Science.gov

Sample records for a1c fasting glucose

  1. Noninvasive type 2 diabetes screening: superior sensitivity to fasting plasma glucose and A1C.

    PubMed

    Maynard, John D; Rohrscheib, Mark; Way, Jeffrey F; Nguyen, Catriona M; Ediger, Marwood N

    2007-05-01

    This study compared the performance of a novel noninvasive technology to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and A1C tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The design was a head-to-head evaluation in a naïve population. Consented subjects received FPG and A1C tests and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects were also measured by a noninvasive device that detects the fluorescence of skin advanced glycation end products. A total of 351 subjects participated. Subjects with 2-h OGTT values > or = 140 mg/dl defined the positive screening class. A total of 84 subjects (23.9% prevalence) screened positive. The performances of the noninvasive device, FPG, and A1C were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity against this classification. At the impaired fasting glucose threshold (FPG = 100 mg/dl), the FPG testing sensitivity was 58% and the specificity was 77.4%. At that same specificity, the sensitivity for A1C testing was 63.8%, while the noninvasive testing sensitivity was 74.7%. The sensitivity advantage of the noninvasive device over both blood tests for detecting diabetes and precursors was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The noninvasive technology showed clinical performance advantages over both FPG and A1C testing. The sensitivity differential indicated that the noninvasive device is capable of identifying 28.8% more individuals in the OGTT-defined positive screening class than FPG testing and 17.1% more than A1C testing. The combination of higher sensitivity and greater convenience--rapid results with no fasting or blood draws--makes the device well suited for opportunistic screening.

  2. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela Mc; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm Jm; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. A representative population-based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to <7mmol/L or HbA1c ≥5.7 to <6.5%. Complete data were available on 939 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was higher, but not significantly so, by HbA1c (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5, 6.8) vs FPG (3.5%, 2.4, 5.1). Overall 79 individuals had diabetes by either measure, but only 21 on both. The prevalence of prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis in this population would have major

  3. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population

    PubMed Central

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela MC; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm JM; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Background Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. Methods A representative population–based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to <7mmol/L or HbA1c ≥5.7 to <6.5%. Results Complete data were available on 939 participants without previously diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was higher, but not significantly so, by HbA1c (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5, 6.8) vs FPG (3.5%, 2.4, 5.1). Overall 79 individuals had diabetes by either measure, but only 21 on both. The prevalence of prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. Conclusion The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and

  4. Elevated HbA1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose in Predicting Diabetes Incidence Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lipska, Kasia J.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Gill, Thomas M.; Kanaya, Alka; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Koster, Annemarie; Johnson, Karen C.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara; De Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which measures—impaired fasting glucose (IFG), elevated HbA1c, or both—best predict incident diabetes in older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we selected individuals without diabetes, and we defined IFG (100–125 mg/dL) and elevated HbA1c (5.7–6.4%) per American Diabetes Association guidelines. Incident diabetes was based on self-report, use of antihyperglycemic medicines, or HbA1c ≥6.5% during 7 years of follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, site, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, and physical activity. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for models with IFG and with both IFG and elevated HbA1c. RESULTS Among 1,690 adults (mean age 76.5, 46% men, 32% black), 183 (10.8%) developed diabetes over 7 years. Adjusted odds ratios of diabetes were 6.2 (95% CI 4.4–8.8) in those with IFG (versus those with fasting plasma glucose [FPG] <100 mg/dL) and 11.3 (7.8–16.4) in those with elevated HbA1c (versus those with HbA1c <5.7%). When FPG and HbA1c were considered together, odds ratios were 3.5 (1.9–6.3) in those with IFG only, 8.0 (4.8–13.2) in those with elevated HbA1c only, and 26.2 (16.3–42.1) in those with both IFG and elevated HbA1c (versus those with normal FPG and HbA1c). Addition of elevated HbA1c to the model with IFG resulted in improved discrimination and calibration. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with both IFG and elevated HbA1c have a substantially increased odds of developing diabetes over 7 years. Combined screening with FPG and HbA1c may identify older adults at very high risk for diabetes. PMID:24135387

  5. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Aftab, H; Ambreen, A; Jamil, M; Garred, P; Petersen, J H; Nielsen, S D; Bygbjerg, I C; Christensen, D L

    2017-06-01

    To compare HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA 1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39) were diagnosed with diabetes using HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose criteria, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.94) for HbA 1c and 0.61 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.73) for fasting plasma glucose, with a borderline significant difference between the two tests (P=0.07). HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood glucose fluctuations when using fasting plasma glucose. HbA 1c may be a more reliable test in individuals with transient hyperglycaemia. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  6. Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: Comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Nguyen, Uyen D T; Tran, Truong X; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2017-01-01

    HbA1c has been introduced as a complementary diagnostic test for diabetes, but its impact on disease prevalence is unknown. This study evaluated the concordance between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes in the general population. The study was designed as a population based investigation, with participants being sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and analyzed within 4 hours after collection. HbA1c was measured with high pressure liquid chromatography (Arkray Adams, Japan). FPG was measured by the hexokinase method (Advia Autoanalyzer; Bayer Diagnostics, Germany). Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. Prediabetes was classified as HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. The study included 3523 individuals (2356 women) aged 30 years and above. Based on the HbA1c test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 9.7% (95%CI, 8.7-10.7%; n = 342) and 34.6% (33.0-36.2; n = 1219), respectively. Based on the FPG test, the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 6.3% (95%CI, 5.5-7.2%; n = 223) and 12.1% (11.1-13.2; n = 427). Among the 427 individuals identified by FPG as "pre-diabetes", 28.6% were classified as diabetes by HbA1c test. The weighted kappa statistic of concordance between HbA1c and FPG was 0.55, with most of the discordance being in the prediabetes group. These data indicate that there is a significant discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes between FPG and HbA1c measurements, and the discordance could have significant impact on clinical practice. FPG appears to underestimate the burden of undiagnosed diabetes.

  7. Association of A1C and Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels With Diabetic Retinopathy Prevalence in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yiling J.; Gregg, Edward W.; Geiss, Linda S.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Williams, Desmond E.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Albright, Ann L.; Cowie, Catherine C.; Klein, Ronald; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of A1C levels and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with diabetic retinopathy in the U.S. population and to compare the ability of the two glycemic measures to discriminate between people with and without retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study included 1,066 individuals aged ≥40 years from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A1C, FPG, and 45° color digital retinal images were assessed. Retinopathy was defined as a level ≥14 on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. We used joinpoint regression to identify linear inflections of prevalence of retinopathy in the association between A1C and FPG. RESULTS The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 11%, which is appreciably lower than the prevalence in people with diagnosed diabetes (36%). There was a sharp increase in retinopathy prevalence in those with A1C ≥5.5% or FPG ≥5.8 mmol/l. After excluding 144 people using hypoglycemic medication, the change points for the greatest increase in retinopathy prevalence were A1C 5.5% and FPG 7.0 mmol/l. The coefficients of variation were 15.6 for A1C and 28.8 for FPG. Based on the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, A1C was a stronger discriminator of retinopathy (0.71 [95% CI 0.66–0.76]) than FPG (0.65 [0.60 – 0.70], P for difference = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS The steepest increase in retinopathy prevalence occurs among individuals with A1C ≥5.5% and FPG ≥5.8 mmol/l. A1C discriminates prevalence of retinopathy better than FPG. PMID:19875604

  8. Hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose distributions in U.S. population subgroups: NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Menke, Andy; Rust, Keith F; Savage, Peter J; Cowie, Catherine C

    2014-02-01

    Although mean concentrations of hemoglobin A1c (A1C), fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose differ by demographics, it is unclear what other characteristics of the distributions may differ, such as the amount of asymmetry of the distribution (skewness) and shift left or right compared with another distribution (shift). Using kernel density estimation, we created smoothed plots of the distributions of fasting plasma glucose (N = 7250), 2-hour plasma glucose (N = 5851), and A1C (N = 16,209) by age, race-ethnicity, and sex in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults including people with and without diabetes. We tested differences in distributions using cumulative logistic regression. The distributions were generally unimodal and right-skewed. All distributions were shifted higher and more right-skewed for older age groups (P < .001 for each marker). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the distribution of fasting plasma glucose was shifted higher for Mexican-Americans (P = .01), whereas the distribution of A1C was shifted higher for non-Hispanic blacks (P < .001). The distribution of fasting plasma glucose was shifted higher for men (P < .001) and the distribution of 2-hour plasma glucose was shifted higher for women (P = .01). We provide a graphic reference for comparing these distributions and diabetes cut-points by demographic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dick, William R; Fletcher, Emily A; Shah, Sachin A

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c by 1.05% (p = 0.004). Significant reductions of both endpoints were maintained in all subgroup analyses. Additionally, the data suggest that patients with an FBG ≥200 mg/dL may see a greater benefit. A mean FBG reduction of 109.9 mg/dL was observed in this population (p ≤ 0.0001). The Egger statistic showed publication bias with FBG but not with HbA1c (p = 0.010 and p = 0.602, respectively). These results support the use of oral aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better

  10. Comparison of the Current Diagnostic Criterion of HbA1c with Fasting and 2-Hour Plasma Glucose Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanasorn, Rudruidee; Huang, Jean; Feng, Wei; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 28.1% (110 subjects). Patients who were diabetic using 2hPG criterion but had HbA1c < 6.5% were more likely to be older (64 ± 15 versus 60 ± 15 years old, P = 0.01, mean ± STD), female (53.2% versus 38.2%, P = 0.008), leaner (29.7 ± 6.1 versus 33.0 ± 6.6 kg/m2, P = 0.000005), and less likely to be current smokers (18.1% versus 29.1%, P = 0.02) as compared to those with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The diagnostic agreement in the clinical setting revealed the current HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is less likely to detect diabetes than those defined by FPG and 2hPG. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% detects less than 50% of diabetic patients defined by FPG and less than 30% of diabetic patients defined by 2hPG. When the diagnosis of diabetes is in doubt by HbA1c, FPG and/or 2hPG should be obtained. PMID:27597979

  11. Modelling the Relative Contribution of Fasting and Post-Prandial Plasma Glucose to HbA1c in Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Richard L.; Luzio, Steven D.; Owens, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is regarded as the gold standard of glucose homeostasis assessment in diabetes. There has been much discussion in recent medical literature of experimental results concerning the relative contribution of fasting and post-prandial glucose levels to the value of HbA1c. A mathematical model of haemoglobin glycation is…

  12. The Ratio of Estimated Average Glucose to Fasting Plasma Glucose Level Is Superior to Glycated Albumin, Hemoglobin A1c, Fructosamine, and GA/A1c Ratio for Assessing β-Cell Function in Childhood Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Ji Woo; Fujii, Tatsuyoshi; Fujii, Noriyoshi; Choi, Jong Weon

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study investigated the use of the estimated average glucose to fasting plasma glucose ratio (eAG/fPG ratio) to screen for β-cell function in pediatric diabetes. Methods. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), fructosamine, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured. The ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA/A1c ratio) was calculated, and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) was determined. Results. Median values of C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-β levels were significantly higher in patients with an increased eAG/fPG ratio than in those with a decreased eAG/fPG ratio. C-peptide and HOMA-β levels were more closely correlated with the eAG/fPG ratio than with GA, HbA1c, the GA/A1c ratio, and fructosamine. In contrast, body mass index was significantly associated with GA, GA/A1c ratio, and fructosamine, but not with the eAG/fPG ratio and HbA1c levels. To test the diagnostic accuracies of the eAG/fPG ratio for identifying HOMA-β > 30.0% in patients with type 2 diabetes, the area under the ROC curve of the eAG/fPG ratio was significantly larger than that of the GA/A1c ratio [0.877 (95% CI, 0.780–0.942) versus 0.775 (95% CI, 0.664–0.865), P = 0.039]. Conclusions. A measurement of the eAG/fPG ratio may provide helpful information for assessing β-cell function in pediatric patients with diabetes. PMID:25013775

  13. Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c in pregnancy and the postpartum risk of diabetes among Chinese women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Leishen; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Li, Nan; Li, Min; Qiao, Yijuan; Tian, Huiguang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have assessed the association of fasting and 2h glucose, and HbA1c during pregnancy with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We assessed the association of fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior GDM. A cohort study in 1263 GDM women at 1-5 years after delivery was performed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of fasting and 2h plasma glucose, and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with the risk of diabetes at postpartum. The multivariable-adjusted (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, current body mass index, family history of diabetes, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, passive smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol drinking, and intake of energy, saturated fat, and dietary fiber) hazard ratios of postpartum diabetes were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-1.91) for each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting glucose during pregnancy, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.45-1.84) for each 1 mmol/l increase in 2h glucose during pregnancy, 2.11 (95% CI: 1.50-2.97) for each 1 unit (%) increase in HbA1c during pregnancy. When fasting glucose, 2h glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy were entered multivariable-adjusted model simultaneously, 2h glucose and HbA1c but not fasting glucose remained to be significant and positive predictors for postpartum diabetes. For women with prior GDM, 2h plasma glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy are independent predictors of postpartum diabetes, but fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c in pregnancy and the postpartum risk of diabetes among Chinese women with gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Leishen; Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqi; Li, Nan; Li, Min; Qiao, Yijuan; Tian, Huiguang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yang, Xilin; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Aims Very few studies have assessed the association of fasting and 2-hour glucose, and HbA1c during pregnancy with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior gestational diabetes (GDM). We assessed the association of fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with postpartum diabetes risk among women with prior GDM. Methods A cohort study in 1,263 GDM women at 1–5 years after delivery was performed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1c at 26-30 gestational weeks with the risk of diabetes at postpartum. Results The multivariable-adjusted (age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy, current body mass index, family history of diabetes, marital status, education, family income, smoking status, passive smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol drinking, and intake of energy, saturated fat, and dietary fiber) hazard ratios of postpartum diabetes were 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36–1.91) for each 1 mmol/l increase in fasting glucose during pregnancy, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.45–1.84) for each 1 mmol/l increase in 2-hour glucose during pregnancy, 2.11 (95% CI: 1.50–2.97) for each 1 unit (%) increase in HbA1c during pregnancy. When fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy were entered multivariable-adjusted model simultaneously, 2-hour glucose and HbA1c but not fasting glucose remained to be significant and positive predictors for postpartum diabetes. Conclusions For women with prior GDM, 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c during pregnancy are independent predictors of postpartum diabetes, but fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy is not. PMID:26686048

  15. Combined use of fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c in the screening of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaomin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yawen; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Huan; Wu, Peihong; Teng, Xiangyu; Dong, Ying; Zhou, Jia wen; Xu, Hua; Zheng, Jun; Li, Shengxian; Tao, Tao; Hu, Yumei; Jia, Yun

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the validity of combined use of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as screening tests for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in high-risk subjects. A total of 2,298 subjects were included. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c measurement. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of FPG and HbA1c for detecting diabetes and IGT, which was defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. (1) Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cut point of FPG related to diabetes diagnosed by OGTT was 6.1 mmol/l that was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.5 and 81.0%, respectively; The optimal cut point of HbA1c related to diabetes diagnosed by OGTT was 6.1%, which was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 81.0 and 81.0%, respectively; The screening model using FPG > or = 6.1 mmol/l or HbA1c > or = 6.1% had sensitivity of 96.5% for detecting undiagnosed diabetes; the screening model using FPG > or = 6.1 mmol/l and HbA1c > or = 6.1% had specificity of 96.3% for detecting undiagnosed diabetes. (2) Based on the ROC curve, the optimal cut point of FPG related to IGT diagnosed by OGTT was 5.6 mmol/l that was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 64.1 and 65.4%, respectively; The optimal cut point of HbA1c related to IGT diagnosed by OGTT was 5.6%, which was associated with a sensitivity and specificity of 66.2 and 51.0%, respectively; The screening model using FPG > or = 5.6 mmol/l or HbA1c > or = 5.6% had sensitivity of 87.9% for detecting undiagnosed IGT; The screening model using FPG > or = 5.6 mmol/l and HbA1c > or = 5.6% had specificity of 82.4% for detecting undiagnosed IGT. Compared with FPG or HbA1c alone, the simultaneous measurement of FPG and HbA1c (FPG and/or HbA1C) might be a more sensitive and specific screening tool for identifying

  16. Physical activity and change in fasting glucose and HbA1c: a quantitative meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Boniol, Mathieu; Dragomir, Miruna; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2017-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials which evaluated the impact of physical activity on the change in fasting glucose and HbA1c. A literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2015. Studies reporting glucose or HbA1c at baseline and at the end of study were included, and the change and its variance were estimated from studies with complete data. Mixed-effect random models were used to estimate the change of fasting glucose (mg/dl) and HbA1c (%) per additional minutes of physical activity per week. A total of 125 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Based on 105 studies, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -2.75 mg/dl of fasting glucose (95% CI -3.96; -1.55), although there was a high degree of heterogeneity (83.5%). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (56 studies), the average change in fasting glucose was -4.71 mg/dl (95% CI -7.42; -2.01). For HbA1c, among 76 studies included, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -0.14% of HbA1c (95% CI -0.18; -0.09) with heterogeneity (73%). A large degree of publication bias was identified (Egger test p < 0.001). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (60 studies), the average change in HbA1c was -0.16% (95% CI -0.21; -0.11). This analysis demonstrates that moderate increases in physical activity are associated with significant reductions in both fasting glucose and HbA1c.

  17. Can HbA1c replace OGTT for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus among Chinese patients with impaired fasting glucose?

    PubMed

    Yu, Esther Y T; Wong, Carlos K H; Ho, S Y; Wong, Samuel Y S; Lam, Cindy L K

    2015-12-01

    HbA1c ≥ 6.5% has been recommended as a diagnostic criterion for the detection of diabetes mellitus (DM) since 2010 because of its convenience, stability and significant correlation with diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the accuracy of HbA1c compared to glucose-based diagnostic criteria varies among subjects of different ethnicity and risk profile. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of HbA1c for diagnosing DM compared to the diagnosis by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the optimal HbA1c level to diagnose DM in primary care Chinese patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). A cross-sectional study was carried out in three public primary care clinics in Hong Kong. About 1128 Chinese adults with IFG (i.e. FG level between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l in the past 18 months) were recruited to receive paired OGTT and HbA1c tests. Sensitivities and specificities of HbA1c at different threshold levels for predicting DM compared to the diagnosis by OGTT were evaluated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cut-off level. Among the 1128 subjects (mean age 64.2±8.9 year, 48.8% male), 229 (20.3%) were diagnosed to have DM by OGTT. The sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c ≥6.5% were 33.2% and 93.5%, respectively, for predicting DM diagnosed by OGTT. The area under the ROC curve was 0.770, indicating HbA1c had fair discriminatory power. The optimal cut-off threshold of HbA1c was 6.3% for discriminating DM from non-DM, with sensitivity and specificity of 56.3% and 85.5%, respectively. HbA1c ≥ 5.6% has the highest sensitivity and negative predictive value of 96.1% and 94.5%, respectively. HbA1c ≥ 6.5% is highly specific in identifying people with DM, but it may miss the majority (66.8%) of the DM cases. An HbA1c threshold of <5.6% is more appropriate to be used for the exclusion of DM. OGTT should be performed for the confirmation of DM among Chinese patients with IFG who have an HbA1c between 5.6% and 6.4%. © The

  18. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of once-weekly dulaglutide on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose in patient subpopulations by gender, duration of diabetes and baseline HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Gallwitz, Baptist; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Thieu, Vivian; Garcia-Perez, Luis-Emilio; Pavo, Imre; Yu, Maria; Robertson, Kenneth E; Zhang, Nan; Giorgino, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 1.5 and 0.75 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes by subgroups of gender, duration of diabetes and baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the dulaglutide clinical development programme (AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 clinical trials). Change in HbA1c was analysed by gender, duration of diabetes (<5, ≥5 years and <10, ≥10 years), and baseline HbA1c (<8.5%, ≥8.5%) in pooled and individual studies. Changes from baseline in weight, hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were evaluated for individual trials. In the pooled analysis of patients treated with dulaglutide 1.5 mg at 6 months, the reductions in HbA1c from baseline were similar across gender (men: least squares [LS] mean -1.26% [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.36, -1.16]; women: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.24]) and among duration of diabetes subgroups (<5 years: LS mean -1.32% [95% CI -1.43, -1.22]; ≥5 and <10 years: LS mean -1.33% [95% CI -1.43, -1.22]; ≥10 years: -1.24% [95% CI -1.35, -1.14]). Patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% had greater HbA1c reductions than patients with baseline HbA1c <8.5%, (≥8.5%: LS mean -1.86% [95% CI -1.97, -1.75]; <8.5%: LS mean -1.02% [95% CI -1.12, -0.93]). Reductions in fasting blood glucose (FBG) were consistent with HbA1c changes. Similar results were observed with dulaglutide 0.75 mg. In general, body weight changes were similar among duration of diabetes and in baseline HbA1c subgroups, respectively; women had a numerically greater weight loss or less weight gain than men with both dulaglutide doses. There was no clinically meaningful difference in hypoglycaemia trends by gender or duration of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia incidence and rate were generally lower in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8.5% than in those with <8.5%, except for the AWARD-4 study (combination with mealtime insulin). Across the AWARD studies, dulaglutide demonstrated significant improvements in glycaemic control

  20. Visit-to-Visit Variations in Fasting Plasma Glucose and HbA1c Associated With an Increased Risk of Alzheimer Disease: Taiwan Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsai-Chung; Yang, Chun-Pai; Tseng, Shih-Ting; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Sing-Yu; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between glycemic variability and the incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine visit-to-visit variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) represented by the coefficient of variation (CV) and to determine whether they were independently associated with AD, irrespective of HbA 1c and other traditional risk factors in such patients. Patients with T2DM enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, age ≥60 years, and without diagnosis of AD ( n = 16,706) were included in the study. Potential risk factors were analyzed using extended Cox proportional hazards regression models for competing risk of mortality on AD incidence. During a median follow-up of 8.88 years, 831 incident cases of AD were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 3.5/1,000 person-years. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, diabetes-related variables, FPG and HbA 1c , drug-related variables, and comorbidities, both FPG CV and HbA 1c CV were found to be significant predictors of AD, with corresponding hazard ratios of 1.27 (95% CI 1.06-1.52) for the third tertile in FPG CV and 1.32 (95% CI 1.11-1.58) for the third tertile in HbA 1c CV. FPG CV and HbA 1c CV are independently associated with AD. The associations between glycemic variability and AD demonstrated in this study suggest a linked pathophysiological mechanism, which is worthy of further investigation. Further research is required to confirm our results and to evaluate whether FPG CV and HbA 1c CV can be valuable therapeutic targets for patients with T2DM at risk. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) and fasting plasma glucose relationships in sea-level and high-altitude settings.

    PubMed

    Bazo-Alvarez, J C; Quispe, R; Pillay, T D; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Smeeth, L; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Málaga, G; Miranda, J J

    2017-06-01

    Higher haemoglobin levels and differences in glucose metabolism have been reported among high-altitude residents, which may influence the diagnostic performance of HbA 1c . This study explores the relationship between HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in populations living at sea level and at an altitude of > 3000 m. Data from 3613 Peruvian adults without a known diagnosis of diabetes from sea-level and high-altitude settings were evaluated. Linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed adjusting for potential confounders. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and concordance between HbA 1c and FPG was assessed using a Kappa index. At sea level and high altitude, means were 13.5 and 16.7 g/dl (P > 0.05) for haemoglobin level; 41 and 40 mmol/mol (5.9% and 5.8%; P < 0.01) for HbA 1c ; and 5.8 and 5.1 mmol/l (105 and 91.3 mg/dl; P < 0.001) for FPG, respectively. The adjusted relationship between HbA 1c and FPG was quadratic at sea level and linear at high altitude. Adjusted models showed that, to predict an HbA 1c value of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%), the corresponding mean FPG values at sea level and high altitude were 6.6 and 14.8 mmol/l (120 and 266 mg/dl), respectively. An HbA 1c cut-off of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) had a sensitivity for high FPG of 87.3% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76.5 to 94.4) at sea level and 40.9% (95% CI 20.7 to 63.6) at high altitude. The relationship between HbA 1c and FPG is less clear at high altitude than at sea level. Caution is warranted when using HbA 1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in this setting. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  2. MTNR1B rs10830963 is associated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C and impaired beta-cell function in Chinese Hans from Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in White Europeans have shown that genetic variation rs10830963 in melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) is associated with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes, which has also been replicated in several Asian populations. As a variant in the gene involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the effect of the variant on sleep status remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MTNR1B rs10830963 on fasting glucose, type 2 diabetes and sleep status in Chinese Hans. Methods MTNR1B rs10830963 was genotyped in a population-based cohort including 3,210 unrelated Chinese Hans from Beijing and Shanghai, and tested for associations with risk of type 2 diabetes, diabetes-related traits and sleep status. Results We confirmed the associations of MTNR1B rs10830963 with fasting glucose (beta = 0.11 mmol/l, 95%CI [0.03, 0.18], P = 0.005), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (beta = 0.07%, 95%CI [0.02,0.12], P = 0.004) and homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) (beta = -5.01%, 95%CI [-8.24,-1.77], P = 0.003) in the Shanghai, but not in the Beijing subpopulation (P ≥ 0.58). The effect size of MTNR1B rs10830963 on fasting glucose in Shanghai Chinese Hans was comparable to that reported from other Asian populations. We found no evidence of associations with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.05 [0.90-1.23], P = 0.54), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (P = 0.86) or sleep status (P ≥ 0.44). Conclusions A common variant in MTNR1B was associated with fasting glucose, HbA1C and HOMA-B but not with sleep status in Chinese Hans from Shanghai, strengthening the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 in fasting glycemia and impaired beta-cell function. PMID:20398260

  3. Risk of progression to diabetes from prediabetes defined by HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose criteria in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the abilities of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria predicting 5-year progression rate to diabetes in Korean adults with prediabetes. Participants included 17,971 Koreans (aged 20-79years) who underwent routine medical check-ups at a mean interval of 5.2years (3.1-6.7years). Prediabetes was defined as FPG 5.6-6.9mmol/l or HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). Incident diabetes was defined as FPG⩾7.0mmol/l, HbA1c⩾6.5% (48mmol/mol), or initiation of antidiabetic medications. At baseline, the prevalence of prediabetes was 30.6% (n=5495) by FPG and 20.4% (n=3664) by HbA1c criteria. The 5-year progression rate to diabetes was significantly higher in prediabetes identified by HbA1c than by FPG tests (14.7% vs. 10.4%, P<0.001). Of individuals diagnosed with prediabetes by only one test, those by HbA1c alone had a higher risk of progression to diabetes than those diagnosed by FPG alone (6.0% vs. 3.9%, P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that area under the curve was greater for HbA1c (0.855, 95% CI 0.840-0.870) than for FPG (0.830, 0.813-0.846) (P=0.016). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, the odds ratio (OR) of developing diabetes was higher in participants with prediabetes identified by HbA1c (OR 9.91, 8.24-11.9) than by FPG (OR 7.29, 5.97-8.89) (P=0.026). Although fewer individuals with prediabetes were identified by HbA1c than by FPG criteria, the ability to predict progression to diabetes was stronger for HbA1c than for FPG in Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose with incident diabetes: Implications for pre-diabetes thresholds in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yuki; Oya, Junko; Kurita, Moritoshi; Isago, Chisato; Hasegawa, Yukiko; Ito, Arata; Hirota, Naoki; Tsuzura, Reika; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed pre-diabetes (pre-DM) cutoffs for HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) that were associated with an increased risk of incident DM. We evaluated 2267 non-diabetic Japanese health-check examinees (HbA1c: <6.5% [<48mmol/mol] and FPG: <7.0mmol/L) who were 30-79 years old and were followed-up for 5 years. Incident DM was defined as HbA1c of ≥6.5% (≥48mmol/mol), FPG of ≥7.0mmol/L, or physician-diagnosed DM. During 11047 person-years, we identified 99 incident DM cases (4.3%). The incidence of DM increased with increasing baseline HbA1c or FPG levels, and the change points (95% confidence intervals) were 5.7% (5.6-5.7%; 39mmol/mol [38-39mmol/mol]) for HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L (5.5-5.6mmol/L) for FPG. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident DM per one standard deviation-increase in HbA1c and FPG were 5.5 (4.4-6.8) and 4.0 (3.2-4.8), respectively. The adjusted HRs for incident DM were significantly higher at HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol) or FPG of 5.5-6.9mmol/L, compared to HbA1c of <5.7% (<39mmol/mol) or FPG of <5.5mmol/L. The lower cut-offs for pre-DM may be 5.7% (39mmol/mol) for HbA1c and 5.5mmol/L for FPG in this Japanese population. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Mediterranean diet improves HbA1c but not fasting blood glucose compared to alternative dietary strategies: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, P; Achana, F; Troughton, J; Gray, L J; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2014-06-01

    Overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to lose weight for optimal glucose management, yet many find this difficult. Determining whether alterations in dietary patterns irrespective of weight loss can aid glucose control has not been fully investigated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to determine the effects of a Mediterranean diet compared to other dietary interventions on glycaemic control irrespective of weight loss. Electronic databases were searched for controlled trials that included a Mediterranean diet intervention. The interventions included all major components of the Mediterranean diet and were carried out in free-living individuals at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Network meta-analysis compared all interventions with one another at the same time as maintaining randomisation. Analyses were conducted within a Bayesian framework. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, seven examined fasting blood glucose (n = 972), six examined fasting insulin (n = 1330) and three examined HbA1c (n = 487). None of the interventions were significantly better than the others in lowering glucose parameters. The Mediterranean diet reduced HbA1c significantly compared to usual care but not compared to the Palaeolithic diet. The effect of alterations in dietary practice irrespective of weight loss on glycaemic control cannot be concluded from the present review. The need for further research in this area is apparent because no firm conclusions about relative effectiveness of interventions could be drawn as a result of the paucity of the evidence. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Combined use of fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c in a stepwise fashion to detect undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nishimura, Rimei; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Tajima, Naoko

    2007-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and serious condition related with considerable morbidity. Screening for DM is one strategy for reducing this burden. In Japan National Diabetes Screening Program (JNDSP) guideline, the combined use of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in a stepwise fashion has been recommended to identify the group of people needing life-style counseling or medical care. However, the efficacy of this program has not been fully evaluated, as an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not mandatory in the guideline. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the screening test scenario, in which an OGTT would be applied to people needing life-style counseling or medical care on this guideline: FPG 110-125 mg/dl and HbA1c over 5.5%. Subjects were 1,726 inhabitants without a previous history of DM in the Funagata study, which is a population-based survey conducted in Yamagata prefecture to clarify the risk factors, related conditions, and consequences of DM. DM was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence of undiagnosed DM was 6.6%. The tested screening scenario gave a sensitivity of 55.3%, a specificity of 98.4%, a positive predictive value of 70.8%, and a negative predictive value of 96.9% for undiagnosed DM. In conclusion, the screening test scenario, in which an OGTT would be followed by the combined use of FPG and HbA1c in a stepwise fashion according to the JNDSP guideline, was not effective in identifying people with undiagnosed DM.

  7. Percentiles of fasting serum insulin, glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR in pre-pubertal normal weight European children from the IDEFICS cohort.

    PubMed

    Peplies, J; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Savva, S C; Buck, C; Günther, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Iacoviello, L; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; De Henauw, S; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present age- and sex-specific reference values of insulin, glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for pre-pubertal children. The reference population consists of 7074 normal weight 3- to 10.9-year-old pre-pubertal children from eight European countries who participated in at least one wave of the IDEFICS ('identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants') surveys (2007-2010) and for whom standardised laboratory measurements were obtained. Percentile curves of insulin (measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), glucose, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were calculated as a function of age stratified by sex using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS) method. Levels of insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR continuously show an increasing trend with age, whereas HbA1c shows an upward trend only beyond the age of 8 years. Insulin and HOMA-IR values are higher in girls of all age groups, whereas glucose values are slightly higher in boys. Median serum levels of insulin range from 17.4 and 13.2 pmol l(-1) in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 53.5 and 43.0 pmol l(-1) in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys. Median values of glucose are 4.3 and 4.5 mmol l(-1) in the youngest age group and 49.3 and 50.6 mmol l(-1) in the oldest girls and boys. For HOMA-IR, median values range from 0.5 and 0.4 in 3-<3.5-year-old girls and boys to 1.7 and 1.4 in 10.5-<11-year-old girls and boys, respectively. Our study provides the first standardised reference values for an international European children's population and provides the, up to now, largest data set of healthy pre-pubertal children to model reference percentiles for markers of insulin resistance. Our cohort shows higher values of Hb1Ac as compared with a single Swedish study while our percentiles for the other glucose

  8. Association of African genetic ancestry with fasting glucose and HbA1c levels in non-diabetic individuals: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Prediabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Meigs, James B; Grant, Richard W; Piccolo, Rebecca; López, Lenny; Florez, Jose C; Porneala, Bianca; Marceau, Lisa; McKinlay, John B

    2014-09-01

    To test among diabetes-free urban community-dwelling adults the hypothesis that the proportion of African genetic ancestry is positively associated with glycaemia, after accounting for other continental ancestry proportions, BMI and socioeconomic status (SES). The Boston Area Community Health cohort is a multi-stage 1:1:1 stratified random sample of self-identified African-American, Hispanic and white adults from three Boston inner city areas. We measured 62 ancestry informative markers, fasting glucose (FG), HbA1c, BMI and SES (income, education, occupation and insurance status) and analysed 1,387 eligible individuals (379 African-American, 411 Hispanic, 597 white) without clinical or biochemical evidence of diabetes. We used three-heritage multinomial linear regression models to test the association of FG or HbA1c with genetic ancestry proportion adjusted for: (1) age and sex; (2) age, sex and BMI; and (3) age, sex, BMI and SES. Mean age- and sex-adjusted FG levels were 5.73 and 5.54 mmol/l among those with 100% African or European ancestry, respectively. Using per cent European ancestry as the referent, each 1% increase in African ancestry proportion was associated with an age- and sex-adjusted FG increase of 0.0019 mmol/l (p = 0.01). In the BMI- and SES-adjusted model the slope was 0.0019 (p = 0.02). Analysis of HbA1c gave similar results. A greater proportion of African genetic ancestry is independently associated with higher FG levels in a non-diabetic community-based cohort, even accounting for other ancestry proportions, obesity and SES. The results suggest that differences between African-Americans and whites in type 2 diabetes risk may include genetically mediated differences in glucose homeostasis.

  9. Association of prediabetes, defined by fasting glucose, HbA1c only, or combined criteria, with the risk of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Kim, Eun Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Bae, Sung Jin; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Choe, Jaewon

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and prediabetes defined by either fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, or their combination in a Korean population. In all, 76 434 South Koreans who voluntarily underwent a general health examination in the Health Screening & Promotion Center (Asan Medical Center) were analyzed after excluding patients with a previous history of CVD. Cardiovascular events and death due to CVD during a median follow-up period of 3.1 years (interquartile range 1.9-4.3 years) were identified from the Nationwide Health Insurance Claims Database and death certificates using ICD-10 codes. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall CVD events were significantly greater for subjects with prediabetes defined by FPG only (HR 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31), HbA1c only (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.16-1.42), and combined criteria (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with the normoglycemic group. After adjusting for multiple conventional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, family history of CVD, and BMI), the HRs for overall CVD were significantly increased only for participants with prediabetes defined by HbA1c. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs for major ischemic heart disease events were significantly increased for subjects with prediabetes defined either by HbA1c or combined criteria. Similarly, age- and sex-adjusted HRs for percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly higher for subjects with prediabetes defined by HbA1c only. For diabetes, the multivariate-adjusted HRs for all outcomes were significantly increased by all three criteria. Adding an HbA1c criterion when defining prediabetes in Koreans can help identify individuals with an increased risk of CVD. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Screening for pre-diabetes to predict future diabetes using various cut-off points for HbA(1c) and impaired fasting glucose: the Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 4 (TOPICS 4).

    PubMed

    Heianza, Y; Arase, Y; Fujihara, K; Tsuji, H; Saito, K; Hsieh, S D; Kodama, S; Shimano, H; Yamada, N; Hara, S; Sone, H

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate various screening criteria for pre-diabetes to identify which combination of impaired fasting glucose and elevated HbA(1c) values performs most effectively in predicting future diabetes in a large cohort of Japanese individuals. The study included 4670 men and 1571 women without diabetes (diabetes: fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, HbA(1c) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5%), or self-reported clinician-diagnosed diabetes). Pre-diabetes was diagnosed by a combination of impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or 6.1-6.9 mmol/l) and elevated HbA(1c) [39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) or 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%)]. During a 5-year follow-up, 338 incident cases of diabetes occurred. The combination of HbA(1c) 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l yielded the highest sensitivity (86%) and generated a large population-attributable per cent risk (78%) for predicting development of diabetes. Among individuals classified as having pre-diabetes by any of the four combined criteria, 20.5-32.0% reverted to the normoglycaemic state as having neither elevated HbA(1c) nor impaired fasting glucose at the last follow-up examination. At 5.6 years after the baseline examination, however, pre-diabetic individuals who fulfilled both HbA(1c) 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/l had a 100% cumulative risk of developing diabetes. The combination of HbA(1c) 39-46 mmol/mol (5.7-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l would have the best performance in reducing the likelihood of missing future cases of diabetes. Identifying pre-diabetic individuals who strictly fulfil HbA(1c) 42-46 mmol/mol (6.0-6.4%) and fasting plasma glucose 6.1-6.9 mmol/l would predict definite progression to diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  11. Use of HbA1c for Diagnoses of Diabetes and Prediabetes: Comparison with Diagnoses Based on Fasting and 2-Hr Glucose Values and Effects of Gender, Race, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been advocated for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. Its performance has been commonly assessed in corroboration with elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), but not the combination of FPG and 2-hr glucose values. This study assesses receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of HbA1c pertaining to the diagnoses of prediabetes and diabetes by FPG and/or 2-hr glucose, and the effects of age, gender, and race. Methods: We assessed the utility of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes among 5395 adults without known diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010. Results: Current cutoffs of HbA1c for diabetes (6.5%) or prediabetes (5.7%) exhibited low sensitivity (0.249 and 0.354, respectively) and high specificity in identifying patients diagnosed using both FPG and 2-hr glucose, resulting in large false-negative rates (75.1% and 64.9%). Misdiagnosis rates increased with age and in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. When HbA1c was combined with FPG for diagnoses, the false-negative rate remained high for diabetes (45.7%), but was reduced for prediabetes (9.2%). Conclusions: When assessed against diagnoses using both FPG and 2-hr glucose, HbA1c had low sensitivity and high specificity for identifying diabetes and prediabetes, which varied as a function of age and race. Regarding recently released American Diabetes Association (ADA) and joint European guidelines, it is important to consider that HbA1c values below 6.5% and 5.7% do not reliably exclude the presence of diabetes and prediabetes, respectively. Overall, the data argue for greater use of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and both FPG and 2-hr glucose values for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. PMID:24512556

  12. Clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients with discordance between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose in the real world: An analysis of the ORBIT study.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hua; Lu, Juming; Zhang, Puhong; Zhu, Dongshan; Li, Xian; Ji, Jiachao; Zhao, Fang; Ji, Linong

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients on basal insulin therapy with inadequate glucose control due to discordance between glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the real world. This was a retrospective analysis of data from the ORBIT study in China. Clinical characteristics of patients with discordance between HbA 1c and FPG at baseline and at the end of 6 months of follow-up were analysed using multinomial logistic regression in 4 study groups divided by HbA 1c and FPG. Overall, of 6721 patients initiated on basal insulin, 853 achieved HbA 1c  < 7% but FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L (group 2), while 997 had FPG < 7 mmol/L but HbA 1c  ≥ 7% (group 3) at the end of follow-up. Patients in group 3 had a longer duration of type 2 diabetes compared with those in group 2 (7.22 ± 5.30 vs 6.00 ± 4.80 y, P < .05). Patients on glargine (32.90%) or detemir (36.88%) treatment accounted for a higher proportion of patients with both HbA 1c and FPG controlled than those on neutral protamine Hagedorn therapy (23.45%; P < .05). Per the multinomial logistic analysis, higher frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and use of glargine or detemir therapy were significantly inversely associated with risk of discordance between HbA 1c and FPG, while dose of insulin was a risk factor for discordance at the end of follow-up (all P < .05). Patients treated with insulin analogues (glargine or detemir), instead of neutral protamine Hagedorn, and with more frequent SMBG are more likely to exhibit concordance between HbA 1c and FPG. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The difference between oats and beta-glucan extract intake in the management of HbA1c, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    He, Li-xia; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Yuan-sheng; Li, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Increasing oats and beta-glucan extract intake has been associated with improved glycemic control, which is associated with the reduction in the development of diabetes. This study aims to assess the different effects between oat (whole and bran) and beta-glucan extract intake on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. PubMed, Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched up to February 2014. We included randomized controlled trials with interventions that lasted at least four weeks that compared oats and beta-glucan (extracted from oats or other sources) intake with a control. A total of 1351 articles were screened for eligibility, and relevant data were extracted from 18 studies (n = 1024). Oat product dose ranged from 20 g d(-1) to 136 g d(-1), and beta-glucan extract dose ranged from 3 g d(-1) to 10 g d(-1). Compared with the control, oat intake resulted in a greater decrease in fasting glucose and insulin of subjects (P < 0.05), but beta-glucan extract intake did not. Furthermore, oat intake resulted in a greater decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%) and fasting glucose (P < 0.001, I(2) = 68%) after removing one study using a concentrate and a different design and fasting insulin of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%). The intake of oats and beta-glucan extracted from oats were effective in decreasing fasting glucose (P = 0.007, I(2) = 91%) and fasting insulin of T2D (P < 0.001, I(2) = 0%) and tented to lower HbA1c (P = 0.09, I(2) = 92%). Higher consumption of whole oats and oat bran, but not oat or barley beta-glucan extracts, are associated with lower HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin of T2D, hyperlipidaemic and overweight subjects, especially people with T2D, which supports the need for clinical trials to evaluate the potential role of oats in approaching to the management of glycemic control and insulin sensitivity of diabetes or metabolic syndrome subjects.

  14. Red cell distribution width is associated with hemoglobin A1C elevation, but not glucose elevation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xue; Wan, Min; Gu, Yeqing; Song, Yanqi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Shi, HongBin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Fei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Ming; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and elevation of glucose/glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). An analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of adults. People without prediabetes or diabetes (n=7,795) were followed for a mean of 2.90years (range: 1-7years, 95% confidence interval: 2.86-2.94years). Glucose elevation is defined as fasting glucose levels exceeding 5.6mmol/l, or 2-hour glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test exceeding 7.8mmol/l. HbA1c elevation is defined as a HbA1c value exceeding a normal limit of 39mmol/mol (5.7%). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between RDW quartiles and elevation of HbA1c/glucose. The multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HbA1c elevation for increased quartiles of RDW were 1.00 (reference), 1.08 (0.89, 1.30), 1.28 (1.07, 1.54), and 1.54 (1.29, 1.85) (P for trend<0.0001). However, no significant association was observed between RDW and blood glucose (fasting and postprandial). Elevated RDW is independently related to future HbA1c elevation, but not to glucose elevation. This suggests that RDW may associate with HbA1c through a non-glycemic way, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion of prediabetes or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fasting plasma glucose and variation in cardiometabolic risk factors in people with high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes: A cross-sectional multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Godsland, Ian F; Thomson, Hazel; Misra, Shivani; Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Alberti, K George M M; Johnston, Desmond G; Oliver, Nick S

    2017-12-01

    Variation in cardiometabolic risk in prediabetes and any impacts of ethnicity on such variation have been little studied. In an ethnically diverse dataset, selected according to a high-risk HbA1c-based definition of prediabetes, we have investigated relationships between glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a diabetes prevention study in the UK and a chronic care clinic in Thailand, selected for people without diabetes (fasting plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l) with HbA1c 6.0-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol). Thai (n=158) and UK White (n=600), South Asian (n=112), Black (n=70) and other/mixed (n=103) groups were distinguished and measurements included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood pressure (BP), lipids and insulin resistance-related risk factors (IRFs). Independently of individual characteristics including ethnicity, only systolic BP was weakly associated with FPG (beta coefficient 1.76 (95%CI 0.10-3.42), p 0.03) and only LDL-c with IFG (FPG 5.6 to <7) (adjusted -0.14 (-0.27, -0.003) p 0.04). There were no significant independent associations with cardiometabolic risk factors when categories of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥ 6.1 to <7.0 mmol/L) were considered. Relative to White, South Asian ethnicity was independently associated with lower systolic and diastolic BP, Black with lower triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and having 2 or more IRFs, and Thai with lower cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and all three non-white ethnicities with lower total and LDL cholesterol. In high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes additional measurement of FPG will add little to evaluation of cardiometabolic risk. Additionally, UK Whites tend to have the most adverse cardiometabolic profile of any ethnic group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Can HbA1c be Used to Screen for Glucose Abnormalities Among Adults with Severe Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Romain, A J; Letendre, E; Akrass, Z; Avignon, A; Karelis, A D; Sultan, A; Abdel-Baki, A

    2017-04-01

    Aim: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are highly prevalent among individuals with serious mental illness and increased by antipsychotic medication. Although widely recommended, many obstacles prevent these patients from obtaining a proper screening for dysglycemia. Currently, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels from the oral glucose tolerance test are used for screening prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate if HbA1c could be used as the only screening test among individuals with serious mental illness. Methods: Cross sectional study comparing the sensitivity of HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to detect dysglycemias in serious mental illness participants referred for metabolic complications. Results: A total of 84 participants (43 female; aged: 38.5±12.8 years; BMI: 35.0±6.8 kg/m²) was included. Regarding prediabetes, 44, 44 and 76% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2 h- oral glucose tolerance test respectively and for type 2 diabetes, 60, 53 and 66% were identified by HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2 h-oral glucose tolerance test. The overlap between the 3 markers was low (8% of participants for prediabetes and 26% for Type 2 diabetes). Sensitivity of HbA1c were moderate (range 40-62.5%), while its specificity was excellent (92-93%). Conclusion: The present study indicates a low agreement between HbA1c, fasting glucose and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. It appears that these markers do not identify the same participants. Thus, HbA1c may not be used alone to detect all glucose abnormalities among individuals with serious mental illness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Contribution of fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia to hemoglobin A1c in insulin-treated Japanese diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Yutaka; Okada, Shuichi; Mori, Masatomo

    2008-08-01

    The contribution of fasting and postprandial glucose to hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) levels was evaluated in insulin-treated patients. In 57 insulin-treated, diabetic out-patients, fasting glucose (before breakfast (B-FG), lunch (L-FG) and dinner (D-FG)) and postprandial glucose (B-PPG, L-PPG and D-PPG) levels were determined by the patients themselves at home using glucose self-monitoring apparatus over the course of one week. The correlation between HbA(1c) levels and self monitored blood glucose levels were calculated. In the conventionally treated group, there was a significant correlation between HbA(1c) and fasting glucose (FG) levels only before lunch, but at 2 hr after (PPG) all meals. In the intensively treated group, a significant correlation between HbA(1c) levels and FG levels was found before lunch and at 2 hr after breakfast and dinner. In all subjects, only FG levels before lunch correlated significantly with HbA(1c) levels, although PPG levels were significantly correlated with HbA(1c) at all points. The correlation was highest with PPG after breakfast and dinner. The sum of all FG, PPG and FG + PPG levels was significantly correlated with HbA(1c) levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia after breakfast and dinner should be regarded as most important for improving HbA(1c) levels in insulin treated diabetic patients.

  18. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations of maternal A1C and glucose with pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Dyer, Alan R; Lowe, Julia; McCance, David R; Lappin, Terence R J; Trimble, Elisabeth R; Coustan, Donald R; Hadden, David R; Hod, Moshe; Oats, Jeremy J N; Persson, Bengt

    2012-03-01

    To compare associations of maternal glucose and A1C with adverse outcomes in the multinational Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and determine, based on those comparisons, if A1C measurement can provide an alternative to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant women. Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g OGTT at 24-32 weeks' gestation. A sample for A1C was also collected. Neonatal anthropometrics and cord serum C-peptide were measured. Associations with outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 23,316 HAPO Study participants with glucose levels blinded to caregivers, 21,064 had a nonvariant A1C result. The mean ± SD A1C was 4.79 ± 0.40%. Associations were significantly stronger with glucose measures than with A1C for birth weight, sum of skinfolds, and percent body fat >90th percentile and for fasting and 1-h glucose for cord C-peptide (all P < 0.01). For example, in fully adjusted models, odds ratios (ORs) for birth weight >90th percentile for each measure higher by 1 SD were 1.39, 1.45, and 1.38, respectively, for fasting, 1-, and 2-h plasma glucose and 1.15 for A1C. ORs for cord C-peptide >90th percentile were 1.56, 1.45, and 1.35 for glucose, respectively, and 1.32 for A1C. ORs were similar for glucose and A1C for primary cesarean section, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. On the basis of associations with adverse outcomes, these findings suggest that A1C measurement is not a useful alternative to an OGTT in pregnant women.

  19. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P < .01) on CGM than youth with normal HbA1c or OGTT. HbA1c had a greater magnitude of correlation to CGM average glucose, AUC, and minimum glucose; 2-hour glucose had a greater magnitude of correlation to CGM SD, peak glucose, and time greater than 140 and greater than 200 mg/dL. However, there were no overall differences in the strength comparisons between 2-hour glucose and HbA1c correlations to CGM outcomes. In obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  20. Metrics for glycaemic control - from HbA1c to continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovatchev, Boris P

    2017-07-01

    As intensive treatment to lower levels of HbA 1c characteristically results in an increased risk of hypoglycaemia, patients with diabetes mellitus face a life-long optimization problem to reduce average levels of glycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia while simultaneously avoiding hypoglycaemia. This optimization can only be achieved in the context of lowering glucose variability. In this Review, I discuss topics that are related to the assessment, quantification and optimal control of glucose fluctuations in diabetes mellitus. I focus on markers of average glycaemia and the utility and/or shortcomings of HbA 1c as a 'gold-standard' metric of glycaemic control; the notion that glucose variability is characterized by two principal dimensions, amplitude and time; measures of glucose variability that are based on either self-monitoring of blood glucose data or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM); and the control of average glycaemia and glucose variability through the use of pharmacological agents or closed-loop control systems commonly referred to as the 'artificial pancreas'. I conclude that HbA 1c and the various available metrics of glucose variability reflect the management of diabetes mellitus on different timescales, ranging from months (for HbA 1c ) to minutes (for CGM). Comprehensive assessment of the dynamics of glycaemic fluctuations is therefore crucial for providing accurate and complete information to the patient, physician, automated decision-support or artificial-pancreas system.

  1. PROFESSIONAL FLASH CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING WITH AMBULATORY GLUCOSE PROFILE REPORTING TO SUPPLEMENT A1C: RATIONALE AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A

    2017-11-01

    Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpreting continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic glycated hemoglobin (A1C) testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and real-world evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel FCGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice. A1C = glycated hemoglobin; AGP = ambulatory glucose profile; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; FCGM = flash continuous glucose monitoring; IQR = interquartile range; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  2. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects

    PubMed Central

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. Results: A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. Conclusion: The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol. PMID:26430445

  3. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    PubMed

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  4. Should glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) be used to detect people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation?

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Samiul A; Davies, Melanie J; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Carey, Marian E; Webb, David; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    There is a need to simplify screening tests for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) so patients can be identified earlier and more efficiently. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended by some international organisations as a diagnostic tool for detecting T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (IGR, also termed prediabetes and includes impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance). The HbA1c cut-point of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) has been selected as diagnostic for T2DM, while the cut-points for IGR are debated by the different international organisations: an International Expert Committee has suggested using HbA1c 6.0-6.4% (42-46 mmol/mol); however, the American Diabetes Association has recommended using HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol). Some countries will adopt a new method of reporting HbA1c values in millimoles per mole (mmol/mol). Use of HbA1c has some logistical advantages over using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). As patients do not need to fast, appointments do not need to be limited to the morning. The HbA1c result reflects longer term glycaemia and is less affected by recent physical/emotional stress. However, there is some debate as to whether HbA1c should replace fasting plasma glucose or the OGTT. As the two tests detect different people, some individuals with diabetes detected on OGTT will no longer be classified as having T2DM using HbA1c ≥6.5% criteria. Furthermore, some medical conditions can result in HbA1c assay measurements not reflecting glycaemic control over the last 2-3 months; these include haematological disorders, renal failure, and chronic excess alcohol consumption.

  5. The proposed terminology 'A(1c)-derived average glucose' is inherently imprecise and should not be adopted.

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Z T; Inzucchi, S E; Karnieli, E; Le Roith, D

    2008-07-01

    The proposed use of a more precise standard for glycated (A(1c)) and non-glycated haemoglobin would lead to an A(1c) value, when expressed as a percentage, that is lower than that currently in use. One approach advocated to address the potential confusion that would ensue is to replace 'HbA(1c)' with a new term, 'A(1c)-derived average glucose.' We review evidence from several sources suggesting that A(1c) is, in fact, inherently imprecise as a measure of average glucose, so that the proposed terminology should not be adopted.

  6. The 1-hour post-load glucose level is more effective than HbA1c for screening dysglycemia.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Ram; Sevick, Mary Ann; Fink, Dorothy; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Roth, Jesse; Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To assess the performance of HbA1c and the 1-h plasma glucose (PG ≥ 155 mg/dl; 8.6 mmol/l) in identifying dysglycemia based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) from a real-world clinical care setting. This was a diagnostic test accuracy study. For this analysis, we tested the HbA1c diagnostic criteria advocated by the American Diabetes Association (ADA 5.7-6.4 %) and International Expert Committee (IEC 6.0-6.4 %) against conventional OGTT criteria. We also tested the utility of 1-h PG ≥ mg/dl; 8.6 mmol/l. Prediabetes was defined according to ADA-OGTT guidelines. Spearman correlation tests were used to determine the relationships between HbA1c, 1-h PG with fasting, 2-h PG and indices of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. The levels of agreement between diagnostic methods were ascertained using Cohen's kappa coefficient (Κ). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the performance of the HbA1c and 1-h PG test in identifying prediabetes considering OGTT as reference diagnostic criteria. The diagnostic properties of different HbA1c thresholds were contrasted by determining sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios (LR). Of the 212 high-risk individuals, 70 (33 %) were identified with prediabetes, and 1-h PG showed a stronger association with 2-h PG, insulin sensitivity index, and β-cell function than HbA1c (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the level of agreement between 1-h PG ≥ 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and the OGTT (Κ[95 % CI]: 0.40[0.28-0.53]) diagnostic test was stronger than that of ADA-HbA1c criteria 0.1[0.03-0.16] and IEC criteria (0.17[0.04-0.30]). The ROC (AUC[95 % CI]) for HbA1c and 1-h PG were 0.65[0.57-0.73] and 0.79[0.72-0.85], respectively. Importantly, 1-h PG ≥ 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) showed good sensitivity (74.3 % [62.4-84.0]) and specificity 69.7 % [61.5-77.1]) with a LR of 2.45. The ability of 1-h PG to discriminate prediabetes was better than that of HbA1c (∆AUC: -0.14; Z value: 2

  7. Translating HbA1c measurements into estimated average glucose values in pregnant women with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Law, Graham R; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Secher, Anna L; Temple, Rosemary; Bilous, Rudolf; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Murphy, Helen R; Scott, Eleanor M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between average glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and HbA 1c levels in pregnant women with diabetes to determine whether calculations of standard estimated average glucose (eAG) levels from HbA 1c measurements are applicable to pregnant women with diabetes. CGM data from 117 pregnant women (89 women with type 1 diabetes; 28 women with type 2 diabetes) were analysed. Average glucose levels were calculated from 5-7 day CGM profiles (mean 1275 glucose values per profile) and paired with a corresponding (±1 week) HbA 1c measure. In total, 688 average glucose-HbA 1c pairs were obtained across pregnancy (mean six pairs per participant). Average glucose level was used as the dependent variable in a regression model. Covariates were gestational week, study centre and HbA 1c . There was a strong association between HbA 1c and average glucose values in pregnancy (coefficient 0.67 [95% CI 0.57, 0.78]), i.e. a 1% (11 mmol/mol) difference in HbA 1c corresponded to a 0.67 mmol/l difference in average glucose. The random effects model that included gestational week as a curvilinear (quadratic) covariate fitted best, allowing calculation of a pregnancy-specific eAG (PeAG). This showed that an HbA 1c of 8.0% (64 mmol/mol) gave a PeAG of 7.4-7.7 mmol/l (depending on gestational week), compared with a standard eAG of 10.2 mmol/l. The PeAG associated with maintaining an HbA 1c level of 6.0% (42 mmol/mol) during pregnancy was between 6.4 and 6.7 mmol/l, depending on gestational week. The HbA 1c -average glucose relationship is altered by pregnancy. Routinely generated standard eAG values do not account for this difference between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals and, thus, should not be used during pregnancy. Instead, the PeAG values deduced in the current study are recommended for antenatal clinical care.

  8. Comparing point-of-care A1C and random plasma glucose for screening diabetes in migrant farm workers.

    PubMed

    Wensil, Ashley M; Smith, Jennifer D; Pound, Melanie W; Herring, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To compare point-of-care (POC) glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) and random plasma glucose (RPG) as a POC screening tool for prediabetes and diabetes in migrant farm workers of eastern North Carolina. Prospective, observational, single-center study. Federally qualified community health center in eastern North Carolina, from August to October 2011. Migrant farm workers 18 years or older who resided in a migrant camp in eastern North Carolina. Diabetes screening using POC A1C and RPG via fingerstick followed by venipuncture A1C and basic metabolic panel in individuals with a positive screening. Positive predictive value (PPV) of POC A1C and RPG, incidence of positive screening, incidence of confirmed diagnosis, concordance rate of the screening tools, and correlation between POC A1C and laboratory A1C. 206 workers participated in the screenings; screening identified 39 individuals with a POC A1C greater than 5.7% and 1 individual with both an RPG of 200 mg/dL or more and a POC A1C greater than 5.7%. Of the 39 individuals found to have a positive screening, 24 presented to Carolina Family Health Centers, Inc., for follow-up venipuncture; however, 1 participant did not have a venipuncture A1C, leaving 23 individuals with complete data. Two participants were diagnosed with diabetes and 17 with prediabetes. POC A1C had a PPV of 82.6%; however, the PPV of RPG could not be calculated due to the number of participants lost to follow-up. POC A1C correlated well with laboratory A1C regardless of time to follow-up. POC A1C should be considered for diabetes screening in high-risk populations. If the screening had been performed with RPG alone, 38 individuals would have gone undetected. Early identification of individuals with elevated blood glucose will likely decrease the risk of long-term complications.

  9. Do high blood glucose peaks contribute to higher HbA1c? Results from repeated continuous glucose measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Ulf, Samuelsson; Ragnar, Hanas; Arne, Whiss Per; Johnny, Ludvigsson

    2008-08-01

    HbA1c levels are influenced by the glycemic control of previous 2-3 months. Sometimes patients have surprisingly low HbA1c in spite of many correctly measured high blood glucose values, which is difficult to explain. As glucose sensors give an objective picture based on glucose readings several times per minute over 24 hours, we used the area under the curve (AUC) of such subcutaneous glucose profiles to evaluate their relationship with HbA1c. Thirty-two patients were randomized into two study arms, one open and the other blinded. Both arms had 8 pump users and 8 patients with multiple daily injections (MDI). After three months the two arms crossed over. Both study arms wore a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for 3 days every 2 weeks. HbA1c was determined before and after each 3-month study period. There was no relationship between HbA1c and s.c. glucose AUC or between HbA1c and the number of peaks >15.0 mmol/L when all CGMS profiles during the 6 months were taken together. Children on MDI showed a positive relationship between HbA1c and AUC (P<0.01) as well as the number of peaks (P<0.01). Children with a negative relationship between HbA1c and AUC generally had fewer fluctuations in blood glucose values, whereas children with a positive relationship had wide fluctuations. between s.c. glucose AUC and HbA1c, the results indicate that wide blood glucose fluctuations may be related to high HbA1c values. Therefore, complications and therapeutic interventions should aim at reducing such fluctuations. Although there was no relationship between s.c. glucose AUC and HbA1c, the results indicate that wide blood glucose fluctuations may be related to high HbA1c values. Therefore, complications and therapeutic interventions should aim at reducing such fluctuations.

  10. Impact of demographics and disease progression on the relationship between glucose and HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Anetta; Møller, Jonas B; Kristensen, Niels R; Klim, Søren; Kjellsson, Maria C; Ingwersen, Steen H; Karlsson, Mats O

    2017-06-15

    Several studies have shown that the relationship between mean plasma glucose (MPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may vary across populations. Especially race has previously been referred to shift the regression line that links MPG to HbA1c at steady-state (Herman & Cohen, 2012). To assess the influence of demographic and disease progression-related covariates on the intercept of the estimated linear MPG-HbA1c relationship in a longitudinal model. Longitudinal patient-level data from 16 late-phase trials in type 2 diabetes with a total of 8927 subjects was used to study covariates for the relationship between MPG and HbA1c. The analysed covariates included age group, BMI, gender, race, diabetes duration, and pre-trial treatment. Differences between trials were taken into account by estimating a trial-to-trial variability component. Participants included 47% females and 20% above 65years. 77% were Caucasian, 9% were Asian, 5% were Black and the remaining 9% were analysed together as other races. Estimates of the change in the intercept of the MPG-HbA1c relationship due to the mentioned covariates were determined using a longitudinal model. The analysis showed that pre-trial treatment with insulin had the most pronounced impact associated with a 0.34% higher HbA1c at a given MPG. However, race, diabetes duration and age group also had an impact on the MPG-HbA1c relationship. Our analysis shows that the relationship between MPG and HbA1c is relatively insensitive to covariates, but shows small variations across populations, which may be relevant to take into account when predicting HbA1c response based on MPG measurements in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyong; Shen, Ximei; Yan, Sunjie; Yuan, Xin; Lu, Juanjuan; Wei, Wenfeng

    2013-07-01

    To assess the suitability of HbA1c as a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes in patients with Graves' disease. This study enrolled 310 patients with untreated newly diagnosed Graves' disease, 208 patients with euthyroid goiter and 329 age-matched (control) subjects without thyroid disease from Fuzhou, China. The performance of HbA1c against the OGTT for diagnosing diabetes was determined. The Framingham risk score was used to assess general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The percentage of patients with abnormal glucose metabolism as classified by HbA1c levels was lower than by OGTT criteria in patients with Graves' disease-33.2% vs. 41.3% for pre-diabetes and 4.5% vs. 11.3% for diabetes, respectively. The sensitivity of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in patients with Graves' disease was lower than in patients with euthyroid goiter and subjects without thyroid disease (34.9%, 63.2% and 60.6% respectively), while the specificity was similar (99.3%, 98.6%, 97.4%). Approximately 7.4% of patients with Graves' disease diagnosed with diabetes according to OGTT criteria were misdiagnosed as not having the disease by HbA1c, much higher than that for the other two groups. Patients with Graves' disease with diabetes not diagnosed with the disease by HbA1c showed a high risk for CVD. The low sensitivity of the HbA1c criterion underestimated the percentage of diabetes in patients with Graves' disease. Patients with diabetes who were misdiagnosed as not having the disease by HbA1c were at high risk for CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemoglobin A1c Accurately Predicts Continuous Glucose Monitoring-Derived Average Glucose in Youth and Young Adults With Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christine L; Hope, Emma; Thurston, Jessica; Vigers, Timothy; Pyle, Laura; Zeitler, Philip S; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2018-04-19

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), HbA 1c is thought to underestimate glycemia. However, few studies have directly assessed the relationship between HbA 1c and average glucose in CF. We determined the relationships among glycemic markers-HbA 1c , fructosamine (FA), glycated albumin (%GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)-and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in CF, hypothesizing that alternate markers would better predict average sensor glucose (ASG) than HbA 1c . CF participants and a group of healthy control subjects (HC), ages 6-25 years, wore CGM for up to 7 days. Pearson correlations assessed the relationships between CGM variables and HbA 1c , FA, %GA, and 1,5-AG. The regression line between HbA 1c and ASG was compared in CF versus HC. Linear regressions determined whether alternate markers predicted ASG after adjustment for HbA 1c . CF ( n = 93) and HC ( n = 29) groups wore CGM for 5.2 ± 1 days. CF participants were 14 ± 3 years of age and 47% were male, with a BMI z score -0.1 ± 0.8 and no different from HCs in age, sex, or BMI. Mean HbA 1c in CF was 5.7 ± 0.8% (39 ± 9 mmol/mol) vs. HC 5.1 ± 0.2% (32 ± 2 mmol/mol) ( P < 0.0001). All glycemic markers correlated with ASG ( P ≤ 0.01): HbA 1c ( r = 0.86), FA ( r = 0.69), %GA ( r = 0.83), and 1,5-AG ( r = -0.26). The regression line between ASG and HbA 1c did not differ in CF versus HC ( P = 0.44). After adjustment for HbA 1c , %GA continued to predict ASG ( P = 0.0009) in CF. HbA 1c does not underestimate ASG in CF as previously assumed. No alternate glycemic marker correlated more strongly with ASG than HbA 1c . %GA shows strong correlation with ASG and added to the prediction of ASG beyond HbA 1c . However, we are not advocating use of HbA 1c for diabetes screening in CF based on these results. Further study will determine whether glycemic measures other than ASG differ among different types of diabetes for a given HbA 1c . © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Shifting from glucose diagnostic criteria to the new HbA(1c) criteria would have a profound impact on prevalence of diabetes among a high-risk Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Costa, B; Barrio, F; Cabré, J-J; Piñol, J-L; Cos, F-X; Solé, C; Bolibar, B; Castell, C; Lindström, J; Barengo, N; Tuomilehto, J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate changes in the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes by shifting from 2-h plasma glucose and/or fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria to the proposed new HbA(1c) -based criteria when applied to a Mediterranean population detected to have a high risk of Type 2 diabetes. Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years (n = 2287) were screened using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire, a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test plus HbA(1c) test. Prevalence and degree of diagnostic overlap between three sets of criteria (2-h plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose and HbA(1c) ) and three diagnostic categories (normal, pre-diabetes and diabetes) were calculated. Defining diabetes by a single HbA(1c) measurement resulted in a dramatic decrease in prevalence (1.3%), particularly in comparison with diabetes defined by 2-h plasma glucose (8.6%), but was also significant with regard to fasting plasma glucose (2.8%). A total of 201 screened subjects (8.8%) were classified as having diabetes and 1023 (44.7%) as having pre-diabetes based on at least one of these criteria; among these, the presence of all three criteria simultaneously classified only 21 and 110 individuals respectively, about ten percent of each group. The single overlap index between subjects diagnosed as having diabetes by 2-h plasma glucose/fasting plasma glucose vs. HbA(1c) was 13.9/28%. Similarly, the single overlap index regarding pre-diabetes was 19.2/27.1%. A shift from the glucose-based diagnosis to the HbA(1c) -based diagnosis for diabetes will reduce diabetes prevalence with a low overall or single degree of overlap between diagnostic categories in this high-risk Spanish population. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  14. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study.

    PubMed

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load glucose (2hPG), HbA 1c , fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population included 1349 participants aged 50-75 years without diabetes at baseline (1989) from a population-based cohort in Hoorn, the Netherlands. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by the WHO 2011 criteria or known diabetes at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations of the glycaemic markers, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes. Restricted cubic spline logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the shape of the associations. After a mean follow-up duration of 6.4 (SD 0.5) years, 152 participants developed diabetes (11.3%); the majority were screen detected by high FPG. In multivariate adjusted models, ORs (95% CI) for incident type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile in comparison with the lowest quintile were 9.0 (4.4, 18.5) for FPG, 6.1 (2.9, 12.7) for 2hPG, 3.8 (2.0, 7.2) for HbA 1c , 1.9 (0.9, 3.6) for fasting insulin and 2.8 (1.4, 5.6) for HOMA-IR. The associations of FPG and HbA 1c with incident diabetes were non-linear, rising more steeply at higher values. FPG was most strongly associated with incident diabetes, followed by 2hPG, HbA 1c , HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. The strong association with FPG is probably because FPG is the most frequent marker for diabetes diagnosis. Non-linearity of associations between glycaemic markers and incident type 2 diabetes should be taken into account when estimating future risk of type 2 diabetes based on glycaemic markers.

  15. Continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c in the evaluation of glucose metabolism in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Helminen, Olli; Pokka, Tytti; Tossavainen, Päivi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta

    2016-10-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ten asymptomatic children with multiple (⩾2) islet autoantibodies (cases) and 10 age and sex-matched autoantibody-negative controls from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study were invited to 7-day CGM with Dexcom G4 Platinum Sensor. HbA1c and two daily SMBG values (morning and evening) were analyzed. Five-point OGTTs were performed and carbohydrate intake was assessed by food records. The matched pairs were compared with the paired sample t-test. The cases showed higher mean values and higher variation in glucose levels during CGM compared to the controls. The time spent ⩾7.8mmol/l was 5.8% in the cases compared to 0.4% in the controls (p=0.040). Postprandial CGM values were similar except after the dinner (6.6mmol/l in cases vs. 6.1mmol/l in controls; p=0.023). When analyzing the SMBG values higher mean level, higher evening levels, as well as higher variation were observed in the cases when compared to the controls. HbA1c was significantly higher in the cases [5.7% (39mmol/mol) vs. 5.3% (34mmol/mol); p=0.045]. No differences were observed in glucose or C-peptide levels during OGTT. Daily carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in the cases (254.2g vs. 217.7g; p=0.034). Glucose levels measured by CGM and SMBG are useful indicators of dysglycemia during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Increased evening glucose values seem to be common in children with preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HbA1c values calculated from blood glucose levels using truncated Fourier series and implementation in standard SQL database language.

    PubMed

    Temsch, W; Luger, A; Riedl, M

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical model to calculate HbA1c values based on self-measured blood glucose and past HbA1c levels, thereby enabling patients to monitor diabetes therapy between scheduled checkups. This method could help physicians to make treatment decisions if implemented in a system where glucose data are transferred to a remote server. The method, however, cannot replace HbA1c measurements; past HbA1c values are needed to gauge the method. The mathematical model of HbA1c formation was developed based on biochemical principles. Unlike an existing HbA1c formula, the new model respects the decreasing contribution of older glucose levels to current HbA1c values. About 12 standard SQL statements embedded in a php program were used to perform Fourier transform. Regression analysis was used to gauge results with previous HbA1c values. The method can be readily implemented in any SQL database. The predicted HbA1c values thus obtained were in accordance with measured values. They also matched the results of the HbA1c formula in the elevated range. By contrast, the formula was too "optimistic" in the range of better glycemic control. Individual analysis of two subjects improved the accuracy of values and reflected the bias introduced by different glucometers and individual measurement habits.

  17. Frequency of self-monitoring blood glucose and attainment of HbA1c target values.

    PubMed

    Elgart, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Prestes, Mariana; Rucci, Enzo; Gagliardino, Juan J

    2016-02-01

    Test strips for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) represent in Argentina, around 50 % of diabetes treatment cost; the frequency of their use is closely associated with hyperglycemia treatment. However, the favorable impact of SMBG on attainment of HbA1c goal in different treatment conditions remains controversial. We therefore attempted to estimate the relationship between use of SMBG test strips and degree of attainment of metabolic control in an institution of our social security subsector (SSS) in which provision is fully covered and submitted to a regular audit system. Observational retrospective study using information of 657 patients with T2DM (period 2009-2010) from the database of the Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Program (DICARO) of one institution of our SSS. DICARO provides-with an audit system-100 % coverage for all drugs and keeps records of clinical, metabolic and treatment data from every patient. The average monthly test strips/patient used for SMBG increased as a function of treatment intensification: Monotherapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) < combined OAD therapy < insulin treatment. In every condition, the number was larger in people with target HbA1c levels. Test strips represented the larger percentage of total prescription cost. In our population, the type of hyperglycemia treatment was the main driver of test strip use for SMBG; in every condition tested, targeted HbA1c values were associated with greater strip use. Patient education and prescription audit may optimize its use and treatment outcomes.

  18. Determinants of hemoglobin A1c level in patients with type 2 diabetes after in-hospital diabetes education: A study based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Keiichi; Okada, Yosuke; Sugino, Sachiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between blood glucose profile at hospital discharge, evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level at 12 weeks after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. This was a retrospective study. The participants were 54 patients with type 2 diabetes who did not change their medication after discharge. The mean blood glucose (MBG), standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean postprandial glucose excursion, maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥180 mg/dL (time at ≥180), percentage of time with blood glucose at ≥140 mg/dL, and percentage of time with blood glucose at <70 mg/dL were measured at admission and discharge using CGM. The primary end-point was the relationship between CGM parameters and HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge. The HbA1c level at 12 weeks after discharge correlated with MBG level (r = 0.30, P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis showed that MBG level and disease duration were predictors of 12-week HbA1c level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out considering goal achievement as a HbA1c level <7.0% 12 weeks after discharge. Disease duration and time at ≥180 were associated with goal achievement. The present results suggested that blood glucose profile at discharge using CGM seems useful to predict HbA1c level after discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes who received inpatient diabetes education. Early treatment to improve MBG level, as well as postprandial hyperglycemia, is important to achieve strict glycemic control. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  20. CLD (chronic liver diseases)-HbA1C as a suitable indicator for estimation of mean plasma glucose in patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masafumi; Kasayama, Soji; Kanehara, Hideo; Bando, Yukihiro

    2008-08-01

    In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), turnover of erythrocytes is increased whereas that of serum albumin is decreased. Thus, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) and glycated albumin (GA) cannot be used as adequate indicators for chronic plasma glucose control in diabetic patients with CLD. In this investigation, we have proposed CLD-HbA(1C), a novel long-term glycemic control marker by using measured HbA(1C) and GA. We studied 82 patients with CLD in whom glycemic control was regarded as to be stable. Daily plasma glucose profiles were monitored and estimated levels of HbA(1C) were calculated on the conversion formula established by Rohlfing et al. [C.L. Rohlfing, J.D. England, H.M. Wiedmeyer, A. Tennill, R.R. Little, D.E. Goldstein, Defining the relationship between plasma glucose and HbA1c, Diabetes Care 25 (2002) 275-278]. Cholinesterase (ChE) as an indicator for hepatic function was determined at the same time when HbA(1C) and GA levels were measured. CLD-HbA(1C) was defined as the average of measured HbA(1C) and GA/3, based upon the results that among healthy individuals, GA levels were roughly estimated at approximately threefold higher than HbA(1C) levels. While measured HbA(1C) levels in patients with CLD were generally lower than estimated HbA(1C) levels, GA/3 values were generally higher than estimated HbA(1C) levels. Such discrepancies lineally increased in accordance with a decrease in ChE levels. On the other hand, CLD-HbA(1C) levels were highly correlated with estimated HbA(1C) levels (R=0.883), while no significant correlation between CLD-HbA(1C) and ChE was noted. In conclusion, CLD-HbA(1C) has been found a superior chronic glycemic control marker than HbA(1C) or GA in diabetic patients with chronic liver diseases.

  1. Visceral fat area is associated with HbA1c but not dialysate-related glucose load in nondiabetic PD patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Li-Chun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with increased visceral fat area (VFA) have been well documented in the general population but rarely explored in nondiabetic individuals on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is positively correlated with VFA in diabetic patients, we hypothesized that the same correlation would exist in nondiabetic PD patients. We enrolled 105 nondiabetic patients who had undergone chronic PD for more than 3 months. Each subject underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and the umbilicus cut was analyzed for VFA. VFA values, corrected for body mass index and subjected to natural logarithm transformations, were examined to determine whether they were correlated with HbA1c and other parameters. PD dialysates prescribed at the time of enrollment were recorded to calculate glucose load. We found that when 105 nondiabetic PD patients were classified according to tertiles of HbA1c, higher HbA1c was associated with larger VFA. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was an independent determinant of VFA, while glucose load and other PD-specific factors were not. In summary, HbA1c, but not PD-related glucose load, was positively correlated with VFA in nondiabetic PD patients, suggesting clinical utility of HbA1c in the PD population.

  2. Increased glycemic variability and decrease of the postprandial glucose contribution to HbA1c in obese subjects across the glycemic continuum from normal glycemia to first time diagnosed diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fysekidis, Marinos; Cosson, Emmanuel; Banu, Isabela; Duteil, Régine; Cyrille, Chantal; Valensi, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of postprandial glycemia (PPG) to hyperglycemia has been shown to decrease as HbA1c increased in type 2 diabetic patients. This study aimed at examining, in a series of overweight/obese patients without known glycemic disorder, the contribution of PPG to a "relative" hyperglycemia (glucose values≥5.5 mmol/L) and the presence of glycemic variability according to HbA1c levels. Seventy overweight/obese inpatients (body mass index 35.2±6.8 kg/m2) without known glycemic disorder were included. Participants were classified according to an oral glucose tolerance test (according to the American Diabetes Association criteria) as patients with normoglycemia (n=33), with intermediate hyperglycemia (n=24) or diabetes (n=13). They were separated into HbA1c quartiles (Q1 to Q4). A 24 hour continuous glucose monitoring was used under a 1800 kcal diet and minimal physical activity. We assessed PPG contribution (3 hour period after each meal) to the "relative" 24 hour hyperglycemia (glucose values ≥5.5 mmol/L); the remaining time was considered as the fasting/post-absorptive period. HbA1c range was from 5.1% to 7.4% (32 to 57 mmol/mmol). From the lowest to the highest HbA1c quartile, the area under the curve (AUC) for the "relative" hyperglycemia presented a 17-fold increase for the fasting/post-absorptive (p<0.001) period and a 7-fold increase postprandially (p<0.001). The percent of PPG contribution to the "relative" hyperglycemia was calculated with the following formula [100×(postprandial 3 hour AUC-3 h AUC for a constant 5.5 mmol/L glycemia)/(total 24 h AUC-24 h AUC for constant 5. 5 mmol/L glycemia)] and decreased from Q1 to Q4 of HbA1c (81.2%, 66%, 65.8%, 57%; p<0.001). Increasing HbA1c quartiles were associated with higher daily mean blood glucose level (p<0.001) and higher levels of daily glucose variability indices, including mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (p<0.01). In overweight/obese patients, HbA1c was associated with lower PPG

  3. HbA1c below 7% as the goal of glucose control fails to maximize the cardiovascular benefits: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-09-22

    Whether lowering glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level below 7.0% improves macro-vascular outcomes in diabetes remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of relatively tight glucose control resulting in a follow-up HbA1c level of less or more than 7.0% on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients. We systematically searched Medline, Web of science and Cochrane Library for prospective randomized controlled trials published between Jan 1, 1996 and July 1, 2015 that recorded cardiovascular outcome trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data from 15 studies involving 88,266 diabetic patients with 4142 events of non-fatal myocardial infarction, 6997 of major cardiovascular events, 3517 of heart failure, 6849 of all-cause mortality, 2084 of non-fatal stroke, 3816 of cardiovascular death were included. A 7% reduction of major cardiovascular events was observed only when relatively tight glucose control resulted in a follow-up HbA1c level above 7.0% (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98; I(2) = 33%), however, the patients can benefit from reduction incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction only when the follow-up HbA1c value below 7.0% (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Apart from the HbA1c value above 7.0% (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.40), the application of thiazolidinediones (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.69) also increased the risk of heart failure, while the gliptins shows neutral effects to heart failure (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.97-1.34). Relatively tight glucose control has some cardiovascular benefits. HbA1c below 7.0% as the goal to maximize the cardiovascular benefits remains suspended.

  4. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... per day (fasting or pre-breakfast, pre-lunch, pre-dinner, and bedtime). The straight black line shows an A1C measurement of 7.0 percent. The blue line shows an example of how blood glucose test results might look from self-monitoring four times ...

  5. Continuous glucose monitoring adds information beyond HbA1c in well-controlled diabetes patients with early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Jesper; Laugesen, Esben; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Hoeyem, Pernille; Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Poulsen, Per Loegstrup; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2017-09-01

    Hyperglycemia as evaluated by HbA1c is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may add information beyond HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAN. 81 patients with type 2 diabetes (43 men, mean age 58±11year, HbA1c 6.6±0.5%). Patients were tested for CAN using cardiovascular reflex tests (response to standing, deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver) and underwent CGM for three days. CAN was defined as early (one test abnormal), or manifest (two or three tests abnormal). Twenty patients had early CAN and two patients had manifest CAN. Blood pressure, HbA1c, cholesterol levels and smoking habits were comparable in patients with vs. without CAN. Post-breakfast glycemic peak was significantly higher in patients with CAN (peak 207 vs 176mg/dL, P=0.009). Furthermore, the nocturnal glucose drop and dawn glucose was significantly higher in patients with CAN compared with patients without CAN (mean 134 vs. 118mg/dL, P=0.017 and mean 143 vs. 130mg/dL, P=0.045, respectively). Removing the two patients with manifest CAN from the statistical analysis didn't change the results. These findings emphasize the importance of monitoring glucose patterns over 24-h and not only rely on HbA1c as therapeutic target in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening with HbA1c identifies only one in two individuals with diagnosis of prediabetes at oral glucose tolerance test: findings in a real-world Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Cosma, Chiara; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Burlina, Silvia; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2014-10-01

    Discordance between HbA1c and OGTT in screening pre-diabetes may occur because of lack of laboratory standardization, distinct underlying pathophysiological processes or different ethnicity. We evaluated HbA1c efficacy for screening OGTT-defined IFG and IGT conditions in a large Caucasian population using the newly revised IFCC protocol. A total of 501 consecutive subjects were screened for pre-diabetic conditions with OGTT with 75 g of glucose. Testing for HbA1c, lipid profile and fasting insulin levels was also performed. For detecting differences between continuous variables, ANOVA followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) post hoc test was used. Logistic regression and ROC curve analysis were also performed for assessing HbA1c screening efficacy. ROC curve analysis showed that optimal HbA1c cut-off for detecting IFG was 5.6 % (sensitivity of 78 % and specificity of 63 %), while for IGT, the optimal cut-off was 5.9 % (sensitivity of 46 % and specificity of 84 %), with AUCs < 0.8. Screening with HbA1c identified 53.4 % of the 193 patients with IFG and/or IGT diagnosed at OGTT. As regards surrogate markers of insulin resistance, we observed a trend towards higher values of HOMA-IR and lower QUICKI values in subjects with IFG than in those with IGT. Patients with pre-diabetes at both tests had similar values of HOMA and QUICKI, compared with those with altered OGTT only. IFCC-aligned HbA1c assay proved scarcely effective in detecting IFG and/or IGT in a large Caucasian population, identifying only half of the patients with abnormal OGTT. Moreover, adding HbA1c screening to OGTT may be of little benefit in identifying subjects with a worse metabolic profile.

  7. Screening for HbA1c-defined prediabetes and diabetes in an at-risk greek population: performance comparison of random capillary glucose, the ADA diabetes risk test and skin fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Lathouris, Panagiotis; Lontou, Stavroula; Tzemos, Kostas; Maynard, John

    2013-04-01

    We examined the accuracy of random capillary glucose (RCG) and two noninvasive screening methods, the ADA diabetes risk test (DRT) and skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) as measured by Scout DS for detecting HbA1c-defined dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Subjects were recruited at two clinical sites for a single non-fasting visit. Each subject had measurements of height, weight and waist circumference. A diabetes score was calculated from skin fluorescence measured on the left forearm. A finger prick was done to measure RCG and HbA1c (A1C). Health questionnaires were completed for the DRT. Increasing dysglycemia was defined as A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) or ≥ 6.0% (42 mmol/mol). Type 2 diabetes was defined as A1C ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol). 398 of 409 subjects had complete data for analysis with means for age, body mass index, and waist of 52 years, 27 kg/m(2) and 90 cm. 51% were male. Prevalence of A1C ≥ 5.7%, ≥ 6.0% and ≥ 6.5% were 54%, 34% and 12%, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC) for detection of increasing levels dysglycemia or diabetes for RCG were 63%, 66% and 72%, for the ADA DRT the AUCs were 75%, 76% and 81% and for SFS the AUCs were 82%, 84% and 90%, respectively. For each level of dysglycemia or diabetes, the SFS AUC was significantly higher than RCG or the ADA DRT. The noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy measurement outperformed both RCG and the ADA DRT for detection of A1C-defined dysglycemia or diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Novel Major Locus for Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes, as Measured by Both A1C and Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Andrew D.; Waggott, Daryl; Boright, Andrew P.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Shen, Enqing; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wong, Isidro; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Cleary, Patricia A.; Lachin, John M.; Below, Jennifer E.; Nicolae, Dan; Cox, Nancy J.; Canty, Angelo J.; Sun, Lei; Bull, Shelley B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycemia is a major risk factor for the development of long-term complications in type 1 diabetes; however, no specific genetic loci have been identified for glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes. To identify such loci in type 1 diabetes, we analyzed longitudinal repeated measures of A1C from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study using the mean of quarterly A1C values measured over 6.5 years, separately in the conventional (n = 667) and intensive (n = 637) treatment groups of the DCCT. At loci of interest, linear mixed models were used to take advantage of all the repeated measures. We then assessed the association of these loci with capillary glucose and repeated measures of multiple complications of diabetes. RESULTS We identified a major locus for A1C levels in the conventional treatment group near SORCS1 (10q25.1, P = 7 × 10−10), which was also associated with mean glucose (P = 2 × 10−5). This was confirmed using A1C in the intensive treatment group (P = 0.01). Other loci achieved evidence close to genome-wide significance: 14q32.13 (GSC) and 9p22 (BNC2) in the combined treatment groups and 15q21.3 (WDR72) in the intensive group. Further, these loci gave evidence for association with diabetic complications, specifically SORCS1 with hypoglycemia and BNC2 with renal and retinal complications. We replicated the SORCS1 association in Genetics of Diabetes in Kidneys (GoKinD) study control subjects (P = 0.01) and the BNC2 association with A1C in nondiabetic individuals. CONCLUSIONS A major locus for A1C and glucose in individuals with diabetes is near SORCS1. This may influence the design and analysis of genetic studies attempting to identify risk factors for long-term diabetic complications. PMID:19875614

  9. Usefulness of the plasma glucose concentration-to-HbA1c ratio in predicting clinical outcomes during acute illness with extreme hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Y-W; Hsu, C-Y; Guo, Y-W; Chen, H-S

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the correlation between the plasma glucose-to-glycated haemoglobin ratio (GAR) and clinical outcome during acute illness. This retrospective observational cohort study enrolled 661 patients who visited the emergency department of our hospital between 1 July 2008 and 30 September 2010 with plasma glucose concentrations>500mg/dL. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, white blood cells, neutrophils, haematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, liver function and plasma glucose concentration were recorded at the initial presentation to the emergency department. Data on glycated haemoglobin over the preceding 6 months were reviewed from our hospital database. The glucose-to-HbA 1c ratio (GAR) was calculated as the plasma glucose concentration divided by glycated haemoglobin. The GAR of those who died was significantly higher than that of the survivors (81.0±25.9 vs 67.6±25.0; P<0.001). There was a trend towards a higher 90-day mortality rate in patients with higher GARs (log-rank test P<0.0001 for trend). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the GAR was significantly related to 90-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 standard deviation [SD] change: 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.63; P<0.001), but not to plasma glucose (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.70-1.13; P=0.328). Rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilator use were also higher in those with higher GARs. GAR independently predicted 90-day mortality, ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation. It was also a better predictor of patient outcomes than plasma glucose alone in patients with extremely high glucose levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An elevated gap between admission and A1C-derived average glucose levels is associated with adverse outcomes in diabetic patients with pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-I; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Chang, Wei-Chou; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Chen, Yu-Long; Tsai, Shih-Hung

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether chronic glycemic control and stress-induced hyperglycemia, determined by the gap between admission glucose levels and A1C-derived average glucose (ADAG) levels adversely affects outcomes in diabetic patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Clinical, laboratory, and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of 329 PLA patients (2004-2010) were retrospectively reviewed. HbA1C levels were used to determine long-term glycemic control status, which were then converted to estimated average glucose values. For the gap between admission glucose levels and ADAG levels, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to determine the optimal cut-off values predicting adverse outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of adverse outcomes. Diabetic PLA patients with poorer glycemic control had significantly higher Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) infection rates, lower albumin levels, and longer hospital stays than those with suboptimal and good glycemic control. The ROC curve showed that a glycemic gap of 72 mg/dL was the optimal cut-off value for predicting adverse outcomes and showed a 22.3% relative increase in adverse outcomes compared with a glycemic gap<72 mg/dL. Multivariate analysis revealed that an elevated glycemic gap≥72 mg/dL was important predictor of adverse outcomes. A glycemic gap≥72 mg/dL, rather than admission hyperglycemia or chronic glycemic control, was significantly correlated with adverse outcomes in diabetic PLA patients. Poorer chronic glycemic control in diabetic PLA patients is associated with high incidence of KP infection, hypoalbuminemia and longer hospital stay.

  11. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  12. Impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the most recent human trials that have examined the impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis. Our literature search retrieved one human trial of alternate day fasting, and three trials of Ramadan fasting published in the past 12 months. Current evidence suggests that 8 weeks of alternate day fasting that produces mild weight loss (4% from baseline) has no effect on glucose homeostasis. As for Ramadan fasting, decreases in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance have been noted after 4 weeks in healthy normal weight individuals with mild weight loss (1-2% from baseline). However, Ramadan fasting may have little impact on glucoregulatory parameters in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who failed to observe weight loss. Whether intermittent fasting is an effective means of regulating glucose homeostasis remains unclear because of the scarcity of studies in this area. Large-scale, longer-term randomized controlled trials will be required before the use of fasting can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  13. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The effects of long term fasting in Ramadan on glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Karatoprak, C; Yolbas, S; Cakirca, M; Cinar, A; Zorlu, M; Kiskac, M; Cikrikcioglu, M A; Erkoc, R; Tasan, E

    2013-09-01

    For Ramadan fasting, observing Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset during Ramadan, Islam's holy month of the year according to the lunar calendar. In 2011, fasting patients with diabetes fasted for an average of 16.5 hours per day, having 2 meals between sunset and sunrise for a month. We aimed to evaluate the impact of extended fasting on glucose regulation and observe possible complications of extended fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We conducted a randomized, retrospective, observational study. Patients who presented at the Diabetes Clinic during the 15 days before and after Ramadan in August 2011 Istanbul, whose hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, weight and height value examinations and follow-up were completed were included in the study. Seventy-six diabetes patients who fasted during Ramadan (fasting group) and 71 patients with diabetes who did not fast (non-fasting group) were included in the study. These two groups with similar demographic characteristics were compared before and after Ramadan. HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, body mass index, weight and adverse events were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was observed among the fasting and the non-fasting groups. There was no difference between the pre and post-Ramadan values of the fasting group. We could not find any negative effects of extended fasting on glucose regulation of patients with diabetes who are using certain medications. No serious adverse event was observed. We failed to demonstrate benefits of increasing the number of meals in patients with diabetes.

  15. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose: evolution in a period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Leiva, E; Mujica, V; Orrego, R; Wehinger, S; Soto, A; Icaza, G; Vásquez, M; Díaz, L; Andrews, M; Arredondo, M

    2014-01-01

    To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients.

  16. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  17. A1C as a diagnostic criteria for diabetes in low- and middle-income settings: evidence from Peru.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Stanojevic, Sanja; Malaga, German; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-03-25

    To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥ 8 h. Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL and A1C ≥ 6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3-1.5) and 3.5% (95%CI 2.4-4.7) had diabetes using fasting glucose and A1C criteria, respectively. Compared to those classified as having diabetes using fasting glucose, newly classified subjects with diabetes using A1C (n = 25), were older, poorer, thinner and more likely to come from rural areas. Of these, 40% (10/25) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This study shows that the use of A1C as diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus identifies people of different characteristics than fasting glucose. In the PERU MIGRANT population using A1C to define diabetes tripled the prevalence; the increase was more marked among poorer and rural populations. More than half the newly diagnosed people with diabetes using A1C had normal fasting glucose.

  18. How does CKD affect HbA1c?

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary; Handelsman, Yehuda

    2018-04-01

    HOW DOES CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AFFECT HBA1C?: A number of factors determine HbA1c other than the level of glucose exposure alone. In an subset analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study of 941 diabetic people with varying degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as 724 who did not have CKD, and mean age in the eighth decade, Jung et al. ask whether HbA1c is reliable as an indicator of glycemia in people with kidney disease (CKD) to the same degree as in those not having kidney disease, and, if not, whether measures of glycated serum proteins may be more useful. The only available measure of glycemia for comparison was a single fasting glucose level, and the authors acknowledge that this gives an incomplete measure, particularly in people with relatively mild diabetes, whose mean HbA1c was 6.4%, with most having levels of 7.5% or lower. In patients of this sort, postprandial glucose levels may better explain variations in mean HbA1c. Recognizing that the dataset may be limited, Jung et al. nevertheless give an intriguingly negative answer to the first question, of the reliability of HbA1c with kidney disease. Using Deming regression analysis, Jung et al. showed that the correlation between HbA1c and fasting glucose weakens as renal function worsens, and, moreover, that this appears particularly to be the case in people with anemia (hemoglobin <130 and <120 g/L for men and women, respectively), confirming earlier observations. Among those diabetic people with neither anemia nor CKD, the correlation coefficient between HbA1c and fasting glucose was r = 0.70, compared with r = 0.35 among those with both anemia and very severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 or <45 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 with at least microalbuminuria, or eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 with macroalbuminuria). As far as the second question, of whether the alternative measures, namely fructosamine and glycated albumin, may be more useful with CKD

  19. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P < .001) and in Kruskal-Wallis test the mean CAC score differed by FPG group (P < .001). After adjustment for other factors in a multiple logistic regression analysis, those subjects with FPG >=110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  20. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  1. A1C as a Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes in Low- and Middle-Income Settings: Evidence from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Stanojevic, Sanja; Malaga, German; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in three groups of Peruvian adults, using fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Methodology/Principal Findings This study included adults from the PERU MIGRANT Study who had fasted ≥8 h. Fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL and A1C≥6.5% were used, separately, to define diabetes. Subjects with a current diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. 964 of 988 subjects were included in this analysis. Overall, 0.9% (95%CI 0.3–1.5) and 3.5% (95%CI 2.4–4.7) had diabetes using fasting glucose and A1C criteria, respectively. Compared to those classified as having diabetes using fasting glucose, newly classified subjects with diabetes using A1C (n = 25), were older, poorer, thinner and more likely to come from rural areas. Of these, 40% (10/25) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Conclusions This study shows that the use of A1C as diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus identifies people of different characteristics than fasting glucose. In the PERU MIGRANT population using A1C to define diabetes tripled the prevalence; the increase was more marked among poorer and rural populations. More than half the newly diagnosed people with diabetes using A1C had normal fasting glucose. PMID:21464957

  2. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  3. [Effects of barley flake on metabolism of glucose and lipids in the patients with impaired fasting glucose].

    PubMed

    Bi, Mingxin; Niu, Yucun; Li, Xue; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of barley flake (BF) on the glucose-lipid metabolism in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). 100 patients with IFG were divided into the oat meal (OM) control group and barley flake experimental group for three months intervention according to randomized controlled trail (RCT). Biochemical indicators, glucose-lipid metabolism related enzymes, the area under curve (AUC) of blood glucose and insulin after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were assessed before and after intervention. In addition, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated by FBG (mmol/L) x INS (microU/L)/ 22.5. At the end of the three month active intervention, the mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (INS) in the patients with BF treatment decreased by 9.26% (P < 0.001) and 13.37% (P = 0.001) separately compared with that in patients with OM treatment; meanwhile, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with BF treatment also decreased by 7.20% (P < 0.001) and 9.42% (P = 0. 002), respectively. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), HOMA-IR, total glyceride (TG), Apo-B, the AUC of blood glucose and insulin after OGTT were also significantly decreased separately (P < 0.01 or < 0.05 ). However, statistically significant differences failed to be found in HDL-C, Apo-A, ALP and SOD between these two groups. BF had favorable effect on improvement of glucose-lipid metabolism in the patients with impaired fasting glucose.

  4. Effects of dapagliflozin on insulin-requirement, glucose excretion and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels are not related to baseline HbA1c in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Biester, Torben; Aschemeier, Baerbel; Fath, Maryam; Frey, Marcel; Scheerer, Markus F; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) infrequently achieve HbA1c targets. Therefore, this placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study was set up to assess the safety, effect and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 10 mg dapagliflozin (DAPA) as add-on to insulin in relationship to HbA1c in youth. A total of 33 youths (14 males, median age 16 years, diabetes duration 8 years) were included and stratified into 3 baseline HbA1c categories (<7.5%, 7.5%-9.0% or >9.0; n = 11 each). During the study period of 24 hours, intravenous insulin administration and glucose-infusion kept blood glucose levels at 160 to 220 mg/dL. DAPA reduced mean insulin dose by 13.6% ( P  < .0001 by ANOVA) and increased urinary glucose excretion by 610% (143.4 vs 22.4 g/24 h; P  < .0001), both irrespective of baseline HbA1c. Six independent episodes in 6 patients with plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate levels between ≥0.6 and <1.0 mmol/L were observed after liquid meal challenges, 5 episodes in the DAPA group and 1 in the placebo group. This study provides a proof-of-concept, irrespective of preexisting HbA1c levels, for adjunct SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in the paediatric age group by lowering insulin dose and increasing glucose excretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Incompatibility between fasting and postprandial plasma glucose in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Michio; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-11-30

    It is shown that glucocorticoids have discordant effects on plasma glucose concentration through their effects on hepatic glycogen deposition, gluconeogenesis and peripheral insulin resistance. Cushing's syndrome caused by cortisol overproduction is frequently accompanied with diabetes mellitus, but fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and post-glucose load plasma glucose levels are not examined in patients with Cushing's syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate FPG, HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h PG and their relationship in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in comparison with control subjects. Sixteen patients with Cushing's syndrome (ACTH-dependent 31%, ACTH-independent 69% and diabetes mellitus 50%) and 64 controls (32 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI) were enrolled in this study. HbA1c and FPG in the patients with Cushing's syndrome were not different from the controls, whereas the FPG/HbA1c ratio was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. OGTT 2-h PG was significantly higher in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome than the non-diabetic controls, while HbA1c was not different between both groups and FPG was significantly lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. HOMA-β but not HOMA-R was significantly higher in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. In conclusion, FPG was rather lower in the patients with Cushing's syndrome than the controls. Postprandial PG or post-glucose loaded PG, but not FPG, is useful to evaluate the abnormality of glucose metabolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

  6. Effect of fasting ramadan in diabetes control status - application of extensive diabetes education, serum creatinine with HbA1c statistical ANOVA and regression models to prevent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2013-09-01

    Ramadan fasting is an obligatory duty for Muslims. Unique physiologic and metabolic changes occur during fasting which requires adjustments of diabetes medications. Although challenging, successful fasting can be accomplished if pre-Ramadan extensive education is provided to the patients. Current research was conducted to study effective Ramadan fasting with different OHAs/insulins without significant risk of hypoglycemia in terms of HbA1c reductions after Ramadan. ANOVA model was used to assess HbA1c levels among different education statuses. Serum creatinine was used to measure renal functions. Pre-Ramadan diabetes education with alteration of therapy and dosage adjustments for OHAs/insulin was done. Regression models for HbA1c before Ramadan with FBS before sunset were also synthesized as a tool to prevent hypoglycemia and successful Ramadan fasting in future. Out of 1046 patients, 998 patients fasted successfully without any episodes of hypoglycemia. 48 patients (4.58%) experienced hypoglycemia. Χ(2) Test for CRD/CKD with hypoglycemia was also significant (p-value < 0.001). Significant associations and linear regression were found for HbA1c and sunset FBS; RBS post-dawn with RBS mid-day and FBS at sunset. The proposed regression models of this study can be used as a guide in future for Ramadan diabetes management. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this paper.

  7. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, <4.00 mmol/L), comparing with normal fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (<4.0 mmol/L) and high (≥6.1 mmol/L) fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Performance of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) as a screening test for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in a high risk population--the Brazilian Xavante Indians.

    PubMed

    Franco, L J; Dal Fabbro, A L; Martinez, E Z; Sartorelli, D S; Silva, A S; Soares, L P; Franco, L F; Kuhn, P C; Vieira-Filho, J P B; Moisés, R S

    2014-11-01

    To examine the properties of HbA1c to detect diabetes and IGT in adult Brazilian Xavante Indians, a high risk population for diabetes. The survey was carried out between October 2010 and January 2012 and based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Basal and 2h capillary glycaemia were measured by HemoCue Glucose 201+; HbA1c using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography analyzer (Tosoh G7). 630 individuals aged ≥ 20 years were examined and 80 had a previous diagnosis of diabetes. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (≥ 48 mmol/mol) were 71.3%, 90.5% and 87.2%. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.83-0.93). To identify IGT, HbA1c values between 5.7% and 6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol) presented sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 87.2%, 24.7% and 51.4%, with an AUC of 0.62 (95%CI: 0.57-0.67). The ADA/WHO proposed cut-off of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) for HbA1c was adequate to detect diabetes among the Xavante. However, the performance of the ADA proposed cut-off points for pre-diabetes, when used to detect IGT was inadequate and should not be recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High serum selenium levels are associated with impaired fasting glucose and elevated fasting serum glucose in Linyi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Li, Xia; Ju, Wen; Wu, Guanrui; Yang, Xiaomei; Fu, Xiaofeng; Gao, Xibao

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between selenium level and impaired fasting glucose or elevated fasting serum glucose remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate these associations in China. This observational population study adopted a cluster sampling approach to enroll participants. Baseline information on selenium categories was tested using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between serum selenium level and impaired fasting glucose or elevated fasting serum glucose. The mean serum selenium concentration was 121.5μg/L which in a relatively high baseline Se status. Differences were observed among individuals with normal, impaired fasting glucose and elevated fasting serum glucose levels in their basic information, physical examination results and laboratory findings. After adjusting for their basic information, physical examination results and laboratory findings, compared with the low-selenium group, the high-selenium groups (124.9-143.9 and above 143.9μg/L) had ORs for elevated fasting serum glucose of 2.31 (1.37-3.90) and 2.67 (1.59-4.48), respectively (both P<0.05). A sex-difference was observed, and a significant association between selenium levels and impaired fasting glucose was observed for males but not for females. The findings of this observational study suggest that relatively high selenium levels might be positively associated with elevated fasting serum glucose and relatively high selenium levels might be positively associated with impaired fasting glucose in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Achievement of target A1C levels with negligible hypoglycemia and low glucose variability in youth with short-term type 1 diabetes and residual β-cell function.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Jennifer; Tamborlane, William V; Xing, Dongyuan; Tsalikian, Eva; Mauras, Nelly; Buckingham, Bruce; White, Neil H; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Beck, Roy W; Kollman, Craig; Ruedy, Katrina

    2012-04-01

    To determine exposure to hyper- and hypoglycemia using blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) profiles in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with residual β-cell function during the first year of insulin treatment. Blinded, 3-7 day CGM profiles were obtained in 16 short-term T1D patients (age 8-18 years, T1D duration 6-52 weeks) who had peak C-peptide levels ranging from 0.46 to 1.96 nmol/L during a mixed-meal tolerance test. Results in this short-term group were compared with those in 34 patients with well-controlled, longer-term T1D (duration ≥5 years), matched for age and A1C with the short-term T1D group, and with those in 26 age-matched nondiabetic individuals. Despite matching for A1C, and therefore similar mean sensor glucose levels in the two T1D groups, short-term T1D participants had a lower frequency of hypoglycemia (0.3 vs. 7.6%, P < 0.001), a trend toward less hyperglycemia (17 vs. 32%, P = 0.15), and a greater percentage in the target range (median 77 vs. 60%, P = 0.02). Indeed, the percentage of sensor glucose levels ≤70 mg/dL in the short-term T1D group (0.3%) did not differ from those in the nondiabetic group (1.7%, P = 0.73). The coefficient of variation of sensor glucose levels (an index of glucose variability) was lower in short-term vs. longer-term T1D participants (27 vs. 42%, respectively, P < 0.001). In youth with short-term T1D who retain residual β-cell function, there is negligible exposure to hypoglycemia and lower glucose variability than in youth with well-controlled T1D of longer duration.

  11. Chronic fructose substitution for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages has little effect on fasting blood glucose, insulin, or triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the role of long-term fructose consumption on health. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of other sugars and its effect on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for a reduction in fasting glycemic and insulinemic markers after chronic, isoenergetic replacement of glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages by fructose. The target populations were persons without diabetes, those with impaired glucose tolerance, and those with type 2 diabetes. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials of isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both by fructose in adults or children with or without diabetes of ≥2 wk duration that measured fasting blood glucose. The main outcomes analyzed were fasting blood glucose and insulin as well as fasting triglycerides, blood lipoproteins, HbA1c, and body weight. Results: We included 14 comparison arms from 11 trials, including 277 patients. The studies varied in length from 2 to 10 wk (mean: 28 d) and included doses of fructose between 40 and 150 g/d (mean: 68 g/d). Fructose substitution in some subgroups resulted in significantly but only slightly lowered fasting blood glucose (-0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.036 mmol/L), HbA1c [-10 g/L (95% CI: -12.90, -7.10 g/L; impaired glucose tolerance) and -6 g/L (95% CI: -8.47, -3.53 g/L; normoglycemia)], triglycerides (-0.08 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02 mmol/L), and body weight (-1.40 kg; 95% CI: -2.07, -0.74 kg). There was no effect on fasting blood insulin or blood lipids. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that the substitution of fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages may be of benefit

  12. CGM-measured glucose values have a strong correlation with C-peptide, HbA1c and IDAAC, but do poorly in predicting C-peptide levels in the two years following onset of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Bruce; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Kollman, Craig; Ruedy, Katrina J; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Slover, Robert; Bremer, Andrew A; Fuqua, John; Tamborlane, William

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the association between continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data, HbA1c, insulin-dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c) and C-peptide responses during the first 2 years following diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected from a randomised trial assessing the effect of intensive management initiated within 1 week of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, in which mixed-meal tolerance tests were performed at baseline and at eight additional time points through 24 months. CGM data were collected at each visit. Among 67 study participants (mean age [± SD] 13.3 ± 5.7 years), HbA1c was inversely correlated with C-peptide at each time point (p < 0.001), as were changes in each measure between time points (p < 0.001). However, C-peptide at one visit did not predict the change in HbA1c at the next visit and vice versa. Higher C-peptide levels correlated with increased proportion of CGM glucose values between 3.9 and 7.8 mmol/l and lower CV (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively) but not with CGM glucose levels <3.9 mmol/l. Virtually all participants with IDAA1c < 9 retained substantial insulin secretion but when evaluated together with CGM, time in the range of 3.9-7.8 mmol/l and CV did not provide additional value in predicting C-peptide levels. In the first 2 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, higher C-peptide levels are associated with increased sensor glucose levels in the target range and with lower glucose variability but not hypoglycaemia. CGM metrics do not provide added value over the IDAA1c in predicting C-peptide levels.

  13. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Margarida; Nunes, Patricia; Mendes, Vera M; Manadas, Bruno; Heerschap, Arend; Jones, John G

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL(-/-)) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These parameters were determined in 7 wild-type (ATGL(+/-)) and 6 ATGL(-/-) mice by a primed-infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose followed by LC-MS/MS targeted mass-isotopomer analysis of blood glucose. EGP was quantified by isotope dilution of [U-(13)C6]glucose while Cori cycling was estimated by analysis of glucose triose (13)C-isotopomers. Fasting plasma free fatty-acids were significantly lower in ATGL(-/-) versus control mice (0.43 ± 0.05 mM versus 0.73 ± 0.11 mM, P < 0.05). Six-hour fasting EGP rates were identical for both ATGL(-/-) and control mice (79 ± 11 versus 71 ± 7 μmol/kg/min, resp.). Peripheral glucose metabolism was dominated by Cori cycling (80 ± 2% and 82 ± 7% of glucose disposal for ATGL(-/-) and control mice, resp.) indicating that peripheral glucose oxidation was not significantly upregulated in ATGL(-/-) mice under these conditions. The glucose (13)C-isotopomer distributions in both ATGL(-/-) and control mice were consistent with extensive hepatic pyruvate recycling. This suggests that gluconeogenic outflow from the Krebs cycle was also well compensated in ATGL(-/-) mice.

  14. Relationships between obesity, lipids and fasting glucose in the menopause.

    PubMed

    Netjasov, Aleksandra Simoncig; Vujović, Svetlana; Ivović, Miomira; Tancić-Gajić, Milina; Marina, Ljiljana; Barać, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Menopause leads to the development of central adiposity, a more atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of metabolic syndrome independent of age and other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, sex hormones, lipids and fasting glucose in menopausal women. The study included 87 menopausal women, who where divided into groups according to two criteria: BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 and BMI > or = 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08.00 h for fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Significant differences between groups were found for weight, BMI, waist, hips circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a), FSH, LH, PRL (for systolic blood pressure p < 0.05, for the rest p < 0.01) and fasting glucose (p < 0.05). In obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for FSH and glucose, SHBG and LDL, SHBG and total cholesterol, SHBG and glucose, BMI and HDL, WC and HDL. In obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for BMI and HDL, waist circumference (WC) and HDL, WHR and HDL, FSH and glucose, SHBG and glucose; significant positive correlations were between BMI and glucose, WC and glucose and WHR with triglycerides. Gaining weight and decreased SHBG are related to dyslipidemia and increased fasting glucose confirming increased incidence of metabolic abnormalities in the menopause.

  15. Association of Sickle Cell Trait With Hemoglobin A1c in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Mary E; Wellenius, Gregory A; Sumner, Anne E; Correa, Adolfo; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Liem, Robert I; Wilson, James G; Sacks, David B; Jacobs, David R; Carson, April P; Luo, Xi; Gjelsvik, Annie; Reiner, Alexander P; Naik, Rakhi P; Liu, Simin; Musani, Solomon K; Eaton, Charles B; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2017-02-07

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects past glucose concentrations, but this relationship may differ between those with sickle cell trait (SCT) and those without it. To evaluate the association between SCT and HbA1c for given levels of fasting or 2-hour glucose levels among African Americans. Retrospective cohort study using data collected from 7938 participants in 2 community-based cohorts, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). From the CARDIA study, 2637 patients contributed a maximum of 2 visits (2005-2011); from the JHS, 5301 participants contributed a maximum of 3 visits (2000-2013). All visits were scheduled at approximately 5-year intervals. Participants without SCT data, those without any concurrent HbA1c and glucose measurements, and those with hemoglobin variants HbSS, HbCC, or HbAC were excluded. Analysis of the primary outcome was conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine the association of SCT with HbA1c levels, controlling for fasting or 2-hour glucose measures. Presence of SCT. Hemoglobin A1c stratified by the presence or absence of SCT was the primary outcome measure. The analytic sample included 4620 participants (mean age, 52.3 [SD, 11.8] years; 2835 women [61.3%]; 367 [7.9%] with SCT) with 9062 concurrent measures of fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. In unadjusted GEE analyses, for a given fasting glucose, HbA1c values were statistically significantly lower in those with (5.72%) vs those without (6.01%) SCT (mean HbA1c difference, -0.29%; 95% CI, -0.35% to -0.23%). Findings were similar in models adjusted for key risk factors and in analyses using 2001 concurrent measures of 2-hour glucose and HbA1c concentration for those with SCT (mean, 5.35%) vs those without SCT (mean, 5.65%) for a mean HbA1c difference of -0.30% (95% CI, -0.39% to -0.21%). The HbA1c difference by SCT was greater at higher fasting (P = .02 for interaction) and 2-hour (P = .03) glucose

  16. Relationship between Hb and HbA1c in Japanese adults: an analysis of the 2009 Japan Society of Ningen Dock database.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiko; Moriyama, Kengo; Yamakado, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of Hb on HbA1c levels in 265,427 Japanese individuals. The divergence between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels increased with lower Hb, resulting in HbA1c levels that were higher in relation to than the FPG levels. Similarly, the correlation between FPG and HbA1c levels, stratified by Hb, weakened as Hb decreased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cardiac risk profile in diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose].

    PubMed

    Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Harzheim, Erno; Gus, Iseu

    2004-08-01

    Mortality of diabetic patients is higher than that of the population at large, and mainly results from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) or abnormal fasting glucose (FG) in order to guide health actions. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative random cluster sampling of 1,066 adult urban population (> or =20 years) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 1999 and 2000. A structured questionnaire on coronary risk factors was applied and sociodemographic characteristics of all adults older than 20 years living in the same dwelling were collected. Subjects were clinically evaluated and blood samples were obtained for measuring total cholesterol and fasting glycemia. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 7 and a 5% significance level was set. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson's chi-square and continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test or Anova and multivariate analysis, all controlled for the cluster effect. Of 992 subjects, 12.4% were diabetic and 7.4% had impaired fasting glucose. Among the risk factors evaluated, subjects who presented any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality were at a higher prevalence of obesity (17.8, 29.2 and 35.3% in healthy subjects, impaired fasting glucose and DM respectively, p<0.001), hypertension (30.1, 56.3 and 50.5% in healthy subjects, impaired fasting glucose and DM, respectively, p<0.001), and hypercholesterolemia (23.2, 35.1 and 39.5 in healthy subjects, impaired fasting glucose and DM respectively, p=0.01). Subjects with any kind of glucose homeostasis abnormality represent a group, which preventive individual and population health policies should target since they have higher prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors.

  18. Estimates of the relative and absolute diurnal contributions of fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose over a range of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Dunseath, G; Luzio, S D; Owens, D R

    2013-09-01

    To re-examine the relative and absolute contributions of fasting/pre-prandial glucose (FPG) and post-prandial glucose (PPG) to 24-h hyperglycaemia and HbA1c respectively in non-insulin treated subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A total of 52 T2DM subjects (37 men) had daytime 12h plasma glucose (PG) profiles determined in response to three serial identical test meals commencing at 08 00h with pre-prandial and frequent post-prandial blood samples collected. The overnight PG profile was derived by projecting the 20 00h glucose concentration to the pre-breakfast value at 08 00h. PPG exposure was calculated above fasting/pre-prandial value for each meal. Excess hyperglycaemia was calculated based on a PG>5.5mmol/L with fasting hyperglycaemia being the difference between the two measurements. The subjects were divided into five groups according to the HbA1c (Group 1<7.0%; Group 2: 7.0-<7.5; Group 3: 7.5-<8.0%; Group 4: 8.0-<9.0%; Group 5:≥9.0%). The 24h relative contribution of PPG exposure and fasting hyperglycaemia to excess hyperglycaemia and the absolute contribution of PPG and fasting hyperglycaemia to excess HbA1c (HbA1c - 5.1%) was calculated. With deteriorating glycaemia, the relative contribution of PPG exposure decreased across the groups from 43.5% (HbA1c<7.0%) to 17.8% (HbA1c≥9.0%), whilst the contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia increased from 56.5% to 82.2% (P=0.004), respectively. The absolute contributions of PPG to excess HbA1c was 0.7%, which remained relatively stable across the spectrum of HbA1c, whilst fasting hyperglycaemia increased significantly from groups 1 to 5 (P<0.001). Fasting hyperglycaemia contributes substantially in all groups, increasing as HbA1c deteriorates. The absolute contribution of PPG to excess HbA1c did not vary across the range of HbA1c, representing a significant relative contribution even in well-controlled subjects with a HbA1c<7.0%. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening with fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M

    2016-07-25

    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has had a checkered history. During the last three decades, a few initial anecdotal reports have given way to the recent well-conducted studies. This review: (1) traces the history; (2) weighs the advantages and disadvantages; (3) addresses the significance in early pregnancy; (4) underscores the benefits after delivery; and (5) emphasizes the cost savings of using the FPG in the screening of GDM. It also highlights the utility of fasting capillary glucose and stresses the value of the FPG in circumventing the cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test. An understanding of all the caveats is crucial to be able to use the FPG for investigating glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Thus, all health professionals can use the patient-friendly FPG to simplify the onerous algorithms available for the screening and diagnosis of GDM - thereby helping each and every pregnant woman.

  20. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  1. Interpretation of HbA1c : association with mean cell volume and haemoglobin concentration.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D; Hlaing, T

    2014-11-01

    The utility of HbA1c in diabetes diagnosis is reduced in settings associated with altered haemoglobin glycation. We have studied whether HbA1c varies with mean cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration as measures of haemoglobin metabolism. Randomly selected adults from rural Victoria, Australia, were invited for biomedical assessment. After excluding patients with known diabetes and/or serum creatinine ≥ 0.12 mmol/l, 1315 adults were included. Demography, arthropometric measurements, oral glucose tolerance test, analyses of full blood count and HbA1c were undertaken. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, town and socio-economic status, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin, mean cell volume or mean cell haemoglobin concentration by glycaemic status (defined by oral glucose tolerance test). HbA1c was significantly and independently associated with fasting glucose, town, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, ethnicity, age and BMI among men < 50 years (R² = 33.8%); fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, mean cell haemoglobin concentration and town among men ≥ 50 years (R² = 47.9%); fasting glucose, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, town, 2-h glucose and age among women < 50 years (R² = 46.3%); fasting glucose, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume and 2-h glucose among women ≥ 50 years (R² = 51.6%). A generalized linear model showed a gradient from an adjusted mean HbA1c of 36 (95% CI 34-38) mmol/mol with a mean cell haemoglobin concentration of ≤ 320 g/l to 30 (95% CI 29-31) mmol/mol with a mean cell haemoglobin concentration of > 370 g/l. The gradient across mean cell volume was negative, but only by 1 mmol/mol (0.1%) HbA1c . A mean HbA1c difference of 5 mmol/mol (0.5%) across the mean cell haemoglobin concentration reference range suggests that an accompanying full blood count examination may be required for its use in the diagnosis of diabetes. Further studies are required to confirm this.

  2. Fasting glucose and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Sarna, M; Thanvi, Jyoti; Sharma, Vibha; Gupta, V P

    2007-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that blood glucose levels in the range of normoglycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular risk we performed an epidemiological study in an urban population. Randomly selected adults > or = 20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target sample was 1800 (men 960, women 840) of which 1123 subjects participated. Blood samples were available in 1091 subjects (60.6%, men 532, women 559). Measurement of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Cardiovascular risk factors were determined using US Adult Treatment Panel-3 guidelines. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of fasting glucose with various risk factors were determined. Fasting glucose levels were classified into various groups as < 75 mg/dl, 75-89 mg/dl, 90-109 mg/dl, 110-125 mg/dl and > 126 mg/dl or known diabetes. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was determined in each group. There was a significant positive correlation of fasting glucose in men and women with body mass index (r = 0.20, 0.12), waist-hip ratio (0.17, 0.09), systolic blood pressure (0.07, 0.22), total cholesterol (0.21, 0.15) and triglycerides (0.21, 0.25). Prevalence (%) of cardiovascular risk factors in men and women was smoking/tobacco use in 37.6 and 11.6, hypertension in 37.0 and 37.6, overweight and obesity in 37.8 and 50.3, truncal obesity in 57.3 and 68.0, high cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl in 37.4 and 45.8, high triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl in 32.3 and 28.6 and metabolic syndrome in 22.9 and 31.6 percent. In various groups of fasting glucose there was an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, and metabolic syndrome (Mantel-Haenzel X2 for trend, p < 0.05) and fasting glucose < 75 mg/dl was associated with the lowest prevalence of these risk factors. There is a continuous relationship of fasting glucose levels with many cardiovascular risk factors and level < 75

  3. Peripheral Blood Transcriptomic Signatures of Fasting Glucose and Insulin Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian H; Hivert, Marie-France; Peters, Marjolein J; Pilling, Luke C; Hogan, John D; Pham, Lisa M; Harries, Lorna W; Fox, Caroline S; Bandinelli, Stefania; Dehghan, Abbas; Hernandez, Dena G; Hofman, Albert; Hong, Jaeyoung; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D; Munson, Peter J; Rybin, Denis V; Singleton, Andrew B; Uitterlinden, André G; Ying, Saixia; Melzer, David; Levy, Daniel; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Florez, Jose C; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Kolaczyk, Eric D

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci associated with glycemic traits. However, characterizing the functional significance of these loci has proven challenging. We sought to gain insights into the regulation of fasting insulin and fasting glucose through the use of gene expression microarray data from peripheral blood samples of participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 5,056), the Rotterdam Study (RS) (n = 723), and the InCHIANTI Study (Invecchiare in Chianti) (n = 595). Using a false discovery rate q <0.05, we identified three transcripts associated with fasting glucose and 433 transcripts associated with fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age, sex, technical covariates, and complete blood cell counts. Among the findings, circulating IGF2BP2 transcript levels were positively associated with fasting insulin in both the FHS and RS. Using 1000 Genomes-imputed genotype data, we identified 47,587 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and 6,695 trans-eQTL associated with the 433 significant insulin-associated transcripts. Of note, we identified a trans-eQTL (rs592423), where the A allele was associated with higher IGF2BP2 levels and with fasting insulin in an independent genetic meta-analysis comprised of 50,823 individuals. We conclude that integration of genomic and transcriptomic data implicate circulating IGF2BP2 mRNA levels associated with glucose and insulin homeostasis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. Peripheral Blood Transcriptomic Signatures of Fasting Glucose and Insulin Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian H.; Hivert, Marie-France; Peters, Marjolein J.; Pilling, Luke C.; Hogan, John D.; Pham, Lisa M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Fox, Caroline S.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Dehghan, Abbas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hong, Jaeyoung; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munson, Peter J.; Rybin, Denis V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ying, Saixia; Melzer, David; Levy, Daniel; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci associated with glycemic traits. However, characterizing the functional significance of these loci has proven challenging. We sought to gain insights into the regulation of fasting insulin and fasting glucose through the use of gene expression microarray data from peripheral blood samples of participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 5,056), the Rotterdam Study (RS) (n = 723), and the InCHIANTI Study (Invecchiare in Chianti) (n = 595). Using a false discovery rate q <0.05, we identified three transcripts associated with fasting glucose and 433 transcripts associated with fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age, sex, technical covariates, and complete blood cell counts. Among the findings, circulating IGF2BP2 transcript levels were positively associated with fasting insulin in both the FHS and RS. Using 1000 Genomes–imputed genotype data, we identified 47,587 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and 6,695 trans-eQTL associated with the 433 significant insulin-associated transcripts. Of note, we identified a trans-eQTL (rs592423), where the A allele was associated with higher IGF2BP2 levels and with fasting insulin in an independent genetic meta-analysis comprised of 50,823 individuals. We conclude that integration of genomic and transcriptomic data implicate circulating IGF2BP2 mRNA levels associated with glucose and insulin homeostasis. PMID:27625022

  5. Fasting glucose and glucose tolerance as potential predictors of neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults.

    PubMed

    Sims Wright, Regina; Levy, Shellie-Anne T; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E; Waldstein, Shari R

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related precursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among nondiabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed to confirm this unexpected pattern of

  6. Effect of chromium supplementation on glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Raynold V; Phung, Olivia J

    2015-02-13

    Chromium (Cr) is a trace element involved in glucose homeostasis. We aim to evaluate and quantify the effects of Cr supplementation on A1C and FPG in patients with T2DM. A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library (from database inception to 11/2014) with no language restrictions sought RCTs or cohort studies evaluating Cr supplementation in T2DM vs control and reporting either change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Meta-analysis was conducted on each subtype of Cr supplement separately, and was analyzed by random effects model to yield the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by using the I(2) statistic. A total of 14 RCTs (n=875 participants, mean age range: 30 to 83 years old, 8 to 24 weeks of follow-up) were identified (Cr chloride: n=3 study, Cr picolinate: n=5 study, brewer's yeast: n=4 study and Cr yeast: n=3 study). Compared with placebo, Cr yeast, brewer's yeast and Cr picolinate did not show statistically significant effects on A1C. Furthermore, compared to control, Cr chloride, Cr yeast and Cr picolinate showed no effect on FPG, however, brewer's yeast showed a statistically significant decrease in FPG -19.23 mg/dL (95% CI=-35.30 to -3.16, I(2)=21%, n=137). Cr supplementation with brewer's yeast may provide marginal benefits in lowering FPG in patients with T2DM compared to placebo however it did not have any effect on A1C.

  7. Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Prokopenko, Inga; Langenberg, Claudia; Florez, Jose C; Saxena, Richa; Soranzo, Nicole; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Loos, Ruth J F; Manning, Alisa K; Jackson, Anne U; Aulchenko, Yurii; Potter, Simon C; Erdos, Michael R; Sanna, Serena; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wheeler, Eleanor; Kaakinen, Marika; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Chen, Wei-Min; Ahmadi, Kourosh; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergman, Richard N; Bochud, Murielle; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Buchanan, Thomas A; Cao, Antonio; Cervino, Alessandra; Coin, Lachlan; Collins, Francis S; Crisponi, Laura; de Geus, Eco J C; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Paul; Freimer, Nelson; Gateva, Vesela; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Hughes, Thomas E; Hunt, Sarah; Illig, Thomas; Inouye, Michael; Isomaa, Bo; Johnson, Toby; Kong, Augustine; Krestyaninova, Maria; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lim, Noha; Lindblad, Ulf; Lindgren, Cecilia M; McCann, Owen T; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew D; Naitza, Silvia; Orrù, Marco; Palmer, Colin N A; Pouta, Anneli; Randall, Joshua; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Saramies, Jouko; Scheet, Paul; Scott, Laura J; Scuteri, Angelo; Sharp, Stephen; Sijbrands, Eric; Smit, Jan H; Song, Kijoung; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stringham, Heather M; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Voight, Benjamin F; Waterworth, Dawn; Wichmann, H-Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Yuan, Xin; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Schlessinger, David; Sandhu, Manjinder; Boomsma, Dorret I; Uda, Manuela; Spector, Tim D; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Altshuler, David; Vollenweider, Peter; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Lakatta, Edward; Waeber, Gerard; Fox, Caroline S; Peltonen, Leena; Groop, Leif C; Mooser, Vincent; Cupples, L Adrienne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Van Duijn, Cornelia; Dupuis, Josée; Watanabe, Richard M; Stefansson, Kari; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Meigs, James B; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2009-01-01

    To identify previously unknown genetic loci associated with fasting glucose concentrations, we examined the leading association signals in ten genome-wide association scans involving a total of 36,610 individuals of European descent. Variants in the gene encoding melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) were consistently associated with fasting glucose across all ten studies. The strongest signal was observed at rs10830963, where each G allele (frequency 0.30 in HapMap CEU) was associated with an increase of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.06-0.08) mmol/l in fasting glucose levels (P = 3.2 = × 10−50) and reduced beta-cell function as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B, P = 1.1 × 10−15). The same allele was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.09 (1.05-1.12), per G allele P = 3.3 × 10−7) in a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies totaling 18,236 cases and 64,453 controls. Our analyses also confirm previous associations of fasting glucose with variants at the G6PC2 (rs560887, P = 1.1 × 10−57) and GCK (rs4607517, P = 1.0 × 10−25) loci. PMID:19060907

  8. Beyond HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-12-01

    It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience. The diaTribe Foundation convened a meeting on the topic of glycemic outcomes beyond HbA1c on 21 July 2017, in Bethesda (MD, USA), focusing on potential uses of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Understanding patterns of glycemia in people with diabetes has long been a focus of approaches to improving treatment, and over the past few years this has become an available modality for clinical practice. Glucose levels are not the only biologic parameters affecting HbA1c levels; HbA1c changes with anemia or, more subtly, with changes in rates of erythrocyte turnover not reflected in hemoglobin levels outside the normal range. Renal disease often is associated with lower HbA1c than would be predicted based on an individual's glycemic levels. Furthermore, HbA1c levels tend to increase with age and are higher in some ethnic groups; for example, people of African ethnicity have higher HbA1c levels than people of Northern European descent. Indeed, we have argued that even as a measure of mean glycemia HbA1c is inherently imprecise. Overall, for some 20% of people with diabetes, HbA1c levels are substantially higher, or substantially lower, than those that would be predicted from mean blood glucose levels. If one recognizes that HbA1c is, at best, a partial measure of mean glycemic exposure, one must surely accept that HbA1c does not reflect variability within a day, from day to day, and from period to period. Many glucose-lowering medicines, particularly the sulfonylureas and insulin, cause hypoglycemia, with consequent negative effects on quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, as well as association with weight gain and adverse macrovascular outcome; hypoglycemia will, of course, not be captured by HbA1c measurement. Based on these

  9. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    PubMed

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value <0.001) for obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The

  10. Effects of α-Thalassemia on HbA1c Measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Anping; Ji, Ling; Chen, Weidong; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Yu

    2016-11-01

    α-Thalassemia is a benign condition that is often present in patients with diabetes mellitus. Here, we evaluated the effects of different genotypes α-thalassemia on HbA 1c measurement. A total of 189 samples from nondiabetic patients were analyzed. HbA 1c analysis was performed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity HPLC, immunoassay, and capillary electrophoresis. Fasting glucose, fructosamin, and HbA 2 were also performed. All samples were confirmed by genotyping for thalassemia. In patients with two or three functional α-genes, HbA 1c values were not significantly different from those of controls (P > 0.05); however, in individuals with α-thalassemia with one functional α-gene (i.e., HbH disease), HbA 1c levels were significantly different from those of controls (P < 0.01). HbA 1c values were significantly lower in individuals with HbH disease than in control individuals and patients in the other two α-thalassemia groups. For patients with HbH disease, there were no significant differences in the four HbA 1c measurement systems (P > 0.05). In this study, HbA 1c values in samples from individuals with two or three functional α-genes basically reflected the normal mean blood glucose level, while those in samples from individuals with one functional α-gene did not. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hemoglobin A1c levels and aortic arterial stiffness: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Zhou, Na; Teng, Fei; Zou, Caiyan; Xue, Ying; Yang, Manqing; Song, Huaidong; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently published new clinical guidelines in which hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recommended as a diagnostic test for diabetes. The present study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and cardiovascular risk, and compare the associations with fasting glucose and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (2 h OGTT). The study samples are from a community-based health examination survey in central China. Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and HbA1c were measured in 5,098 men and women. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, the levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with an increasing trend of cfPWV in a dose-dependent fashion (P for trend <0.0001). The associations remained significant after further adjustment for blood pressure, heart rate, and lipids (P = 0.004), and the difference in cfPWV between the highest and the lowest quintiles of HbA1c was 0.31 m/s. Fasting glucose and 2 h OGTT were not associated with cfPWV in the multivariate analyses. HbA1c showed additive effects with fasting glucose or 2 h OGTT on cfPWV. In addition, age and blood pressure significantly modified the associations between HbA1c and cfPWV (P for interactions <0.0001 for age; and  = 0.019 for blood pressure). The associations were stronger in subjects who were older (≥60 y; P for trend = 0.004) and had higher blood pressure (≥120 [systolic blood pressure]/80 mmHg [diastolic blood pressure]; P for trend = 0.028) than those who were younger and had lower blood pressure (P for trend >0.05). HbA1c was related to high cfPWV, independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Senior age and high blood pressure might amplify the adverse effects of HbA1c on cardiovascular risk.

  12. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bing-Quan; Lu, Yang; He, Jia-Jia; Wu, Tong-Zhi; Xie, Zuo-Ling; Lei, Cheng-Hao; Zhou, Yi; Han, Jing; Bian, Mei-Qi; You, Hong; Mei, De-Xian; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population. Methods: Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast. FPG, hemoglobin A1c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-off determined to provide the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis. Results: Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes. The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r = 0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001). For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI ]: 0.738–0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI: 0.850–0.921), respectively. The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively. Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs. 73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs. 48.1%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method. PMID:26668139

  13. Performance of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Postprandial Urine Glucose in Screening for Diabetes in Chinese High-risk Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Quan; Lu, Yang; He, Jia-Jia; Wu, Tong-Zhi; Xie, Zuo-Ling; Lei, Cheng-Hao; Zhou, Yi; Han, Jing; Bian, Mei-Qi; You, Hong; Mei, De-Xian; Sun, Zi-Lin

    2015-12-20

    The conventional approaches to diabetes screening are potentially limited by poor compliance and laboratory demand. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postprandial urine glucose (PUG) in screening for diabetes in Chinese high-risk population. Nine hundred and nine subjects with high-risk factors of diabetes underwent oral glucose tolerance test after an overnight fast. FPG, hemoglobin A1c, 2-h plasma glucose (2 h-PG), and 2 h-PUG were evaluated. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined by the American Diabetes Association criteria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2 h-PUG, and the optimal cut-off determined to provide the largest Youden index. Spearman correlation was used for relationship analysis. Among 909 subjects, 33.4% (304/909) of subjects had prediabetes, and 17.2% (156/909) had diabetes. The 2 h-PUG was positively related to FPG and 2 h-PG (r = 0.428 and 0.551, respectively, both P < 0.001). For estimation of 2 h-PG ≥ 7.8 mmol/L and 2 h-PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L using 2 h-PUG, the area under the ROC curve were 0.772 (95% confidence interval [CI ]: 0.738-0.806) and 0.885 (95% CI: 0.850-0.921), respectively. The corresponding optimal cut-offs for 2 h-PUG were 5.6 mmol/L and 7.5 mmol/L, respectively. Compared with FPG alone, FPG combined with 2 h-PUG had a higher sensitivity for detecting glucose abnormalities (84.1% vs. 73.7%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (82.7% vs. 48.1%, P < 0.001). FPG combined with 2 h-PUG substantially improves the sensitivity in detecting prediabetes and diabetes relative to FPG alone, and may represent an efficient layperson-oriented diabetes screening method.

  14. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  16. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    PubMed

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  17. Global standardisation of HbA1c.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leslie C

    2008-12-01

    HbA1c is used for assessing glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. It is also used for treatment goals and as a target for therapeutic intervention. The Direct Control and Complications Trial in the USA showed that HbA1c can be used to predict the risk of complications. Hence, it is important for HbA1c assays to be standardised. The National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) in the USA was formed in 1996 so that HbA1c results from different laboratories would be comparable to those reported in the DCCT study. There were also HbA1c standardisation programmes in Sweden and Japan. These three standardisation programmes are, in fact, direct comparison methods (DCMs), and yield different HbA1c results. In 1994, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) established a Working Group on Standardisation of HbA1c. This working group has developed a global HbA1c reference system with very much improved intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Recommendations have been made to report HbA1c results as IFCC-HbA1c values in SI units (mmol HbA1c/mol Hb) and NGSP-HbA1c (%) as well as estimated average glucose (eAG), once a tight relationship has been shown to exist between eAG and HbA1c.

  18. HbA1c Identifies Subjects With Prediabetes and Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Antonino; Mangiafico, Sarah; Urbano, Francesca; Scicali, Roberto; Scandura, Salvatore; D'Agate, Veronica; Piro, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes is associated with subclinical cardiac changes associated with heart failure development. We investigated diastolic function and its association with markers of glycation and inflammation related to cardiovascular disease in patients with prediabetes. We focused on individuals with prediabetes identified only by glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c; 5.7% to 6.4% and normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. Cross-sectional study. Departments of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. HbA1c, OGTT, Doppler echocardiography, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGEs), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were evaluated. We recruited 167 subjects with NFG/NGT who were stratified according to HbA1c level: controls (HbA1c <5.7%) and HbA1c prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%). Patients with HbA1c prediabetes (n = 106) showed a lower peak mitral inflow in early diastole (E wave) to late diastolic atrial filling velocity (A wave) ratio (E/A ratio) than controls (n = 61) (1.10 ± 0.24 vs 1.18 ± 0.23; P < 0.05). They showed a higher left atrium volume (LAV) (28.4 ± 5 vs 22.1 ± 3; P < 0.05) and sphericity index (SI) (0.6 ± 0.06 vs 0.5 ± 0.05; P < 0.05). After multiple regression analyses, HbA1c, sRAGE, and esRAGE were the major determinants of E/A ratio, LAV, and SI. Subjects with HbA1c prediabetes exhibited subclinical cardiac alterations associated with sRAGE, esRAGE, and HbA1c. These subjects would not have been classified as having prediabetes on the basis of fasting glycemia or post-OGTT values. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. HbA1c in relation to incident diabetes and diabetes-related complications in non-diabetic adults at baseline.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Patricia Anne; Kyle, Cam; Kenealy, Tim; Jackson, Rod T

    2017-05-01

    We compared the utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) and oral glucose tolerance (oGTT) in non-diabetic patients for identifying incident diabetes; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality; CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events; and diabetes microvascular complications. Data from a New Zealand community setting were prospectively linked to hospitalization, mortality, pharmaceutical and laboratory test results data. After applying exclusion criteria (prior laboratory diagnosis or history of drug treatment for diabetes or hospitalization for diabetes or CVD event), there were 31,148 adults who had an HbA 1c and 2-h 75g oGTT. HbA 1c was measured by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, and glucose using a commercial enzymatic method. We compared glycemic measures and outcomes using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. The median follow-up time was 4years (range 0 to 13). The mean age was 57·6years and 53·0% were male. After adjusting for other glycemic measures (fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and/or HbA 1c where relevant) in addition to age, sex, ethnicity and smoking habit, the hazard ratios for incident diabetes and diabetes complications of retinopathy and nephropathy were highest for 2-h glucose levels, followed by HbA 1c and lastly by fasting glucose. However, all-cause mortality and CHD were significantly associated with HbA 1c concentrations only, and ischemic stroke and CVD events with 2-h glucose only. Circulatory complications showed a stronger association with HbA 1c . Apart from neuropathy, HbA 1c showed stronger associations with outcomes compared to fasting glucose and provides a convenient alternative to an oGTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The changing relationship between HbA1c and FPG according to different FPG ranges.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Zheng, L; Sun, G; Guo, X; Li, Y; Song, H; Tian, F; Sun, Y

    2016-05-01

    Since the American Diabetes Association included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the diagnostic criteria for diabetes in 2010, the clinical use of HbA1c has remained controversial. We explored the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia in comparison with fasting plasma glucose (FPG). We screened 3710 adult subjects (mean age = 55.24 years) comprising 1704 males and 2006 females. We drew an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia according to FPG. We used Kappa coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c and FPG in different FPG ranges. The areas under ROC curve to diagnose diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia were 0.859 (95 % CI 0.827-0.892) and 0.633 (95 % CI 0.615-0.651). The kappa coefficients between FPG and HbA1c for diagnosis of diabetes and intermediate hyperglycemia were 0.601 (P < 0.001) and 0.104 (P < 0.001). The Pearson's correlation coefficient of FPG and HbA1c was 0.640 (P < 0.001), but when we classified FPG as normal, intermediate hyperglycemia and diabetes, the coefficients became 0.07 (P = 0.002), 0.185 (P < 0.001) and 0.760 (P < 0.001), respectively. The relationship between HbA1c and FPG changed according to the different FPG ranges. When FPG was higher, the relationship was stronger. HbA1c and FPG were highly consistent in diagnosing diabetes, but they were not in predicting intermediate hyperglycemia.

  1. Should living kidney donor candidates with impaired fasting glucose donate?

    PubMed

    Vigneault, Christine Buchek; Asch, William Stuart; Dahl, Neera Kanhouwa; Bia, Margaret Johnson

    2011-08-01

    As the kidney transplant waiting list grows, the willingness of transplant centers to accept complex donors increases. Guidelines for the evaluation of living kidney donors exist but do not provide clear guidance when evaluating the complex donor. Although few transplant centers will approve donor candidates with impaired glucose tolerance and most, if not all, will deny candidates with diabetes, many will approve candidates with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Furthermore, the demographic of living donors has changed in the past 10 years to increasingly include more nonwhite and Hispanic individuals who are at greater risk for future diabetes and hypertension. IFG may be more of a concern in potential donors whose nonwhite and Hispanic ethnicity already places them at greater risk. We review the definition of diabetes, diabetes prediction tools, and transplant guidelines for donor screening and exclusion as it pertains to impaired glucose metabolism, and additional ethnic and nonethnic factors to consider. We offer an algorithm to aid in evaluation of potential living donors with IFG in which ethnicity, age, and features of the metabolic syndrome play a role in the decision making.

  2. Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Li, Chaoyang; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-07-01

    There is limited information from population-based investigations of the associations between sleep duration and sleep disorders and parameters of glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to examine cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing with concentrations of insulin, fasting and 2-h glucose, and HbA1c. Data from 11 815 adults aged ≥20 years without diagnosed diabetes (5002 with an oral glucose tolerance test) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 were used. Information about sleep duration (2005-2010) and sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing (2005-2008) was obtained via questionnaire. An estimated 36.0% of participants reported sleeping ≤6 h/night, 62.0% reported sleeping 7-9 h/night, and 2.0% reported sleeping ≥10 h/night. In 2005-2008, 33.0% reported snoring ≥5 nights per week, 5.9% reported they snorted, gasped, or stopped breathing ≥5 nights/week, and 4.2% reported sleep apnea. Sleep duration was significantly associated with fasting concentrations of insulin and concentrations of HbA1c only in models that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose were significantly associated with sleep duration in models that adjusted only for age. Snoring frequency was positively associated with concentrations of insulin and HbA1c. Frequency of snorting or stopping breathing and sleep apnea status were associated with concentrations of insulin and of HbA1c only when BMI was not accounted for. In a representative sample of US adults, concentrations of insulin and HbA1c were significantly associated with short sleep duration, possibly mediated by BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. GPR40 partial agonist MK-2305 lower fasting glucose in the Goto Kakizaki rat via suppression of endogenous glucose production

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, Melissa E.; Kosinski, Daniel T.; Mane, Joel; Bunzel, Michelle; Cao, Jin; Souza, Sarah; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande; Di Salvo, Jerry; Weinglass, Adam B.; Li, Xiaoyan; Myers, Robert W.; Knagge, Kevin; Carrington, Paul E.; Hagmann, William K.

    2017-01-01

    GPR40 (FFA1) is a fatty acid receptor whose activation results in potent glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects in vivo. Several reports illustrate that GPR40 agonists exert glucose lowering in diabetic humans. To assess the mechanisms by which GPR40 partial agonists improve glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the effects of MK-2305, a potent and selective partial GPR40 agonist, in diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats. MK-2305 decreased fasting glucose after acute and chronic treatment. MK-2305-mediated changes in glucose were coupled with increases in plasma insulin during hyperglycemia and glucose challenges but not during fasting, when glucose was normalized. To determine the mechanism(s) mediating these changes in glucose metabolism, we measured the absolute contribution of precursors to glucose production in the presence or absence of MK-2305. MK-2305 treatment resulted in decreased endogenous glucose production (EGP) driven primarily through changes in gluconeogenesis from substrates entering at the TCA cycle. The decrease in EGP was not likely due to a direct effect on the liver, as isolated perfused liver studies showed no effect of MK-2305 ex vivo and GPR40 is not expressed in the liver. Taken together, our results suggest MK-2305 treatment increases glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), resulting in changes to hepatic substrate handling that improve glucose homeostasis in the diabetic state. Importantly, these data extend our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which GPR40 partial agonists reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:28542610

  4. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Paul A; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-09-01

    Cinnamon, the dry bark and twig of Cinnamomum spp., is a rich botanical source of polyphenolics that has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine and has been shown to affect blood glucose and insulin signaling. Cinnamon's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies; however, the issue of cinnamon intake's effect on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes still remains unclear. A meta-analysis of clinical studies of the effect of cinnamon intake on people with type 2 diabetes and/or prediabetes that included three new clinical trials along with five trials used in previous meta-analyses was done to assess cinnamon's effectiveness in lowering FBG. The eight clinical studies were identified using a literature search (Pub Med and Biosis through May 2010) of randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting data on cinnamon and/or cinnamon extract and FBG. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA) was performed on the identified data for both cinnamon and cinnamon extract intake using a random-effects model that determined the standardized mean difference ([i.e., Change 1(control) - Change 2(cinnamon)] divided by the pooled SD of the post scores). Cinnamon intake, either as whole cinnamon or as cinnamon extract, results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG (-0.49±0.2 mmol/L; n=8, P=.025) and intake of cinnamon extract only also lowered FBG (-0.48 mmol/L±0.17; n=5, P=.008). Thus cinnamon extract and/or cinnamon improves FBG in people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.

  5. Alcohol consumption reduces HbA1c and glycated albumin concentrations but not 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    PubMed

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycaemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. Methods The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup (age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index: 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations of the groups were compared. Results As the level of alcohol consumption increased, significantly high concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, and the oral glucose tolerance test 2-h plasma glucose concentrations tended to rise. While no significant effect of alcohol consumption on HbA1c, 1,5-AG, and the 1,5-AG/FPG ratio was observed, the HbA1c/FPG ratio, GA and the GA/FPG ratio exhibited significantly low values as the level of alcohol consumption increased. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, alcohol consumption was a significant negative independent variable for HbA1c and GA, but not for 1,5-AG. Conclusions As the level of alcohol consumption increased, the plasma glucose concentrations rose, but the HbA1c and GA concentrations were lower compared with the plasma glucose concentrations. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce HbA1c and GA concentrations, but not 1,5-AG.

  6. Correlation between pre-ramadan glycemic control and subsequent glucose fluctuation during fasting in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afandi, B; Kaplan, W; Al Hassani, N; Hadi, S; Mohamed, A

    2017-07-01

    Even though patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are exempted from fasting, the vast majority elect to fast against the advice of their healthcare providers. We have previously reported the incidence of wide fluctuations in blood glucose (BG) along with "unrecognized" severe hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting in adolescents with T1DM. This report compares the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data during fasting in adolescents with T1DM according to their Pre-Ramadan diabetes control. Children and adolescents with T1DM who intended to fast the month of Ramadan were asked to wear the CGM during fasting for a minimum of 3 days. Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were identified as BG <70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), BG 201-300 mg/dL (11.2-16.7 mmol/L), or BG >300 mg/dL (16.7 mmol/L) respectively, while normoglycemia was identified as BG 70-200 mg/dL (3.9-11.1 mmol/L). Patients were categorized as well-controlled (Group 1) and poorly controlled (Group 2) if the pre-fasting HbA1C was ≤8% (64 mmol/mol) and >8%, respectively. We compared the mean BG and the percentages of time spent in hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia between the two groups using Chi-square (significant difference when P value was <0.05). A total of 21 patients were enrolled (15 females), age 15 ± 4 years, duration of diabetes 6 ± 3 years, and HbA1C 8.5 ± 1.0% (70 mmol/mol). There were 7 subjects in Group 1, mean HbA1C 7.5 ± 0.4, and 14 subjects in Group 2, mean HbA1C 9.1 ± 0.9. The mean ± SD BG was 174 ± 76 mg/dL versus 199 ± 98, (P < 0.05) in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The percentages of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were significantly higher in Group 2, while there was a higher percentage of normoglycemia in Group 1. The overall durations of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia in Group 2 were longer by 30, 14, and 135%, respectively, than those in

  7. Fasting glucose measurement as a potential first step screening for glucose metabolism abnormalities in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; Goverde, Angelique J; van Haeften, Timon W; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2013-08-01

    Is routine screening by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed for all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Screening for glucose metabolism abnormalities of PCOS patients by an OGTT could potentially be limited to patients who present with a fasting glucose concentration between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l only. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of developing diabetes. This study proposes a stepwise screening strategy for (pre)diabetes for PCOS patients based on risk stratification by fasting plasma glucose. A cross-sectional study of 226 women diagnosed with anovulatory PCOS. A consecutive series of 226 patients, diagnosed with PCOS at the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, were screened for glucose metabolism abnormalities by OGTT (75 g glucose load). The majority of the 226 women (mean age: 29.6 ± 4.3 years; BMI: 27.3 ± 6.7 kg/m(2); 81% Caucasian) presented with a normal OGTT (169 women (75%)). Of the 57 (25%) women presenting with mild to moderate glucose abnormalities, 53 (93%) could be identified by fasting glucose concentrations only. Diabetes was diagnosed in a total of eight women (3.5%). In six women, the diagnosis was based on fasting glucose >7.0 mmol/l. The other two cases of diabetes initially presented with fasting glucose between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l and were diagnosed by OGTT assessment. No women diagnosed with diabetes presented with fasting glucose levels below 6.1 mmol/l. We therefore conclude that all diabetes patients could potentially be found by initial fasting glucose assessment followed by OGTT only in patients with fasting glucose between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/l. Before general implementation can be advised, this screening algorithm should be validated in a prospective study of a similar or greater number of PCOS women. Our study comprised of a mostly Caucasian (81%) population, therefore generalization to other ethnic populations should be done with caution. No external finance was involved in this study. B

  8. Early pregnancy fasting plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in pregnancy and association to offspring size: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Geng, Huizhen; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Langhui; Chen, Weiqing; Wang, Zilian

    2016-03-17

    Hyperlipidemia and high fasting plasma glucose levels at the first prenatal visit (First Visit FPG) are both related to gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity/overweight and fetal overgrowth. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correlation between First Visit FPG and lipid concentrations, and their potential association with offspring size at delivery. Pregnant women that received regular prenatal care and delivered in our center in 2013 were recruited for the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were tested at the first prenatal visit (First Visit FPG) and prior to delivery (Before Delivery FPG). HbA1c and lipid profiles were examined at the time of OGTT test. Maternal and neonatal clinical data were collected for analysis. Data was analyzed by independent sample t test, Pearson correlation, and Chi-square test, followed by partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses to confirm association. Statistical significance level was α =0.05. Analyses were based on 1546 mother-baby pairs. First Visit FPG was not correlated with any lipid parameters after adjusting for maternal pregravid BMI, maternal age and gestational age at First Visit FPG. HbA1c was positively correlated with triglyceride and Apolipoprotein B in the whole cohort and in the NGT group after adjusting for maternal age and maternal BMI at OGTT test. Multiple linear regression analyses showed neonatal birth weight, head circumference and shoulder circumference were all associated with First Visit FPG and triglyceride levels. Fasting plasma glucose at first prenatal visit is not associated with lipid concentrations in mid-pregnancy, but may influence fetal growth together with triglyceride concentration.

  9. Fasting glucose and risk of colorectal cancer in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeree; Cho, Sooyoung; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Park, Sue K; Shin, Hai-Rim; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Yoo, Keun-Young; Shin, Aesun

    2017-01-01

    Previous cohort studies have demonstrated a positive association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are few comparisons between DM groups categorized by fasting glucose level. This study examined associations between diabetes as defined by fasting glucose level and self-reported history of DM and CRC risk among Korean adults. Data from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2005 were analyzed. The study population comprised 14,570 participants aged 20 years or older. Participants were followed until December 31, 2012 (median follow-up: 11.9 years). Among participants with high fasting glucose (≥126mg/dL), the risk of developing CRC was significantly higher (HR: 1.51 [1.02-2.25]) than among participants with low fasting glucose (<126mg/dL). Risk was not significantly higher among participants with self-reported history of DM (HR: 1.34 [0.78-2.31]). When both fasting glucose and history of DM were considered together, the risk of CRC among participants with both high fasting glucose and history of DM was 54% (HR: 1.54 [0.97-2.43]), and the risk of CRC among participants with high fasting glucose and no history of DM was 50% (HR: 1.50 [0.73-3.05]). When the first 5 years of follow-up were excluded, among participants with high fasting glucose, the risk of developing CRC was significantly higher (HR: 1.61 [1.02-2.56]) than among participants with low fasting glucose. Risk of CRC was also significantly higher among participants with high fasting glucose and no history of DM (HR: 1.69 [1.01-2.84]). High fasting glucose and self-reported history of DM were associated with increased risk of CRC in this Korean population.

  10. Flash glucose monitoring system may benefit children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during fasting at Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Kafi, Shahd E; Zain Aldeen, Abdullah M; Khadwardi, Raghdah H

    2017-04-01

    To assess the benefit of using the flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) during Ramadan fasting. Methods: A prospective pilot study of 51 participants visited the pediatric diabetes clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from between June until and July 2016. The FreeStyle® Libre™ FGMS (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA) was used. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose values of less than 70 mg/dL, while hyperglycemia as glucose values of more than 150 mg/dL for all participants based on our institute's protocol. Results: Participants were able to fast for 67.0% of the total days eligible for fasting, whereas they did not fast on 33% of the days due to either hypoglycemia (15.4%) or non-diabetes-related reasons (17.6 %). None of the participants developed severe hypoglycemia. The mean number of hyperglycemic episodes during fasting hours was 1.29, per day, which was higher than that of hypoglycemic episodes (0.7). None of the participants developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Glycemic control with mean of estimated hemoglobin A1C reading during Ramadan (8.16 ± 1.64% [pre study]) to 8.2 ± 1.63% [post study] p=0.932. Conclusions: Children and adolescents with T1DM who use the FGMS could fast without the risk of life-threatening episodes of severe hypoglycemia (namely seizure, coma), or DKA during Ramadan. Adequate education and good glycemic control prior to Ramadan are important strategies in combination with the use of an FGMS to achieve better outcome.

  11. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  12. One-Hour Postload Hyperglycemia Confers Higher Risk of Hepatic Steatosis to HbA1c-Defined Prediabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Pedace, Elisabetta; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-defined prediabetes (HbA1c value of 5.7-6.4%) and 1-hour plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the degree to which HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL individually and jointly associate with hepatic steatosis and related biomarkers. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1108 White individuals. Ambulatory care. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics including hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasonography. Compared with the normal group (HbA1c <5.7%), HbA1c-defined prediabetic and diabetic individuals exhibit higher values of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; fasting and 2-hour postload insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; liver insulin resistance index; liver enzymes; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IGF-1. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects have increased risk of hepatic steatosis (1.5- and 2.46-fold, respectively). Stratifying participants according to HbA1c and 1-hour postload glucose, we found that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL have significantly higher risk of hepatic steatosis as compared with individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes but 1-hour postload glucose <155 mg/dL. Individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibit higher values of liver enzymes; fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and IGF-1. These data suggest that a value of 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of individuals within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories at higher risk of hepatic steatosis.

  13. The usage of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin for the identification of unknown type 2 diabetes in high risk patients with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Valderhaug, Tone G; Sharma, Archana; Kravdal, Gunnhild; Rønningen, Reidun; Nermoen, Ingrid

    2017-11-01

    In spite of increased vigilance of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (DM2), the prevalence of unknown DM2 in subjects with morbid obesity is not known. To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 and compare the performance of glycated A1c (HbA1c) and fasting glucose (FG) for the diagnosis of DM2 and prediabetes (preDM) in patients with morbid obesity. We measured fasting glucose and HbA1c in 537 consecutive patients with morbid obesity without previously known DM2. A total of 49 (9%) patients with morbid obesity had unknown DM2 out of which 16 (33%) fulfilled both the criteria for HbA1c and FG. Out of 284 (53%) subjects with preDM, 133 (47%) fulfilled both the criteria for HbA1c and FG. Measurements of agreement for FG and HbA1c were moderate for DM2 (κ = 0.461, p < .001) and fair for preDM (κ = 0.317, p < .001). Areas under the curve for FG and HbA1c in predicting unknown DM2 were 0.970 (95% CI 0.942, 0.998) and 0.894 (95% CI 0.837, 0.951) respectively. The optimal thresholds to identify unknown DM2 were FG ≥6.6 mmol/L and HbA1c ≥ 6.1% (43 mmol/mol). The prevalence of DM2 remains high and both FG and HbA1c identify patients with unknown DM2. FG was slightly superior to HbA1c in predicting and separating patients with unknown DM2 from patients without DM2. We suggest that an FG ≥6.6 mmol/L or an HbA1c ≥6.1% (43 mmol/mol) may be used as primary cut points for the identification of unknown DM2 among patients with morbid obesity.

  14. Glucose excursions and glycaemic control during Ramadan fasting in diabetic patients: insights from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

    PubMed

    Lessan, N; Hannoun, Z; Hasan, H; Barakat, M T

    2015-02-01

    Ramadan fasting represents a major shift in meal timing and content for practicing Muslims. This study used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to assess changes in markers of glycaemic excursions during Ramadan fasting to investigate the short-term safety of this practice in different groups of patients with diabetes. A total of 63 subjects (56 with diabetes, seven healthy volunteers; 39 male, 24 female) had CGM performed during, before and after Ramadan fasting. Mean CGM curves were constructed for each group for these periods that were then used to calculate indicators of glucose control and excursions. Post hoc data analyses included comparisons of different medication categories (metformin/no medication, gliptin, sulphonylurea and insulin). Medication changes during Ramadan followed American Diabetes Association guidelines. Among patients with diabetes, there was a significant difference in mean CGM curve during Ramadan, with a slow fall during fasting hours followed by a rapid rise in glucose level after the sunset meal (iftar). The magnitude of this excursion was greatest in the insulin-treated group, followed by the sulphonylurea-treated group. Markers of control deteriorated in a small number (n=3) of patients. Overall, whether fasting or non-fasting, subjects showed no statistically significant changes in mean interstitial glucose (IG), mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE), high and low blood glucose indices (HBGI/LBGI), and number of glucose excursions and rate of hypoglycaemia. The main change in glycaemic control with Ramadan fasting in patients with diabetes is in the pattern of excursions. Ramadan fasting caused neither overall deterioration nor improvement in the majority of patients with good baseline glucose control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucose supplement reverses the fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, De-Li; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Glucose plays an important role in immunity. Three day fasting will decrease cellular immunity and blood glucose levels in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that glucose supplement can reverse the fasting-induced suppression in cellular immunity in gerbils. Twenty-eight male gerbils were selected and randomly divided into fed and fasting groups. Half of the gerbils in each group were then provided with either 10% glucose water or pure water. After 66 h, each gerbil was injected with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) solution to challenge cellular immunity. Results showed that glucose supplement restored blood glucose levels in fasted gerbils to those of the fed controls. It also recovered cellular immunity, body fat mass and serum leptin levels in fasted gerbils to the values of the fed controls. Blood glucose levels were positively correlated with body fat mass, leptin levels and cellular immune responses. Thymus and spleen masses, and white blood cells in fasted gerbils were not affected by glucose supplement. In general, our data demonstrate that glucose supplement could reverse fasting-induced suppression of cellular immunity in Mongolian gerbils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic risk score of common genetic variants for impaired fasting glucose and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes influences oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Huang, Limin; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2018-05-18

    We tested the hypothesis that the cumulative effects of common genetic variants related to elevated fasting glucose are collectively associated with oxidative stress. Using 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed by summing nine risk alleles based on nominal significance and a consistent effect direction in 1,395 controls and 718 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. All the participants were divided into the following three groups: low-wGRS, middle-wGRS, and high-wGRS groups. Among the nine SNPs, five SNPs were significantly associated with IFG and type 2 diabetes in this Korean population. wGRS was significantly associated with increased IFG and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (p = 6.83 × 10 -14 , odds ratio = 1.839) after adjusting for confounding factors. Among the IFG and type 2 diabetes patients, the fasting serum glucose and HbA 1c levels were significantly higher in the high-wGRS group than in the other groups. The urinary 8-epi-PGF 2α and malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher in the high-wGRS group than in the other groups. Moreover, general population-level instrumental variable estimation (using wGRS as an instrument) strengthened the causal effect regarding the largely adverse influence of high levels of fasting serum glucose on markers of oxidative stress in the Korean population. Thus, the combination of common genetic variants with small effects on IFG and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes are significantly associated with oxidative stress.

  17. Mechanisms to conserve glucose in lactating women during a 42-h fast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about how lactating women accommodate for their increased glucose demands during fasting to avoid maternal hypoglycemia. The objective of this study was to determine whether lactating women conserve plasma glucose by reducing maternal glucose utilization by increasing utilization of ...

  18. Generational change in fasting glucose and insulin among children at ages 5-16y: Modelled on the EarlyBird study (2015) and UK growth standards (1990) (EarlyBird 69).

    PubMed

    Mostazir, Mohammod; Jeffery, Alison; Voss, Linda; Wilkin, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Pre-diabetes is a state of beta-cell stress caused by excess demand for insulin. Body mass is an important determinant of insulin demand, and BMI has risen substantially over recent time. We sought to model changes in the parameters of glucose control against rising BMI over the past 25years. Using random coefficient mixed models, we established the correlations between HbA1C, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA2-IR and BMI in contemporary (2015) children (N=307) at ages 5-16y from the EarlyBird study, and modelled their corresponding values 25years ago according to the distribution of BMI in the UK Growth Standards (1990). There was little change in HbA1C or fasting glucose over the 25y period at any age or in either gender. On the other hand, the estimates for fasting insulin and HOMA2-IR were substantially higher in both genders in 2015 compared with 1990. Insofar as it is determined by body mass, there has been a substantial rise in beta cell demand among children over the past 25years. The change could be detected by fasting insulin and HOMA2-IR, but not by fasting glucose or HbA1C. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35-74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56-127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85-146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067-0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. © 2016 The authors.

  20. Lower fasting blood glucose in neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Jansen, Ann Kristine; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Matos, Camila Maria; Souza, Marcio Leandro Ribeiro; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Leonardo Mauricio; de Rezende, Nilton Alves; Riccardi, Vincent Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate a lower occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level is the main criterion used to diagnose DM and glucose intolerance. Therefore, this study compared FBG level between adults with NF1 and non-NF1 controls. We selected clinical records of 57 out of 701 individuals attending the Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil. The selected patients with NF1 were matched to non-NF1 controls selected from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health according to sex, age (range, 35–74 years) and BMI at a ratio of 1:3. In both groups, individuals with DM were excluded. Median FBG level in the NF1 group (86 mg/dl (range, 56–127 mg/dl)) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (102 mg/dl (range, 85–146 mg/dl)) (P<0.001). Prevalence of FBG level ≥100 mg/dl in the NF1 group (16%) was lower than that in the non-NF1 control group (63%) (P<0.05). The chance of a high FBG level was 89% lower in the NF1 group (odds ratio, 0.112; 95% CI, 0.067–0.188) (P<0.05). In conclusion, adults with NF1 showed a lower FBG level and a lower prevalence of high FBG level compared with non-NF1 controls. PMID:26631381

  1. [About the HbA1c in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Farcet, Anaïs; Delalande, Géraldine; Oliver, Charles; Retornaz, Frédérique

    2016-03-01

    HbA1c product of non enzymatic glycation of HbA increases in relation with the mean blood glucose level during the former 2-3 months. HbA1c levels are correlated with the development of diabetic complications and HbA1c assessment is now the gold standard for evaluation of diabetes control. HbA1c level should not be higher than 7% to avoid these complications. However, in aged peoples, the objectives of diabetes control vary according to their health status. It must be good with HbA1c lower than 7-7.5% in healthy subjects and more relax in subjects with symptoms of frailty and risks of non perceived and self corrected hypoglycemia. Under these conditions, HbA1c values lower than 8 to 9% are advised. Nevertheless, hypoglycemia episodes may occur in patients with high HbA1c and capillary glucose follow-up is necessary for detection of such complications.

  2. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobina1chba1ctest.html Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Test To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. What is a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test? A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount ...

  3. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend <0.001). After adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triacylglycerols, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, creatinine, fatty liver, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, and current smoking, uric acid levels were positively associated with onset of impaired fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  4. Fasting Glucose and Glucose Tolerance as Potential Predictors of Neurocognitive Function among Non-diabetic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Shellie-Anne T.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Rosenberger, William F.; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related pre-cursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among non-diabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. Results No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Conclusions Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among non-diabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed

  5. Influence of insulin sensitivity and secretion on glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiemin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lei; Bao, Yuqian; Tao, Minfang; Jia, Weiping

    2013-06-01

    To examine the differential effects of insulin sensitivity and secretion on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) at 24-32weeks of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional, sequential case series study was performed in pregnant women with an abnormal 50-g oral glucose-screening test. Hemoglobin A1c and GA measurements were taken during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%β), insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), and modified insulinogenic index were calculated to assess insulin sensitivity and secretory function. A total of 713 pregnant women were enrolled. The GDM group had lower ISOGTT and insulinogenic index scores, and a higher HOMA-IR score. Hemoglobin A1c was positively correlated with HOMA-IR. Glycated albumin was negatively correlated with insulinogenic index and HOMA-%β. Multiple regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was independently associated with diastolic pressure, 0- and 120-minute glucose, and HOMA-IR; GA was independently associated with 0- and 120-minute glucose. Compared with HbA1c, GA is more closely correlated with fasting and postprandial glucose, regardless of insulin resistance and blood pressure, and might be a better monitoring index in women with GDM. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Response to fifty grams oral glucose challenge test and pattern of preceding fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Omololu; Ajayi, Godwin Olufemi

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy has profound implications for the baby and mother and thus active screening for this is desirable. Fifty grams oral glucose challenge test was administered after obtaining consent to 222 women in good health with singleton pregnancies without diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks gestation after an overnight fast. Venous blood sample was obtained before and 1 hour after the glucose load. A diagnostic 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test was subsequently performed in all. Two hundred and ten women had a normal response to oral glucose tolerance test i.e. venous plasma glucose below these cut-off levels: fasting 95 mg/dl (5.3 mmol/l), 1 hour 180 mg/dl (10.0 mmol/l), 2 hours 155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) and 3 hours 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l), while 12 were found to have gestational diabetes mellitus and were subsequently excluded from the study. They were appropriately managed. The mean maternal age was 30.9 ± 4.1 years (range 19 to 45 years) and the mean parity was 1.2 ± 1.1 (range 0 to 5). The mean fasting plasma glucose was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl), while the mean plasma glucose 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test was 115.3 ± 19.1 mg/dl (range 56 to 180 mg/dl). The mean fasting plasma glucose in normal pregnant Nigerians was 74.5 ± 11.5 mg/dl (range 42 to 117 mg/dl). There is a need to re-appraise and possibly review downwards the World Health Organization fasting plasma glucose diagnostic criteria in pregnant Nigerians for better detection of gestational diabetes mellitus. Pregnant women with venous plasma glucose greater than 153.5 mg/dl (8.5 mmol/l) 1 hour after 50 g glucose challenge test are strongly recommended for diagnostic test of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  7. Partitioning the variability of fasting plasma glucose levels in pedigrees. Genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Boehnke, M; Moll, P P; Kottke, B A; Weidman, W H

    1987-04-01

    Fasting plasma glucose measurements made in 1972-1977 on normoglycemic individuals in three-generation Caucasian pedigrees from Rochester, Minnesota were analyzed. The authors determined the contributions of polygenic loci and environmental factors to fasting plasma glucose variability in these pedigrees. To that end, fasting plasma glucose measurements were normalized by an inverse normal scores transformation and then regressed separately for males and females on measured concomitants including age, body mass index (weight/height2), season of measurement, sex hormone use, and diuretic use. The authors found that 27.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose in these pedigrees is explained by these measured concomitants. Subsequent variance components analysis suggested that unmeasured polygenic loci and unmeasured shared environmental factors together account for at least an additional 36.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose, with genes alone accounting for at least 27.3%. These results are consistent with the known familiality of diabetes, for which fasting plasma glucose level is an important predictor. Further, these familial factors provide an explanation for at least half the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose which remains after regression on known concomitants.

  8. Sensitivity of A1C to diagnose diabetes is decreased in high-risk older Southeast Asians.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Joan; Tay, Tunn-Lin; Foo, Joo-Pin; Tan, Eberta; Soh, Shui-Boon; Chen, Richard; Au, Vanessa; Jen-Min Ng, Ben; Cho, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of ageing on the performance of glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (A1C) for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Southeast Asians. A1C was measured in 511 subjects (mean age of 52.4 years; range 14-93) undergoing the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Using receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, the performance of A1C for the diagnosis of diabetes (using different standard criteria) was compared between 4 groups: <45 (n=156), 45-54 (n=132), 55-64 (n=122), ≥65 years (n=101). Subjects aged ≥65 years had the highest false-negative rates with fasting plasma glucose (60.8%) and A1C (35.1%), the smallest area under ROC curve (0.723, 95% CI 0.627-0.820), the lowest sensitivity (58.7%, 95% CI 50.4-65.7) and specificity (71.1%, 95% CI 57.3-82.6) of A1C 6.5%, compared to the younger age groups. OGTT is preferable for diagnosis of DM in older Southeast Asian adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HbA1c and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Nelson, Robert G.; Hanson, Robert L.; Knowler, William C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term data validating glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes in children are limited. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured in a longitudinal study of American Indians to determine their utility in predicting incident diabetes, all of which is thought to be type 2 in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Incident diabetes (FPG ≥126 mg/dL [7.0 mmol/L], 2hPG ≥200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L], HbA1c ≥6.5% [8 mmol/mol], or clinical diagnosis) was determined in 2,095 children without diabetes ages 10–19 years monitored through age 39, and in 2,005 adults ages 20–39 monitored through age 59. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for HbA1c, FPG, and 2hPG in predicting diabetes within 10 years were compared. RESULTS During long-term follow-up of children and adolescents who did not initially have diabetes, the incidence rate of subsequent diabetes was fourfold (in boys) as high and more than sevenfold (in girls) as high in those with HbA1c ≥5.7% as in those with HbA1c ≤5.3%—greater rate ratios than experienced by adults in the same HbA1c categories. Analyses of ROCs revealed no significant differences between HbA1c, FPG, and 2hPG in sensitivity and specificity for identifying children and adolescents who later developed diabetes. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c is a useful predictor of diabetes risk in children and can be used to identify prediabetes in children with other type 2 diabetes risk factors with the same predictive value as FPG and 2hPG. PMID:27810987

  10. HbA1c and the Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Pavithra; Nelson, Robert G; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-01-01

    Long-term data validating glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) in assessing the risk of type 2 diabetes in children are limited. HbA 1c , fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations were measured in a longitudinal study of American Indians to determine their utility in predicting incident diabetes, all of which is thought to be type 2 in this population. Incident diabetes (FPG ≥126 mg/dL [7.0 mmol/L], 2hPG ≥200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L], HbA 1c ≥6.5% [8 mmol/mol], or clinical diagnosis) was determined in 2,095 children without diabetes ages 10-19 years monitored through age 39, and in 2,005 adults ages 20-39 monitored through age 59. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for HbA 1c , FPG, and 2hPG in predicting diabetes within 10 years were compared. During long-term follow-up of children and adolescents who did not initially have diabetes, the incidence rate of subsequent diabetes was fourfold (in boys) as high and more than sevenfold (in girls) as high in those with HbA 1c ≥5.7% as in those with HbA 1c ≤5.3%-greater rate ratios than experienced by adults in the same HbA 1c categories. Analyses of ROCs revealed no significant differences between HbA 1c , FPG, and 2hPG in sensitivity and specificity for identifying children and adolescents who later developed diabetes. HbA 1c is a useful predictor of diabetes risk in children and can be used to identify prediabetes in children with other type 2 diabetes risk factors with the same predictive value as FPG and 2hPG. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose levels in hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grübler, M R; Gaksch, M; Kienreich, K; Verheyen, N; Schmid, J; Ó Hartaigh, B; Richtig, G; Scharnagl, H; Meinitzer, A; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; März, W; Tomaschitz, A; Pilz, S

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control. The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial was a single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted between 2011 and 2014 at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. We enrolled 200 people with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <30 ng/mL. Study participants were randomized to receive either 2800 IU of vitamin D or placebo per day for 8 weeks. The present study was a post hoc analysis that incorporated an analysis of covariance (ancova) approach, while adjusting for baseline differences. A total of 185 participants [mean ± standard deviation age, 60.1 ± 11.3 years; 47% women; mean 25(OH)D 21.2 ± 5.6 ng/mL, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 44.8 ± 11.8 mmol/mol and mean body mass index 30.4 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) ] completed the trial. ancova showed a mean treatment effect [95% confidence interval (CI)] on HbA1c of -3.52 (-6.7 to -0.34) mmol/mol (p = .045). There was no difference in fasting glucose -4.7 mg/dL (95% CI -16.3 to 6.9; p = .426). Vitamin D supplementation in obese hypertensive patients with low 25(OH)D reduces HbA1c levels. This finding warrants further investigation into potential vitamin D effects on glucose homeostasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Unfavorable inflammatory profile in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels according to the American Diabetes Association criteria.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, T V; Hribal, M L; Perticone, M; Andreozzi, F; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory profile of individuals with prediabetes defined by HbA1c levels, according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and to determine the ability of HbA1c to identify individuals with subclinical inflammation independently of the contribution of other metabolic parameters such as fasting, 1- or 2-h post-load glucose (PG) levels. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC) count and complement C3 (C3) were assessed, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 711 adults. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to their HbA1c levels. Poor agreement existed between HbA1c and 2-h PG criteria for identification of individuals with prediabetes (κ coefficient = 0.300). As compared with subjects having HbA1c <5.7 % (39 mmol/mol), individuals with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4 %, [39-46 mmol/mol]) exhibited a significant increase of the concentration of five inflammatory markers (hsCRP, ESR, fibrinogen, WBC count, C3) as well as of a cluster of inflammatory markers, as measured by an inflammatory score after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, fasting, 1- and 2-h PG levels. In multiple regression models including sex, age, body mass index, smoking habit, fasting, 1- and 2-h PG levels, and HOMA index, HbA1c levels were significant independent contributors to each of the five inflammatory markers examined. These data suggest that HbA1c is a reliable marker of glucose homeostasis, and may identify individuals at increased risk of diabetes with unfavorable inflammatory profile independently from fasting and 2-h PG levels.

  13. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose--a review of diagnosis, clinical implications and management.

    PubMed

    Petersen, John L; McGuire, Darren K

    2005-02-01

    The diagnostic categories of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were stablished in an effort to identify populations at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both IGT and IFG are associated with increased risk of developing T2DM, but recent analyses found that the thresholds of risk vary among different populations and an even lower diagnostic threshold of IFG may be appropriate. IGT has been linked with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and some analyses have demonstrated an increased mortality risk compared with patients with normal glucose tolerance. In contrast, a continuum of increased risk of microvascular manifestations of T2DM has been demonstrated with IFG but an association of IFG with cardiovascular events has not been well established. Although both IGT and IFG are associated with resistance to insulin and increased insulin secretion, they do not identify the identical patient populations and are not equivalent in predicting development of T2DM or cardiovascular events. IFG and IGT have been associated with other features of insulin resistance, including dyslipidaemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity, microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction, and markers of inflammation and hypercoagulability, traits collectively referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Analyses of combinations of these components have also been associated with progression to T2DM, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. The foundation of treatment for IGT, IFG, and the metabolic syndrome is lifestyle modification, including both dietary change and routine exercise. To date, several clinical trials have found that lifestyle modification is the most efficacious strategy to prevent progression to T2DM. Alternative treatments include pharmacotherapy with metformin or acarbose, both of which have been demonstrated to decrease the development of T2DM. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating newer pharmacotherapies, including

  14. Tracing Fasting Glucose Fluxes with Unstressed Catheter Approach in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui; Xu, Xiao; Meng, Ying; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhai, Hualing; Lu, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Blood glucose concentrations of type 1 diabetic rats are vulnerable, especially to stress and trauma. The present study aimed to investigate the fasting endogenous glucose production and skeletal muscle glucose uptake of Streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats using an unstressed vein and artery implantation of catheters at the tails of the rats as a platform. Research Design and Methods. Streptozotocin (65 mg·kg−1) was administered to induce type 1 diabetic state. The unstressed approach of catheters of vein and artery at the tails of the rats was established before the isotope tracer injection. Dynamic measurement of fasting endogenous glucose production was assessed by continuously infusing stable isotope [6, 6-2H2] glucose, while skeletal muscle glucose uptake by bolus injecting radioactively labeled [1-14C]-2-deoxy-glucose. Results. Streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats displayed polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria along with overt hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. They also had enhanced fasting endogenous glucose production and reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle compared to nondiabetic rats. Conclusions. The dual catheters implantation at the tails of the rats together with isotope tracers injection is a save time, unstressed, and feasible approach to explore the glucose metabolism in animal models in vivo. PMID:24772449

  15. Factors associated with reaching or not reaching target HbA1c after initiation of basal or premixed insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J; Schmitt, H; Jiang, H H; Ivanyi, T

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate factors associated with reaching or not reaching target glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) levels by analysing the respective contributions of fasting hyperglycaemia (FHG), also referred to as basal hyperglycaemia, vs postprandial hyperglycaemia (PHG) before and after initiation of a basal or premixed insulin regimen in patients with type 2 diabetes. This post-hoc analysis of insulin-naïve patients in the DURABLE study randomised to receive either insulin glargine or insulin lispro mix 25 evaluated the percentages of patients achieving a target HbA 1c of <7.0% (<53mmol/mol) per baseline HbA 1c quartiles, and the effect of each insulin regimen on the relative contributions of PHG and FHG to overall hyperglycaemia. Patients had comparable demographic characteristics and similar HbA 1c and FHG values at baseline in each HbA 1c quartile regardless of whether they reached the target HbA 1c . The higher the HbA 1c quartile, the greater was the decrease in HbA 1c , but also the smaller the percentage of patients achieving the target HbA 1c . HbA 1c and FHG decreased more in patients reaching the target, resulting in significantly lower values at endpoint in all baseline HbA 1c quartiles with either insulin treatment. Patients not achieving the target HbA 1c had slightly higher insulin doses, but lower total hypoglycaemia rates. Smaller decreases in FHG were associated with not reaching the target HbA 1c , suggesting a need to increase basal or premixed insulin doses to achieve targeted fasting plasma glucose and improve patient response before introducing more intensive prandial insulin regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (P<0.001). Following the test meals, there were higher maximum concentration (maxC), area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (P ≤0.016) for the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (P<0.001) and insulin maxC (P=0.010) were also observed in these individuals after the test meals. Multiple regression analysis revealed fasting glucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do high fasting glucose levels suggest nocturnal hypoglycaemia? The Somogyi effect-more fiction than fact?

    PubMed

    Choudhary, P; Davies, C; Emery, C J; Heller, S R

    2013-08-01

    The Somogyi effect postulates that nocturnal hypoglycaemia causes fasting hyperglycaemia attributable to counter-regulatory hormone release. Although most published evidence has failed to support this hypothesis, this concept remains firmly embedded in clinical practice and often prevents patients and professionals from optimizing overnight insulin. Previous observational data found lower fasting glucose was associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia, but did not assess the probability of infrequent individual episodes of rebound hypoglycaemia. We analysed continuous glucose monitoring data to explore its prevalence. We analysed data from 89 patients with Type 1 diabetes who participated in the UK Hypoglycaemia study. We compared fasting capillary glucose following nights with and without nocturnal hypoglycaemia (sensor glucose < 3.5 mmol/l). Fasting capillary blood glucose was lower after nights with hypoglycaemia than without [5.5 (3.0) vs. 14.5 (4.5) mmol/l, P < 0.0001], and was lower on nights with more severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia [5.5 (3.0) vs. 8.2 (2.3) mmol/l; P = 0.018 on nights with nadir sensor glucose of < 2.2 mmol/l vs. 3.5 mmol/l]. There were only two instances of fasting capillary blood glucose > 10 mmol/l after nocturnal hypoglycaemia, both after likely treatment of the episode. When fasting capillary blood glucose is < 5 mmol/l, there was evidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia on 94% of nights. Our data indicate that, in clinical practice, the Somogyi effect is rare. Fasting capillary blood glucose ≤ 5 mmol/l appears an important indicator of preceding silent nocturnal hypoglycaemia. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  18. HbA1c and Glycated Albumin Levels Are High in Gastrectomized Subjects with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    We report that glycated albumin (GA) is higher relative to HbA1c in non-diabetic, gastrectomized subjects without anemia, and thus is a sign of oxyhyperglycemia. It is known that gastrectomized subjects are prone to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and that the HbA1c levels of subjects with IDA are falsely high. In the present study, the HbA1c and GA levels of gastrectomized subjects with IDA were compared with gastrectomized subjects without anemia. Seven non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects with IDA were enrolled in the present study. Twenty-eight non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects without anemia matched with the subjects with IDA in terms of age, gender, and body mass index were used as the controls. Although there were no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose and OGTT 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) between the two groups, the HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than the controls. For all of the gastrectomized subjects (n=35), ferritin exhibited a significant negative correlation with HbA1c and GA, and a significant positive correlation with 2-h PG. In addition, the HbA1c and GA levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hemoglobin. The HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than those in controls. The high GA levels are attributed to a tendency in which patients with total gastrectomy, who are prone to IDA, are susceptible to postprandial hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia, which in turn leads to large fluctuations in plasma glucose. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  19. Mealtime 50/50 basal + prandial insulin analogue mixture with a basal insulin analogue, both plus metformin, in the achievement of target HbA1c and pre- and postprandial blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a multinational, 24-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison.

    PubMed

    Robbins, David C; Beisswenger, Paul J; Ceriello, Antonio; Goldberg, Ronald B; Moses, Robert G; Pagkalos, Emmanuil M; Milicevic, Zvonko; Jones, Cate A; Sarwat, Samiha; Tan, Meng H

    2007-11-01

    In people without diabetes, approximately 50% of daily insulin secretion is basal and the remainder is postprandial. Hence, it would be expected that insulin replacement therapy in a 50/50 ratio with each meal would mimic physiologic insulin secretion better than treatment with once-daily basal insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus. Using lispro mix (LM) 50/50 before meals may be a logical approach to achieving glycemic targets (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA(lc)] and pre- and postprandial blood glucose [BG] concentrations) in these patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with a premixed insulin analogue containing 50/50 basal + prandial insulins administered before each meal would achieve lower overall and mealtime glycemic control than once-daily basal insulin analogue, both plus metformin (Met), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This 24-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted at 38 sites across Australia, Greece, India, The Netherlands, Poland, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Male and female patients aged 35 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an HbA(1c) level of 6.5% to 11.0%, who were receiving metformin and/or a sulfonylurea with a stable dose of 0 to 2 daily insulin injections over the previous 3 months were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive LM50/50 (50% insulin lispro protamine suspension [ILPS] and 50% lispro) TID plus metformin (to a maximally tolerated daily dosage of 500-1000 mg BID) (LM50/50 + Met) or insulin glargine QD at bedtime plus metformin (500-1000 mg BID) (G + Met) for 24 weeks. With LM50/50 + Met, the insulin dose was titrated to target a fasting BG (FBG) level of <6.7 mmol/L (<120 mg/dL) and a 2-hour post-prandial BG (PPBG) level of <8.0 mmol/L (<144 mg/dL); those who did not reach the FBG target would be switched from presupper LM50/50 to LM75/25 (75% ILPS, 25% lispro). A total of 315 patients were randomized and received treatment (158

  20. Use of HbA1c to diagnose type 2 diabetes mellitus among high risk Sri Lankan adults.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M M; Weerarathna, T P; Dahanayake, M U; Weerasinghe, N P

    Even though, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was found to be effective in predicting diabetes especially in Caucasians there is limited evidence of its diagnostic utility in high risk Sri Lankan adults. This study aimed to determine the optimal HbA1c cut-off points for detecting diabetes in a high risk population in Sri Lanka. This community based study consisted of 254 previously healthy adults with history of diabetes in one or more first-degree relatives. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) , glucose tolerance test (GTT) and HbA1c were measured in all and GTT was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve was created to find the optimum HbA1c cut-off value to predict diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes was 12.2% (n=31) with FPG and 16.1% (n=41) with GTT. Prevalence rose to 27.6% (P<0.01) when HbA1c with cut-off of ≥6.5% was used as the diagnostic test. The ROC curves showed the HbA1c threshold of 6.3% provided the optimum balance between sensitivity (80.5%) and specificity (79%). In compared to GTT, FPG had only a modest sensitivity (65%) in diagnosing diabetes in this high risk population. Our study showed that optimum HbA1C cut-off for detecting diabetes was 6.3% and it had better sensitivity, but lower specificity than FPG. This study further showed that the prevalence of diabetes would become double if HbA1c is used over FPG to screen this high risk population. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of acarbose and metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients stratified by HbA1c levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Na; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Xin; Yang, Wen-Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of acarbose and metformin is correlated with baseline HbA1c levels in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data for 711 subjects were retrieved from the MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as initial Hypoglycemic treatment) trial database and reviewed retrospectively. Patients were grouped according to baseline HbA1c levels (<7%, 7%-8%, and >8%) and the results for these three groups were compared between acarbose and metformin treatments. Acarbose and metformin treatment significantly improved T2DM-associated parameters (weight, fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial glucose [PPG], glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol) across all HbA1c levels. Acarbose decreased PPG and HOMA-β significantly more than metformin, but only in subjects with lower baseline HbA1c (PPG in the <7% and 7%-8%, HOMA-β in the <7% groups; all P < 0.05). Acarbose decreased triglyceride (TG) levels, and the areas under the curve (AUC) for insulin and glucagon more than metformin at all HbA1c levels (P < 0.05). After 24 weeks treatment, metformin decreased FPG levels significantly more than acarbose for all baseline HbA1c groups (all P < 0.001). With the exception of FPG, PPG, and TG levels, differences between the two treatment groups observed at 24 weeks were not detected at 48 weeks. Acarbose decreased PPG and TG and spared the AUC for insulin more effectively in patients with low-to-moderate baseline HbA1c levels, whereas metformin induced greater reductions in FPG. These results may help guide selection of initial therapy based on baseline HbA1c. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Effect of HCV on fasting glucose, fasting insulin and peripheral insulin resistance in first 5 years of infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naeema; Rashid, Amir; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Bashir, Qudsia

    2016-02-01

    To assess the effects of hepatitis C virus infection in the first 5 years on fasting glucose, fasting insulin and peripheral insulin resistance. The case-control study was conducted at the Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from December 2011 to November 2012, and comprised subjects recruited from a government hospital in Rawalpindi. The subjects included known cases of hepatitis C virus infection for at least 5 years, and normal healthy controls. Fasting blood samples of all the subjects were collected and analysed for serum fasting insulin and serum fasting glucose levels. Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance was calculated SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 30 subjects, 20(66.6%) were cases, while 10(33.3%) were controls. Serum fasting glucose mean level in cases was 89.55±9.53 compared to 84.40±9.80 in the controls (p=0.188). The mean serum fasting insulin in controls was 7.52±3.23 and 6.79±3.30 in cases (p=0.567). Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance level in controls was 1.60±0.76 and In the cases it was 1.49±0.74 (p=0.695). Peripheral insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes as a complication of hepatitis C virus infection was not likely at least within the first five years of infection.

  3. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = -0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = -0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P < 0.05). SUA level is inversely correlated with HbA1c in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c in normal-glucose subjects. The reverse transporting of uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations.

  4. The Effect of Fasting Duration on Baseline Blood Glucose Concentration, Blood Insulin Concentration, Glucose/Insulin Ratio, Oral Sugar Test, and Insulin Response Test Results in Horses.

    PubMed

    Bertin, F R; Taylor, S D; Bianco, A W; Sojka-Kritchevsky, J E

    2016-09-01

    Published descriptions of the oral sugar test (OST) and insulin response test (IRT) have been inconsistent when specifying the protocol for fasting horses before testing. The purpose of our study was to examine the effect of fasting duration on blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration, glucose/insulin ratio, OST, and IRT results in horses. Ten healthy adult horses. Both OST and IRT were performed on horses without fasting and after fasting for 3, 6, and 12 hours. Thus, 8 tests were performed per horse in a randomized order. Blood collected at the initial time point of the OST was analysed for both blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations so that baseline concentrations and the glucose/insulin ratio could be determined. Unless fasted, horses had free-choice access to grass hay. There was no effect of fasting and fasting duration on blood glucose concentration, serum insulin concentration, glucose/insulin ratio, or the OST. Response to insulin in the IRT was decreased in fasted horses. The effect increased with fasting duration, with the least response to insulin administration after a 12-hour fast. These data indicate that insulin sensitivity is not a fixed trait in horses. Fasting a horse is not recommended for a glucose/insulin ratio or IRT, and fasting a horse for 3 hours is recommended for the OST. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. HbA1c levels in individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ricardo Silva; Souza, Fábio Oliveira de; Francescantonio, Isabel Cristina Carvalho Medeiros; Soares, Weslley Carvalho; Mesquita, Mauro Meira

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants and compare the results of this test with those of a control group. This was an experimental study based on the comparison of HbA1c tests in two different populations, with a test group represented by individuals heterozygous for hemoglobin variants (AS and AC) and a control group consisting of people with electrophoretic profile AA. The two populations were required to meet the following inclusion criteria: Normal levels of fasting glucose, hemoglobin, urea and triglycerides, bilirubin > 20 mg/dL and non-use of acetylsalicylic acid. 50 heterozygous subjects and 50 controls were evaluated between August 2013 and May 2014. The comparison of HbA1c levels between heterozygous individuals and control subjects was performed based on standard deviation, mean and G-Test. The study assessed a test group and a control group, both with 39 adults and 11 children. The mean among heterozygous adults for HbA1c was 5.0%, while the control group showed a rate of 5.74%. Heterozygous children presented mean HbA1c at 5.11%, while the controls were at 5.78%. G-Test yielded p=0.93 for children and p=0.89 for adults. Our study evaluated HbA1c using ion exchange chromatography resins, and the patients heterozygous for hemoglobin variants showed no significant difference from the control group.

  6. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels can be high if diabetes is not well controlled. Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes ...

  7. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Nandrolone decanoate inhibits gluconeogenesis and decreases fasting glucose in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Stephan Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Ignacio, Daniele Leão; Coelho, Raquel Guimarães; Mattos, Mariana Nigro; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; Carvalho, Denise Pires; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares

    2014-02-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids to improve physical performance or appearance has increased notably. The doses used are 10- to 100- fold higher than the therapeutic dose (TD), and this abuse can cause several side effects. Glucose metabolism is significantly affected by anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse, but studies about glycemic regulation during fasting are scarce. There are some evidences showing that testosterone can antagonize glucocorticoids action, which are crucial to glucose production during fasting. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses (SDs) of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on rat glucose metabolism during fasting. Male Wistar rats were treated with i.m. injections of vehicle, a low TD (0.016 mg/100 g b.w.-TD group) or a high SD (1 mg/100 g b.w.-SD group) of DECA, once a week for 8 weeks. After 12 h fasting, we evaluated glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests, liver glycogen content, serum levels of gluconeogenic substrates, insulin and corticosterone, glucose uptake and hexokinase (HK) activity in skeletal muscle, and the adrenal catecholamine content. SD group had increased serum insulin levels and a blunted response to insulin regarding glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Fasting serum glucose decreased significantly in SD group, as well as the pyruvate tolerance test and liver glycogen content. Moreover, serum levels of glycerol were increased in SD group. Our data indicate that SDs of DECA exert effects on different regulatory points of glucose metabolism, resulting in defective gluconeogenesis and decreased skeletal muscle glucose uptake in response to insulin.

  9. Association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with Iinsulin resistance in obese children.

    PubMed

    Onal, Zehra Esra; Atasayan, Vildan; Gürbüz, Tamay; Hepkaya, Evrim; Nuhoğlu, Cağatay

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance reflected by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) index and serum HbA1c levels of obese children. This study included 70 obese and 60 normal weight healthy children between the ages of 3 and 15. Anthropometric measures and biochemical tests (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c) were performed on all subjects. Plasma glucose levels were measured by the glucose oxidase method. Plasma insulin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). HOMA-IR index was used to estimate insulin resistance. A cut-off HOMA-IR level of ≥2.5 was accepted. The HbA1c analysis was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 5. Student's unpaired t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine statistical significance. Gender distribution did not reveal significant difference among the obese (F: 48.6%, M: 51.4%) and the non-obese (F: 46.7%, M: 53.3%) groups. The mean age value was significantly higher in the obese group (10.09 ± 3.09) (p > 0.005) than the non-obese group (8.31 ± 3.14) (p < 0.05). The mean value of body mass index (BMI) was 25.55 ± 4.3 in the obese group and 16.63 ± 2.3 in the non-obese group. The mean HOMA-IR values of obese group (2.84 ± 1.77) was significantly higher than the non-obese group (1.50 ± 0.95) (p < 0.005). Insulin resistance was significantly higher in the obese group. Subjects with HOMA-IR ≥2.5 levels in the obese group had significantly higher HbA1c values than those with HOMA-IR <2.5 levels. High HbA1c levels in obese children can be used as a screening tool to detect insulin sensitivity and resistance at an early stage.

  10. Impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic syndrome in an indigenous Siberian population.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Egorova, Aitalina G; Maharova, Natalia V; Pinigina, Irina A; Halyev, Simeon D; Matveeva, Niurguyana P; Romanova, Anna N

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the lifestyle and anthropometric correlates of impaired fasting glucose and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among an Indigenous high-latitude herding population from north-eastern Siberia. Cross-sectional study of Yakut (Sakha) adult volunteers. We collected health, lifestyle and anthropometric data among 166 Yakut adults (>or=18 years old; 101 females, 65 males) from the rural village of Tyungyulyu (62 degrees N, 130 degrees E; population 2,500), Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia. Measurements of fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure and waist circumference were used to document the presence of MetS based on the updated Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III definition. Metabolic syndrome was relatively uncommon among study participants, with only 10% of participants classified as having MetS, including 8% of females and 12% of males. Elevated blood pressure and low HDL cholesterol were the most common features of MetS in Yakut men and women, while elevated fasting glucose and high triglycerides were uncommon in both sexes. Relatively low mean fasting glucose concentrations were documented among Yakut women (4.46+/-0.65 mmol/L) and men (4.41+/-0.76 mmol/L); no participants were classified as diabetic. Fasting glucose and MetS are at relatively low levels in this population; however, rising rates of obesity are likely to lead to future increases in MetS and impaired fasting glucose in this population. Further, increasing consumption of market foods, many high in refined sugars, is likely to contribute to an increased presence of impaired fasting glucose and MetS.

  11. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    PubMed

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p < 0.001) and body mass index (5.5 %, p < 0.01). There was also a significant decrease of 12.3 %, 52.8 % and 45.6 % of plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin respectively (p < 0.01). The drop in adiponectin was positively correlated with the decrease in body weight (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in insulin resistance (p < 0.01). These results indicate that Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  12. Glycemic and insulinemic responses to different preexercise snacks in participants with impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Heidi K; Kim, Yeonsoo; Hertzler, Steven R; Watt, Celia A; Mattern, Craig O

    2011-02-01

    To compare serum glucose and insulin responses to 3 preexercise snacks before, during, and after exercise in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and healthy (H) men. In addition, in an IFG population, the authors sought to determine whether a natural fruit snack (i.e., raisins) yields more desirable glucose and insulin concentrations than an energy bar or a glucose solution. The IFG (n = 11, age = 54.5 ± 1.3 yr, fasting blood glucose [BG] = 6.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and H groups (n = 9, age = 48.0 ± 3.1 yr, fasting BG = 4.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L) cycled at 50% of VO2peak for 45 min on 4 occasions after consuming water or 50 g of carbohydrate from raisins (R), an energy bar (EB), or a glucose beverage (GLU). Metabolic markers were measured before, during, and after exercise. In all nutritional conditions, glucose concentrations of the IFG group were consistently higher than in the H group. Differences between IFG and H groups in insulin concentrations were sporadic and isolated. In the IFG group, preexercise glucose concentration was lower in the R condition than in GLU. Ten and 20 min into exercise, glucose concentrations in the R and EB conditions were lower than in GLU. Insulin concentrations were lower in the R condition than in EB and GLU immediately before exercise and at Minute 10 but at 20 min R remained lower than only GLU. Glucose concentrations were higher in the IFG group regardless of preexercise snack. Compared with the glucose solution, raisins lowered both the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, whereas the energy bar reduced glycemia but not insulinemia.

  13. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cerebral metabolism of amino acids and glucose in fed and fasted sheep.

    PubMed

    Pell, J M; Bergman, E N

    1983-03-01

    Net cerebral uptake from or release into whole blood of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, and acetate was estimated in fed, 3-day-fasted, and 6-day-fasted sheep. The respiratory quotient was similar in all three groups of sheep (approximately 0.95). Glucose uptake (35 mumol X min-1 X 100 g-1) was maintained during fasting, and about 94% of the cerebral oxygen consumption could have been accounted for by glucose oxidation in all sheep. A cerebral uptake of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and proline also was observed with a concomitant production of glutamine and asparagine. The brains of fed and 3-day-fasted sheep were in nitrogen balance, but a small net release of nitrogen occurred in 6-day-fasted sheep (2 mumol N. min-1 X 100 g-1). A small amount of pyruvate was always released (1.4 mumol X min-1 X 100 g-1) into the blood, whereas lactate was released (6 mumol X min-1 X 100 g-1) only in 6-day-fasted sheep. Ketone body and acetate utilization always was negligible when compared with that for glucose. The total cerebral nonglucose carbon release found for 6-day-fasted sheep was equivalent to 23% of the glucose carbon taken up, although only 8% could have been derived directly from glucose. Thus, metabolism by the ovine brain seems resistant to prolonged periods of hypoglycemia with only small adaptations occurring after a 6-day fast.

  15. Performance of HbA1c as an Early Diagnostic Indicator of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Boulware, David; Beam, Craig A.; Rodriguez, Henry; Legault, Laurent; Hyytinen, Mila; Rewers, Marian J.; Schatz, Desmond A.; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate HbA1c as an alternative criterion for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk subjects <21 years of age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subjects <21 years of age who participated in the prospective DPT-1, TEDDY, TRIGR, and Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Natural History (TrialNet) studies and had an HbA1c within 90 days of an OGTT with a 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) measure were included. An OGTT of 140–199 mg/dL defined IGT, and an OGTT with 2-hPG ≥200 mg/dL or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL defined diabetes. HbA1c ≥5.7% defined IGT, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% defined diabetes. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c compared with OGTT. RESULTS There were 587 subjects from DPT-1, 884 from TrialNet, 91 from TEDDY, and 420 from TRIGR. As an indicator for IGT, HbA1c sensitivity was very low across the studies (8–42%), and specificity was variable (64–95%). With HbA1c ≥6.5% threshold used for T1D diagnosis, the sensitivity was very low and specificity was high (sensitivity and specificity: DPT-1 24 and 98%, TrialNet 28 and 99%, TEDDY 34 and 98%, and TRIGR 33 and 99%, respectively). The positive predictive value of HbA1c ≥6.5% for the development of T1D was variable (50–94%) across the four studies. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c ≥6.5% is a specific but not sensitive early indicator for T1D in high-risk subjects <21 years of age diagnosed by OGTT or asymptomatic hyperglycemia. Redefining the HbA1c threshold is recommended if used as an alternative criterion in diagnosing T1D. PMID:22699293

  16. Performance of HbA1c as an early diagnostic indicator of type 1 diabetes in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Vehik, Kendra; Cuthbertson, David; Boulware, David; Beam, Craig A; Rodriguez, Henry; Legault, Laurent; Hyytinen, Mila; Rewers, Marian J; Schatz, Desmond A; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HbA(1c) as an alternative criterion for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 1 diabetes (T1D) in high-risk subjects <21 years of age. Subjects <21 years of age who participated in the prospective DPT-1, TEDDY, TRIGR, and Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Natural History (TrialNet) studies and had an HbA(1c) within 90 days of an OGTT with a 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) measure were included. An OGTT of 140-199 mg/dL defined IGT, and an OGTT with 2-hPG ≥200 mg/dL or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL defined diabetes. HbA(1c) ≥5.7% defined IGT, and HbA(1c) ≥ 6.5% defined diabetes. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of HbA(1c) compared with OGTT. There were 587 subjects from DPT-1, 884 from TrialNet, 91 from TEDDY, and 420 from TRIGR. As an indicator for IGT, HbA(1c) sensitivity was very low across the studies (8-42%), and specificity was variable (64-95%). With HbA(1c) ≥6.5% threshold used for T1D diagnosis, the sensitivity was very low and specificity was high (sensitivity and specificity: DPT-1 24 and 98%, TrialNet 28 and 99%, TEDDY 34 and 98%, and TRIGR 33 and 99%, respectively). The positive predictive value of HbA(1c) ≥6.5% for the development of T1D was variable (50-94%) across the four studies. HbA(1c) ≥6.5% is a specific but not sensitive early indicator for T1D in high-risk subjects <21 years of age diagnosed by OGTT or asymptomatic hyperglycemia. Redefining the HbA(1c) threshold is recommended if used as an alternative criterion in diagnosing T1D.

  17. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in subjects with fasting blood glucose below 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL).

    PubMed

    Khan, S H; Ijaz, A; Bokhari, S A Raza; Hanif, M S; Azam, N

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by the available criteria is controversial and relies heavily on fasting glucose results. This cross-sectional study in 2010-2011 aimed to measure the frequency of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in 127 subjects having fasting blood glucose < 7.0 mmol/L and to measure the agreement between different standard diagnostic criteria. Subjects presenting to a laboratory for analysis of fasting blood glucose for excluding diabetes mellitus underwent a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose challenge. A total of 40.6% of subjects with fasting blood glucose from 5.6-6.0 mmol/L had abnormal glucose regulation on the basis ofthe gold standard glucose challenge. Agreement between American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization diagnostic criteria was only fair (kappa = 0.32). Abnormalities of glucose metabolism including impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus can exist at fasting blood glucose results < 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL).

  19. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  20. Ethnic dependent differences in diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Booth, Ronald A; Jiang, Ying; Morrison, Howard; Orpana, Heather; Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Lemieux, Chantal

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown varying sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify diabetes and prediabetes, compared to 2-h oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), in different ethnic groups. Within the Canadian population, the ability of HbA1c to identify prediabetes and diabetes in First Nations, Métis and Inuit, East and South Asian ethnic groups has yet to be determined. We collected demographic, lifestyle information, biochemical results of glycemic status (FPG, OGTT, and HbA1c) from an ethnically diverse Canadian population sample, which included a purposeful sampling of First Nations, Métis, Inuit, South Asian and East Asian participants. Sensitivity and specificity using Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) recommended cut-points varied between ethnic groups, with greater variability for identification of prediabetes than diabetes. Dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) was identified with a sensitivity and specificity ranging from 47.1% to 87.5%, respectively in Caucasians to 24.1% and 88.8% in Inuit. Optimal HbA1c ethnic-specific cut-points for dysglycemia and diabetes were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Our sample showed broad differences in the ability of HbA1c to identify dysglycemia or diabetes in different ethnic groups. Optimal cut-points for dysglycemia or diabetes in all ethnic groups were substantially lower than CDA recommendations. Utilization of HbA1c as the sole biochemical diagnostic marker may produce varying degrees of false negative results depending on the ethnicity of screened individuals. Further research is necessary to identify and validate optimal ethnic specific cut-points used for diabetic screening in the Canadian population. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fasting hyperglycaemia blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance after exercise training in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Malin, S K; Kirwan, J P

    2012-09-01

    Lifestyle modification, consisting of exercise and weight loss, delays the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, no study has determined the efficacy of exercise training on glucose metabolism in the different prediabetes subtypes. Seventy-six older (65.1 ± 0.6 years) obese adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 9) and combined glucose intolerance (IFG + IGT = CGI; n = 22) were compared with normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 15) and T2D (n = 18) groups after 12 weeks of exercise training (60 min/day for 5 days/week at ~85% HR(max)). An oral glucose tolerance test was used to assess glucose levels. Insulin sensitivity (IS; euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp at 40 mU/m(2)/min), β-cell function (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion corrected for IS), body composition (hydrostatic weighing/computed tomography scan) and cardiovascular fitness (treadmill VO(2) max) were also assessed. Exercise training reduced weight and increased cardiovascular fitness (p < 0.05). Exercise training lowered fasting glucose levels in IFG, CGI and T2D (p < 0.05) and 2-h glucose levels in IGT, CGI and T2D (p < 0.05). However, 2-h glucose levels were not normalized in adults with CGI compared with IGT (p < 0.05). β-Cell function improved similarly across groups (p < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, IS increased approximately 40% in IFG and IGT, but only 17% in CGI. The magnitude of improvement in glucose metabolism after 12 weeks of exercise training is not uniform across the prediabetes subtypes. Given the high risk of progressing to T2D, adults with CGI may require more aggressive therapies to prevent diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Bryan C; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Horton, Tracy J; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2007-10-01

    The development of insulin resistance in the obese individual could impair the ability to appropriately adjust metabolism to perturbations in energy balance. We investigated a 12- vs. 48-h fast on hepatic glucose production (R(a)), peripheral glucose uptake (R(d)), and skeletal muscle insulin signaling in lean and obese subjects. Healthy lean [n = 14; age = 28.0 +/- 1.4 yr; body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 +/- 0.42] and nondiabetic obese (n = 11; age = 34.6 +/- 2.3 yr; BMI = 36.1 +/- 1.5) subjects were studied following a 12- and 48-h fast during 2 h of rest and a 3-h 40 mUxm(-2)xmin(-1) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). Basal glucose R(a) decreased significantly from the 12- to 48-h fast (lean 1.96 +/- 0.23 to 1.63 +/- 0.15; obese 1.23 +/- 0.07 to 1.07 +/- 0.07 mgxkg(-1)xmin(-1); P = 0.004) and was equally suppressed during the HEC after both fasts. The increase in glucose R(d) during the HEC after the 12-h fast was significantly decreased in lean and obese subjects after the 48-h fast (lean 9.03 +/- 1.17 to 4.16 +/- 0.34, obese 6.10 +/- 0.77 to 3.56 +/- 0.30 mgxkg FFM(-1)xmin(-1); P < 0.001). After the 12- but not the 48-h fast, insulin-stimulated AKT Ser(473) phosphorylation was greater in lean than obese subjects. We conclude that 1) 48 h of fasting produces a marked decline in peripheral insulin action, while suppression of hepatic glucose production is maintained in lean and obese men and women; and 2) the magnitude of this decline is greater in lean vs. obese subjects.

  3. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Predictive value of first fasting plasma glucose compared with admission plasma glucose for undiagnosed diabetes in a stable cardiology population.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhu-zhi; Zhang, Xin-mei; Mai, Zun; Geng, Deng-feng; Wang, Jing-feng

    2012-09-01

    The study compared the predictive value of admission plasma glucose (APG) and first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in stratifying patients meriting an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Characteristics of APG, FPG and OGTT 2-hour glucose as well as other blood measurements, physical examinations and medical information were assessed in 994 patients without known diabetes. The prevalences of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 24.6% and 37.9%, according to an OGTT, respectively. The first FPG demonstrated stronger predictive value in diagnosing diabetes than APG did both in overall and in patients with less clinical value. Compared to the first FPG, APG provided less value to coronary artery disease, hypertension and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diabetes screening. The first FPG exerted more predictive value than APG did and was still a preferable reference prior to APG in stratifying patients for undiagnosed diabetes by an OGTT. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between fasting serum glucose and cerebral glucose metabolism in late-life depression and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Christopher M.; Workman, Clifford I.; Lyman, Christopher H.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol R.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists for late-life depression (LLD) as both a prodrome of and risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Impaired peripheral glucose metabolism may explain the association between depression and AD given the connection between type 2 diabetes mellitus with both depression and AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cerebral glucose metabolism are sensitive to detecting changes in neural circuitry in LLD and AD. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) in non-diabetic young (YC; n=20) and elderly controls (EC; n=12) and LLD patients (n=16) was correlated with PET scans of cerebral glucose metabolism on a voxel-wise basis. The negative correlations were more extensive in EC versus YC and in LLD patients versus EC. Increased FSG correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in LLD patients to a greater extent than in EC in heteromodal association cortices involved in mood symptoms and cognitive deficits observed in LLD and dementia. Negative correlations in YC were observed in sensory and motor regions. Understanding the neurobiological consequences of diabetes and associated conditions will have substantial public health significance given that this is a modifiable risk factor for which prevention strategies could have an important impact on lowering dementia risk. PMID:24650451

  6. Reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance are involved in the fasting susceptibility of common vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mariella B; Queiroz, Joicy F; Dias Gomes, Carolinne I; Collares-Buzato, Carla B; Barbosa, Helena C; Boschero, Antonio C; Gonçalves, Carlos A; Pinheiro, Eliana C

    2013-03-01

    Susceptibility during fasting has been reported for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), to the point of untimely deaths after only 2-3 nights of fasting. To investigate the underlying physiology of this critical metabolic condition, we analyzed serum insulin levels, pancreatic islets morphometry and immunocytochemistry (ICC), static insulin secretion in pancreas fragments, and insulin signaling mechanism in male vampire bats. A glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was also performed. Serum insulin was found to be lower in fed vampires compared to other mammals, and was significantly reduced after 24h fasting. Morphometrical analyses revealed small irregular pancreatic islets with reduced percentage of β-cell mass compared to other bats. Static insulin secretion analysis showed that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired, as insulin levels did not reach significance under high glucose concentrations, whereas the response to the amino acid leucin was preserved. Results from ipGTT showed a failure on glucose clearance, indicating glucose intolerance due to diminished pancreatic insulin secretion and/or decreased β-cell response to glucose. In conclusion, data presented here indicate lower insulinemia and impaired insulin secretion in D. rotundus, which is consistent with the limited ability to store body energy reserves, previously reported in these animals. Whether these metabolic and hormonal features are associated with their blood diet remains to be determined. The peculiar food sharing through blood regurgitation, reported to this species, might be an adaptive mechanism overcoming this metabolic susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diet restriction in Ramadan and the effect of fasting on glucose levels in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baynouna Al Ketbi, Latifa Mohammad; Niglekerke, Nico J D; Zein Al Deen, Sanna M; Mirghani, Hisham

    2014-06-24

    Maternal diet restriction might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes due to metabolic changes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of changes in glucose levels due to Ramadan fasting in Emirati pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 150 women from the United Arab Emirates, (76 during Ramadan and 74 after Ramadan), with uncomplicated pregnancies at a gestational age between 20 and 36 weeks. The two groups of pregnant women had similar physiological parameters. Using the oral glucose tolerance test, the mean random blood glucose level after 1 hour of breaking the fast was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in the Ramadan fasting group than in the control group, and this was not affected by the number of fasting days. In 50% of patients after Ramadan and 70.5% during Ramadan, this value was more than 6.7 mmol/l, which is high and not an acceptable postprandial level in pregnancy. Caregivers need to consider the 1-hour postprandial glucose level response after fasting in Muslim pregnant women. Research of an interventional design is required to determine remedial actions for this issue.

  8. Diet restriction in Ramadan and the effect of fasting on glucose levels in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal diet restriction might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes due to metabolic changes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of changes in glucose levels due to Ramadan fasting in Emirati pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 150 women from the United Arab Emirates, (76 during Ramadan and 74 after Ramadan), with uncomplicated pregnancies at a gestational age between 20 and 36 weeks. Results The two groups of pregnant women had similar physiological parameters. Using the oral glucose tolerance test, the mean random blood glucose level after 1 hour of breaking the fast was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in the Ramadan fasting group than in the control group, and this was not affected by the number of fasting days. In 50% of patients after Ramadan and 70.5% during Ramadan, this value was more than 6.7 mmol/l, which is high and not an acceptable postprandial level in pregnancy. Conclusion Caregivers need to consider the 1-hour postprandial glucose level response after fasting in Muslim pregnant women. Research of an interventional design is required to determine remedial actions for this issue. PMID:24962444

  9. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  10. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  11. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  12. Fasting blood glucose level and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Chang, Li-Jung

    2012-05-01

    Diabetes has been consistently linked to many forms of cancers, such as liver, colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancer, however, the role of diabetes in outcome among cancer patients remains unclear. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 342 inpatients newly diagnosed with NSCLC referred by a teaching hospital cancer center in southern Taiwan between 2005 and 2007 to examine the effects of fasting glucose levels at time of cancer diagnosis on overall survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All patients were followed up until the end of 2010. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival curves for patients with and without diabetes. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios for the association between diabetes, other prognostic factors and patient survival. We observed that significant prognostic factors for poor overall survival in patients with NSCLC included older age, smoking, poor performance status, advanced stage (stage IIIB or IV), and no cancer-directed surgery treatment. Particularly, we identified that diabetic state defined by fasting blood glucose level ≥126 mg/dl was another independent prognostic factor for these patients. Compared with those who had normal range of fasting glucose level (70-99 mg/dl), patients with high fasting glucose level (≥126 mg/dl) had 69% excess risk of all-cause mortality in patients with NSCLC. Diabetes as indicated by elevated fasting blood glucose was independently associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality in patients with NSCLC, indicating that diabetes or hyperglycemia effectively controlled may present an opportunity for improving prognosis in NSCLS patients with abnormal glucose level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P < 0.001), fasting glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  14. Association Between the Presence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Hemoglobin A1c in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae W.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Ko, Kyung S.; Rhee, Byoung D.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have investigated the clinical effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on the use of the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening parameter for diabetes or prediabetes. We investigated the association between IDA and HbA1c levels in Korean adults. Among the 11,472 adults (≥19 years of age) who participated in the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey conducted by the Korean Center for Disease Control for Health Statistics), 807 patients with diabetes currently taking anti-diabetes medications were excluded from this study. We compared the weighted HbA1c levels and weighted proportion (%) of HbA1c levels of ≥5.7%, ≥6.1%, and ≥6.5% according to the range of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and the presence of IDA. Among 10,665 participants (weighted n = 35,229,108), the prevalence of anemia and IDA was 7.3% and 4.3%, respectively. The HbA1c levels were higher in participants with IDA (5.70% ± 0.02%) than in normal participants (5.59% ± 0.01%; P < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in FPG levels. In participants with an FPG level of <100 mg/dL and 100 to 125 mg/dL, the weighted HbA1c level was higher in those with IDA (5.59% ± 0.02% and 6.00% ± 0.05%) than in normal participants (5.44% ± 0.01% and 5.82% ± 0.01%) after adjusting for confounders such as age, sex, FPG level, heavy alcohol drinking, waist circumference, and smoking status as well as after exclusion of an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001, <0.01). The weighted proportions (%) of an HbA1c level of ≥5.7% and ≥6.1% were also higher in participants with IDA than in normal participants (P < 0.001, <0.05). However, the weighted HbA1c levels in individuals with an FPG level ≥126 mg/dL and a weighted proportion (%) of an HbA1c level of ≥6.5% showed no significant differences according to

  15. Effect of low glycemic load diet on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in poorly-controlled diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Amir; Afaghi, Ahmad; Sarreshtehdari, Majied

    2011-12-29

    Different carbohydrate diets have been administrated to diabetic patients to evaluate the glycemic response, while Poor-controlled diabetes is increasing world wide. To investigate the role of an alternative carbohydrate diet on glycemic control, we explored the effect of a low glycemic load (Low GL)-high fat diet on glycemic response and also glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of poor-controlled diabetes patients. Hundred poorly-controlled diabetes patients, HbA1c > 8, age 52.8 ± 4.5 y, were administrated a low GL diet , GL = 67 (Energy 1800 kcal; total fat 36%; fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%; carbohydrate 42%; protein 22%) for 10 weeks. Patients did their routine life style program during intervention. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c before and after intervention with significant reduction were: 169 ± 17, 141 ± 12; 8.85% (73 mmol/mol) ± 0.22%, and 7.81% (62 mmol/mol) ± 0.27%; respectively (P < 0.001). Mean fasting blood glucose reduced by 28.1 ± 12.5 and HbA1c by 1.1% (11 mmol/mol) ± 0.3% (P=0.001). There was positive moderate correlation between HbA1c concentration before intervention and FBS reduction after intervention (P < 0.001, at 0.01 level, R =0.52), and strong positive correlation between FBS before intervention and FBS reduction (P < 0.001, at 0.01 level, R = 0.70). This study demonstrated that our alternative low glycemic load diet can be effective in glycemic control.

  16. Comparison of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, HbA1c, and fructosamine for detection of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yamanouchi, T; Akanuma, Y; Toyota, T; Kuzuya, T; Kawai, T; Kawazu, S; Yoshioka, S; Kanazawa, Y; Ohta, M; Baba, S

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the use of serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (AG) levels in screening for diabetes mellitus, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c, fructosamine (FA), and AG in 1620 randomly selected subjects in 11 institutions throughout Japan. Most individuals were receiving diet and/or drug therapy for diabetes. Subjects were separated into four groups based on World Health Organization criteria: nondiabetic control subjects, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), patients with diabetes, and patients with other disorders without IGT. The overlap of AG values between each group was less than that of HbA1c or FA values. AG levels were significantly correlated with fasting plasma glucose (r = -0.627), HbA1c (r = -0.629), and FA (r = -0.590) levels. If we took 14 micrograms/ml as the normal lower limit, AG level was highly specific (93.1%), and a decreased AG level indicated diabetes mellitus (84.2% sensitivity). According to the selectivity index (sensitivity value times specificity value), AG determinations were superior to both HbA1c and FA measurements for diabetes screening. When combinations of these tests were used, only AG and HbA1c together were slightly better than AG alone. Thus, together with other advantages of AG, e.g., its wide variance with relatively fair glycemic control and the negligible influence of the sampling conditions, AG level has more potential than HbA1c or FA level as a screening criterion for diabetes.

  17. Identifying metabolic syndrome in African American children using fasting HOMA-IR in place of glucose.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sushma; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls) aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. We found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys. Using HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  18. Diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and cognitive decline in a population of elderly community residents.

    PubMed

    Rouch, Isabelle; Roche, Frédéric; Dauphinot, Virginie; Laurent, Bernard; Antérion, Catherine Thomas; Celle, Sébastien; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, as well as cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Although several cross-sectional studies have demonstrated the influence of diabetes on cognitive impairment, only a few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and cognitive decline in non-demented elderly community dwellers, by means of extensive neuropsychological batteries. The present study assesses the relationship between baseline diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 2- year evolution of memory, attention and executive performance in a sample of non-demented elderly subjects. Population-based cohort study [(PROgnostic indicator OF cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (PROOF)]. One hundred and sixty-three community dwellers aged 65 years without dementia at recruitment. Memory, attention and executive performance. A significant association was observed between baseline diabetes mellitus and a higher 2-year decline in the Trial Making Test B and Stroop test exploring attention and executive function. This effect remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, education, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors (F=2.41; p=0.007). Instead, no relationship was observed between IFG and cognitive decline. Our study showed that, in a sample of elderly non-demented community dwellers, diabetes mellitus (but not IFG) is associated with a higher decline in selective attention and executive functioning. These results emphasize the importance of detecting and man- aging diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, in order to prevent cognitive impairment and dementia.

  19. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Nondiabetic Range: Is It a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering?

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Giovanna; Kramer, Verónica; Bustamante, María José; Casasbellas, Cinthia; Adasme, Marcela; Salazar, Alejandra; Acevedo, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Background. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) through the nondiabetic range (100–125 mg/dL) is not considered in the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile. Aim. To compare the clustering of CV risk factors (RFs) in nondiabetic subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) and IFG. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study in 3739 nondiabetic subjects. Demographics, medical history, and CV risk factors were collected and lipid profile, fasting glucose levels (FBG), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood pressure (BP), anthropometric measurements, and aerobic capacity were determined. Results. 559 (15%) subjects had IFG: they had a higher mean age, BMI, waist circumference, non-HDL cholesterol, BP, and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) and lower HDL (p < 0.001) and aerobic capacity (p < 0.001). They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension (34% versus 25%; p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (79% versus 74%; p < 0.001), and obesity (29% versus 16%; p < 0.001) and a higher Framingham risk score (8% versus 6%; p < 0.001). The probability of presenting 3 or more CV RFs adjusted by age and gender was significantly higher in the top quintile of fasting glucose (≥98 mg/dL; OR = 2.02; 1.62–2.51). Conclusions. IFG in the nondiabetic range is associated with increased cardiovascular RF clustering. PMID:26504260

  20. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  1. A prospective study of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in China: The Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anand; Cui, Liufu; Sun, Lixia; Lu, Bing; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xiurong; Xie, Xiaobing; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study.A prospective cohort included 100,279 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2006). Examination surveys were conducted every 2 years in 2008 and 2010. For the analyses of incident diabetes, we included 76,869 participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline and participants in the 2008 and/or 2010 follow-up. Diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7 mmol/L, self-reported history, or active treatment with insulin or any oral hypoglycemic agent. IFG was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L.During the 4-year study, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG rose from 6.6% to 7.7%, and 17.3% to 22.6%, respectively. There were 17,811 incident cases of IFG and 4867 incident cases of diabetes. The age-standardized incident rate of IFG and diabetes were 62.6/1000 person-years (51.2/1000 person-years in women and 73.8/1000 person-years in men) and 10.0/1000 person-years (7.8/1000 person-years in women and 12.1/1000 person-years in men), respectively. We observed steady increases in fasting blood glucose with body anthropometrics and in every defined category of body mass index, including in those traditionally considered to be well within the "normal" range.In this large longitudinal study of Chinese adults, we observed a high prevalence and incidence of IFG

  2. Metrics Beyond Hemoglobin A1C in Diabetes Management: Time in Range, Hypoglycemia, and Other Parameters.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lorena Alarcon-Casas; Hirsch, Irl B

    2017-05-01

    We review clinical instances in which A1C should not be used and reflect on the use of other glucose metrics that can be used, in substitution of or in combination with A1C and SMBG, to tailor an individualized approach that will result in better outcomes and patient empowerment.

  3. Impact of Ramadan fasting on glucose levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus treated with diet alone or diet plus metformin: a continuous glucose monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Afandi, Bachar O; Hassanein, Mohamed M; Majd, Lina M; Nagelkerke, Nico J D

    2017-01-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are categorized as at high risk for adverse events during Ramadan fasting. However, this is largely based on clinical opinion. In this study, we shed some light on what happens to glucose levels during Ramadan fasting. This is a prospective observational study. A total of 32 patients with GDM were recruited; 10 patients, treated with diet only (group 1), to observe their glucose levels before fasting and 22 patients who insisted on fasting the month of Ramadan, 13 treated with diet only (group 2) and nine treated with diet plus metformin 500 mg twice daily (group 3), to evaluate their glucose levels during fasting. Interstitial glucose was monitored in all by using the iPro2 Professional continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system. Mean glucose level was 116±21 mg/dL (6.16±1.16 mmol/L), 106±9 mg/dL (5.88±0.49 mmol/L) and 99±7 mg/dL (5.49±0.34 mmol/L) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Patients in group 1 had the lowest rate of hypoglycemia (50%), followed by patients in group 2 (60%), whereas patients in group 3 had the highest rate of hypoglycemia (78%). CGM data indicates that Ramadan fasting in women with GDM treated with diet alone or with diet plus metformin was associated with lower mean glucose levels and higher rates of hypoglycemia when compared with non-fasting glucose levels. Women with GDM should be advised against fasting during Ramadan until further data is available.

  4. Triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) in comparison with fasting plasma glucose improved diabetes prediction in patients with normal fasting glucose: The Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort.

    PubMed

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the potential role of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) as a predictor of diabetes in a White European cohort, and compared it to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and triglycerides. 4820 patients of the Vascular-Metabolic CUN cohort (VMCUN cohort) were examined and followed up for 8.84years (±4.39). We performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated-measures analyses to assess the risk of developing type 2 diabetes across quartiles of FPG, triglycerides and the TyG index (ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)×fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)/2]), and plotted a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for discrimination. There were 332 incident cases of type 2 diabetes involving 43,197.32person-years of follow-up. We observed a progressively increased risk of diabetes in subjects with TyG index levels of 8.31 or more. Among those with normal fasting glucose at baseline, <100mg/dl, subjects with the TyG index in the fourth quartile were 6.87 times more likely to develop diabetes (95% CI, 2.76-16.85; P for trend<0.001), as compared with the bottom quartile. The areas under the ROC curves (95% CI) were 0.75 (0.70-0.81) for TyG index, 0.66 (0.60-0.72) for FPG and 0.71 (0.65-0.77) for TG, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (p=0.017). Our data suggest that the TyG index is useful for the early identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. The TyG index seems to be a better predictor than FPG or triglycerides of the potential development of type 2 diabetes in normoglycemic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Lale; Wong, Catherine C L; Li, Gang; Xu, Tao; Pajvani, Utpal; Park, Sung Kyu Robin; Wronska, Anetta; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Backs, Johannes; Singer, Harold A; Yates, John R; Accili, Domenico; Tabas, Ira

    2012-05-02

    Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is crucial for glucose homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that a calcium-sensing enzyme, CaMKII, is activated in a calcium- and IP3R-dependent manner by cAMP and glucagon in primary hepatocytes and by glucagon and fasting in vivo. Genetic deficiency or inhibition of CaMKII blocks nuclear translocation of FoxO1 by affecting its phosphorylation, impairs fasting- and glucagon/cAMP-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and lowers blood glucose levels, while constitutively active CaMKII has the opposite effects. Importantly, the suppressive effect of CaMKII deficiency on glucose metabolism is abrogated by transduction with constitutively nuclear FoxO1, indicating that the effect of CaMKII deficiency requires nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. This same pathway is also involved in excessive HGP in the setting of obesity. These results reveal a calcium-mediated signaling pathway involved in FoxO1 nuclear localization and hepatic glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium signaling through CaMKII regulates hepatic glucose production in fasting and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Lale; Wong, Catherine C.L.; Li, Gang; Xu, Tao; Pajvani, Utpal; Park, Sung Kyu Robin; Wronska, Anetta; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R.; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Backs, Johannes; Singer, Harold A.; Yates, John R.; Accili, Domenico; Tabas, Ira

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatic glucose production (HGP) is crucial for glucose homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that a calcium-sensing enzyme, CaMKII, is activated in a calcium- and IP3R-dependent manner by cAMP and glucagon in primary HCs and by glucagon and fasting in vivo. Genetic deficiency or inhibition of CaMKII blocks nuclear translocation of FoxO1 by affecting its phosphorylation, impairs fasting- and glucagon/cAMP-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, and lowers blood glucose levels, while constitutively active CaMKII has the opposite effects. Importantly, the suppressive effect of CaMKII deficiency on glucose metabolism is abrogated by transduction with constitutively nuclear FoxO1, indicating that the effect of CaMKII deficiency requires nuclear exclusion of FoxO1. This same pathway is also involved in excessive HGP in the setting of obesity. These results reveal a calcium-mediated signaling pathway involved in FoxO1 nuclear localization and hepatic glucose homeostasis. PMID:22503562

  7. Effects of genetic variants previously associated with fasting glucose and insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Florez, Jose C; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Franks, Paul W; Mason, Clinton C; Mather, Kieren; Horton, Edward; Goldberg, Ronald; Dabelea, Dana; Kahn, Steven E; Arakaki, Richard F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C

    2012-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P = 0.002) and GCKR (P = 0.001). We noted impaired β-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired β-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

  8. Evaluation of glycated albumin (GA) and GA/HbA1c ratio for diagnosis of diabetes and glycemic control: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Sara; Rabiee, Mohammad; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Abdolrahim, Mojgan; Rajab, Asadollah; Jazayeri, Hossein E; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). When it is left untreated or improperly managed, it can lead to acute complications including diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma. In addition, possible long-term complications include impotence, nerve damage, stroke, chronic kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, and retinopathy. Historically, universal methods to measure glycemic control for the diagnosis of diabetes included fasting plasma glucose level (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2HP), and random plasma glucose. However, these measurements did not provide information about glycemic control over a long period of time. To address this problem, there has been a switch in the past decade to diagnosing diabetes and its severity through measurement of blood glycated proteins such as Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA). Diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes using glycated proteins has many advantages including high accuracy of glycemic control over a period of time. Currently, common laboratory methods used to measure glycated proteins are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunoassay, and electrophoresis. HbA1c is one of the most important diagnostic factors for diabetes. However, some reports indicate that HbA1c is not a suitable marker to determine glycemic control in all diabetic patients. GA, which is not influenced by changes in the lifespan of erythrocytes, is thought to be a good alternative indicator of glycemic control in diabetic patients. Here, we review the literature that has investigated the suitability of HbA1c, GA and GA:HbA1c as indicators of long-term glycemic control and demonstrate the importance of selecting the appropriate glycated protein based on the patient's health status in order to provide useful and modern point-of-care monitoring and treatment.

  9. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2-3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P < 0.0001), fasting insulin (pmol/L) (before: 98 ± 57; after: 82 ± 43; P = 0.003), and insulin resistance, as assessed by the HOMA-IR score (before: 3.6 ± 2.5; after: 2.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.0008) significantly improved, but not HbA1c (%) (before: 5.72 ± 0.55; after: 5.69 ± 0.39; P = 0.448), nor β-cell function (HOMA-β, %) (before: 149 ± 78; after: 144 ± 75; P = 0.58). Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  10. Meta-analysis investigating associations between healthy diet and fasting glucose and insulin levels and modification by loci associated with glucose homeostasis in data from 15 cohorts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whether loci that influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) levels, as identified by genome-wide association studies, modify associations of diet with FG or FI is unknown. We utilized data from 15 US and European cohort studies comprising 51,289 persons without diabetes to test whether...

  11. HbA1c as a Predictor of Diabetes and as an Outcome in the Diabetes Prevention Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a standard measure of chronic glycemia for managing diabetes, has been proposed to diagnose diabetes and identify people at risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a 3.2-year randomized clinical trial of preventing type 2 diabetes with a 10-year follow-up study, the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We evaluated baseline HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes and determined the effects of treatments on diabetes defined by an HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized 3,234 nondiabetic adults at high risk of diabetes to placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention and followed them for the development of diabetes as diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postload glucose (2hPG) concentrations (1997 American Diabetes Association [ADA] criteria). HbA1c was measured but not used for study eligibility or outcomes. We now evaluate treatment effects in the 2,765 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline according to FPG, 2hPG, or HbA1c (2010 ADA criteria). RESULTS Baseline HbA1c predicted incident diabetes in all treatment groups. Diabetes incidence defined by HbA1c ≥6.5% was reduced by 44% by metformin and 49% by lifestyle during the DPP and by 38% by metformin and 29% by lifestyle throughout follow-up. Unlike the primary DPP and DPPOS findings based on glucose criteria, metformin and lifestyle were similarly effective in preventing diabetes defined by HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS HbA1c predicted incident diabetes. In contrast to the superiority of the lifestyle intervention on glucose-defined diabetes, metformin and lifestyle interventions had similar effects in preventing HbA1c-defined diabetes. The long-term implications for other health outcomes remain to be determined. PMID:25336746

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DIABETES AND IMPAIRED FASTING GLUCOSE IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF NIGERIAN NIGER DELTA REGION.

    PubMed

    Alikor, C A; Emem-Chioma, P C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic rates globally. It had an estimated global incidence of 220 million in 2010. Different studies in SSA and Nigeria in particular have reported increasing prevalence of diabetes in the rural areas. This may be attributed to the rapid 'westernization' of lifestyle in the rural African community.Only few rural survey have been conducted in the Nigeria oil-rich Niger Delta region necessitating this study with the aim of determining the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This was a cross-sectional survey involving 500 subjects aged 15 years and above in a typical rural community of Rivers State, Niger Delta region of Nigeria. A questionnaire administered by face-to-face interview was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects. Medical history such as prior knowledge of blood sugar status and family history of diabetes were all elicited by the questionnaire. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken in a standardized manner and body mass indices (BMI) calculated as weight in kilogram divided by the square of height in meters. Venous blood glucose was measured by the glucose oxidase method. Diabetes mellitus was defined using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) and individuals who were previously known to have diabetes based on history of treatment were also classified to have diabetes. Lipid profile and uric acid of patients were also checked. There were 156 males and 344 females with male to female ratio of 1:2.3.The females were relatively of younger age than the males (40.62 ± 16.6 years versus 42.84 ± 17.8).The overall mean age was 41.32 ± 17. The mean fasting plasma glucose among those with diabetes was 11.14?4. 00mmol/L while the mean for the subjects with impaired fasting glucose was 6.31 ± 0.25 mmol/l. The prevalence of diabetes was 2.2% with no significant gender difference (2.6% in males versus 2.0% in females; χ2 = 0

  13. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  14. Alterations of fasting glucose and fat metabolism in intrauterine growth-retarded newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Kliegman, R M

    1989-03-01

    Maternal nutritional deprivation resulted in reduced fetal weight at term gestation (251 +/- 7 vs. 277 +/- 7 g, P less than 0.01) in newborn dogs. Growth-retarded pups developed lower blood glucose levels after 3, 6, and 9 h of neonatal fasting, reduced plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) at 9 and 24 h, and lower ketone bodies at 24 h compared with age-matched newborn control pups. Systemic rates of palmitate and alanine turnover were not affected, but systemic glucose turnover was reduced for 3-9 h after birth. The rate of alanine incorporation into glucose from 3 to 9 h was also reduced in growth-retarded pups compared with timed controls. Paradoxically, the rate of incorporation of palmitate into triglycerides was augmented in the smaller growth-retarded pups. Hepatic glycogen content was reduced at every time in the study among growth-retarded pups, whereas the rates of glycogenolysis between birth and 24 h were equivalent in the two pup groups. In contrast, hepatic triglyceride levels were augmented throughout the study in pups with growth retardation. Maternal starvation and lower glucose levels resulted in a lower hepatic energy charge, and augmented cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NAD-to-NADH ratios in intrauterine growth-retarded pups. These data suggest that intrauterine growth retardation in dogs results in fasting neonatal hypoglycemia that is due in part to reduced systemic glucose production. We speculate that reduced rates of gluconeogenesis from alanine and reduced oxidation of alternate fuels such as FFA contribute to hypoglycemia. FFA recycling to triglyceride synthesis rather than oxidative pathways may contribute to the observed reduction of circulating glucose levels.

  15. Leukocyte telomere length is inversely associated with post-load but not with fasting plasma glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Khalangot, Mykola; Krasnienkov, Dmytro; Vaiserman, Alexander; Avilov, Ivan; Kovtun, Volodymir; Okhrimenko, Nadia; Koliada, Alexander; Kravchenko, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by shorter leukocyte telomere length, but the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and type 2 diabetes mellitus development is rather questioned. Fasting and post-load glycaemia associated with different types of insulin resistance and their relation with leukocyte telomere length remains unknown. We compared leukocyte telomere length and fasting or post-load glucose levels in persons who do not receive glucose lowering treatment. For 82 randomly selected rural residents of Ukraine, aged 45+, not previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the WHO oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements were performed. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by standardized method of quantitative monochrome multiplex polymerase chain reaction in real time. Spearman's or Pearson's rank correlation was used for correlation analysis between fasting plasma glucose or 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels and leukocyte telomere length. Logistical regression models were used to evaluate risks of finding short or long telomeres associated with fasting plasma glucose or 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels. No association of fasting plasma glucose and leukocyte telomere length was revealed, whereas 2-h post-load plasma glucose levels demonstrated a negative correlation ( P < 0.01) with leukocyte telomere length. Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were negatively related ( P = 0.03) with leukocyte telomere length in men. Oral glucose tolerance test result-based glycemic categories did not show differences between mean leukocyte telomere length in categories of normal fasting plasma glucose and 2-h post-load plasma glucose (NGT, n = 33); diabetes mellitus (DM), n = 18 and impaired fasting glucose/tolerance (IFG/IGT, n = 31) levels. A correlation relationship between leukocyte telomere length and 2-h post-load plasma glucose level in NGT; IFG/IGT and DM groups ( P = 0.027; 0

  16. The implications of using Hemoglobin A1C for diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Malkani, Samir; Mordes, John P

    2011-01-01

    Until 2010 the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was based solely on glucose concentration, but American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations now include a new criterion: hemoglobin A1C ≥6.5%. Because this change may have significant implications for diabetes diagnosis, we conducted a comprehensive literature review including peer-reviewed articles not referenced in the ADA report. We conclude that A1C and plasma glucose tests are frequently discordant for diagnosing diabetes. A1C ≥6.5% identifies fewer individuals as having diabetes than glucose-based criteria. Convenience of A1C test might increase the number of patients diagnosed, but this is unproven. Diagnostic cut-points for both glucose and A1C are based on consensus judgments regarding optimal sensitivity and specificity for the complications of hyperglycemia. A1C may not accurately reflect levels of glycemia in some situations, but in comparison with glucose measurements, it has greater analytic stability and less temporal variability. When choosing a diagnostic test for diabetes, the limitations of each choice must be understood. Clinical judgment and consideration of patient preference are required to appropriately select among the diagnostic alternatives. PMID:21531226

  17. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-03-01

    Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996-1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03-1.25] and 1.17 [1.07-1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07-1.18] and 1.14 [1.08-1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Methods Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996–1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Results Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03–1.25] and 1.17 [1.07–1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07–1.18] and 1.14 [1.08–1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. Conclusion In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. PMID:26314953

  19. Sex difference in the effect of the fasting serum glucose level on the risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Nam, Chung Mo; Suh, Il

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic women have a greater relative risk of coronary heart disease than diabetic men. However, the sex difference in the effect of fasting serum glucose levels below the diabetic range on the risk of coronary heart disease is unclear. We investigated whether the association between nondiabetic blood glucose levels and the incident risk of coronary heart disease is different between men and women. The fasting serum glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline were measured in 159,702 subjects (100,144 men and 59,558 women). Primary outcomes were hospital admission and death due to coronary heart disease during the 11-year follow-up. The risk for coronary heart disease in women significantly increased with impaired fasting glucose levels (≥110mg/dL) compared to normal glucose levels (<100mg/dL), whereas the risk for coronary heart disease in men was significantly increased at a diabetic glucose range (≥126mg/dL). Women had a higher hazard ratio of coronary heart disease associated with the fasting serum glucose level than men (p for interaction with sex=0.021). The stronger effect of the fasting serum glucose levels on the risk of coronary heart disease in women than in men was significant from a prediabetic range (≥110mg/dL). Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The product of triglycerides and glucose in comparison with fasting plasma glucose did not improve diabetes prediction.

    PubMed

    Janghorbani, Mohsen; Almasi, Siedeh Zinab; Amini, Masoud

    2015-08-01

    Previous study has reported that triglycerides-glucose (TyG) index, a product of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), might be useful in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the ability of the TyG index compared to FPG and OGTT as possible diabetes predictor in nondiabetic first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with T2D. A total of 1,488 FDRs without diabetes of consecutive patients with T2D 30-70 years old (361 men and 1,127 women) were examined and followed for a mean (SD) of 6.9 (1.7) years for diabetes incidence. We examined the incidence of diabetes across quartiles of the TyG index and plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess discrimination. At baseline and through follow-up, participants underwent a standard 75-g two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. During 10,124 person-years of follow-up, 41 men and 154 women developed T2D. Those in the top quartile of TyG index were 3.4 times more likely to develop T2D than those in the bottom quartile (odds ratio 3.36; 95 % CI 1.83, 6.19). On ROC curve analysis, a higher area under the ROC was found for FPG (76.2; 95 % CI 71.9, 80.6), 1-hPG (81.0, 95 % CI 77.2, 84.9) and 2-hPG (76.5; 95 % CI 72.3, 80.8) than for TyG index (65.1; 95 % CI 60.5, 69.7). TyG index is predicted T2D in high-risk individuals in Iran but FPG, 1-hPG and 2-hPG appeared to be more robust predictor of T2D in our study population.

  1. Oxidized LDL but not total LDL is associated with HbA1c in individuals without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Spessatto, Débora; Brum, Liz Marina Bueno Dos Passos; Camargo, Joíza Lins

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the association between HbA1c, LDL and oxi-LDL in individuals without diabetes (DM). One hundred and ninety-six individuals, without DM, were enrolled and divided into three groups according to HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values. HbA1c, oxi-LDL, LDL, and other biochemical measurements of lipid profile were also carried out. oxi-LDL levels showed significant differences among all groups and group 3 presented higher values [34U/L (27-46); 44U/L (37-70); and 86U/L (49-136); p<0.001; for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively]. There was also a significant difference in oxi-LDL/HDL and oxi-LDL/LDL ratios among all groups (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and LDL values among groups. HbA1c showed moderate positive associations with oxi-LDL (r=0.431; p<0.001), oxi-LDL/HDL ratio (r=0.423, p<0.001), and oxi-LDL/LDL ratio (r=0.359, p<0.001). There were lower associations between HbA1c and TC (r=0.142; p=0.048), triglycerides (r=0.155; p=0.030), LDL (r=0.148; p=0.039), non-HDL (r=0.192; p=0.007) and Apo B (r=0.171, p<0.001). The positive associations between HbA1c and oxi-LDL, oxi-LDL/HDL and oxi-LDL/LDL ratios remained significant even after adjustment by multiple linear regression analysis for the variables alcohol consumption, use of medicine, BMI, and age. oxi-LDL levels are significantly associated with HbA1c in non-diabetic individuals. However, the levels of traditional atherogenic lipids only showed a weak association with HbA1c levels. Those at high risk of developing DM or cardiovascular disease have higher levels of oxi-LDL. These data favor to the use of HbA1c as a biomarker to identify individuals at risk of developing complications even in non-diabetic glycemic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inaccuracy of haemoglobin A1c among HIV-infected men: effects of CD4 cell count, antiretroviral therapies and haematological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Laurence; Palella, Frank J.; Abraham, Alison G.; Li, Xiuhong; Vigouroux, Corinne; Pialoux, Gilles; Kingsley, Lawrence; Lake, Jordan E.; Brown, Todd T.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Plankey, Michael; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Phair, John P.; Badri, Sheila; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Munoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence that among HIV-infected patients haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values may not accurately reflect glycaemia. We assessed HbA1c discordance (observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c) and associated factors among HIV-infected participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods Fasting glucose (FG) and HbA1c were measured at each semi-annual MACS visit since 1999. All HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men for whom at least one FG and HbA1c pair measurement was available were evaluated. Univariate median regression determined the association between HbA1c and FG by HIV serostatus. The relationship between HbA1c and FG in HIV-uninfected men was used to determine the expected HbA1c. Generalized estimating equations determined factors associated with the Hb1Ac discordance among HIV-infected men. Clinically significant discordance was defined as observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c ≤−0.5%. Results Over 13 years, 1500 HIV-uninfected and 1357 HIV-infected men were included, with a median of 11 visits for each participant. At an FG of 125 mg/dL, the median HbA1c among HIV-infected men was 0.21% lower than among HIV-uninfected men and the magnitude of this effect increased with FG >126 mg/dL. Sixty-three percent of HIV-infected men had at least one visit with clinically significant HbA1c discordance, which was independently associated with: low CD4 cell count (<500 cells/mm3); a regimen containing a protease inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or zidovudine; high mean corpuscular volume; and abnormal corpuscular haemoglobin. Conclusion HbA1c underestimates glycaemia in HIV-infected patients and its use in patients with risk factors for HbA1c discordance may lead to under-diagnosis and to under-treatment of established diabetes mellitus. PMID:25096078

  3. Epigenetic regulation of the glucose transporter gene Slc2a1 by β-hydroxybutyrate underlies preferential glucose supply to the brain of fasted mice.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Sato-Miyata, Yukiko; Funakoshi, Masabumi; Nishito, Yasumasa; Aigaki, Toshiro; Hara, Takahiko

    2017-01-01

    We carried out liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of metabolites in mice. Those metabolome data showed that hepatic glucose content is reduced, but that brain glucose content is unaffected, during fasting, consistent with the priority given to brain glucose consumption during fasting. The molecular mechanisms for this preferential glucose supply to the brain are not fully understood. We also showed that the fasting-induced production of the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) enhances expression of the glucose transporter gene Slc2a1 (Glut1) via histone modification. Upon β-OHB treatment, Slc2a1 expression was up-regulated, with a concomitant increase in H3K9 acetylation at the critical cis-regulatory region of the Slc2a1 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells and NB2a neuronal cells, shown by quantitative PCR analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the Hdac2 gene increased Slc2a1 expression, suggesting that it is one of the responsible histone deacetylases (HDACs). These results confirm that β-OHB is a HDAC inhibitor and show that β-OHB plays an important role in fasting-induced epigenetic activation of a glucose transporter gene in the brain. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Does abdominal obesity accelerate the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on impaired fasting glucose?

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojin; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soonyoung; Kim, Daejung

    2010-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether abdominal obesity is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and hypertriglyceridemia and to verify whether moderate effect of abdominal obesity on the relationship between IFG and hypertriglyceridemia in Korea. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the analysis. The study population included 5,938 subjects aged 20 year old drawn from non-diabetic participants in a health examination survey. The subjects were classified according to the presence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, IFG based on their fasting blood glucose level, and hypertriglyceridemia on their fasting triglyceride. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for the occurrence of hypertriglyceridemia were 2.91 in the abdominal obesity group as compared with the nonobesity group and 1.31 in subjects with IFG compared with the normoglycemia controls. Abdominal obesity was found to be positively moderated in the interaction between waist circumference and fasting blood sugar. The moderate effect between abdominal obesity and IFG contributes to the development of hypertriglyceridemia in Korea.

  5. HbA1c presents low sensitivity as a post-pregnancy screening test for both diabetes and prediabetes in Greek women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Michael; Paschou, Stavroula A; Zapanti, Evangelia; Sarantopoulou, Vasiliki; Vasileiou, Vasiliki; Anastasiou, Eleni

    2018-06-11

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is thus recommended that an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) be performed after delivery. Recently, the use of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been proposed as a simpler and faster method to diagnose glucose disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HbA1c measurement can replace OGTT in the detection of prediabetes and T2D in women with a history of GDM. We studied 1336 women (35.3 ± 5.8 years old) with a history of GDM 16.6 ± 28.2 months after delivery. All women were evaluated through an OGTT and a simultaneous HbA1c measurement. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were used for the assessment of glucose disorders. Sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c were measured for the prediction of T2D and prediabetes, while Cohen's coefficient of agreement (k) was calculated. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c. Based on OGTT, 725 women (54.3%) were normal, 406 (30.4%) presented impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 48 (3.6%) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 74 (5.5%) combined IFG+IGT, and 83 presented with T2D (6.2%). By contrast, using HbA1c as a screening test, 1150 women (94.1%) were normal, while 49 (4.0%) had prediabetes and 23 (1.9%) T2D. Sensitivity of HbA1c for the diagnosis of prediabetes was 5.3% in comparison to OGTT, specificity was 99.2%, while for the diagnosis of T2D, the percentages were 29.6 and 100%, respectively. The consistency in classifying impaired glucose tolerance between HbA1c and OGTT was 59.7%. Cohen's coefficient of agreement was k = 0.116, indicating slight agreement. Performing a ROC curve, the optimal value of distinctive ability of HbA1c was 4.6% in the case of prediabetes, while for diabetes, it was 5.5%. This study provided evidence that HbA1c can identify fewer women with prediabetes and T2D than OGTT, indicating that HbA1c cannot be

  6. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Koopman, A D M; Rutters, F; Rauh, S P; Nijpels, G; Holst, J J; Beulens, J W; Alssema, M; Dekker, J M

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  8. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  9. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Angus G.; Lonergan, Mike; Henley, William E.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Shields, Beverley M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c. Methods We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate ‘pre-baseline’ HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c. Results Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001).The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations. Conclusions Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy. PMID:27050911

  10. Preserved circadian rhythm of serum insulin concentration at low plasma glucose during fasting in lean and overweight humans.

    PubMed

    Merl, Volker; Peters, Achim; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Kern, Werner; Hubold, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst L; Schultes, Bernd

    2004-11-01

    Circadian rhythms in glucose metabolism are well documented. Most studies, however, evaluated such variations under conditions of continuous glucose supply, either via food intake or glucose infusion. Here we assessed in 30 subjects circadian variations in concentrations of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and C-peptide during a 72-hour fasting period to evaluate rhythms independent from glucose supply. Furthermore we assessed differences in these parameters between normal-weight (n = 20) and overweight (n = 10) subjects. Blood was sampled every 4 hours. During fasting, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and C-peptide levels gradually decreased (all P < .001). While there was no circadian variation in plasma glucose levels after the first day of fasting, serum levels of insulin were constantly higher in the morning (8.00 h) than at night (0.00 h) (P < .001), although the extent of this morning-associated rise in insulin levels decreased with the time spent fasting (P = .001). Also, morning C-peptide concentrations were higher compared to the preceding night (P < .001). The C-peptide/insulin ratio (CIR) decreased during prolonged fasting (P = .030), suggesting a decrease in hepatic insulin clearance. Moreover, CIR was significantly lower in the morning than at the night of day 1 and day 2 of fasting (P = .010 and P = .004, respectively). Compared to normal-weight subjects, overweight subjects had higher plasma glucose, as well as serum insulin and C-peptide levels (all P < .03). Data indicate preserved circadian rhythms in insulin concentrations in the presence of substantially decreased glucose levels in normal-weight and overweight subjects. This finding suggests a central nervous system contribution to the regulation of insulin secretion independent of plasma glucose levels.

  11. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (<80mg/dL), normal/reference (80-99mg/dL), impaired (100-125mg/dL), and diabetic (≥126mg/dL). Participants were free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment, had mean age of 62years, and were 52% Caucasian, 24% African American, 8% Asian, and 12% Hispanic. Median follow-up was 15years. Graphs of continuous incidence rates compared to fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher fasting plasma glucose is associated with smaller striatal volume and poorer fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianqi; Shaw, Marnie E; Walsh, Erin I; Sachdev, Perminder S; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2018-06-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between higher blood glucose and brain atrophy and functional deficits, however, little is known about the association between blood glucose, striatal volume and striatal function despite sensori-motor deficits being reported in diabetes. This study investigated the relationship between blood glucose levels, striatal volume and fine motor skills in a longitudinal cohort of cognitively healthy individuals living in the community with normal or impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. Participants were 271 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age 63 years at inclusion) with normal fasting glucose levels (<5.6 mmol/L) (n=173), impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) (n=57), or with type 2 diabetes (≥7.0 mmol/L) (n=41). Fasting glucose, Purdue Pegboard scores as measurement of fine motor skills, and brain scans were collected at wave 1, 2 and 4, over a total follow-up of twelve years. Striatal volumes were measured using FreeSurfer after controlling for age, sex and intracranial volume. Results showed that type 2 diabetes was associated with smaller right putamen volume and lower Purdue Pegboard scores after controlling for age, sex and intracranial volume. These findings add to the evidence suggesting that higher blood glucose levels, especially type 2 diabetes, may impair brain structure and function. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. High frequency of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Western brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli S; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Costa, Mônica R F; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Brito, Marcelo A M; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Alecrim, Maria G C

    2014-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Josée; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Saxena, Richa; Soranzo, Nicole; Jackson, Anne U; Wheeler, Eleanor; Glazer, Nicole L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Gloyn, Anna L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mägi, Reedik; Morris, Andrew P; Randall, Joshua; Johnson, Toby; Elliott, Paul; Rybin, Denis; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Henneman, Peter; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Franklin, Christopher S; Navarro, Pau; Song, Kijoung; Goel, Anuj; Perry, John R B; Egan, Josephine M; Lajunen, Taina; Grarup, Niels; Sparsø, Thomas; Doney, Alex; Voight, Benjamin F; Stringham, Heather M; Li, Man; Kanoni, Stavroula; Shrader, Peter; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Kumari, Meena; Qi, Lu; Timpson, Nicholas J; Gieger, Christian; Zabena, Carina; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Ingelsson, Erik; An, Ping; O’Connell, Jeffrey; Luan, Jian'an; Elliott, Amanda; McCarroll, Steven A; Payne, Felicity; Roccasecca, Rosa Maria; Pattou, François; Sethupathy, Praveen; Ardlie, Kristin; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Balkau, Beverley; Barter, Philip; Beilby, John P; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bennett, Amanda J; Bergmann, Sven; Bochud, Murielle; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnefond, Amélie; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Böttcher, Yvonne; Brunner, Eric; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter; Clarke, Robert; Coin, Lachlan J M; Cooper, Matthew N; Cornelis, Marilyn; Crawford, Gabe; Crisponi, Laura; Day, Ian N M; de Geus, Eco; Delplanque, Jerome; Dina, Christian; Erdos, Michael R; Fedson, Annette C; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Frants, Rune; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Galan, Pilar; Goodarzi, Mark O; Graessler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Grundy, Scott; Gwilliam, Rhian; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hadjadj, Samy; Hallmans, Göran; Hammond, Naomi; Han, Xijing; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon C; Hercberg, Serge; Herder, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hillman, David R; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joe; Isomaa, Bo; Johnson, Paul R V; Jørgensen, Torben; Jula, Antti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesaniemi, Y Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Knight, Beatrice; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Lathrop, G Mark; Lawlor, Debbie A; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Lecoeur, Cécile; Li, Yun; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mahley, Robert; Mangino, Massimo; Manning, Alisa K; Martínez-Larrad, María Teresa; McAteer, Jarred B; McCulloch, Laura J; McPherson, Ruth; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Meyre, David; Mitchell, Braxton D; Morken, Mario A; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Naitza, Silvia; Narisu, Narisu; Neville, Matthew J; Oostra, Ben A; Orrù, Marco; Pakyz, Ruth; Palmer, Colin N A; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Pattaro, Cristian; Pearson, Daniel; Peden, John F; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pichler, Irene; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Potter, Simon C; Pouta, Anneli; Province, Michael A; Psaty, Bruce M; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rayner, Nigel W; Rice, Kenneth; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Roden, Michael; Rolandsson, Olov; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sandhu, Manjinder; Sanna, Serena; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Scheet, Paul; Scott, Laura J; Seedorf, Udo; Sharp, Stephen J; Shields, Beverley; Sigurðsson, Gunnar; Sijbrands, Erik J G; Silveira, Angela; Simpson, Laila; Singleton, Andrew; Smith, Nicholas L; Sovio, Ulla; Swift, Amy; Syddall, Holly; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorand, Barbara; Tichet, Jean; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Uitterlinden, André G; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Hoek, Mandy; Varma, Dhiraj; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Waeber, Gérard; Wagner, Peter J; Walley, Andrew; Walters, G Bragi; Ward, Kim L; Watkins, Hugh; Weedon, Michael N; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jaqueline C M; Yarnell, John W G; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zelenika, Diana; Zethelius, Björn; Zhai, Guangju; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zillikens, M Carola; Borecki, Ingrid B; Loos, Ruth J F; Meneton, Pierre; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nathan, David M; Williams, Gordon H; Hattersley, Andrew T; Silander, Kaisa; Salomaa, Veikko; Smith, George Davey; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter; Spranger, Joachim; Karpe, Fredrik; Shuldiner, Alan R; Cooper, Cyrus; Dedoussis, George V; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Morris, Andrew D; Lind, Lars; Palmer, Lyle J; Hu, Frank B.; Franks, Paul W; Ebrahim, Shah; Marmot, Michael; Kao, W H Linda; Pankow, James S; Sampson, Michael J; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Pramstaller, Peter Paul; Wichmann, H Erich; Illig, Thomas; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Stumvoll, Michael; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Hamsten, Anders; Bergman, Richard N; Buchanan, Thomas A; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Altshuler, David; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret; Deloukas, Panos; Spector, Timothy D; Frayling, Timothy M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Cao, Antonio; Scuteri, Angelo; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Waterworth, Dawn M; Vollenweider, Peter; Peltonen, Leena; Mooser, Vincent; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sladek, Robert; Froguel, Philippe; Watanabe, Richard M; Meigs, James B; Groop, Leif; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Florez, Jose C; Barroso, Inês

    2010-01-01

    Circulating glucose levels are tightly regulated. To identify novel glycemic loci, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide associations studies informative for fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin (FI) and indices of β-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 non-diabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with FG/HOMA-B and two associated with FI/HOMA-IR. These include nine new FG loci (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and FAM148B) and one influencing FI/HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB/TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify T2D risk loci, as well as loci that elevate FG modestly, but do not cause overt diabetes. PMID:20081858

  15. Retinopathy predicts progression of fasting plasma glucose: An Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yash R.; Kirkman, M. Sue; Considine, Robert V; Hannon, Tamara S; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is increasingly recognized in prediabetic populations, and may herald increased risk of metabolic worsening. The Early Diabetes Intervention Program (EDIP) evaluated worsening of glycemia in screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, following participants for up to 5 years. Here we have evaluated whether the presence of retinopathy at the time of detection of diabetes was associated with accelerated progression of glycemia. Methods We prospectively studied 194 participants from EDIP with available baseline retinal photographs. Retinopathy was determined at baseline using 7-field fundus photography and defined as an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study Scale grading score of ≥20. Results At baseline, 12% of participants had classical retinal lesions indicating retinopathy. In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of retinopathy at baseline was associated with a doubled risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose (HR 2.02; 95% CI 1.05–3.89). The retinopathy effect was robust to individual adjustment for age and glucose, the most potent determinants of progression in EDIP. Conclusion Retinopathy was associated with increased risk of progression of fasting plasma glucose among adults with screen-detected, early diabetes. Early detection of retinopathy may help individualize more aggressive therapy to prevent progressive metabolic worsening in early diabetes. PMID:28003103

  16. Hypoglycemia Reduction and Changes in Hemoglobin A1c in the ASPIRE In-Home Study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Garg, Satish K; Bode, Bruce W; Bailey, Timothy S; Ahmann, Andrew J; Schultz, Kenneth A; Welsh, John B; Shin, John J

    2015-08-01

    ASPIRE In-Home randomized 247 subjects with type 1 diabetes to sensor-augmented pump therapy with or without the Threshold Suspend (TS) feature, which interrupts insulin delivery at a preset sensor glucose value. We studied the effects of TS on nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in relation to baseline hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and change in A1C during the study. NH event rates and mean area under curve (AUC) of NH events were evaluated at different levels of baseline A1C (<7%, 7-8%, and >8%) and at different levels of changes in A1C (less than -0.3% [decreased], -0.3% to 0.3% [stable], and >0.3% [increased]), in the TS Group compared with the Control Group (sensor-augmented pump only). In the TS Group, 27.9% of the NH events were accompanied by a confirmatory blood glucose value, compared with 39.3% in the Control Group. Among subjects with baseline A1C levels of <7% or 7-8%, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates than those in the Control Group (P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Among subjects with decreased or stable A1C levels, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates, and the events had lower AUCs (P≤0.001 for each). Among subjects with increased A1C levels, those in the TS Group had NH events with significantly lower AUCs (P<0.001). Use of the TS feature was associated with decreases in the rate and severity (as measured by AUC) of NH events in many subjects, including those with low baseline A1C levels and those whose A1C values decreased during the study period. Use of the TS feature can help protect against hypoglycemia in those wishing to intensify diabetes management to achieve target glucose levels.

  17. A nomogram to estimate the HbA1c response to different DPP-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 98 trials with 24 163 patients

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Katherine; Chiodini, Paolo; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Capuano, Annalisa; Cozzolino, Domenico; Petrizzo, Michela; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Giugliano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nomogram for estimating the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) response to different dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in type 2 diabetes. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin) on HbA1c were conducted. Electronic searches were carried out up to December 2013. Trials were included if they were carried out on participants with type 2 diabetes, lasted at least 12 weeks, included at least 30 participants and had a final assessment of HbA1c. A random effect model was used to pool data. A nomogram was used to represent results of the metaregression model. Participants Adults with type 2 diabetes. Interventions Any DPP-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin or alogliptin). Outcome measures The HbA1c response to each DPP-4 inhibitor within 1 year of therapy. Results We screened 928 citations and reviewed 98 articles reporting 98 RCTs with 100 arms in 24 163 participants. There were 26 arms with vildagliptin, 37 with sitagliptin, 13 with saxagliptin, 13 with linagliptin and 11 with alogliptin. For all 100 arms, the mean baseline HbA1c value was 8.05% (64 mmol/mol); the decrease of HbA1c from baseline was −0.77% (95% CI −0.82 to −0.72%), with high heterogeneity (I2=96%). Multivariable metaregression model that included baseline HbA1c, type of DPP-4 inhibitor and fasting glucose explained 58% of variance between studies, with no significant interaction between them. Other factors, including age, previous diabetes drugs and duration of treatment added low predictive power (<1%). The nomogram estimates the absolute HbA1c reduction from baseline using the type of DPP-4 inhibitor, baseline values of HbA1c and fasting glucose. Conclusions Baseline HbA1c level and fasting glucose explain most of the variance in HbA1c change in response to DPP-4 inhibitors: each increase of 1.0% units

  18. The Fallacy of Average: How Using HbA1c Alone to Assess Glycemic Control Can Be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Beck, Roy W; Connor, Crystal G; Mullen, Deborah M; Wesley, David M; Bergenstal, Richard M

    2017-08-01

    HbA 1c is a v aluable metric for comparing treatment groups in a randomized trial, for assessing glycemic trends in a population over time, or for cross-sectional comparisons of glycemic control in different populations. However, what is not widely appreciated is that HbA 1c may not be a good indicator of an individual patient's glycemic control because of the wide range of mean glucose concentrations and glucose profiles that can be associated with a given HbA 1c level. To illustrate this point, we plotted mean glucose measured with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) versus central laboratory-measured HbA 1c in 387 participants in three randomized trials, showing that not infrequently HbA 1c may underestimate or overestimate mean glucose, sometimes substantially. Thus, if HbA 1c is to be used to assess glycemic control, it is imperative to know the patient's actual mean glucose to understand how well HbA 1c is an indicator of the patient's glycemic control. With knowledge of the mean glucose, an estimated HbA 1c (eA1C) can be calculated with the formula provided in this article to compare with the measured HbA 1c . Estimating glycemic control from HbA 1c alone is in essence applying a population average to an individual, which can be misleading. Thus, a patient's CGM glucose profile has considerable value for optimizing his or her diabetes management. In this era of personalized, precision medicine, there are few better examples with respect to the fallacy of applying a population average to a specific patient rather than using specific information about the patient to determine the optimal approach to treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (<100mg/dl), G2 (100-125mg/dl), and G3 (>125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Epinephrine deficiency results in intact glucose counter-regulation, severe hepatic steatosis and possible defective autophagy in fasting mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharara-Chami, Rana I.; Zhou, Yingjiang; Ebert, Steven; Pacak, Karel; Ozcan, Umut; Majzoub, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Epinephrine is one of the major hormones involved in glucose counter-regulation and gluconeogenesis. However, little is known about its importance in energy homeostasis during fasting. Our objective is to study the specific role of epinephrine in glucose and lipid metabolism during starvation. In our experiment, we subject regular mice and epinephrine-deficient mice to a 48-h fast then we evaluate the different metabolic responses to fasting. Our results show that epinephrine is not required for glucose counter-regulation: epinephrine-deficient mice maintain their blood glucose at normal fasting levels via glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, with normal fasting-induced changes in the peroxisomal activators: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC-1α), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c). However, fasted epinephrine-deficient mice develop severe ketosis and hepatic steatosis, with evidence for inhibition of hepatic autophagy, a process that normally provides essential energy via degradation of hepatic triglycerides during starvation. We conclude that, during fasting, epinephrine is not required for glucose homeostasis, lipolysis or ketogenesis. Epinephrine may have an essential role in lipid handling, possibly via an autophagy-dependent mechanism. PMID:22405854

  1. Evaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) for Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes among Palestinian Arab Population

    PubMed Central

    Kharroubi, Akram T.; Darwish, Hisham M.; Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad I.; Khammash, Umaiyeh M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare the potential of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes among Palestinian Arabs compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A cross-sectional sample of 1370 Palestinian men (468) and women (902) without known diabetes and above the age of 30 years were recruited. Whole blood was used to estimate HbA1c and plasma for FPG and total lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose was used as a reference to diagnose diabetes (≥ 126 mg/dL) and prediabetes (100–125 mg/dL). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for HbA1c was 81.9% to diagnose diabetes and 63.9% for prediabetes. The agreement between HbA1c and diabetes as diagnosed by FPG was moderate (ĸ  =  0.498) and low with prediabetes (ĸ = 0.142). The optimal cut-off value for HbA1c to diagnose diabetes was ≥ 6.3% (45 mmol/mol). The sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 65.6% (53.1–76.3%), 94.5% (93.1–95.6%), 80.0% (72.8–87.3%), respectively. However, using cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) improved specificity. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 57.4% (44.9–69.0%), 97.1% (96.0–97.9%) and 77.3% (71.0–83.5%). For diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c between 5.7–6.4% (39–46 mmol/mol), the sensitivity, specificity and the discriminant ability were 62.7% (57.1–67.9%), 56.3% (53.1–59.4%) and 59.5% (56.3–62.5%), respectively. HbA1c at cut-off value of ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) by itself diagnosed 5.3% and 48.3% as having diabetes and prediabetes compared to 4.5% and 24.2% using FPG, respectively. Mean HbA1c and FPG increase significantly with increasing body mass index. In conclusion, the ROC curves showed HbA1c could be used for diagnosing diabetes when compared to FPG but not for prediabetes in Palestinians Arabs even though only about 50% of the diabetic subjects were identified by the both HbA1c and FPG. PMID:24505401

  2. [Prognostic value of first fasting glucose measurement compared with admission glucose level in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vivas, David; García-Rubira, Juan C; González-Ferrer, Juan J; Núñez-Gil, Iván; del Prado, Náyade; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    The admission plasma glucose (APG) level is a recognized prognostic factor in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, little is known about the prognostic value of the first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurement. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of the first FPG measurement relative to that of the APG level in patients with ACS. The study involved 547 consecutive patients who were admitted to our center with a diagnosis of ACS in 2006. Patients were divided into three groups according to their first FPG or APG level (i.e., <126 mg/dL, 126-200 mg/dL, or >200 mg/dL). The primary endpoint was the combined outcome of death or reinfarction during hospitalization. The primary endpoint was observed in 46 patients, 25 of whom died. Patients in this group were older, were more often diabetics or smokers, more often had had a prior myocardial infarction, were in a higher admission Killip class, showed more than one vessel disease on catheterization, had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and had higher admission creatinine, APG, and first FPG levels. Multivariate analysis, adjusted for previously identified factors, revealed that the first FPG level was an independent risk factor for death or reinfarction (126-200 mg/dL, odds ratio [OR]=5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-25.45; >200 mg/dL, OR=6.66; 95% CI, 2.05-21.63), but that the APG level was not (126-200 mg/dL, OR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.63-1.05; >200 mg/dL, OR=1.14; 95% CI, 0.29-4.51). The first FPG level was found to be a better predictor of an adverse outcome (i.e., death or reinfarction) during hospitalization in ACS patients than the APG level.

  3. Simple Fabrication of a Highly Sensitive and Fast Glucose Biosensor using Enzyme Immobilized in Mesocellular Carbon Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dohoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Jungbae

    2005-12-05

    We fabricated a highly sensitive and fast glucose biosensor by simply immobilizing glucose oxidase in mesocellular carbon foam. Due to its unique structure, the MSU-F-C enabled high enzyme loading without serious mass transfer limitation, resulting in high catalytic efficiency. As a result, the glucose biosensor fabricated with MSU-F-C/GOx showed a high sensitivity and fast response. Given these results and the inherent electrical conductivity, we anticipate that MSU-F-C will make a useful matrix for enzyme immobilization in various biocatalytic and electrobiocatalytic applications.

  4. Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, An-Tsz; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Yen-Lin; Pei, Dee; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was used to determine the differences in the percentage of change among the four factor slopes against BMI. Significant correlations were observed between BMI and FPIS, SPIS, IR, and GE in both women and men, which were higher than those reported previously. In men, BMI had the most profound effect on SPIS, followed by IR, FPIS, and GE, whereas in women, the order was slightly different: IR, followed by FPIS, SPIS, and GE. Significant differences were observed among all these slopes, except for the slopes between FPIS and SPIS in women (p = 0.856) and IR and FPIS in men (p = 0.258). The contribution of obesity to all diabetes factors, except GE, was higher than that reported previously. BMI had the most profound effect on insulin secretion in men and on IR in women in this 60-year-old cohort, suggesting that lifestyle modifications for obesity reduction in women remain the most important method for improving glucose metabolism and preventing future type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. The Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose in Patients With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dezhao; Zhang, Meijuan; Jin, Xuru; Zhao, Jiyun; Han, Bin; Su, Hang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Wenwei; He, Jincai

    2016-03-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a prevalently abused psychostimulant in the world. Previously published studies and case reports indicated potential associations between MA and body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular factors (eg, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose). However, these associations have not been studied clearly. This study aimed to investigate BMI and cardiovascular factors in the MA-dependent patients.A total of 1019 MA-dependent patients were recruited between February 2, 2008 and March 11, 2013. A case report was used to gather information on sociocharacteristics and drug-dependent history. Meanwhile, a number of 1019 age- and sex-matched controls' information were collected from the physical examination center. We measured BMI, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose among the participants.MA-dependent patients had significantly lower BMI (20.4 ± 0.1 vs 23.9 ± 0.1 kg/m, P < 0.001), lower fasting blood glucose (5.0 ± 0.01 vs 5.2 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and higher systolic blood pressure (122.1 ± 0.4 vs 114.8 ± 0.4 mmHg, P < 0.001) compared with the control group after adjustment of possible confounders. Additional, we only found the duration of MA use was independently associated with BMI (B = -0.08, P = 0.04).This study demonstrated that MA dependence was associated with BMI and cardiovascular factors. In addition, we found a negative association between duration of MA use and BMI.

  6. Impact of the Bienestar School-Based Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Program on Fasting Capillary Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Yin, Zenong; Hernandez, Arthur; Hale, Daniel E.; Garcia, Oralia A.; Mobley, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on low-income fourth-grade Mexican American children. Design A randomized controlled trial with 13 intervention and 14 control schools. Setting Elementary schools in inner-city neighborhoods in San Antonio, Tex. Participants Eighty percent of participants were Mexican American and 94% were from economically disadvantaged households. Baseline and follow-up measures were collected from 1419 (713 intervention and 706 control) and 1221 (619 intervention and 602 control) fourth-grade children, respectively. Intervention The Bienestar Health Program consists of a health class and physical education curriculum, a family program, a school cafeteria program, and an after-school health club. The objectives are to decrease dietary saturated fat intake, increase dietary fiber intake, and increase physical activity. Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was fasting capillary glucose level, and the secondary end points were percentage of body fat, physical fitness level, dietary fiber intake, and dietary saturated fat intake. Fasting capillary glucose level, bioelectric impedance, modified Harvard step test, three 24-hour dietary recalls, weight, and height were collected at baseline and 8 months later. Results Children in the intervention arm attended an average of 32 Bienestar sessions. Mean fasting capillary glucose levels decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools after adjusting for covariates (−2.24 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval, −6.53 to 2.05 [−0.36 to 0.11 mmol/L]; P = .03). Fitness scores (P = .04) and dietary fiber intake (P = .009) significantly increased in intervention children and decreased in control children. Percentage of body fat (P = .56) and dietary saturated fat intake (P = .52) did not differ significantly between intervention and control children. Conclusion This intervention showed some positive results, but additional

  7. Fasting Glucose, Obesity, and Coronary Artery Calcification in Community-Based People Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, Martin K.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our objective was to assess whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and obesity are independently related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a community-based population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We assessed CAC using multidetector computed tomography in 3,054 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean [SD] age was 50 [10] years, 49% were women, 29% had IFG, and 25% were obese) free from known vascular disease or diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that IFG (5.6–6.9 mmol/L) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were independently associated with high CAC (>90th percentile for age and sex) after adjusting for hypertension, lipids, smoking, and medication. RESULTS High CAC was significantly related to IFG in an age- and sex-adjusted model (odds ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.1–1.7], P = 0.002; referent: normal fasting glucose) and after further adjustment for obesity (1.3 [1.0–1.6], P = 0.045). However, IFG was not associated with high CAC in multivariable-adjusted models before (1.2 [0.9–1.4], P = 0.20) or after adjustment for obesity. Obesity was associated with high CAC in age- and sex-adjusted models (1.6 [1.3–2.0], P < 0.001) and in multivariable models that included IFG (1.4 [1.1–1.7], P = 0.005). Multivariable-adjusted spline regression models suggested nonlinear relationships linking high CAC with BMI (J-shaped), waist circumference (J-shaped), and fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS In this community-based cohort, CAC was associated with obesity, but not IFG, after adjusting for important confounders. With the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and nondiabetic hyperglycemia, these data underscore the importance of obesity in the pathogenesis of CAC. PMID:22773705

  8. Fasting glucose, obesity, and coronary artery calcification in community-based people without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Martin K; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to assess whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and obesity are independently related to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a community-based population. We assessed CAC using multidetector computed tomography in 3,054 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean [SD] age was 50 [10] years, 49% were women, 29% had IFG, and 25% were obese) free from known vascular disease or diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that IFG (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) were independently associated with high CAC (>90th percentile for age and sex) after adjusting for hypertension, lipids, smoking, and medication. High CAC was significantly related to IFG in an age- and sex-adjusted model (odds ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7], P = 0.002; referent: normal fasting glucose) and after further adjustment for obesity (1.3 [1.0-1.6], P = 0.045). However, IFG was not associated with high CAC in multivariable-adjusted models before (1.2 [0.9-1.4], P = 0.20) or after adjustment for obesity. Obesity was associated with high CAC in age- and sex-adjusted models (1.6 [1.3-2.0], P < 0.001) and in multivariable models that included IFG (1.4 [1.1-1.7], P = 0.005). Multivariable-adjusted spline regression models suggested nonlinear relationships linking high CAC with BMI (J-shaped), waist circumference (J-shaped), and fasting glucose. In this community-based cohort, CAC was associated with obesity, but not IFG, after adjusting for important confounders. With the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and nondiabetic hyperglycemia, these data underscore the importance of obesity in the pathogenesis of CAC.

  9. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents: a Mendelian randomization study employing common genetic variants of fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, L B; Franks, P W; Wareham, N J; Brage, S; Veidebaum, T; Ekelund, U; Lawlor, D A; Loos, R J F; Grøntved, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the G6PC2 locus found to be robustly associated with FG in children and adolescents, as an instrument to associate FG with resting BP in 1506 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Rs560887 was associated with increased FG levels corresponding to an increase of 0.08 mmol l(-1) (P=2.4 × 10(-8)). FG was associated with BP, independent of other important determinants of BP in conventional multivariable analysis (systolic BP z-score: 0.32 s.d. per increase in mmol l(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.44, P=1.9 × 10(-7)), diastolic BP z-score: 0.13 s.d. per increase in mmol l(-1) (95% CI 0.04-0.21, P=3.2 × 10(-3)). This association was not supported by the Mendelian randomization approach, neither from instrumenting FG from all 11 variants nor from the rs560887, where non-significant associations of glucose with BP were observed. The results of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.

  10. Overweight, high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose in Uyghur, Han, and Kazakh Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yan, W L; Li, X S; Wang, Q; Huang, Y D; Zhang, W G; Zhai, X H; Wang, C C; Lee, J H

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n = 6633), whose ages ranged from 7 to 18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n = 2295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cut-offs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure, and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. 2142 Uyghurs, 2078 Han, and 1997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2-4 mm Hg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7-9 years of age. The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans, and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone.

  11. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  12. Dietary Fatty Acids Differentially Associate with Fasting Versus 2-Hour Glucose Homeostasis: Implications for The Management of Subtypes of Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Nicola; Perreault, Leigh; Kerege, Anna; Strauss, Allison; Bergman, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Over-nutrition has fuelled the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes, but the role of individual macronutrients to the diabetogenic process is not well delineated. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations, as well as tissue-specific insulin action governing each. Normoglycemic controls (n = 15), athletes (n = 14), and obese (n = 23), as well as people with prediabetes (n = 10) and type 2 diabetes (n = 11), were queried about their habitual diet using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. All subjects were screened by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and studied using the hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp with infusion of 6,62H2-glucose. Multiple regression was performed to examine relationships between dietary fat intake and 1) fasting plasma glucose, 2) % suppression of endogenous glucose production, 3) 2-hour post-OGTT plasma glucose, and 4) skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity (glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) and non-oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD)). The %kcal from saturated fat (SFA) was positively associated with fasting (β = 0.303, P = 0.018) and 2-hour plasma glucose (β = 0.415, P<0.001), and negatively related to % suppression of hepatic glucose production (β = -0.245, P = 0.049), clamp Rd (β = -0.256, P = 0.001) and NOGD (β = -0.257, P = 0.001). The %kcal from trans fat was also negatively related to clamp Rd (β = -0.209, P = 0.008) and NOGD (β = -0.210, P = 0.008). In contrast, the %kcal from polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was negatively associated with 2-hour glucose levels (β = -0.383, P = 0.001), and positively related to Rd (β = 0.253, P = 0.007) and NOGD (β = 0.246, P = 0.008). Dietary advice to prevent diabetes should consider the underlying pathophysiology of the prediabetic state. PMID:26999667

  13. Impact of HbA1c criterion on the definition of glycemic component of the metabolic syndrome: the China health and nutrition survey 2009.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingxing; Du, Tingting; Huo, Rui; Yu, Xuefeng; Xu, Lixian

    2013-11-05

    In 2009, a unified definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) was proposed, of which, the glycemic component is defined on the basis of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as an alternative to FPG to define prediabetes. Hence, we aim to compare the performance of HbA1c and FPG in the definition of glycemic component of the MetS among Chinese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7641 Chinese participants aged ≥18 years using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MetS was defined according to the consensus criteria in 2009. We compared the use of HbA1c versus FPG in the definition of the glycemic component of MetS. Increased HbA1c value was defined following the criterion of HbA1c cut-off point of ≥5.7% recommended by the ADA. Overall, 1136 (14.9%) had MetS according to FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/l, and 1640 (21.5%) had MetS according to HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. Compared with individuals with FPG-based diagnosis of MetS, individuals with HbA1c-based diagnosis of MetS were older, had higher levels of LDL-C, magnesium, and transferrin, and lower levels of uric acid. Of those found to have MetS according to either FPG or HbA1c (n = 2008), overlap between HbA1c- and FPG-based diagnosis of MetS was limited (n = 768, 38.2%). The overlap index regarding MetS diagnosed by FPG or HbA1c persisted low in each evaluated subgroup (≤ 50.0%). We note limited overlap and poor agreement between FPG- and HbA1c-based diagnosis of MetS. Screening MetS through introduction of HbA1c in addition to FPG could contribute to identification of more people with MetS.

  14. Fasting Insulin is Better Partitioned according to Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus than Post Glucose Load Insulin of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Francis, Saritha; Chandran, Sindhu Padinjareveedu; Nesheera, K K; Jacob, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is contributed by insulin resistance, hepatic insulin uptake, insulin secretion and rate of insulin degradation. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported to cause hyperinsulinemia. Correlation of fasting insulin with post glucose load Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) insulin in young adults and their partitioning according to family history of type 2 diabetes. In this observational cross-sectional study, clinical evaluation and biochemical assays of insulin and diabetes related parameters, and secondary clinical influences on type 2 diabetes in volunteers were done for inclusion as participants (n=90) or their exclusion. Cut off levels of quantitative biochemical variables were fixed such that they included the effects of insulin resistance, but excluded other secondary clinical influences. Distribution was analysed by Shapiro-Wilk test; equality of variances by Levene's test; Log 10 transformations for conversion of groups to Gaussian distribution and for equality of variances in the groups compared. When the groups compared had Gaussian distribution and there was equality of variance, parametric methods were used. Otherwise, non parametric methods were used. Fasting insulin was correlating significantly with 30, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin showing that hyperinsulinemia in the fasting state was related to hyperinsulinemia in the post glucose load states. When fasting and post glucose load OGTT insulin were partitioned into those without and with family history of type 2 diabetes, maximum difference was seen in fasting insulin (p<0.001), followed by 120 (p=0.001) and 60 (p= 0.002) minute OGTT insulin. The 30 minute insulin could not be partitioned (p=0.574). Fasting, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin can be partitioned according to family history of type 2 diabetes, demonstrating stratification and heterogeneity in the insulin sample. Of these, fasting insulin was better partitioned and could be used for baseline reference

  15. All-Cause Mortality Risk in Australian Women with Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Sajjad, Muhammad A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes are increasing in prevalence worldwide and lead to serious health problems. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between impaired fasting glucose or diabetes and mortality over a 10-year period in Australian women. Methods This study included 1167 women (ages 20–94 yr) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in diabetes, IFG, and normoglycaemia were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Women with diabetes were older and had higher measures of adiposity, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides compared to the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (all p < 0.001). Mortality rate was greater in women with diabetes compared to both the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.7). Mortality was not different in women with IFG compared to those with normoglycaemia (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4). Conclusions This study reports an association between diabetes and all-cause mortality. However, no association was detected between IFG and all-cause mortality. We also showed that mortality in Australian women with diabetes continues to be elevated and women with IFG are a valuable target for prevention of premature mortality associated with diabetes. PMID:28698884

  16. Changing the definition of impaired fasting glucose: impact on the classification of individuals and risk definition.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Olga; Riccardi, Gabriele

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of lowering the diagnostic threshold for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) from 6.1 to 5.6 mmol/l as proposed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) on the prevalence of the condition, classification of individuals, and risk definition. A total of 1,285 employees of the Italian Telephone Company aged 35-59 years without known diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). BMI, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure were measured. Medication use was recorded. With the new ADA criterion, the proportion of people diagnosed with IFG increased from 3.2 to 9.7%. The newly proposed IFG category identified 41% of all subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with 16.2% identified with the use of the World Health Organization criterion for IFG; the improvement in accuracy has been achieved at the cost of classifying more previously "normal" subjects as having IFG (from 2.3 to 7.3%). Both IFG and IGT were associated with an unfavorable risk profile for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, with a higher estimated risk for IGT than IFG. Even with the revised diagnostic criterion, IFG and IGT identify distinct groups that have a different background risk. The cost/benefit of preventive measures tested in people with IGT may not apply to the new IFG category.

  17. Decreasing high postprandial stearic acid in impaired fasting glucose by dietary regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Chu, X; Na, L; Yuan, F; Li, Y; Sun, C

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the postprandial change in free fatty acid (FFA) profiles in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and to evaluate the effect of low glycemic index (GI) load on postprandial FFA profiles and inflammation. First, 50 IFG and 50 healthy subjects were recruited; and 2 -h postprandial changes in FFA profiles were determined. Second, the 50 IFG subjects then received three different loads: glucose load (GL), high glycemic index (HGI) load and low glycemic index (LGI) load, respectively. FFA profile, glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and inflammatory biomarkers were assayed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. Postprandial stearic acid (C18:0) increased compared with baseline in all subjects, whereas the change in postprandial C18:0 was more marked in IFG subjects than in healthy subjects. Compared with subjects who received the GL and HGI load, the area under the curve for insulin, GLP-1, C18:0 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha significantly decreased and adiponectin increased in subjects who received the LGI load. The rise in postprandial C18:0 in IFG subjects was inhibited by LGI load.

  18. The effect of lowering the threshold for diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Hun; Shim, Wan Sub; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Hee; Hong, Seong Bin; Kim, Yong Seong; Park, Shin Goo; Leem, Jong Han; Lim, Jong Whan; Lee, Hun-Jae; Nam, Moonsuk

    2008-04-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lowering the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) on the prevalence of IFG and the risk for the development of diabetes associated with IFG in Koreans. A total of 7,211 subjects who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or IFG were recruited. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after two years follow up. Clinical data including total cholesterol, FPG and blood pressure were examined. Lowering the criteria for IFG from 6.1 mmol/L (110 mg/dL) to 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) increased the prevalence of IFG from 6.6% (494 subjects) to 24.4% (1829 subjects). After the 2 years follow up period, 91 subjects (1.3%) developed diabetes. Twenty one (0.3%) subjects developed diabetes among 5,382 NGT subjects and 70 (3.8%) subjects developed diabetes among 1,829 IFG (5.6-7.0 mmol/L) subjects. Lowering the IFG threshold from 6.1 mmol/L to 5.6 mmol/L resulted in a 18.4% decrease in specificity and 23.9% increase in sensitivity for predicting diabetes. The baseline FPG for predicting the development of diabetes after 2 years at a point on the receiver operating characteristic curve that was closest to the ideal 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity was 5.7 mmol/L (103 mg/dL). Lowering the FPG criterion of IFG should have benefits in predicting new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in Koreans. The economic and health benefits of applying the new IFG criteria should be evaluated in future studies.

  19. New, small, fast acting blood glucose meters--an analytical laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Hofmann, Manuela; Gappmayer, Brigitta; Garstenauer, Christa

    2007-09-22

    Patients and medical personnel are eager to use blood glucose meters that are easy to handle and fast acting. We questioned whether accuracy and precision of these new, small and light weight devices would meet analytical laboratory standards and tested four meters with the above mentioned conditions. Approximately 300 capillary blood samples were collected and tested using two devices of each brand and two different types of glucose test strips. Blood from the same samples was used for comparison. Results were evaluated using maximum deviation of 5% and 10% from the comparative method, the error grid analysis, the overall deviation of the devices, the linear regression analysis as well as the CVs for measurement in series. Of all 1196 measurements a deviation of less than 5% resp. 10% from the reference method was found for the FreeStyle (FS) meter in 69.5% and 96%, the Glucocard X Meter (GX) in 44% and 75%, the One Touch Ultra (OT) in 29% and 60%, the Wellion True Track (WT) in 28.5% and 58%. The error grid analysis gave 99.7% for FS, 99% for GX, 98% for OT and 97% for WT in zone A. The remainder of the values lay within zone B. Linear regression analysis resembled these results. CVs for measurement in series showed higher deviations for OT and WT compared to FS and GX. The four new, small and fast acting glucose meters fulfil clinically relevant analytical laboratory requirements making them appropriate for use by medical personnel. However, with regard to the tight and restrictive limits of the ADA recommendations, the devices are still in need of improvement. This should be taken into account when the devices are used by primarily inexperienced persons and is relevant for further industrial development of such devices.

  20. Impact of metformin versus the prandial insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid responses in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lund, Søren S; Tarnow, Lise; Frandsen, Merete; Smidt, Ulla M; Pedersen, Oluf; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Vaag, Allan A

    2008-01-01

    Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are characterized by predominant defective insulin secretion. However, in non-obese T2DM patients, metformin, targeting insulin resistance, is non-inferior to the prandial insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, controlling overall glycaemia (HbA1c). Whether the same apply for postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism is unknown. Here, we compared the effect of metformin versus repaglinide on postprandial metabolism in non-obese T2DM patients. Single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2x4 months involving 96 non-obese (body mass index < or = 27 kg/m2) insulin-naïve T2DM patients. At enrolment, patients stopped prior oral hypoglycaemic agents therapies and after a 1-month run-in period on diet-only treatment, patients were randomized to repaglinide (2 mg) thrice daily followed by metformin (1 g) twice daily or vice versa each during 4 months with 1-month washout between interventions. Postprandial metabolism was evaluated by a standard test meal (3515 kJ; 54% fat, 13% protein and 33% carbohydrate) with blood sampling 0-6 h postprandially. Fasting levels and total area under the curve (AUC) for plasma glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFA) changed equally between treatments. In contrast, fasting levels and AUC of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and serum insulin were lower during metformin than repaglinide (mean (95% confidence intervals), LDL cholesterol difference metformin versus repaglinide: AUC: -0.17 mmol/l (-0.26; -0.08)). AUC differences remained significant after adjusting for fasting levels. In non-obese T2DM patients, metformin reduced postprandial levels of glycaemia, triglycerides and FFA similarly compared to the prandial insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. Furthermore, metformin reduced fasting and postprandial cholesterolaemia and insulinaemia compared with repaglinide. These data support

  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose, Self-Appraised Diet Quality and Depressive Symptoms: A US-Representative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Erin; Dash, Sarah R; Varsamis, Pia; Jennings, Garry L; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2017-12-07

    Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors. Using the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, this study first investigated the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and mental disorders at a population-level, accounting for demographic, health behavioural and weight-related factors known to co-occur with both type 2 diabetes and mental disorders. Depressive symptoms were derived from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Fasting plasma glucose was obtained through medical examination and demographic (age, household income, sex) and health characteristics (perceived diet quality, daily time sedentary) were self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from objectively measured height and weight. In the univariate model, higher fasting plasma glucose was associated with greater depressive symptoms among females ( b = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.43, p < 0.05), but not males. In the final fully adjusted model, the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms was non-significant for both males and females. Of all independent variables, self-appraised diet quality was strongly and significantly associated with depressive symptoms and this remained significant when individuals with diabetes were excluded. Although diet quality was self-reported based on individuals' perceptions, these findings are consistent with a role for poor diet in the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms.

  2. Diabetic subjects diagnosed through the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) are often asymptomatic with normal A1C at diabetes onset.

    PubMed

    Triolo, Taylor M; Chase, H Peter; Barker, Jennifer M

    2009-05-01

    Upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, patients are usually symptomatic, and many have ketoacidosis. Screening for islet autoantibodies (IAs) has been shown to decrease A1C level and rate of hospitalization at diabetes onset. Metabolic tests and the presence of symptoms were described at diabetes onset during the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1). The DPT-1 screened relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes for islet cell autoantiobodies (ICAs). Those with positive ICAs had intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs and OGTTs) and were randomized into one of two prevention trials. Throughout the DPT-1 parenteral and oral insulin study, 246 people were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Of the 246 subjects diagnosed with diabetes, 218 had data regarding the presence of symptoms, and 138 (63.3%) reported no symptoms suggestive of diabetes. Eight subjects (3.67%) presented with ketosis. Subjects presented with a mean +/- SD A1C of 6.41 +/- 1.15%. At diagnosis, 90 subjects (50.8%) had A1C in the normal range (<6.2%). OGTT data at the time of diagnosis indicate that 35.4% had a glucose result of <100 mg/dl at 0 min. The majority of subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes through the DPT-1 were asymptomatic at onset and had normal fasting glucose and A1C levels. This suggests that intermittent screening (IA followed by OGTT) may allow diagnosis of diabetes before severe metabolic decompensation. Screening with A1C will miss identifying many of the subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in this cohort.

  3. Derivation & validation of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) cut-off value as a diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes in south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Alladi; Reddy, S. Aparna; Sachan, Alok; Sarma, K.V.S.; Kumar, D. Prabath; Panchagnula, Mahesh V.; Rao, P.V.L.N. Srinivasa; Kumar, B. Siddhartha; Krishnaprasanthi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has been in use for more than a decade, as a diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes. Validity of HbA1c needs to be established in the ethnic population in which it is intended to be used. The objective of this study was to derive and validate a HbA1c cut-off value for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in the ethnic population of Rayalaseema area of south India. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients suspected to have type 2 diabetes underwent fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2 h-PG) measurements after a 75 g glucose load and HbA1c estimation. They were classified as having diabetes as per the American Diabetes Association criteria [(FPG ≥7 mmol/l (≥126 mg/dl) and/or 2 h-PG ≥11.1 mmol/l (≥200 mg/dl)]. In the training data set (n = 342), optimum cut-off value of HbA1c for defining type 2 diabetes was derived by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve method using oral glucose tolerance test results as gold standard. This cut-off was validated in a validation data set (n = 341). Results: On applying HbA1c cut-off value of >6.3 per cent (45 mmol/mol) to the training data set, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for diagnosing type 2 diabetes were calculated to be 90.6, 85.2, 80.8 and 93.0 per cent, respectively. When the same cut-off value was applied to the validation data set, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 88.8, 81.9, 74.0 and 92.7 per cent, respectively, although the latter were consistently smaller than the proportions for the training data set, the differences being not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: HbA1c >6.3 per cent (45 mmol/mol) appears to be the optimal cut-off value for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes applicable to the ethnic population of Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh state in south India. PMID:27934801

  4. Association Between Preoperative Hemoglobin A1c Levels, Postoperative Hyperglycemia, and Readmissions Following Gastrointestinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Caroline E; Graham, Laura A; Morris, Melanie S; Richman, Joshua S; Hollis, Robert H; Wahl, Tyler S; Copeland, Laurel A; Burns, Edith A; Itani, Kamal M F; Hawn, Mary T

    2017-11-01

    Preoperative hyperglycemia is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes among patients who undergo surgery. Whether preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or postoperative glucose levels are more useful in predicting adverse events following surgery is uncertain in the current literature. To examine the use of preoperative HbA1c and early postoperative glucose levels for predicting postoperative complications and readmission. In this observational cohort study, inpatient gastrointestinal surgical procedures performed at 117 Veterans Affairs hospitals from 2007 to 2014 were identified, and cases of known infection within 3 days before surgery were excluded. Preoperative HbA1c levels were examined as a continuous and categorical variable (<5.7%, 5.7%-6.5%, and >6.5%). A logistic regression modeled postoperative complications and readmissions with the closest preoperative HbA1c within 90 days and the highest postoperative glucose levels within 48 hours of undergoing surgery. Postoperative complications and 30-day unplanned readmission following discharge. Of 21 541 participants, 1193 (5.5%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 63.7 (10.6) years. The cohort included 23 094 operations with measurements of preoperative HbA1c levels and postoperative glucose levels. The complication and 30-day readmission rates were 27.2% and 14.7%, respectively. In logistic regression models adjusting for HbA1c, postoperative glucose levels, postoperative insulin use, diabetes, body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and other patient and procedural factors, peak postoperative glucose levels of more than 250 mg/dL were associated with increased 30-day readmissions (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.41; P = .07). By contrast, a preoperative HbA1c of more than 6.5% was associated with decreased 30-day readmissions (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.96; P = .01). As preoperative HbA1c increased, the frequency of 48-hour

  5. Cognitive Performance at Late Adolescence and the Risk for Impaired Fasting Glucose Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Kasher-Meron, Michal; Fruchter, Eyal; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Karasik, Avraham; Twig, Gilad

    2015-12-01

    Although dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline, it is unknown whether cognitive performance among young and apparently healthy adults affect the risk for impaired fasting glucose (IFG). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between cognitive function and the risk for IFG among young adults. This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing data collected at pre-military recruitment assessments with information collected at the screening center of Israeli Army Medical Corps. Normoglycemic adults (n = 17 348) (free of IFG and diabetes; mean age 31.0 ± 5.6 y; 87% men) of the Metabolic Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults (MELANY) cohort with data regarding their General Intelligence Score (GIS), a comprehensive measure of cognitive function, at age 17 y. Fasting plasma glucose was assessed every 3-5 y at scheduled visits. Cox proportional hazards models were applied. The main outcome of the study was incident IFG (≥ 100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL) at scheduled visits. During a median followup of 6.6 y, 1478 cases of IFG were recorded (1402 men). After adjustment for age and sex, participants in the lowest GIS category had a 1.9-fold greater risk for incident IFG compared with those in the highest GIS category. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, family history of diabetes, country of origin, socioeconomic status, education, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, breakfast consumption, triglyceride level, white blood cell count, the risk for IFG was nearly doubled in the lowest GIS category compared with the highest GIS category (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.3; P < .001). These results persisted when GIS was treated as a continuous variable and when the model was adjusted also for body mass index at the end of followup. This study demonstrates that lower cognitive function at late adolescence is independently associated with an elevated risk IFG

  6. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, and microvascular dysfunction: a principal component analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Panazzolo, Diogo G; Sicuro, Fernando L; Clapauch, Ruth; Maranhão, Priscila A; Bouskela, Eliete; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz G

    2012-11-13

    We aimed to evaluate the multivariate association between functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements. Data from 189 female subjects (34.0 ± 15.5 years, 30.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2), who were non-smokers, non-regular drug users, without a history of diabetes and/or hypertension, were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is a classical multivariate exploratory tool because it highlights common variation between variables allowing inferences about possible biological meaning of associations between them, without pre-establishing cause-effect relationships. In total, 15 variables were used for PCA: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose, levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and functional microvascular variables measured by nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was used for direct visualization of nutritive capillaries, assessing functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV) at rest and peak after 1 min of arterial occlusion (RBCV(max)), and the time taken to reach RBCV(max) (TRBCV(max)). A total of 35% of subjects had metabolic syndrome, 77% were overweight/obese, and 9.5% had impaired fasting glucose. PCA was able to recognize that functional microvascular variables and clinical-laboratorial-anthropometrical measurements had a similar variation. The first five principal components explained most of the intrinsic variation of the data. For example, principal component 1 was associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, insulin, TG, CRP, and TRBCV(max) varying in the same way. Principal component 1 also showed a strong association among HDL-c, RBCV, and RBCV(max), but in the opposite way. Principal component 3 was associated only with microvascular

  7. The characteristics of impaired fasting glucose associated with obesity and dyslipidaemia in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yun; Lin, Yudi; Zhang, Tiemei; Bai, Jianling; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Senlin; Shen, Hongbing

    2010-03-17

    Different populations have diverse patterns of relationships between Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and obesity and lipid markers, it is important to investigate the characteristics of associations between IFG and other related risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), serum lipids and blood pressure (BP) in a Chinese population. This was a case-control study of 648 IFG subjects and 1,296 controls derived from a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10,867 participants. Each subject received a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and blood tests, including fasting blood glucose and lipids. Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Spearman correlation and multiple logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was positively correlated with BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), and was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (all p < 0.05). BMI was more strongly correlated with IFG than with WC. The correlation coefficient of FPG was remarkably higher with TG (0.244) than with TC (0.134) and HDL-C (-0.192). TG was an important predictor of IFG, with odds ratios of 1.76 (95%CI: 1.31-2.36) for subjects with borderline high TG level (1.70 mmol/l < or = TG < 2.26 mmol/l) and 3.13 (95% CI: 2.50-3.91) for those with higher TG level (TG > or = 2.26 mmol/l), when comparing to subjects with TG < 1.70 mmol/l. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the number of abnormal variables and increased risk of IFG. In this Chinese population, both BMI and WC were important predictors of IFG. Abnormal TG as a lipid marker was more strongly associated with IFG than were TC and HDL-C. These factors should be taken into consideration simultaneously for prevention of IFG.

  8. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  9. Changes in Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels with Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon Treatment in Normal and Impaired Glucose Tolerant Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sarasombath, Ongkarn; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Tice, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection have increased rates of glucose intolerance, and studies have shown the improvement of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels after clearance of HCV infection with standard ribavirin plus pegylated interferon treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine glycemic changes with standard HCV treatment in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and normal fasting glucose (NFG). Methods A retrospective study of FPG changes in HCV patients with IFG and NFG treated with standard HCV therapy was conducted. Baseline characteristics and viral responses were assessed; FPG levels before treatment, at the end of treatment, and more than one-month post treatment were compared. Results The mean FPG levels increased by 8.68 mg/dl at the end of treatment in the NFG group but decreased by 9.0 mg/dl in the IFG group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.019). The change in FPG levels remained significantly different after adjusting for weight change (P=0.009) and weight changes and initial weight (P=0.039). FPG change from baseline at more than one month after treatment were similar in both groups (P=0.145). The change in FPG levels was not associated with sustained viral response. Conclusions In HCV-infected patients, standard ribavirin plus pegylated interferon treatment reduced FPG levels in patients with IFG and increased FPG levels in NFG individuals; independent of initial weight, weight change, or viral response. Standard HCV treatment modulates fasting plasma glucose levels which supports the need for a prospective study to determine the clinical significance of this finding. PMID:22737650

  10. Fasting glucose levels, incident diabetes, subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in apparently healthy adults: A 12-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Debora; Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Staniak, Henrique L; Manson, JoAnn E; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to study the association between fasting plasma glucose, diabetes incidence and cardiovascular burden after 10-12 years. We evaluated diabetes and cardiovascular events incidences, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium scores in ELSA-Brasil (the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) baseline (2008-2010) of 1536 adults without diabetes in 1998. We used regression models to estimate association with carotid intima-media thickness (in mm), coronary artery calcium scores (in Agatston points) and cardiovascular events according to fasting plasma glucose in 1998. Adjusted diabetes incidence rate was 9.8/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 7.7-13.6/1000 person-years). Incident diabetes was positively associated with higher fasting plasma glucose. Fasting plasma glucose levels 110-125 mg/dL were associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.028; 95% confidence interval: 0.003-0.053). Excluding those with incident diabetes, there was a borderline association between higher carotid intima-media thickness and fasting plasma glucose 110-125 mg/dL (β = 0.030; 95% confidence interval: -0.005 to 0.065). Incident diabetes was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.034; 95% confidence interval: 0.015-0.053), coronary artery calcium scores ⩾400 (odds ratio = 2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-6.91) and the combined outcome of a coronary artery calcium scores ⩾400 or incident cardiovascular event (odds ratio = 3.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-7.65). In conclusion, fasting plasma glucose in 1998 and incident diabetes were associated with higher cardiovascular burden. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Alcohol consumption and higher incidence of impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes in obese Korean men.

    PubMed

    Roh, Won-Gyun; Shin, Ho-Chol; Choi, Ji-Ho; Lee, Yeon Ji; Kim, Kyoungwoo

    2009-12-01

    It is inconclusive whether moderate alcohol consumption reduces the diabetes risk. We observed the development of impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes according to the amount of alcohol intake and body mass index. The annual health evaluation data of 2,500 male workers from 2002 to 2006 were reviewed retrospectively deleting personal identification code. The information contained sex, age, medical history, smoking status, alcohol consumption, participating regular exercise, anthropometric, and biochemistry measurement. Impaired fasting glucose or diabetes was determined when fasting plasma glucose was > or =100mg/dL. Thousand seven hundred seven subjects were eligible after excluding medical history of diabetes or fasting glucose > or =100mg/dL at baseline. The relative risks of its development in group of taking 1-14, 15-29, and > or =30.0g ethanol were 0.842 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.603-1.176), 1.068 (95% CI, 0.736-1.551), and 1.019 (95% CI, 0.662-1.568) within normal weight group, 1.164 (95% CI, 0.795-1.705), 1.421 (95% CI, 0.947-2.133), and 1.604 (95% CI, 1.031-2.495) within overweight group, and 1.498 (95% CI, 1.042-2.153), 1.634 (95% CI, 1.091-2.447), and 1.563 (95% CI, 1.019-2.396) within obese group each after adjusting age, family history of diabetes, smoking, exercise, serum fasting glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase with nondrinkers as a reference group. Not only high alcohol consumption but also moderate drinking was related with higher incidence of impaired fasting glucose or diabetes in obese Korean men.

  12. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (rs=0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (rs=0.56) and hippocampus (rs=−0.62) or septum (rs=−0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes. PMID:28039490

  13. Impaired fasting blood glucose is associated to cognitive impairment and cerebral atrophy in middle-aged non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Djelti, Fathia; Dhenain, Marc; Terrien, Jérémy; Picq, Jean-Luc; Hardy, Isabelle; Champeval, Delphine; Perret, Martine; Schenker, Esther; Epelbaum, Jacques; Aujard, Fabienne

    2016-12-28

    Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations. In the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus , spatial memory deficits have been associated with age and cerebral atrophy but the origin of these alterations have not been clearly identified. Herein, we showed that, on 28 female grey mouse lemurs (age range 2.4-6.1 years-old), age correlated with impaired fasting blood glucose (r s =0.37) but not with impaired glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In middle-aged animals (4.1-6.1 years-old), fasting blood glucose was inversely and closely linked with spatial memory performance (r s =0.56) and hippocampus (r s =-0.62) or septum (r s =-0.55) volumes. These findings corroborate observations in humans and further support the grey mouse lemur as a natural model to unravel mechanisms which link impaired glucose homeostasis, brain atrophy and cognitive processes.

  14. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  15. Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Hunt, Steven C; Tang, Weihong; Eckfeldt, John H; Province, Michael A; Ellison, R Curtis

    2006-02-01

    To assess whether dietary linolenic acid is associated with fasting insulin and glucose. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 3993 non-diabetic participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study 25 to 93 years of age. Linolenic acid was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and laboratory data were obtained after at least a 12-hour fast. We used generalized linear models to calculate adjusted means of insulin and glucose across quartiles of dietary linolenic acid. From the lowest to the highest sex-specific quartile of dietary linolenic acid, means +/- standard error for logarithmic transformed fasting insulin were 4.06 +/- 0.02 (reference), 4.09 +/- 0.02, 4.13 +/- 0.02, and 4.17 +/- 0.02 pM, respectively (trend, p < 0.0001), after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, waist-to-hip ratio, smoking, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. When dietary linolenic acid was used as a continuous variable, the multivariable adjusted regression coefficient was 0.42 +/- 0.08. There was no association between dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose (trend p = 0.82). Our data suggest that higher consumption of dietary linolenic acid is associated with higher plasma insulin, but not glucose levels, in non-diabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed to assess whether higher intake of linolenic acid results in an increased insulin secretion and improved glucose use in vivo.

  16. Does periodontitis affect diabetes incidence and haemoglobin A1c change? An 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kebede, T G; Pink, C; Rathmann, W; Kowall, B; Völzke, H; Petersmann, A; Meisel, P; Dietrich, T; Kocher, T; Holtfreter, B

    2017-11-22

    As periodontitis may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes, the effects of periodontitis on diabetes incidence and HbA1c change was quantified in a prospective cohort. Data from an 11-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania were analyzed to evaluate the effects of periodontitis on incident diabetes and long-term HbA1c changes in 2047 subjects aged 20-81years. Diabetes was based on self-reported physician diagnoses, antidiabetic medication use, or HbA1c≥6.5% or non-fasting blood glucose levels ≥11.1mmol/L. To assess periodontal status, periodontal pockets were probed, and their depth and clinical attachment levels measured. For both measures, means and percentages of sites≥3mm were calculated. In addition, all probing depths≥4mm were summed (cumulative probing depth). Modified Poisson and multivariable linear models were applied, adjusted for age, gender, highest level of general education, marital status, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and follow-up time. Over a mean follow-up period of 11.1years, 207 subjects developed diabetes. Baseline mean clinical attachment levels (CAL) and probing depths (PPD) were not significantly associated with either diabetes incidence [mean CALs, fourth quartile, incidence rate ratio=0.819, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.489-1.370; P=0.446] or long-term changes in HbA1c (mean CAL, fourth quartile, β=-0.086, 95% CI: -0.187, -0.016; P=0.098). Sensitivity analyses using alternative exposure definitions confirmed these results. Contrary to the currently available literature, no convincing evidence was found of any potential association between periodontitis and diabetes incidence or HbA1c change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  18. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes over time among adolescent and young adult participants in the T1D exchange clinic registry.

    PubMed

    Clements, Mark A; Foster, Nicole C; Maahs, David M; Schatz, Desmond A; Olson, Beth A; Tsalikian, Eva; Lee, Joyce M; Burt-Solorzano, Christine M; Tamborlane, William V; Chen, Vincent; Miller, Kellee M; Beck, Roy W

    2016-08-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) influence the longitudinal risk for diabetes-related complications. Few studies have examined HbA1c trends across time in children, adolescents, and young adults with T1D. This study examines changes in glycemic control across the specific transition periods of pre-adolescence-to-adolescence and adolescence-to-young adulthood, and the demographic and clinical factors associated with these changes. Available HbA1c lab results for up to 10 yr were collected from medical records at 67 T1D Exchange clinics. Two retrospective cohorts were evaluated: the pre-adolescent-to-adolescent cohort consisting of 85 016 HbA1c measurements from 6574 participants collected when the participants were 8-18 yr old and the adolescent-to-young adult cohort, 2200 participants who were 16-26 yr old at the time of 17 279 HbA1c measurements. HbA1c in the 8-18 cohort increased over time after age 10 yr until ages 16-17; followed by a plateau. HbA1c levels in the 16-26 cohort remained steady from 16-18, and then gradually declined. For both cohorts, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, and pump use were all significant in explaining individual variations in age-centered HbA1c (p < 0.001). For the 8-18 cohort, insulin pump use, age of onset, and health insurance were significant in predicting individual HbA1c trajectory. Glycemic control among patients 8-18 yr old worsens over time, through age 16. Elevated HbA1c levels observed in 18 yr-olds begin a steady improvement into early adulthood. Focused interventions to prevent deterioration in glucose control in pre-adolescence, adolescence, and early adulthood are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Association of hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin with carotid atherosclerosis in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Naoko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hata, Jun; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Ikeda, Fumie; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hotta, Taeko; Koga, Masafumi; Nakamura, Udai; Kang, Dongchon; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2015-06-24

    It is not clear which glucose measure is more useful in the assessment of atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postload glucose (PG) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in community-dwelling Japanese subjects. A total of 2702 subjects aged 40-79 years underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and measurements of HbA1c, GA, 1,5-AG, and carotid IMT by ultrasonography in 2007-2008. Carotid wall thickening was defined as a maximum IMT of >1.0 mm. The crude and multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional associations between levels of glycemic measures and carotid IMT. The crude average of the maximum IMT increased significantly with rising quartiles of HbA1c, GA, FPG, and 2-hour PG levels in subjects with and without glucose intolerance (GI), while no clear association was observed for 1,5-AG. After adjustment for other confounding factors, positive trends for HbA1c, GA, and FPG (all p for trend < 0.05), but not 2-hour PG (p = 0.07) remained robust in subjects with GI, but no such associations were found in those without GI. When estimating multivariable-adjusted β values for the associations of 1 SD change in glycemic measures with the maximum IMT in subjects with GI, the magnitude of the influence of HbA1c (β = 0.021), GA (β = 0.024), and FPG (β = 0.024) was larger than that of 2-hour PG (β = 0.014) and 1,5-AG (β = 0.003). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for the presence of carotid wall thickening increased significantly with elevating HbA1c, GA, and FPG levels only in subjects with GI (all p for trend < 0.001). Among subjects with GI, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased by adding HbA1c (p = 0.04) or GA (p = 0.04), but not 1,5-AG, FPG, or 2-hour PG, to the model including other cardiovascular risk factors. In

  20. Noninvasive and fast measurement of blood glucose in vivo by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jintao, Xue; Liming, Ye; Yufei, Liu; Chunyan, Li; Han, Chen

    2017-05-01

    This research was to develop a method for noninvasive and fast blood glucose assay in vivo. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a more promising technique compared to other methods, was investigated in rats with diabetes and normal rats. Calibration models are generated by two different multivariate strategies: partial least squares (PLS) as linear regression method and artificial neural networks (ANN) as non-linear regression method. The PLS model was optimized individually by considering spectral range, spectral pretreatment methods and number of model factors, while the ANN model was studied individually by selecting spectral pretreatment methods, parameters of network topology, number of hidden neurons, and times of epoch. The results of the validation showed the two models were robust, accurate and repeatable. Compared to the ANN model, the performance of the PLS model was much better, with lower root mean square error of validation (RMSEP) of 0.419 and higher correlation coefficients (R) of 96.22%.

  1. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    PubMed Central

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  2. Genetically elevated fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Majken K; Bartz, Traci M; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R; Zieman, Susan J; Rimm, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Ix, Joachim H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992-1993. Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (P<0.0001). In analyses of 259 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were not associated with diabetes risk during follow-up and similar null associations were observed when 579 prevalent cases were included. As expected, higher fetuin-A levels were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (1.9 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.2-2.7] higher per SD in Caucasians), but Mendelian randomization analyses using both SNPs as unbiased proxies for measured fetuin-A did not support an association between genetically predicted fetuin-A levels and fasting glucose (-0.3 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.3] lower per SD in Caucasians). The difference between the associations of fasting glucose with actual and genetically predicted fetuin-A level was statistically significant (P=0.001). Results among the smaller sample of African Americans trended in similar directions but were statistically insignificant. Common variants in the AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal.

  3. Relationships between stressful life events and impaired fasting glucose among left-behind farmers in rural China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Han; Cheng, Jing; Shen, Xingrong; Chen, Penglai; Tong, Guixian; Chai, Jing; Li, Kaichun; Xie, Shaoyu; Shi, Yong; Wang, Debin; Sun, Yehuan

    2015-02-01

    This study aims at examining the effects of stressful life events on risk of impaired fasting glucose among left-behind farmers in rural China. The study collected data about stressful life events, family history of diabetes, lifestyle, demographics and minimum anthropometrics from left-behind famers aged 40-70 years. Calculated life event index was applied to assess the combined effects of stressful life events experienced by the left-behind farmers and its association with impaired fasting glucose was estimated using binary logistic regression models. The prevalence of abnormal fasting glucose was 61.4% by American Diabetes Association (ADA) standard and 32.4% by World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a coefficient of 0.033 (P<.001) by ADA standard or 0.028 (P<.001) by WHO standard between impaired fasting glucose and life event index. The overall odds ratios of impaired glucose for the second, third and fourth (highest) versus the first (lowest) quartile of life event index were 1.419 [95% CI=(1.173, 1.717)], 1.711 [95% CI=(1.413, 2.071)] and 1.957 [95% CI=(1.606, 2.385)] respectively by ADA standard. When more and more confounding factors were controlled for, these odds ratios remained statistically significant though decreased to a small extent. The left-behind farmers showed over two-fold prevalence rate of pre-diabetes than that of the nation's average and their risk of impaired fasting glucose was positively associated with stressful life events in a dose-dependent way. Both the population studied and their life events merit special attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [A cohort study on association between the first trimester phthalates exposure and fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Gao, H; Huang, K; Xu, Y Y; Sheng, J; Tao, F B

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To examine the association between the phthalate exposure in the first trimester and fasting blood glucose level or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the third trimester in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women, receiving their prenatal examination in Ma' anshan Maternal and Child Health-Care Hospital of Anhui province, were selected from May 2013 to September 2014. Questionnaires were used to collect the information about their socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and GDM diagnostic results in the first, second and third trimesters. Urine samples and fasting venous blood samples were collected. Concentrations of 7 kinds of phthalate metabolites in urine samples were detected by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS), and multiple linear regression model was used for statistical analyses. Logistic regression analysis on the risk of the first trimester phthalate exposure for GDM in the third trimester was conducted. Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 12.8%, monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) exposure levels were positively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P <0.05), but mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) exposure levels were negatively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P <0.05). Stratified analysis showed a positive correlation between MEHHP exposure and the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in both normal group and GDM group. However, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP, MEHP and MEOHP exposure levels had influences on the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in normal group but not in GDM group. MMP and MBP exposure might increase the risk of GDM, but MEOHP exposure might

  5. The biosynthesis of human hemoglobin A1c. Slow glycosylation of hemoglobin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, H F; Haney, D N; Kamin, S; Gabbay, K H; Gallop, P M

    1976-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c, the most abundant minor hemoglobin component in human erythrocytes, is formed by the condensation of glucose with the N-terminal amino groups of the beta-chains of Hb A. The biosynthesis of this glycosylated hemoglobin was studied in vitro by incubating suspensions of reticulocytes and bone marrow cells with [3H]leucine or 59Fe-bound transferrin. In all experiments, the specific activity of Hb A1c was significantly lower than that of Hb A, suggesting that the formation of Hb A1c is a posttranslational modification. The formation of Hb A1c in vivo was determined in two individuals who were given an infusion of 59Fe-labeled transferrin. As expected, the specific activity of Hb A rose promptly to a maximum during the 1st week and remained nearly constant thereafter. In contrast, the specific activity of Hb A1c and also of Hbs A1a and A1b rose slowly, reaching that of Hb A by about day 60. These results indicate that Hb A1c is slowly formed during the 120-day life-span of the erythrocyte, probably by a nonenzymatic process. Patients with shortened erythrocyte life-span due to hemolysis had markedly decreased levels of Hb A1c. PMID:932199

  6. HbA1c is outcome predictor in diabetic patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gornik, Ivan; Gornik, Olga; Gasparović, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    We have investigated predictive value of HbA1c for hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted because of sepsis. A prospective observational study was implemented in a university hospital, 286 patients with type 2 diabetes admitted with sepsis were included. Leukocyte count, CRP, admission plasma glucose, APACHE II and SOFA score were noted at admission, HbA1c was measured on the first day following admission. Hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) were the outcome measures. Admission HbA1c was significantly lower in surviving patients than in non-survivors (median 8.2% versus 9.75%, respectively; P<0.001). There was a significant correlation between admission HbA1c and hospital LOS of surviving patients (r=0.29; P<0.001). Logistic regression showed that HbA1c is an independent predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.36), together with female sex (OR 2.24), APACHE II score (OR 1.08) and SOFA score (OR 1.28). Multiple regression showed that HbA1c and APACHE II score are independently related to hospital LOS. According to our results, HbA1c is an independent predictive factor for hospital mortality and hospital LOS of diabetic patients with sepsis.

  7. Comparison of a carbohydrate-free diet vs. fasting on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Almokayyad, Rami M; Gannon, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia improves when patients with type 2 diabetes are placed on a weight-loss diet. Improvement typically occurs soon after diet implementation. This rapid response could result from low fuel supply (calories), lower carbohydrate content of the weight-loss diet, and/or weight loss per se. To differentiate these effects, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were determined during the last 24 h of a 3-day period without food (severe calorie restriction) and a calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet. Seven subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied. A randomized-crossover design with a 4-week washout period between arms was used. Results from both the calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet and the 3-day fast were compared with the initial standard diet consisting of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 30% fat. The overnight fasting glucose concentration decreased from 196 (standard diet) to 160 (carbohydrate-free diet) to 127 mg/dl (fasting). The 24 h glucose and insulin area responses decreased by 35% and 48% on day 3 of the carbohydrate-free diet, and by 49% and 69% after fasting. Overnight basal insulin and glucagon remained unchanged. Short-term fasting dramatically lowered overnight fasting and 24 h integrated glucose concentrations. Carbohydrate restriction per se could account for 71% of the reduction. Insulin could not entirely explain the glucose responses. In the absence of carbohydrate, the net insulin response was 28% of the standard diet. Glucagon did not contribute to the metabolic adaptations observed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Khalilian, Alireza; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance. PMID:26907291

  9. Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Khalilian, Alireza; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt's dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance.

  10. Psychosocial factors are independent risk factors for the development of Type 2 diabetes in Japanese workers with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    Toshihiro, M; Saito, K; Takikawa, S; Takebe, N; Onoda, T; Satoh, J

    2008-01-01

    Aims We prospectively studied Japanese workers with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and analysed possible risk factors for diabetes, including psychosocial factors such as stress. Methods The participants were 128 male Japanese company employees (mean age, 49.3 ± 5.9 years) with IFG and/or IGT diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participants were prospectively studied for 5 years with annual OGTTs. The Kaplan–Meier method and Cox's proportional hazard model were used to analyse the incidence of diabetes and the factors affecting glucose tolerance, including anthropometric, biochemical and social–psychological factors. Results Of 128 participants, 36 (28.1%) developed diabetes and 39 (30.5%) returned to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Independent risk factors for diabetes were night duty [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.48, P = 0.002], higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels within 6.1–6.9 mmol/l (HR = 1.05, P = 0.031), stress (HR = 3.81, P = 0.037) and administrative position (HR = 12.70, P = 0.045), while independent factors associated with recovery were lower FPG levels (HR = 0.94, P = 0.017), being a white-collar worker (HR = 0.34, P = 0.033), non-smoking (HR = 0.31, P = 0.040) and lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (HR = 0.97, P = 0.042). Conclusions In addition to FPG levels at baseline, psychosocial factors (night duty, stress and administrative position) are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes, while being a white-collar worker, a non-smoker and lower serum ALT levels are factors associated with return to NGT in Japanese workers with IFG and/or IGT. PMID:19046200

  11. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  12. [Change and correlated factors of fasting level of the plasma endotoxin in subjects with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Zhao, Tie-Yun; Hou, Li-Qiong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2) subgroups. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P<0.05]. The levels of plasma ET in IGR group (n=23) C5.0 (2.4-10.3) EU/mLU was lower than that in T2DM group and higher than NGT group but the differences were not significant (P>0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, P<0. 05), similarly between obesity and non

  13. Hypoglycemia Reduction and Changes in Hemoglobin A1c in the ASPIRE In-Home Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ram; Garg, Satish K.; Bode, Bruce W.; Bailey, Timothy S.; Ahmann, Andrew J.; Schultz, Kenneth A.; Welsh, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: ASPIRE In-Home randomized 247 subjects with type 1 diabetes to sensor-augmented pump therapy with or without the Threshold Suspend (TS) feature, which interrupts insulin delivery at a preset sensor glucose value. We studied the effects of TS on nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in relation to baseline hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and change in A1C during the study. Materials and Methods: NH event rates and mean area under curve (AUC) of NH events were evaluated at different levels of baseline A1C (<7%, 7–8%, and >8%) and at different levels of changes in A1C (less than −0.3% [decreased], −0.3% to 0.3% [stable], and >0.3% [increased]), in the TS Group compared with the Control Group (sensor-augmented pump only). Results: In the TS Group, 27.9% of the NH events were accompanied by a confirmatory blood glucose value, compared with 39.3% in the Control Group. Among subjects with baseline A1C levels of <7% or 7–8%, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates than those in the Control Group (P=0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Among subjects with decreased or stable A1C levels, those in the TS Group had significantly lower NH event rates, and the events had lower AUCs (P≤0.001 for each). Among subjects with increased A1C levels, those in the TS Group had NH events with significantly lower AUCs (P<0.001). Conclusions: Use of the TS feature was associated with decreases in the rate and severity (as measured by AUC) of NH events in many subjects, including those with low baseline A1C levels and those whose A1C values decreased during the study period. Use of the TS feature can help protect against hypoglycemia in those wishing to intensify diabetes management to achieve target glucose levels. PMID:26237308

  14. Obese mice on a high-fat alternate-day fasting regimen lose weight and improve glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Joslin, P M N; Bell, R K; Swoap, S J

    2017-10-01

    Alternate-day fasting (ADF) causes body weight (BW) loss in humans and rodents. However, it is not clear that ADF while maintaining a high-fat (HF) diet results in weight loss and the accompanying improvement in control of circulating glucose. We tested the hypotheses that a high-fat ADF protocol in obese mice would result in (i) BW loss, (ii) improved glucose control, (iii) fluctuating phenotypes on 'fasted' days when compared to 'fed' days and (iv) induction of torpor on 'fasted days'. We evaluated the physiological effects of ADF in diet-induced obese mice for BW, heart rate (HR), body temperature (T b ), glucose tolerance, insulin responsiveness, blood parameters (leptin, insulin, free fatty acids) and hepatic gene expression. Diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice lost one-third of their pre-diet BW while on an ADF diet for 10 weeks consisting of HF food. The ADF protocol improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although mice on a fast day were less glucose tolerant than the same mice on a fed day. ADF mice on a fast day had low circulating insulin, but had an enhanced response to an insulin-assisted glucose tolerance test, suggesting the impaired glucose tolerance may be a result of insufficient insulin production. On fed days, ADF mice were the warmest, had a high HR and displayed hepatic gene expression and circulating leptin that closely mimicked that of mice fed an ad lib HF diet. ADF mice never entered torpor as assessed by HR and T b . However, on fast days, they were the coolest, had the slowest HR, and displayed hepatic gene expression and circulating leptin that closely mimicked that of Chow-Fed mice. Collectively, the ADF regimen with a HF diet in obese mice results in weight loss, improved blood glucose control, and daily fluctuations in selected physiological and biochemical parameters in the mouse. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Impaired fasting glucose, ancestry and waist-to-height ratio: main predictors of incident diagnosed diabetes in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    de León, A Cabrera; Coello, S Domínguez; González, D Almeida; Díaz, B Brito; Rodríguez, J C del Castillo; Hernández, A González; Aguirre-Jaime, A; Pérez, M del Cristo Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the incidence rate and risk factors for diabetes in the Canary Islands. A total of 5521 adults without diabetes were followed for a median of 3.5 years. Incident cases of diabetes were self-declared and validated in medical records. The following factors were assessed by Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios for diabetes: impaired fasting glucose (5.6 mmol/l ≤ fasting glucose ≤ 6.9 mmol/l), BMI, waist-to-height ratio (≥ 0.55), insulin resistance (defined as triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ≥ 3), familial antecedents of diabetes, Canarian ancestry, smoking, alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, Mediterranean diet, social class and the metabolic syndrome. The incidence rate was 7.5/10(3) person-years (95% CI 6.4-8.8). The greatest risks were obtained for impaired fasting glucose (hazard ratio 2.6; 95% CI 1.8-3.8), Canarian ancestry (hazard ratio 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.4), waist-to-height ratio (hazard ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.5), insulin resistance (hazard ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and paternal history of diabetes (hazard ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.3). The metabolic syndrome (hazard ratio 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.7) were significant only when their effects were not adjusted for impaired fasting glucose and waist-to-height ratio, respectively. The incidence of diabetes in the Canary Islands is 1.5-fold higher than that in continental Spain and 1.7-fold higher than in the UK. The main predictors of diabetes were impaired fasting glucose, Canarian ancestry, waist-to-height ratio and insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome predicted diabetes only when its effect was not adjusted for impaired fasting glucose. In individuals with Canarian ancestry, genetic susceptibility studies may be advisable. In order to propose preventive strategies, impaired fasting glucose, waist-to-height ratio and triglyceride/HDL cholesterol should be used to identify subjects with an increased risk of developing diabetes.

  16. Optimal Hemoglobin A1c Levels for Screening of Diabetes and Prediabetes in the Japanese Population.

    PubMed

    Shimodaira, Masanori; Okaniwa, Shinji; Hanyu, Norinao; Nakayama, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify individuals with diabetes and prediabetes in the Japanese population. A total of 1372 individuals without known diabetes were selected for this study. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. The ability of HbA1c to detect diabetes and prediabetes was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The kappa (κ) coefficient was used to test the agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnosis. ROC analysis demonstrated that HbA1c was a good test to identify diabetes and prediabetes, with areas under the curve of 0.918 and 0.714, respectively. Optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes were 6.0% (sensitivity 83.7%, specificity 87.6%) and 5.7% (sensitivity 60.6%, specificity 72.1%), respectively, although the cutoff for prediabetes showed low accuracy (67.6%) and a high false-negative rate (39.4%). Agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnosis was low in diabetes (κ = 0.399) and prediabetes (κ = 0.324). In Japanese subjects, the HbA1c cutoff of 6.0% had appropriate sensitivity and specificity for diabetes screening, whereas the cutoff of 5.7% had modest sensitivity and specificity in identifying prediabetes. Thus, HbA1c may be inadequate as a screening tool for prediabetes.

  17. Decreased serum betatrophin levels correlate with improved fasting plasma glucose and insulin secretion capacity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kaifeng; Yu, Haoyong; Lu, Junxi; Bao, Yuqian; Chen, Haibing; Jia, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that serum betatrophin levels, a hormone derived from adipose tissue and liver, are elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To investigate the relationships among betatrophin and metabolic control, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function in obese Chinese patients with T2D who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). University hospital, China. This 1-year follow-up study included 34 obese individuals with T2D (18 males, 16 females) who underwent RYGB in our hospital. Anthropometric results, glucose levels, lipid profiles, and serum betatrophin levels were determined before and 1 year after RYGB. The serum betatrophin level decreased significantly after RYGB (72.0 ng/mL [33.4-180.9] versus 35.7 ng/mL [14.8-103.3]); P<.001]. The change in betatrophin was significantly positively correlated with the changes in hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose and negatively correlated with the changes in the 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide and homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function (P<.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the change in the serum betatrophin level was independently and significantly associated with the changes in fasting plasma glucose (β = .586, P<.001) and 2-hour C-peptide/fasting C-peptide (β = -.309, P = .021). Circulating betatrophin might be involved in the regulation of glucose control and insulin secretion in obese Chinese with T2D soon after RYGB. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low pulmonary function in individuals with impaired fasting glucose: the 2007-2009 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yean; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sung-Soon; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between fasting plasma glucose level and pulmonary function. Nutritional information, pulmonary function data, and laboratory test data from 9,223 subjects from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The participants were divided into five groups according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level: normal fasting glucose (NFG)1, FPG <90 mg/dl; NFG2, FPG 90-99 mg/dl; impaired fasting glucose (IFG)1: FPG 100-109 mg/dl; IFG2, FPG 110-125 mg/dl; and diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dl and/or current anti-diabetes medications. After adjustment for several variables, the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity(FVC%) decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose level in both sexes[men: (mean ± SEM) 92.0±0.3 in NFG1; 91.9±0.3 in NFG2; 92.0±0.4 in IFG1; 90.2±0.7 in IFG2; and 89.9±0.5 in diabetes, P = 0.004; women: 93.7±0.3 in NFG1; 93.7±0.3 in NFG2; 93.1±0.5 in IFG1; 91.1±0.9 in IFG2; and 90.7±0.6 in diabetes, P<0.001]. A logistic regression analysis found that IFG2 and diabetes were independently associated with the lowest quintile of predicted FVC% (IFG2: odds ratio [95%CI], 1.50 [1.18-1.89], P = 0.001; diabetes: 1.56 [1.30-1.88], P<0.001) using NFG1 as a control. The current data suggest that forced vital capacity may begin to decrease in the higher range of IFG.

  19. Differential effects of blood insulin and HbA1c on cerebral amyloid burden and neurodegeneration in nondiabetic cognitively normal older adults.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Soo; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yi, Dahyun; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Hyunwoong; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lower insulin or higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in blood are associated with increased cerebral beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration in nondiabetic cognitively normal (CN) older adults. A total of 205 nondiabetic CN older adults underwent comprehensive clinical assessment, [ 11 C]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET), [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling for fasting insulin and HbA1c measurement. Lower blood insulin was significantly associated with increased Aβ positivity rates and decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the AD-signature region. In contrast, higher HbA1c levels were not associated with Aβ positivity rates but were significantly associated with higher rates of having neurodegeneration in the AD-signature regions. Our results suggest different roles of insulin and HbA1c in AD pathogenesis, in that decreased blood insulin below optimal levels may contribute to increasing cerebral Aβ deposition and neurodegeneration whereas impaired glycemic control may aggravate neurodegeneration through a nonamyloid mechanism in nondiabetic CN older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fasting plasma glucose in young adults free of diabetes is associated with cognitive function in midlife.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Manheim, Irit; Sinnreich, Ronit; Doniger, Glen M; Simon, Ely S; Pinchas-Mizrachi, Ronit; Kark, Jeremy D

    2018-06-01

    Evidence for an association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with cognitive function in adults free of diabetes is scarce and based on middle-aged and older adults. We examined the association of FPG, measured at age 30, and of change in FPG from age 30 to 43, with cognitive function at age 50. 505 nondiabetic participants of the population-based Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) cohort study had baseline FPG, 2-h post-oral challenge plasma glucose (OGTT) and insulin determined at ages 28-32, and FPG and OGTT again at ages 41-46. Subsequently at ages 48-52, global cognitive function and its five specific component domains were assessed with a NeuroTrax computerized test battery, using multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic models. Hyperglycemia (FPG ≥ 5.6 mmol/l vs. <5.6 mmol/l) at baseline was associated with poorer global cognitive function in midlife (predominantly in the visual spatial and attention domains), independent of socio-demographic characteristics, life style variables, body mass index (BMI), and inflammatory and biochemical variables (standardized Beta = -0.121, P = 0.002, plinear trend(FPG continuous) =0.016). Similarly, increased odds for low-ranked (lowest fifth) global cognition was evident (ORper mmol/l FPG=2.31, 95% CI = 1.30-4.13, P = 0.005). Baseline OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and change in FPG and OGTT over 13 years were not associated with cognition. A higher FPG in young adults was associated with lower cognitive performance in midlife. Although we cannot dismiss the possibility of reverse causation, hyperglycemia at a young age may be a modifiable risk factor for low-ranked cognitive function in midlife.

  1. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    PubMed Central

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  2. Current aspects in hemoglobin A1c detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shu Hwang; Thevarajah, M; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei

    2015-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a pressing health issue that threatens global health and the productivity of populations worldwide. Despite its long-recognized role in diabetes management, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) only received WHO endorsement as a T2DM diagnostic tool in 2011. Although conventional plasma-specific tests have long been utilized to diagnose T2DM, the public should be informed that plasma-specific tests are not markedly better than HbA1c tests, particularly in terms of variability and convenience for diagnosing diabetes. In the midst of the debates associated with establishing HbA1c as the preeminent diabetes diagnostic tool, unceasing efforts to standardize HbA1c tests have played an integral part in achieving more efficient communication from laboratory to clinical practice and thus better diabetes care. This review discusses the current status of HbA1c tests in the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and management of T2DM across the globe, focusing on increasing the recognition of glycated hemoglobin variants with effective utilization of different HbA1c methods, updating the current status of HbA1c standardization programs, tapping into the potential of POC analyzers to establish a cost-effective HbA1c test for diabetes care, and inspiring the advancement of HbA1c biosensors for future clinical usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A1c Gear: Laboratory quality HbA1c measurement at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Ejilemele, Adetoun; Unabia, Jamie; Ju, Hyunsu; Petersen, John R

    2015-05-20

    HbA1c is an important part of assessing the diabetic control and since the use of point-of-care devices for monitoring HbA1c is increasing, it is important to determine how these devices compare to the central laboratory. One hundred and twenty patient samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant™II and one POC analyzer (Sakae A1c Gear). Three patient sample pools containing ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% HbA1c levels were run over 20 days. Three reagent lots and three instruments were evaluated for the A1c Gear. The 120 patient samples showed strong correlation (R(2)>0.989) when compared to the Variant™II with means=8.06% and 7.81%, for Variant IIand A1c Gear, respectively. Changing reagent lots or instruments had no impact for the A1c Gear. The ~5%, ~7%, and ~10% pools within-run and between-run imprecision was between 0.87-1.33% and 1.03-1.32%, and 1.41-2.35% and 1.24-1.89% with total imprecision of 1.67-2.35% and 1.61-2.31% for the A1c Gear and Variant II, respectively. The A1c Gear showed a small negative bias (0.25% HbA1c) across HbA1c measurement ranges of <11.5%. This bias was, however, acceptable and not considered to be clinically significant. The A1c Gear meets the criteria of total CV <3% leading us to the conclusion that the A1c Gear can give results as precise as the laboratory at the POC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS Lost trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490

  6. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Huang, T; Zheng, Y; Rood, J; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-07-01

    Weight-loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045 and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend <0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism.

  7. Understanding the new HbA1c units for the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Braatvedt, Geoff D; Cundy, Tim; Crooke, Michael; Florkowski, Chris; Mann, Jim I; Lunt, Helen; Jackson, Rod; Orr-Walker, Brandon; Kenealy, Timothy; Drury, Paul L

    2012-09-21

    In New Zealand laboratories the measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for diagnosis of diabetes is now only reported in SI units of mmol/mol. HbA1c is now recommended as the preferred test to diagnose diabetes in most circumstances. The requirement for a second positive test in asymptomatic individuals is retained. An HbA1c greater than and equal to 50 mmol/mol (repeated on a second occasion in asymptomatic patients) is diagnostic of diabetes and a value less than and equal to 40 mmol/mol represents normal glucose tolerance. For patients with an initial HbA1c result of 41-49 mmol/mol, cardiovascular risk assessment and lifestyle interventions are recommended with repeat HbA1c screening in 6-12 months. For patients whose HbA1c is less than and equal to 40 mmol/mol, repeat screening (including for CVD risk) at intermittent intervals is recommended as per published guidelines.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracies of Glycated Hemoglobin, Fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Predicting Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosettenstein, Kerri; Viecelli, Andrea; Yong, Kenneth; Nguyen, Hung Do; Chakera, Aron; Chan, Doris; Dogra, Gursharan; Lim, Ee Mun; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2016-07-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is associated with a 3-fold greater risk of cardiovascular disease events, with early identification and treatment potentially attenuating this risk. The optimal screening test to identify those with NODAT remains unclear, and the aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracies of 4 screening tests in identifying impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and NODAT. This is a single-center prospective cohort study of 83 nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients between 2008 and 2011. Oral glucose tolerance test was considered the gold standard in identifying IFG/IGT or NODAT. Diagnostic accuracies of random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in predicting IFG/IGT or NODAT were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Forty (48%) recipients had IFG/IGT or NODAT. Compared with HBA1c with adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.77-0.93), fructosamine was the most accurate test with adjusted AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-0.96). The adjusted AUCs of random blood glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in identifying IFG/IGT were between 0.81 and 0.85. Restricting to identifying IGT/NODAT using 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (n = 66), fructosamine was the most accurate diagnostic test with adjusted AUC of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-0.99), but not statistically different to HBA1c with adjusted AUC of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Although HBA1c is an acceptable and widely used screening test in detecting IFG/IGT or NODAT, fructosamine may be a more accurate diagnostic test but this needs to be further examined in larger cohorts.

  9. Increasing Neuroplasticity to Bolster Chronic Pain Treatment: A Role for Intermittent Fasting and Glucose Administration?

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, KT; Bartsch, F; Reddy, D; Fillingim, RB; Keil, A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes in brain structure and function are not only a consequence of chronic pain but are involved in the maintenance of pain symptoms. Thus, promoting adaptive, treatment responsive neuroplasticity represents a promising clinical target. Emerging evidence about the human brain’s response to an array of behavioral and environmental interventions may assist in identifying targets to facilitate increased neurobiological receptivity, promoting healthy neuroplastic changes. Specifically, strategies to maximize neuroplastic responsiveness to chronic pain treatment could enhance treatment gains by optimizing learning and positive central nervous system (CNS) adaptation. Periods of heightened plasticity have been traditionally identified with the early years of development. More recent research however has identified a wide spectrum of methods that can be used to “re-open” and enhance plasticity and learning in adults. In addition to transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been investigated. Intermittent fasting and glucose administration are two propitious strategies, which are non-invasive, inexpensive to administer, implementable in numerous settings, and may be applicable across differing chronic pain treatments. Key findings and neurophysiological mechanisms are summarized, providing evidence for the potential clinical contributions of these two strategies toward ameliorating chronic pain. PMID:26848123

  10. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  11. The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Danielle N.; Kable, Mary E.; Marco, Maria L.; De Leon, Angela; Rust, Bret; Baker, Julita E.; Horn, William; Burnett, Dustin; Keim, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG) or refined grains (RG) under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome. PMID:28230784

  12. Small is fast: astrocytic glucose and lactate metabolism at cellular resolution

    PubMed Central

    Barros, L. F.; San Martín, A.; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.; Lerchundi, R.; Fernández-Moncada, I.; Ruminot, I.; Gutiérrez, R.; Valdebenito, R.; Ceballo, S.; Alegría, K.; Baeza-Lehnert, F.; Espinoza, D.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue is highly dynamic in terms of electrical activity and energy demand. Relevant energy metabolites have turnover times ranging from milliseconds to seconds and are rapidly exchanged between cells and within cells. Until recently these fast metabolic events were inaccessible, because standard isotopic techniques require use of populations of cells and/or involve integration times of tens of minutes. Thanks to fluorescent probes and recently available genetically-encoded optical nanosensors, this Technology Report shows how it is now possible to monitor the concentration of metabolites in real-time and in single cells. In combination with ad hoc inhibitor-stop protocols, these probes have revealed a key role for K+ in the acute stimulation of astrocytic glycolysis by synaptic activity. They have also permitted detection of the Warburg effect in single cancer cells. Genetically-encoded nanosensors currently exist for glucose, lactate, NADH and ATP, and it is envisaged that other metabolite nanosensors will soon be available. These optical tools together with improved expression systems and in vivo imaging, herald an exciting era of single-cell metabolic analysis. PMID:23526722

  13. Increasing Neuroplasticity to Bolster Chronic Pain Treatment: A Role for Intermittent Fasting and Glucose Administration?

    PubMed

    Sibille, Kimberly T; Bartsch, Felix; Reddy, Divya; Fillingim, Roger B; Keil, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Neuroplastic changes in brain structure and function are not only a consequence of chronic pain but are involved in the maintenance of pain symptoms. Thus, promotion of adaptive, treatment-responsive neuroplasticity represents a promising clinical target. Emerging evidence about the human brain's response to an array of behavioral and environmental interventions may assist in identifying targets to facilitate increased neurobiological receptivity, promoting healthy neuroplastic changes. Specifically, strategies to maximize neuroplastic responsiveness to chronic pain treatment could enhance treatment gains by optimization of learning and positive central nervous system adaptation. Periods of heightened plasticity have been traditionally identified with the early years of development. More recent research, however, has identified a wide spectrum of methods that can be used to "reopen" and enhance plasticity and learning in adults. In addition to transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, behavioral and pharmacological interventions have been investigated. Intermittent fasting and glucose administration are two propitious strategies, that are noninvasive, inexpensive to administer, implementable in numerous settings, and might be applicable across differing chronic pain treatments. Key findings and neurophysiological mechanisms are summarized, and evidence for the potential clinical contributions of these two strategies toward ameliorating chronic pain is presented. Neuroplastic changes are a defining feature of chronic pain and a complicating factor in treatment. Noninvasive strategies to optimize the brain's response to treatment interventions might improve learning and memory, increase the positive adaptability of the central nervous system, and enhance treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Göke, R; Eschenbach, P; Dütting, E D

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as single-pill combinations (SPCs) with metformin. The randomized crossover, open-label, active-controlled study design assessed the FPG-lowering abilities of a vildagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC compared with a sitagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC after 2 weeks of treatment in 99 type 2 diabetes patients uncontrolled by stable metformin therapy (1000-2000 mg/day). The change in FPG from baseline to day 14 was significantly greater (P < 0.02, Wilcoxon) with vildagliptin [-21.9 mg/dL (SD 27.0)] than with sitagliptin [-14.5 mg/dL (SD 23.0)]. After 14 days of treatment, the mean FPG was 137.8 mg/dL (SD 28.5) with vildagliptin and 140.1mg/dL (SD 26.5) with sitagliptin (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon). Both of these DPP-4 inhibitors, given as SPCs twice daily with metformin, lowered FPG after 14 days of treatment. However, vildagliptin produced a significantly greater reduction in FPG vs baseline compared with sitagliptin, which may translate into clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  16. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dose-response study of sajabalssuk ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini on blood glucose in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or mild type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Shin, Su-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Previously we reported that an ethanol extract from Artemisia princeps Pampanini lowered blood glucose in db/db mice. Here we report a preliminary study in which the blood glucose-lowering effects of two different doses of sajabalssuk ethanol extract (SBE), containing eupatilin and jaseocidin, were examined in hyperglycemic subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels of 100-150 mg/dL. Subjects were randomized into four groups: negative control (2,000 mg of lactose /day), positive control (1,140 mg of pinitol/day), low-dose SBE (2,000 mg of SBE/day), and high-dose SBE (4,000 mg of SBE/day). After 8 weeks of supplementation, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly lowered in low-and high-dose SBE groups compared to the baseline values; high-dose SBE also resulted in significantly lower plasma free fatty acid levels and systolic blood pressure. This study demonstrated that supplementation of 2 g or 4 g of SBE daily can significantly reduce blood glucose in hyperglycemic subjects, although high-dose SBE seemed to be more effective than low-dose SBE for lowering plasma free fatty acid level and systolic blood pressure.

  18. Blood Glucagon Levels Predict the Hemoglobin A1c Response to Saxagliptin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Hu, Yun; Li, Feng-Fei; Liu, Bing-Li; Su, Xiao-Fei; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2016-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used as second-option medications when metformin fails. Variance of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) response to DPP-4 inhibitions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed, but the characteristics which predict the response to DPP-4 inhibitor therapy are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of α- and β-cell functions which might predict the efficacy of saxagliptin and facilitate personalization of treatment. We studied 60 patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control [HbA1c7.0-13.0% (53-119 mmol/mol)) with metformin alone. The patients were treated with saxagliptin (5 mg, daily) and metformin (1000-2000 mg as former) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out at baseline and endpoint to evaluate α- and β-cell functions, and blood C-peptide, insulin, glucagon levels were tested. Blood glucose, HbA1c and weight were also observed. Significant reduction of weight, HbA1c and glucagon was observed after 12-week treatment, while C-peptide, insulin and homeostasis model assessment-β increased (P < 0.05). Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that baseline HbA1c and 30 min-glucagon were correlated with the HbA1c response to saxagliptin, while the weight loss was correlated with gender, age and fasting-insulin level. Further analysis showed the 30 min-glucagon of 49.1 pmol/L was the optimal cutoff value to predict the efficacy of saxagliptin. Saxagliptin added to metformin significantly improved glycemic control and α- and β-cell function. Blood glucagon level was a good predicting factor for the HbA1c response to saxagliptin, and it will help appropriate patient selection. Chinese Clinical Trial Register identifier, ChiCTR-PPR-15007045.

  19. Effects of pioglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bone, Henry G; Lindsay, Robert; McClung, Michael R; Perez, Alfonso T; Raanan, Marsha G; Spanheimer, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Meta-analyses of clinical studies have suggested an increased incidence of peripheral fractures in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking pioglitazone. The mechanism behind this apparent increase is unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. Twenty-five sites (in the United States) enrolled participants in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Postmenopausal women (n = 156) with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in the study. The intervention consisted of pioglitazone 30 mg/d (n = 78) or placebo (n = 78), increased to 45 mg/d after 1 month, for 12 months of treatment total, followed by 6 months of washout/follow-up. Percentage changes from baseline to month 12 and from month 12 to month18 in BMD in total proximal femur (primary end point), total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius were measured. Least squares mean changes from baseline to month 12 in total proximal femur BMD were -0.69% for pioglitazone and -0.14% for placebo (P = .170). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for any BMD or bone remodeling marker end point. We observed improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. In addition, pioglitazone appeared to increase body fat, which may affect bone density measurements, especially in the lumbar spine. One pioglitazone-treated and three placebo-treated women experienced confirmed fractures. Over 18 months, one pioglitazone-treated (1.3%) and eight placebo-treated women (10.3%) developed overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pattern and incidence of adverse events with pioglitazone were consistent with clinical experience with thiazolidinediones. Maximal-dose pioglitazone had no effects on BMD or bone turnover, while improving glycemic control as expected, in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

  20. Nutraceutical Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Impaired Fasting Glucose: A Pilot, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial on a Combined Product.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Fogacci, Federica; Morbini, Martino; Colletti, Alessandro; Bove, Marilisa; Veronesi, Maddalena; Giovannini, Marina; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    A number of natural compounds have individually demonstrated to improve glucose and lipid levels in humans. To  evaluate the short-term glucose and lipid-lowering activity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. To assess the effects of a combination of nutraceuticals based on Lagerstroemia speciosa, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Alpha-lipoic acid, Chrome picolinate and Folic acid, we performed a double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 40 adults affected by impaired fasting glucose (FPG = 100-125 mg/dL) in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. After a period of 2 weeks of dietary habits correction only, patients continued the diet and began a period of 8 weeks of treatment with nutraceutical or placebo. Data related to lipid pattern, insulin resistance, liver function and hsCRP were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. No side effects were detected in both groups of subjects. After the nutraceutical treatment, and compared to the placebo-treated group, the enrolled patients experienced a significant improvement in TG (-34.7%), HDL-C (+13.7), FPI (-13.4%), and HOMA-Index (-25%) versus the baseline values. No significant changes were observed in the other investigated parameters in both groups (Body Mass Index, LDL-C, hsCRP). The tested combination of nutraceuticals showed clinical efficacy in the improvement of TG, HDL-C, FPI and HOMA-Index, with an optimal tolerability profile. Further confirmation is needed to verify these observations on the middle and long term with a larger number of subjects.

  1. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Panchalli; Lu, Mei-Chun; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Yuan-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD) of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD) influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night) and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours) by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL) following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β) of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]): -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38) and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20)] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR) of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 0.54 (0.31-0.95) and 0.58 (0.35-0.96), respectively. Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  2. Is insulin the preferred treatment for HbA1c >9%?

    PubMed

    Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2017-09-01

    The algorithms and guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association recommend that insulin administration be strongly considered for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with HbA1c levels exceeding 9.0% and 10%, respectively. Although the caveat is given in both sets of recommendations that this is particularly appropriate when patients are "symptomatic," referring to urinary frequency with increased thirst and appetite, weight loss, and ketosis, the clinical definition of such presentations may be ill-defined, and it is noteworthy that both documents consider insulin to offer particular benefit under such circumstances. However, with multiple options for glycemic treatment, it is of interest to reconsider this argument for insulin use. It should be recalled that in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, diet alone was associated with a reduction in HbA1c from 9% to 7%. Drug-naïve people with T2D do often show surprisingly strong reductions in HbA1c with metformin-based dual-agent oral treatment approaches; a recent report showed that even with baseline HbA1c >11%, the combination of metformin with a sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin was associated with reduction in HbA1c from 11.6% to 6.0%. A 32-week study of the combination of rosiglitazone with metformin in patients with mean baseline HbA1c 8.9% showed a mean HbA1c reduction of 2.3%, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.8% had a reduction in HbA1c to 7.8%. With metformin plus sitagliptin, a mean placebo-adjusted HbA1c reduction of 2.1% from a baseline of 8.8% was reported, with those patients with baseline HbA1c >9% having a 2.6% reduction in HbA1c, and an open-label cohort with baseline HbA1c 11.2% having a 2.9% reduction in HbA1c. Similar 2% HbA1c reductions from baseline levels of 9.1% were seen with metformin in initial combination with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin. Although such dual oral agent

  3. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  4. Immediate effect of three different electroacupuncture protocols on fasting blood glucose in obese patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Belivani, Maria; Lundeberg, Thomas; Cummings, Mike; Dimitroula, Charikleia; Belivani, Nicole; Vasilakos, Dimitris; Hatzitolios, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is an increasing global health problem, and current methods of management are limited. Preliminary research data suggest that acupuncture may have an influence on metabolic parameters related to obesity. To determine the electroacupuncture (EA) protocol to be used in a future clinical trial examining the effect of acupuncture on metabolic parameters related to obesity and to examine whether a single EA treatment can change fasting blood glucose in obese subjects. 16 obese women aged 30-52 years with body mass index >30 kg/m(2) were assigned consecutively into three groups and their fasting blood glucose was measured before and after administering a single session, lasting 30 min, of one of three EA treatment protocols. The Dorsal group received EA to dorsal segmental acupuncture points BL18-23 bilaterally (corresponding to the segmental levels innervating the pancreas); the Ear group received EA to ear points in the cavum conchae; and the Limb group received EA to points in the arms and legs (LI10-LI11, ST36-Zongping). After a single session of EA there was a statistically significant decrease in fasting blood glucose in the Dorsal and Limb groups, but there was no change and even a trend towards an increase in the glucose level in the Ear group. The findings of this small pilot study suggest that EA to either dorsal segmental points corresponding to the pancreas or to muscle points in all four limbs may exert a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in obese women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Prolonged Nightly Fasting and Breast Cancer Risk: Findings from NHANES (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Marinac, Catherine R; Natarajan, Loki; Sears, Dorothy D; Gallo, Linda C; Hartman, Sheri J; Arredondo, Elva; Patterson, Ruth E

    2015-05-01

    A novel line of research has emerged, suggesting that daily feeding-fasting schedules that are synchronized with sleep-wake cycles have metabolic implications that are highly relevant to breast cancer. We examined associations of nighttime fasting duration with biomarkers of breast cancer risk among women in the 2009-2010 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary, anthropometric, and HbA1c data were available for 2,212 women, and 2-hour postprandial glucose concentrations were available for 1,066 women. Nighttime fasting duration was calculated using 24-hour food records. Separate linear regression models examined associations of nighttime fasting with HbA1c and 2-hour glucose concentrations. Logistic regression modeled associations of nighttime fasting with elevated HbA1c (HbA1c ≥ 39 mmol/mol or 5.7%) and elevated 2-hour glucose (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL). All models adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, total kcal intake, evening kcal intake, and the number of eating episodes per day. Each 3-hour increase in nighttime fasting (roughly 1 SD) was associated with a 4% lower 2-hour glucose measurement [β, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-1.00; P < 0.05], and a nonstatistically significant decrease in HbA1c. Logistic regression models indicate that each 3-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with roughly a 20% reduced odds of elevated HbA1c (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97; P < 0.05) and nonsignificantly reduced odds of elevated 2-hour glucose. A longer nighttime duration was significantly associated with improved glycemic regulation. Randomized trials are needed to confirm whether prolonged nighttime fasting could improve biomarkers of glucose control, thereby reducing breast cancer risk. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of <1, 1-15, 16-30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of <1, 1-15, 16-30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  7. Arm, Leg, and Foot Skin Water in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Relation to HbA1c Assessed by Tissue Dielectric Constant (TDC) Technology Measured at 300 MHz.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Volosko, Irina; Sarkar, Bansari; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-05-01

    DM is associated with structural skin changes. However, few studies have investigated changes in dermal water and specifically its relationship to glucose control as measured by HbA1c. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that skin water, assessed by its tissue dielectric constant (TDC), is inversely related to HbA1c. Water content of 3 skin sites (forearm, lower leg, and foot dorsum) of 50 persons with DM was estimated by measuring TDC at 300 MHz. TDC is the ratio of tissue dielectric constant to vacuum and depends on free and bound water in the measured volume. TDC was measured in triplicate to 4 depths, 0.5. 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mm to include different skin components. At each site increased measurement depth showed (1) a significant decrease in absolute TDC values and (2) a significant increase in foot-to-arm TDC ratios. TDC values at forearm were shown to be greater than at either leg or foot. However, testing of these 50 patients at 3 sites and 4 skin depths did not show any significant relationship between TDC and HbA1c or fasting glucose. The data indicate no relationship between TDC values, as indices for skin water, and HbA1c or fasting glucose. This implies that skin TDC values to assess skin property features and changes in persons with DM are not sensitive to recent glucose control. Furthermore, the results introduce a newly applied TDC technology useful to assess skin properties of persons with DM.

  8. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Costa Rica: Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Survey, 2010.

    PubMed

    Wong-McClure, Roy; Gregg, Edward W; Barcelo, Alberto; Sanabria-Lopez, Laura; Lee, Kahye; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2016-09-01

    The projected rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in developing countries warrants careful monitoring. The aim of this study was to present the results of the Costa Rican National Cardiovascular Risk Factors Surveillance System, which provides the first national estimates of diabetes and IFG prevalence among adults in Costa Rica. A cross-sectional survey of 3653 non-institutionalized adults aged ≥20 years (87.8% response rate) following the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was built on a probabilistic sample of the non-institutionalized population during 2010. Known diabetes was defined as self-reported diagnosis, the use of insulin, or hypoglycemic oral treatment as consequence of diabetes during at least the previous 2 weeks before the survey. Unknown diabetes was defined no self-reported diabetes but with venous blood concentrations of fasting glucose >125 mg/dL determined by laboratory testing. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG prevalence was estimated according gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), educational level, and physical activity level. Overall diabetes prevalence was 10.8% (9.5% known and 1.3% unknown diabetes) and IFG prevalence was 16.5%. The prevalence of known diabetes was higher among women >65 years compared with men of the same age group. Both known and unknown diabetes were significantly associated with higher BMI, increased WC, and low education level (P = 0.01). The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Costa Rica is comparable to that in developed countries and indicates an urgent need for effective preventive interventions. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Oral administration of soybean peptide Vglycin normalizes fasting glucose and restores impaired pancreatic function in Type 2 diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jueping; Du, Zhongxia; Zhen, Hui; Lin, Mei; Jia, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Huang, Xinyuan; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Chen, Zhengwang

    2014-09-01

    Vglycin, a natural 37-residue polypeptide isolated from pea seeds in which six half-cysteine residues are embedded in three pairs of disulfide bonds, is resistant to digestive enzymes and has antidiabetic potential. To investigate the pharmacological activity of Vglycin in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved, the therapeutic effect of Vglycin in diabetic rats was examined. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by high-fat diet and multiple streptozotocin intraperitoneal injections. Diabetic rats were treated daily with Vglycin for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assayed weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted on Day 29. Subsequently, levels of p-Akt in the liver and pancreas and cleaved PARP, Pdx-1 and insulin in the pancreas were detected by immunoblotting. The morphology of the pancreas and the insulin expression in the pancreas were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, human liver-derived cell lines were used to explore the in vitro effects of Vglycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Chronic treatment with Vglycin normalized fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. The improvement in glucose homeostasis and the increased insulin sensitivity mediated by restored insulin signaling likely contributed to decreased food intake and reduced body weight. Vglycin protected pancreatic cells from damage by streptozotocin. Although insulin synthesis and secretion in impaired β-cell were not significantly elevated, islets morphology was improved in the Vglycin-treated groups. These results suggest that Vglycin could be useful in Type 2 diabetes for restoring impaired insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and pancreatic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose Prediction Using Anthropometric Indices in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Calvo, María; Rojas, Milagros; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-12-01

    To determine the predictive power of various anthropometric indices for the identification of dysglycemic states in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A cross-sectional study with randomized, multi-staged sampling was realized in 2230 adult subjects of both genders who had their body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-height ratio (WHR) determined. Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were made following ADA 2015 criteria. ROC curves were used to evaluate the predictive power of each anthropometric parameter. Area under the curve (AUC) values were compared through Delong's test. Of the total 2230 individuals (52.6 % females), 8.4 % were found to have DM2, and 19.5 % had IFG. Anthropometric parameters displayed greater predictive power regarding newly diagnosed diabetics, where WHR was the most important predictor in both females (AUC = 0.808; CI 95 % 0.715-0.900. Sensitivity: 82.8 %; specificity: 76.2 %) and males (AUC = 0.809; CI 95 % 0.736-0.882. Sensitivity: 78.6 %; specificity: 68.1 %), although all three parameters appeared to have comparable predictive power in this subset. In previously diagnosed diabetic subjects, WHR was superior to both WC and BMI in females, and WHR and WC were both superior to BMI in males. Lower predictive values were found for IFG in both genders. Accumulation of various altered anthropometric measurements was associated with increased odds ratios for both newly and previously diagnosed DM2. The predictive power of anthropometric measurements was greater for DM2 than IFG. We suggest assessment of as many available parameters as possible in the clinical setting.

  11. High normal fasting blood glucose is associated with dementia in Chinese elders

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, J.A.; Borenstein, A.R.; Ding, D.; DeCarli, C.; Zhao, Q.; Copenhaver, C.; Guo, Q.; Chu, S.; Galasko, D.; Salmon, D.P.; Dai, Q.; Wu, Y.; Petersen, R.; Hong, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a risk factor for MCI and dementia. However, the association between high normal fasting blood glucose (FBG) and dementia has not been studied. Methods Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the association of dementia and MCI with FBG in an age- and sex-matched sample of 32 dementia patients, 27 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients and 31 normal controls (NC). Analyses were repeated for those with normal FBG. Correlations between FBG and cognitive test scores were obtained. Results Controlling for age, sex, education, body mass index, Hachinski Ischemic Score, MRI stroke, and normalized brain, hippocampal and white matter hyperintensity MRI volumes; higher FBG was associated with dementia vs. aMCI status (OR= 3.13; 95% CI:1.28–7.69). This association remained (OR= 7.75; 95% CI:1.10–55.56) when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. When dementia patients were compared with NC adjusting for age, sex and education a significant association with FBG also was seen (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.09–3.08), but the association was lost when vascular covariates were added to the model. FBG was not associated with aMCI status vs. NC. Higher FBG was correlated with poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test Part B (p=0.003). The percentage of dementia patients with high normal FBG (90%) was significantly higher than that of aMCI patients with high normal FBG (32.9%) (χ2=13.9, p<0.001). Conclusions Higher FBG was associated with dementia (vs. aMCI) independent of vascular risk factors and MRI indicators of vascular disease, and remained a significant risk factor when analyses were restricted to subjects with normal FBG. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that a high normal level of FBG may be a risk factor for dementia. PMID:21044774

  12. A simple risk score for identifying individuals with impaired fasting glucose in the Southern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-23

    This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006-2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008-2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008-2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  13. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice. PMID:25625405

  14. HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Rickard; Ignell, Claes; Shaat, Nael; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2017-02-01

    We wanted to investigate third-trimester HbA1c as a predictor of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women with GDM were followed up prospectively for five years from pregnancy to detect the development of diabetes. The ability of HbA1c to predict diabetes was evaluated with receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analysis. By five years, 73 of 196 women had been diagnosed with diabetes. An optimal cut-off point for HbA1c of 36mmol/mol (5.4%) could predict diabetes with 45% sensitivity and 92% specificity. For HbA1c ≥39mmol/mol (≥5.7%), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were 30%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the diagnostic glucose concentration during pregnancy, HbA1c levels in the upper quartile (≥36mmol/mol) were associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of diabetes. Third-trimester HbA1c levels in the pre-diabetes range revealed women with post-partum diabetes with high specificity and high positive predictive value. HbA1c testing could be used as a strategy to select high-risk women for lifestyle interventions aimed at prevention of diabetes starting during pregnancy. The results should encourage further validation in other populations using new diagnostic criteria for GDM. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with prediabetes; and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with non-prediabetes. METHODS: The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and NHANES 2009-2010 were utilized to examine and compare trends and differences among five different ethnic groups (Mexican Americans, Other Hispanics, Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks, Other/Multi-racials) with normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels with self-reported prediabetes and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported non-prediabetes. Sample participants of the five ethnic groups were limited to those 20 years of age and older, who had completed the diabetes questionnaire and had A1c measured. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables. χ2 were performed on all five ethnic groups to examine significant differences of normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported prediabetes, and prediabetic and diabetic A1c levels in those with self-reported non-prediabetes. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that of the five different ethnic groups from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010, Non-Hispanic Whites (6.5% increase) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.2% increase) were the only two groups with an increase in the number of self-reported prediabetes. Although the overall percentage of Mexican Americans who self-reported prediabetes had remained the same (5%) from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010, χ2 analysis showed significant differences when examining the different ranges of A1c levels (normoglycemic, prediabetic and diabetic). Among Mexican Americans who self-reported prediabetes, normoglycemic (P = 0.0001) and diabetic (P = 0.0001) A1c levels from NHANES 2007-2008 to NHANES 2009-2010. For Non-Hispanic Whites who self-reported prediabetes, prediabetic (P = 0.0222); and diabetic (P ≤ 0.0001) A1c levels from NHANES 2007-2008 to

  16. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with HbA1c Level among Prevalent Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junyi; Qiu, Hua; Zhao, Genming; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Zhijie; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Qingwu; Sun, Qiao; Wu, Hongyan; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Xiaonan; Xu, Wang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI) values. Methodology/Principal Findings 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54–1.06) to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34–0.75) with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001). Conclusions Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients. PMID:23077514

  17. HbA1c measurement and relationship to incident stroke.

    PubMed

    Robson, R; Lacey, A S; Luzio, S D; Van Woerden, H; Heaven, M L; Wani, M; Halcox, J P J; Castilla-Guerra, L; Dawson, J; Hewitt, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the proportion of people with diabetes who have HbA1c measured, what proportion achieve an HbA1c level of < 58 mmol/mol (7.5%), the frequency of testing and if there was any change in HbA1c level in the year before and the year after an incident stroke. This study used the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank, which stores hospital data for the whole of Wales and ~ 65% of Welsh general practice records, to identify cases of stroke in patients with diabetes between 2000 and 2010. These were matched against patients with diabetes but without stroke disease. We assessed the frequency of HbA1c testing and change in HbA1c in the first year after stroke. Estimation was made of the proportion of patients achieving an HbA1c measurement ≤ 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). There were 1741 patients with diabetes and stroke. Of these, 1173 (67.4%) had their HbA1c checked before their stroke and 1137 (65.3%) after their stroke. In the control group of 16 838 patients with diabetes but no stroke, 8413 (49.9%) and 9288 (55.1%) had their HbA1c checked before and after the case-matched stroke date, respectively. In patients with diabetes and stroke, HbA1c fell from 61-56 mmol/mol (7.7-7.3%) after their stroke (P < 0.001). Before the study, 55.0% of patients with stroke had an HbA1c ≥ 58 mmol/mol compared with 65.2% of control patients, these figures were 62.5% and 65.3% after the stroke. The frequency of diabetes testing was higher in patients who had experienced a stroke before and after their incident stroke compared with control patients but did not increase after their stroke. Glucose control improved significantly in the year after a stroke. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  18. HbA1c for diagnosis and prognosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han; Lim, Jong-Baeck

    2015-10-01

    HbA1c is a widely used marker in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but its clinical utility in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not established. Here, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in diagnosing GDM and predicting the risk of future type 2 DM development among GDM patients. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 321 subjects who underwent 100-g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) during pregnancy. HbA1c and other variables were analyzed to evaluate their diagnostic performance for GDM. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of HbA1c in predicting future type 2 DM development, we classified GDM subjects who had more than 3 months of follow-up data into two subgroups: those who developed postpartum type 2 DM (PDM) and those who did not. HbA1c was significantly higher in the GDM group than in the normal control group. With the 100-g OGTT as reference, HbA1c showed 91.3% sensitivity and 62% specificity at a cut-off value of 5.05% (32 mmol/mol) for GDM diagnosis. At a cut-off value of 5.25% (34 mmol/mol), sensitivity was 73.6% and specificity was 77.2%. HbA1c levels during pregnancy were higher in those with PDM than in those without PDM (5.91 [41 mmol/mol] vs. 5.44% [36 mmol/mol], p<0.001). The prognostic value of HbA1c for PDM was evaluated by ROC curve analysis, with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 72.5% at a cut-off value of 5.55% (37 mmol/mol). HbA1c showed high sensitivity with relatively low specificity for diagnosis of GDM in pregnant women and was a potential predictor of PDM. HbA1c may be able to be used as a simple and less invasive alternative screening test for OGTT in GDM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A common haplotype of the glucokinase gene alters fasting glucose and birth weight: association in six studies and population-genetics analyses.

    PubMed

    Weedon, Michael N; Clark, Vanessa J; Qian, Yudong; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Timpson, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Pembrey, Marcus E; Ring, Susan; Wilkin, Terry J; Voss, Linda D; Jeffery, Alison N; Metcalf, Brad; Ferrucci, Luigi; Corsi, Anna Maria; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Knight, Bridget; Shields, Bev; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; Di Rienzo, Anna; Frayling, Tim M

    2006-12-01

    Fasting glucose is associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease and is tightly regulated despite considerable variation in quantity, type, and timing of food intake. In pregnancy, maternal fasting glucose concentration is an important determinant of offspring birth weight. The key determinant of fasting glucose is the enzyme glucokinase (GCK). Rare mutations of GCK cause fasting hyperglycemia and alter birth weight. The extent to which common variation of GCK explains normal variation of fasting glucose and birth weight is not known. We aimed to comprehensively define the role of variation of GCK in determination of fasting glucose and birth weight, using a tagging SNP (tSNP) approach and studying 19,806 subjects from six population-based studies. Using 22 tSNPs, we showed that the variant rs1799884 is associated with fasting glucose at all ages in the normal population and exceeded genomewide levels of significance (P=10-9). rs3757840 was also highly significantly associated with fasting glucose (P=8x10-7), but haplotype analysis revealed that this is explained by linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.2) with rs1799884. A maternal A allele at rs1799884 was associated with a 32-g (95% confidence interval 11-53 g) increase in offspring birth weight (P=.002). Genetic variation influencing birth weight may have conferred a selective advantage in human populations. We performed extensive population-genetics analyses to look for evidence of recent positive natural selection on patterns of GCK variation. However, we found no strong signature of positive selection. In conclusion, a comprehensive analysis of common variation of the glucokinase gene shows that this is the first gene to be reproducibly associated with fasting glucose and fetal growth.

  20. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

  1. Effects of a whey protein supplementation on oxidative stress, body composition and glucose metabolism among overweight people affected by diabetes mellitus or impaired fasting glucose: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Flaim, Chiara; Kob, Michael; Di Pierro, Angela M; Herrmann, Markus; Lucchin, Lucio

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress [Donath et al. 2013] and this leads to cardiovascular diseases [Hulsmans & Holvoet 2010]. Whey proteins (WP) have antioxidant [Chitapanarux et al. 2009], anti-inflammatory [Sugawara et al. 2012] and hypoglycemic activities [Mignone et al. 2015], while data on weight, body composition [Frestedt et al. 2008; Aldrich et al. 2011] and blood pressure are conflicting [Kawase et al. 2000; Lee et al. 2007]. WP have unpleasant taste and smell [Patel 2015], but a new WP isolate (ProLYOtin®) seems to be more palatable. 40 g/die of ProLYOtin® were supplemented to overweight people (n=31) with impaired fasting glucose/DM2 for 12 weeks. Markers of antioxidant status (total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, uric acid), oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, advanced oxidation protein products, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), inflammation (interleukin-6, high sensitive reactive protein C) and glicemic status (fasting glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin), anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference), body composition (body cell mass, fat mass), blood pressure, hand grip strength and skin autofluorescence were measured before and at the end of supplementation. Isolate palatability was evaluated. An increase in glutathione peroxidase, a decrease in uric acid and no change in glutathione reductase, total antioxidant status, oxidative damage, inflammation and glucose markers were found. Significant improvements in anthropometric parameters and fat mass were detected. There wasn't any change in blood pressure, skin autofluorescence and physical performance. Two-thirds of subjects judged the supplement positively. ProLYOtin® seems suitable for treatment of OS and overweight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, and the risk of first-time venous thromboembolism. A report from the VEINS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Magdalena; Lind, Marcus; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Fhärm, Eva; Johansson, Lars

    2018-05-01

    It remains unclear whether high plasma glucose levels are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study investigated the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (two-hour post-load plasma glucose (2HPG)), diabetes, and VTE. The population-based, prospective Venous thromboEmbolism In Northern Sweden (VEINS) cohort study included 108,025 residents of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. The participants were aged 30 to 60 years and had no previous VTE events. They were included from 1985 onwards and were followed until a VTE event, death, emigration, or the study end on September 5, 2014. All underwent a health examination that measured weight, height, FPG, and 2HPG and included a questionnaire regarding smoking, education level, and history of diabetes. Potential VTE events were identified by an extensive diagnosis registry search and were validated by reviewing medical records and radiology reports. An objectively verified first-time VTE event was experienced by 2054 participants during 1,496,669 person-years of follow-up. In univariable analysis, there were associations between FPG, 2HPG, diabetes, and the risk of VTE. These associations disappeared after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, body mass index, cancer at inclusion, education level, smoking, and hypertension). The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.23) for diabetes, 1.01 for each standard deviation of FPG (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05), and 0.96 for each standard deviation of 2HPG (95% confidence interval 0.91-1.00). There were no independent associations between FPG, 2HPG, diabetes, and future risk of VTE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    PubMed

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  4. FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis by mediating the cross talk between liver and brain during prolonged fasting.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingning; Zhong, Ling; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yu; Bornstein, Stefan R; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a main source of blood glucose during prolonged fasting and is orchestrated by endocrine and neural pathways. Here we show that the hepatocyte-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) induces fasting gluconeogenesis via the brain-liver axis. Prolonged fasting induces activation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the liver and subsequent hepatic production of FGF21, which enters into the brain to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for release of corticosterone, thereby stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Fasted FGF21 knockout (KO) mice exhibit severe hypoglycemia and defective hepatic gluconeogenesis due to impaired activation of the HPA axis and blunted release of corticosterone, a phenotype similar to that observed in PPARα KO mice. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of FGF21 reverses fasting hypoglycemia and impairment in hepatic gluconeogenesis by restoring corticosterone production in both FGF21 KO and PPARα KO mice, whereas all these central effects of FGF21 were abrogated by blockage of hypothalamic FGF receptor-1. FGF21 acts directly on the hypothalamic neurons to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), thereby stimulating the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone by activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein. Therefore, FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis during prolonged fasting by fine tuning the interorgan cross talk between liver and brain. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  6. A1C Combined With Glycated Albumin Improves Detection of Prediabetes in Africans: The Africans in America Study

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Michelle T.; Aldana, Paola C.; Ricks, Madia; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Lozier, Jay N.; Chung, Stephanie T.; Sacks, David B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Slowing the diabetes epidemic in Africa requires improved detection of prediabetes. A1C, a form of glycated hemoglobin A, is recommended for diagnosing prediabetes. The glycated proteins, fructosamine and glycated albumin (GA), are hemoglobin-independent alternatives to A1C, but their efficacy in Africans is unknown. Our goals were to determine the ability of A1C, fructosamine, and GA to detect prediabetes in U.S.-based Africans and the value of combining A1C with either fructosamine or GA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 217 self-identified healthy African immigrants (69% male, age 39 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], BMI 27.6 ± 4.5 kg/m2). A1C, fructosamine, and GA were measured. Prediabetes was diagnosed by American Diabetes Association criteria for glucose obtained from a 2-h OGTT. The thresholds to diagnose prediabetes by A1C, fructosamine, and GA were the cutoff at the upper tertile for each variable: ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol) (range 4.2–6.6% [22.4–48.6 mmol/mol]), ≥230 µmol/L (range 161–269 µmol/L), and ≥13.35% (range 10.20–16.07%), respectively. RESULTS Prediabetes occurred in 34% (74 of 217). The diagnostic sensitivities of A1C, fructosamine, and GA were 50%, 41%, and 42%, respectively. The P values for comparison with A1C were both >0.3. Combining A1C with either fructosamine or GA increased sensitivities. However, the sensitivity of A1C combined with fructosamine was not better than for A1C alone (72% vs. 50%, P = 0.172). In contrast, the sensitivity of A1C combined with GA was higher than for A1C alone (78% vs. 50%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS As individual tests, A1C, fructosamine, and GA detected ≤50% of Africans with prediabetes. However, combining A1C with GA made it possible to identify nearly 80% of Africans with prediabetes. PMID:26681716

  7. A1C Combined With Glycated Albumin Improves Detection of Prediabetes in Africans: The Africans in America Study.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Anne E; Duong, Michelle T; Aldana, Paola C; Ricks, Madia; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lozier, Jay N; Chung, Stephanie T; Sacks, David B

    2016-02-01

    Slowing the diabetes epidemic in Africa requires improved detection of prediabetes. A1C, a form of glycated hemoglobin A, is recommended for diagnosing prediabetes. The glycated proteins, fructosamine and glycated albumin (GA), are hemoglobin-independent alternatives to A1C, but their efficacy in Africans is unknown. Our goals were to determine the ability of A1C, fructosamine, and GA to detect prediabetes in U.S.-based Africans and the value of combining A1C with either fructosamine or GA. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in 217 self-identified healthy African immigrants (69% male, age 39 ± 10 years [mean ± SD], BMI 27.6 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)). A1C, fructosamine, and GA were measured. Prediabetes was diagnosed by American Diabetes Association criteria for glucose obtained from a 2-h OGTT. The thresholds to diagnose prediabetes by A1C, fructosamine, and GA were the cutoff at the upper tertile for each variable: ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol) (range 4.2-6.6% [22.4-48.6 mmol/mol]), ≥230 µmol/L (range 161-269 µmol/L), and ≥13.35% (range 10.20-16.07%), respectively. Prediabetes occurred in 34% (74 of 217). The diagnostic sensitivities of A1C, fructosamine, and GA were 50%, 41%, and 42%, respectively. The P values for comparison with A1C were both >0.3. Combining A1C with either fructosamine or GA increased sensitivities. However, the sensitivity of A1C combined with fructosamine was not better than for A1C alone (72% vs. 50%, P = 0.172). In contrast, the sensitivity of A1C combined with GA was higher than for A1C alone (78% vs. 50%, P < 0.001). As individual tests, A1C, fructosamine, and GA detected ≤50% of Africans with prediabetes. However, combining A1C with GA made it possible to identify nearly 80% of Africans with prediabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Hämoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) ist ein Hämoglobin (Hb)-Subtypus, der durch nicht-enzymatische Glykierung des N-terminalen Valinrestes der Hämoglobin-beta-Kette entsteht. Das gemessene Verhältnis von HbA1c zum Gesamt-Hämoglobin (5-20 % bei Diabetikern) repräsentiert den Mittelwert der Blutglucosekonzentration über einen zweimonatigen Zeitraum und stellt zur Beurteilung der diabetischen Stoffwechsellage eine Ergänzung zur Akutkontrolle der Glukosekonzentration dar. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen amperometrischen Biosensor für die Bestimmung des medizinisch relevanten Parameters HbA1c zu entwickeln. Durch Selektion geeigneter Bioerkennungselemente und deren Immobilisierung unter Erhalt der Bindungsfunktion für die Zielmoleküle Hämoglobin bzw. HbA1c wurden spezifische, hochaffine und regenerationsstabile Sensoroberflächen geschaffen. Für die Entwicklung des HbA1c-Biosensors wurden zwei Konzepte - Enzymsensor und Immunosensor - miteinander verglichen. Die enzymatische Umsetzung von HbA1c erfolgte mit der Fructosylamin Oxidase (FAO) aus Pichia pastoris N 1-1 unter Freisetzung von H2O2, welches sowohl optisch über eine Indikatorreaktion als auch elektrochemisch nach Einschluss der FAO in PVA-SbQ und Fixierung des Immobilisats vor einer H2O2-Elektrode nachgewiesen wurde. Die Kalibration des Enzymsensors mit der HbA1c-Modellsubstanz Fructosyl-Valin ergab Nachweisgrenzen, die ausserhalb des physiologisch relevanten HbA1c-Konzentrationsbereich lagen. Aus der Umsetzung von glykierten Peptiden mit einer nicht HbA1c analogen Aminosäurensequenz, z.B. Fructosyl-Valin-Glycin wurde zudem eine geringe HbA1c-Spezifität abgeleitet. Für den Immunosensor wurden zwei heterogene Immunoassay-Formate unter Verwendung von hochaffinen und spezifischen Antikörpern in Kombination mit Glucose Oxidase (GOD) als Markerenzym zum Nachweis von HbA1c untersucht. Beim indirekt-kompetitiven Immunoassay wurde anstelle des kompletten HbA1c-Moleküls das glykierte Pentapeptid

  9. Association between cardiac autonomic function, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in impaired fasting glucose subjects: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Sampath, Nishanth; Madanmohan Trakroo; Pal, Pravati; Bobby, Zachariah; Paneerselvam, Sankar; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide burden of diabetes in 2030 is projected around 552 million. Diabetes leads to higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Altered cardiac autonomic function (CAF) measured by heart rate variability (HRV) is observed in early stages of diabetes but the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and HRV is still debatable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between CAF, oxidative stress, insulin resistance (IR), and inflammatory response in IFG subjects. Cross-sectional blinded study. Volunteers recruited from health awareness camps underwent CAF and biochemical tests. Based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) participants (n = 123) were divided into two groups, normal fasting glucose (n = 76) and IFG (n = 47). The comparison of parameters between the groups was carried out using student t test and Mann-Whitney U test for parametric and non-parametric data respectively. The correlation between the parameters was analyzed by Spearman's rank correlation using SPSS 13.0. The resting cardiovagal modulation parameters, heart rate response to forced timed breathing, and orthostatic stress were reduced in IFG subjects. Fasting plasma lipid profile, coronary atherogenic lipid risk factors, IR, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), high sensitive C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were increased and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased significantly in IFG group but no significant alteration was observed in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c). Cardiovagal modulation parameters were negatively correlated with triglycerides, FPG, insulin, IR, TBARS, and inflammatory markers and positively with TAC. There is a continuous interplay between the altered CAF, hyperinsulinemia, IR, oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory response, and IFG in which one factor perpetuates another leading to the progression of disease.

  10. Normal fasting plasma glucose predicts type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly population in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-L; Chang, H-W; Chang, J-B; Chen, J-H; Lin, J-D; Wu, C-Z; Pei, D; Hung, Y-J; Lee, C-H; Chen, Y-L; Hsieh, C-H

    2016-08-01

    Hyperglycemia increases prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role of normoglycemia on the development of T2D and CVD in elderly population remains unclear. To determine an optimal cut-off for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) to predict MetS and subsequent risk of T2D and CVD in an elderly Taiwanese population with normal FPG levels. Two stages included cross-sectional (Stage 1) and prospective (Stage 2) cohort study. In Stage 1 18 287 subjects aged  ≥60 years were enrolled; of these, 5039 without T2D and CVD advanced to Stage 2 and a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. MetS components were analysed, and in Stage 1, FPG cut-offs for MetS risk were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. In Stage 2, subjects without T2D and CVD in Stage 1 were classified into high-FPG and low-FPG groups based on cut-offs, and sex specific differences in incidence for T2D and CVD were calculated. ROC curve analysis gave an optimal FPG cut-off for MetS of 93 mg/dl and 92 mg/dl for males and females, respectively. The high-FPG group had a 1.599- and 1.353-fold higher chance of developing T2D compared with the low-FPG group for males and females, respectively (95% CI: 1.606-2.721 and 1.000-1.831, P  =  0.015 and 0.05). The high-FPG group had a 1.24-fold higher chance of developing CVD for females (95% CI: 1.015-1.515, P  =  0.035); however, there was no difference for males. Our results suggest that FPG within the normal range was associated with MetS, and elderly subjects with high normal levels have a higher incidence of developing T2D for both sexes, and CVD for females, over the short-term. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect on Fasting Serum Glucose Levels of Adding Ezetimibe to Statins in Patients With Nondiabetic Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter P; Catapano, Alberico L; Farnier, Michel; Foody, Joanne; Tomassini, Joanne E; Jensen, Erin; Polis, Adam B; Hanson, Mary E; Musliner, Thomas A; Tershakovec, Andrew M

    2016-12-15