in patients with diabetes was 6.93%. Diabetic patients have a significantly higher risk for infection after TJA. Hemoglobin A1c levels are not reliable for predicting the risk of infection after TJA.

  5. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present

  6. Quantification of wave reflection using peripheral blood pressure waveforms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Sei; Fazeli, Nima; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry A; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minimally invasive method for quantifying blood pressure (BP) wave reflection in the arterial tree. In this method, two peripheral BP waveforms are analyzed to obtain an estimate of central aortic BP waveform, which is used together with a peripheral BP waveform to compute forward and backward pressure waves. These forward and backward waves are then used to quantify the strength of wave reflection in the arterial tree. Two unique strengths of the proposed method are that 1) it replaces highly invasive central aortic BP and flow waveforms required in many existing methods by less invasive peripheral BP waveforms, and 2) it does not require estimation of characteristic impedance. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined in an experimental swine subject under a wide range of physiologic states and in 13 cardiac surgery patients. In the swine subject, the method was comparable to the reference method based on central aortic BP and flow. In cardiac surgery patients, the method was able to estimate forward and backward pressure waves in the absence of any central aortic waveforms: on the average, the root-mean-squared error between actual versus computed forward and backward pressure waves was less than 5 mmHg, and the error between actual versus computed reflection index was less than 0.03.

  7. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  8. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  9. Why use automated office blood pressure measurements in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Emmanuel A; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas T; Agaliotis, Gerasimos D; Tsakanikas, Athanasios P; Mousoulis, George P

    2011-09-01

    Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement with the patient resting alone in a quiet examining room can eliminate the white-coat effect associated with conventional readings taken by manual sphygmomanometer. The key to reducing the white-coat response appears to be multiple blood pressure (BP) readings taken in a non-observer office setting, thus eliminating any interaction that could provoke an office-induced increase in BP. Furthermore, AOBP readings have shown a higher correlation with the mean awake ambulatory BP compared with BP readings recorded in routine clinical practice. Although there is a paucity of studies connecting AOBP with organ damage, AOBP values were recently found to be equally associated with left ventricular mass index as those of ambulatory BP. This concludes that in contrast to routine manual office BP, AOBP readings compare favourably with 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in the appraisal of cardiac remodelling and, as such, could be complementary to ambulatory readings in a way similar to home BP measurements.

  10. Challenges in Treating Low Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Whilst the prevalence of low blood pressure in preterm infants seems to have fallen over the last number of years, the problem is still frequently encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit and many babies continue to receive intervention. Great variability in practice persists, with a significant number of extremely low gestational age newborns in some institutions receiving some form of intervention, and in other units substantially less. A great degree of this variability relates to the actual criteria used to define hypotension, with some using blood pressure values alone to direct therapy and others using a combination of clinical, biochemical and echocardiography findings. The choice of intervention remains unresolved with the majority of centres continuing to administer volume followed by dopamine as a first line inotrope/vasopressor agent. Despite over 40 years of use there is little evidence that dopamine is of benefit both in the short term and long-term. Long-term follow up is available in only two randomised trials, which included a total of 99 babies. An under recognized problem relates to the administration of inotrope infusions in very preterm infants. There are no pediatric specific inotrope formulations available and so risks of errors in preparation and administration remain. This manuscript outlines these challenges and proposes some potential solutions. PMID:27417363

  11. Blood pressure and associated factors in a rural Kenyan community.

    PubMed

    Poulter, N; Khaw, K T; Hopwood, B E; Mugambi, M; Peart, W S; Rose, G; Sever, P S

    1984-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and associated factors were determined in 1737 men in a remote Kenyan agricultural community. Systolic BP showed no significant rise with age until after 54 years; diastolic BP showed a small rise with age. Both systolic and diastolic BP correlated with weight independent of age. Systolic and diastolic BP correlated positively with casual urinary sodium/potassium and negatively with potassium/creatinine ratios. Both systolic and diastolic BP correlated significantly with the number of years of education, as did urinary sodium/potassium and sodium/creatinine ratios. Potassium/creatinine ratios were negatively correlated with the number of years of education. Blood pressure and urinary sodium/creatinine ratios were significantly lower in subsistence farmers compared with those in other occupations, and potassium/creatinine ratios were significantly higher. Two pilot studies of Luo tribesmen showed a strong correlation between casual urinary electrolyte ratios and those derived from 24-hour urine samples and a greater variance of sodium excretion between these people than that found within individuals. These results suggest that a relationship between BP and casual urine electrolyte estimations may be identifiable in communities where there is less day-to-day dietary variation. They also suggest that some of the changes in BP associated with urbanization could be mediated by changes in dietary electrolytes.

  12. The ecological context of soundscapes for children's blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lercher, Peter; Evans, Gary W.; Widmann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of studies on community noise levels and children's physiological stress responses are positive, effect sizes vary considerably, and some studies do not confirm these effects. Employing a contextual perspective congruent with soundscapes, a carefully constructed sample of children (N = 115, M = 10.1 yr) living in households in relatively high (>60 dBA) or low (<50 dBA) noise areas created by proximity to major traffic arterials in Austria was reanalyzed. Several personal and environmental factors known to affect resting cardiovascular parameters measured under well-controlled, clinical conditions were incorporated into the analyses. Children with premature births and elevated chronic stress (i.e., overnight cortisol) were more susceptible to adverse blood pressure responses to road traffic noise. Residence in a multi-dwelling unit as well as standardized assessments of perceived quietness of the area did not modify the traffic noise impacts but each had its own, independent effect on resting blood pressure. A primary air pollutant associated with traffic volume (NO2) had no influence on any of these results. The scope of environmental noise assessment and management would benefit from incorporation of a more contextualized approach as suggested by the soundscape perspective. PMID:23862883

  13. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  14. Peripheral and Central Effects of Melatonin on Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pechanova, Olga; Paulis, Ludovit; Simko, Fedor

    2014-01-01

    The pineal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), shows potent receptor-dependent and -independent actions, which participate in blood pressure regulation. The antihypertensive effect of melatonin was demonstrated in experimental and clinical hypertension. Receptor-dependent effects are mediated predominantly through MT1 and MT2 G-protein coupled receptors. The pleiotropic receptor-independent effects of melatonin with a possible impact on blood pressure involve the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging nature, activation and over-expression of several antioxidant enzymes or their protection from oxidative damage and the ability to increase the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Besides the interaction with the vascular system, this indolamine may exert part of its antihypertensive action through its interaction with the central nervous system (CNS). The imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic vegetative system is an important pathophysiological disorder and therapeutic target in hypertension. Melatonin is protective in CNS on several different levels: It reduces free radical burden, improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces inflammation and shifts the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic system in favor of the parasympathetic system. The increased level of serum melatonin observed in some types of hypertension may be a counter-regulatory adaptive mechanism against the sympathetic overstimulation. Since melatonin acts favorably on different levels of hypertension, including organ protection and with minimal side effects, it could become regularly involved in the struggle against this widespread cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25299692

  15. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain).

  16. Methadone in healthy goats - pharmacokinetics, behaviour and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Olsén, L; Olsson, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Ingvast-Larsson, C

    2013-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and effects of the opioid methadone on behaviour, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and haematocrit were studied in goats. Two goats received methadone (0.2mg/kg) intravenously and the terminal half-life was 88 and 91 min, the volume of distribution 8.4 and 6.1L/kg, and clearance 86 and 123 mL/min/kg. In a crossover study eight goats received methadone (0.6 mg/kg) or 0.15M NaCl subcutaneously (SC). After SC administration bioavailability was complete and the terminal half-life was 215 ± 84 min (mean ± SD), Tmax 31 ± 15 min and Cmax 45 ±11 ng/mL. Blood pressure and haematocrit increased while heart rate did not change. The goats did not ruminate and they climbed, scratched, gnawed and showed tail-flicking after SC methadone in contrast to NaCl administration. The use of methadone in goats may be restricted due to the inhibition of rumination and the rather short half-life.

  17. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  18. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  19. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on blood gases plasma catecholamine and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, M C; Vega-Agapito, V; Prieto-Lloret, J; Agapito, M T; Castañeda, J; Gonzalez, C

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of complete (apnoea) or partial (hypopnoea) obstruction of airflow during sleep. The severity of OSAS is defined by the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) or number of obstructive episodes. An AHI greater than 30 is considered severe, but it can reach values higher than 100 in some patients. Associated to the OSA there is high incidence of cardiovascular and neuro-psychiatric pathologies including systemic hypertension, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias and atherosclerosis, diurnal somnolence, anxiety and depression. In the present study we have used a model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) of moderately high intensity (30 episodes/h) to evaluate arterial blood gases and plasma catecholamines as main effectors in determining arterial blood pressure. Male rats were exposed toIH with a regime of 80s, 20% O(2) // 40s, 10%O(2), 8 h/day, 8 or 15 days.Lowering the breathing atmosphere to 10% O(2) reduced arterial blood PO(2) to 56.9 mmHg (nadir HbO(2) 86, 3%). Plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels at the end of 8 and 15 days of IH showed a tendency to increase, being significant the increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels in the group exposed to intermittent hypoxia during 15 days. We conclude that IH causes an increase in sympathetic activity and a concomitant increase in NE levels which in turn would generate an increase in vascular tone and arterial blood pressure.

  20. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  1. Kidney Dysfunction Mediates Salt-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hall, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic excess salt intake increases the risk for hypertension and moderation of salt intake is an important strategy for prevention of cardiovascular and kidney disease, especially in salt-sensitive subjects. Although short-term blood pressure (BP) responses to high salt intake over several days are highly variable, chronic high salt intake worsens BP salt-sensitivity. Aging, diabetes, hypertension, and various acquired and genetic kidney disorders also exacerbate salt-sensitivity of BP. Kidney dysfunction, characterized by impaired pressure natriuresis, has been demonstrated in all forms of experimental and human genetic or acquired salt-sensitive hypertension studied thus far. Abnormalities of kidney function that directly or indirectly increase NaCl reabsorption, decrease glomerular capillary filtration coefficient, or cause nephron injury/loss exacerbate BP salt-sensitivity. In most cases, salt-sensitive hypertension is effectively treated with drugs that increase glomerular filtration rate or reduce renal NaCl reabsorption (e.g. diuretics, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers). Increased vascular resistance may occur concomitantly or secondarily to kidney dysfunction and increased BP in salt-sensitive hypertension. However, primary increases in non-renal vascular resistance have not been shown to cause salt-sensitive hypertension or long-term changes in BP in the absence of impaired renal-pressure natriuresis. The mechanisms responsible for increased total peripheral resistance (TPR) during high salt intake in salt-sensitive subjects are not fully understood but likely involve pressure-dependent and/or flow-dependent autoregulation in peripheral tissues as well as neurohormonal factors that occur concomitantly with kidney dysfunction. Physiological studies have demonstrated that increased BP almost invariably initiates secondary pressure-dependent functional and structural vascular changes that increase TPR. PMID:26927007

  2. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Practicability

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord often results not only in sensorimotor but also autonomic impairments. The loss of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system can cause profound blood pressure (BP) derangements in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and may therefore lead to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. The use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows insights into circadian BP profiles, which have been shown to be of good prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in able-bodied subjects. Past studies in SCI subjects using ABPM have shown that alterations in circadian BP patterns are dependent on the spinal lesion level. Tetraplegic subjects with sensorimotor complete lesions have a decreased daytime arterial BP, loss of the physiological nocturnal BP dip, and higher circadian BP variability, including potentially life-threatening hypertensive episodes known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD), compared with paraplegic and able-bodied subjects. The proposed underlying mechanisms of these adverse BP alterations mainly are attributed to a lost or decreased central drive to sympathetic spinal preganglionic neurons controlling the heart and blood vessels. In addition, several maladaptive anatomical changes within the spinal cord and the periphery, as well as the general decrease of physical daily activity in SCI subjects, account for adverse BP changes. ABPM enables the identification of adverse BP profiles and the associated increased risk for CVD in SCI subjects. Concurrently, it also might provide a useful clinical tool to monitor improvements of AD and lost nocturnal dip after appropriate treatments in the SCI population. PMID:24175653

  3. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  4. Integrating Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jordana B; Cohen, Debbie L

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension were historically based on in-office blood pressure measurements. However, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently expanded their recommendations on screening for hypertension to include out-of-office blood pressure measurements to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring modalities, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, are important tools in distinguishing between normotension, masked hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and sustained (including uncontrolled or drug-resistant) hypertension. Compared to in-office readings, out-of-office blood pressures are a greater predictor of renal and cardiac morbidity and mortality. There are multiple barriers to the implementation of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring which need to be overcome in order to promote more widespread use of these modalities.

  5. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  6. Clinical implications of non-invasive measurement of central aortic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Stepień, Mariusz; Banach, Maciej; Jankowski, Piotr; Rysz, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Central arterial systolic blood pressure is a very important factor in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Central arterial pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than peripheral brachial blood pressure. Measurement of central blood pressure is useful for a diagnosis of spurious systolic hypertension in young people. Antihypertensive drugs have a different impact on central blood pressure, for example angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, antagonists of angiotensin II receptors, calcium channel blockers more effectively lower central blood pressure than betablockers, despite all of those drugs (including beta-blockers) having a similar impact on peripheral pressure. This mechanism may be responsible for the beneficial effect of some antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular end points observed in clinical trials, despite a low peripheral hypotensive effect. However, further clinical trials are required to provide more evidence for the prognostic and therapeutic implications of the measurement of central blood pressure before adopting its routine application in clinical practice.

  7. Relationship of office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure to blood glucose and lipid variables in the PAMELA population.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Michele; Polo Friz, Hernan; Grassi, Guido; Giannattasio, Cristina; Sega, Roberto

    2005-06-01

    Alterations in blood glucose and cholesterol are more frequently detectable in hypertensive than in normotensive conditions. However, no information exists as to whether this phenomenon involves only office or also home and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ie, when values are representative of daily life). In 2045 subjects enrolled in the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study, we measured home, 24-hour, and office blood pressure. Measurements also included fasting blood glucose and serum total and HDL cholesterol values. Prevalence of diabetes (> or =126 mg/dL or use of antidiabetic drugs), impaired fasting blood glucose (> or =110 to <126 mg/dL), and hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > or =240 mg/dL or 200 mg/dL) increased progressively from "optimal" to "normal," "high-normal," and "elevated" office systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Fasting blood glucose and total serum cholesterol also increased progressively from the first to the fourth group, with HDL cholesterol values showing a concomitant progressive decrease. This was also the case for quartiles of office, home, and 24-hour blood pressure. In the whole population, there was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol or blood glucose and all blood pressure values (P always <0.0001), with a much smaller and less consistent relationship with heart rate. In a multivariate analysis that included gender, body mass index, age, and antihypertensive treatment, all blood pressure values remained highly significantly related to values of either metabolic variables. Thus, in the PAMELA population, glucose and lipid values are independently related to blood pressure. This is also the case when daily life blood pressure values are considered.

  8. [Blood pressure goals in diabetes. A critical appraisal].

    PubMed

    García, Félix Miguel; García Ortiz, Alexandra; Montero Alonso, María José

    2004-04-24

    In this article we review the evidence supporting the need to achieve a target blood pressure (BP) under 130-80 mm Hg in diabetic patients, as recent international guidelines recommend (JNC VII, ESH-ESC and ADA). We have analyzed the explicit arguments used in these guidelines, 3 clinical trials designed to determine which is the best BP in diabetics (HOT, UKPDS-38 and ABCD) as well as other potentially misleading clinical trials. In our opinion, neither these 3 specific clinical trials nor other trials quoted in the guidelines (due to results and methodology employed) can answer the question of the best goal of pharmacological treatment for hypertension in diabetics. On the other hand, international agreements are not sufficiently rigorous regarding both the sources mentioned and the direct interpretation of the data provided. We conclude that there is not enough evidence to support the goal pressure below 130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes. We insist in the need of individualization of therapy in patients and consider that a under 140/85 mm Hg goal pressure in diabetics is perfectly supported by current evidence.

  9. Changing Relationships Between Skin Blood Flow and Arterial Pressure in Mild Exercise and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    pressure (Finapres). Exercise was accompanied by tachicardia, hypertension and skin vasoconstriction. Spectral analysis revealed an activation of the...also compared: this analysis produced tracings and spectral CHANGING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SKIN BLOOD FLOW AND ARTERIAL PRESSURE IN MILD EXERCISE...Academic Publishing, Boston, 2000. [3] H.P. Koepchen, "History of studies and concepts of blood pressure waves," in "Mechanisms of blood pressure

  10. [Effects of capsaicin on oxidative modification of blood plasma proteins and arterial blood pressure in fructose-fed rats].

    PubMed

    Tolochko, Z S; Spiridonov, V K

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves with capsaicin on the oxidative modification of blood plasma proteins and arterial blood pressure was studied in Wistar rats fed with 12.5% fructose in drinking water for 10 weeks. The obtained results indicate that fructose feeding induces an increase in the arterial blood pressure and the content of plasma blood protein carbonyl derivates. At the same time, in hypertensive rats, the stimulation of sensory nerves by capsaicin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) decreases the content of oxidized proteins in the plasma and normalizes the arterial blood pressure. It is suggested that capsaicin-sensitive nerves are involved in the regulation of oxidative destruction of proteins as well as in blood pressure control under metabolic disturbances produced by prolonged fructose feeding.

  11. Relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow during supine cycling: influence of aging.

    PubMed

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Keegan; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Hansen, Alex; Ainslie, Philip N

    2016-03-01

    The cerebral pressure-flow relationship can be quantified as a high-pass filter, where slow oscillations are buffered (<0.20 Hz) and faster oscillations are passed through relatively unimpeded. During moderate intensity exercise, previous studies have reported paradoxical transfer function analysis (TFA) findings (altered phase or intact gain). This study aimed to determine whether these previous findings accurately represent this relationship. Both younger (20-30 yr; n = 10) and older (62-72 yr; n = 9) adults were examined. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, large oscillations in blood pressure (via oscillatory lower body negative pressure; OLBNP) were induced during steady-state moderate intensity supine exercise (∼45-50% of heart rate reserve). Beat-to-beat blood pressure, cerebral blood velocity, and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) range spontaneous data were quantified. Driven OLBNP point estimates were sampled at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. The OLBNP maneuvers augmented coherence to >0.97 at 0.05 Hz and >0.98 at 0.10 Hz in both age groups. The OLBNP protocol conclusively revealed the cerebrovascular system functions as a high-pass filter during exercise throughout aging. It was also discovered that the older adults had elevations (+71%) in normalized gain (+0.46 ± 0.36%/%: 0.05 Hz) and reductions (-34%) in phase (-0.24 ± 0.22 radian: 0.10 Hz). There were also age-related phase differences between resting and exercise conditions. It is speculated that these age-related changes in the TFA metrics are mediated by alterations in vasoactive factors, sympathetic tone, or the mechanical buffering of the compliance vessels.

  12. Hemoglobin A1c in predicting progression to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tajima, Naoko; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Kato, Takeo; Daimon, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The predictive value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in comparison to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is evaluated for 5-year incident diabetes (DM), as HbA1c may be more practical than FPG in the screening for DM in the future. Of 1189 non-DM subjects aged 35-89 years old from the Funagata Study, 57 subjects (4.8%) had developed DM on the WHO criteria at 5-year follow-up. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval: CI) for a one standard deviation increase in FPG/HbA1c was 3.40 (2.44-4.74)/3.49 (2.42-5.02). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FPG/HbA1c was 0.786 (95% CI: 0.719-0.853)/0.785 (0.714-0.855). The HbA1c corresponding to FPG 5.56 mmol/l was HbA1c 5.3%. There was no statistical difference in sensitivity between FPG 5.56 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3% (61.4% vs. 56.1%), while specificity was higher in HbA1c 5.3% than FPG 5.56 mmol/l (87.8% vs. 82.5%, p-value<0.001). The fraction of incident case from those with baseline IGT was similar between the groups, however the fraction of people above the cut-off was significantly lower in HbA1c 5.3% than FPG 5.56 mmol/l (14.3% vs. 19.6%, p-value<0.001). HbA1c is similar to FPG to evaluate DM risk, and HbA1c could be practical and efficient to select subjects for intervention.

  13. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (<130 mm Hg or 10 mm Hg reduction from baseline if this was <140 mm Hg) or standard target (<140 mm Hg). Apart from the different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a <140 mm Hg target led to a clinically important reduction in blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  14. Multiprofessional Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Pimenta, Camila Dutra; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2017-01-01

    Background As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and some comorbidities. Objectives To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1) and last visit (Vf) were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP), renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001) and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001), with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001). The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001), with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004), angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001) and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001). There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001), but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p<0.001). Conclusion

  15. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Changes During Clozapine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Norman, Sarah M; Sullivan, Kelli M; Liu, Fang; DiPaula, Bethany A; Jose, Pedro A; Kitchen, Christopher A; Feldman, Stephanie M; Kelly, Deanna L

    2016-09-27

    People with schizophrenia are 3-4 times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Clozapine (CLZ) is the gold standard of treatment for refractory schizophrenia. It has been associated with tachycardia and recent evidence shows individuals prescribed CLZ may develop blood pressure (BP) elevation and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CLZ on BP and heart rate (HR). This was a retrospective chart review of patients 18-75 years old with a DSM IV diagnosis of Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective disorder. Primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and HR measured 12 weeks before and 24 weeks during CLZ treatment. Eighteen patient records were included in this study. The mean stabilized CLZ dose was 441.7 ± 171.8 mg/day. DBP (t = 1.02, df = 79.5, = 2.00, 0.049) and HR (t = 1.32, df = 355  = -4.61, < 0.0001) were significantly higher after CLZ initiation. A trend was noted for increase in SBP (p = 0.071). 22 % of patients met criteria for hypertension before CLZ and 67 % during CLZ treatment (Chi Square = 6.25, df = 1, p = 0.0124). No significant changes in weight or renal function occured during CLZ treatment. No patients had evidence of cardiomyopathy. The data suggest CLZ may be associated with a rise in BP and HR. The results of this study support previous literature that found an increase in SBP/DBP regardless of CLZ dose, occurring early in treatment. Due to high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, more work is needed to determine risk factors and understand the mechanism of action that may cause this side effect.

  16. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Schepelmann, M.; Yarova, P. L.; Lopez-Fernandez, I.; Davies, T. S.; Brennan, S. C.; Edwards, P. J.; Aggarwal, A.; Graça, J.; Rietdorf, K.; Matchkov, V.; Fenton, R. A.; Chang, W.; Krssak, M.; Stewart, A.; Broadley, K. J.; Ward, D. T.; Price, S. A.; Edwards, D. H.; Kemp, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive SM22αCaSRΔflox/Δflox [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) concentrations (1–5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR. PMID:26538090

  17. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs.

  18. [Indicators of glycemic control --hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)].

    PubMed

    Sato, Asako

    2014-01-01

    The clinical goal of diabetes management is a good quality of life that is not different from that of a healthy subjects. To fulfill the goal, prevention of complications is needed under good glycemic control. Although blood glucose measurement is essential for glycemic control, there are diurnal variations in blood glucose levels. An indicator of long-term glycemic control is necessary. HbA1c is the gold standard measurement for the assessment of glycemic control, and worldwide large scale clinical studies of diabetes complications have greatly valued HbA1c as an indicator of glycemic control. In addition, recently, HbA1c was recommended for use in the diagnosis of diabetes in Japan and in the United States. Although HbA1c is used widely and internationally, international standardization of the HbA1c value has not been achieved. In Japan, from April 2014, it has been decided to adopt the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) value, which is used by many countries globally, as the first step toward internationalization. Recently, cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients has been increasing in Japan. Relationships between postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease have been noted. Therefore, the correction of postprandial hyperglycemia is one of the important goals of glycemic control to prevent cardiovascular disease. HbA1c or glycated albumin (GA) results from the glycation of hemoglobin or serum albumin and represents 2-month or 2-week glycemia, respectively. In addition, the glycation speed of GA is ten times faster than HbA1c, so GA is likely to reflect the variation in blood glucose and postprandial hyperglycemia in combination with HbA1c and its value. 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) is a marker of glycemia-induced glycosuria, since reabsorption of filtered 1,5-AG in the proximal tubule is competitively inhibited by glucose. It is an indicator to identify rapid changes in hyperglycemia. Understanding the characteristics of the

  19. Primary Care-Based Investigation of the Effect of Sitagliptin on Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Shouhei; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Furuki, Takamoto; Minamizawa, Kosuke; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Numata, Yuichi; Chin, Keiichi; Kojima, Jisho; Miyakawa, Masaaki; Matsuba, Ikuro

    2017-01-01

    Background The influence of long-term sitagliptin therapy on office blood pressure (BP) and home BP has been unclear. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of 454 patients with type 2 diabetes, the following variables were analyzed before and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiation of sitagliptin therapy: office systolic blood pressure (SBP), office diastolic blood pressure (DBP), office pulse rate, morning home SBP, morning home DBP, morning home pulse rate, evening home SBP, evening home DBP, evening home pulse rate, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), plasma glucose, lipid profile, and renal function parameters. Results The office SBP showed a significant decrease after 6 and 12 months of sitagliptin therapy (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively), while office DBP was decreased significantly at all time points of evaluation (3, 6, 9, and 12 months: P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.05, respectively). Analysis of covariance revealed a significant decrease in office SBP after 6 and 12 months, as well as significant reduction of office DBP after 6 and 9 months. Morning home SBP and DBP were significantly reduced after 6 months, as was evening home DBP after 6 and 12 months, but there was no significant decrease in evening home SBP. HbA1c and plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced at all time points of evaluation. Examination of the lipid profile revealed that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were also decreased at all time points of evaluation, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly reduced after 3, 9, and 12 months. Significant reduction of the estimated glomerular filtration rate was observed after 6, 9, and 12 months, and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was significantly lower at 9 and 12 months. Serum creatinine was increased significantly at all time points of evaluation. Conclusions BP was slightly but significantly reduced from 6 months after initiation of sitagliptin therapy

  20. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.