Science.gov

Sample records for a1c low-density lipoprotein

  1. Low-Density Lipoprotein Apheresis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Background on Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals1. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL

  2. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  3. Lipoprotein Lipase releases esterified oxylipins from Very Low Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Gregory C.; Newman, John W.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that defects in lipoprotein metabolism alter the distribution of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipoprotein particles. If these oxidation products are released by lipoprotein lipase (LpL), then their delivery to peripheral tissues with bulk lipids could influence cellular function. Using 26 week old normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic Zucker rats, we measured PUFA alcohols, epoxides, diols, ketones and triols (i.e. oxylipins) in esterified and non-esterified fractions of whole plasma, VLDL, and LpL-generated VLDL-lipolysates. Whole plasma, VLDL, and lipolysate oxylipin profiles were distinct and altered by hyperlipidemia. While >90% of the whole plasma oxylipins were esterified, the fraction of each oxylipin class in the VLDL varied: 46% of alcohols, 30% of epoxides, 19% of diols, <10% of ketones, <1% triols. Whole plasma was dominated by arachidonate alcohols, while the linoleate alcohols, epoxides and ketones showed an increased prevalence in VLDL. LpL-mediated VLDL lipolysis of PUFA alcohols, diols and ketones was detected and the relative abundance of oxygenated linoleates was enhanced in the lipolysates, relative to their corresponding VLDL. In summary esterified oxylipins were seen to be LpL substrates with heterogeneous distributions among lipoprotein classes. Moreover, oxylipin distributions are changes within the context of obesity-associated dyslipidemia. These results support the notion that the VLDL-LpL axis may facilitate the delivery of plasma oxylipins to the periphery. The physiological implication of these findings are yet to be elucidated, however these molecules are plausible indicators of systemic oxidative stress, and could report this status to the peripheral tissues. PMID:19042114

  4. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein...

  9. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kork, Felix; Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Tepel, Martin; Zidek, Walter; Jankowski, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both carotid arteries was conducted and blood was drawn from 533 postmenopausal women. oxLDL concentration was determined using proton NMR spectroscopy. Oxidized LDL was detected in 12.4% (95% confidence interval 9.7-15.5) of postmenopausal women with a median of 0.18 mg/dl (interquartile range 0.10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated with the occurrence of oxLDL. If oxLDL was present, higher high-density lipoprotein and glucose intolerance were associated with higher concentrations of oxLDL. In contrast, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL. This study presents the prevalence and concentration of oxLDL in postmenopausal women and demonstrates that oxLDL concentration can be quantified by proton NMR spectroscopy in large patient samples. The data suggest that oxLDL may be a biomarker for incipient atherosclerotic changes in postmenopausal women. In contrary to the association of dyslipoproteinemia and diabetes, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL.

  10. Oxidized low density lipoprotein, stem cells, and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a risk factor of atherosclerosis, facilitates the formation and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque, thus contributing to several clinical complications. Stem cells participate in vascular repair after damage and atherosclerosis is a process of inflammation accompanied with vascular injury. Researchers have proposed that stem cells participate in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Also, because ox-LDL is capable of inducing toxic effects on stem cells, it is reasonable to postulate that ox-LDL promotes the progress of atherosclerosis via acting on stem cells. In the present article, we review the relationship between ox-LDL, stem cells, and atherosclerosis and a portion of the associated mechanisms. PMID:22747902

  11. Thermal stability of human plasma electronegative low-density lipoprotein: A paradoxical behavior of low-density lipoprotein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Anna; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gantz, Donald L.; Rivas-Urbina, Andrea; Pérez-Cuellar, Montserrat; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Gursky, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) aggregation is central in triggering atherogenesis. A minor fraction of electronegative plasma LDL, termed LDL(−), plays a special role in atherogenesis. To better understand this role, we analyzed the kinetics of aggregation, fusion and disintegration of human LDL and its fractions, LDL(+) and LDL(−). Thermal denaturation of LDL was monitored by spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Initially, LDL(−) aggregated and fused faster than LDL(+), but later the order reversed. Most LDL(+) disintegrated and precipitated upon prolonged heating. In contrast, LDL(−) partially retained lipoprotein morphology and formed soluble aggregates. Biochemical analysis of all fractions showed no significant degradation of major lipids, mild phospholipid oxidation, and anincrease in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) upon thermal denaturation. The main baseline difference between LDL subfractions was higher content of NEFA in LDL(−). Since NEFA promote lipoprotein fusion, increased NEFA content can explain rapid initial aggregation and fusion of LDL(−) but not its resistance to extensive disintegration. Partial hydrolysis of apoB upon heating was similar in LDL subfractions, suggesting that minor proteins importantly modulate LDL disintegration. Unlike LDL(+), LDL(−) contains small amounts of apoA-I and apoJ. Addition of exogenous apoA-I to LDL(+) hampered lipoprotein aggregation, fusion and precipitation, while depletion of endogenous apoJ had an opposite effect. Therefore, the initial rapid aggregation of LDL(−) is apparently counterbalanced by the stabilizing effects of minor proteins such as apoA-I and apoJ. These results help identify key determinants for LDL aggregation, fusion and coalescence into lipid droplets in vivo. PMID:27233433

  12. Thermal stability of human plasma electronegative low-density lipoprotein: A paradoxical behavior of low-density lipoprotein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Rull, Anna; Jayaraman, Shobini; Gantz, Donald L; Rivas-Urbina, Andrea; Pérez-Cuellar, Montserrat; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Gursky, Olga

    2016-09-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) aggregation is central in triggering atherogenesis. A minor fraction of electronegative plasma LDL, termed LDL(-), plays a special role in atherogenesis. To better understand this role, we analyzed the kinetics of aggregation, fusion and disintegration of human LDL and its fractions, LDL(+) and LDL(-). Thermal denaturation of LDL was monitored by spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Initially, LDL(-) aggregated and fused faster than LDL(+), but later the order reversed. Most LDL(+) disintegrated and precipitated upon prolonged heating. In contrast, LDL(-) partially retained lipoprotein morphology and formed soluble aggregates. Biochemical analysis of all fractions showed no significant degradation of major lipids, mild phospholipid oxidation, and an increase in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) upon thermal denaturation. The main baseline difference between LDL subfractions was higher content of NEFA in LDL(-). Since NEFA promote lipoprotein fusion, increased NEFA content can explain rapid initial aggregation and fusion of LDL(-) but not its resistance to extensive disintegration. Partial hydrolysis of apoB upon heating was similar in LDL subfractions, suggesting that minor proteins importantly modulate LDL disintegration. Unlike LDL(+), LDL(-) contains small amounts of apoA-I and apoJ. Addition of exogenous apoA-I to LDL(+) hampered lipoprotein aggregation, fusion and precipitation, while depletion of endogenous apoJ had an opposite effect. Therefore, the initial rapid aggregation of LDL(-) is apparently counterbalanced by the stabilizing effects of minor proteins such as apoA-I and apoJ. These results help identify key determinants for LDL aggregation, fusion and coalescence into lipid droplets in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low density lipoprotein subclass distribution in children with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alabakovska, S B; Labudovic, D D; Tosheska, K N; Spiroski, M Z; Todorova, B B

    2008-01-01

    The role of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sLDL) subclasses in atherosclerosis has been demonstrated in many studies. Among other metabolic changes, the alteration in LDL lipoprotein subclass distribution and size has been proved in diabetic adults. Because there is not enough literature data presenting LDL subclass distribution in childhood, the aim of this study was to examine LDL subclass profile in diabetic children compared with healthy control. Plasma LDL subclasses in 30 children with type I diabetes mellitus and 100 healthy children aged 9-18 years were analyzed using non-denaturing polyacrilamide gradient (3-31%) gel electrophoresis. Conventional plasma lipid and apoprotein parameters which are thought to affect LDL size were determined as well. Analysis of LDL phenotype has shown that a great percentage of healthy children (89%) yield bigger LDL1 with LDL2 subclasses being dominant (phenotype A), whereas 11 % of the children belong to phenotype B characterized by the presence of small, atherogenic LDL3 and LDL4 subclasses. In diabetic children despite no significant differences in their plasma lipid profile when compared with healthy control, the frequency of LDL phenotype B was increased (86.7 %), and the mean LDL diameter was smaller (p < 0.0001). LDL size was inversely correlated with plasma levels of triglycerides, and positively correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol and BMI. Although plasma levels for lipid and apoprotein were within the normal range, the increased frequency of LDL phenotype B confirms a grater risk of atherosclerosis development in children with diabetes mellitus. LDL size measurement may potentially help to assess cardiovascular risk and adapt the treatment goals thereafter (Tab. 3, Ref. 38). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  14. Particle release in extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein lowering therapies.

    PubMed

    Martins, K; Ahrenholz, P; Matic, G B; Hofmann, D; Tiess, M; Winkler, R E; Ramlow, W

    2000-07-01

    Release of microparticles into the blood during extracorporeal circulation must be kept low because of possibly serious acute and chronic adverse effects. Concentration and size distribution of microparticles were measured during simulated treatments (n = 7) on original equipment for 2 standard low-density lipoprotein (LDL) elimination procedures (DALI 750, Fresenius AG, St. Wendel, Germany and Liposorber, Kaneka Corporation, Osaka, Japan) and compared to hemofiltration solutions. For both systems as well as in hemofiltration solutions, the mean particle concentrations in 500 ml portions gathered from the efferent blood line stayed below 10% of pharmacopoeia standards for infusion solutions (United States Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia) in all measured size classes. Although particle concentrations were comparable in all systems, the mean total number of particles > or =2 microm released per session was lowest in the DALI (167,000) compared to the Liposorber (465,000) and hemofiltration solutions (2,240,000). This was mainly due to different total processed blood volumes necessary to achieve the required LDL reduction.

  15. Specificity of the low density lipoprotein-glycosaminoglycan interaction.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, T; Baker, J R; Christner, J E; Ekborg, S L

    1991-01-01

    There is ample documentation of the binding of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans to low density lipoprotein (LDL) both in vivo and in vitro. The interaction of these two species may be an early and important step in atherogenesis. Therefore, there is interest in defining the features of both molecules that are critical for their interaction. We employed a recently described competitive microassay that measures initial binding of proteoglycan to immobilized LDL. We confirmed the work of others that it is the apolipoprotein B component and, at least in part, a heparin-binding domain of LDL that are responsible for binding chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. The principal thrust of our study was concerned with the effects of a glycosaminoglycan's degree of sulfation on the binding to LDL. Initial experiments comparing dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans indicated that the former was more efficient at binding LDL than the latter and that oversulfation, rather than chain length or iduronate content, was the preeminent feature involved. Additional binding studies with dermatan sulfate, chemically sulfated chondroitin-4-sulfate, and naturally occurring oversulfated chondroitin sulfates indicated that the degree of sulfation, not the position of sulfation, determined affinity for LDL. These results suggest that studies should be undertaken to determine whether oversulfated segments of glycosaminoglycans are especially involved in associations with LDL, leading to lipid accumulation, in the artery wall.

  16. Alcohol alters low density lipoprotein composition and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hoinacki, J.; Brown, J.; Dawson, M.

    1991-03-11

    Two separate studies were conducted to examine the effect of ethanol (EtOH) dose on atherogenic low density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions and LDL metabolism in vivo. In the first study, male, atherosclerosis-susceptible squirrel monkeys were divided in three treatments: controls fed liquid diet, and low and high alcohol groups given liquid diet with vodka substituted for carbohydrate at 12% and 24% of calories, respectively. After 6 months, LDL subclasses (LDL{sub 1a}, LDL{sub 1b} and LDL{sub 2}) were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, and their lipid and protein composition was determined. Low dose EtOH had no effectmore » on LDL subfraction distribution while 24% EtOH resulted in an increase in the larger (LDL{sub 1a} and LDL{sub 1b}), buoyant subspecies without affecting the level of the more atherogenic, smaller, denser LDL{sub 2} particles. In the second study, {sup 125}I-LDL apolipoprotein B (apo B) was injected intravenously into Control and High EtOH monkeys and kinetic analyses were performed. Although the absolute catabolic rate (LDL production) was not altered, High EtOH primates showed a reduction in the fractional catabolic rate and a longer LDL apoB residence time.« less

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein alters endothelial progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A; Liu, Lingjuan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Xie, Xiaoyun; Hao, Hong; Liu, Jason Z; He, Guanglong; Cowan, Peter J; Cui, Lianqun; Zhu, Hua; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-06-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia. Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important to preventing atherosclerosis, and significantly decreased in hyperlipidemia. This study was to demonstrate ox-LDL and hyperlipidemia could exhibit similar effect on EPC population and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in BM and blood was significantly increased in male C57BL/6 mice with intravenous ox-LDL treatment, and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout mice with 4-month high-fat diet. ROS formation was effectively blocked with overexpression of antioxidant enzymes or N-acetylcysteine treatment. In hyperlipidemic and ox-LDL-treated mice, c-Kit(+)/CD31(+) cell number in BM and blood, and Sca-1(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number in blood, not in BM, were significantly decreased, which were not affected by inhibiting ROS production, while blood CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number was significantly increased that was prevented with reduced ROS formation. However, blood CD34(+)/CD133(+) cell number increased in ox-LDL-treated mice, while decreased in hyperlipidemic mice. These data suggested that ox-LDL produced significant changes in BM and blood EPC populations similar (but not identical) to chronic hyperlipidemia with predominantly ROS-independent mechanism(s).

  18. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). BACKGROUND ON FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol

  19. Serum levels of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Makoto; Shimada, Kazunori; Ohmura, Hirotoshi; Kiyanagi, Takashi; Kume, Atsumi; Sumiyoshi, Katsuhiko; Fukao, Kosuke; Inoue, Nao; Mokuno, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2009-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and remnant lipoprotein play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, a novel method for measuring remnant cholesterol levels (remnant lipoproteins cholesterol homogenous assay: RemL-C) has been established. However, the correlation between OxLDL and remnant lipoprotein, including RemL-C, has not been fully investigated. We enrolled 25 consecutive patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) and 20 controls. Remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and RemL-C were used to determine the levels of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol. Serum levels of malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) and OxLDL using a monoclonal antibody DLH3 (OxPC) were used to measure the concentration of circulating OxLDL. The CAD group had high levels of fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with the control group. Serum levels of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups. The levels of RemL-C (p = 0.035), MDA-LDL (p = 0.018), and MDA-LDL/LDL-C (p = 0.036) in the CAD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The levels of RLP-C tended to be higher in the CAD group than those in the control group (p = 0.096). Positive correlations were demonstrated between remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and OxLDL (RLP-C and MDA-LDL/LDL-C, r = 0.45, p = 0.0024, RLP-C and OxPC, r = 0.51, p = 0.0005, RemL-C and MDA-LDL/LDL-C, r = 0.42, p = 0.0044, RemL-C and OxPC, r = 0.43, p = 0.0043). Similar trends were observed in non-diabetic subjects and in subjects without metabolic syndrome. Positive correlations were also observed between RLP-C and RemL-C (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and between MDA-LDL/LDL-C and OxPC (r = 0.40, p = 0.0074). These results suggest that the association between high levels of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol and high OxLDL levels might be linked to atherogenesis in patients

  20. Hyperlipemic-very low density lipoprotein, intermediate density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein act synergistically with serotonin on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Koba, S; Pakala, R; Katagiri, T; Benedict, C R

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) from hyperlipidemic plasma are more atherogenic than those from normal plasma. Since platelet aggregation at sites of atherosclerotic injury exposes the cells to high concentrations of serotonin (5HT), a known mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), it was examined whether VLDL, IDL or LDL from plasma of 1% cholesterol-fed rabbits can potentiate the mitogenic effect of 5HT on VSMC. Growth arrested primary aortic VSMC in 1st or 2nd passage were incubated with different concentrations of VLDL, IDL or LDL in the presence or absence of pertusis toxin (PTX) for 24 h followed by incubation with 5HT for 24 h. The amount of [3H]thymidine incorporated into the DNA as well as the increase in cell number was measured. Either VLDL, IDL or LDL at a concentration of 60 microg/ml induced proliferation of VSMC by themselves (196, 137 or 122% increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, or 122, 119 or 122% increase in cell number, respectively when compared to the control, P<0.05). This effect on DNA synthesis was markedly potentiated by 50 microM 5HT to 465, 714 and 1369%, respectively. PTX reversed the mitogenic effect of 5HT, but not that of VLDL, IDL or LDL. These results suggest that even low concentration of VLDL, IDL or LDL from hypercholesterolemic plasma may significantly potentiate the mitogenic effect of 5HT, that is released by aggregating platelets at sites of vascular damage.

  1. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  2. Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade iii obesity.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Simone Alves; Ficker, Elisabeth Salvatori; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Mady, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. A low-density emulsion was labeled with [(14)C]-cholesterol ester and [(3)H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m(2)] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 +/- 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 +/- 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h(-1)) was 0.052 +/- 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 +/- 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

  3. Metabolism of a Lipid Nanoemulsion Resembling Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Grade III Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Simone Alves; Ficker, Elisabeth Salvatori; Vinagre, Carmen G. C.; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Mady, Charles

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m2] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h−1) was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower. PMID:20126342

  4. Evaluation of Serum Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Renal Transplant Recipients and Hemodialysis Patients and Relation With Involved Variables.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Adele; Argani, Hassan; Soleimani, Fateme; Rahimipour, Hooman; Akbarzadeh-Baghban, Alireza; Azizi, Tabassom; Kazerouni, Faranak; Farshchian, Fateme

    2015-12-01

    Disturbances in metabolism of lipo-proteins and oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein contribute to cardiovascular disease and development of oxidative stress in patients under renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis and renal transplant). This study was designed to compare oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels and lipid profiles in renal transplant recipients and hemo-dialysis patients. We investigated the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in hemodialysis (n = 38) and renal transplant (n = 59) patients who had no active inflammatory disease, liver disease, or malignancy, and results were compared to a control group (n = 30). Renal transplant recipients had hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (P = .019) compared with the control group. Hemodialysis patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia (not significant), hypercholesterolemia, decrease in high-density lipoprotein, and increase in oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (P < .0001) compared with the control group. In the renal transplant group, oxidized low-density lipoprotein level had a negative correlation with the duration after transplant (r = -0.407; P = .026), positive association with cyclosporine level (r = 0.288; P = .04), and negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein level (r = -.30; P = .05); oxidized low-density lipo-protein/high-density lipoprotein ratio also had a positive correlation with cyclosporine level (r = 0.309; P = .027) and negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein level (r = -0.72; P < .001) in the renal transplant group and high-density lipoprotein in the hemodialysis group (r = -0.87; P < .001). Multiple stepwise regression analyses showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein only was associated with cyclosporine level (R2 = 0.155; β=0.393; P = .024). History of cardiovascular disease is the most important factor associated with end-stage renal disease, and high oxidized low-density

  5. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 variant interacts with saturated fatty acids in Puerto Ricans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low density lipoprotein related receptor protein 1 (LRP1) is a multi-functional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in adipocytes and the hypothalamus. Animal models and in vitro studies support a role for LRP1 in adipocyte metabolism and leptin signaling, but genetic polymorphisms have not ...

  6. Improving lipoprotein profiles by liver-directed gene transfer of low density lipoprotein receptor gene in hypercholesterolaemia mice.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hailong; Zhang, Qinghai; Zeng, Jia

    2016-06-01

    The defect of low density lipoprotein receptor disturbs cholesterol metabolism and causes familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). In this study, we directly delivered exogenous Ldlr gene into the liver of FH model mice (Ldlr(-/-)) by lentiviral gene transfer system. The results showed that the Ldlr gene controlled by hepatocyte-specific human thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) promoter successfully and exclusively expressed in livers.We found that, although, the content of high density lipoprotein in serum was not significantly affected by the Ldlr gene expression, the serum low density lipoprotein level was reduced by 46%, associated with a 30% and 28% decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol, respectively, compared to uninjected Ldlr(-/-) mice. Moreover, the TBG directed expression of Ldlr significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in liver and reduced plaque burden in aorta (32%). Our results indicated that the hepatocyte-specific expression of Ldlr gene strikingly lowered serum lipid levels and resulted in amelioration of hypercholesterolaemia.

  7. A Leap above Friedewald Formula for Calculation of Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Reema; Chakraborty, Montosh; Singh, Navpreet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to compare the different calculated methods of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) estimation and to determine which of them correlate best with the direct method. Materials and Methods: The records of 480 samples for lipid profile were analyzed. Apart from the direct method, LDL-C was calculated by Friedewald low-density lipoprotein cholesterol method (F-LDL-C), modified Friedewald low-density lipoprotein cholesterol method (MF-LDL-C), and Anandaraja low-density lipoprotein cholesterol method (A-LDL-C). Paired t-test and Pearson correlation were evaluated between the different methods. Degree of agreement between the calculated methods and direct method was detected by Bland–Altman graphical plots. Results: A strong correlation was found between all calculated LDL-C methods and direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol method (D-LDL-C) assay, that is, F-LDL-C versus D-LDL-C = 0.94; A-LDL-C versus D-LDL-C = 0.93 and MF-LDL-C versus D-LDL-C = 0.95. No statistically significant difference was found between D-LDL-C and MF-LDL-C. Bland–Altman plot for MF-LDL-C showed minimal negative bias. Conclusions: The study pointed out that MF-LDL-C correlated maximally with D-LDL-C estimation at all levels of triglycerides and MF-LDL-C can be used in place of D-LDL-C when the direct method cannot be afforded. PMID:25949053

  8. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-03-02

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of (/sup 14/C)acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 ..mu..M. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 ..mu..M acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the /sup 3/H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the lowmore » concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.« less

  9. Particulate Matter Promotes In Vitro Receptor-Recognizable Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Dysfunction of Lipid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime; Sevilla-Tapia, Laura; Morales-Bárcenas, Rocío; Serrano, Jesús; O’Neill, Marie S.; García-Cuellar, Claudia M.; Quintana, Raúl; Vázquez-López, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter may promote cardiovascular disease, possibly as a consequence of its oxidative potential. Studies using susceptible animals indicate that particulate matter aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing lipid/macrophage content in plaques. Macrophage lipid uptake requires oxidized low-density lipoprotein and scavenger receptors; same receptors are involved in particulate matter uptake. We studied in vitro particulate matter potential to oxidize low-density lipoproteins and subsequent cell uptake through scavenger receptors. Particulate matter-induced low-density lipoproteins oxidation was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid assay. Binding/internalization was tested in wild type and scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, and in RAW264.7 cells using fluorescently labeled low-density lipoproteins. Dose-dependent binding/internalization only occurred in scavenger receptor–transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells and RAW264.7 cells. Competition binding/internalization using particles showed that particulate matter induced decreased binding (~50%) and internalization (~70%) of particle-oxidized low-density lipoproteins and native low-density lipoproteins. Results indicate that particulate matter was capable of oxidizing low-density lipoproteins, favoring macrophage internalization, and also altered scavenger and low-density lipoproteins receptor function. PMID:23297186

  10. Enzymatic Modification of Plasma Low Density Lipoproteins in Rabbits: A Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert

    1993-04-01

    Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.

  11. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 facilitates heme scavenging after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiqing; Manaenko, Anatol; Shao, Anwen; Ou, Yibo; Yang, Peng; Budbazar, Enkhjargal; Nowrangi, Derek; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2017-04-01

    Heme-degradation after erythrocyte lysis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 is a receptor expressed predominately at the neurovascular interface, which facilitates the clearance of the hemopexin and heme complex. In the present study, we investigated the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in heme removal and neuroprotection in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Endogenous low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 and hemopexin were increased in ipsilateral brain after intracerebral hemorrhage, accompanied by increased hemoglobin levels, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability and neurological deficits. Exogenous human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 protein reduced hematoma volume, brain water content surrounding hematoma, blood-brain barrier permeability and improved neurological function three days after intracerebral hemorrhage. The expression of malondialdehyde, fluoro-Jade C positive cells and cleaved caspase 3 was increased three days after intracerebral hemorrhage in the ipsilateral brain tissues and decreased with recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1. Intracerebral hemorrhage decreased and recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 1. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 siRNA reduced the effect of human recombinant low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 on all outcomes measured. Collectively, our findings suggest that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 contributed to heme clearance and blood-brain barrier protection after intracerebral hemorrhage. The use of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 as supplement provides a novel approach to ameliorating intracerebral hemorrhage brain injury via its pleiotropic neuroprotective effects.

  13. Softness of atherogenic lipoproteins: a comparison of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS).

    PubMed

    Mikl, Christian; Peters, Judith; Trapp, Marcus; Kornmueller, Karin; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Prassl, Ruth

    2011-08-31

    Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100)-containing plasma lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) supply tissues and cells with cholesterol and fat. During lipolytic conversion from VLDL to LDL the size and chemical composition of the particles change, but the apoB100 molecule remains bound to the lipids and regulates the receptor mediated uptake. The molecular physical parameters which control lipoprotein remodeling and enable particle stabilization by apoB100 are largely unknown. Here, we have compared the molecular dynamics and elasticities of VLDL and LDL derived by elastic neutron scattering temperature scans. We have determined thermal motions, dynamical transitions, and molecular fluctuations, which reflect the temperature-dependent motional coupling between lipid and protein. Our results revealed that lipoprotein particles are extremely soft and flexible. We found substantial differences in the molecular resiliences of lipoproteins, especially at higher temperatures. These discrepancies not only can be explained in terms of lipid composition and mobility but also suggest that apoB100 displays different dynamics dependent on the lipoprotein it is bound to. Hence, we suppose that the inherent conformational flexibility of apoB100 permits particle stabilization upon lipid exchange, whereas the dynamic coupling between protein and lipids might be a key determinant for lipoprotein conversion and atherogenicity.

  14. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and statin use among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Laura G; Hammill, Bradley G; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Jones, W Schuyler

    2016-05-01

    At the time of this study, guidelines recommended a primary goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL for all patients, an optional goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL for patients with overt cardiovascular disease and statins for patients with diabetes and overt cardiovascular disease and patients 40 years and older with diabetes and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study examined statin use and achievement of lipid goals among 111,730 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years and older in 2011. Three-quarters of patients met the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dL. Patients with cardiovascular disease were more likely to meet the goal than those without, not controlling for other differences. Patients on a statin were more likely to meet the goal. There is considerable opportunity for improvement in cholesterol management in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Direct effects of fatty meals and adiposity on oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Alonso-Barreto, Arely S; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    High-fat intake and high adiposity contribute to hyperlipaemia. In a hyperlipaemic state, lipoproteins infiltrate arterial wall where they are modified and cause an immune response characteristic of atherosclerosis. A small fraction of modified lipoproteins including oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) returns to circulation. The present study tracked high-fat meals during four weeks as to find effects of sustained frequency change on adiposity and ox-LDL. The findings indicated that changes in frequency of consumption of high-fat eating episodes correlated directly with changes in adiposity and ox-LDL. Hence the number of fatty meals consumed by people with overweight or obesity in few weeks could affect the atherogenic process. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of “Suioh”, raw sweet potato leaves. “Suioh” prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation. PMID:21562639

  17. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-05-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of "Suioh", raw sweet potato leaves. "Suioh" prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

  18. Amphiphilic polyvinyl alcohol adsorbent for the removal of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yao Ting; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Shenqi

    2015-04-01

    Spacer can effectively reduce the steric hindrance and synergistic effect of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligands immobilized in adsorbents can improve the specific adsorption for low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In this paper, in order to improve the adsorption capacity for the Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), specifically, amphiphilic adsorbent based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing cholesterol ligand and sulfonic dextran ligands was synthesized. All kinds of factors affecting the synthesis yield and adsorption properties were studied in detail. Results showed that the amphiphilic PVA adsorbent has higher adsorption capacity for total cholesterol (TC), (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and lower adsorption capacity, and percentage for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), while the ligand ratio of cholesterol to sulfonic ligands is 1.57:1, the adsorption percentage and adsorption capacity for TC, LDL-C, TG, and HDL-C were 54.4%, 67.6%, 42.5%, 10.4% and 4.02, 3.612, 2.154, 0.168 mg/g, respectively.

  19. [THE EFFECT OF SATINS: ACTIVATION OF LIPOLYSIS AND ABSORPTION BY INSULIN-DEPENDED CELLS LIPOPROTEINS OF VERY LOW DENSITY, INCREASING OF BIO-AVAILABILITY OF POLYENOIC FATTY ACIDS AND DECREASING OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Malyshev, P P; Amelyushkina, V A; Aripovsky, A V; Smirnov, G P; Polevaya, T Yu; Kabo, S I; Kukhartchuk, V V

    2015-10-01

    The Russian cardiologic R&D production complex of Minzdrav of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia The statins are synthetic xenobiotics alien to animal cells. They are unlikely capable to manifest pleiotropic effect. It is feasible to evaluate effect of statins by stages: a) initially a specific inhibition of synthesis of cholesterol alcohol; b) further indirect activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density; c) nonspecific activation of cells' receptor absorption of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density and then d) linoleic and linolenic lipoproteins of low density with all polyenoic fatty acids. On balance, statins activate absorption ofpolyenoic fatty acids by cells. Just they manifest physiological, specific pleiotropic effect. The statins inhibit synthesis of pool of cholesterol alcohol-lipoproteins of very low density condensed between phosphatidylcholines in polar mono-layer phosphatidylcholines+cholesterol alcohol on surface oftriglycerides. The low permeability of mono-layer separates substrate-triglycerides in lipoproteins of very low density and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase in hydrophilic blood plasma. The higher is ratio cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines in mono-layer of lipoproteins of very low density the slower is lipolysis, formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells under apoB-100-endocytosis. The statins normalize hyperlipemia by force of a) activation of absorption oflipoproteins of very low density by insulin-depended cells and b) activation of absorption of lipoproteins of low density by all cells, increasing of bio-availability of polyenoic fatty acids, activation of apoB-100-endocytosis. The limitation in food of content of palmitic saturated fatty acid and increasing of content of ω-3 polyenoic fatty acids improve "bio-availability" of polyenoic fatty acids and their absorption by cells and also decreases cholesterol alcohol/phosphatidylcholines and

  20. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B.

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate ofmore » detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.« less

  1. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases atherogenic lipoproteins and reduces lipoprotein (a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer L; Comperatore, Michael; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Andersen, Catherine; McIntosh, Mark; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet (control group, n = 41) and the same diet plus a medical food (MF) containing phytosterols, soy protein, and extracts from hops and Acacia (MF group, n = 42) on lipoprotein atherogenicity in women with metabolic syndrome. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), lipoprotein subfractions and particle size, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and lipoprotein (a) were measured at baseline, week 8, and week 12 of the intervention. Three-day dietary records were collected at the same time points to assess compliance. Compared with baseline, women decreased energy intake from carbohydrate (P < .001) and fat (P < .001), whereas they increased energy intake from protein (P < .001). A significant increase in energy from monounsaturated fatty acids was also observed as well as increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas trans-fatty acid intake was reduced (P < .00001). The atherogenic lipoproteins, large very low-density lipoprotein (P < .0001) and small LDL (P < .0001), were reduced, whereas the ratio of large high-density lipoprotein to smaller high-density lipoprotein particles was increased (P < .0001). Apolipoprotein B was reduced for all women (P < .0001), with a greater reduction in the MF group (P < .025). Oxidized LDL (P < .05) and lipoprotein (a) (P < .001) were reduced in both groups at the end of the intervention. Consumption of a Mediterranean-style diet reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease by decreasing atherogenic lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, and apo B. Inclusion of an MF may have an additional effect in reducing apo B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of low-density lipoprotein apheresis on kinetics of apolipoprotein B in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Maugeais, C; Ouguerram, K; Frénais, R; Maugère, P; Charbonnel, B; Magot, T; Krempf, M

    2001-04-01

    The acute reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol obtained by LDL-apheresis allows the role of the high level of circulating LDL on lipoprotein metabolism in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous FH) to be addressed. We studied apolipoprotein B (apoB) kinetics in five heterozygous FH patients before and the day after an apheresis treatment using endogenous labeling with [(2)H(3)]leucine. Compared with younger control subjects, heterozygous FH patients before apheresis showed a significant decrease in the fractional catabolic rate of LDL (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.22 day(-1); P < 0.01), and LDL production was increased in heterozygous FH patients (18.9 +/- 7.0 vs. 9.9 +/- 4.2 mg/kg.day; P < 0.05). The modeling of postapheresis apoB kinetics was performed using a nonsteady state condition, taking into account the changing pool size of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein, and LDL apoB. The postapheresis kinetic parameters did not show statistical differences compared with preapheresis parameters in heterozygous FH patients; however, a trend for increases in fractional catabolic rate of LDL (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.35 +/- 0.09 day(-1); P = 0.067) and the production of VLDL (13.7 +/- 8.3 vs. 21.9 +/- 1.6 mg/kg.day; P = 0.076) was observed. These results suggested that the marked decrease in plasma LDL obtained a short time after LDL-apheresis is able to stimulate LDL receptor activity and VLDL production in heterozygous FH.

  3. Adrenal-specific scavenger receptor BI deficiency induces glucocorticoid insufficiency and lowers plasma very-low-density and low-density lipoprotein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Menno; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Van Eck, Miranda; Van Berkel, Theo J C

    2013-02-01

    We determined the physiological consequences of adrenocortical-specific deletion of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) function in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. One adrenal from 10-day-old SR-BI knockout (KO) mice or wild-type controls was transplanted under the renal capsule of adrenalectomized C57BL/6 recipient mice. The fasting plasma corticosterone level increased over time in transplanted mice. Corticosterone values in SR-BI KO transplanted mice remained ≈50% lower (P<0.001) as compared with wild-type transplanted mice, which coincided with adrenocortical lipid depletion. A 6.5-fold higher (P<0.01) plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level was present in SR-BI KO transplanted mice reminiscent of primary glucocorticoid insufficiency. On feeding with cholic acid-containing high cholesterol/high fat diet, SR-BI KO transplanted mice exhibited a 26% (P<0.05) reduction in their liver triglyceride level. Hepatic myosin regulatory light chain interacting protein/inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression was 48% (P<0.01) decreased in adrenal-specific SR-BI KO mice, which was paralleled by a marked decrease (-46%; P<0.01) in proatherogenic very-low-density and low-density lipoprotein levels. Adrenal-specific disruption of SR-BI function induces glucocorticoid insufficiency and lowers plasma very-low-density and low-density lipoprotein levels in atherogenic diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. These findings further highlight the interaction between adrenal high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol uptake by SR-BI, adrenal steroidogenesis, and the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism.

  4. Characterization and geographic distribution of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene mutations in northwestern Greece.

    PubMed

    Miltiadous, G; Elisaf, M; Bairaktari, H; Xenophontos, S L; Manoli, P; Cariolou, M A

    2001-05-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a clinical syndrome characterised by elevated serum total cholesterol levels due to an increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by tendon xanthomata and clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease in early life. Typically, it results from mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. So far, over 600 mutations have been reported for the LDLR gene and account for FH. The nature of LDLR gene mutations is different in various ethnicities and has also regional distribution within each ethnicity. Eleven mutations have already been described in the Greek population. This report describes seven LDLR gene mutations accounting for FH in Northwestern Greece (81T>G, 517T>C, 858C>A, 1285G>A, 1352T>C, 1646G>A and 1775G>A) and their geographic distribution. We have recently described one of these mutations (1352T>C) as a novel point mutation in a Greek family originating from Northwestern Greece. Furthermore, two previously identified mutations (81T>C, 1775G>A) were also detected in the Greek FH patients for the first time. The 1775G>A mutation was responsible for all the homozygous patients in our area, indicating a founder effect. These data will favor the development of tailed information and screening programs in Northwestern Greece for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in FH patients. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels and arterial stiffness in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Tina E; Nicklas, Barbara J; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Lakatta, Edward G; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2009-05-01

    Arterial stiffness is a prominent feature of vascular aging and is strongly related to cardiovascular disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a key player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, may also play a role in arterial stiffening, but this relationship has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cross-sectional association between ox-LDL and aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, in community-dwelling older adults. Plasma ox-LDL levels and aPWV were measured in 2295 participants (mean age: 74 years; 52% female; 40% black) from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Mean aPWV significantly increased across tertiles of ox-LDL (tertile 1: 869+/-376 cm/s; tertile 2: 901+/-394 cm/s; tertile 3: 938+/-415 cm/s; P=0.002). In multivariate analyses, ox-LDL remained associated with aPWV after adjustment for demographics and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (P=0.008). After further adjustment for hemoglobin A1c, abdominal visceral fat, antihypertensive and antilipemic medications, and C-reactive protein, the association with ox-LDL was attenuated but remained significant (P=0.01). Results were similar when ox-LDL was expressed in absolute (milligrams per deciliter) or relative amounts (percentage of low-density lipoprotein). Moreover, individuals in the highest ox-LDL tertile were 30% to 55% more likely to have high arterial stiffness, defined as aPWV >75th percentile (P

  6. Role of low-density lipoprotein receptor in the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Albecka, Anna; Belouzard, Sandrine; Op de Beeck, Anne; Descamps, Véronique; Goueslain, Lucie; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Tercé, François; Duverlie, Gilles; Rouillé, Yves; Dubuisson, Jean

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles are known to be in complex with lipoproteins. As a result of this interaction, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) has been proposed as a potential entry factor for HCV; however, its implication in virus entry remains unclear. Here, we reinvestigated the role of the LDLR in the HCV life cycle by comparing virus entry to the mechanism of lipoprotein uptake. A small interfering RNA targeting the LDLR in Huh-7 cells reduced HCV infectivity, confirming that this receptor plays a role in the life cycle of HCV generated in cell culture. However, kinetics of internalization were much faster for lipoproteins than for infectious HCV particles. Furthermore, a decrease in HCV RNA replication was observed by blocking the LDLR with a specific antibody, and this was associated with an increase in the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in host cells. Nevertheless, a soluble form of the LDLR inhibited both HCV entry into the hepatocytes and its binding to the LDLR expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells, suggesting a direct interaction between the HCV particle and the LDLR. Finally, we showed that modification of HCV particles by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) reduces HCV infectivity and increases HCV binding to LDLR. Importantly, LPL treatment also induced an increase in RNA internalization, suggesting that LDLR, at least in some conditions, leads to nonproductive internalization of HCV. The LDLR is not essential for infectious HCV particle entry, whereas the physiological function of this receptor is important for optimal replication of the HCV genome. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Plasma low density lipoprotein transport kinetics in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Kissebah, A H; Alfarsi, S; Evans, D J; Adams, P W

    1983-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) transport kinetics were determined from the disappearance of 125I-LDL injected into age- and weight-matched groups of 13 normal subjects, 20 mild diabetics, and 8 moderately severe diabetic patients (fasting plasma glucose less than 150 and greater than 150 mg/100 ml, respectively). In mild diabetics, LDL apo-lipoprotein-B (apo-B) synthetic rate (SR) was significantly greater than normal. The fractional catabolic rate (FCR), however, was also increased so that plasma LDL concentration remained normal. In moderately severe diabetics, LDL SR was normal but FCR was reduced resulting in increased plasma LDL cholesterol and apo-B concentrations. In normal subjects, moderate obesity was associated with increased LDL secretion. In diabetic subjects, however, changes in LDL turnover were of equal magnitude in obese and nonobese patients. In normolipemic and hyperlipemic mild diabetic subjects with equal degrees of glucose intolerance, both LDL apo-B SR and FCR were greater than normal. The magnitude of these increases, however, was lower in the hyperlipemic individuals. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that both LDL SR and FCR correlated positively and linearly with insulin response to glucose loading, but negatively and curvilinearly with fasting plasma glucose and glucose response. We propose that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes, mild hyperglycemia is accompanied by increased LDL turnover, despite normal plasma LDL levels, whereas moderately severe hyperglycemia is associated with decreased LDL catabolism, resulting in increased plasma LDL levels. These changes cannot be attributed to the presence of obesity or hypertriglyceridemia, and may relate to varying degrees of insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion affecting plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, VLDL conversion to LDL, and LDL catabolism. Both increased LDL turnover in mild diabetes and delayed removal of LDL in moderately severe diabetes

  8. Plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol correlates inversely with testosterone in young adult male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Bankole, Olurakinyo Lanre; Oduwole, Olayiwola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There are indications that oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDLC) may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In most developing countries, the interplay between the different lipid fractions and cigarette smoking has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on the alterations in plasma lipid fractions and their associations with the gonadal hormone, testosterone (T). Methods One hundred and sixty male participants, consisting of eighty smokers and eighty apparently healthy non-smokers were recruited. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard procedures. Results Significant increases were obtained in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDLC) and Ox-LDLC/TT ratio (p<0.001) in smokers compared with the non-smokers. Plasma high density cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.001) was significantly reduced in smokers compared with the non-smokers. The plasma mean T result was not significantly different from the non-smokers, but inversely correlated with Ox-LDLC and significantly correlated with the lipids and lipoproteins. Significantly high plasma TC, TG and LDLC (p<0.001) and low HDLC (p<0.001) were also obtained in smokers when co-founding factors such as duration and number of cigarette smoked per day were applied. Conclusion This study showed an inverse correlation between Ox-LDLC and testosterone as well as strong association between the number of tobacco and cigarettes usage per day. These changes in part, could be major causes of premature CVD and decreased fertility in young adults. PMID:25848456

  9. Plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol correlates inversely with testosterone in young adult male smokers.

    PubMed

    Ebesunun, Maria Onomhaguan; Bankole, Olurakinyo Lanre; Oduwole, Olayiwola

    2014-01-01

    There are indications that oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (Ox-LDLC) may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In most developing countries, the interplay between the different lipid fractions and cigarette smoking has not been studied. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on the alterations in plasma lipid fractions and their associations with the gonadal hormone, testosterone (T). One hundred and sixty male participants, consisting of eighty smokers and eighty apparently healthy non-smokers were recruited. Anthropometric indices and biochemical parameters were determined using standard procedures. Significant increases were obtained in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDLC) and Ox-LDLC/TT ratio (p<0.001) in smokers compared with the non-smokers. Plasma high density cholesterol (HDLC) (p<0.001) was significantly reduced in smokers compared with the non-smokers. The plasma mean T result was not significantly different from the non-smokers, but inversely correlated with Ox-LDLC and significantly correlated with the lipids and lipoproteins. Significantly high plasma TC, TG and LDLC (p<0.001) and low HDLC (p<0.001) were also obtained in smokers when co-founding factors such as duration and number of cigarette smoked per day were applied. This study showed an inverse correlation between Ox-LDLC and testosterone as well as strong association between the number of tobacco and cigarettes usage per day. These changes in part, could be major causes of premature CVD and decreased fertility in young adults.

  10. Serum oxidized low density lipoprotein levels in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnants.

    PubMed

    Kozan, A; Yildirmak, S Turkmen; Mihmanli, V; Ayabakan, H; Cicek, Y G; Kalaslioglu, V; Doean, S; Cebeci, H Cerci

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/AIM: The aim of the study was to determine serum lipids and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels in preeclamptic pregnants and compare with those of normotensives. Ox-LDL levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); total cholesterol, hight density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay in 26 normotensive and 27 preeclamptic pregnants. LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula. Serum levels of Ox-LDL (U/L), total-cholesterol (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), triglyceride (mg/dL), and VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnants were found as 130±60 and 133±69; 248±49 and 248±81; 67±14 and 61±16; 147±61 and 135±59; 207±76 and 256±87; 41±15 and 50±17, respectively. Mean values of Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters were higher than the upper limits of their reference ranges in both of groups. However no significant differences were found in Ox-LDL, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels between two groups. However, the levels of triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia group. The present results suggest that the levels of serum Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters rise as a result of pregnancy rather than as a result of preeclampsia.

  11. Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Park, Hyun-Young

    2011-02-20

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) are probably associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The influence of LDL-C and ox-LDL on metabolic syndrome among healthy, postmenopausal women has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between LDL-C, ox-LDL, and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1309 postmenopausal women (355 with metabolic syndrome and 954 without metabolic syndrome) aged 60-79 years were included. Lipid profiles, glucose, ox-LDL, adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were measured. Plasma ox-LDL levels were higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome, when compared without metabolic syndrome subjects. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that ox-LDL was significantly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, and adiponectin. After a multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of ox-LDL in metabolic syndrome compared with the lowest quartile were 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.70), 2.45 (95% CI, 1.58-3.79), and 3.98 (95% CI, 2.52-6.28), respectively. LDL levels were not significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Ox-LDL concentration was associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that high ox-LDL levels are associated with high cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-Density Lipoprotein Modified by Myeloperoxidase in Inflammatory Pathways and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vanhamme, Luc; Roumeguère, Thierry; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO) is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis. PMID:23983406

  13. Age and Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Apolipoprotein B, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol or Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sniderman, Allan D; Islam, Shofiqul; McQueen, Matthew; Pencina, Michael; Furberg, Curt D; Thanassoulis, George; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-10-13

    Higher concentrations of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the risk associated with apoB lipoproteins varies with age has not been well examined. We determined the associations for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apoB, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with myocardial infarction at different ages in 11 760 controls and 8998 myocardial infarction cases of the INTERHEART Study. Logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratio of myocardial infarction for 1 SD change in each lipid marker by decade from <40 to >70 years of age. Except for those >70, plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C and apoB were greater in cases than controls. However, the average levels of these markers decreased significantly as age increased. By contrast, levels of apoA-I and HDL-C were significantly greater in controls than cases but increased significantly as age increased. The cardiovascular risk associated with the atherogenic lipid markers differed at different ages. Most notably, there was a significant decline in the odds ratio for total cholesterol, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C, and apoB with increases in age whereas the odds ratios associated with apoA-I and HDL-C were consistent across the age groups. These data indicate that the risk of cardiovascular events associated with apoB particles is greater in younger compared to older individuals. This finding is consistent with greater relative benefit from LDL-lowering therapy in younger compared to older individuals and so argues for therapy in younger individuals with elevated lipids. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Model of human low-density lipoprotein and bound receptor based on CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Gang; Rudenko, Gabby; Ludtke, Steven J.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Chiu, Wah; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, transfer cholesterol from plasma to liver cells via the LDL receptor (LDLr). Here, we report the structures of LDL and its complex with the LDL receptor extracellular domain (LDL·LDLr) at extracellular pH determined by cryoEM. Difference imaging between LDL·LDLr and LDL localizes the site of LDLr bound to its ligand. The structural features revealed from the cryoEM map lead to a juxtaposed stacking model of cholesteryl esters (CEs). High density in the outer shell identifies protein-rich regions that can be accounted for by a single apolipoprotein (apo B-100, 500 kDa) leading to a model for the distribution of its α-helix and β-sheet rich domains across the surface. The structural relationship between the apo B-100 and CEs appears to dictate the structural stability and function of normal LDL. PMID:20080547

  15. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  16. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) impacts on erythrocyte viscoelasticity and its molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Yang, Li; Liu, Yao; Gao, Wei; Peng, Weiyan; Sung, K-L Paul; Sung, Lanping Amy

    2009-10-16

    The oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) plays an important role in atherosclerosis, yet it remains unclear if it damages circulating erythrocytes. In this study, erythrocyte deformability and its membrane proteins after Ox-LDL incubations are investigated by micropipette aspiration, thiol radical measurement, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results show that Ox-LDL incubation reduces the erythrocyte deformability, decreases free thiol radical contents in erythrocytes, and induces the cross-linking among membrane proteins. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals a high molecular weight (HMW) complex as well as new bands between spectrins and band 3 and reduced ratios between band 3 and other major membrane skeletal proteins. Analyses indicate that Ox-LDL makes erythrocytes harder to deform through a molecular mechanism by which the oxidation of free thiol radicals forms disulfide bonds among membrane skeletal proteins.

  18. Interrelatedness between C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Obradovic, Milan M; Trpkovic, Andreja; Bajic, Vladan; Soskic, Sanja; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Stanimirovic, Julijana; Panic, Milos; Isenovic, Esma R

    2015-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation. Atherosclerosis is now recognized as inflammatory disease, and it seems that CRP directly contributes to atherogenesis. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) molecule increases the uptake of lipid products by macrophages leading to cholesterol accumulation and subsequent foam cell formation. The elevated levels of high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in the blood were found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, we highlighted the evidence that CRP and OxLDL are involved in interrelated (patho) physiological pathways. The findings on association between hsCRP and OxLDL in the clinical setting will be also summarized.

  19. Overexpression of LOXIN Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Veas, Carlos; Jara, Casandra; Willis, Naomi D; Pérez-Contreras, Karen; Gutierrez, Nicolas; Toledo, Jorge; Fernandez, Paulina; Radojkovic, Claudia; Zuñiga, Felipe A; Escudero, Carlos; Aguayo, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) are adult stem cells located in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Studies have indicated that hEPC play an important role in the recovery and repair of injured endothelium, however, their quantity and functional capacity is reduced in several diseases including hypercholesterolemia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that hEPC express lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and its activation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induces cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether overexpression of LOXIN, a truncated isoform of LOX-1 that acts as a dominant negative, plays a protective role against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis in hEPC. Human endothelial progenitor cells exposed to ox-LDL showed a significant increase in LOX-1 expression, and apoptosis began at ox-LDL concentrations above 50 μg/mL. All hEPC apoptosed at 200 μg/mL ox-LDL. High LOXIN expression was generated using adenoviral systems in hEPC and SiHa cells transduced with 100 colony-forming units per cell. Transduced LOXIN localized to the plasma membrane and blocked ox-LDL uptake mediated by LOX-1. Overexpression of LOXIN protected hEPC from ox-LDL-induced apoptosis, and therefore maybe a novel way of improving hEPC function and quantity. These results suggest that adenoviral vectors of LOXIN may provide a possible treatment for diseases related to ox-LDL and vascular endothelium dysfunction, including atherosclerosis.

  20. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  1. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein induces proliferation and increases adhesion molecule expression of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Basci, Ali; Shah, Sudhir V; Basnakian, Alexei; Toz, Huseyin; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Ok, Ercan

    2008-12-01

    Presence of accelerated atherosclerosis in dialysis patients cannot be entirely explained by conventional risk factors. Exposure to urea, which is elevated in patients with kidney disease, leads to the carbamylation of proteins. We investigated the effects of carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) on human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Native LDL (nLDL) was carbamylated with potassium cyanate. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of cLDL carbamylated at different time points. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), expression of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix protein synthesis were studied. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein exposure leads to morphological alterations and presence of cellular debris. Neither nLDL nor cLDL caused apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was not different between groups. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein led to a striking proliferation in VSMC compared to nLDL. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein significantly increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression compared to the control. The effects of cLDL on proliferation and adhesion molecule expression were dose-dependent and correlated with the degree of low-density lipoprotein carbamylation. cLDL had no effect on extracellular matrix protein synthesis. The results support the hypothesis that cLDL may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in uraemic patients.

  2. Role of dietary supplements in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a review.

    PubMed

    Nijjar, Prabhjot S; Burke, Frances M; Bloesch, Annette; Rader, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. As the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension continues to grow among young adults, the population at risk for atherosclerotic CHD is ever increasing. More than a century of laboratory and human findings link cholesterol levels with a propensity to develop atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major atherogenic lipoprotein, and numerous clinical trials have shown the efficacy of lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) for reducing CHD risk. New trial data have resulted in LDL-C goals being lowered over time and expansion of the population of patients that are candidates for LDL-lowering therapy to decrease their lifetime risk of CHD. Although statins are relatively safe and well tolerated, there are still significant numbers of patients who cannot tolerate them and many others who only require mild LDL-C reduction and prefer nonprescription alternatives to statin therapy. A number of dietary supplements and functional foods have been suggested to reduce LDL-C levels, but only a few have withstood the rigors of randomized controlled trials. Here we review the evidence in support of dietary supplements and their LDL-C-lowering effects. We also review supplements that, after initial excitement about their purported effect, were not found to lower LDL-C significantly. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical Characterization of Europium Tetracycline Complex in the presence of Low Density Lipoprotein and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Silva, Flávia Rodrigues; Monteiro, Andrea Moreira; Neto, Antônio M. Figueiredo; Gidlund, Magnus A.; Gomes, Laércio; Junior, Nilson Dias Vieira; Courrol, Lilia Coronato

    2008-04-01

    Development of native Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) biosensors is of great importance in clinical analysis because the LDL concentration, which is the main carrier of cholesterol, in the plasma, is a fundamental parameter for the prevention and diagnosis of a number of clinical disorders such as heart disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The optical properties of the Europium-Tetracycline Complex (EuTc) were investigated for the solutions containing LDL in their compositions. In this paper we show an enhancement in the europium luminescence of EuTc complex in the presence of LDL. The time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy experimental results of the pure EuTc sample and samples with LDL (EuTc:LDL) reveal an increase in the europium emission lifetime in the lipoprotein-doped samples with respect to the pure EuTc sample. A calibration curve, reasonably well described by a linear function between 0 and 3 mg/mL of LDL, was obtained. The obtained limit of detection was 0.23 mg/mL. Sixteen blood plasma samples all of them contend approximately 90 mg/dL of LDL were studied and the LDL concentrations were calculated with our method. The average LDL concentration obtained was 94 mg/dL. The results show that the EuTc complex can be used as a sensor to determine LDL with fast response, compact design, and reproducible results.

  4. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  5. Gold Nanocrystal Labeling Allows Low Density Lipoprotein Imaging From The Subcellular To Macroscopic Level

    PubMed Central

    Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL with a range of diagnostically active nanocrystals or hydrophobic agents. We performed focused experiments on LDL labeled with gold nanocrystals (Au-LDL). The labeling procedure had minimal effect on LDL size, morphology or composition. Biological function was found to be maintained from both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Tumor bearing mice were injected intravenously with LDL, DiR-LDL, Au-LDL or a gold-loaded nanoemulsion. LDL accumulation in the tumors was detected with whole body imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT), spectral CT and fluorescence imaging. Cellular localization was studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence techniques. In conclusion, this LDL labeling procedure should permit the study of lipoprotein biointeractions in unprecedented detail. PMID:24127782

  6. Overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and lipid accumulation in intestinal polyps in Min mice.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Michihiro; Komiya, Masami; Teraoka, Naoya; Ueno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mami; Kitahashi, Tsukasa; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2009-12-01

    Apc-deficient Min mice feature low expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), high concentration of serum triglyceride (TG), fatty change of the liver and large numbers of intestinal polyps. We have reported that induction of LPL expression reduces serum lipid, especially TG, improves fatty change of the liver and inhibits intestinal polyp formation in the mice. In this study, fatty change/lipid accumulation in intestinal mucosa and polyps in Min mice were analyzed by Oil-red O staining and electron microscopy. A number of large lipid droplets were found in the epithelia of the upper part of polyps. On the other hand, small lipid droplets were only slightly observed at the tip of the villi in non-tumoros parts of the small intestine of Min mice and in the villi of wild-type mice. Moreover, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was overexpressed in the area where lipid droplets were observed. The expression levels of LDLR mRNA in the intestinal polyps of Min mice were approximately 3 times higher compared to those in the non-tumoros parts. Remarkable expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was mainly distributed in stromal cells and some in epithelial cells. It is speculated that lipid accumulation in the intestinal polyps may play an important role in intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient mice.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein metabolism in mice with soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Hynds, S A; Welsh, J; Stewart, J M; Jack, A; Soukop, M; McArdle, C S; Calman, K C; Packard, C J; Shepherd, J

    1984-10-04

    This study examines the potential value of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as a vehicle for directing cytotoxic drugs to tumour cells in mouse model systems. Control and MAC 13 tumour-bearing NMRI mice were injected with tracer doses of 125I-labelled native and cyclohexanedione-modified 131I-labelled LDL. 18 h later the animals were killed and the radioactivities assimilated by various tissues were measured relative to plasma activity at the time of death. These values were used to calculate specific tissue receptor-mediated LDL uptake. All tissues expressed receptors but the liver and adrenal gland were particularly active. In tumour-inoculated animals, the neoplastic lesions were second only to liver in their net assimilation of LDL. CFLP mice bearing virus-induced parotid adenomata gave results similar to those obtained in NMRI animals. In order to improve the selectivity of LDL assimilation we attempted to downregulate LDL receptors in the liver and adrenal gland by administration of the bile acid sodium taurocholate or by subcutaneous injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate. These manoeuvres together reduced uptake of the lipoprotein into both organs without affecting tumour activity.

  8. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and the Incidence of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Clinically Significant Macular Edema Determined From Fundus Photographs

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Lee, Kristine E.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Studies have shown oxidized low-density lipoprotein to be associated with the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and other complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Because low-risk interventions are available to modify oxidized low-density lipoprotein, it is important to examine the relationships between this factor and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema, 2 important causes of visual impairment in people with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with the worsening of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Of 996 participants with type 1 diabetes in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy, 730 were examined up to 4 times (1990-1992, 1994-1996, 2005-2007, and 2012-2014) over 24 years and had assays of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and fundus photographs gradable for diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Analyses started July 2014 and ended February 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Worsening of diabetic retinopathy, incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and incidence of macular edema as assessed via grading of color stereo film fundus photographs. The levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein collected from serum samples at the time of each examination were measured in 2013 and 2014 from frozen serum. RESULTS The cohort at baseline had a mean (SD) level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein of 30.0 (8.5) U/L. While adjusting for duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin A1c level, and other factors, we found that neither the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at the beginning of a period nor the change in it over a certain period was associated with the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 0.91-1.35], P = .30; odds ratio [OR], 1.77 [95% CI, 0.99-3.17], P = .06), the incidence of macular edema (HR, 1

  9. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and the Incidence of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and Clinically Significant Macular Edema Determined From Fundus Photographs.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E; Lee, Kristine E; Paterson, Andrew D; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Tsai, Michael Y; Gangnon, Ronald E; Klein, Barbara E K

    2015-09-01

    Studies have shown oxidized low-density lipoprotein to be associated with the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and other complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Because low-risk interventions are available to modify oxidized low-density lipoprotein, it is important to examine the relationships between this factor and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema, 2 important causes of visual impairment in people with type 1 diabetes. To determine the association of oxidized low-density lipoprotein with the worsening of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of proliferative retinopathy and of macular edema. Of 996 participants with type 1 diabetes in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy, 730 were examined up to 4 times (1990-1992, 1994-1996, 2005-2007, and 2012-2014) over 24 years and had assays of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and fundus photographs gradable for diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Analyses started July 2014 and ended February 2015. Worsening of diabetic retinopathy, incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and incidence of macular edema as assessed via grading of color stereo film fundus photographs. The levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein collected from serum samples at the time of each examination were measured in 2013 and 2014 from frozen serum. The cohort at baseline had a mean (SD) level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein of 30.0 (8.5) U/L. While adjusting for duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin A1c level, and other factors, we found that neither the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at the beginning of a period nor the change in it over a certain period was associated with the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 0.91-1.35], P = .30; odds ratio [OR], 1.77 [95% CI, 0.99-3.17], P = .06), the incidence of macular edema (HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.83-1.29], P = .74; OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.44-2.61], P = .87), or

  10. A comparative study of the effects of chemical modification on the immunochemical and optical properties of human plasma low-density lipoprotein(s) and apoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Levy, Robert I.; Lux, Samuel E.; Birnbaumer, Maria E.; Fredrickson, Donald S.

    1973-01-01

    1. The structure of human plasma low-density lipoprotein(s) [LD lipoprotein(s)] was investigated by several immunological and optical techniques. The effects of delipidation and of chemical modification by 3-carboxypropionylation, acetylation, diazotization and amidination were examined. A sensitive double-antibody radioimmunoassay for human LD lipoproteins is presented and is used to assess the extent of immunochemical modification. A computer best-fit analysis is used to analyse circular-dichorism (c.d.) spectra. These methods permit comparisons of the relative effects of chemical modification and delipidation of LD lipoprotein under similar experimental conditions. 2. 3-Carboxypropionylation, acetylation or diazotization produces qualitative and quantitative changes in the immunochemical properties of LD lipoprotein. Amidination causes minor changes detected by radioimmunoassay but not by double-diffusion experiments. In general, the order of effectiveness in displacing 125I-labelled LD lipoprotein is amidinated>diazo or acetyl>3-carboxypropionyl derivatives. 3. The order of the extent of conformational alteration induced in apoLD lipoprotein and LD lipoprotein, as judged by c.d. analyses, was 3-carboxypropionylation>diazotization>acetylation or amidination. 4. Delipidation of LD lipoprotein results in immunological alterations that are qualitatively detected by antisera to LD lipoprotein. Four of five antisera to apoLD lipoprotein form precipitin lines of identity between native LD lipoprotein and apoLD lipoprotein in double-diffusion experiments. An anti-(apoLD lipoprotein) serum that forms precipitin lines of complete identity between LD lipoprotein and apoLD lipoprotein reacts differently with these two antigens in radioimmunoassay. ApoLD lipoprotein is only one-fourth to one-half as effective as LD lipoprotein, on a protein basis, in the displacement of 125I-labelled LD lipoprotein from this anti-(apoLD lipoprotein). 5. Conformational analysis indicates

  11. High density lipoprotein level is negatively associated with the increase of oxidized low density lipoprotein lipids after a fatty meal.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, Sanna; Ahotupa, Markku; Ylinen, Petteri; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-12-01

    Recent reports show that a fatty meal can substantially increase the concentration of oxidized lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL). Knowing the LDL-specific antioxidant effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL), we aimed to investigate whether HDL can modify the postprandial oxidative stress after a fatty meal. Subjects of the study (n = 71) consumed a test meal (a standard hamburger meal) rich in lipid peroxides, and blood samples were taken before, 120, 240, and 360 min after the meal. The study subjects were divided into four subgroups according to the pre-meal HDL cholesterol value (HDL subgroup 1, 0.66-0.91; subgroup 2, 0.93-1.13; subgroup 3, 1.16-1.35; subgroup 4, 1.40-2.65 mmol/L). The test meal induced a marked postprandial increase in the concentration of oxidized LDL lipids in all four subgroups. The pre-meal HDL level was associated with the extent of the postprandial rise in oxidized LDL lipids. From baseline to 6 h after the meal, the concentration of ox-LDL increased by 48, 31, 24, and 16% in the HDL subgroup 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the increase was higher in subgroup 1 compared to subgroup 3 (p = 0.028) and subgroup 4 (p = 0.0081), respectively. The pre-meal HDL correlated with both the amount and the rate of increase of oxidized LDL lipids. Results of the present study show that HDL is associated with the postprandial appearance of lipid peroxides in LDL. It is therefore likely that the sequestration and transport of atherogenic lipid peroxides is another significant mechanism contributing to cardioprotection by HDL.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Lu, Jonathan; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ching-Chu; Chen, Jeffrey L; Elayda, MacArthur; Ballantyne, Christie M; Shayani, Steven; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01). The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5%) and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001). L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  13. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Affects Hyaluronan Synthesis in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N.; Hascall, Vincent C.; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20–50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL. PMID:23979132

  14. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) affects hyaluronan synthesis in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Bartolini, Barbara; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; Moretto, Paola; Deleonibus, Sara; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Wight, Thomas N; Hascall, Vincent C; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2013-10-11

    Thickening of the vessel in response to high low density lipoprotein(s) (LDL) levels is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased hyaluronan (HA) deposition in the neointima. Human native LDL trapped within the arterial wall undergoes modifications such as oxidation (oxLDL). The aim of our study is to elucidate the link between internalization of oxLDL and HA production in vitro, using human aortic smooth muscle cells. LDL were used at an effective protein concentration of 20-50 μg/ml, which allowed 80% cell viability. HA content in the medium of untreated cells was 28.9 ± 3.7 nmol HA-disaccharide/cell and increased after oxLDL treatment to 53.9 ± 5.6. OxLDL treatments doubled the transcripts of HA synthase HAS2 and HAS3. Accumulated HA stimulated migration of aortic smooth muscle cells and monocyte adhesiveness to extracellular matrix. The effects induced by oxLDL were inhibited by blocking LOX-1 scavenger receptor with a specific antibody (10 μg/ml). The cholesterol moiety of LDL has an important role in HA accumulation because cholesterol-free oxLDL failed to induce HA synthesis. Nevertheless, cholesterol-free oxLDL and unmodified cholesterol (20 μg/ml) induce only HAS3 transcription, whereas 22,oxysterol affects both HAS2 and HAS3. Moreover, HA deposition was associated with higher expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers (CHOP and GRP78). Our data suggest that HA synthesis can be induced in response to specific oxidized sterol-related species delivered through oxLDL.

  15. Platelets directly enhance neutrophil transmigration in response to oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Badrnya, Sigrun; Butler, Lynn M; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Volf, Ivo; Assinger, Alice

    2012-10-01

    Beyond their primary role in haemostasis and tissue repair, platelets are causally involved in the onset of inflammatory reactions, cell proliferation and immune response. Platelet activation and platelet binding to the endothelium result in release of chemokines and increased expression of adhesion molecules, which promote the recruitment of leukocytes that will eventually migrate across the endothelium into the tissue. Here, we provide the first evidence that platelets stimulated with oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) directly enhance recruitment and transmigration of neutrophils, via cell-cell interaction. OxLDL immediately activates platelets, which then rapidly bind to neutrophils, foster their activation and facilitate transmigration through an endothelial monolayer. The observed effects of oxLDL on platelet-neutrophil aggregate (PNA) formation depend on incubation time, lipoprotein concentration and the degree of oxidative modification of LDL. PNA form within minutes following stimulation by oxLDL and remain for up to 1 h post stimulation, while native LDL is unable to induce platelet-neutrophil interactions. In the presence of acetylsalicylic acid the formation of PNA in response to oxLDL is virtually absent, and platelets fail to further enhance oxLDL-induced neutrophil transmigration. P2Y1 and P2Y12 inhibitors have less pronounced effects on PNA formation in response to oxLDL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PI3K pathway is essential for efficient neutrophil transmigration induced by oxLDL. Consequently, platelets enhance neutrophil transmigration in response to oxLDL and might thereby contribute essentially to the amplification of inflammatory processes within the vessel wall, which fosters the development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Cholesterol-Dependent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Exploits the Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qingming; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and trafficking are tightly regulated. Certain bacteria, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, also require cholesterol; it is unknown, however, how this cholesterol-dependent obligatory intracellular bacterium of granulocytes interacts with the host cell cholesterol regulatory pathway to acquire cholesterol. Here, we report that total host cell cholesterol increased >2-fold during A. phagocytophilum infection in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Cellular free cholesterol was enriched in A. phagocytophilum inclusions as detected by filipin staining. We determined that A. phagocytophilum requires cholesterol derived from low-density lipoprotein (LDL), because its replication was significantly inhibited by depleting the growth medium of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins, by blocking LDL uptake with a monoclonal antibody against LDL receptor (LDLR), or by treating the host cells with inhibitors that block LDL-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes or lysosomes. However, de novo cholesterol biosynthesis is not required, since inhibition of the biosynthesis pathway did not inhibit A. phagocytophilum infection. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled LDL was enhanced in infected cells, and LDLR expression was up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. A. phagocytophilum infection stabilized LDLR mRNA through the 3′ UTR region, but not through activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) was up-regulated by A. phagocytophilum infection, and inhibition of its upstream kinase, MEK, by a specific inhibitor or siRNA knockdown, reduced A. phagocytophilum infection. Up-regulation of LDLR mRNA by A. phagocytophilum was also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor; however, it was unclear whether ERK activation is required for LDLR mRNA up-regulation by A. phagocytophilum. These data reveal that A. phagocytophilum exploits the host LDL uptake pathway and

  17. Low-density lipoprotein subclass distribution pattern and adiposity-associated dyslipidemia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maki, K C; Davidson, M H; Cyrowski, M S; Maki, A C; Marx, P

    2000-02-01

    A predominance of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (subclass pattern B) is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and is characterized by elevated triglycerides and depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. The present analysis was undertaken to assess the impact of LDL subclass distribution pattern and adiposity on serum lipids in postmenopausal women. Anthropometric measurements and fasting lipid data were obtained from 254 postmenopausal women 70 years of age or younger, not receiving sex hormone replacement, who were participating in a clinical trial designed to assess the influence of hormone replacement regimens on coronary heart disease risk markers. The prevalence of LDL subclass pattern B was 32%. Triglyceride levels were higher and HDL cholesterol lower (both p<0.001) in women with pattern B vs. pattern A, but total and LDL cholesterol levels did not differ. LDL subclass pattern contributed independently to the variance in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001) and log(e) triglyceride (p<0.001) concentrations explained by anthropometric variables (waist circumference or body mass index). Compared to women with LDL subclass pattern A and waist circumference below the median value of 83.0 centimeters, those with pattern B and waist > or =83.0 centimeters had markedly lower HDL cholesterol levels [44.0 (41.6-47.4) vs. 57.2 (54.1-60.3) mg/dL, mean (95% CI)] and increased triglyceride concentrations [geometric mean 147.8 (131.6-165.7) vs. 95.4 (88.2-102.5) mg/dL]. These data suggest that adiposity and LDL subclass distribution pattern are independent determinants of plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations in postmenopausal women.

  18. Low-density lipoprotein particle diameter and mortality: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Tanja B; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Silbernagel, Günther; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Wieland, Heinrich; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Scharnagl, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in average diameter of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. We studied 1643 subjects referred to coronary angiography, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 398 patients died, of these 246 from cardiovascular causes. We calculated average particle diameters of LDL from the composition of LDL obtained by β-quantification. When LDL with intermediate average diameters (16.5-16.8 nm) were used as reference category, the hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors for death from any cause were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31-2.25) and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.95-1.63) in patients with large (>16.8 nm) or small LDL (<16.5 nm), respectively. Adjusted HRs for death from cardiovascular causes were 1.89 (95% CI: 1.32-2.70) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.06-2.12) in patients with large or small LDL, respectively. Patients with large LDL had higher concentrations of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein than patients with small or intermediate LDL. Equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation revealed characteristic and distinct profiles of LDL particles in persons with large (approximately even distribution of intermediate-density lipoproteins and LDL-1 through LDL-6) intermediate (peak concentration at LDL-4) or small (peak concentration at LDL-6) average LDL particle diameters. Calculated LDL particle diameters identify patients with different profiles of LDL subfractions. Both large and small LDL diameters are independently associated with increased risk mortality of all causes and, more so, due to cardiovascular causes compared with LDL of intermediate size. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Chitin-glucan fiber effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bays, H E; Evans, J L; Maki, K C; Evans, M; Maquet, V; Cooper, R; Anderson, J W

    2013-01-01

    Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) may promote inflammation, and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and worsening complications of diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitin-glucan (CG), alone and in combination with a potentially anti-inflammatory olive oil (OO) extract, for reducing OxLDL in subjects with borderline to high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a novel, insoluble fiber derived from the Aspergillus niger mycelium, CG, evaluated 130 subjects free of diabetes mellitus with fasting LDL-C 3.37-4.92 mmol/l and glucose ≤ 6.94 mmol/l. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CG (4.5 g/day; n=33), CG (1.5 g/day; n=32), CG (1.5 g/day) plus OO extract (135 mg/day; n=30), or matching placebo (n=35). Administration of 4.5 g/day CG for 6 weeks significantly reduced OxLDL compared with placebo (P=0.035). At the end of study, CG was associated with lower LDL-C levels relative to placebo, although this difference was statistically significant only for the CG 1.5 g/day group (P=0.019). CG did not significantly affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin or F2-isoprostane levels. Adverse events did not substantively differ between treatments and placebo. In this 6-week study, CG (4.5 g/day) reduced OxLDL, an effect that might affect the risk for atherosclerosis.

  20. Dietary habits affect the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Korpela, R; Seppo, L; Laakso, J; Lilja, J; Karjala, K; Lähteenmäki, T; Solatunturi, E; Vapaatalo, H; Tikkanen, M J

    1999-10-01

    To study, if there are differences in the fatty acid composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in people eating three different long-standing habitual diets: vegetarian, high fish intake, or high saturated fat (milk fat) diet as a control group, and to study if these differences influence the oxidation susceptibility of LDL. Cross-sectional study using blood samples and a validated dietary frequency questionnaire with illustrations. Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. The effect of three different types of long-standing diets of different fatty acid content (a strict vegetarian diet, n=11; a high fish intake diet, n=9; and a high saturated fat (milk fat) diet, controls, n=7) on the serum and LDL fatty acid content, and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in vitro, was studied in healthy normocholesterolemic volunteers who had been on these diets for years. Oxidation of LDL was carried out by using CuSO4 as a pro-oxidant. There were no statistically significant differences in the serum lipids or lipoproteins, though the vegetarian group exhibited lowest mean values of total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and LDL cholesterol levels. Both the serum and LDL eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid proportions were highest in the fish and lowest in the vegetarian groups. Linoleic acid was highest among the vegetarians. In the fish group, the vitamin A concentration in serum was higher than in vegetarians and controls and beta-carotene lower than in controls, but in alpha-tocopherol, or lycopene concentrations there were no statistically significant differences. The lag phase of LDL oxidation was shortest (116 min) in the fish group and longest (165 min) in the vegetarian group, and the control group was between them (129 min). The mean oxidation percentage after 2.5 h of copper-induced oxidation was highest (44%) in the fish group and lowest (22%) in the vegetarian group and intermediate (31%) in the control group. Long

  1. Ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias and lipids: effect of human high- and low-density lipoproteins on reperfusion arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Okumura, M; Tanaka, F; Sato, T; Kagami, A; Tada, N; Nagano, M

    1991-03-01

    The effect of high- and low-density lipoproteins separated from human serum on the postischemic reperfusion arrhythmias was investigated. The hearts were perfused by working heart mode with Krebs Henseleit bicarbonate buffer containing arachidonic acid (1 microgram/ml) for 5 minutes. Whole heart ischemia was induced by the use of a one-way ball valve, and hearts were perfused for 15 minutes followed by 20 minutes of reperfusion. Physiologic concentrations of high- and low-density lipoproteins were constantly infused through the atrial route during ischemic perfusion. Coronary effluent was collected via pulmonary artery cannulation for subsequent radioimmunoassay of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, the major stable metabolites of thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin, respectively. The incidence of ventricular arrhythmias during reperfusion was 6/6 (100%), 1/6 (17%), and 6/6 (100%) in control, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein infusion groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in coronary flow among the three groups throughout the perfusion. Both thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha increased significantly during ischemia compared with preischemic values in all groups of hearts. However, the ratio of these two parameters varied in control and low-density lipoprotein infusion groups during ischemia, while there was no significant change in the high-density lipoprotein infusion group. These results provide the possibility that arachidonate metabolites may be involved in the regulation of ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias and that high-density lipoprotein that was infused during ischemia markedly inhibits the incidence of ischemia-reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias, due in part at least, to stabilizing the arachidonate metabolites during ischemic perfusion.

  2. Modification of protein moiety of human low density lipoprotein by hypochlorite generates strong platelet agonist.

    PubMed

    Volf, I; Bielek, E; Moeslinger, T; Koller, F; Koller, E

    2000-08-01

    Conflicting reports exist about the effects of mildly or extensively oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs) on the reactivity of human platelets. This platelet response is mainly caused by modification of the protein and lipid moiety, giving rise to very differently modified species with hardly predictable properties. The aim of this study was to prepare oxidized LDL with modifications essentially restricted to the protein moiety and to determine the eventual platelet responses. We treated LDL at 0 degrees C for 10 minutes with a 60- to 1000-fold molar excess of sodium hypochlorite in borate buffer in the presence of the radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene. Under these conditions, neither fragmentation of apolipoprotein B-100 nor formation of LDL aggregates was observed, and lipid oxidation products did not exceed the amount present in untreated LDLs. The degree of modification and the respective effects on platelet function were highly reproducible. Hypochlorite-modified LDLs act as strong platelet agonists, inducing morphological changes, dense granule release, and irreversible platelet aggregation. The evoked platelet effects are completely suppressed by inhibitors of the phosphoinositide cycle but not by EDTA or acetylsalicylic acid. Most likely, these effects are transmitted via high-affinity binding to a single class of sites, which does not recognize native or acetylated LDL. Obviously, modified lysines, and the secondary lipid modifications derived from them, are not essential for this interaction. We conclude that bioactive oxidized lipids are not directly involved in the stimulation of platelets by hypochlorite-modified LDLs.

  3. Low density lipoprotein adsorption on sol-gel derived alumina for blood purification therapy.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takuji; Tsuru, Kanji; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Osaka, Akiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Among the clinical treatments of Familial Hyper cholesterolemia patients to reduce the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL), blood purification therapy is most suitable in which a blood-compatible adsorbent is employed. In the present study, alumina powders were prepared via a sol-gel route to develop a LDL-adsorbent Aluminum tri2-propoxide was hydrolyzed and subsequently calcined up to 1200 degrees C. Surface charge density and pore size distribution were measured, and the phases were identified. The alumina calcined above 400 degrees C had excellent blood compatibility in terms of endogenous clotting parameters, i.e., partial thromboplastin time: (PTT), prothrombin time: (PT), and the amount of fibrinogen: (Fib). The amount of LDL-adsorption (DeltaW(LDL)) increased with the calcining temperature, showing a good linear correlation to surface charge density. The 1200 degrees C sample consisted only of alpha-alumina, and was greatest in DeltaW(LDL). All samples involved pores smaller than 20 nm but not the pores large enough to accommodate LDL molecules (20-25 nm). From those results, it was concluded for the present alumina particles that the surface charge density was the primary factor and that the chemical activity of alpha-alumina also contributed to the excellent LDL-adsorption for the 1200 degrees C sample, while entrapping LDL in the pores was not an active mechanism.

  4. Targeting low-density lipoprotein receptors with protein-only nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhikun; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Unzueta, Ugutz; Álamo, Patricia; Pesarrodona, Mireia; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus

    2015-03-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) are appealing cell surface targets in drug delivery, as they are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium and are able to mediate transcytosis of functionalized drugs for molecular therapies of the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, brain-targeted drug delivery is currently limited, among others, by the poor availability of biocompatible vehicles, as most of the nanoparticles under development as drug carriers pose severe toxicity issues. In this context, protein nanoparticles offer functional versatility, easy and cost-effective bioproduction, and full biocompatibility. In this study, we have designed and characterized several chimerical proteins containing different LDLR ligands, regarding their ability to bind and internalize target cells and to self-organize as viral mimetic nanoparticles of about 18 nm in diameter. While the self-assembling of LDLR-binding proteins as nanoparticles positively influences cell penetration in vitro, the nanoparticulate architecture might be not favoring BBB crossing in vivo. These findings are discussed in the context of the use of nanostructured materials as vehicles for the systemic treatment of CNS diseases.

  5. Low-density lipoproteins investigated under high hydrostatic pressure by elastic incoherent neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Peters, J; Martinez, N; Lehofer, B; Prassl, R

    2017-07-01

    Human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a highly complex nano-particle built up of various lipid classes and a single large protein moiety (apoB-100) owning essential physiological functions in the human body. Besides its vital role as a supplier of cholesterol and fat for peripheral tissues and cells, it is also a known key player in the formation of atherosclerosis. Due to these important roles in physiology and pathology the elucidation of structural and dynamical details is of great interest. In the current study we drew a broader picture of LDL dynamics using elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) as a function of specified temperature and pressure points. We not only investigated a normolipidemic LDL sample, but also a triglyceride-rich and an oxidized one to mimic pathologic conditions as found under hyperlipidemic conditions or in atherosclerotic plaques, respectively. We could show that pressure has a significant effect on atomic motions in modified forms of LDL, whereas the normolipidemic sample seems to cope much better with high-pressure conditions irrespective of temperature. These findings might be explained by the altered lipid composition, which is either caused through elevated triglyceride content or modifications through lipid peroxidation.

  6. Analysis of non-Newtonian effects on Low-Density Lipoprotein accumulation in an artery.

    PubMed

    Iasiello, Marcello; Vafai, Kambiz; Andreozzi, Assunta; Bianco, Nicola

    2016-06-14

    In this work, non-Newtonian effects on Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transport across an artery are analyzed with a multi-layer model. Four rheological models (Carreau, Carreau-Yasuda, power-law and Newtonian) are used for the blood flow through the lumen. For the non-Newtonian cases, the arterial wall is modeled with a generalized momentum equation. Convection-diffusion equation is used for the LDL transport through the lumen, while Staverman-Kedem-Katchalsky, combined with porous media equations, are used for the LDL transport through the wall. Results are presented in terms of filtration velocity, Wall Shear Stresses (WSS) and concentration profiles. It is shown that non-Newtonian effects on mass transport are negligible for a healthy intramural pressure value. Non-Newtonian effects increase slightly with intramural pressure, but Newtonian assumption can still be considered reliable. Effects of arterial size are also analyzed, showing that Newtonian assumption can be considered valid for both medium and large arteries, in predicting LDL deposition. Finally, non-Newtonian effects are also analyzed for an aorta-common iliac bifurcation, showing that Newtonian assumption is valid for mass transport at low Reynolds numbers. At a high Reynolds number, it has been shown that a non-Newtonian fluid model can have more impact due to the presence of flow recirculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  8. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Oxidized LDL) and the risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, C; Phung, T T T; Vadachkoria, S; Muy-Rivera, M; Sanchez, S E; Williams, M A

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In a case-control study of 99 women with preeclampsia and 99 controls, we assessed maternal plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxidized LDL) in relation to preeclampsia risk. Logistic regression procedures were used to derive odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Plasma oxidized LDL was determined using enzyme immunoassay. Maternal plasma oxidized LDL was significantly positively correlated with lipids in both cases and controls. After adjusting for nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, physical inactivity, family history of chronic hypertension and plasma vitamin C concentrations, women who had elevated oxidized LDL concentrations ( > or = 50 U/l) experienced a 2.9-fold increased risk of preeclampsia when compared with women having lower oxidized LDL concentrations (95 % CI 1.4-5.9). The risk of preeclampsia was markedly increased in women who had both elevated oxidized LDL and elevated triglyceride concentrations (OR=8.9, 95 % CI 3.1-26.2). Women with both elevated oxidized LDL and low vitamin C concentrations experienced a 9.8-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95 % CI 3.0-32.2). Our results confirm the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Prospective studies are needed to determine if elevated oxidized LDL concentrations can predict the occurrence of preeclampsia.

  9. Study of abnormal plasma low-density lipoprotein in rhesus monkeys with diet-induced hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Fless, G.M.; Wissler, R.W.; Scanu, A.M.

    1976-12-28

    Male rhesus monkeys were divided into three groups: five were fed a regular primate chow diet and were used as controls; four received an ''average'' American diet; and five a special low-fat primate chow diet supplemented with 25 percent coconut oil and 2 percent cholesterol. In all of these animals, the plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were isolated by ultracentrifugal flotation between densities of 1.019 and 1.050 g/ml. The LDL of the five control monkeys had variable molecular weights, with a mean value of 3.12 +- 0.21 x 10/sup 6/ (range: 2.92 x 10/sup 6/ to 3.45 x 10/sup 6/), andmore » an average partial specific volume of 0.969 +- 0.003 ml/g; both were assessed by flotation equilibrium analysis in the analytical ultracentrifuge. In the individual animals, however, the physical properties of LDL were invariant with time. The administration of either an ''average'' American diet or a coconut oil-cholesterol diet was accompanied by hypercholesterolemia associated with changes in LDL which were characterized by increases in molecular weight to 3.52 +- 0.21 x 10/sup 6/ (average of nine monkeys) and in partial specific volume to 0.973 +- 0.002 ml/g.« less

  10. Low-density lipoprotein peptide-combined DNA nanocomplex as an efficient anticancer drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Tao, Jun; Hua, Haiying; Sun, Pengchao; Zhao, Yongxing

    2015-08-01

    DNA is a type of potential biomaterials for drug delivery due to its nanoscale geometry, loading capacity of therapeutics, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, DNA is easily degraded by DNases in the body circulation and has low intracellular uptake. In the present study, we selected three cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor targeted peptide (RLT), to modify DNA and improve the issues. A potent anti-tumor anthracycline-doxorubicin (DOX) was intercalated into DNA non-covalently and the DOX/DNA was then combined with PEI, CTAB, and RLT, respectively. Compact nanocomplexes were formed by electrostatic interaction and could potentially protect DNA from DNases. More importantly, RLT had the potential to enhance intracellular uptake by LDL receptor mediated endocytosis. In a series of in vitro experiments, RLT complexed DNA enhanced intracellular delivery of DOX, increased tumor cell death and intracellular ROS production, and reduced intracellular elimination of DOX. All results suggested that the easily prepared and targeted RLT/DNA nanocomplexes had great potential to be developed into a formulation for doxorubicin with enhanced anti-tumor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Whole-cell analysis of low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages using STEM tomography.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W Gray; Kübel, Christian; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80° thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters.

  12. Effects of in vitro addition of captopril on copper-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Ziedén, B; Wuttge, D M; Karlberg, B E; Olsson, A G

    1995-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was incubated with 20 microM of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril, fosinopril and quinapril or ethanol. Oxidation of LDL was initiated by addition of CuSO4 and monitored for production of conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid peroxides. The inhibition of production of conjugated dienes was expressed as the lag phase in minutes. The lag phase for control samples was 55.2 +/- 6.1 (mean +/- s.e. mean) min and for captopril 86.4 +/- 7.0 min (P = 0.0058). Quinapril had a small but nonsignificant effect, fosinopril and ethanol had no effect. LDL incubated with captopril showed only 13.8% of TBARS and 22.7% of lipid peroxides produced by control (100%) after 1 h. Increasing concentrations of captopril showed a linear increase in the lag phase. We conclude that captopril increases the resistance of LDL to copper-induced oxidation. PMID:7742164

  13. A simple method to assess the oxidative susceptibility of low density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Scoccia, Adriana E; Molinuevo, María Silvina; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Cortizo, Ana María

    2001-01-01

    Background Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) is recognized as one of the major processes involved in atherogenesis. The in vitro standardized measurement of LDL oxidative susceptibility could thus be of clinical significance. The aim of the present study was to establish a method which would allow the evaluation of oxidative susceptibility of LDL in the general clinical laboratory. Results LDL was isolated from human plasma by selective precipitation with amphipathic polymers. The ability of LDL to form peroxides was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after incubation with Cu2+ and H2O2. Reaction kinetics showed a three-phase pattern (latency, propagation and decomposition phases) which allowed us to select 150 min as the time point to stop the incubation by cooling and EDTA addition. The mixture Cu2+/H2O2 yielded more lipoperoxides than each one on its own at the same time end-point. Induced peroxidation was measured in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients. In the control group, results were 21.7 ± 1.5 nmol MDA/mg LDL protein, while in the diabetic group results were significantly increased (39.0 ± 3.0 nmol MDA/mg LDL protein; p < 0.001). Conclusion a simple and useful method is presented for the routine determination of LDL susceptibility to peroxidation in a clinical laboratory. PMID:11432757

  14. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuatedmore » the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.« less

  15. Nuclear imaging analysis of human low-density lipoprotein biodistribution in rabbits and monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, R.V.; Fleming, R.M.; Ryan, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    We have evaluated the biodistribution of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) radiolabeled with 99mTc or with {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose in rabbits and in rhesus monkeys. Biodistribution was assessed after intravenous injection of radiolabeled LDL by quantitative analysis of scintigrams, counting of excreta, and counting of tissues at necropsy. Both rabbits and monkeys showed lower renal uptake ({sup 123}I:99mTc {approximately} 1:3, as regional percent injected activity corrected for physical decay) and excretion (1:2 to 1:4), but higher hepatic (1.5:1 to 2:1) and cardiac (1.7:1 to 4:1) uptake of {sup 123}I than of 99mTc. Adrenals were visualized in normolipemic animals with {sup 123}I-tyraminemore » cellobiose-LDL but not with 99mTc-LDL. Hyperlipemic animals showed increased cardiac (up to six-fold) and decreased hepatic activity (by 50%-60%) of both radionuclides. We conclude that {sup 123}I-tyramine cellobiose-LDL is better suited than 99mTc-LDL for dynamic studies of LDL metabolism in vivo.« less

  16. Effect of soy-based breakfast cereal on blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vidgen, E; Vuksan, V; Jackson, C J; Augustin, L S; Lee, B; Garsetti, M; Agarwal, S; Rao, A V; Cagampang, G B; Fulgoni, V

    2000-11-01

    Consumption of soy protein may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease both through reduction in serum lipids and by the antioxidant properties of protein-associated soy isoflavones. However, the effect that processing required for the manufacture of breakfast cereals may have on the lipid lowering and antioxidant activities of soy has not been studied. We have therefore assessed the health benefits of soy incorporation into breakfast cereals. Twenty-five hyperlipidemic men and women took soy (providing 36 g/d soy protein and 168 mg/d isoflavones) and control breakfast cereals, each for 3 weeks in a randomized crossover study with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Fasting blood samples were obtained pretreatment and at weeks 2 and 3 of each treatment. No significant difference was seen in serum lipids between treatments at week 3 apart from a 3.8% +/- 1.5% higher apolipoprotein A-1 level on control versus soy (P = .021). However, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was reduced on the test compared with the control both as total dienes in LDL and as the ratio of conjugated dienes to cholesterol in the LDL fraction by 9.2% +/- 4.3% (P = .042) and 8.7% +/- 4.2% (P = .050), respectively. High isoflavone intakes in soy breakfast cereals may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing oxidized LDL, while having no significant effect on the absolute concentration of LDL cholesterol.

  17. Low-density lipoprotein oxidation biomarkers in human health and disease and effects of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte M; Faustmann, Gernot; Roob, Johannes M

    2017-10-01

    Based on the significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in health and disease, this review focuses on human studies addressing oxidation of LDL, including three lines of biomarkers, (i) ex vivo LDL resistance to oxidation, a "challenge test" model, (ii) circulating oxidized LDL, indicating the "current in vivo status", and (iii) autoantibodies against oxidized LDL as fingerprints of an immune response to oxidized LDL, along with circulating oxysterols and 4-hydroxynonenal as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation and oxidized LDL are hallmarks in the development of various metabolic, cardiovascular and other diseases. Changes further occur across life stages from infancy to older age as well as in athletes and smokers. Given their responsiveness to targeted nutritional interventions, markers of LDL oxidation have been employed in a rapidly growing number of human studies for more than 2 decades. There is growing interest in foods, which, besides providing energy and nutrients, exert beneficial effects on human health, such as protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. Any health claim, however, needs to be substantiated by supportive evidence derived from human studies, using reliable biomarkers to demonstrate such beneficial effects. A large body of evidence has accumulated, demonstrating protection of LDL from oxidation by bioactive food compounds, including vitamins, other micronutrients and secondary plant ingredients, which will facilitate the selection of oxidation biomarkers for future human intervention studies and health claim support. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy.

  19. Chitosan-modified carbon nanotubes-based platform for low-density lipoprotein detection.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Nawab; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved V; John, Renu; Onoda, M; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2014-10-01

    We have fabricated an immunosensor based on carbon nanotubes and chitosan (CNT-CH) composite for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) molecules via electrochemical impedance technique. The CNT-CH composite deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass electrode has been used to covalently interact with anti-apolipoprotein B (antibody: AAB) via a co-entrapment method. The biofunctionalization of AAB on carboxylated CNT-CH surface has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic studies. The covalent functionalization of antibody on transducer surface reveals higher stability and reproducibility of the fabricated immunosensor. Electrochemical properties of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO electrode have been investigated using cyclic voltammetric and impedimetric techniques. The impedimetric response of the AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode shows a high sensitivity of 0.953 Ω/(mg/dL)/cm(2) in a detection range of 0-120 mg/dL and low detection limit of 12.5 mg/dL with a regression coefficient of 0.996. The observed low value of association constant (0.34 M(-1)s(-1)) indicates high affinity of AAB/CNT-CH/ITO immunoelectrode towards LDL molecules. This fabricated immunosensor allows quantitative estimation of LDL concentration with distinguishable variation in the impedance signal.

  20. A role for endothelial cell lipoxygenase in the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S; Wieland, E; Steinberg, D

    1989-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated as a factor in the generation of macrophage-derived foam cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the exact mechanism of LDL oxidation has not been established. The present studies show that cellular lipoxygenase activity is involved in endothelial cell-induced oxidation of LDL. Inhibitors of lipoxygenase (but not inhibitors of cyclooxygenase) reduced LDL oxidation by as much as 70-85% under the conditions used. In contrast, the addition of pure (recombinant) superoxide dismutase inhibited by only approximately 25% under the same conditions. Oxidation of LDL by smooth muscle cells, on the other hand, was effectively inhibited by superoxide dismutase, as was Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of LDL. When LDL was added to endothelial cell cultures within a dialysis bag, it did not undergo oxidative modification, suggesting that cell-LDL contact is necessary. We propose that an important element in cell-induced oxidation of LDL depends on (i) lipoxygenase oxidation of cellular lipids, followed by their exchange into LDL in the medium; (ii) direct lipoxygenase-dependent oxidation of LDL lipids during LDL-cell contact; (iii) or both. PMID:2536929

  1. Whole-Cell Analysis of Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages Using STEM Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W. Gray; Kübel, Christian; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80° thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters. PMID:23383042

  2. Novel fluorescently labeled peptide compounds for detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein at high specificity.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yamanaka, Hikaru; Oe, Keitaro; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2014-10-01

    The probes for specific detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques are expected to be useful for the identification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for atherosclerosis. In this study, to develop a fluorescent peptide probe for specific detection of ox-LDL, we investigated the interaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptides with ox-LDL using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two heptapeptides (KWYKDGD and KP6) coupled through the ε-amino group of K at the N-terminus to FITC in the presence/absence of 6-amino-n-caproic acid (AC) linker to FITC--(FITC-AC)KP6 and (FITC)KP6--both bound with high specificity to ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, a tetrapeptide (YKDG) labeled with FITC at the N-terminus and a pentapeptide (YKDGK) coupled through the ε-amino group of K at the C-terminus to FITC did not bind selectively to ox-LDL. Furthermore, (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 bound with high specificity to the protein in mouse plasma (probably ox-LDL fraction). These findings strongly suggest that (FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6 may be effective novel fluorescent probes for specific detection of ox-LDL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus, low density lipoproteins, response to pravastatin and coronary heart disease: results from PROSPER

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caucasian carriers of the T allele at R46L in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) locus have been reported to have 15% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) levels and 47% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Our objective was to examine two PCSK9 single nucle...

  4. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  5. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol-a possible antecedent of atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in type 2 diabetes patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inaku, Kenneth O; Ogunkeye, Obasola O; Abbiyesuku, Fayeofori M; Chuhwak, Evelyn K; Isichei, Christian O; Imoh, Lucius C; Amadu, Noel O; Abu, Alexander O

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Dyslipidaemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus manifesting frequently as cardiovascular diseases and stoke. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein has been recognised as a component of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype associated with cardiovascular complications. We speculate that the elevation of this lipoprotein particle may be the antecedent of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. This study therefore aims to determine the pattern of dyslipidaemia among diabetes mellitus patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-six patients with type 2 diabetes and 154 age-matched controls were studied. The patients with diabetes were regular clinic attenders and had stable glycaemic control. None were on lipid-lowering therapy. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and lipids (including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride) were measured by chemical methods using the Hitachi 902 analyzer. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald's equation. Small, dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol, -sdLDL-C was measured using the precipitation method by Hirano et al. Means of the different groups were compared using EPI Info and a P -value of <0.05 was accepted as significant difference. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and small, dense lipoprotein cholesterol were all significantly higher in diabetes patients than controls except high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage of LDL-C as sdLDL-C among the diabetes versus control group was 45% ± 17.79 v 32.0% ± 15.93. Serum sdLDL-C concentration was determined to be 1.45 ± 0.64 among diabetes patients and 0.8 ± 0.54 among control subjects. 75% of diabetes patients had hypertension and were taking blood pressure lowering medications. The classical atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype was not demonstrated

  6. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  7. [Relationship between genetic variation of furin gene and hypercholesterolemia and hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia in Kazakh general population].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-mei; Li, Nan-fang; Hong, Jing; Luo, Wen-li; Yan, Zhi-tao; Wang, Xin-ling; Zhu, Yi; Shen, Yan

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the genetic variation of Furin gene and the hypercholesterolemia and hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia in Kazakh general population. Based on a cross-sectional epidemiological study in a Kazakh general population, a case-control study including 878 subjects was conducted. All the sequence variant-located promoters and exon regions of Furin gene were identified by the direct sequencing of PCR products in 48 randomly selected hypercholesterolemic individuals (24 males and 24 females). After having genotyped the representative polymorphisms in 878 subjects by TaqMan PCR, we investigated the relationship between genetic variation of Furin and hypercholesterolemia/hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia in these subjects. Twelve genetic variations in Furin gene were identified by sequencing 48 hypercholesterolemic individuals and 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs6226, rs6227, rs2071410, and rs4932178)were selected as the representatives for genotyping in these subjects. The rs6226, rs6227, rs2071410, and rs4932178 polymorphisms were successfully genotyped. The distribution of the genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes of rs6226, rs6227, rs2071410, and rs4932178 polymorphisms did not differ significantly between the hypercholesterolemia group and the control groups or between the hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia group and the control groups (all P>0.05). The cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not differ significantly among individuals with different genotypes (all P>0.05). The genetic variation of Furin may not be associated with hypercholesterolemia or hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia in Kazakh general population.

  8. Endogenous Androgen Deficiency Enhances Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Nicholas W.; Srodulski, Sarah J.; Chan, Huei-Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Tannock, Lisa R.; King, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite numerous clinical and animal studies, the role of sex steroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis remain controversial. Objective We sought to determine the effects of endogenous estrogen and testosterone on lipoprotein levels and atherosclerosis using mice fed a low-fat diet with no added cholesterol. Methods Male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were fed an open stock low-fat diet (10% of kcals from fat) for 2, 4, or 17 weeks. Ovariectomy, orchidectomy, or sham surgeries were performed to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence of endogenous hormones on lipid levels, lipoprotein distribution, and atherosclerosis development. Results Female mice fed the study diet for 17 weeks had a marked increase in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein-B containing lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis compared with male mice. Surprisingly, ovariectomy in female mice had no effect on any of these parameters. In contrast, castration of male mice markedly increased total cholesterol concentrations, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, and atherosclerotic lesion formation compared with male and female mice. Conclusions These data suggest that endogenous androgens protect against diet-induced increases in cholesterol concentrations, formation of proatherogenic lipoproteins, and atherosclerotic lesions formation. Conversely orchidectomy, which decreases androgen concentrations, promotes increases in cholesterol concentrations, proatherogenic lipoprotein formation, and atherosclerotic lesion formation in lowdensity lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice in response to a low-fat diet. PMID:22981166

  9. Antibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein: epidemiological studies and potential clinical applications in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gounopoulos, P; Merki, E; Hansen, L F; Choi, S-H; Tsimikas, S

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is mediated by genetic susceptibility along with a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and environment influences. As atherosclerotic lesions progress, they manifest several features typical of chronic inflammation, such as the presence of monocyte/macrophages, T-cells and inflammatory cytokines. This inflammatory response is fueled and enhanced by oxidative stress, which may be the link between lipid disorders and inflammation. Oxidation of lipoproteins is intimately involved in all stages of atherosclerosis and oxidative byproducts co-localize with inflammatory cells. When low density lipoprotein enters the subintimal space, it is oxidized by several mechanisms, including both enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways and becomes a ligand for scavenger receptors on macrophages leading to generation of foam cells. Oxidized LDL is not only pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic, but several of the neoepitopes generated during oxidation are highly immunogenic and result in the generation of autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to OxLDL are found within atherosclerotic lesions and in apparently healthy subjects, as well as patients with various manifestations of cardiovascular disease. In this article, the role of circulating autoantibodies to OxLDL in cardiovascular disease will be reviewed. Although controversy still exists, the overall evidence supports the notion that IgG autoantibodies to OxLDL are associated with pro-atherogenic properties and IgM autoantibodies to OxLDL with atheroprotective properties. Whether such antibodies have a modulating role or are merely reflectors of atherogenesis has not been fully determined. Data is also emerging on the role of natural antibodies, which are primarily of the IgM class, that recognize oxidation-specific epitopes. Among other properties, these antibodies may be involved in housekeeping functions in binding and clearing pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids and therefore may be atheroprotective

  10. Comparison of two low-density lipoprotein apheresis systems in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Bergeron, Jean; Pelletier, Maude; Laflamme, Nathalie; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis (LA) is a reliable method to decrease LDL-C concentrations and remains the gold standard therapy in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH). The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two LA systems [heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) vs. dextran sulfate adsorption (DS) on the reduction of lipids, inflammatory markers, and adhesion molecules in a sample of genetically defined HoFH subjects (n = 9)]. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after LA. All subjects served as their own control and were first treated with the HELP system then with DS in this single sequence study. Compared with HELP, DS led to significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol (-63.3% vs. -59.9%; P = 0.05), LDL-C (-70.5% vs. -63.0%; P = 0.02), CRP (-75.3% vs. -48.8%; P < 0.0001), and TNF-α (-23.7% vs. +14.7%; P = 0.003). Reductions in the plasma levels of PCSK9 (-45.3% vs. -63.4%; P = 0.31), lipoprotein (a) (-70.6% vs. -65.0%; P = 0.30), E-selectin (-16.6% vs. -18.3%; P = 0.65), ICAM-1 (-4.0 vs. 5.6%; P = 0.56), and VCAM-1 (8.3% vs. -1.8%; P = 0.08) were not different between the two systems. For the same volume of filtered plasma (3,000 mL), however, HELP led to greater reductions in plasma apoB (-63.1% vs. -58.3%; P = 0.04), HDL-C (-20.6% vs. -6.5%; P = 0.003), and PCSK9 (-63.4% vs. -28.5%; P = 0.02) levels. These results suggest that both LA systems are effective in reducing plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in HoFH. Compared with HELP, greater reductions in lipid levels and inflammatory markers were achieved with DS, most likely because this method allows for a larger plasma volume to be filtered. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:359-367, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low-Density Lipoprotein Electronegativity Is a Novel Cardiometabolic Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jonathan; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ching-Chu; Chen, Jeffrey L.; Elayda, MacArthur; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Shayani, Steven; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction–L5–is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. Methods In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. Results L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01). The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5%) and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001). L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. Conclusion Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index. PMID:25203525

  12. A new formula for estimation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in an ethnic Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ching-Yun; Lee, Chia-Lin; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Wang, Jun-Sing; Lee, I-Te; Song, Yuh-Min; Fu, Chia-Po; Ling, Jiin-Tsae; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Shih-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is usually estimated by the Friedewald formula (FF) calculated from three parameters, namely, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We aimed to develop a new and simple formula (NF) for LDL-C estimation. This cross-sectional study enrolled two study populations (a testing group, n=16,749, and a validation group, n=4940). Linear regression analysis was used in the testing group to investigate the association between measured LDL-C (mLDL-C) and TC concentration, and was verified in the validation group. The NF yielded an estimated LDL-C (eLDL-C) equal to 0.75 × total cholesterol-0.6465 (mmol/L). For the subjects with TC between 2.58 and 7.74 mmol/L, the difference between mLDL-C and eLDL-C using the NF was less than that from the FF (testing group: -0.04 to -0.20 vs. -0.28 to -0.38 mmol/L; validation group: 0.01 to -0.12 vs. -0.23 to -0.30 mmol/L; p<0.001, respectively). The predictability of the NF was not inferior to that of the FF in subjects with different triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, and was not affected by diabetes diagnosis and statin use. However, the NF performed similar to or worse than the FF at TC concentrations <2.58 mmol/L and >7.74 mmol/L, respectively. In the Chinese population, the accuracy of eLDL-C measurement with the NF was better than that with the FF, especially in subjects with TC levels between 2.58 and 7.74 mmol/L. The NF is simple and may be used for screening as well as for follow-up of patients on lipid lowering agents.

  13. Very low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 turnover in glycogen storage disease type Ia (von Gierke disease).

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A S; Watt, G F; Lynas, J; Winder, A F; Wray, R

    2001-10-01

    Mixed hyperlipidaemia is a common finding in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia). Although cross-sectional studies have demonstrated increases in intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) and reductions in lipoprotein lipase activity, no studies have investigated the dynamics of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B) metabolism in GSD Ia. This study investigated apoB turnover in GSD Ia using an exogenous labelling method in one sib from a kinship with established GSD Ia. The study demonstrated normal hepatic secretion of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), but hypocatabolism of VLDL, probably due to lack of lipoprotein lipase activity. The production rate of IDL was slightly increased, but the turnover rate of low-density lipoprotein was normal. The findings suggest that, as well as a corn starch diet and dietary fat restriction, treatment of severe mixed hyperlipidaemia in GSD Ia and its attendant risk of pancreatitis should possibly involve fibrates that activate lipoprotein lipase and may enhance the clearance of IDL, rather than omega-3 fatty acids, which principally suppress hepatic secretion of VLDL.

  14. Postprandial Clearance of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Stroke Due to Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Al Kasab, Sami; Cassarly, Christy; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Martin, Renee; Brinley, Julia; Chimowitz, Marc I; Turan, Tanya N

    2017-03-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is a contributor to atherosclerosis development. OxLDL formation increases in the postprandial state due to oxidative stress in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes, but has not been studied in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. We aimed to determine differences in postprandial OxLDL in patients with atherosclerotic stroke compared to stroke from other causes. Patients with ischemic stroke but no history of CAD (n = 42) were enrolled and categorized by stroke subtype as extracranial atherosclerosis (EC), n = 12; intracranial atherosclerosis (IC), n = 16; or other cause, n = 14. After fasting overnight, subjects consumed a standardized fat meal. OxLDL levels were measured at t = 0 and t = 4 hours postprandial using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Comparisons between the mean changes in OxLDL between the groups were performed using the analysis of variance procedure. The IC group had the highest mean baseline level of OxLDL and the greatest decline during the postprandial period. There was a trend toward a difference in the mean change in OxLDL between the 3 groups (P = .0553). Subjects with atherosclerotic stroke (EC and IC groups) had higher fasting OxLDL and had a significant decline in OxLDL compared to those with stroke from other causes (P = .0164). Subjects with stroke due to atherosclerosis, particularly intracranially, demonstrated high fasting OxLDL and a decline in OxLDL during the postprandial period. This decline in OxLDL may indicate an accelerated clearance of OxLDL resulting from meal-induced oxidative stress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Simvastatin-induced changes in circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein in different types of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Tavridou, Anna; Efthimiadis, Apostolos; Efthimiadis, Ioannis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2010-07-01

    Beyond lowering lipid levels, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to possess antioxidant properties, which may explain some of their beneficial effects in reducing atherosclerosis. We sought to determine whether circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels differ between subjects with isolated hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia, as well as the effect of simvastatin on circulating ox-LDL according to the type of dyslipidemia. Twenty-five subjects with total cholesterol >200 mg/dl and triglycerides <150 mg/dl, and 22 subjects with total cholesterol >200 mg/dl and triglycerides >150 mg/dl were treated with 40 mg simvastatin daily for 3 months. Serum lipids, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ox-LDL, and free radicals were measured at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. In both groups studied, simvastatin significantly improved lipids, and reduced C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels. Free radicals were significantly reduced only in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Subjects with combined hyperlipidemia had significantly higher baseline levels of ox-LDL compared to those with hypercholesterolemia (64.6 U/l vs 53.5 U/l, P = 0.03). Ox-LDL levels were reduced by 12% in subjects with hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.03) and by 26% in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia (P = 0.001) after simvastatin treatment. In conclusion, subjects with combined hyperlipidemia have increased levels of circulating ox-LDL compared to subjects with isolated hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin significantly reduced circulating ox-LDL in both groups, but whether this reduction is related to clinical outcomes remains to be shown.

  16. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kitjaroentham, Anong; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Preutthipan, Sangchai; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and high bone fracture risk, is prevalent in Thai menopausal women. Genetic factors are known to play a key role in BMD. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), a co-receptor in the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, is involved in many aspects of bone biology. As coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of LRP5, including A1330V (rs3736228), and Asian-related Q89R (rs41494349) and N740N (rs2306862), are associated with lowered BMD, this study aimed to determine the relationship between these LRP5 polymorphisms and BMD in 277 Thai menopausal women. Only rs3736228 deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of allele frequency (p = 0.022). The median, range and p value for the BMD related to each SNP parameter were compared (Mann-Whitney U test). Significant differences were observed between wild-type and risk alleles for both rs3736228 (total radial, p = 0.011; and radial 33, p = 0.001) and rs2306862 (radial 33: p = 0.015) SNPs, with no significant difference for rs41494349 SNP. Linkage disequilibrium was strong for both rs3736228 and rs2306862 SNPs. Haplotype analysis identified high CC frequency in both normal and osteopenia/osteoporosis groups, with a significant odds ratio for carrying the TT haplotype; however, this was non-significant after adjusting for age. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis performed for rs3736228 showed that individuals with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2) had an increased risk of osteoporosis for each decade, but the polymorphism had no effect. This study did not identify LRP5 polymorphisms as a risk factor for osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further clarify the role of LRP5 as a genetic determinant of osteoporosis.

  18. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Soulis, Johannes V.; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K.; Lampri, Olga P.; Giannoglou, George D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. Methods The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Results Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. Conclusions We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta. PMID:28197271

  19. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    PubMed

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  20. Pine bark extract prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and regulates monocytic expression of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shiori; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Sugihara, Norie; Toyozaki, Miku; Taguchi, Chie; Tani, Mariko; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are widely distributed in leaves, seeds, bark, and flowers and considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that the potent antioxidant properties of pine bark extract (PBE) are exerted by its ability to scavenge free radicals and induce antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PBE on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the antioxidant defense system in monocytes. Oxidative susceptibility of LDL was determined by lag time assay in vitro and by using a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-mediated oxidation model. THP-1 monocytic cells were treated with PBE, and the expression of antioxidant enzymes was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Pine bark extract showed radical scavenging ability and significantly inhibited free radical-induced and endothelial cell-mediated LDL oxidation in vitro. Pine bark extract treatment resulted in increases in the expressions of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1, catalase, and heme oxygenase-1 in THP-1 cells. In addition, PBE induced nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activation, which was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt despite a down-regulation of reactive oxygen species. After the monocyte investigations, we further examined the antioxidant effect after the intake of PBE by 10 healthy male volunteers. Pine bark extract significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation. Based on our findings, it appears that PBE enhances the antioxidant defense capacity of LDL and monocytes and may play a preventive role in atherosclerosis progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Usefulness of Martin's Method for Estimation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soie

    2017-12-04

    This study was conducted to validate Martin's method in coronary atherosclerosis in comparison with Friedewald's equation. A total of 299 participants with a coronary artery calcium score (CACS) ≥ 300 and a serum triglyceride (TG) level < 400 mg/dL at Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul, Korea were enrolled in this study. The Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was directly measured with a homogeneous assay (DLDL) and estimated by both Friedewald's equation (FLDL) and Martin's method (MLDL). Overall concordances between DLDL and LDL-C estimates were calculated as the percent agreement. The McNemar test was used to compare the rate of reclassification of participants with FLDL and MLDL and determine which differed significantly from each other. Overall concordance between DLDL and MLDL was slightly higher than that between DLDL and FLDL (73.2 vs. 70.9%, p <0.001). The FLDL showed poor performance when the TG level was ≥ 200 mg/dL, mostly by underestimation, which was 64.7% discordance with DLDL. The reclassification rate by MLDL, however, did not exceed 35.3% in all of the TG groups. Martin's method to estimate LDL-C using the strata-specific TG: VLDL ratio showed 2-fold better concordance with LDL-C measured with a direct homogeneous assay in coronary atherosclerosis compared to Friedewald's equation, when the TG level was ≥ 200 mg/dL. This finding suggests that MLDL could be a better alternative for estimating LDL-C compared to FLDL when the TG level is ≥ 200 mg/dL in coronary atherosclerosis. ©2017The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Electronegative Low-density Lipoprotein Increases Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Uremia Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, Guei-Jane; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Lee, An-Sean; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chun-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Yang, Chao-Yuh; Stancel, Nicole; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population, but its role in the development of CAD in uremia patients is unknown. L5 is the most electronegative subfraction of LDL isolated from human plasma. In this study, we examined the distribution of L5 (L5%) and its association with CAD risk in uremia patients. The LDL of 39 uremia patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 21 healthy controls was separated into 5 subfractions, L1–L5, with increasing electronegativity. We compared the distribution and composition of plasma L5 between uremia patients and controls, examined the association between plasma L5% and CAD risk in uremia patients, and studied the effects of L5 from uremia patients on endothelial function. Compared to controls, uremia patients had significantly increased L5% (P < 0.001) and L5 that was rich in apolipoprotein C3 and triglycerides. L5% was significantly higher in uremia patients with CAD (n = 10) than in those without CAD (n = 29) (P < 0.05). Independent of other major CAD risk factors, the adjusted odds ratio for CAD was 1.88 per percent increase in plasma L5% (95% CI, 1.01–3.53), with a near-linear dose–response relationship. Compared with controls, uremia patients had decreased flow-mediated vascular dilatation. In ex vivo studies with preconstricted rat thoracic aortic rings, L5 from uremia patients inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In cultured human endothelial cells, L5 inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and induced endothelial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that elevated plasma L5% may induce endothelial dysfunction and play an important role in the increased risk of CAD in uremia patients. PMID:26765403

  3. Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein L5 Induces Adipose Tissue Inflammation Associated With Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ke, Liang-Yin; Chan, Hua-Chen; Chan, Hsiu-Chuan; Kalu, Franklin Chikodi Udo; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lin, I-Ling; Jhuo, Shih-Jie; Lai, Wen-Ter; Tsao, Chen-Rong; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Dixon, Richard A; Chen, Chu-Huang; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2017-12-01

    Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) L5 is a naturally occurring, atherogenic entity found at elevated levels in the plasma of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the absence of elevated plasma LDL levels. To investigate the role of L5 in the mechanism of adipose tissue inflammation associated with MetS. Plasma LDL isolated from patients with MetS (n = 29) and controls (n = 29) with similar plasma LDL levels was separated into five subfractions, L1 to L5, with increasing electronegativity. We examined the invivo effects of L5 on adipose tissue in mice and the in vitro effects of L5 on adipocytokine signaling and monocytes. Tail-vein injection of human L5 but not L1 into C57BL/6 mice induced the accumulation of F4/80+ and CD11c+ M1 macrophages. The effects of L5 were attenuated in mice deficient for L5's receptor, lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1). L5 but not L1 induced human adipocytes to release inflammatory adipocytokines. Incubating human THP-1 monocytes with LDL-free culture media from L5-treated adipocytes enhanced the migration of monocytes by 300-fold (P < 0.001 vs L1-treated adipocyte media)-effects that were attenuated by LOX-1 neutralizing antibody. Migrated cells were positive for mature macrophage marker PM-2K, indicating the transformation of monocytes into macrophages. The infiltration of M1 macrophages in adipose tissue was also observed in a previously established hamster model of endogenously elevated L5. L5 induces adipose inflammation through LOX-1 by promoting macrophage maturation and infiltration into adipose tissue. Elevated plasma L5 levels may be a novel etiology of adipose tissue inflammation in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. [Effects of thyroid hormone on macrophage dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein].

    PubMed

    Ning, Yu; Zhang, Ming; DU, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Hui-Na; Li, Lin-Yi; Qin, Yan-Wen; Wen, Wan-Wan; Zhao, Quan-Ming

    2018-04-25

    It has been recognized that patients with hypothyroidism have higher risks of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Considering that macrophage dysfunction plays an important role in the formation and development of atherosclerosis plaques, this study aimed to investigate the direct effects of thyroid hormone on macrophage functions and to provide new insight for the mechanism of hypothyroid atherosclerosis. RAW264.7 cells (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line) were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to establish macrophage foam cells model in vitro, and the protective effects of different concentration of thyroxine (T4) on the macrophage foam cells function were explored. The proliferation, migration and cell aging of macrophages were detected by MTT method, scratch test and β-galactosidase staining respectively. The ELISA method was used to detect the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Western blot analysis was applied to measure the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which was required for the process of proliferation and migration of macrophages. The results showed that oxLDL significantly inhibited the macrophage proliferation and migration, induced cell senescence, and promoted the secretion of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β; while T4 reversed those effects of oxLDL on macrophage in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, oxLDL increased the phosphorylation of FAK in macrophage, while T4 concentration-dependently reversed the effect. These results suggest that T4 modulates macrophage proliferation, migration, senescence, and secretion of inflammation factors in a concentration-dependent way.

  5. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis as long-term treatment for children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Zwiener, R J; Uauy, R; Petruska, M L; Huet, B A

    1995-05-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term dextran sulfate-affinity column low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis for the treatment of children with receptor-negative homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH). Two children with HFH (pretreatment cholesterol levels 22.1 to 24.7 mmol/L (ranges 850 to 950 mg/dl) began LDL apheresis treatments at ages 7 and 10 years, respectively. The LDL apheresis treatment interval was generally either 7 or 14 days; for the last 2 years of the study the treatment interval was 7 days. The patients had 167 and 188 LDL apheresis procedures during 64 and 70 months, respectively. Individual procedures decreased total blood cholesterol levels by 63% to 68%. When the treatment interval was 7 days, the patients' time-averaged mean total cholesterol levels decreased to 7.3 +/- 0.65 mmol/L (280 +/- 25 mg/dl) and 6.4 +/- 0.55 mmol/L (247 +/- 22 mg/dl), respectively. Both children remained clinically well with normal growth and development. There was significant regression of xanthomas in both patients. The older patient required heart surgery for preexisting aortic stenosis and coronary ostial stenosis, but neither patient had progression of hypercholesterolemia-related cardiovascular disease. With the exception of iron (deficiency in patient 1), there was no evidence of depletion of serum components. Adverse reactions to LDL apheresis were rare and never severe. Dextran sulfate-affinity column LDL apheresis is effective long-term treatment for children with receptor-negative HFH.

  6. Deep white matter hyperintensities, decreased serum low-density lipoprotein, and dilative large arteriopathy.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroo; Mukai, Masanori; Ohno, Hideki; Shimizu, Yuki; Itaya, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2012-04-01

    Deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are thought to reflect small-vessel diseases (SVDs) and may have a background that differs from that of stenotic large-vessel diseases. We assessed risk factors for DWMHs and investigated the association between DWMHs and dilative changes in the basilar artery (BA) on MRI in nonstroke patients. We reviewed clinical information and MRI findings for 149 outpatients aged 46-90 years, excluding those with a previous symptomatic cerebrovascular event. DWMHs were graded 0-3, and the maximal BA diameter and area were measured from the flow void on axial T2-weighted MRI to assess dilatation. We divided the patients into groups with and without DWMH grade 2 or 3, and compared clinical information and BA parameters in these groups. The two groups demonstrated significant differences in age, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and BA parameters. An adjusted logistic regression analysis including BA diameter found that age (odds ratio [OR], 1.974 per 10 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.030-1.112; P = .0006), LDL (OR, 0.811 per 10 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.964-0.965; P = .0085), eGFR (OR, 0.835 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% CI, 0.967-0.998; P = .0229), and BA diameter (OR, 2.515 per 1 mm; 95% CI, 1.191-4.098; P = .0119) were independently associated with the presence of DWMHs. An analysis including the BA area yielded similar results. DWMHs are manifestations of SVDs and show a strong association with lower serum LDL level, lower eGFR, and BA dilatation. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid stimulates endothelin-1 production in low density lipoprotein-treated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Llanos, Miguel; Tamayo, Daniela; Hirsch, Sandra

    2007-03-01

    Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of folate treatment in improving cardiovascular function. However, the mechanisms involved have not been clearly identified. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of folates and vitamin B12 on endothelial vasoconstriction/vasodilatation parameters in cultured human endothelial cells incubated with human low density lipoproteins (LDL). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were extracted from recently delivered umbilical cords, cultured until confluence was achieved, and then incubated for 24h with folic acid (FA), 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF) or vitamin B12 (B12) in the presence or absence of LDL that was isolated from healthy volunteers. Total nitrites (as a measure of nitric oxide production), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, a parameter of lipid peroxidation), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were determined in the incubation media. None of the vitamins, either in the presence or absence of LDL, was able to modify nitric oxide production by HUVEC. A significant reduction of ET-1 production was observed in LDL-treated cells. This effect was not modified by FA or B12; however, 5-MTHF caused a concentration-dependent increase on ET-1 production, an effect coincidental with reduced TBARS production. This study demonstrates for the first time that 5-MTHF, but not FA or B12, increases ET-1 production in LDL-treated endothelial cells. Although this effect was associated with the antioxidant properties of this folate, our results show that additional specific mechanisms involving 5-MTHF-LDL interactions may be operating to regulate endothelial function.

  8. Effect of hypothyroidism on kinetics of metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicholas; Sojka, Janice E; Patterson, Bruce W; Wood, Karl V; Bonham, Connie C; Latour, Mickey A

    2003-08-01

    To compare kinetics of the metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B (apoB) before and after thyroidectomy in mares. 5 healthy adult mares. Thyroidectomy was performed in euthyroid mares. Kinetics of VLDL apoB metabolism were measured before and after thyroidectomy by use of a bolus IV injection of 5,5,5-2H3 (98%) leucine (5 mg/kg) and subsequent isolation of labeled amino acid from plasma and VLDL. Labeled leucine was quantified by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Production rate (PR), delay time, and fractional catabolic rate (FCR) were calculated for the 2 forms of equine VLDL, apoB-48 VLDL, and apoB-100 VLDL. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured, and VLDL composition was determined. Physical appearance of horses was not altered by thyroidectomy. Significantly lower mean blood concentrations of thyroid hormones and non-esterified fatty acids were detected following thyroidectomy. Mean percentage of free cholesterol in VLDL was significantly higher after thyroidectomy. Mean plasma VLDL concentration or kinetics of apoB-48 or apoB-100 were not significantly altered by thyroidectomy. Mean +/- SEM PR was significantly lower (8.70 +/- 1.61 mg/kg/d) and mean delay time significantly longer (1.58 +/- 0.12 hours) for apoB-48 VLDL in euthyroid mares, compared with values for thyroidectomized mares (16.15 +/- 2.24 mg/kg/d and 0.93 +/- 0.10 hours, respectively). Hypothyroidism did not significantly alter plasma VLDL concentrations or kinetics of VLDL apoB metabolism. Metabolism of apoB-48 VLDL differed significantly from that of apoB-100 VLDL in euthyroid mares.

  9. Arsenic association with circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein in a Native American community.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Molly E; Lewis, Johnnye; Miller, Curtis; Hoover, Joseph; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Shuey, Chris; Cajero, Miranda; Lucas, Selita; Pacheco, Bernadette; Erdei, Esther; Ramone, Sandy; Nez, Teddy; Campen, Matthew J; Gonzales, Melissa

    2018-04-11

    More than 500 abandoned uranium (U) mines within the Navajo Nation contribute U, arsenic (As) and other metals to groundwater, soil and potentially air through airborne transport. The adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to cumulative exposure to these metals remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine whether environmental exposure to these metals may promote or exacerbate the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in this Native American population. The correlation of cardiovascular biomarkers (oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) from a Navajo cohort (n = 252) with mean annual As and U intakes from water and urine metals was estimated using linear regression. Proof-of-concept assays were performed to investigate whether As and U directly oxidize human LDL. Mean annual As intake from water was positively and significantly associated with oxLDL, but not CRP in this study population, while U intake estimates were negatively associated with oxLDL. In an acellular system, As, but not U, directly oxidized the apolipoprotein B-100 component of purified human LDL. Neither metal promoted lipid peroxidation of the LDL particle. Both the population and lab results are consistent with the hypothesis that As promotes oxidation of LDL, a crucial step in vascular inflammation and chronic vascular disease. Conversely, for outcomes related to U, negative associations were observed between U intake and oxLDL, and U only minimally altered human LDL in direct exposure experiments. Only urine U was correlated with CRP, whereas no other metals in water or urine were apparently reliable predictors of this inflammatory marker.

  10. CD36 binds oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) in a mechanism dependent upon fatty acid binding.

    PubMed

    Jay, Anthony G; Chen, Alexander N; Paz, Miguel A; Hung, Justin P; Hamilton, James A

    2015-02-20

    The association of unesterified fatty acid (FA) with the scavenger receptor CD36 has been actively researched, with focuses on FA and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. CD36 has been shown to bind FA, but this interaction has been poorly characterized to date. To gain new insights into the physiological relevance of binding of FA to CD36, we characterized FA binding to the ectodomain of CD36 by the biophysical method surface plasmon resonance. Five structurally distinct FAs (saturated, monounsaturated (cis and trans), polyunsaturated, and oxidized) were pulsed across surface plasmon resonance channels, generating association and dissociation binding curves. Except for the oxidized FA HODE, all FAs bound to CD36, with rapid association and dissociation kinetics similar to HSA. Next, to elucidate the role that each FA might play in CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake, we used a fluorescent oxLDL (Dii-oxLDL) live cell assay with confocal microscopy imaging. CD36-mediated uptake in serum-free medium was very low but greatly increased when serum was present. The addition of exogenous FA in serum-free medium increased oxLDL binding and uptake to levels found with serum and affected CD36 plasma membrane distribution. Binding/uptake of oxLDL was dependent upon the FA dose, except for docosahexaenoic acid, which exhibited binding to CD36 but did not activate the uptake of oxLDL. HODE also did not affect oxLDL uptake. High affinity FA binding to CD36 and the effects of each FA on oxLDL uptake have important implications for protein conformation, binding of other ligands, functional properties of CD36, and high plasma FA levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 and 6 gene variants and ischemic stroke risk

    PubMed Central

    Harriott, Andrea M.; Heckman, Michael G.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Bu, Guojun; Malik, Rainer; Cole, John W.; Meschia, James F.; Ross, Owen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins-1 and 6 have been implicated in cerebral ischemia. In addition, genetic variation in LRP1 and LRP6 has been linked with various factors that are related to risk of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association of LRP1 and LRP6 gene variants with risk of ischemic stroke as part of the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS). Methods We included a Caucasian series (434 stroke patients, 319 controls) and an African American series (161 stroke patients, 116 controls). Fourteen LRP6 variants and 3 LRP1 variants were genotyped and assessed for association with ischemic stroke. Results In the Caucasian series, significant associations with ischemic stroke were observed for LRP6 rs2075241 (OR:0.42, P=0.023), rs2302685 (OR:0.44, P=0.049), rs7975614 (OR: 0.07, P=0.017), rs10492120 (OR: 0.62, P=0.036), and rs10743980 (OR: 0.66, P=0.037). Risk of ischemic stroke was significantly lower for carriers of any of these five protective LRP6 variants (24.0% of subjects) compared to non-carriers (OR:0.57, P=0.003). The protective association for LRP6 rs2075241 was observed at a similar magnitude across ischemic stroke subtypes, while the effects of rs23022685, rs10492120, and rs10743980 were most apparent for cardioembolic and large vessel stroke. In the African American series, LRP1 rs11172113 was associated with an increased risk of stroke (OR:1.89, P=0.006). Conclusions The results of our preliminary study provide evidence that LRP6 and LRP1 variants may be associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Validation in larger studies is warranted. PMID:26031789

  12. Association of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein With Prognosis of Stroke and Stroke Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Yang, Yuling; Su, Zhaoping; Yue, Wei; Hao, Hongjun; Ren, Lijie; Wang, Yongjun; Cao, Yibin; Wang, Yilong

    2017-01-01

    The association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and the long-term prognosis of stroke is unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether oxLDL levels contribute to the prognosis of stroke and stroke subtypes. All patients with ischemic stroke were recruited from the SOS-Stroke (Study of Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke) and classified into 5 different subtypes, according to the TOAST criteria (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). We measured oxLDL levels and followed up with patients at 1 year after stroke onset. We analyzed the association between oxLDL and the clinical outcomes of death and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 3-6) of stroke and different stroke subtypes. Among the 3688 patients included in this study, 293 (7.94%) were deceased at the 1-year follow-up and 1020 (27.66%) had a poor functional outcome. Patients in the highest oxLDL quartile had a higher risk of 1-year stroke mortality (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.33; P<0.001) and a poor functional outcome (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.89; P<0.001) compared with the lowest oxLDL quartile. In the subgroup analyses, oxLDL was only significantly associated with death and poor functional outcome in the large-artery atherosclerosis subgroup (P<0.05) and small-artery occlusion subgroup (P<0.05). High levels of oxLDL were associated with the high risk of death and poor functional outcome within 1 year after stroke onset, especially in large-artery atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion stroke subtypes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Vitamin A Decreases Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Jafar; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar; Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Siassi, Fereydoon; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Fazel; Rezaei, Nima; Kalikias, Yas; Mahmoudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is implicated in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Previously, we found that ox-LDL increases vulnerability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in atherosclerotic patients compared to controls. Vitamin A induces proliferation of PBMCs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin A supplementation on PBMC survival against LDL and different doses of ox-LDL. In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we recruited 35 atherosclerotic patients and 38 healthy controls and randomly allocated them into placebo and vitamin A groups, which received either placebo or 25,000 IU/day of vitamin A for 3 months. PBMCs were isolated, cultured, and stimulated by 1 µg/mL LDL as well as 1 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL ox-LDL. The stimulation indexes (SIs) of PBMCs were calculated to identify cell viability. Additionally, the circulating ox-LDL levels were measured by ELISA. Viability of PBMCs stimulated by 50 µg/mL ox-LDL significantly increased following vitamin A supplementation in patients (p < 0.01). The levels of circulating ox-LDL were not changed by vitamin A treatment. Ox-LDL levels were strongly and positively correlated to SI of PBMCs stimulated by 1 µg/mL LDL and1 µg/mL ox-LDL in all groups. Vitamin A decreases cytotoxicity of high-dose ox-LDL and improves PBMC viability. The protective effect of vitamin A is not mediated by an antioxidative mechanism, but may instead have been due to intracellular protection of the apoptotic machinery or induction of proliferation of the cells. Higher levels of ox-LDL increase PBMC irritability in all participants.

  14. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alters plasma fatty acid profile in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Elke Maria; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Artiss, Joseph Donald; Remaley, Alan Thomas

    2008-08-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Alpha-cyclodextrin (a-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, the effects of dietary a-CD on lipid metabolism in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were investigated. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were fed a "Western diet" (21% milk fat) with or without 2.1% of a-CD (10% of dietary fat content) for 14 weeks. At sacrifice, there was no difference in body weight; but significant decreases were observed in plasma cholesterol (15.3%), free cholesterol (20%), cholesterol esters (14%), and phospholipid (17.5%) levels in mice treated with alpha-CD compared with control mice. The decrease in total cholesterol was primarily in the proatherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein fractions, with no significant change in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, alpha-CD improved the blood fatty acid profile, reducing the saturated fatty acids (4.5%) and trans-isomers (11%) while increasing (2.5%) unsaturated fatty acids. In summary, the addition of alpha-CD improved the lipid profile by lowering proatherogenic lipoproteins and trans-fatty acids and by decreasing the ratio of saturated and trans-fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids (-5.8%), thus suggesting that it may be useful as a dietary supplement for reducing cardiovascular disease.

  15. Comparison of the effects of low-dose rosuvastatin on plasma levels of cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in 3 ultracentrifugally separated low-density lipoprotein subfractions.

    PubMed

    Homma, Koichiro; Homma, Yasuhiko; Ozawa, Hideki; Shiina, Yutaka; Shibata, Takeo; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kanda, Takeshi; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hori, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-oxidized (ox) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an atherogenic lipoprotein. The distribution of ox-LDL in plasma LDL subfractions and the effect of statins on this distribution have not been investigated in detail. We examined the distribution of cholesterol and ox-LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions and investigated the effects of a statin, rosuvastatin, on the levels of these lipoproteins. Thirty-one polygenic hypercholesterolemic subjects were included in this study. Levels of cholesterol and ox-LDL in 3 plasma LDL subfractions and plasma levels of remnant-like particle cholesterol, ox-LDL, and adiponectin were measured after 0, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment with rosuvastatin. Sequential ultracentrifugation was performed to subfractionate plasma lipoproteins. The mean daily dose of rosuvastatin over the 12 months of treatment was 2.9 ± 1.0 mg (mean ± standard deviation). The cholesterol subfraction distribution was 43 ± 10% as low-density LDL, 46 ± 8% as medium-density LDL, and 13 ± 5% as high-density LDL. Similarly, the distribution of ox-LDL was 31 ± 10% as low-density LDL, 48 ± 7% as medium-density LDL, and 22 ± 8% as high-density LDL. After 12 months of treatment with rosuvastatin, the level of cholesterol was significantly reduced in all 3 subfractions (P < .0001), as was the level of ox-LDL (P < .0001). Furthermore, the plasma cholesterol level in high-density lipoprotein2 increased significantly. The distribution of ox-LDL in plasma LDL subfractions was more skewed toward the denser subfractions, compared with cholesterol. Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and ox-LDL in all LDL subfractions. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Two lifetime journeys of lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Reyhana; Mulder, Monique T; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Williams, Monique; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E

    We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural studies of detergent-solubilized and vesicle-reconstituted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor.

    PubMed

    Saxena, K; Shipley, G G

    1997-12-16

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor plays a key role in maintaining circulating and cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The LDL receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose biochemical and genetic properties have been extensively studied notably by Brown, Goldstein and colleagues [Brown, M. S., & Goldstein, J. L., (1986) Science 232, 34-47]. However, few if any structural studies of the LDL receptor have been reported, and details of its secondary and tertiary structure are lacking. In an attempt to determine the low-resolution structure of the LDL receptor, we have purified the receptor from bovine adrenal cortices using modifications of the method of Schneider et al. [Schneider, W. J., Goldstein, J. L., & Brown, M. S. (1985) Methods in Enzymol.109, 405-417]. Using circular dichroism, the secondary structure of the detergent-solubilized bovine LDL receptor at 25 degrees C was shown to be 19% alpha-helix, 42% beta-sheet, and 39% random coil. Interestingly, the detergent-solubilized receptor appeared to be quite resistant to changes in secondary structure over the temperature range 10-90 degrees C, with only minor but reversible changes being observed. In contrast, a more pronounced unfolding of the detergent-solubilized receptor was observed in the presence of guanidinium hydrochloride. Using the complete sequence of the human LDL receptor, sequence analysis by the Chou-Fasman prediction algorithm showed quite good agreement with the experimentally determined secondary structure of the bovine LDL receptor at 25 degrees C. Finally, the purified, bovine LDL receptor was reconstituted into large unilamellar vesicles of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine using a procedure exploiting preformed vesicles and detergent dialysis. We showed previously using negative stain electron microscopy that reconstituted vesicles bind LDL. Now, using cryoelectron microscopy of frozen hydrated reconstituted vesicles evidence of an extended, stick-like morphology (length approximately

  18. [Oxidized low-density lipoprotein modulates differentiation of murine memory CD8+T cell subpopulations].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua; Lin, Ze-Hang; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Chen-Fei; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Sha

    2017-08-20

    To investigate effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on memory CD8 + T cell subpopulation differentiation in mice with autoimmune diabetes. Cultured splenic CD8 + T cells from pre-diabetic NOD mice isolated with magnetic beads were treated with 30 µg/mL ox-LDL and 10 U/mL interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 24 h and the control cells were treated with IL-2 only. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of splenic CD8 + IFN-γ + T cells, expressions of CD8, CD44 and CD62L on the T cells, and the activation of T cell factor-1 (TCF-1) and STAT-3. The CD127 + memory T cells were purified and transplanted into the pre-diabetic NOD mice via the tail vein, and the blood glucose was recorded weekly and survival time of the mice was monitored. Treatment with ox-LDL significantly reduced islet β cell-specific cytotoxic CD8 + T cells as compared with the control group [(0.7∓0.03)% vs (2.7∓0.14)%, P<0.01]. The percentage of effector memory CD8 + T cells (Tem) in the total memory CD8 + T cells was reduced [(10.3∓0.71)% vs (30.3∓1.36)%, P<0.01] and that of stem cell-like memory T cells was significantly increased [(72.3∓3.8)% vs (55.1∓2.61)%, P<0.05] following ox-LDL treatment, which also resulted in significantly decreased activation of TCF-1 [(14.5∓0.82)% vs (34.2∓1.23)%, P<0.01] and pSTAT-3 [(3.3∓0.12)% vs (22.1∓1.1)%, P<0.01]. Transplantation of ox-LDL-treated memory T cells in pre-diabetic NOD mice obviously inhibited the increase of blood glucose and prolonged the survival time of the mice (P<0.05). Ox-LDL decreases the activation of transcriptional factors TCF-1 and phosphorylation of STAT-3, inhibits the formation of effector memory CD8 + T cells with long-term cytotoxicity, but promote the generation of stem cell-like memory CD8 + T cells, which result in suppression of islet β cell-specific effector cytotoxic CD8 + T cell differentiation to lessen autoimmune injury to the islet β cells.

  19. Aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue-hua; Yang, Chuan-hua; Li, Wei; Wu, Sai; Meng, Xian-qing; Li, Dong-na

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris (TT) against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction in vitro. HUVECs were pre-incubated for 60 min with TT (30 and 3 μg/mL respectively) or 10(-5) mol/L valsartan (as positive controls) and then the injured endothelium model was established by applying 100 μg/mL ox-LDL for 24 h. Cell viability of HUVECs was observed by real-time cell electronic sensing assay and apoptosis rate by Annexin V/PI staining. The cell migration assay was performed with a transwell insert system. Cytoskeleton remodeling was observed by immunofluorescence assay. The content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometer. Key genes associated with the metabolism of ox-LDL were chosen for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the possible mechanism of TT against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. TT suppressed ox-LDL-induced HUVEC proliferation and apoptosis rates significantly (41.1% and 43.5% after treatment for 3 and 38 h, respectively; P<0.05). It also prolonged the HUVEC survival time and postponed the cell's decaying stage (from the 69th h to over 100 h). According to the immunofluorescence and transwell insert system assay, TT improved the endothelial cytoskeletal network, and vinculin expression and increased cell migration. Additionally, TT regulated of the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (P<0.05). Both 30 and 3 μg/mL TT demonstrated similar efficacy to valsartan. TT normalized the increased mRNA expression of PI3Kα and Socs3. It also decreased mRNA expression of Akt1, AMPKα1, JAK2, LepR and STAT3 induced by ox-LDL. The most notable changes were JAK2, LepR, PI3Kα, Socs3 and STAT3. TT

  20. The Potential Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds against Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    The exact mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis in humans remains elusive, but one theory hypothesizes that this deleterious process results from the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Research suggests that foods rich in dietary phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity can mitigate the extent of LDL oxidation in vivo. With regard to the different classes of flavonoids, there appears to be a structurefunction relationship between the various moieties/constituents attached to the flavonoids' three ring system and their impact at retarding LDL oxidation. This article summarizes the findings to date of both in vitro and in vivo studies using foods or phenolic extracts isolated from foodstuffs at inhibiting the incidence of LDL oxidation. Three bases: SCOPUS, Web Science, and PubMed were used for search. An often used method for the determination of antioxidant properties of natural phenolic compounds is the LDL oxidation assay. LDLs are isolated from human plasma and their oxidation is induced by Cu2+ ions or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The sample is incubated with a phenolic extract or individual/isolated phenolic compounds. LDL oxidation is then monitored by various chemical methods (e.g., measurement of the generation of conjugated dienes and trienes). This technique confirmed the antioxidant properties of several extracts as obtained from plant material (e.g., grapes, berries, orange, grapefruit, coffee, tea, chocolate, olives, nuts) as well as the individual phenolic compounds (e.g., luteolinidin, apigenidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin). Several studies in vivo confirmed protective effects of phenolic compounds against LDL oxidation. They covered the healthy subjects with hyperlipidaemia, overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, heavy smokers, patients receiving haemodialysis, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The studies comprise

  1. Plasma paraoxonase-1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipid peroxidation levels in gout patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing-Liang; Li, Min; Zhou, Jing-Guo; Yang, Qi-Bin; Du, Li-Jun; Du, Juan

    2011-11-01

    Gout patients have a high incidence of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Low serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The relationships among paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, oxidative stress parameters, and atherosclerosis in gout is not known. Therefore, we determined the plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), and activities of PON1/superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in 49 gout patients (mean age 44.2 ± 7.0 years) and 42 healthy, age-matched controls (mean age 45.0 ± 9.3 years). PON1 was measured spectrophotometrically, MDA by thiobarbituric acid method, SOD by Griess reaction, and Ox-LDL by sandwich ELISA. Lipid and other biochemical parameters were determined by routine laboratory methods. In gout patients, PON1/SOD activities and MDA/Ox-LDL levels were 131.3 ± 25.3/75.3 ± 28.9 kU l(-1) and 6.12 ± 1.67 nmol ml(-1)/690.1 ± 180.2 μg l(-1), respectively. In controls, these were 172.5 ± 27.8/94.0 ± 26.3 kU l(-1) and 4.10 ± 1.25 nmol ml(-1)/452.3 ± 152.1 μg l(-1), respectively. Thus, in gout patients, there was a significant decrease in PON1 (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.05) activities, and an increase in MDA (P < 0.01) and Ox-LDL (P < 0.01) levels compared with controls. PON1 activity correlated positively with SOD (P < 0.05), and negatively with MDA (P < 0.01) and Ox-LDL (P < 0.01). These results suggest that gout patients were in a state of oxidative stress and the protective effects of HDL against atherosclerosis maybe dependent on PON1 activity. These findings may explain in part the reported increase in cardiovascular mortality in gout patients.

  2. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Among the Elderly in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Imai, Hissei; Kimura, Yumi; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wingling; Sasiwongsaroj, Kwanchit; Kato, Emiko; Ge, Ri-Li; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-09-01

    Several environmental factors including hypoxia have been reported to contribute to oxidative stress in individuals living in the highlands. However, little is known about the role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) among community-dwelling elderly in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The study population comprised 168 community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 60 years or older (male to female ratio, 70:98; mean age, 65.8 years) living in Haiyan County, located 3000 to 3200 m above sea level, 30 km northwest of Xining, Qinghai. The subjects were volunteers who joined a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment. Plasma ox-LDL was measured in 168 community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 60 years or older (23 Tibetans and 145 Hans) with a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean ox-LDL level was higher among Tibetan elderly than Han elderly (Tibetan, 79.0 ± 29.6 U/L; Han, 62.8 ± 23.5 U/L; P = .003). Tibetan ethnicity was significantly associated with ox-LDL levels after adjusting for LDL cholesterol levels. In addition, high ox-LDL levels (≥70 U/L) were significantly associated with a homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index of at least 1.6 (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 7.15; P = .029) and ankle brachial pressure index of less than 1.0 (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.14 to 10.00; P = .028), after adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity. Our findings support the hypothesis that ox-LDL levels are higher among Tibetan elderly highlanders compared with those among Han elderly. As ox-LDL levels can affect insulin resistance and arteriosclerosis, further research is needed to determine how oxidative stress influences the health situation among elderly individuals at high altitudes. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Psoriatic Skin and Changes of Plasma Lipid Levels in Psoriatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Nilgun Solak; Tekin, Ishak Ozel; Barut, Figen; Sipahi, Emine Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    Background. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an accelerated turnover of epidermal cells and an incomplete differentiation in epidermis with lesion. However, the exact etiology of psoriasis is unknown. Abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, free radical generation, lipid peroxidation, and release of lymphokines have been proposed. Objective. Our purpose was to evaluate the plasma lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein accumulation in psoriatic skin lesion in order to ascertain the possible participation of oxidative stress and oxidative modification of lipids in pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods. The study group included 84 patients with psoriasis, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Blood lipid profile was determined. Psoriatic and nonlesional skin samples of psoriatic patients were evaluated for the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by using an immune-fluorescent staining method. Results. The mean levels of lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol) in patients with psoriasis were found to be significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Psoriatic skins were shown positive oxidized low-density lipoprotein staining. There was no staining in nonlesional skin samples of the same individuals. Conclusion. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals is believed to be one of the important causes of cell membrane destruction and cell damage. This study shows for the first time the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in psoriatic skin lesion. We believe that accumulation of ox-LDL in psoriatic skin may have an important role in the immune-inflammatory events that result in progressive skin damage. PMID:17497039

  4. Nonfasting Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Heart Failure Risk: Two Cohort Studies of 113 554 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the aging population, and heart failure is a disease with large morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a need for identifying modifiable risk factors for prevention. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with higher risk of heart failure in the general population. We included 103 860 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 9694 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 2 prospective observational association studies. Nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline. Individuals were followed for ≤23 years, during which time 3593 were diagnosed with heart failure. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In the Copenhagen General Population Study, stepwise higher concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with stepwise higher risk of heart failure ( P for trend <0.001), with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of 2.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.54) for individuals with nonfasting triglycerides ≥5 mmol/L (440 mg/dL) compared with individuals with concentrations <1 mmol/L (88 mg/dL). Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with risk of heart failure. Results were independently confirmed in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Stepwise higher concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with stepwise higher risk of heart failure; however, concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with risk of heart failure in the general population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Remnant cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure as mediators from obesity to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-02-13

    Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. The increased IHD risk because of obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest that there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  7. The mechanism of oxidation-induced low-density lipoprotein aggregation: an analogy to colloidal aggregation and beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Lin, B

    2001-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease initiated by lipoprotein aggregation and deposition in artery walls. In this study, the de novo low-density lipoprotein aggregation process was examined. Nine major intermediates were identified in two stages of the aggregation process. In the aggregation stage, low-density lipoprotein molecules aggregate and form nucleation units. The nucleation units chain together and form linear aggregates. The linear aggregates branch and interact with one another, forming fractals. In the fusion stage, spatially adjacent nucleation units in the fractal fuse into curved membrane surfaces, which, in turn, fuse into multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles. Alternatively, some adjacent nucleation units in the fractals assemble in a straight line and form rods. Subsequently, the rods flatten out into rough and then into smooth ribbons. Occasionally, tubular membrane vesicles are formed from the fractals. The aggregation stage seems to be analogous to colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. The fusion stage seems to be characteristic of the lipid-rich lipoproteins and is beyond colloidal aggregation and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:11566810

  8. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins. PMID:24694979

  9. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  10. Z-Scan Analysis: a New Method to Determine the Oxidative State of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Association with Multiple Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Maria Camila Pruper; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Giampaoli, Viviane; da Conceição Quintaneiro Aubin, Elisete; de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Milena Maria; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2016-04-01

    The great atherogenic potential of oxidized low-density lipoprotein has been widely described in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the state of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human plasma measured by the Z-scan technique has an association with different cardiometabolic biomarkers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B, paraoxonase-1, and glucose were analyzed using standard commercial kits, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald equation. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect electronegative low-density lipoprotein. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein sizes were determined by Lipoprint® system. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the non-linear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solution. Principal component analysis and correlations were used respectively to resize the data from the sample and test association between the θ parameter, measured with the Z-scan technique, and the principal component. A total of 63 individuals, from both sexes, with mean age 52 years (±11), being overweight and having high levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were enrolled in this study. A positive correlation between the θ parameter and more anti-atherogenic pattern for cardiometabolic biomarkers together with a negative correlation for an atherogenic pattern was found. Regarding the parameters related with an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein profile, the θ parameter was negatively correlated with a more atherogenic pattern. By using Z-scan measurements, we were able to find an association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein state and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers in samples from individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. [Consecutive formation of the functions of high-, low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins during phylogenesis. Unique algorithm of the effects of lipid-lowering drugs].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Rozhkova, T A; Aripovsky, A V

    2015-01-01

    During phylogenesis, all fatty acids (FA) were initially transported to cells by apoA-I high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in polar lipids. Later, active cellular uptake of saturated, monoenoic and unsaturated FA occurred via triglycerides (TG) in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Active uptake of polyenoic FA (PUFA) required the following: a) PUFA re-esterified from polar phospholipids into nonpolar cholesteryl polyesters (poly-CLE), b) a novel protein, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), initiated poly-CLE transformation from HDL to LDL. CETP formed blood HDL-CETP-LDL complexes in which poly-CLE spontaneously came from polar lipids of TG in HDL to nonpolar TG in LDL. Then ligand LDLs formed and the cells actively absorbed PUFA via apoB-100 endocytosis. Some animal species (rats, mice, dogs) developed a spontaneous CETP-minus mutation followed by population death from atherosclerosis. However, there was another active CETP-independent uptake formed during phylogenesis; the cells internalized poly-CLE in HDL. Since apoA-I had no domain-ligand, another apoE/A-I ligand formed; the cells began synthesizing apoE/A-1 receptors. In cells of rabbits and primates absorbed cells PUFA consecutively: HDL-->LDL-->apoB-100 endocytosis; those of rats and dogs did HDL directly: HDL-->anoE/A-I endocytosis. In the rabbits, CETP was high, apoE in HDL was low, and the animals were sensitive to exogenous hypercholesterolemia. In the rats, CETP was low and ApoE in HDL-was high, and the animals were resistant to hypercholesterolemia. Reduced bioavailability of PUFA during their consecutive cellular uptake and develdpment of intercellular PUFA deficiency are fundamental to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  12. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714; Kim, Sang Doo

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foammore » cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.« less

  13. Association between hepatitis C virus and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/LDL analyzed in iodixanol density gradients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Søren U; Bassendine, Margaret F; Burt, Alastair D; Martin, Caroline; Pumeechockchai, Wanna; Toms, Geoffrey L

    2006-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA circulates in the blood of persistently infected patients in lipoviroparticles (LVPs), which are heterogeneous in density and associated with host lipoproteins and antibodies. The variability and lability of these virus-host complexes on fractionation has hindered our understanding of the structure of LVP and determination of the physicochemical properties of the HCV virion. In this study, HCV from an antibody-negative immunodeficient patient was analyzed using three fractionation techniques, NaBr gradients, isotonic iodixanol, and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Iodixanol gradients were shown to best preserve host lipoprotein-virus complexes, and all HCV RNA was found at densities below 1.13 g/ml, with the majority at low density, < or =1.08 g/ml. Immunoprecipitation with polyclonal antibodies against human ApoB and ApoE precipitated 91.8% and 95.0% of HCV with low density, respectively, suggesting that host lipoprotein is closely associated with HCV in a particle resembling VLDL. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies against glycoprotein E2 precipitated 25% of HCV with low density, providing evidence for the presence of E2 in LVPs. Treatment of serum with 0.5% deoxycholic acid in the absence of salt produced HCV with a density of 1.12 g/ml and a sedimentation coefficient of 215S. The diameters of these particles were calculated as 54 nm. Treatment of serum with 0.18% NP-40 produced HCV with a density of 1.18 g/ml, a sedimentation coefficient of 180S, and a diameter of 42 nm. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that ApoB remained associated with HCV after treatment of serum with deoxycholic acid or NP-40, whereas ApoE was removed from HCV with these detergents.

  14. Splanchnic metabolism of free fatty acids and production of triglycerides of very low density lipoproteins in normotriglyceridemic and hypertriglyceridemic humans

    PubMed Central

    Havel, R. J.; Kane, J. P.; Balasse, E. O.; Segel, N.; Basso, L. V.

    1970-01-01

    Transport of free fatty acids from the blood into the splanchnic region and their conversion to triglycerides of very low density lipoproteins, together with estimates of splanchnic oxidation of free fatty acids to ketones and to carbon dioxide and water, have been made in the postabsorptive state in seven normolipemic subjects, six with primary endogenous hyperlipemia and one each with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia and mixed hyperlipemia. Net systemic transport of free fatty acids into the blood was the same in normolipemic and hyperlipemic groups, but a greater fraction was taken up in the splanchnic region in the latter. Transport into the blood in very low density lipoproteins of triglyceride fatty acids derived from free fatty acids was proportional and bore the same relationship to splanchnic uptake of free fatty acids in the two groups. In normolipemic subjects, near equilibration of specific activities after 4 hr infusion of palmitate-1-14C showed that almost all triglyceride fatty acids of very low density lipoproteins and acetoacetate were derived from free fatty acids taken up in the splanchnic region. In the hyperlipemic subjects, equilibration of free fatty acidcarbon with acetoacetate was almost complete, but not with triglyceride fatty acids, owing at least in part to increased pool size. Comparison of the rate of equilibration of triglyceride fatty acids-14C with rate of inflow transport from the splanchnic region, together with other data, indicated that most of the circulating triglyceride fatty acids of very low density lipoproteins in hyperlipemic subjects were also derived from free fatty acids. Although mean inflow transport of triglyceride fatty acids was greater in the hyperlipemic subjects, it correlated poorly with their concentration and it appeared that efficiency of mechanisms for extrahepatic removal must be a major determinant of the concentration of triglycerides in blood plasma of the normolipemic as well as the hyperlipemic

  15. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis. PMID:23454129

  16. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Zhong, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2011-06-01

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  17. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis.

  18. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis. PMID:21197233

  19. Low total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with complex congenital heart disease after Fontan palliation.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Wendy; Tan, Meng; Yu, Sunkyung; Rocchini, Albert

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that patients with complex congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan palliation have low total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the random serum lipid profiles obtained at cardiology clinic visits between May 2010 and November 2011 in patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure. We compared these serum lipid levels against age- and sex-matched established normal data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure also had laboratory test data obtained during their visits. Median total cholesterol level in the Fontan group was 127 mg/dL (IQR, 116-144 mg/dL), median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 33-45 mg/dL), median non-HDL-C was 86 mg/dL (IQR, 76-109 mg/dL), and median LDL-C was 66 mg/dL (IQR, 57-83 mg/dL). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure compared with age- and sex-matched normal individuals (mean z-score, -1.4, -1.2, -1.0, and -1.0 respectively; all P<.0001). Cholesterol levels were below the 25th percentile for age and sex for total cholesterol in 82% of patients, for LDL-C in 76%, for non-HDL-C in 67%, and for HDL-C in 57%. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure have significantly lower serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels than age- and sex-matched normal individuals. Although the implications of this finding are unknown, it raises the possibility of abnormalities in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or catabolism in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endothelial NOS-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)- terminal kinase by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Levonen, A. L.; Moellering, D.; Ramachandran, A.; Patel, R. P.; Jo, H.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to activate a number of signal transduction pathways in endothelial cells. Among these are the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), also known as stress-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinase) determine cell survival in response to environmental stress. Interestingly, JNK signaling involves redox-sensitive mechanisms and is activated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both NADPH oxidases, nitric oxide synthases (NOS), peroxides, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The role of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the activation of JNK in response to oxLDL has not been examined. Herein, we show that on exposure of endothelial cells to oxLDL, both ERK and JNK are activated through independent signal transduction pathways. A key role of eNOS activation through a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent mechanism leading to phosphorylation of eNOS is demonstrated for oxLDL-dependent activation of JNK. Moreover, we show that activation of ERK by oxLDL is critical in protection against the cytotoxicity of oxLDL.

  1. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    PubMed

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Phagocytosis of lipase-aggregated low density lipoprotein promotes macrophage foam cell formation. Sequential morphological and biochemical events.

    PubMed

    Heinecke, J W; Suits, A G; Aviram, M; Chait, A

    1991-01-01

    Macrophages internalize aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL) by LDL receptor-dependent phagocytosis. To investigate this model of foam cell formation, we have used human and mouse macrophages to characterize biochemically and morphologically the fate of ingested phospholipase C-modified low density lipoprotein (PLC-LDL). When LDL was digested with phospholipase C, it lost phospholipid and aggregated. Human monocyte-derived macrophages rapidly ingested and degraded 125I-PLC-LDL. The degraded PLC-LDL released free cholesterol, measured either as free sterol mass or by the stimulation of [14C]oleate incorporation into cellular cholesteryl ester. Esterification was blocked by chloroquine, a weak base that inhibits lysosomal degradation. Macrophages exposed to PLC-LDL exhibited a 30-fold to a 50-fold increase in esterified sterol: by light microscopy, cytoplasmic inclusions were abundant. The inclusions were stained with oil red O, indicating that they were neutral lipid droplets. By electron microscopy, mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with PLC-LDL contained numerous membrane-bounded vacuoles and cytoplasmic inclusions that were not surrounded by a limiting membrane. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that vacuoles filled with particulate material appeared first. Subsequently, the macrophages exhibited vacuoles containing multivesicular bodies. Last, inclusions that were homogeneously electron-dense and that lacked a tripartite membrane accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cells. These results are consonant with the following model of foam cell formation. Cultured macrophages rapidly ingest PLC-LDL that is initially localized in phagosomes. The aggregated lipoprotein subsequently is digested in secondary lysosomes, thus releasing free cholesterol that is reesterified, forming cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester droplets lacking a tripartite membrane.

  3. Ethanol extract of propolis protects endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury by inhibiting lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongqi; Li, Jinguo; Ding, Mingde; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiajun; Jiao, Peng; Han, Ping; Wang, Jiafu; Yao, Shutong

    2014-12-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), as the primary oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) receptor on endothelial cells, plays a crucial role in endothelial injury, which is a driving force in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Our previous studies have shown that ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development. However, the protective effects of EEP against ox-LDL-induced injury in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that EEP attenuates ox-LDL-induced endothelial oxidative injury via modulation of LOX-1-mediated oxidative stress. Our results showed that exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to ox-LDL (100 mg/L) led to the decrease in cell viability and increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with EEP (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/L) protected against such damages in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EEP mitigated ox-LDL uptake by HUVECs and attenuated ox-LDL-upregulated LOX-1 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, EEP suppressed the ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress as assessed by decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation as well as increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Similar results were observed in the anti-LOX-1 antibody or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)-pretreated HUVECs. These data indicate that EEP may protect HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced injury and that the mechanism at least partially involves its ability to inhibit endothelial LOX-1 upregulation and subsequent oxidative stress. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  4. Association of angiotensin II receptor 1 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 mediates the cardiac hypertrophy induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunzi; Li, Yuqiu; Ning, Xiaohui; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Shu

    2017-08-12

    To date the molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy has not been completely elucidated. Since oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a risk marker for early ventricular remodeling, we speculated that ox-LDL may be related to cardiac hypertrophy. We observed the significantly upregulation of plasma ox-LDL and hypertrophic responses, such as cardiomyocyte size and specific gene expressions in Apo E -/- mice fed with high fat diet, accompanied by the upregulation of AT1-R and lectin-like oxidized low-density protein receptor 1 (LOX-1). Ox-LDL treatment with neonatal rat cardiomyocyte for 24 h significantly induced similar hypertrophic responses and also upregulation of AT1-R and LOX-1. The analysis of co-immunoprecipitation and the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay proved that LOX-1 and AT1-R could directly bind together in the presence of ox-LDL, suggesting a critical role of the association between LOX-1 and AT1-R in ox-LDL-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, we found that the AT1-R blocker Losartan and LOX-1 neutralizing antibody through inhibiting AT1-R or LOX-1 could both decline ox-LDL-induced hypertrophic responses whereas angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Enalapril only partially inhibited the responses stimulated by ox-LDL. These findings suggested that ox-LDL could induce cardiac hypertrophy through the direct association of AT1-R and LOX-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is negatively correlated with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Asgharani, Firouzeh; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Esteghamati, Alireza; Ghaneei, Azam; Morteza, Afsaneh; Anvari, Mehdi

    2011-02-01

    It is now believed that the oxidative modification of plasma lipoproteins enhance their atherogenicity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because a variety of highly reactive lipid peroxidation products can transfer from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to high-density lipoprotein -cholesterol, the authors evaluated the association between ox-LDL and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, a key enzyme in reverse cholesterol transport and HDL remodeling. A total of 45 patients with diabetes and 45 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy adult volunteers were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were obtained, and plasma glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, insulin, ox-LDL and LCAT activity were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was also calculated. Patients with diabetes, compared with healthy participants, had a significantly higher ox-LDL (17.16 ± 3.75 U/L versus 7.93 ± 1.92 U/L, P < 0.001) and lower LCAT activity (73.7 ± 9.1 μmol/L/hr versus 88.7 ± 4.5 μmol/L/hr, P < 0.001). The higher level of LCAT activity completely disappeared after adjustment for ox-LDL. LCAT activity had a significant (P < 0.001) inverse correlation with ox-LDL (r = -0.77) in patients with diabetes and healthy participants (r = -0.75). LCAT activity is significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes. The lower LCAT activity in type 2 diabetes might be through ox-LDL mechanism. Ox-LDL may adversely affect high-density lipoprotein -cholesterol metabolism by reducing LCAT activity.

  6. Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein enhances mesangial cell protein synthesis and gene expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Roh, D D; Kamanna, V S; Kirschenbaum, M A

    1998-01-01

    The proliferation of intrinsic glomerular cells and the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins are principal histopathological features seen in glomerular injury. Because of the marked similarity between the cellular and molecular events that occur in both atherosclerosis and glomerulosclerosis and the commonly accepted hypothesis that lipoproteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis, we examined the effect of three atherogenic lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized (ox)-LDL, and minimally modified (mm)-LDL on the synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by mesangial cells. The incubation of SV-40 transformed murine mesangial cells with LDL (25-100 microg/ml) increased the synthesis and secretion of both fibronectin and laminin in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, oxidized forms of LDL (25-100 micro/ml) increased fibronectin and laminin synthesis and secretion dose dependently. However, both oxidatively modified forms of LDL had a greater effect on increasing ECM protein synthesis than their native counterpart. Northern blot analysis showed a dose-dependent increase in mRNA transcripts for fibronectin and laminin in response to the incubation of mesangial cells with LDL, ox-LDL, and mm-LDL. Similar to the ECM protein expression data, the oxidatively modified forms of LDL had more pronounced effects on the gene expression of both fibronectin and laminin. These data show that both LDL and, perhaps more importantly, its oxidatively modified forms stimulate mesangial cells to upregulate both the gene expression and synthesis and secretion of ECM proteins, supporting a role for atherogenic lipoproteins in the pathobiology of glomerular injury.

  7. Statin therapy reduces oxidized low density lipoprotein level, a risk factor for stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lee, Lian-Hui; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Su, Yu-Jih; Chiang, Yi-Fang; Wang, Hung-Chen; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lin, Wei-Che; Kung, Chia-Te; Su, Chih-Min; Lin, Yu-Jun; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-14

    Statins are reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects aside from cholesterol-lowering effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of statin therapy on oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) and the clinical outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This prospective study enrolled 120 patients with AIS divided in the statin (n = 55) and non-statin (n = 65) groups. Eighty sex- and age- matched participants were recruited as risk controls. Ox-LDL was measured using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay at different time points after AIS. The clinical outcomes were analyzed between the statin and non-statin groups. Plasma Ox-LDL was significantly higher in stroke patients than in the controls (P < 0.001). Plasma Ox-LDL level was significantly reduced in the statin group on day 7 and day 30 compared to the non-statin group (P < 0.01). The plasma Ox-LDL positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Among the potential risk factors, only National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) score and Ox-LDL level on admission were independently associated with 3-month outcome. Our study demonstrates that statin therapy reduces plasma Ox-LDL level after AIS. Plasma Ox-LDL may be a more powerful predictor than serum LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or white blood cell counts for stroke outcome. Therefore, assay of plasma Ox-LDL should be added as a predictor among the panel of conventional biomarkers in stroke outcome.

  8. Protection by polyphenols of postprandial human plasma and low-density lipoprotein modification: the stomach as a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kanner, Joseph; Gorelik, Shlomit; Roman, Sirota; Kohen, Ron

    2012-09-12

    Recent studies dramatically showed that the removal of circulating modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) results in complete prevention of atherosclerosis. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to food, some of it containing oxidized compounds. Lipid oxidation in the stomach was demonstrated by ingesting heated red meat in rats. Red wine polyphenols added to the rats' meat diet prevented lipid peroxidation in the stomach and absorption of malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat plasma. In humans, postprandial plasma MDA levels rose by 3-fold after a meal of red meat cutlets. MDA derived from meat consumption caused postprandial plasma LDL modification in human. The levels of plasma MDA showed a 75% reduction by consumption of red wine polyphenols during the meat meal. Locating the main biological site of action of polyphenols in the stomach led to a revision in the understanding of how antioxidants work in vivo and may help to elucidate the mechanism involved in the protective effects of polyphenols in human health.

  9. Mechanobiology of low-density lipoprotein transport within an arterial wall--impact of hyperthermia and coupling effects.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen; Vafai, Kambiz

    2014-01-03

    The effects of hyperthermia, coupling attributes and property variations on Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport within a multi-layered wall while accounting for the fluid structure interaction (FSI) is analyzed in this work. To understand the potential impact of the hyperthermia process, thermo-induced attributes are incorporated, accounting for the plasma flow, mass transfer, as well as the elastic wall structure. The coupling effect of osmotic pressure, Soret and Dufour diffusion is discussed and their influence on LDL transport is examined, demonstrating that only the Soret effect needs to be accounted for. The effect of thermal expansion on changing the behavior of flow, mass transport, and elastic structure is illustrated and analyzed while incorporating the variations in the effective LDL diffusivity and consumption rate, as well as other dominating parameters. It is shown that hyperthermia results in an enhancement in LDL transport by increasing the concentration levels within the arterial wall. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased mRNA for Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in Livers of Rabbits Treated with 17α -ethinyl Estradiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Patrick T. S.; Yamamoto, Tokuo; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.

    1986-02-01

    Pharmacologic doses of 17α -ethinyl estradiol are known to increase the number of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in livers of rats, thereby producing a profound fall in plasma cholesterol levels. We now report that ethinyl estradiol exerts the same effect in livers of male and female rabbits and that the increase in receptor number is correlated with a 6- to 8-fold increase in the levels of receptor mRNA. Receptor protein was measured by ligand blotting, and mRNA levels were measured by a quantitative solution hybridization/S1 nuclease protection assay using uniformly 32P-labeled single-stranded cDNA probes. These experiments demonstrate that pharmacologic induction of the mRNA for the LDL receptor in liver can lead to increased LDL receptor levels and a fall in plasma cholesterol in experimental animals.

  11. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein level as a marker of oxidative stress in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Kocaman Türk, Füsun; Bingöl, Gülsüm

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), in which 100% oxygen is inhaled under hyperbaric pressure, may create OS. Therefore, the aim of this research was to measure the serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) level in patients undergoing HBOT. Twenty-nine patients who underwent HBOT to treat various diseases were enrolled in this study. The serum oxLDL level was measured at the beginning of the first and after the 10th therapy session. There was no significant difference between the oxLDL level of patients before and after HBOT (4.96±0.1 vs. 4.94±0.1 U/mL; p=0.36). HBOT seems to be safe in terms of oxLDL production up to 10 sessions. However, further large-scale studies investigating longer duration of HBOT treatment are required to understand the role of OS.

  12. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) hadmore » a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.« less

  13. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in young patients with acute coronary syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuli; Wu, Yu; Yang, You; Li, Wensheng; Lu, Jianhua; Hu, Yunzhao

    2017-11-23

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is considered to be a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but this remains controversial. This study investigated the role of Lp-PLA2 in young Chinese patients with ACS. 228 young patients (aged ≤55 years) with ACS and 237 age-matched controls were included. Lp-PLA2 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly correlated with smoking, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ox-LDL levels (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.26-8.38), smoking (OR = 3.50, 95%CI = 1.75-7.0), triglyceride (OR = 1.76, 95%CI = 1.08-2.87), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.14-3.90) and ox-LDL (OR = 2.98, 95%CI = 1.72-5.1) were independently associated with ACS risk in young patients. Lp-PLA2 was associated with risk of ACS in young patients when adjusted for traditional risk factors, including age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride and hs-CRP (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 1.10-3.56). When further adjusted for ox-LDL levels, the association between Lp-PLA2 and ACS became insignificant (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 0.90-3.17). Lp-PLA2 was a marker of oxidative stress and inflammation, rather than an independent risk factor for ACS in young Chinese patients.

  14. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and radiotherapy-induced carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy (RT) is a risk factor for accelerated carotid artery atherosclerotic disease in subjects with head and neck cancer. However, the risk factors of RT-induced carotid artery remodeling are not established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RT on carotid and popliteal arteries in subjects with head and neck cancer and to evaluate the relationship between baseline clinical and laboratory features and the progression of RT-induced atherosclerosis. Findings Eleven men (age = 57.9 ± 6.2years) with head and neck cancer who underwent cervical bilateral irradiation were prospectively examined by clinical and laboratory analysis and by carotid and popliteal ultrasound before and after treatment (mean interval between the end of RT and the post-RT assessment = 181 ± 47 days). No studied subject used hypocholesterolemic medications. Significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (0.95 ± 0.08 vs. 0.87 ± 0.05 mm; p < 0.0001) and carotid IMT/diameter ratio (0.138 ± 0.013 vs. 0.129 ± 0.014; p = 0.001) were observed after RT, while no changes in popliteal structural features were detected. In addition, baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed a direct correlation with RT-induced carotid IMT change (r = 0.66; p = 0.027), while no other studied variable exhibited a significant relationship with carotid IMT change. Conclusions These results indicate that RT-induced atherosclerosis is limited to the irradiated area and also suggest that it may be predicted by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in subjects with head and neck cancer. PMID:24919963

  15. Cholesterol-lowering drugs inhibit lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 receptor function by membrane raft disruption.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Sara; Quitadamo, Maria Chiara; Mango, Ruggiero; Ciccone, Sarah; Novelli, Giuseppe; Biocca, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1), the primary receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in endothelial cells, is up-regulated in atherosclerotic lesions. Statins are the principal therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases and are known to down-regulate LOX-1 expression. Whether the effect on the LOX-1 receptor is related to statin-mediated cholesterol-lowering activity is unknown. We investigate the requirement of cholesterol for LOX-1-mediated lipid particle internalization, trafficking, and processing and the role of statins as inhibitors of LOX-1 function. Disruption of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains by acute exposure of cells to methyl-β-cyclodextrin or chronic exposure to different statins (lovastatin and atorvastatin) led to a spatial disorganization of LOX-1 in plasma membranes and a marked loss of specific LOX-1 function in terms of ox-LDL binding and internalization. Subcellular fractionation and immunochemical studies indicate that LOX-1 is naturally present in caveolae-enriched lipid rafts and, by cholesterol reduction, the amount of LOX-1 in this fraction is highly decreased (≥60%). In contrast, isoprenylation inhibition had no effect on the distribution and function of LOX-1 receptors. Furthermore, in primary cultures from atherosclerotic human aorta lesions, we confirm the presence of LOX-1 in caveolae-enriched lipid rafts and demonstrate that lovastatin treatment led to down-regulation of LOX-1 in lipid rafts and rescue of the ox-LDL-induced apoptotic phenotype. Taken together, our data reveal a previously unrecognized essential role of membrane cholesterol for LOX-1 receptor activity and suggest that statins protect vascular endothelium against the adverse effect of ox-LDL by disruption of membrane rafts and impairment of LOX-1 receptor function.

  16. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein contributes to atherogenesis via co-activation of macrophages and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Khismatullin, Damir B

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, due to its role in endothelial dysfunction and foam cell formation. Tissue-resident cells such as macrophages and mast cells release inflammatory mediators upon activation that in turn cause endothelial activation and monocyte adhesion. Two of these mediators are tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, produced by macrophages, and histamine, produced by mast cells. Static and microfluidic flow experiments were conducted to determine the number of adherent monocytes on vascular endothelium activated by supernatants of oxLDL-treated macrophages and mast cells or directly by oxLDL. The expression of adhesion molecules on activated endothelial cells and the concentration of TNF-α and histamine in the supernatants were measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. A low dose of oxLDL (8 μg/ml), below the threshold for the clinical presentation of coronary artery disease, was sufficient to activate both macrophages and mast cells and synergistically increase monocyte-endothelium adhesion via released TNF-α and histamine. The direct exposure of endothelial cells to a much higher dose of oxLDL (80 μg/ml) had less effect on monocyte adhesion than the indirect activation via oxLDL-treated macrophages and mast cells. The results of this work indicate that the co-activation of macrophages and mast cells by oxLDL is an important mechanism for the endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. The observed synergistic effect suggests that both macrophages and mast cells play a significant role in early stages of atherosclerosis. Allergic patients with a lipid-rich diet may be at high risk for cardiovascular events due to high concentration of low-density lipoprotein and histamine in arterial vessel walls.

  18. Effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein on nitric oxide synthetase and protein kinase C activities in bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Coaxum, S D; Maleque, M; Das, S K

    2001-09-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is an atherogenic lipoprotein. It has been suggested that Ox-LDL causes endothelial dysfunction by decreasing the release of endothelium-derived factors (EDRF-NO) or increasing the inactivation of EDRF-NO. The mechanism by which Ox-LDL causes dysfunctional NO during early stages of atherosclerosis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of Ox-LDL on nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), protein kinase C (PKC) activities and cAMP production in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Ox-LDL stimulated PKC activity of BAEC but it inhibited both eNOS activity and cAMP production. Ox-LDL partially inhibited the forskolin stimulated cAMP production. Furthermore, we observed that 8Br-cAMP treatment decreased the activity of eNOS in a concentration dependent manner. Serotonin which has a profound inhibitory effect on cAMP production also stimulated eNOS activity. Pertusis toxin treatment blocked the stimulatory action of serotonin on the stimulation of eNOS activity. Our results thus suggest that Ox-LDL inhibit the endothelium-dependent relaxation. One possible mechanism is that Ox-LDL stimulates PKC activity, which in turn increases the phosphorylation of the Gi-protein. Inhibition of Gi-protein then leads to reduced release of NO from endothelial cells and thus causes endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Functional expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is controlled by receptor-associated protein in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Willnow, T E; Armstrong, S A; Hammer, R E; Herz, J

    1995-01-01

    The 39-kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) associates with the multifunctional low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) and thereby prevents the binding of all known ligands, including alpha 2-macroglobulin and chylomicron remnants. RAP is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, raising the possibility that it functions as a chaperone or escort protein in the biosynthesis or intracellular transport of LRP. Here we have used gene targeting to show that RAP promotes the expression of functional LRP in vivo. The amount of mature, processed LRP is reduced in liver and brain of RAP-deficient mice. As a result, hepatic clearance of alpha 2-macroglobulin is impaired and remnant lipoproteins accumulate in the plasma of RAP-deficient mice that also lack functional LDL receptors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RAP stabilizes LRP within the secretory pathway. They also suggest a further mechanism by which the activity of an endocytic receptor may be modulated in vivo. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7538675

  20. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2008-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

  1. News on the molecular regulation and function of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor and LDLR-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    van de Sluis, Bart; Wijers, Melinde; Herz, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Clearing of atherogenic lipoprotein particles by the liver requires hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1). This review highlights recent studies that have expanded our understanding of the molecular regulation and metabolic functions of LDLR and LRP1 in the liver. Various proteins orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of LDLR and LRP1. After internalization, the receptors are redirected via recycling endosomes to the cell surface. Several new endocytic proteins that facilitate the endosomal trafficking of LDLR and consequently the clearance of circulating LDL cholesterol have recently been reported. Mutations in some of these proteins cause hypercholesterolemia in human. In addition, LRP1 controls cellular cholesterol efflux by modulating the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and hepatic LRP1 protects against diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis through the regulation of insulin receptor trafficking. LDLR and LRP1 have prominent roles in cellular and organismal cholesterol homeostasis. Their functioning, including their trafficking in the cell, is controlled by numerous proteins. Comprehensive studies into the molecular regulation of LDLR and LRP1 trafficking have advanced our fundamental understanding of cholesterol homeostasis, and these insights may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in the future.

  2. Inherited susceptibility determines the distribution of dense low-density lipoprotein subfraction profiles in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1996-04-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a heritable lipid disorder, in which dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction profiles due to a predominance of small dense LDL particles are frequently observed. These small dense LDL particles are associated with cardiovascular disease. Using segregation analysis, we investigated to what extent these LDL subfraction profiles are genetically determined; also, the mode of inheritance was studied. Individual LDL subfraction profiles were determined by density gradient ultracentrifugation in 623 individuals of 40 well-defined Dutch FCH families. The individual LDL subfraction profile was defined as a quantitative trait by the continuous variable K, a reliable estimate ofmore » the relative contribution of each LDL subfraction to the overall profile. Variation in parameter K due to age, sex, and hormonal status was taken into account by introducing liability classes. Segregation analysis was performed by fitting a series of class D regressive models were compared using log-likelihoot ratio tests. Our data show that 60% of the variability of parameter K could be explained by lipid and lipoprotein levels and that a major autosomal locus, recessively inherited, with a population frequency of .42 {+-} .07, and an additional polygenic component of .25 best explained the clustering of atherogenic dense LDL subfraction profiles in these FCH families. Therefore, dense LDL subfraction profiles, associated with elevated lipid levels, appear to have a genetic basis in FCH.« less

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Polyethylene Oxide and Polypropylene Oxide Triblock Copolymers on Aggregation and Fusion of Atherogenic Low Density Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Panova, I G; Spiridonov, V V; Kaplan, I B; Trubinov, S S; Elizova, N V; Melnichenko, A A; Orekhov, A N; Yaroslavov, A A

    2015-08-01

    Triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (so-called pluronics) were shown to influence the aggregation and fusion of atherogenic low density lipoproteins (atLDL) and be able to inhibit these processes. The character of the influence and the degree of the stabilizing effect depended on the structure, relative hydrophobicity, and concentration of the copolymer. Pluronics L61, P85, and L64 characterized by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value from 3 to 16 had the greatest ability to suppress the aggregation of atLDL. Pluronic L81 with the higher hydrophobicity (HLB = 2) partially inhibited atLDL aggregation at low concentrations but stimulated it at high concentrations. The influence of pluronics did not have a direct connection with their ability for micelle formation, but it was realized through individual macromolecules. We suppose that effects of pluronics could be due to their interaction with the lipid component of LDL and to a possible influence of these copolymers on the structure and hydrophilic-lipophilic characteristics of lipoproteins.

  4. Piperine Induces Hepatic Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression through Proteolytic Activation of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Ayasa; Miyata, Shingo; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Because the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) uptakes plasma lipoproteins and lowers plasma LDL cholesterol, the activation of LDLR is a promising drug target for atherosclerosis. In the present study, we identified the naturally occurring alkaloid piperine, as an inducer of LDLR gene expression by screening the effectors of human LDLR promoter. The treatment of HepG2 cells with piperine increased LDLR expression at mRNA and protein levels and stimulated LDL uptake. Subsequent luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the mutation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-binding element abolished the piperine-mediated induction of LDLR promoter activity. Further, piperine treatments increased mRNA levels of several SREBP targets and mature forms of SREBPs. However, the piperine-mediated induction of the mature forms of SREBPs was not observed in SRD–15 cells, which lack insulin-induced gene–1 (Insig–1) and Insig–2. Finally, the knockdown of SREBPs completely abolished the piperine-meditated induction of LDLR gene expression in HepG2 cells, indicating that piperine stimulates the proteolytic activation of SREBP and subsequent induction of LDLR expression and activity. PMID:26431033

  5. Piperine Induces Hepatic Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression through Proteolytic Activation of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Ayasa; Miyata, Shingo; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Because the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) uptakes plasma lipoproteins and lowers plasma LDL cholesterol, the activation of LDLR is a promising drug target for atherosclerosis. In the present study, we identified the naturally occurring alkaloid piperine, as an inducer of LDLR gene expression by screening the effectors of human LDLR promoter. The treatment of HepG2 cells with piperine increased LDLR expression at mRNA and protein levels and stimulated LDL uptake. Subsequent luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the mutation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-binding element abolished the piperine-mediated induction of LDLR promoter activity. Further, piperine treatments increased mRNA levels of several SREBP targets and mature forms of SREBPs. However, the piperine-mediated induction of the mature forms of SREBPs was not observed in SRD-15 cells, which lack insulin-induced gene-1 (Insig-1) and Insig-2. Finally, the knockdown of SREBPs completely abolished the piperine-meditated induction of LDLR gene expression in HepG2 cells, indicating that piperine stimulates the proteolytic activation of SREBP and subsequent induction of LDLR expression and activity.

  6. Histamine H1 receptor promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation by increasing vascular permeability for low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Izabela; Sluka, Susanna H M; Rohrer, Lucia; Hofmann, Janin; Becher, Burkhard; Akhmedov, Alexander; Soliz, Jorge; Mocharla, Pavani; Borén, Jan; Johansen, Pål; Steffel, Jan; Watanabe, Takeshi; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2010-05-01

    Enhanced endothelial permeability leading to intimal accumulation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) stimulates the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Histamine is known to increase vascular permeability. Whether this affects the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, however, remains elusive. Apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE(-/-)) mice treated with a histamine H1 receptor but not an H2 receptor antagonist developed 40% fewer atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta than placebo-treated controls. Similarly, genetic deletion of the H1 but not the H2 receptor resulted in a 60% reduction of lesions compared with ApoE(-/-) controls. The H1 receptor enhanced LDL permeability and lipid accumulation in the aorta, whereas plasma lipoprotein levels remained unaltered. In contrast, the H1 receptor did not affect proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Bone marrow transplantation confirmed that the formation of atherosclerotic lesions depended on the H1 receptor in vascular cells, whereas its presence in bone marrow-derived cells was irrelevant for plaque development. Mice expressing the H1 receptor exhibited higher levels of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 and higher numbers of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes in plaques, higher numbers of circulating lymphocytes, and larger spleens. These data indicate that H1 but not H2 receptor activation drives the formation of atherosclerotic lesions through an increased vascular permeability for LDL, which is associated with an enhanced secondary aortic and systemic inflammation. These data open novel perspectives for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  7. Association of macular pigment optical density with serum concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Norihiro; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Suzuki, Misa; Shinoda, Hajime; Koto, Takashi; Uchida, Atsuro; Mochimaru, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yohei; Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Sasaki, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the association between macular pigment optical density (MPOD), which reflects lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) in the macula, and background characteristics. Fifty-five healthy adult volunteers were analyzed. Macular pigment optical density was measured using a heterochromatic flicker photometry technique, and serum concentrations of carotenoids and lipoproteins were by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Dietary intake of nutrient was determined by a validated self-administered questionnaire on ingestion frequency. Macular pigment optical density was positively correlated with serum concentrations of L and Z and dietary L intake and inversely correlated with serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although MPOD decreased with age (95% confidence interval, -0.011 to -0.002; correlation coefficient, -0.269; P = 0.007), serum L/Z and dietary L intake did not. In contrast, serum oxidized LDL was positively correlated with age (95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.34; correlation coefficient, 0.333; P = 0.0004). After adjusting for age, sex, and oxidized LDL, serum L was positively correlated with MPOD (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.69; P = 0.000001). After adjusting for age, sex, and serum L, serum oxidized LDL was inversely correlated with MPOD (95% confidence interval, -0.002 to -0.0004; P = 0.006). Macular pigment optical density was inversely correlated with serum oxidized LDL. Further study to know the impact of oxidized LDL on MPOD may be warranted.

  8. Are oxidized low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein markers of atherosclerosis in nephrotic children?

    PubMed

    Rybi-Szumińska, A; Wasilewska, A; Michaluk-Skutnik, J; Osipiuk-Remża, B; Fiłonowicz, R; Zając, M

    2015-12-01

    Lipid disorders are known to be linked to disturbance in oxidative reactions and play an important role in the progression and complications of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). The aim of this study was to assess oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum concentrations and other parameters of lipid metabolism in children with INS during relapse and remission of proteinuria. The examination was performed on 23 children and adolescents diagnosed with INS. Reference group consisted of 22 participants. The study was carried out twice: in the relapse of INS (A) and in remission of proteinuria during glucocorticoid treatment (B). OxLDL was higher in INS patients, in both examinations when compared with reference participants. hs-CRP showed no differences between nephrotic and healthy children. We found higher concentration of oxLDL in children, who where frequent relapsers. Cholesterol, triglycerides/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and platelets were higher in INS patients (both A and B) in comparison with healthy children. We observed presence of pro-atherogenic lipid profile in INS. Elevation of oxLDL may reflect increased oxidative stress and higher risk of atherosclerosis in INS, therefore it seems to be relevant to find patients of risk of atherosclerosis to consider lipid lowering treatment with antioxidants.

  9. Insect lipid transfer particle catalyzes bidirectional vectorial transfer of diacylglycerol from lipophorin to human low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R O; Wessler, A N; Price, H M; Ando, S; Yokoyama, S

    1990-06-25

    Insect plasma lipid transfer particle (LTP) catalyzes vectorial net transfer of diacylglycerol (DAG) from Manduca sexta larval high density lipophorin (HDLp-L) to human low density lipoprotein (LDL) producing an LDL of lower density and lipophorin subspecies of higher density. At equilibrium, a stable DAG-depleted very high density lipophorin species (density = 1.25 g/ml) is formed. Electrophoretic analysis of the substrate and product lipoproteins showed that apoprotein exchange or transfer between human LDL and lipophorin did not occur during the lipid transfer reaction. Facilitated net transfer of cholesteryl ester, free cholesterol, and phospholipid occurred to a much lower extent than DAG net transfer, indicating that under these conditions, LDL serves as a sink for lipophorin-associated DAG. This reaction, therefore, provides a method whereby the mass of lipid associated with human LDL can be modified in vitro without alteration of its apoprotein component. The DAG content of LDL increased in a linear manner with respect to LTP concentration and time during the initial phase of the reaction, demonstrating the utility of this system as a quantitative assay method for LTP-mediated net DAG transfer. When [3H]DAG-labeled LDL was prepared and employed in transfer experiments with unlabeled lipophorin, labeled DAG was recovered in the HDLp-L fraction. The amount of labeled DAG recovered in the HDLp-L fraction was dependent on the ratio of LDL to HDLp-L in the reaction. Thus, in this system, LTP-mediated DAG redistribution is bidirectional, suggesting that the final equilibrium distribution of lipid may be dictated by the properties of potential donor/acceptor lipoproteins rather than by an inherent particle substrate specificity of LTP.

  10. Impact of postprandial lipaemia on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size and oxidized LDL in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Granér, M; Kahri, J; Nakano, T; Sarna, S J; Nieminen, M S; Syvänne, M; Taskinen, M R

    2006-11-01

    Remnant lipoprotein particles (RLPs) and oxidative stress are components of postprandial state. We investigated the concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), RLPs, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) during alimentary lipaemia, and evaluated whether changes among these variables could be associated with the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Eighty men and 27 women with clinically suspected CAD underwent quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). TRLs were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation before and 6 h after an oral fat load. RLPs were measured by an immunoseparation method, oxLDL by ELISA, and LDL size by gradient gel electrophoresis. Triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo) B-48, and apoB-100 concentration in Swedberg flotation units (Sf) > 400 and in Sf 12-400 fractions were markedly increased at 6 h. Postprandial cholesterol content of RLPs (RLP-C) correlated with respective triglycerides in Sf > 400 (r = 0.737) and Sf 12-400 (r = 0.857), apoB-48 in Sf > 400 (r = 0.710) and Sf 12-400 (r = 0.664), apoB-100 in Sf > 400 (r = 0.812) and Sf 12-400 (r = 0.533). RLP-C correlated with oxLDL both in fasting and in fed state (r = 0.482 and r = 0.543, respectively) and inversely with LDL size (r = -0.459 and r = -0.442, respectively). (P < 0.001 for all). OxLDL was elevated postprandially (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, oxLDL was a determinant of severity and extent of CAD. Postprandial state is associated with oxidative stress. The magnitude of oxLDL increases during alimentary lipaemia and is associated with coronary atherosclerosis.

  11. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein-Containing Circulating Immune Complexes as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis and Type 1 Diabetes Macrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Chistiakov, Dimitry A.

    2014-01-01

    In atherosclerosis; blood low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are subjected to multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications that increase their atherogenicity and induce immunogenicity. Modified LDL are capable of inducing vascular inflammation through activation of innate immunity; thus, contributing to the progression of atherogenesis. The immunogenicity of modified LDL results in induction of self-antibodies specific to a certain type of modified LDL. The antibodies react with modified LDL forming circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes exhibit prominent immunomodulatory properties that influence atherosclerotic inflammation. Compared to freely circulating modified LDL; modified LDL associated with the immune complexes have a more robust atherogenic and proinflammatory potential. Various lipid components of the immune complexes may serve not only as diagnostic but also as essential predictive markers of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that LDL-containing immune complexes can also serve as biomarker for macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25050779

  12. Switching from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin lowers small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bando, Yukihiro; Toyama, Hitomi; Kanehara, Hideo; Hisada, Azusa; Okafuji, Kazuhiro; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study compared the efficacy of rosuvastatin (5mg/day) and atorvastatin (10mg/day) for reduction of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd LDL-C) levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia with detectable sd LDL-C after receiving 10mg/day atorvastatin for ≥ 24 weeks were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (5mg/day; switched treatment) or atorvastatin (10mg/day; continued treatment) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in sd LDL-C levels and sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio evaluated using the LipoPhor AS(®) system. There were no significant percent changes from baseline for LDL-C levels between the switched (n=55) and the continued treatment group (n=56). However, the former group exhibited a statistically significant reduction from baseline of sd LDL-C levels, sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio compared with the latter group (-3.8 mg/dL vs. -1.4 mg/dL, p=0.014; -2.3% vs. -0.6%, p=0.004, respectively). Multiple regression analysis among all subjects revealed that independent factors contributing to the reduction in sd LDL-C levels were a change in LDL-C (p=0.003) and triglyceride (TG) levels (p=0.006), treatment group (the switched group=1, the continued group=0; standard coefficient=-1.2, p=0.034) and baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p=0.045), respectively. Switching from 10mg atorvastatin to 5mg rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic option to reduce sd LDL-C levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Kimak, Elżbieta; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Baranowicz-Gąszczyk, Iwona; Solski, Janusz; Książek, Andrzej

    2011-05-01

    Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy. HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C, apoA-I/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman's rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=-0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=-0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=-0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre-β-HDL particles

  14. Human pericoronary adipose tissue as storage and possible supply site for oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein in coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasumi; Uchida, Yasuto; Shimoyama, Ei; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Toshihoko; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2017-01-01

    Thickening of the pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) is a proven risk factor for coronary artery disease, but it is poorly understood whether PCAT stores pro-atherogenic substances with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and an anti-atherogenic substance with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and supply them to the coronary intima. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the localization of oxLDL, LDL and HDL in PCAT and its adjacent coronary segments was examined in 30 epicardial coronary arteries excised from 11 human autopsy cases. PCAT stored oxLDL and HDL in all, but LDL rarely, in 77 specimens examined, irrespective of the presence or absence of coronary plaques and underlying disease. The percentage (%) incidence of oxLDL, HDL and LDL deposits in intima was, respectively, 28, 10, 35 in 29 normal segments, 80 (p<0.05 vs. normal segments), 12, 75 in 19 white plaques (growth stage), 57, 36, 90 in 15 yellow plaques without necrotic core (NC; mature stage), and 40, 21, 100 (p<0.05 vs. normal segments) in 14 yellow plaques with NC (end-stage of maturation) as classified by angioscopy and histology. In coronary intima, oxLDL deposited in either a dotted or diffuse pattern whereas HDL and LDL showed diffuse patterns. Dotted oxLDL deposits were contained in CD68(+)-macrophages traversing the border of PCAT and adventitia, external and internal elastic laminae. Diffuse oxLDL and HDL deposits colocalized with intimal vasa vasorum. The results suggested that, as a hitherto unrecognized supplying route, the human PCAT stores oxLDL and HDL and oxLDL is supplied to coronary intima either by CD68(+)-macrophages or vasa vasorum and HDL by vasa vasorum, and that deposition of oxLDL and HDL in the intima increased with plaque growth but the former decreased while the latter increased further with plaque maturation. Molecular therapy targeting PCAT before plaque maturation could be effective in preventing atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016

  15. Alpinetin enhances cholesterol efflux and inhibits lipid accumulation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-loaded human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengming; Sang, Haiqiang; Fu, Xin; Liang, Ying; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Alpinetin is a natural flavonoid abundantly present in the ginger family. Here, we investigated the effect of alpinetin on cholesterol efflux and lipid accumulation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated THP-1 macrophages and human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). After exposing THP-1 macrophages to alpinetin, cholesterol efflux was determined by liquid scintillator. The mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), liver X receptor alpha (LXR-α), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and ABCG1 and scavenger receptor class B member 1 were determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. Alpinetin promoted apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density-lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux and elevated PPAR-γ and LXR-α mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in ox-LDL-treated THP-1 macrophages and HMDMs. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PPAR-γ or LXR-α dose dependently reversed alpinetin-increased cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages, indicating the involvement of PPAR-γ and LXR-α in alpinetin-promoted cholesterol efflux. Alpinetin inhibited ox-LDL-induced lipid accumulation and enhanced the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA and protein, which was reversed by specific knockdown of PPAR-γ or LXR-α. Taken together, our results reveal that alpinetin exhibits positive effects on cholesterol efflux and inhibits ox-LDL-induced lipid accumulation, which might be through PPAR-γ/LXR-α/ABCA1/ABCG1 pathway. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Vaccination using oxidized low-density lipoprotein-pulsed dendritic cells reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Habets, Kim L L; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie M; van Wanrooij, Eva J A; de Vos, Paula; Tervaert, Jan-Willem Cohen; van Berkel, Theo J C; Toes, Rene E M; Kuiper, Johan

    2010-02-01

    Modification of lipoproteins plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has a number of pro-inflammatory effects, whereas immunization with various forms of oxLDL is able to reduce atherosclerosis. The uptake of modified LDL by dendritic cells (DCs) and the presentation of epitopes thereof may form an important step in the immunomodulatory effects of LDL. In this study, we transferred oxLDL-pulsed mature DCs (mDCs) to LDL receptor-null (LDLr(-/-)) mice and examined the effects on atherosclerosis. Bone marrow-derived DCs were cultured for 10 days in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Immature DCs were matured by lipopolysaccharide and pulsed with copper-oxidized LDL. These mDCs were transferred three times to LDLr(-/-) mice before the induction of atherosclerosis by Western-type diet feeding. The transfer of oxLDL-pulsed mDCs resulted in an 87% reduction in carotid artery lesion size (P < 0.001) with a concurrent increase in plaque stability, whereas treatment using mDCs pulsed with the atherosclerosis-irrelevant antigen, ovalbumin, did not influence lesion size or stability. Furthermore, the vaccination procedure resulted in the induction of oxLDL-specific T cells with a reduced Th1 profile and an increase in oxLDL-specific IgG levels, which contributed to a reduction in foam cell formation. These data indicate that vaccination with oxLDL-pulsed mDCs provides a novel and powerful strategy for the immunomodulation of atherosclerosis.

  17. Both poor cardiorespiratory and weak muscle fitness are related to a high concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein lipids.

    PubMed

    Kosola, J; Ahotupa, M; Kyröläinen, H; Santtila, M; Vasankari, T

    2012-12-01

    Good physical fitness is associated with favorable serum lipids. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could be even more atherogenic than serum lipids. We studied the association of ox-LDL and serum lipids with physical fitness. Healthy young (mean age 25 years) men (n=846) underwent maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and muscle fitness index (MFI) tests and completed a leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire. Age (ANCOVA1), age+waist circumference+systolic blood pressure+fasting blood glucose+smoking (ANCOVA3) were used as covariates. The groups with the lowest VO(2max), MFI and LTPA had 23%, 16% and 8% higher concentrations of ox-LDL than the groups with the highest VO(2max) (P<0.0001), MFI (P=0.022) and LTPA (P=0.039) groups, respectively. Subjects with poor fitness (low VO(2max) or low MFI) or low LTPA had elevated levels of ox-LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, in all, P<0.05). Furthermore, low VO(2max) is associated with a high level of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and with a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA3, in all, P<0.05). Also, subjects with low LTPA had a high ratio of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, P=0.001). In conclusion, both poor fitness (both low VO(2max) and low MFI) and low LTPA are associated with a higher concentration of ox-LDL lipids and serum lipids, which may indicate a higher risk for atherosclerosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Gold nanoparticle-conjugated anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies for targeted lipidomics of oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hinterwirth, Helmut; Stübiger, Gerald; Lindner, Wolfgang; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2013-09-03

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDLs), in particular, oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs), are known to be involved in pathophysiological processes such as cardiovascular diseases and are described as potential biomarkers, for example, for atherosclerosis. In our study, we used the specific affinity of anti-OxLDL antibodies (Abs) conjugated to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for extraction and enrichment of OxPCs via selective trapping of OxLDLs from plasma combined with the sensitive detection by liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Successful bioconjugation chemistry of Abs via a bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer and protein G linkage, respectively, was controlled by measuring the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectra, size, and zeta potentials. Furthermore, the amount of Ab immobilized onto GNP via the PEG linker was determined. With the optimized immobilization chemistry, the ability and potential of the GNP-based extraction procedure was used for the determination of the dissociation constant, K(d), of the OxLDL binding to the GNP-Ab conjugate. Moreover, apparent K(d)'s were determined for individual PCs and their oxidation products using the compound-specific selected reaction monitoring mode, which allows the characterization of the Ab affinity and, thus, assessment of the potential antigenicity of (Ox)PCs bound to OxLDLs. In summary, the application of GNP-based bioanalysis for selective targeting of OxLDLs and the fast and sensitive detection by LC-MS/MS offers new possibilities for targeted lipidomics in lipoproteins as well as for oxidative stress lipid biomarker screening.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF STEREOSELECTIVE DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Columns containing immobilized low density lipoprotein (LDL) were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with this agent by high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). R/S-Propranolol was used as a model drug for this study. The LDL columns gave reproducible binding to propranolol over 60 h of continuous use in the presence of pH 7.4, 0.067 M potassium phosphate buffer. Experiments conducted with this type of column through frontal analysis indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R-propranolol and LDL, while only a single type of interaction was observed between S-propranolol and LDL. The first type of interaction, which was seen for both enantiomers, involved non-saturable binding; this interaction had an overall affinity (nKa) of 1.9 (± 0.1) × 105 M-1 for R-propranolol and 2.7 (± 0.2) × 105 M-1 for S-propranolol at 37 °C. The second type of interaction was observed only for R-propranolol and involved saturable binding that had an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 5.2 (± 2.3) × 105 M-1 at 37 °C. Similar differences in binding behavior were found for the two enantiomers at 20 °C and 27 °C. This is the first known example of stereoselective binding of drugs by LDL or other lipoproteins. This work also illustrates the ability of HPAC to be used as a tool for characterizing mixed-mode interactions that involve LDL and related binding agents. PMID:22354572

  20. Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling.

    PubMed

    McMillen, T S; Minami, E; Leboeuf, R C

    2013-06-24

    Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called 'yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the contributions of major diet and body weight changes on heart and vascular functions. Our purpose is to determine the effects of weight cycling on cardiac function and atherosclerosis development in a mouse model. We used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice due to their sensitivity to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases when fed high-fat diets. Alternating ad libitum feeding of high-fat and low-fat (rodent chow) diets was used to instigate weight cycling during a 29-week period. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were done at 22 and 24 weeks, echocardiograms at 25 weeks and atherosclerosis and plasma lipoproteins assessed at 29 weeks. Mice subjected to weight cycling showed improvements in glucose homeostasis during the weight loss cycle. Weight-cycled mice showed a reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis as compared with high-fat diet-fed mice. However, atherosclerosis still persisted in weight-cycled mice as compared with mice fed rodent chow. Cardiac function was impaired in weight-cycled mice and matched with that of mice fed only the high-fat diet. This model provides an initial structure in which to begin detailed studies of diet, calorie restriction and surgical modifications on energy balance and metabolic diseases. This model also shows differential effects of yo-yo dieting on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Validation of the Friedewald formula for the estimation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in a sub-Saharan African population.

    PubMed

    Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Manases, Tasha; Nda-Mefoo, Jean-Pierre; Dimala, Christian Akem; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Sobngwi, Eugene; Kengne, Andre-Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are used to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to guide prescriptions. To circumvent the challenges of direct LDL-C measurement, guidelines recommend the use of Friedewald formula derived LDL-C levels. Despite reported limitations of this formula, its validity in sub-Saharan Africans has not been adequately investigated. To assess the validity of the Friedewald formula derived against directly (homogeneous) measured LDL-C in adult Cameroonians. We reviewed the fasting lipid profiles of 2500 patients, performed between March 2012 and January 2016 using enzymatic colorimetric method (reference), at the Douala General Hospital laboratory. The Friedewald formula was used to calculate LDL-C from total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Calculated LDL-C values were compared to the reference values, and clinical significance of differences between the two methods was assessed using total error allowable (TEa). The difference between means of calculated and the reference LDL-C values was neither statistically nor clinically significant (3.33±1.51 vs. 3.33±1.25mmol/l; p=0.704). The calculated LDL-C correlated positively with the measured LDL-C value (r=0.749) and both methods showed a good agreement on Bland-Altman plot. Conversely, there was only moderate agreement (kappa=0.478, 95% CI: 0.455-0.502) between the two values in the stratification of cardiovascular risk according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III. Consequently, 40.6% of the participants were misclassified. Friedewald formula is technically accurate but has a modest clinical accuracy which can translate into a substantial misclassification of patients' cardiovascular risk and subsequent inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plant stanol ester margarine lowers serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of healthy children: the STRIP project. Special Turku Coronary Risk Factors Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Tammi, A; Rönnemaa, T; Gylling, H; Rask-Nissilä, L; Viikari, J; Tuominen, J; Pulkki, K; Simell, O

    2000-04-01

    To investigate cholesterol-lowering efficacy and safety of plant stanol ester margarine in healthy 6-year-old children already consuming a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Eighty-one intervention children from the STRIP project, a randomized prospective trial aimed at reducing exposure of young children to the known environmental atherosclerosis risk factors, were recruited to this double-blind crossover study at 6 years of age. In randomized order the families were advised to replace daily 20 g of the child's dietary fat intake with plant stanol ester margarine or control margarine for 3 months. The washout period lasted 6 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed according to intention-to-treat principle with analysis of variance for crossover design. The mean daily plant stanol ester margarine consumption was 18.2 g (1.5 g plant stanol). The well-tolerated plant stanol ester margarine reduced serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 5.4% and 7.5%, respectively (P =.0001 for both). The serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and alpha-tocopherol to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio remained unchanged. The serum beta-carotene to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio decreased by 19% (P =.003). Plant stanol ester margarine significantly diminishes serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration without adverse clinical effects in healthy children who already consume a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet but decreases the serum beta-carotene to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio.

  3. Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and e on the low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Samsam Shariat, Seyed Ziyae Aldin; Mostafavi, Sayed Abolfazl; Khakpour, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Meanwhile, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-catalyzed reaction is one of the potent pathway for LDL oxidation in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E on LDL oxidation mediated by MPO. MPO was isolated from fresh plasma by sequential centrifugation using density ultracentrifugation. It was incubated with LDL and the LDL oxidation level was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring conjugated diene absorbance at 234 nm. Furthermore, vitamin C (50-200 mM) and vitamin E (10-40 mM) were added and the LDL oxidation level was determined. The purity index of MPO and its enzymatic activity were 0.69 and 1127 U/mg protein, respectively. It was demonstrated that vitamin C in vitro inhibited LDL oxidation mediated by MPO; however, vitamin E was unable to act in the same way. The protection by vitamin C was concentration dependent and maximum protective effect of vitamin C was observed at 150 mM, where about 64% of the LDL oxidation was inhibited. Vitamin C increased lag time of LDL oxidation mediated by MPO up to 2.4 times. It can be concluded from our results that vitamin C is able to improve LDL resistance to oxidative modification in vitro. In addition, vitamin C might be effective in LDL oxidation mediated by MPO in vivo, resulting in reduction of atherosclerosis process rate.

  4. Bovine Lactoferrin Inhibits Dengue Virus Infectivity by Interacting with Heparan Sulfate, Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor, and DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jo-Mei; Fan, Yi-Chin; Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiou, Shyan-Song

    2017-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) presents in milk and has been shown to inhibit several viral infections. Effective drugs are unavailable for the treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of bLF against DENV infection in vivo and in vitro. Bovine LF significantly inhibited the infection of the four serotypes of DENV in Vero cells. In the time-of-drug addition test, DENV-2 infection was remarkably inhibited when bLF was added during or prior to the occurrence of virus attachment. We also revealed that bovine LF blocks binding between DENV-2 and the cellular membrane by interacting with heparan sulfate (HS), dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), and low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). In addition, bLF inhibits DENV-2 infection and decreases morbidity in a suckling mouse challenge model. This study supports the finding that bLF may inhibit DENV infection by binding to the potential DENV receptors. PMID:28895925

  5. The Effect of a Spatially Heterogeneous Transmural Water Flux on Concentration Polarization of Low Density Lipoprotein in Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Peter E.; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Weinberg, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by the arterial wall is likely to play a key role in atherogenesis. A particular process that may cause vascular scale heterogeneity in the rate of transendothelial LDL transport is the formation of a flow-dependent LDL concentration polarization layer on the luminal surface of the arterial endothelium. In this study, the effect of a spatially heterogeneous transmural water flux (that traverses the endothelium only via interendothelial cell clefts) on such concentration polarization is investigated numerically. Unlike in previous investigations, realistic intercellular cleft dimensions are used here and several values of LDL diffusivity are considered. Particular attention is paid to the spatially averaged LDL concentration adjacent to different regions of the endothelial surface, as such measures may be relevant to the rate of transendothelial LDL transport. It is demonstrated in principle that a heterogeneous transmural water flux can act to enhance such measures, and cause them to develop a shear dependence (in addition to that caused by vascular scale flow features, affecting the overall degree of LDL concentration polarization). However, it is shown that this enhancement and additional shear dependence are likely to be negligible for a physiologically realistic transmural flux velocity of 0.0439 μm s−1 and an LDL diffusivity (in blood plasma) of 28.67 μm2 s−1. Hence, the results imply that vascular scale studies of LDL concentration polarization are justified in ignoring the effect of a spatially heterogeneous transmural water flux. PMID:19383456

  6. Simulated blood transport of low density lipoproteins in a three-dimensional and permeable T-junction.

    PubMed

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Everett, Joseph; Venable, Demetrius D; Collins, William E

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that blood flow and transport of macromolecules in the cardiovascular system and tissues are essential to understand the genesis and progression of arterial diseases and for the effective implementation of arterial grafts, as well as to devise efficient drug delivery mechanisms. In the present study, we use computational fluid dynamics to simulate the blood flow and transport of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in a three-dimensional and permeable T junction. The Navier-Stokes equation, Darcy's Law, and the advective diffusion equations are the mathematical models used to simulate the flow and transport phenomena of the system. In the numeric model to implement the finite volume method, we used the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1. The simulation shows higher LDL concentration in the luminal surface at the junction under physiologic flow conditions. At 1 mm depth into the artery from the luminal surface, the LDL concentration is approximately 40% of the lumenal concentration, and at 2 mm depth, it reduces to 20%. Ultimately, the concentration drops further and reaches zero at the outer wall boundary.

  7. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  8. Tartaric Acid-based Amphiphilic Macromolecules with Ether Linkages Exhibit Enhanced Repression of Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Dalia; Zhang, Yingue; Lewis, Daniel R.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Welsh, William J.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease initiates with the atherogenic cascade of scavenger receptor- (SR-) mediated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake. Resulting foam cell formation leads to lipid-rich lesions within arteries. We designed amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) to inhibit these processes by competitively blocking oxLDL uptake via SRs, potentially arresting atherosclerotic development. In this study, we investigated the impact of replacing ester linkages with ether linkages in the AM hydrophobic domain. We hypothesized that ether linkages would impart flexibility for orientation to improve binding to SR binding pockets, enhancing anti-atherogenic activity. A series of tartaric acid-based AMs with varying hydrophobic chain lengths and conjugation chemistries were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for bioactivity. 3-D conformations of AMs in aqueous conditions may have significant effects on anti-atherogenic potency and were simulated by molecular modeling. Notably, ether-linked AMs exhibited significantly higher levels of inhibition of oxLDL uptake than their corresponding ester analogues, indicating a dominant effect of linkage flexibility on pharmacological activity. The degradation stability was also enhanced for ether-linked AMs. These studies further suggested that alkyl chain length (i.e., relative hydrophobicity), conformation (i.e., orientation), and chemical stability play a critical role in modulating oxLDL uptake, and guide the design of innovative cardiovascular therapies. PMID:25890704

  9. Nanoscale Amphiphilic Macromolecules with Variable Lipophilicity and Stereochemistry Modulate Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Poree, Dawanne E.; Zablocki, Kyle; Faig, Allison; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) based on carbohydrate domains functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) can inhibit the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and counteract foam cell formation, a key characteristic of early atherogenesis. To investigate the influence of lipophilicity and stereochemistry on the AMs' physicochemical and biological properties, mucic acid-based AMs bearing four aliphatic chains (2a) and tartaric acid-based AMs bearing two (2b and 2l) and four aliphatic chains (2g and 2k) were synthesized and evaluated. Solution aggregation studies suggested that both the number of hydrophobic arms and the length of the hydrophobic domain impact AM micelle sizes, whereas stereochemistry impacts micelle stability. 2l, the meso analogue of 2b, elicited the highest reported oxLDL uptake inhibition values (89%), highlighting the crucial effect of stereochemistry on biological properties. This study suggests that stereochemistry plays a critical role in modulating oxLDL uptake and must be considered when designing biomaterials for potential cardiovascular therapies. PMID:23795777

  10. [Consensus on objectives and action guidelines on low density lipoproteins-cholesterol control in very high risk cardiovascular patients].

    PubMed

    Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2) gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Suk Ling; Ng, Ho Keung; Baum, Larry; Pang, Jesse Chung Sean; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Woo, Jean; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2002-11-08

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) isoforms affect the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE-associated risk may be related to its binding to and clearance by cell surface receptors, such as the members of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. Previous studies had shown association of LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) and AD, therefore we speculated that another member of this LDL receptor family, LRP8 (also called apolipoprotein E receptor 2 or ApoER2), which is predominantly expressed in brain, might be associated with Alzheimer's disease. To explore this hypothesis, we screened exons 2-19 of the LRP8 gene in a total of 204 AD and 184 elderly control subjects for polymorphisms using the conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis method. Our results revealed four sequence alterations: two predicted to result in amino acid changes (E46D and R952Q), one in an intron (IVS9 + 7G > A), and one synonymous polymorphism (2622T > C). The latter was found in four AD patients (2.0%) and 11 controls (6.0%), a significant difference (P = 0.042). Further study is needed to confirm this possible association of LRP8 with AD. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor activity in the guinea pig adrenal cortex. I. Zonal characterization and response to adrenocorticotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Nonomura, K.; Obara, T.; Strott, C.A.

    1986-02-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-low density lipoprotein ((/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL) to isolated membranes was determined for the outer (glomerulosa/fasciculata) and inner (reticularis) zones of the guinea pig adrenal cortex. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL to membranes from both zones was found to be highly specific and dependent on the presence of divalent cations, such as calcium. Saturation analysis revealed that the maximum high affinity binding capacity was similar for both zones under control conditions (approximately 400 ng/mg protein). When ACTH was administered, however, the maximum high affinity binding capacity increased in the outer zone by at least 3-fold, while there was nomore » significant change for the inner zone. It was also noted that dexamethasone administration decreased (/sup 125/I)iodo-LDL high affinity binding activity to less than half the control level in the outer zone without altering the binding activity in the inner zone. The cholesterol content in the outer zone was 2-3 times greater than that in the inner zone. When ACTH was administered, the concentration of cholesterol decreased significantly in both zones. Thus, ACTH appeared to influence cholesterol metabolism in the outer and inner adrenocortical zones, but was able to modulate LDL receptor activity only in the outer zone.« less

  13. Hydroxytyrosol in functional hydroxytyrosol-enriched biscuits is highly bioavailable and decreases oxidised low density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Raquel; Martínez-López, Sara; Baeza Arévalo, Gema; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5.25mg HT) after overnight-fasting. Blood and urine were collected at different intervals and analysed by LC-MS-QToF. After HT-B consumption, plasma metabolites peaked between 0.5 and 1h and were extensively excreted in urine. HT-sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)-sulphate were the main metabolites, followed by DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA). HT-glucuronide, DOPAC-glucuronide, HVA-glucuronide and HVA-sulphate were also detected. Postprandial oxidised-LDL concentrations decreased with HT-B. HT is a promising functional ingredient and, in biscuits, it is highly bioavailable and lowers postprandial oxidised-LDL levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pneumococcal vaccination may induce anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies that have potentially protective effects against cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Suthers, B; Hansbro, P; Thambar, S; McEvoy, M; Peel, R; Attia, J

    2012-06-08

    Many animal and human studies have found an inverse association between anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibodies (anti-oxLDL) and atherosclerotic burden. Furthermore, anti-oxLDL antibodies have been shown to cause regression of atherosclerotic plaque in mice. Animal studies indicate that the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine may induce the production of these potentially protective anti-oxLDL antibodies, and human epidemiological studies support their potentially beneficial effect in reducing cardiovascular events. Here we describe the association between self-reported pneumococcal vaccination, vaccination verified by linkage to health records, and anti-pneumococcal antibody titers, and anti-ox-LDL titers in a group of 116 older people. We found a bimodal distribution of anti-oxLDL antibodies, and a significant association between pneumococcal IgG and anti-oxLDL antibody titers that remained after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders (p=0.04). There was no significant association between self-reported vaccination or vaccination verified by health record linkage and ox-LDL titers, which may be due to reporting error or variability in response to the vaccine. These results support a mechanistic link between pneumococcal vaccination and a potential protective effect on cardiovascular disease, and indicate that self-reported or verified vaccine status may not be sufficient to detect this association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Numerical Computation Model for Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Aggregation and Deposition in the Human Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Cai, Shaobiao; Ratner, Albert

    2009-11-01

    Cholesterol caused cardiovascular events are commonly seen in human lives. These events are primarily believed to be caused by the built up of particles like low-density lipoprotein (LDL). When a large number of LDL circulates in the blood, it can gradually build up in the inner walls of the arteries. A thick, hard deposit plaque can be formed together with other substances. This type of plaque may clog those arteries and cause vascular problems. Clinical evidences suggest that LDL is related to cardiovascular events and the progression of coronary heart disease is due to its aggregation and deposition. This study presents an investigation of LDL aggregation and deposition based on particulate flow. A soft-sphere based particulate computational flow model is developed to represent LDL suspending in plasma. The transport, collision and adhesion phenomena of LDL particles are simulated to examine the physics involved in aggregation and deposition. A multiple-time step discrete-element approach is presented for efficiently simulating large number of LDL particles and their interactions. The roles the quality and quantity the LDL playing in the process of aggregation and deposition are determined. The study provides a new perspective for improving the understanding of the fundamentals as related to these particle-caused cardiovascular events.

  16. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Induces Differentiation and Adhesion of Human Monocytes and the Monocytic Cell Line U937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostegard, Johan; Nilsson, Jan; Haegerstrand, Anders; Hamsten, Anders; Wigzell, Hans; Gidlund, Magnus

    1990-02-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. In experimental animals fed a high-cholesterol diet, monocytes adhere to the arterial endothelium and penetrate into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages and ingest lipids thus giving rise to fatty streaks, the earliest type of atherosclerotic plaque. Macrophages express few receptors for normal low density lipo-protein (LDL) but can take up oxidized LDL by way of a scavenger receptor. The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of oxidized LDL in recruitment of resident intimal macrophages. We found that oxidized LDL induced enhanced expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on human monocytes and U937 cells, a well-established system for studies of monocytic differentiation. Oxidized LDL also induced enhanced expression of the surface antigen LEuM3 but caused decreased expression of CD4 antigen, a pattern compatible with expression of a more differentiated macrophage-like phenotype. Oxidized LDL also initiated aggregation of monocytes and U937 cells and stimulated adhesion of U937 cells to cultured endothelial cells. The results indicate that oxidized LDL may contribute to development of atherosclerosis by inducing adhesion of monocytes to the arterial intima and by stimulating intimal monocytes to differentiate into resident macrophages.

  17. Rapamycin Promotes the Autophagic Degradation of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Han, Qiao; You, Shoujiang; Cao, Yongjun; Zhang, Xia; Liu, Huihui; Hu, Lifang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been extensively implicated in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Our previous studies reported that ox-LDL could activate autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Because of this, subsequent studies were designed to elucidate the possible role of the autophagic inducer, rapamycin, on ox-LDL degradation in endothelial cells. Intracellular cholesterol content was measured using a tissue total cholesterol assay kit. ox-LDL trafficking within endothelial cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Levels of proteins involved in the autophagic process, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), Beclin 1 and p62, were assessed by Western blot analysis. We discovered that rapamycin could decrease the ox-LDL content in HUVECs at the 3-hour time point. Rapamycin also mediated an obvious increase in Dil-labeled ox-LDL (Dil-ox-LDL)/LC3 and Dil-ox-LDL/LAMP1 co-localization, which was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagic inhibitor. In addition, significant co-localization of LC3 and LAMP1 occurred in cells pretreated with rapamycin. In the presence of rapamycin, p62 levels were reduced, and autophagic flux was enhanced. These data demonstrate that the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway by rapamycin may accelerate ox-LDL degradation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Differential effects of grape ( Vitis vinifera ) skin polyphenolics on human platelet aggregation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Beahm, Mark R; Kuhns, Melissa A; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D; Folts, John D

    2012-06-13

    Antioxidant and antiplatelet properties of grape products are thought to be responsible for observed antiatherosclerotic effects. Diverse classes of phenolics are derived from the seed and skin (GSK) of grapes. The relative contributions of the classes of phenolics to observed properties of grape products are unknown. In this paper, GSK fractions were used to examine effects on platelet aggregation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro, and relative binding of phenolics to LDL. GSK was separated into six fractions (fractions 1-6), and primary phenolics were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fractions 4, 5, and 6, enriched in polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols (PGPFs) with 3-6, 4-8, and 6-15 degrees of polymerization, respectively, inhibited platelet aggregation. Fractions 1-3, containing various amounts of oligosaccharides, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavanols, and low molecular weight PGPFs, significantly increased platelet aggregation. Fractions 4-6 were most effective in binding LDL and inhibiting LDL oxidation. Fractions 5 and 6 exhibited the greatest inhibition of platelet aggregation and LDL oxidation, suggesting that polymeric PGPFs are responsible for the beneficial effects of grape products. Conversely, phenolics in fractions 1-3 may reduce the net biological potency of the grape products and have undesirable effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  19. [Antibodies against modified low-density lipoproteins and their complexes in blood of patients with various manifestations of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Belik, I V; Ivantsova, A A; Mamedova, Z E; Denisenko, A D

    2016-05-01

    The study included 79 patients with coronary artery disease, 25 individuals with preclinical atherosclerosis and 59 healthy controls. Key lipid parameters were examined in all the participants. Levels of antibodies (Abs) against (IgG and IgM) LDL modified by malondialdehyde (MDA), acetic anhydride and hypochlorite, were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Abs specificity was tested by competitive ELISA. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were isolated by precipitation in polyethylene glycol. Abs to hypochlorite-modified low density lipoprotein (hypochlorite-LDL) were detected in the serum samples. These Abs did not demonstrate cross-reactivity with MDA-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) and acetylated LDL (acetyl-LDL). Patients with coronary artery disease had increased levels of CIC (p<0.0001) and decreased levels of Abs (IgM) to hypochlorite-LDL, compared with healthy controls and patients with preclinical atherosclerosis (p=0.006). A correlation between the levels of Abs (IgG) to the hypochlorite-LDL and Abs to MDA- and acetyl-LDL was found. There was a correlation between the content of the Abs (IgM) to MDA- and acetyl-LDL and the concentration of CIC-cholesterol. Lipid parameters did not correlate with Abs levels.

  20. Nanoscale amphiphilic macromolecules with variable lipophilicity and stereochemistry modulate inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Poree, Dawanne E; Zablocki, Kyle; Faig, Allison; Moghe, Prabhas V; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-08-12

    Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) based on carbohydrate domains functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) can inhibit the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and counteract foam cell formation, a key characteristic of early atherogenesis. To investigate the influence of lipophilicity and stereochemistry on the AMs' physicochemical and biological properties, mucic acid-based AMs bearing four aliphatic chains (2a) and tartaric acid-based AMs bearing two (2b and 2l) and four aliphatic chains (2g and 2k) were synthesized and evaluated. Solution aggregation studies suggested that both the number of hydrophobic arms and the length of the hydrophobic domain impact AM micelle sizes, whereas stereochemistry impacts micelle stability. 2l, the meso analogue of 2b, elicited the highest reported oxLDL uptake inhibition values (89%), highlighting the crucial effect of stereochemistry on biological properties. This study suggests that stereochemistry plays a critical role in modulating oxLDL uptake and must be considered when designing biomaterials for potential cardiovascular therapies.

  1. Controllable inhibition of cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein: structure-function relationships for nanoscale amphiphilic polymers.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Nicole M; Sparks, Sarah M; Demirdirek, Bahar; Uhrich, Kathryn E; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2010-08-01

    A family of anionic nanoscale polymers based on amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) was developed for controlled inhibition of highly oxidized low-density lipoprotein (hoxLDL) uptake by inflammatory macrophage cells, a process that triggers the escalation of a chronic arterial disease called atherosclerosis. The basic AM structure is composed of a hydrophobic portion formed from a mucic acid sugar backbone modified at the four hydroxyls with lauroyl groups conjugated to hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The AM structure-activity relationships were probed by synthesizing AMs with six key variables: length of the PEG chain, carboxylic acid location, type of anionic charge, number of anionic charges, rotational motion of the anionic group, and PEG architecture. All AM structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and their ability to inhibit hoxLDL uptake in THP-1 human macrophage cells was compared in the absence and presence of serum. We report that AMs with one, rotationally restricted carboxylic acid within the hydrophobic portion of the polymer was sufficient to yield the most effective AM for inhibiting hoxLDL internalization by THP-1 human macrophage cells under serum-containing conditions. Further, increasing the number of charges and altering the PEG architecture in an effort to increase serum stabilization did not significantly impair the ability of AMs to inhibit hoxLDL internalization, suggesting that selected modifications to the AMs could potentially promote multifunctional characteristics of these nanoscale macromolecules. Copyright 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kaempferol stimulates gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor through activation of Sp1 in cultured hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Ayasa; Miyata, Shingo; Iwase, Masamori; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    A high level of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is considered a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Because the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) is essential for clearing plasma LDL cholesterol, activation of LDLR is a promising therapeutic target for patients with atherosclerotic disease. Here we demonstrated how the flavonoid kaempferol stimulated the gene expression and activity of LDLR in HepG2 cells. The kaempferol-mediated stimulation of LDLR gene expression was completely inhibited by knockdown of Sp1 gene expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with kaempferol stimulated the recruitment of Sp1 to the promoter region of the LDLR gene, as well as the phosphorylation of Sp1 on Thr-453 and Thr-739. Moreover, these kaempferol-mediated processes were inhibited in the presence of U0126, an ERK pathway inhibitor. These results suggest that kaempferol may increase the activity of Sp1 through stimulation of Sp1 phosphorylation by ERK1/2 and subsequent induction of LDLR expression and activity. PMID:27109240

  3. Protective effects of Peganum harmala L. extract, harmine and harmaline against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cloutier, Martin; Hmamouchi, Mohammed; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-07-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles has been implicated in the process of atherogenesis. Antioxidants that prevent LDL from oxidation may reduce atherosclerosis. We have investigated the protective effect of Peganum harmala-extract (P-extract) and the two major alkaloids (harmine and harmaline) from the seeds of P. harmala against CuSO4-induced LDL oxidation. Through determination of the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase, the extract (P-extract) and compounds were found to possess an inhibitory effect. Moreover, harmaline and harmine reduced the rate of vitamin E disappearance and exhibited a significant free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH*). However, harmaline had a markedly higher antioxidant capacity than harmine in scavenging or preventive capacity against free radicals as well as inhibiting the aggregation of the LDL protein moiety (apolipoprotein B) induced by oxidation. The results suggested that P. harmala compounds could be a major source of compounds that inhibit LDL oxidative modification induced by copper.

  4. Mutations in the very low-density lipoprotein receptor VLDLR cause cerebellar hypoplasia and quadrupedal locomotion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Tayfun; Akarsu, Nurten; Uz, Elif; Caglayan, Safak; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Onat, Onur Emre; Tan, Meliha; Tan, Uner

    2008-01-01

    Quadrupedal gait in humans, also known as Unertan syndrome, is a rare phenotype associated with dysarthric speech, mental retardation, and varying degrees of cerebrocerebellar hypoplasia. Four large consanguineous kindreds from Turkey manifest this phenotype. In two families (A and D), shared homozygosity among affected relatives mapped the trait to a 1.3-Mb region of chromosome 9p24. This genomic region includes the VLDLR gene, which encodes the very low-density lipoprotein receptor, a component of the reelin signaling pathway involved in neuroblast migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Sequence analysis of VLDLR revealed nonsense mutation R257X in family A and single-nucleotide deletion c2339delT in family D. Both these mutations are predicted to lead to truncated proteins lacking transmembrane and signaling domains. In two other families (B and C), the phenotype is not linked to chromosome 9p. Our data indicate that mutations in VLDLR impair cerebrocerebellar function, conferring in these families a dramatic influence on gait, and that hereditary disorders associated with quadrupedal gait in humans are genetically heterogeneous. PMID:18326629

  5. [Application of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation for size characterization of low density lipoprotein in egg yolk plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cai, Chunxue; Wang, Jing; Mao, Zhen; Li, Yueqiu; Ding, Liang; Shen, Shigang; Dou, Haiyang

    2017-08-08

    Home-made asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) system, online coupled with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) detector was employed for the separation and size characterization of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in egg yolk plasma. At close to natural condition of egg yolk, the effects of cross flow rate, sample loading, and type of membrane on the size distribution of LDL were investigated. Under the optimal operation conditions, AF4-UV/Vis provides the size distribution of LDL. Moreover, the precision of AF4-UV/Vis method proposed in this work for the analysis of LDL in egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The intra-day precisions were 1.3% and 1.9% ( n =7) and the inter-day precisions were 2.4% and 2.3% ( n =7) for the elution peak height and elution peak area of LDL, respectively. Results reveal that AF4-UV/Vis is a useful tool for the separation and size characterization of LDL in egg yolk plasma.

  6. Immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates on polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Cao, Jian-Da; Lan, Ping; Wu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates (SAS) on polysulfone (PSu) ultrafiltration membranes to achieve selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide on the membrane and the Hofmann rearrangement reaction of grafted acrylamide followed by chemical binding of SAS with glutaraldehyde. The surface modification processes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the binding of LDL on plain and modified PSu membranes. It was found that the PSu membrane immobilized with sodium alginate sulfates (PSu-SAS) greatly enhanced the selective adsorption of LDL from protein solutions and the absorbed LDL could be easily eluted with sodium chloride solution, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to SAS, mainly driven by electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the PSu-SAS membrane showed good blood compatibility as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the PSu-SAS membranes are promising for application in simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL apheresis therapy. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A correlation between secondary structure and rheological properties of low-density lipoproteins at air/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Khattari, Ziad

    2017-09-01

    The secondary structure of apolipoprotein B-100 is studied within the bulk phase and at the air/water interface. In these "in viro" experiments, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) study was performed at the air/water interface while circular dichroism (CD) was conducted in the bulk phase. In the bulk phase, the conformational structure containing a significant amount of β-structure, whereas varying amount of α-helix, unordered structures, and β-sheet were observed at the air/water interface depending on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) film interfacial pressure. The present IRRAS results demonstrate the importance of interfacial pressure-induced structural conformations on the apoB-100. A correlation between the secondary structure of the apoB-100 protein and the monomolecular film elasticity at the air/water interface was also established. The orientation of apoB-100 with respect to the LDL film-normal was found to depend on the interfacial pressure exhibited by the monomolecular film. These results may shed light on LDL's pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease as demonstrated previously by clinical trials.

  8. Macrophage Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Bart; Chandak, Prakash G.; Aflaki, Elma; Van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Radovic, Branislav; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Meurs, Illiana; Out, Ruud; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Kolb, Dagmar; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Van Eck, Miranda; Kratky, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective The consequences of macrophage triglyceride (TG) accumulation on atherosclerosis have not been studied in detail so far. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the initial step in TG hydrolysis. Because ATGL knockout (KO) mice exhibit massive TG accumulation in macrophages, we used ATGL KO mice to study the effects of macrophage TG accumulation on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow from ATGL KO (ATGL KO→LDLr KO) or wild-type (wild-type→LDLr KO) mice and challenged with a Western-type diet for 9 weeks. Despite TG accumulation in ATGL KO macrophages, atherosclerosis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice was 43% reduced associated with decreased plasma MCP-1 and macrophage interleukin-6 concentrations. This coincided with a reduced amount of macrophages, possibly because of a 39% increase in intraplaque apoptosis and a decreased migratory capacity of ATGL KO macrophages. The reduced number of white blood cells might be due to a 36% decreased Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ hematopoietic stem cell population. Conclusion We conclude that the attenuation of atherogenesis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice is due to decreased infiltration of less inflammatory macrophages into the arterial wall and increased macrophage apoptosis. PMID:21030715

  9. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces cell death in neuroblastoma and survival autophagy in schwannoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Marcin; Serke, Heike; Kosacka, Joanna; Müller, Kerstin; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2010-12-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces apoptosis or autophagy in dependence on the cell type. We here investigated the effect of oxLDL on the B104 neuroblastoma and RN22 schwannoma cells being popular in neuroscience research. Cells were cultivated with and without oxLDL. To generate oxLDL, we added 50 μg/ml nLDL and 50 μM CuSO(4) into the culture medium. After a 24-h-long treatment, oxLDL was detectable in media from both cell culture types and its concentration was approximately 16 μg/ml. In the oxLDL-treated B104 neuroblastoma cell cultures 75% cells died after the 24-h exposure. The intact cells showed impaired mitochondria at the ultrastructural level. Western blot analysis revealed the increased expression of AIF 57 kDa (AIF(57)) protein, as a sign of caspase-independent cell death. In RN22 schwannoma cell cultures, oxLDL did not have any effect on cleaved caspase-3 and AIF(57) protein levels indicating absence of cell death. Treated RN22 schwannoma cells underwent survival autophagy by forming conspicuous autophagosomes and by processing LC3-I into LC3-II protein. Collectively, oxLDL induces AIF-dependent cell death in B104 neuroblastoma cells whereas in RN22 schwannoma cells enhanced signs of survival autophagy are noted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circumvention of multidrug resistance and reduction of cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo by coupling it with low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lo, Elka H K; Ooi, Vincent E L; Fung, K P

    2002-12-27

    Doxorubicin (Dox) was coupled into human low density lipoprotein (LDL) to form a complex LDL-Dox. In in vitro studies, the accumulation of LDL-Dox in human resistant hepatoma (R-HepG2) cells was found to be higher than that of free Dox in the cells, resulting in an increase of the cytotoxic effect on the cells. Moreover, in in vivo studies, under the same dosage of drugs (1 mg/kg), the anti-proliferative effect on the tumor cells of LDL-Dox in nude mice bearing R-HepG2 cells was higher than that of free Dox as evidenced by the larger reduction in tumor volumes and tumor weights in LDL-Dox treated group. Histological studies showed that LDL-Dox treatment did not cause any heart damage when compared with the control group. In contrast, Dox treatment caused disruption and vacuolization of myocardial filament. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity and plasma creatine kinase activity in nude mice bearing R-HepG2 cells were found to be elevated in the Dox-treated group but remained unchanged in LDL-Dox-treated group. The present studies indicate that when Dox is coupled with LDL, the multidrug resistance can be circumvented and the cardiotoxicity can be reduced.

  11. Control of low-density lipoprotein concentration in the arterial wall by proportional drug-encapsulated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rowhanimanesh, Alireza; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, is one of the major causes of death in humans. High accumulation of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) macromolecules within the arterial wall plays a critical role in initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. This paper proposes a proportional drug-encapsulated nanoparticle (PDENP) that utilizes a simple piecewise-proportional controller to realize swarm feedback control of LDL concentration in the interior of the arterial wall. In contrast to the competing strategies on nanorobotics, PDENPs carry simpler hardware architecture in order to be more reasonably realized technologically as well as to penetrate the interior arterial wall. Furthermore, in contrast to the existing targeted DENPs that usually target the surface proteins of atherosclerotic plaque, the proposed PDENPs directly sense the LDL level in the arterial walls. Hence, they can diagnose abnormal LDL accumulation before plaque formation, prevent critical growth of atherosclerotic plaques, while considerably reducing the unwanted drug side effects in healthy tissue. Simulation results on a well-known mathematical model of the arterial wall demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully reduces the LDL level to a desired value in the arterial wall of a patient with very high LDL level. Also, the mass of the released drug by PDENPs in a healthy wall is 11 times less than its corresponding value in an unhealthy wall.

  12. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and characterization of NPC1L1 variants in Uygur and Kazakh with extreme low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qinghua; Fu, Zhenyan; Wei, Jian; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Qu, Yu-Xiu; Xu, Jie; Qin, Jie; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang; Ma, Yitong

    2016-10-28

    Plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and are influenced by both heredity and dietary habits. The Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein mediates efficient dietary cholesterol absorption and contributes to variations in human LDL-C levels. In the present study, using high throughput sequencing we identified three non-synonymous (NS) variations and 64 synonymous variations in the NPC1L1 gene from subsets of Chinese Han, Uygur and Kazakh populations with high or low LDL-C. Subsequently, three NS variations encoding R174H, V177I and V1284L substitutions were observed only in Uygur and Kazakh individuals with limited maximal plasma LDL-C levels. In further experiments, we investigated cholesterol-regulated recycling and glycosylation and stability of these NS NPC1L1 variants. However, no significant differences between WT and variant NPC1L1 proteins were observed using in vivo assays in mouse livers with adenovirus-mediated expression, demonstrating that none of the three NPC1L1 NS variants caused decreased uptake of biliary cholesterol. Simultaneously, these data indicate that R174H, V177I and V1284L NPC1L1 variations in high or low LDL-C individuals may not directly influence cholesterol absorption by NPC1L1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Unsaturated fatty alcohol derivatives of olive oil phenolic compounds with potential low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant and antiobesity properties.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Bruno Almeida; Joglar, Jesús; Rojas, M Jesús L; del Olmo, Juan Manuel Decara; Macias-González, Manuel; Cuevas, Miguel Romero; Fitó, Montserrat; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Planells, María Isabel Covas; Farré, Magí; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; de la Torre, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    A new route for the synthesis of fatty alcohol derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and other olive oil phenolic compounds was developed to allow the preparation of unsaturated derivatives. The biological activity of synthesized compounds was evaluated. Most of the compounds presented a significant antioxidant activity on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The activity of the tested products was significantly influenced by the number and position of unsaturations as well as modifications on the polar head of the synthesized compounds. Some of them presented modulation of food intake in rats and, due to their molecular similarity with CB(1) endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoid system and PPAR-α were also evaluated as potential targets. The pharmacodynamics could not be totally explained by CB(1) and PPAR-α receptor interactions because only two of the four compounds with biological activity showed a CB(1) activity and all of them presented low PPAR-α affinity, not justifying its whole in vivo activity. The hydroxytyrosol linoleylether (7) increased LDL resistance to oxidation with a capacity similar to that of hydroxytyrosol and was the most active in vivo compound with a hypophagic effect comparable to that of oleoylethanolamine. We consider that this compound could be a good lead compound for future drug development in obesity treatments.

  15. Enhanced atherosclerosis in TIPE2-deficient mice is associated with increased macrophage responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yunwei; Liu, Suxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Guizhong; Li, Jingjing; Ni, Mei; An, Guipeng; Dong, Mei; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Faliang; Zhang, Wenqian; Gao, Fei; Chen, Youhai H; Zhang, Yun

    2013-11-01

    Atherosclerosis has been widely recognized as an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall in which macrophages play a major role. Yet, how macrophage-mediated pathology is regulated during atherosclerosis is poorly understood. TNF-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2, also known as TNFAIP8L2) is highly expressed in resting macrophages and can negatively regulate inflammation through inhibiting immune receptor signaling. We report in this article that TIPE2 plays a crucial atheroprotective role likely by regulating macrophage responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). TIPE2-deficient macrophages treated with ox-LDL produced more oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, and exhibited heightened activation of the JNK, NF-κB, and p38 signaling pathways. As a consequence, TIPE2 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells exacerbated atherosclerosis development in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. Importantly, ox-LDL markedly downregulated TIPE2 mRNA and protein levels in macrophages, suggesting that ox-LDL mediates atherosclerosis by TIPE2 inhibition. These results indicate that TIPE2 is a new inhibitor of atherosclerosis and a potential drug target for treating the disease.

  16. Thioredoxin1 Downregulates Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Adhesion Molecule Expression via Smad3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beidong; Wang, Wendong; Shen, Tao; Qi, Ruomei

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation disease that is initiated by endothelial cell injury. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is directly associated with chronic vascular inflammation. To understand whether thioredoxin1 (Trx1) participates in an antiinflammatory defense mechanism in atherosclerosis, we investigated the effect of Trx1 on the expression of two adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Thioredoxin1 and dominant-negative mutant thioredoxin1 (TD) were transiently overexpressed using adenovirus vector gene transfer. Our data showed that Trx1 overexpression suppressed ox-LDL-induced adhesion molecule expression in HUVECs. The overexpression of Trx1 promoted ox-LDL-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. A co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Smad3 continued to interact with Trx1 with or without ox-LDL stimulation. These results suggest that Trx1 inherently suppresses VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelia and may prevent the initiation of atherosclerosis by attenuating adhesion molecule expression. The enhancement of Smad3 phosphorylation and nuclear expression appears to be primarily responsible for the Trx1-induced downregulation of adhesion molecules. PMID:24086714

  17. Association of the novel single-nucleotide polymorphism which increases oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels with cerebrovascular disease events.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Traylor, Matthew; Oksala, Niku; Kleber, Marcus E; Seppälä, Ilkka; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Kähönen, Mika; Bevan, Steve; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Dichgans, Martin; Delgado, Graciela; Grammer, Tanja B; Scharnagl, Hubert; Markus, Hugh S; März, Winfried; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2014-05-01

    Patients with genetic background for high circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels might be at an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The association of oxLDL-variant rs676210 with CVD events was studied in patients undergoing coronary angiography (study A; N = 2913 [271 cases]). We sought to replicate the results in a large genome-wide association study meta-analysis of ischaemic stroke (study B; N = 3548 cases, 5972 controls). In study A, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and >50% carotid stenosis as well as the levels of LDL cholesterol differed significantly between cases and controls. In a logistic regression model adjusted for the significant covariates, rs676210 associated with CVD events (p = 0.030; odds ratio = 1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.03‒1.63] for risk allele G). In study B, rs676210 did not associate with the history of ischaemic stroke. The oxLDL levels increasing variant rs676210 associates with CVD events in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein increases interleukin-8 production in human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Sakiyama, Y; Usui, M; Obama, T; Kato, R; Itabe, H; Yamamoto, M

    2010-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between periodontitis and hyperlipidemia. We have found high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in the gingival crevicular fluid of dental patients. In the present study, we tried to examine the possible role of OxLDL in periodontal inflammation in vitro. Cells of the human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 were cultured in media containing OxLDL, and the amounts of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) produced were measured using ELISAs. Production of IL-8 by Ca9-22 cells was significantly increased when the cells were treated with OxLDL, but not with native LDL or acetylated LDL. Production of PGE(2) by Ca9-22 cells was enhanced by co-incubation with OxLDL and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Scavenger receptor inhibitors, fucoidan and dextran sulfate, inhibited the OxLDL-induced IL-8 and PGE(2) production in the presence of IL-1 beta. The p(38) MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and SB202190 and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the OxLDL-induced IL-8 production. Among oxidized lipids and chemically modified LDL, 7-ketocholesterol enhanced IL-8 production. This is the first report to show that OxLDL enhances IL-8 production in epithelial cells.

  19. Association of Plasma Adiponectin and Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Georgoulidou, Anastasia; Roumeliotis, Athanasios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Giannakopoulou, Efstathia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Passadakis, Ploumis; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Vargemezis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We sought to determine the association between levels of adiponectin and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in patients with diabetic nephropathy as well as their effect on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods. Adiponectin and ox-LDL were determined in 25 diabetic patients without nephropathy and 94 patients at different stages of diabetic nephropathy including subjects on hemodialysis. cIMT was measured using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Results. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly with severity of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.002), on the contrary to ox-LDL which decreased with disease severity (P < 0.001). cIMT was significantly higher at late stages of diabetic nephropathy compared with early stages (P = 0.022). Adiponectin was a significant negative predictor of ox-LDL levels (β = −5.45, P = 0.023), independently of confounding factors. There was no significant correlation between cIMT and adiponectin or ox-LDL either in the total sample population or according to disease staging. Cluster analysis showed that patients with the highest cIMT values, highest levels of adiponectin, and lowest levels of ox-LDL were included in one cluster and all assigned to stage 5 of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions. There was no significant association between adiponectin or ox-LDL and cIMT and, therefore, other factors affecting this surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease in diabetic nephropathy should be sought. PMID:26064982

  20. [The influence of glucose on the free radical peroxidation of low density lipoproteins in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Lankin, V Z; Konovalova, G G; Tikhaze, A K; Nedosugova, L V

    2012-01-01

    It was shown that glucose in concentration 12.5-100 mM stimulated of Cu(2+)-mediated free radical peroxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human blood plasma. On the base investigation of kinetic parameters of LDL peroxidation it was stated that intensification of this process in the conditions of our experiments is caused by formation of free radical intermediates of glucose autoxidation during active oxygen species generation in the presence of metal ions with variable valence. It was found that glucose level normalization in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes during therapy accompanied by significant decreasing of LDL oxidizing. During therapy with sugar-lowering drug metformin which utilizate methylglyoxal the LDL peroxidation from blood diabetes mellitus in vivo inhibited in more higher degree probably in consequence of decreasing of methylglyoxal-dependent generation of superoxide anion radicals as was shown by us early [Biochemistry (Moscow), 2007, 72: 1081-1090; Biochemistry (Moscow), 20(09, 74: 461-466].

  1. KIF6, LPA, TAS2R50, and VAMP8 genetic variation, low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin, and heart disease risk reduction in the elderly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the KIF6 (kinesin like protein 6, rs20455 or 719Arg), LPA (lipoprotein(a), rs3798220), TAS2R50 (taste receptor type 2, member 50, rs1376251) and VAMP8 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 8, rs1010) have previously been associated with low density lipoprotei...

  2. Genetic variation at the SLCO1B1 gene locus and low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering response to pravastatin in the elderly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal was to determine whether genetic variation at genes affecting statin metabolism or targets of statin therapy would influence low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with pravastatin, baseline heart disease, or cardiac endpoints on trial. We examined associations of single nucleot...

  3. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is linked to advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease lean patients.

    PubMed

    Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Pareja, María Jesús; Del Campo, Jose Antonio; Pastor-Ramírez, Helena; Rico, María Carmen; Picón, Rocío; Pastor, Luis; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Andrade, Raúl; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    A small but significant proportion of patients with normal body mass index show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a powerful immunogenic molecule, which causes oxidative stress and produces antibodies (oxLDL-ab). We aimed to analyze the role of oxLDL-ab on histological features in lean-NAFLD patients. Seventy-two biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were included. Lean patients showed body index mass of <30 kg/m(2) . Liver biopsies were assessed by one pathologist blinded to clinical data. Histological features were non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and liver fibrosis. Metabolic and hepatic profiles were analyzed, and lipid-lowering medication was recorded. OxLDL-ab levels were measured by ELISA. OxLDL-ab-based lipid indexes analyzed: oxLDL-ab/total cholesterol ratio; oxLDL-ab/LDL-c ratio; oxLDL-ab/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio; and oxLDL-ab/oxLDL ratio. Lean-NAFLD patients presented 26.5% (9/34) of NASH. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (r = 0.570; n = 34; P = 0.001) correlated with NAS score and was the only variable associated with NASH in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio, OR, 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.21); P = 0.039]. Severe steatosis was present in 41.2% (14/34) of lean-NAFLD patients. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with grade-III steatosis (54.9 (37.3-124.6)) than those with grade II (37.1 (20.2-71.1)) and grade I (17.7 (13.1-22.8)) (P = 0.018). Hepatocellular ballooning was present in 20.6% (7/34) of lean-NAFLD patients, and OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (OR 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01-1.05]; P = 0.050) was independently associated with histological features. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (39.8 (22.9-121.6) vs 17.7 (13.9-30.9); P = 0.025), increasing gradually with the fibrosis stage (P = 0.042) and remained in the final multivariate model [OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00-1.11); P = 0

  4. Effects of Baseline Blood Pressure and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Safety and Efficacy of Canagliflozin in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Goda, Maki; Yokota, Shoko; Maruyama, Nobuko; Iijima, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood pressure (BP) and slightly increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of baseline BP and LDL-C on the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in patients were analyzed post hoc in a phase III study. Japanese patients with T2DM were classified by baseline systolic BP (SBP) of <130 or ≥130 mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) of <80 or ≥80 mmHg, and LDL-C of <120 or ≥120 mg/dL. Canagliflozin was administered daily to patients for 52 weeks at doses of either 100 mg (n = 584) or 200 mg (n = 715). The effects of canagliflozin on the incidence of adverse events (AEs), BP, and LDL-C were evaluated. No clear differences were observed in overall safety among the subgroups classified by baseline SBP, DBP, or LDL-C, except for a slight imbalance in AEs associated with volume depletion with 200 mg of canagliflozin. The decrease in mean SBP and DBP was evident in subgroups with baseline SBP ≥130 mmHg and DBP ≥80 mmHg. Mean LDL-C was decreased in subgroups with baseline LDL-C ≥120 mg/dL at both canagliflozin doses, and they were slightly increased, but did not exceed 120 mg/dL in subgroups with baseline LDL-C <120 mg/dL. The changes in HbA1c and body weight from those observed at baseline were not different between subgroups classified by SBP, DBP, and LDL-C at either dose. The present post hoc analysis indicates that canagliflozin is well tolerated irrespective of baseline BP and LDL-C in patients with T2DM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01387737. Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

  5. Contribution of mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL): a reappraisal by using a resequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Minicocci, Ilenia; Prisco, Cristina; Montali, Anna; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Ceci, Fabrizio; Pigna, Giovanni; Arca, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Defective low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) alleles have been implicated in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). However, their contribution might have been influenced by diagnostic criteria. This study was aimed to reassess the frequency of rare and common variants in LDLR and LPL in FCHL individuals classified with stringent criteria. LDLR and LPL were resequenced in 208 FHCL and 171 controls. Variants were classified as loss- (LOF) or gain-of-function (GOF) based upon in silico prediction, familial segregation and available functional data. Eight LOF variants were detected in LDLR, 6 of which were missense and 2 were predicted to disrupt normal splicing; all were present at heterozygous state. They were found in 10 FCHL but not in controls, thus indicating that 4.8% of FCHL individuals should be reclassified as FH. LDL-C (positive) and BMI (negative) were the strongest predictors of LDLR mutations with LDL-C 181 mg/dl being the best threshold for diagnosing the presence of dysfunctional LDLR alleles. The cumulative prevalence of definite LPL defective alleles (1 rare and 2 common heterozygous missense variants) was comparable between FCHL and controls (10.1% vs. 10.5%). Conversely, the LPL GOF variant p.Ser474* showed a lower frequency in FCHL than in controls (13.5% vs. 24.0%, p = 0.008). Overall, LOF LPL variants did not show a TG-modulating effect. Our findings indicate that, in well characterized FCHL individuals, variants in LDLR and LPL provide a small contribution to this dyslipidemia, thus limiting the need for such genetic testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ezetimibe on remnant-like particle cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Michishita, Ichiro; Mizuguchi, Ichiro

    2010-02-01

    Ezetimibe is a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor that reduces the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C). The effects of ezetimibe on remnant-like particle (RLP)-C, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) levels have not been examined. Fifty patients with dyslipidemia were treated with 10 mg/day of ezetimibe. At baseline and 12 weeks after treatment with ezetimibe, we measured the levels of RLP-C, Lp(a), Ox-LDL, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The mean levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), and apolipoprotein (apo) B, respectively, showed a significant decrease from 229+/-39 to 191+/-37 mg/dL (-16%, p<0.0001), from 151+/-34 to 118+/-33 mg/dL (-22%, p<0.0001), from 162+/-82 to 135+/-55 mg/dL (-7%, p<0.01), and from 116+/-22 to 94+/-21 mg/dL (-18%, p<0.0001) after 12 weeks of treat-ment with ezetimibe. The mean level of RLP-C and median level of hs-CRP also decreased signifi-cantly from 6.8+/-4.0 to 4.8+/-2.5 mg/dL (-21%, p<0.0001) and from 0.6 to 0.4 mg/L (-33%, p<0.05). The median level of Lp(a) decreased significantly from 14 to 10 mg/dL (-29%, p<0.05) in patients treated with ezetimibe monotherapy. Ezetimibe was effective for reducing the levels of TC, LDL-C, TG, and RLP-C. Ezeti-mibe could be a potential therapeutic option for decreasing the Lp(a) level.

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced CD147 expression and its inhibition by high-density lipoprotein on platelets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Hua; Li, Yun-Tian; Du, Da-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to progressively degrade the collagenous components of the protective fibrous cap, leading to atherosclerotic plaque rupture or destabilization. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) enhances the release of CD147, known as the extracellular MMP inducer, from coronary smooth muscle cells. However, whether ox-LDL can induce platelet CD147 expression is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the influence of ox-LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on CD147 expression on human platelets. Washed platelets were incubated with ox-LDL (or native LDL) and HDL or anti-LOX-1 monoclonal antibody prior to incubation with ox-LDL. In parallel, buffer (PBS) was added to washed platelets as a control. The expression levels of CD147, CD62P, CD63 and Annexin V were assessed by flow cytometry, and soluble CD147 from the platelets was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to visualize the morphological changes and granule release, respectively, from the platelets. Platelets treated with ox-LDL exhibited a significant increase in the expression of CD147 (or Annexin V), followed by increases in CD62P and CD63, compared with the control group. In contrast, HDL or anti-LOX-1 monoclonal antibody decreased these effects. The expression of soluble CD147 increased as the concentration of ox-LDL used to treat the platelets increased. After exposure to ox-LDL, morphological changes and granule release in the platelets were visualized by LSM and TEM. Additionally, the TEM revealed that HDL inhibits alpha-granule release. In platelets, ox-LDL stimulates the release of CD147 via binding to LOX-1, whereas HDL inhibits this effect. This finding could provide new insights concerning the influence of ox-LDL and HDL on plaque stability by the up-regulation of CD147 on platelets. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653 ; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595 ). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol

  9. Effect of reduced low-density lipoprotein receptor level on HepG2 cell cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Izem, L; Rassart, E; Kamate, L; Falstrault, L; Rhainds, D; Brissette, L

    1998-01-01

    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are taken up by both LDL receptor (LDLr)-dependent and -independent pathways. In order to determine the importance of these pathways in the activity of the various enzymes that are important in maintaining the cellular cholesterol level in hepatic cells, we created HepG2 cells expressing lower levels of LDLr. Thus HepG2 cells were transfected with a constitutive expression vector (pRc/CMV) containing a fragment of LDLr cDNA inserted in an antisense manner. Stable transformants were obtained that showed significant reductions of 42, 72 and 85% of LDLr protein levels compared with the control, as demonstrated by immunoblotting and confirmed by the LDL binding assay. The best inactivation was achieved with the construct containing the first 0.7 kb of LDLr cDNA. Incubating the different HepG2 cell subtypes with LDL showed similar association of apolipoprotein B (apo B) or cholesteryl esters from LDL with the cells, indicating that the LDLr deficiency did not significantly affect LDL uptake by the cell. However, apoB degradation was reduced significantly by 71-82% in the most LDLr-deficient HepG2 cells. We also found that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoA red) activity is significantly increased by 32-35% in HepG2 cells expressing very low levels of LDLr that also demonstrate a significant decrease of 20% in acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity. However, these effects are moderate compared with those observed when cells were incubated in lipoprotein-depleted medium, where a >900% increase in HMGCoA red activity and a loss of 60% of ACAT activity was observed. Thus, in HepG2 cells, different levels of LDLr affect LDL-apoB degradation, but have very little effect on LDL association, HMGCoA red and ACAT activities, revealing that LDLr is more important in the clearance of LDL-apoB than in HepG2 cell cholesterol homoeostasis, a role that should be attributable to both LDLr-dependent and -independent pathways

  10. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Landowski, Lila M; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V; West, Adrian K; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-15

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Identification of miR-185 as a regulator of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Liu, Weidong; Pellicane, Christina; Sahyoun, Christine; Joseph, Biny K.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Pandya, Devanshi; Giordano, Caroline; Bata, Adam; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis is associated with various metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The sterol response element binding protein (SREBP)-2 transcription factor induces the expression of genes involved in de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, thus it plays a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we found that overexpressing microRNA (miR)-185 in HepG2 cells repressed SREBP-2 expression and protein level. miR-185-directed inhibition caused decreased SREBP-2-dependent gene expression, LDL uptake, and HMG-CoA reductase activity. In addition, we found that miR-185 expression was tightly regulated by SREBP-1c, through its binding to a single sterol response element in the miR-185 promoter. Moreover, we found that miR-185 expression levels were elevated in mice fed a high-fat diet, and this increase correlated with an increase in total cholesterol level and a decrease in SREBP-2 expression and protein. Finally, we found that individuals with high cholesterol had a 5-fold increase in serum miR-185 expression compared with control individuals. Thus, miR-185 controls cholesterol homeostasis through regulating SREBP-2 expression and activity. In turn, SREBP-1c regulates miR-185 expression through a complex cholesterol-responsive feedback loop. Thus, a novel axis regulating cholesterol homeostasis exists that exploits miR-185-dependent regulation of SREBP-2 and requires SREBP-1c for function. PMID:24296663

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) mutations and osteoporosis, impaired glucose metabolism and hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Anne; Saukkonen, Tero; Kivelä, Tero; Lahtinen, Ulla; Laine, Christine; Somer, Mirja; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Cole, William G; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Mäkitie, Outi

    2010-04-01

    Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) underlie osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. Animal models implicate a role for LRP5 in lipid and glucose homeostasis. The objective was to evaluate metabolic consequences of LRP5 mutations in humans. Thirteen Finnish individuals with homozygous or heterozygous LRP5 mutations were assessed for bone health, glucose and lipid metabolism, and for serum serotonin concentration. Results were compared with findings in family members without mutations. Bone mineral density (BMD), vertebral morphology, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, lipid profile and serum serotonin concentrations. Two individuals were homozygous for R570W, one compound heterozygous for R570W and R1036Q, and 10 were heterozygous (six for R570W, three for R1036Q and one for R925C). Subjects with two LRP5 mutations had multiple spinal fractures and low BMD. Subjects with one mutation had significantly lower median lumbar spine (P = 0.004) and femoral neck (P = 0.005) BMD Z-scores, and more often vertebral fractures than the 18 individuals without mutations. Of the 12 subjects with LRP5 mutation six had diabetes and one had impaired glucose tolerance. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests suggested impaired beta-cell function; no insulin resistance was observed. Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia was similar in mutation positive and negative subjects. Serum serotonin concentrations showed a trend towards higher concentrations in subjects with LRP5 mutation. We found high prevalence of osteoporosis and abnormal glucose metabolism in subjects with LRP5 mutation(s). Further studies are needed to establish the role of LRP5 in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  13. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Proteins in a Novel Mechanism of Axon Guidance and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Landowski, Lila M.; Pavez, Macarena; Brown, Lachlan S.; Gasperini, Robert; Taylor, Bruce V.; West, Adrian K.; Foa, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein receptors 1 and 2 (LRP1 and LRP2) are emerging as important cell signaling mediators in modulating neuronal growth and repair. We examined whether LRP1 and LRP2 are able to mediate a specific aspect of neuronal growth: axon guidance. We sought to identify LRP1 and LRP2 ligands that could induce axonal chemoattraction, which might have therapeutic potential. Using embryonic sensory neurons (rat dorsal root ganglia) in a growth cone turning assay, we tested a range of LRP1 and LRP2 ligands for the ability to guide growth cone navigation. Three ligands were chemorepulsive: α-2-macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, and metallothionein III. Conversely, only one LRP ligand, metallothionein II, was found to be chemoattractive. Chemoattraction toward a gradient of metallothionein II was calcium-dependent, required the expression of both LRP1 and LRP2, and likely involves further co-receptors such as the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor. The potential for LRP-mediated chemoattraction to mediate axonal regeneration was examined in vivo in a model of chemical denervation in adult rats. In these in vivo studies, metallothionein II was shown to enhance epidermal nerve fiber regeneration so that it was complete within 7 days compared with 14 days in saline-treated animals. Our data demonstrate that both LRP1 and LRP2 are necessary for metallothionein II-mediated chemotactic signal transduction and that they may form part of a signaling complex. Furthermore, the data suggest that LRP-mediated chemoattraction represents a novel, non-classical signaling system that has therapeutic potential as a disease-modifying agent for the injured peripheral nervous system. PMID:26598525

  14. AUP1 (Ancient Ubiquitous Protein 1) Is a Key Determinant of Hepatic Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Assembly and Secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zamani, Mostafa; Thiele, Christoph; Taher, Jennifer; Amir Alipour, Mohsen; Yao, Zemin; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-04-01

    AUP1 (ancient ubiquitous protein 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein that also localizes to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs), with dual role in protein quality control and LD regulation. Here, we investigated the role of AUP1 in hepatic lipid mobilization and demonstrate critical roles in intracellular biogenesis of apoB100 (apolipoprotein B-100), LD mobilization, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: siRNA (short/small interfering RNA) knockdown of AUP1 significantly increased secretion of VLDL-sized apoB100-containing particles from HepG2 cells, correcting a key metabolic defect in these cells that normally do not secrete much VLDL. Secreted particles contained higher levels of metabolically labeled triglyceride, and AUP1-deficient cells displayed a larger average size of LDs, suggesting a role for AUP1 in lipid mobilization. Importantly, AUP1 was also found to directly interact with apoB100, and this interaction was enhanced with proteasomal inhibition. Knockdown of AUP1 reduced apoB100 ubiquitination, decreased intracellular degradation of newly synthesized apoB100, and enhanced extracellular apoB100 secretion. Interestingly, the stimulatory effect of AUP1 knockdown on VLDL assembly was reminiscent of the effect previously observed after MEK-ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase) inhibition; however, further studies indicated that the AUP1 effect was independent of MEK-ERK signaling. In summary, our findings reveal an important role for AUP1 as a regulator of apoB100 stability, hepatic LD metabolism, and intracellular lipidation of VLDL particles. AUP1 may be a crucial factor in apoB100 quality control, determining the rate at which apoB100 is degraded or lipidated to enable VLDL particle assembly and secretion. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Salusin-α attenuates hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in high fat diet-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Wang, Fei; Zeng, Yi; Chen, XueMeng; Xu, XiaoLe

    2018-04-26

    Salusin-α is an endogenous bioactive peptide and likely to prevent atherosclerosis. But its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential effects of salusin-α on atherosclerosis and its associated metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD)-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice, and also explore the possible underlying mechanisms involved. Our data showed that after 12 weeks treatment, salusin-α ameliorated HFD-induced weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Salusin-α suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and regulated gene expression of fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, camitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and CYP7A1 in liver. Salusin-α reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and macrophage foam cell formation. Salusin-α prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced macrophage recruitment and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in both liver and aorta. Salusin-α also reduced hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and protein expressions of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 in both liver and aorta. Our present data suggest that salusin-α could reduce hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including amelioration of lipid profiles, regulation of some key molecules involved in lipid metabolism in liver, anti-oxidative effect and anti-inflammatory action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined measurement of plasma cystatin C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A valuable tool for evaluating progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ruihui; Wei, Xiaobo; Yu, Bin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xiaohua; Xie, Fen; Zhang, Mahui; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xia, Ying; Jin, Kunlin; Chan, Piu; Wang, Qing; Gao, Xiaoya

    2018-03-19

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was previously thought as a cause of atypical Parkinsonism. Although Cystatin C (Cys C) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) are known to play critical roles in Parkinsonism, it is unknown whether they can be used as markers to distinguish PSP patients from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C/HDL/LDL-C levels of 40 patients with PSP and 40 healthy age-matched controls. An extended battery of motor and neuropsychological tests, including the PSP-Rating Scale (PSPRS), the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used to evaluate the disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were adopted to assess the prognostic accuracy of Cys C/LDL-C levels in distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects. Patients with PSP exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of Cys C and lower LDL-C. The levels of plasma Cys C were positively and inversely correlated with the PSPRS/NMSS and MMSE scores, respectively. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with PSPRS/NMSS and GDS scores. The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and LDL-C yielded a better accuracy for distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Plasma Cys C and LDL-C may be valuable screening tools for differentiating PSP from healthy subjects; while they could be useful for the PSP intensifies and severity evaluation. A better understanding of Cys C and LDL-C may yield insights into the pathogenesis of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein synergistically recruit osteogenic differentiation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yung, Lai-Ming; Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Ten Dijke, Peter; Yu, Paul B

    2015-11-01

    Vascular calcification contributes to mortality and morbidity in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes. Vascular calcific lesions contain osteoblast- and chondroblast-like cells, suggesting a process of endochondral or membranous ossification thought to result from the phenotypic plasticity of vascular cells. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling potentiates atherosclerotic calcification, whereas BMP inhibition attenuates vascular inflammation and calcification in atherogenic mice. We hypothesized endothelial cells (ECs) may undergo osteogenic differentiation in response to BMP signalling and pro-atherogenic stimuli. Among various BMP ligands tested, BMP6 and BMP9 elicited the most potent signalling in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), however, only BMP6 induced osteogenic differentiation. BMP6 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) independently and synergistically induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, in a manner consistent with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Treatment of ECs with BMP6 or oxLDL individually induced osteogenic and chondrogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Msx2, whereas treatment with BMP6 and oxLDL synergistically up-regulated Osterix and Osteopontin. Production of H2O2 was necessary for oxLDL-induced regulation of Runx2, Msx2, and Osterix in BAEC, and H2O2 was sufficient by itself to up-regulate these genes. Mineralization of ECs in response to BMP6 or oxLDL was abrogated by scavenging reactive oxygen species or inhibiting BMP type I receptor kinases. Similar synergistic effects of BMP and oxLDL upon osteogenic and chondrogenic transcription and phenotypic plasticity in human aortic endothelial cells were observed. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the observed interactions of BMP signalling, oxidative stress, and inflammation in recruiting vascular calcification associated with atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  18. [Achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic goal in lipid and vascular risk units of the Spanish Arteriosclerosis Society].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Mostaza, José M; Pintó, Xavier; Banegas, José R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc) goal achievement among dyslipidemic patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA). The LDLc goal was based on the 2007 European guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter national study that included consecutive patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. Information was collected from medical records corresponding to two visits in the lipid unit. We included 1,828 patients from 43 lipid units. In the initial visit, 846 (46.3%) patients were on lipid lowering drug treatment. On the follow-up there was a significant increase in the use of cholesterol-lowering agents, except for a decrease in the use of nicotinic acid. 65.3% of patients with vascular disease and 50.4% with diabetes achieved an LDLc level <100mg/dL. Overall, 44.7% of patients achieved the LDLc goal and the predictors in the multivariate analysis were age, waist circumference, diabetes and the presence of vascular disease. Dyslipidemic patients referred to SEA lipid units have improved LDLc goal achievement after follow-up compared with data reported from previous studies in other health care settings. This improvement was associated with a substantial increase in the prescription of statins, both in monotherapy and combined with ezetimibe. There is still a wide room for improvement in the effectiveness of hypercholesterolemia treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on cholesterol efflux in 3T3-L1 cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-Lian; Zhao, Shui-Ping; Xie, Xiang-Zhu; Dong, Shao-Zhuang; Dong, Jing

    2007-08-01

    To explore whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can stimulate the cholesterol efflux in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and the possible mechanism. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated in the medium containing various concentrations of ox-LDL ( 0 to 50 microg/mL) for 8 or 24 hours. 22(R)-Hydroxycholesterol (10 micromol/L) was exposed to preconditioned adipocytes with 25 microg/mL ox-LDL for 24 hours. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha) mRNA expression. Cholesterol efflux mediated by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was determined using liquid scintillator. Low levels (12.5-25 microg/mL) of ox-LDL could increase cholesterol efflux via the enhancement of ABCA1 pathway and SR-BI expression, whereas the higher concentration (50 microg/mL) could not. In adipocytes preincubated with 25 microg/mL ox-LDL for 24 hours, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol could increase ABCA1 and LXRalpha mRNA and apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux, but had no effect on the SR-BI mRNA expression. Low levels of ox-LDL may enhance the LXRalpha-ABCA1-apoA-I pathway in adipocytes, up-regulate SR-BI mRNA expression, and then increase the cholesterol efflux. This new effect of ox-LDL will not only make contribution to cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes, but also be potentially atheroprotective.

  20. Cell membrane damage is involved in the impaired survival of bone marrow stem cells by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Cui, Yuqi; Tan, Tao; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A; Hao, Hong; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Jia; He, Guanglong; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Lei, Minxiang; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) remains a viable option for tissue repair and regeneration. A major challenge for cell therapy is the limited cell survival after implantation. This study was to investigate the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, naturally present in human blood) on BMSC injury and the effect of MG53, a tissue repair protein, for the improvement of stem cell survival. Rat bone marrow multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) were treated with ox-LDL, which caused significant cell death as reflected by the increased LDH release to the media. Exposure of MAPCs to ox-LDL led to entry of fluorescent dye FM1-43 measured under confocal microscope, suggesting damage to the plasma membrane. Ox-LDL also generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. While antioxidant N-acetylcysteine completely blocked ROS production from ox-LDL, it failed to prevent ox-LDL-induced cell death. When MAPCs were treated with the recombinant human MG53 protein (rhMG53) ox-LDL induced LDH release and FM1-43 dye entry were significantly reduced. In the presence of rhMG53, the MAPCs showed enhanced cell survival and proliferation. Our data suggest that membrane damage induced by ox-LDL contributed to the impaired survival of MAPCs. rhMG53 treatment protected MAPCs against membrane damage and enhanced their survival which might represent a novel means for improving efficacy for stem cell-based therapy for treatment of diseases, especially in setting of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25256620

  1. Relationship of oxidized low density lipoprotein with lipid profile and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults: a translational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays important roles in the pro-inflammatory and atherosclerotic processes, the relationships with metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers have been only scarcely investigated in young adult people. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess plasma ox-LDL concentrations and the potential association with oxidative stress markers as well as with anthropometric and metabolic features in healthy young adults. Methods This study enrolled 160 healthy subjects (92 women/68 men; 23 ± 4 y; 22.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2). Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, lifestyle features, biochemical data, and oxidative stress markers were assessed with validated tools. Selenium, copper, and zinc nail concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c and uric acid concentrations, TC-to-HDL-c ratio, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were positive predictors of ox-LDL concentrations, while nail selenium level (NSL) was a negative predictor, independently of gender, age, smoking status, physical activity. Those individuals included in the highest tertile of GPx activity (≥611 nmol/[mL/min]) and of NSL (≥430 ng/g of nail) had higher and lower ox-LDL concentrations, respectively, independently of the same covariates plus truncal fat or body mass index, and total cholesterol or LDL-c concentrations. Conclusions Ox-LDL concentrations were significantly associated with lipid biomarkers, GPx activity, uric acid concentration, and NSL, independently of different assayed covariates, in young healthy adults. These findings jointly suggest the early and complex relationship between lipid profile and redox status balance. PMID:21504598

  2. Chronic Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lectin-Like Low Density Lipoprotein (LOX-1) Receptor Expression in Heart of Diabetic Rat.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Simin; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Ababzadeh, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of lectin-like low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) receptor plays an important role in hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications such as atherosclerosis. Based on the beneficial effects of exercise on preventing cardiovascular complications of diabetes, we aimed to examine the protective effects of aerobic exercise on expression of LOX-1 receptor and production of free radicals in the heart of diabetic rats. Four groups of rats were used: (n = 5 per group): sedentary normal, trained normal, sedentary diabetes and trained diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The exercise protocol was consisted of swimming 30 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Plasma glucose was evaluated at initiation, weeks 4 and 8 of experiment. At the end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and the heart was removed for determination of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and LOX-1 gene expression. In normal non-diabetic rats, the blood glucose level was <150 mg/dl; however, the induction of diabetes resulted in levels more than >400 mg/dl. Gene expression of LOX-1 was increased in the heart of diabetic rats. Exercise reduced the gene expression of this protein in diabetic states without reducing the blood glucose. Finally, swimming exercise decreased the malondialdehyde and nitrate levels in heart tissue both in control and diabetic rats. Swimming exercise reduces heart expression of the LOX-1 receptor in accompany with reduction of free radicals production. Since these parameters are important in generation of diabetic complications, swimming exercise is a good candidate for reducing these complications.

  3. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  4. The association between achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal and statin treatment in an employee population.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2010-02-01

    Statin medications are recommended for patients who have not achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals through lifestyle modifications. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to examine statin medication usage patterns and the relationship with LDL-C goal levels (according to Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines) among a cohort of employees of a major financial services corporation. From 1995 to 2004, a total of 1607 executives participated in a periodic health examination program. An index date was assigned for each study participant (date of their exam) and statin medication usage was determined from the pharmacy claims database for 365 days before the index date. Patients were identified as adherent to statins if the medication possession ratio was > or =80%. In all, 150 (9.3%) executives filled at least 1 statin prescription in the 365 days prior to their exam. A total of 102 statin users (68%) were adherent to statin medication. Among all executives who received statin treatment, 70% (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82, 2.90) achieved near-optimal (<130 mg/dL) and 30% (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.76) achieved optimal (<100 mg/dL) LDL-C goals, which is significantly higher than the rates among statin nonusers (55% and 21%). Adherent statin users were more likely to achieve recommended near-optimal LDL-C goals compared to statin nonusers (overall P = 0.002; adherent: OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.662, 4.550), while nonadherent statin users were more likely to achieve the optimal goal compared to statin nonusers (OR = 2.223; CI = 1.145, 4.313). Statin usage was associated with improvements in LDL-C goal attainment among executives who participated in a periodic health examination. Appropriate statin medication adherence should be encouraged in working populations in order to achieve LDL-C goals.

  5. Strong improvement of apolipoprotein E/low-density lipoprotein receptor signals by telmisartan in poststroke spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toru; Zhai, Yun; Kurata, Tomoko; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker also called metabosartan, is a promising solution for preventing cognitive decline or the incidence of dementia. We examined the effects of telmisartan on cholesterol transport-related proteins (apolipoprotein E [ApoE]/low-density lipoprotein receptor [LDL-R]) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive stroke resistant (SHR-SR). SHR-SR received transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 minutes at 12 weeks of age and then was divided into 3 experiment groups including a vehicle, low-dose telmisartan (.3 mg/kg/day), and high-dose telmisartan (3 mg/kg/day). The low dose served to improve the metabolic syndrome of SHR-SR without lowering the blood pressure (BP) whereas the high dose was used to improve metabolic syndrome while lowering BP. Immunohistologic analysis showed that ApoE expression of cortical neurons was strong in the vehicle group at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, and that this ApoE expression pattern was very similar between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of cerebral ischemia. On the other hand, LDL-R expression of cortical neurons was transiently increased at 6 months of age only on the ipsilateral side. Telmisartan dramatically suppressed the expression of ApoE/LDL-R at both doses. There was no remarkable difference in neuronal MAP2 staining between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that both low and high doses of telmisartan prevented the activation of ApoE/LDL-R in SHR-SR after tMCAO, and that the antimetabolic effect was regarded as the most important mechanism with few additional benefits by lowering BP in this transient stroke model. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of human low-density lipoprotein subfractions, determined by X-ray small-angle scattering.

    PubMed

    Baumstark, M W; Kreutz, W; Berg, A; Frey, I; Keul, J

    1990-01-19

    The structure of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles from three different density ranges (LDL-1: d = 1.006-1.031 g/ml; LDL-3: d = 1.034-1.037 g/ml; LDL-6: d = 1.044-1.063 g/ml) was determined by X-ray small-angle scattering. By using a theoretical particle model, which accounted for the polydispersity of the samples, we were able to obtain fits of the scattering intensity that were inside the noise interval of the measured intensity. The assumption of deviations from radial symmetry is not supported by our data. This implies a spread-out conformation of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) molecule, which appears to be localized in the outer surface shell. A globular structure is not consistent with our data. Furthermore, different models exist concerning the structure of the cholesterol ester core below the phase transition temperature. The electron density data suggest an arrangement in which the steroid moieties are localized at average radii of 3.2 and 6.4 nm. Model calculations show that packing problems can only be avoided if approximately half of the acyl chains of each shell are pointing towards the center of the particle, the other half towards the surface. This arrangement of the acyl chains has never been proposed before. The LDL particles of different density classes differ mainly with respect to the size of the core but also with respect to the width of the surface shells. Model calculations show that the size of different LDL particles can be accurately predicted from the compositional data.

  7. Tissue-type plasminogen activator suppresses activated stellate cells through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Liang-I; Isse, Kumiko; Koral, Kelly; Bowen, William C; Muratoglu, Selen; Strickland, Dudley K; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and trans-differentiation into myofibroblast (MFB)-like cells is key for fibrogenesis after liver injury and a potential therapeutic target. Recent studies demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-dependent signaling by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a pro-fibrotic regulator of the MFB phenotype in kidney. This study investigated whether LRP1 signaling by t-PA is also relevant to HSC activation following injury. Primary and immortalized rat HSCs were treated with t-PA and assayed by western blot, MTT, and TUNEL. In vitro results were then verified using an in vivo, acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injury model that examined the phenotype and recovery kinetics of MFBs from wild-type animals vs mice with a global (t-PA) or HSC-targeted (LRP1) deletion. In vitro, in contrast to kidney MFBs, exogenous, proteolytically inactive t-PA suppressed, rather than induced, activation markers in HSCs following phosphorylation of LRP1. This process was mediated by LRP1 as inhibition of t-PA binding to LRP1 blocked the effects of t-PA. In vivo, following acute injury, phosphorylation of LRP1 on activated HSCs occurred immediately prior to their disappearance. Mice lacking t-PA or LRP1 retained higher densities of activated HSCs for a longer time period compared with control mice after injury cessation. Hence, t-PA, an FDA-approved drug, contributes to the suppression of activated HSCs following injury repair via signaling through LRP1. This renders t-PA a potential target for exploitation in treating patients with fibrosis. PMID:26237273

  8. C-Reactive Protein-Bound Enzymatically Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Does Not Transform Macrophages into Foam Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay K.; Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Prayther, Deborah C.; Moorman, Jonathan P.; Rusiñol, Antonio E.; Agrawal, Alok

    2009-01-01

    The formation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-loaded macrophage foam cells contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) binds to atherogenic forms of LDL, but the role of CRP in foam cell formation is unclear. In this study, we first explored the binding site on CRP for enzymatically modified LDL (E-LDL), a model of atherogenic LDL to which CRP binds. As reported previously, phosphocholine (PCh) inhibited CRP-E-LDL interaction, indicating the involvement of the PCh-binding site of CRP in binding to E-LDL. However, the amino acids Phe66 and Glu81 in CRP that participate in CRP-PCh interaction were not required for CRP-E-LDL interaction. Surprisingly, blocking of the PCh-binding site with phosphoethanolamine (PEt) dramatically increased the binding of CRP to E-LDL. The PEt-mediated enhancement in the binding of CRP to E-LDL was selective for E-LDL because PEt inhibited the binding of CRP to another PCh-binding site-ligand pneumococcal C-polysaccharide. Next, we investigated foam cell formation by CRP-bound E-LDL. We found that, unlike free E-LDL, CRP-bound E-LDL was inactive because it did not transform macrophages into foam cells. The function of CRP in eliminating the activity of E-LDL to form foam cells was not impaired by the presence of PEt. Combined data lead us to two conclusions. First, PEt is a useful compound because it potentiates the binding of CRP to E-LDL and, therefore, increases the efficiency of CRP to prevent transformation of macrophages into E-LDL-loaded foam cells. Second, the function of CRP to prevent formation of foam cells may influence the process of atherogenesis. PMID:18322245

  9. Analysis of low-density lipoprotein-associated proteins using the method of digitized native protein mapping.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ya; Chen, Jin; Wang, Ahui; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Shumin; Manabe, Takashi; Tan, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The method of digitized native protein mapping, combining nondenaturing micro 2DE, grid gel-cutting, and quantitative LC-MS/MS (in data-independent acquisition mode, or MS(E) ), was improved by using a new MS/MS mode, ion mobility separation enhanced-MS(E) (HDMS(E) ), and applied to analyze the area of human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL). An 18 mm × 4.8 mm rectangular area which included LDL on a nondenaturing micro 2D gel of human plasma was grid-cut into 72 square gel pieces and subjected to quantitative LC-MS/MS. Compared with MS(E) , HDMS(E) showed significantly higher performance, by assigning 50% more proteins and detecting each protein in more squares. A total of 253 proteins were assigned with LC-HDMS(E) and the quantity distribution of each was reconstructed as a native protein map. The maps showed that Apo B-100 was the most abundant protein in the grid-cut area, concentrated at pI ca. 5.4-6.1 and apparent mass ca. 1000 kDa, which corresponded to four gel pieces, squares 39-42. An Excel macro was prepared to search protein maps which showed protein quantity peaks localized within this concentrated region of Apo B-100. Twenty-two proteins out of the 252 matched this criterion, in which 19 proteins have been reported to be associated with LDL. This method only requires several microliters of a plasma sample and the principle of the protein separation is totally different from the commonly used ultracentrifugation. The results obtained by this method would provide new insights on the structure and function of LDL. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Plasma gamma-glutamyltransferase, cysteinyl-glycine, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein: a pathway associated with myocardial infarction risk?

    PubMed

    Drogan, Dagmar; Weikert, Cornelia; Dierkes, Jutta; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Buijsse, Brian; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pischon, Tobias; Spranger, Joachim; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the interrelation between plasma γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity, cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly) (ie, a thiol originating from GGT-mediated cleavage of glutathione), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) with regard to myocardial infarction (MI) risk in a prospective study. Incident cases of MI were identified among European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam participants without prior MI during 6.0 years of follow-up. Baseline levels of Cys-Gly and oxLDL and GGT activity in plasma were measured in a case-cohort study comprising 837 subjects without incident MI and 116 subjects with incident MI. The relation of GGT, Cys-Gly and oxLDL to MI risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. After adjustment for established risk factors, hazard ratios associated with a 1-SD unit increase in the log-transformed biomarker were 1.63 (95% CI, 1.30 to 2.05) for GGT, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.72) for Cys-Gly, and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.86) for oxLDL. Cys-Gly and oxLDL accounted for 2.3% of the relation between GGT and MI risk. The positive association between GGT activity and MI risk appears to be independent of circulating Cys-Gly and oxLDL levels. With Cys-Gly, we found a potential new predictor of MI risk whose impact needs to be further elucidated.

  11. Allicin prevents oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial cell injury by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Pang, Sunian; Lin, Jianfeng; Xia, Jianlan; Wang, Yi

    2016-05-20

    Vascular endothelial apoptosis is significantly associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, for which oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a major risk factor. Allicin, the primary active ingredient of garlic, has been found to have cardiovascular protective effect by changing the fatty-acid composition, but its effect on ox-LDL-induced vascular endothelial injury remains unclear. We investigated the protective effect of allicin on cell viability, LDH release, apoptosis and apoptotic signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cultured HUVEC cell line, ox-LDL induced injury was investigated. The cell viability and injury were evaluated by using cell proliferation Assay kit and LDH release assay. The apoptosis was evaluated by the Annexin V-FITC kit. The activity of caspase-3 was assessed using a colorimetric caspase-3 assay kit. The ROS production was evaluated by fluorometric assay and NADPH oxidase activity was assessed with a GENMED kit. Exposure of HUVECs to ox-LDL (150 μg/ml) reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis and increased activity of caspase-3, NADPH oxidase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The pretreatment with allicin (30 and 100 μM) significantly rescued the cell viability, inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and activity of caspase-3, NADPH oxidase and ROS production in HUVECs, and the protective effect is concentration-dependent. The allicin (100 μM) alone did not show significant difference from control. Our study demonstrated that allicin protected HUVECs from ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury by reducing the apoptosis, mediated by inhibition of caspase-3 and NADPH oxidase related apoptotic signaling. Allicin prevents ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress pathway.

  12. Inhibitory effect of low density lipoprotein on the inflammation-inducing activity of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Y; Watanabe, W; Kobayashi, A; Sato, K; Onuma, S; Sakamoto, H

    2001-12-01

    It has been proposed that low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a role in the self-limiting nature of pseudogout inflammation. We investigated changes of LDL concentration in rat air pouch fluid during periods of acute and subsiding inflammation to evaluate whether LDL contributes to inhibiting inflammation of pseudogout. We examined whether LDL binds to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals as a possible mechanism for reduction of inflammation. In this in vivo study, 5 mg suspensions of CPPD crystals and saline were injected into the rat air pouch. Fluid samples were taken from rat air pouch at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after injection. White blood cells in the samples were counted; the remaining fluid was centrifuged and concentrations of beta-glucuronidase and PGE2 in the supernatant were measured as inflammatory markers. LDL in the supernatant was immunochemically identified by Western blotting, then pellets containing crystals were examined by the same technique. LDL was identified in the air pouch 3 h after CPPD crystal injection, and its concentration increased and reached a peak level after 24 h. Inflammatory markers reached maximal level from 6 to 12 h, then decreased after 24 h. In the pellets containing crystals, LDL could not be identified in every specimen. LDL in the rat air pouch increased during the inflammatory course induced by CPPD crystal and the inflammation subsided as the LDL increased. Since some reports indicate LDL was related to reduction of crystal induced inflammation such as gout or pseudogout, we concluded that LDL could contribute to the resolution of acute pseudogout arthritis in vivo with or without binding to CPPD crystals.

  13. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein alters the effect of matrix stiffness on the formation of endothelial networks and capillary lumens.

    PubMed

    Gundavaram, Madhu S; Shentu, Tzu Pin; Kowalsky, Gregory B; Volkov, Suncica; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Levitan, Irena

    2013-09-01

    Abstract Formation of new blood vessels is essential for vascular repair and remodeling, and it is known that biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix play a major role in this process. Our earlier studies have also shown that exposing endothelial cells to oxidized modification of low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) increases endothelial stiffness and facilitates their ability to form cellular networks, suggesting that it facilitates endothelial angiogenic potential. The goal of this study, therefore, was to test the interrelationship between matrix stiffness and oxLDL in the regulation of angiogenesis. Our results show that, as expected, an increase in matrix stiffness inhibited endothelial network formation and that exposure to oxLDL significantly facilitated this process. We also show, however, that oxLDL-induced facilitation of endothelial networks was observed only in stiff (3 mg/mL) but not in soft (1 mg/mL) collagen gels, resulting in blunting the effect of matrix stiffness. Also unexpectedly, we show that an increase in matrix stiffness results in a significant increase in the number of capillary lumens that are formed by single cells or pairs of cells, suggesting that while endothelial connectivity is impaired, formation of single-cell lumens is facilitated. oxLDL facilitates lumen formation, but this effect is also matrix dependent and is observed only in soft gels and not in stiff gels. Finally, an increase in both matrix stiffness and oxLDL exposure results in changes in capillary morphology, with the formation of larger capillary lumens. Overall, our study suggests that oxLDL plays an important role in formation of new capillaries and their morphology and that this effect is critically dependent on the extracellular environment's compliance, thereby underlining the importance of the interdependence of these parameters.

  14. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein alters the effect of matrix stiffness on the formation of endothelial networks and capillary lumens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Formation of new blood vessels is essential for vascular repair and remodeling, and it is known that biomechanical properties of extracellular matrix play a major role in this process. Our earlier studies have also shown that exposing endothelial cells to oxidized modification of low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) increases endothelial stiffness and facilitates their ability to form cellular networks, suggesting that it facilitates endothelial angiogenic potential. The goal of this study, therefore, was to test the interrelationship between matrix stiffness and oxLDL in the regulation of angiogenesis. Our results show that, as expected, an increase in matrix stiffness inhibited endothelial network formation and that exposure to oxLDL significantly facilitated this process. We also show, however, that oxLDL-induced facilitation of endothelial networks was observed only in stiff (3 mg/mL) but not in soft (1 mg/mL) collagen gels, resulting in blunting the effect of matrix stiffness. Also unexpectedly, we show that an increase in matrix stiffness results in a significant increase in the number of capillary lumens that are formed by single cells or pairs of cells, suggesting that while endothelial connectivity is impaired, formation of single-cell lumens is facilitated. oxLDL facilitates lumen formation, but this effect is also matrix dependent and is observed only in soft gels and not in stiff gels. Finally, an increase in both matrix stiffness and oxLDL exposure results in changes in capillary morphology, with the formation of larger capillary lumens. Overall, our study suggests that oxLDL plays an important role in formation of new capillaries and their morphology and that this effect is critically dependent on the extracellular environment’s compliance, thereby underlining the importance of the interdependence of these parameters. PMID:24618546

  15. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Cyclophilin A Secretion Requires ROCK-Dependent Diphosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain.

    PubMed

    Su, Zizhuo; Lin, Rongjie; Chen, Yuyang; Shu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Haifeng; Liang, Shumin; Nie, Ruqiong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xie, Shuanglun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) within atherosclerotic lesions is thought to be implicated in the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the source of CyPA within atherosclerotic lesions is still unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the role of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived CyPA secretion and the underlying mechanism. Abundant CyPA and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expressed in atherosclerotic lesions was observed in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ox-LDL induced CyPA secretion from a primary culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sulfosuccinimidyloleate, a CD36 inhibitor, prevented the ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion. Pre-exposure to either the actin-depolymerizing agent cytochalasin D or the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide inhibited CyPA secretion induced by ox-LDL. Gene silencing of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 suppressed ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion. ox-LDL caused the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). Inhibition of MLC by blebbistatin reversed the secretion of CyPA and the phosphorylation of MLC induced by ox-LDL. MLC kinase inhibitor ML-7 reduced the monophosphorylation of MLC but did not reduce CyPA secretion. Pretreatment with the rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 blocked diphosphorylation of MLC and secretion of CyPA induced by ox-LDL. ox-LDL-induced CyPA secretion requires vesicle transportation, actin remodeling and ROCK-dependent diphosphorylation of MLC. VSMC-derived CyPA induced by ox-LDL may be associated with increased CyPA expression in atherosclerotic lesions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Relationships of coronary heart disease with 27-hydroxycholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Jacques E; Prentice, Ross L; Manson, JoAnn E; Aragaki, Aaron K; Hsia, Judith; Martin, Lisa W; Kuller, Lewis; Johnson, Karen C; Eaton, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca; Trevisan, Maurizio; Allison, Matthew; Hoogeveen, Ron C

    2012-09-25

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in older women with elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDLC) levels. The endogenous estrogen receptor antagonist 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) is correlated with LDLC levels and may block the beneficial effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative trials of 350 CHD cases and 813 matched controls to explore potential mediation by 27OHC of the dependence of the CHD risk elevation with MHT on LDLC. Baseline levels of 27OHC were not associated with CHD risk when LDLC was included in the multivariable models. The odds ratio for CHD associated with increased LDLC was 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.23) and was unchanged at 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.22) when 27OHC was added to the model. Baseline 27OHC did not interact with MHT on CHD risk (P=0.81). In contrast, LDLC levels modified the effect of MHT on CHD risk (P for interaction=0.02), and adding 27OHC did not affect this result. With the use of log scales, the effect of MHT on CHD increased linearly with increasing level of baseline LDLC, with a transition from no risk to increased risk at ≈3.36 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). This study found that 27OHC does not independently increase the risk of CHD, does not modify the increased risk of CHD resulting from MHT, and does not mediate the interaction of LDLC with MHT. Measuring blood lipids may aid in counseling individual women about initiating MHT and cardiovascular risk mitigation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611.

  17. Low density lipoprotein receptor-independent hepatic uptake of a synthetic, cholesterol-scavenging lipoprotein: implications for the treatment of receptor-deficient atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Rahman, I.U.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism of infused /sup 111/In-labeled phospholipid liposomes was examined in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, which lack low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and in normal control rabbits. The half-times (t/sub 1/2/) for clearance of /sup 111/In and excess phospholipid from plasma were 20.8 +/- 0.9 hr and 20.3 +/- 4.6 hr in WHHL and 20.0 +/- 0.8 hr and 19.6 +/- 2.2 hr in the normal rabbits. By 6 hr postinfusion, the plasma concentration of unesterified cholesterol increased by 2.2 +/- 0.23 mmol/liter in WHHL and 2.1 +/- 0.04 mmol/liter in normal rabbits, presumably reflecting mobilization of tissue sores.more » Disappearance of excess plasma cholesterol was > 90% complete in both groups of rabbits by 70 hr postinfusion. By quantitative ..gamma.. camera imaging, hepatic trapping of /sup 111/In-labeled liposomes over time was indistinguishable between the two groups. At autopsy, the liver was the major organ of clearance. Aortic uptake of /sup 111/In was < 0.02%. Thus, mobilization of cholesterol and hepatic uptake of phospholipid liposomes do not require LDL receptors. Because phospholipid infusions produce rapid substantial regression of atherosclerosis in genetically normal animals, the results suggest that phospholipid liposomes or triglyceride phospholipid emulsions (e.g., Intralipid) might reduce atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and in humans with familial hypercholesterolemia.« less

  18. Increased Free Cholesterol in Plasma Low and Very Low Density Lipoproteins in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Its Role in the Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Christopher J.; Reaven, Gerald M.; Liu, George; Fielding, Phoebe E.

    1984-04-01

    Recombination of low and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) from normal subjects with plasma from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus significantly increased the reduced rate of transfer of cholesteryl ester to these lipoproteins, which is characteristic of diabetic plasma, whereas diabetic VLDL and LDL reduced cholesteryl ester transfer rates in normal plasma. VLDL and LDL from diabetic plasma had an increased ratio of free cholesterol to phospholipid compared to normal, and unlike normal VLDL and LDL spontaneously lost free cholesterol to high density lipoprotein. These data suggest that the block to cholesteryl ester transfer to these lipoproteins in non-insulin-dependent diabetes is mediated by their increased free cholesterol content and may be related to the increased risk of these patients for developing atherosclerosis.

  19. Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in 28,318 Adults With Diabetes Mellitus and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol <100 mg/dl.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Liu, Jennifer Y; Moffet, Howard H; Solomon, Matthew D; Go, Alan S; Jaffe, Marc G; Karter, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with diabetes and "metabolic dyslipidemia" (high triglyceride [TGs] and low high-density cholesterol levels) remains a matter of concern. Little is known regarding the risk of CHD for this phenotype with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <100 mg/dl. We analyzed a diabetes cohort of 28,318 members (aged 30 to 90 years) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during 2002 to 2011 (192,356 person-years [p-y] follow-up), with LDL-C levels <100 mg/dl and without known CHD. We compared the incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD events in groups using Cox models: normal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and TG (reference; n = 7,278, 25.7%); normal HDL and high TG (≥ 150 mg/dl; n = 4,484,15.8%); low HDL (≤ 50 mg/dl for women and ≤ 40 mg/dl for men) and normal TG (n = 4,048, 14.3%); low HDL and high TG (metabolic dyslipidemia; n = 12,508, 44%). Patients with metabolic dyslipidemia had the highest age-adjusted CHD events/1,000 p-y (12.7/1,000 p-y and 19.0/1,000 p-y for women and men, respectively). After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, smoking, statin use, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, we observed an increased CHD risk in women (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.60) and men (HR 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 1.83) with metabolic dyslipidemia compared to those with normal HDL and TG. Even in subjects with an LDL-C <100 mg/dl, presence of metabolic dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. In conclusion, effective CHD prevention strategies are needed for adults with diabetes and metabolic dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) levels: a prospective observational trial

    PubMed

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Dalos, Daniel; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-08-09

    INTRODUCTION    Since proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were introduced to the market, the interest in PCSK9 metabolism has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVES    We investigated prospectively the influence of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, highand low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C, respectively), and lipoprotein(a) levels [Lp(a)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS    A total of 109 participants were recruited and instructed to increase their sport pensum by 75 min/wk of vigorous-intensity or 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (or a mixture) within the calculated training pulse for 8 months. Stress tests were performed at baseline and at the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. PCSK9 levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 6, and 8 months by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HDL-C, LDL-C, and Lp(a) levels were measured at baseline and every 2 months. RESULTS    The final study sample included 79 subjects, who showed a mean performance gain of 11.4%. Mean (SD) PCSK9 and HDL-C levels increased significantly from 224.7 (66.8) ng/ml to 243.4 (84.0) ng/ml (P = 0.04) and 58.3 (18.4) mg/dl to 61.1 (18.5) mg/dl (P = 0.014), respectively. Mean (SD) LDL-C levels decreased significantly from 115.0 (33.4) mg/dl to 109.8 (31.7) mg/dl (P = 0.04), but there was no significant change in mean (SD) Lp(a) levels: 37.9 (51.9) nmol/l to 43.3 (60.6) nmol/l; P = 0.218. CONCLUSIONS    Our study showed a decrease in LDL-C levels induced by a long-term physical activity with a simultaneous increase in PCSK9 levels. PCSK9 is essential in lipid metabolism and should not be basically considered as harmful. It is possible that a certain amount of PCSK9 is beneficial to ensure an adequate lipid supply.

  1. Predictive value of lipoprotein indices for residual risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden death in men with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <120 mg/dl.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumitaka; Makita, Shinji; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Omama, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Kuribayashi, Toru; Okayama, Akira; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2013-10-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) profile is a key risk indicator for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, almost half of all patients with CHD have normal LDL-C levels. A total of 7,931 male subjects aged ≥40 years from the general population with no cardiovascular history and no use of lipid-lowering agents were followed for incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden death. Of the 4,827 participants with LDL-C levels <120 mg/dl, 55 subjects had a first AMI/sudden death during an average of 5.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for confounding factors, multiadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were increased by 1 SD for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C; HR = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.81), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.78) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.73) but not for LDL-C (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.44) and HDL-C (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.68 to 1.04). When stratified as categorical variables on the basis of points with highest accuracy on receiver operating characteristic analysis, non-HDL-C levels >126 mg/dl (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.51), TC/HDL-C ratio above 3.5 (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.48) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio >1.9 (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.51) had increased multiadjusted HRs for AMI/sudden death. In conclusion, in men with LDL-C levels <120 mg/dl, non HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios have predictive value for residual risk of AMI/sudden death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel surface-engineered solid lipid nanoparticles of rosuvastatin calcium for low-density lipoprotein-receptor targeting: a Quality by Design-driven perspective.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Jain, Sanyog; Kushwah, Varun; Bhatti, Gurjit Kaur; Sandhu, Premjeet Singh; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder

    2017-02-01

    The present studies describe Quality by Design-oriented development and characterization of surface-engineered solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of rosuvastatin calcium for low density lipoprotein-receptor targeting. SLNs were systematically prepared employing Compritol 888 and Tween-80. Surface modification of SLNs was accomplished with Phospholipon 90G and DSPE-mPEG-2000 as the ligands for specific targeting to the low density lipoprotein-receptors. SLNs were evaluated for size, potential, entrapment, drug release performance and gastric stability. Also, the formulations were evaluated for cellular cytotoxicity, uptake and permeability, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and biochemical studies. Overall, the studies ratified enhanced biopharmaceutical performance of the surface-engineered SLNs of rosuvastatin as a novel approach for the management of hyperlipidemia-like conditions.

  3. Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids and esters present in red wine on human Low-Density Lipoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urizzi, P.; Monje, M.-C.; Souchard, J.-P.; Abella, A.; Chalas, J.; Lindenbaum, A.; Vergnes, L.; Labidalle, S.; Nepveu, F.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant activity of different phenolic acids and their esters, three types of experiments have been used. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) quantitative analysis was carried out using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system and Fenton's reaction to generate superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. In a second test, hydroperoxides generated by Cu2+-catalysed oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) were quantified by a modified iodometric method. In a third assay, LDL were oxidized with Esterbauer's method and modified LDL species were quantified by HPLC. The results show that the esterified phenolic derivatives present a better antioxidant activity, on the lipoperoxidation of LDL, than the corresponding phenolic acids. Trois expériences ont été menées afin d'évaluer l'activité antioxydante de différents acides et de leurs esters. Une analyse quantitative par résonance paramagnétique électronique (RPE) a été réalisée en utilisant le système acétaldéhyde/xanthine oxydase et la réaction de Fenton générant, respectivement, les radicaux superoxyde et hydroxyle. Dans un second test, les hydroperoxydes générés par une réaction d'oxydation des lipoprotéines de basse densité (LDL) catalysée par Cu2+ ont été quantifiés par une méthode iodométrique modifiée. Dans une troisième étude, les LDL ont été oxydées par la méthode d'Esterbauer et les espèces oxydées ont été quantifiées par HPLC. Les résultats montrent que les dérivés estérifiés présentent une activité antioxydante contre la lipoperoxydation des LDL bien plus importante que celle des acides phénoliques correspondants.

  4. Gender-specific relationships between plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity, and central adiposity indicators.

    PubMed

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Barbosa, Kiriaque B F; Volp, Ana Carolina P; Puchau, Blanca; Bressan, Josefina; Zulet, M Ángeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the onset of obesity-related chronic diseases. This study assessed potential gender differences in the associations of adiposity (total vs. central) with oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study enrolled 272 subjects (97 males, 175 females; 22 ± 3 years, body mass index 22.0 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). Body composition, cardiometabolic and lifestyle features, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDL) concentrations, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in erythrocytes were determined by validated procedures. Compared to women, men had statistically higher concentrations of ox-LDL (61.7 vs. 53.5 U/l, p = 0.022). In analyses with the whole sample, those individuals included in the highest tertile of central adiposity indicators (waist circumference, WC, or waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) presented higher ox-LDL and lower TAC values (p < 0.01), while no statistical differences were found across tertiles of total body fat. WHR values were more strongly associated with ox-LDL and TAC concentrations, compared to other adiposity indicators, with higher slopes for women. Sex differences in ox-LDL concentrations were abolished (p > 0.05) after individual pairing of men and women for WC (53.8 vs. 61.6 U/l, p = 0.225) or WHR (56.1 vs. 56.3 U/l, p = 0.471). No differences were found in GPx values concerning gender or adiposity indicators. Plasma ox-LDL and TAC values were more strongly influenced by central adiposity indicators (WHR and WC) in women than in men, suggesting that the change of the gynoid to android pattern phenotype among young women could lead to a steeper unfavourable redox status compared to men. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced scavenger receptor A1 upregulation in macrophages].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shu-Tong; Zhao, Li; Miao, Cheng; Tian, Hua; Yang, Na-Na; Guo, Shou-Dong; Zhai, Lei; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yi-Wei; Qin, Shu-Cun

    2014-10-25

    The present study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was involved in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced scavenger receptor A1 (SR-A1) upregulation in macrophages. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with 20 mmol/L of 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) for 30 min and then treated with ox-LDL (50 mg/L) for 12 h or stimulated with 2 mg/L tunicamycin (TM) or 2 μmol/L thapsigagin (TG) for 4 h. In addition, RAW264.7 cells were incubated with 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L TM for 4 h or treated with 2 mg/L TM for 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. The intracellular total cholesterol (TC) content was measured using a tissue/cell total cholesterol assay kit. The protein and mRNA expressions of SR-A1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Dil-ox-LDL uptake was detected using a microplate reader. The results showed that ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in macrophages was attenuated by PBA, an ERS inhibitor. Ox-LDL caused significant SR-A1 upregulation with concomitant activation of ERS as assessed by upregulation of GRP78, whereas PBA significantly inhibited the ox-LDL-induced SR-A1 upregulation (P < 0.05) and slightly decreased GRP78 expression by 39.3% (P = 0.057). TM, an ERS inducer, upregulated SR-A1 protein expression and ox-LDL uptake in dose- and time-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on SR-A1 mRNA level. However, the TM- or TG-induced SR-A1 upregulation and ox-LDL uptake were significantly mitigated by PBA. These data indicate that ERS plays a critical role in ox-LDL-induced SR-A1 upregulation, which in turn enhances the foam cell formation by uptaking more ox-LDL.

  6. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 promotes endothelial dysfunction in LDL receptor knockout background.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Poitz, David M; Langbein, Heike; Strasser, Ruth H; Henle, Thomas; Ravens, Ursula; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized LDL in endothelial cells. LOX-1 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. The impact of LOX-1 on development of endothelial dysfunction in large vessels in absence or presence of atherosclerosis-prone conditions has not been studied to date. Mice with endothelial cell-specific LOX-1 overexpression (bLOX-1tg) were analyzed. Wild-type (WT) mice served as controls. In addition, bLOX-1tg mice were crossed with LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr -/- ) mice. All mice were fed a western-type diet (WD) or control diet (CD) for 20 weeks. Afterwards, endothelial function was analyzed ex vivo in thoracic aortas using a Mulvany myograph. WD induced hypertriglyceridemia (bLOX-1tg: 1.6-fold; WT: 1.4-fold) and hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.0001) in bLOX-1tg and WT mice without HDL-elevation in bLOX-1tg mice. Gonadal fat pad weight was 1.7 and 1.2-fold increased on CD and WD in bLOX-1tg mice compared to WT. LOX-1 overexpression impaired endothelial function by 15-16% (P < 0.05) on CD and WD. Crossing bLOX-1tg mice into Ldlr -/- background strongly elevated total (∼6-fold) and LDL-cholesterol (∼9-fold) compared to WT and bLOX-1tg mice on WD. Endothelial function in response to WD was impaired in bLOX-1tg/Ldlr -/- mice (Eff max : 56.7 ± 23.0%) compared to WT (Eff max : 88.2 ± 15.8%, P < 0.001), bLOX-1tg (Eff max : 76.7 ± 12.9%, P < 0.05) and Ldlr -/- mice (Eff max : 70.1 ± 13.1%, P < 0.05). No differences between WT, bLOX-1tg and Ldlr -/- mice were detectable when comparing all genotypes. Endothelial LOX-1 overexpression in an atherosclerosis-prone background impairs endothelial function, proving its importance in the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Density Lipoproteins Promote Unstable Calcium Handling Accompanied by Reduced SERCA2 and Connexin-40 Expression in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Llach, Anna; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Badimon, Lina; Cinca, Juan; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The damaging effects of high plasma levels of cholesterol in the cardiovascular system are widely known, but little attention has been paid to direct effects on cardiomyocyte function. We therefore aimed at testing the hypothesis that Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol affects calcium dynamics and signal propagation in cultured atrial myocytes. For this purpose, mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and intracellular calcium was visualized in fluo-4 loaded atrial HL-1 myocyte cultures subjected to field stimulation. At low stimulation frequencies all cultures had uniform calcium transients at all tested LDL concentrations. However, 500 µg LDL/mL maximally reduced the calcium transient amplitude by 43% from 0.30±0.04 to 0.17±0.02 (p<0.05). Moreover, LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently increased the fraction of alternating and irregular beat-to-beat responses observed when the stimulation interval was shortened. This effect was linked to a concurrent reduction in SERCA2, RyR2, IP3RI and IP3RII mRNA levels. SERCA2 protein levels were also reduced by 43% at 200 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05) and SR calcium loading was reduced by 38±6% (p<0.001). By contrast, HDL-cholesterol had no significant effect on SERCA expression or SR calcium loading. LDL-cholesterol also slowed the conduction velocity of the calcium signal from 3.2+0.2 mm/s without LDL to 1.7±0.1 mm/s with 500 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05). This coincided with a reduction in Cx40 expression (by 44±3%; p<0.05 for mRNA and by 79±2%; p<0.05 for Cx40 protein at 200 µg/ml LDL) whereas the Cx-43 expression did not significantly change. In conclusion, LDL-cholesterol destabilizes calcium handling in cultured atrial myocytes subjected to rapid pacing by reducing SERCA2 and Cx40 expression and by slowing the conduction velocity of the calcium signal. PMID:23516438

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with a variant in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1.

    PubMed

    Bown, Matthew J; Jones, Gregory T; Harrison, Seamus C; Wright, Benjamin J; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Baas, Annette F; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Badger, Stephen A; Bradley, Declan T; Burnand, Kevin; Child, Anne H; Clough, Rachel E; Cockerill, Gillian; Hafez, Hany; Scott, D Julian A; Futers, Simon; Johnson, Anne; Sohrabi, Soroush; Smith, Alberto; Thompson, Matthew M; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Waltham, Matthew; Matthiasson, Stefan E; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Teijink, Joep A W; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Assimes, Themistocles L; McPherson, Ruth; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Palmen, Jutta; Smith, Andrew J; Sylvius, Nicolas; Wild, John B; Refstrup, Mette; Edkins, Sarah; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hunt, Sarah E; Potter, Simon; Lindholt, Jes S; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Hughes, Anne E; Golledge, Jonathan; Norman, Paul E; van Rij, Andre; Powell, Janet T; Eriksson, Per; Stefansson, Kari; Thompson, John R; Humphries, Steve E; Sayers, Robert D; Deloukas, Panos; Samani, Nilesh J

    2011-11-11

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and has a significant heritability. We carried out a genome-wide association discovery study of 1866 patients with AAA and 5435 controls and replication of promising signals (lead SNP with a p value < 1 × 10(-5)) in 2871 additional cases and 32,687 controls and performed further follow-up in 1491 AAA and 11,060 controls. In the discovery study, nine loci demonstrated association with AAA (p < 1 × 10(-5)). In the replication sample, the lead SNP at one of these loci, rs1466535, located within intron 1 of low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) demonstrated significant association (p = 0.0042). We confirmed the association of rs1466535 and AAA in our follow-up study (p = 0.035). In a combined analysis (6228 AAA and 49182 controls), rs1466535 had a consistent effect size and direction in all sample sets (combined p = 4.52 × 10(-10), odds ratio 1.15 [1.10-1.21]). No associations were seen for either rs1466535 or the 12q13.3 locus in independent association studies of coronary artery disease, blood pressure, diabetes, or hyperlipidaemia, suggesting that this locus is specific to AAA. Gene-expression studies demonstrated a trend toward increased LRP1 expression for the rs1466535 CC genotype in arterial tissues; there was a significant (p = 0.029) 1.19-fold (1.04-1.36) increase in LRP1 expression in CC homozygotes compared to TT homozygotes in aortic adventitia. Functional studies demonstrated that rs1466535 might alter a SREBP-1 binding site and influence enhancer activity at the locus. In conclusion, this study has identified a biologically plausible genetic variant associated specifically with AAA, and we suggest that this variant has a possible functional role in LRP1 expression. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of the binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis of low- density lipoprotein in the arterial endothelium in situ

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the interaction and transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through the arterial endothelium in rat aorta and coronary artery, by perfusing in situ native, untagged human, and rat LDL. The latter was rendered electron-opaque after it interacted with the endothelial cell and was subsequently fixed within tissue. We achieved LDL electron-opacity by an improved fixation procedure using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, and mordanting with tannic acid. The unequivocal identification of LDL was implemented by reacting immunocytochemically the perfused LDL with anti LDL-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Results indicate that LDL is taken up and internalized through two parallel compartmented routes. (a) A relatively small amount of LDL is taken up by endocytosis via: (i) a receptor-mediated process (adsorptive endocytosis) that involved coated pits/vesicles, and endosomes, and, probably, (ii) a receptor-independent process (fluid endocytosis) carried out by a fraction of plasmalemmal vesicles. Both mechanisms bringing LDL to lysosomes supply cholesterol to the endothelial cell itself. (b) Most circulating LDL is transported across the endothelial cell by transcytosis via plasmalemmal vesicles which deliver LDL to the other cells of the vessel wall. Endocytosis is not enhanced by increasing LDL concentration, but the receptor-mediated internalization decreases at low temperature. Transcytosis is less modified by low temperature but is remarkably augmented at high concentration of LDL. While the endocytosis of homologous (rat) LDL is markedly more pronounced than that of heterologous (human) LDL, both types of LDL are similarly transported by transcytosis. These results indicate that the arterial endothelium possesses a dual mechanism for handling circulating LDL: by a high affinity process, endocytosis secures the endothelial cells' need for cholesterol; by a low-affinity nonsaturable uptake process, transcytosis supplies cholesterol to the other cells of the

  10. New pathogenetic hypothesis for Wolman disease: possible role of oxidized low-density lipoproteins in adrenal necrosis and calcification.

    PubMed Central

    Fitoussi, G; Nègre-Salvayre, A; Pieraggi, M T; Salvayre, R

    1994-01-01

    Wolman disease in an inherited metabolic disease, characterized by a severe deficiency of the acid lipase and a massive lysosomal storage of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, associated with hepatosplenomegaly, adrenal calcification and nearly always fatal in the first year of life. Cultured human lymphoblastoid cells and human adrenal cells are able to promote the formation of mildly oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which in turn exhibit a non-negligible cytotoxic effect on these cells. In contrast, fibroblasts induce only very low levels of LDL oxidation. Comparative experiments have shown that the cytotoxic effect of oxidized LDL was higher to Wolman-disease cells than to controls. The oxidative ability of Wolman cells was similar to that of normal ones. The over-cytotoxicity of mildly oxidized LDL to Wolman cells resulted from the higher uptake of mildly oxidized LDL through the LDL-receptor pathway, which is only poorly down-regulated in Wolman cells subsequently to the block of the lysosomal degradation of LDL-cholesteryl esters. In cultured adrenal cells, oxidized LDL induced a sustained rise in intracellular [Ca2+] which is directly involved in the cellular damage and cell death induced by oxidized LDL [Nègre-Salvayre and Salvayre (1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1123, 207-215]. This Ca2+ peak is followed by a dramatic deposition of calcium in damaged or/and dead cultured adrenal cells, quite similar to that observed in Wolman-disease adrenal cortex. The cell-induced LDL oxidation and the subsequent cytotoxic effect can be prevented, at least in part, by antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. These findings support the hypothesis that the Wolman-disease adrenal damage (necrosis and calcification) could result from the association of the following events: mild oxidation of LDL by adrenal cells, over-uptake of mildly oxidized LDL by Wolman cells (resulting from the block of the lysosomal degradation of cholesteryl

  11. Protective effect of propyl gallate against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced injury of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Zhu, Xiao-fa; Wu, Yu-yun; Chen, Ke-ji; Shi, Da-zhuo; Yin, Hui-jun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of propyl gallate (PG), an alkyl ester of gallic acid which is an active ingredient of Radix Paeoniae, against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis and death in endothelial cells (ECs) and to find out its preliminary mechanism. The cultured endothelial cells were divided into normal, model (ox-LDL), control (fetal bovine serum), PG high dose (20 μg/mL), PG middle dose (10 μg/mL), and PG low dose (5 μg/mL) groups, each derived from three different pools of umbilical cords. The model of injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was induced by ox-LDL. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry and measurement of nitrogen monoxidum (NO) release were used to evaluate the protective effect of PG against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and death in HUVECs. To find out the mechanism of this protective effect, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA, eNOS protein expression, immunofluorescence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidedismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed. PG significantly reduced ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and cell death. The percentage of cells death and apoptosis was significantly higher in the ox-LDL group than that in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the cells death and apoptosis of PG group was no different (P>0.05). As compared with the ox-LDL group, results of the PG high dose group showed that cell viability was significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of NO release, expression of eNOS mRNA, densitometric value of eNOS protein expression, as well as the activities of SOD and GPx were all significantly higher (all P<0.05). PG could potentially serve as a novel endothelial protective agent against ox-LDL-induced injury of endothelial cell.

  12. mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors are overexpressed in the foci of deep bowel endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Luciano; Maranhão, Raul C; Tavares, Elaine R; Carvalho, Priscila O; Abrão, Maurício S; Podgaec, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Is mRNA expression of LDL receptors altered in deep bowel endometriotic foci? SUMMARY ANSWER: mRNA expression of LDL receptors is up-regulated in deep bowel endometriotic foci of patients with endometriosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overexpression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in various tumour cell lines and endometriosis has similar aspects to cancer, mainly concerning the pathogenesis of both diseases. This is the first study we know of to investigate lipoprotein receptors expression in deep endometriosis with bowel involvement. During 2014-2015, an exploratory case-control study was conducted with 39 patients, including 20 women with a histological diagnosis of deep endometriosis compromising the bowel and 19 women without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. Peripheral blood samples were collected on the day of surgery for lipid profile analysis, and samples of endometrial tissue and of bowel endometriotic lesions were also collected. The tissue samples were sent for histopathological analysis and for LDL-R and LRP-1 gene expression screening using quantitative real-time PCR. Patients with deep endometriosis had lower LDL-cholesterol than patients without the disease (119 ± 23 versus 156 ± 35; P = 0.001). Gene expression analysis of LDL receptors revealed that LDL-R was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions when compared to the endometrium of the same patient but not more than in the endometrium of women without endometriosis (0.027 ± 0.022 versus 0.012 ± 0.009 versus 0.019 ± 0.01, respectively; P < 0.001). LRP-1 was more highly expressed in endometriotic lesions, both when compared with the endometrium of the same patient and when compared with the endometrium of patients without the disease (0.307 ± 0.207 versus 0.089 ± 0.076 and versus 0.126 ± 0.072, respectively; P < 0.001). The study also showed that LDL-R gene expression in the endometrium of women with endometriosis was higher during the

  13. Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Related Genetic Variants With Aortic Valve Calcium and Incident Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Luk, Kevin; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Engert, James C.; Do, Ron; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Dufresne, Line; Almgren, Peter; Owens, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rich, Stephen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; Thanassoulis, George

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a Mendelian randomization study design, we evaluated whether weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), a measure of the genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids, constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies for plasma lipids, were associated with aortic valve disease. We included community-based cohorts participating in the CHARGE consortium (n = 6942), including the Framingham Heart Study (cohort inception to last follow-up: 1971-2013; n = 1295), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012; n = 2527), Age Gene/Environment Study-Reykjavik (2000-2012; n = 3120), and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, 1991-2010; n = 28 461). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Aortic valve calcium quantified by computed tomography in CHARGE and incident aortic stenosis in the MDCS. RESULTS The prevalence of aortic valve calcium across the 3 CHARGE cohorts was 32% (n = 2245). In the MDCS, over a median follow-up time of 16.1 years, aortic stenosis developed in 17 per 1000 participants (n = 473) and aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis occurred in 7 per 1000 (n = 205). Plasma LDL-C, but not HDL-C or TG, was significantly associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] per mmol/L, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.3% and 2.4% in lowest and highest LDL-C quartiles, respectively). The LDL-C GRS, but not HDL-C or TG GRS, was significantly associated with presence of

  14. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 binding to endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor family by a peptide isolated from a phage display library

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jan K.; Malmendal, Anders; Schiøtt, Birgit; Skeldal, Sune; Pedersen, Katrine E.; Celik, Leyla; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Andreasen, Peter A.; Wind, Troels

    2006-01-01

    The functions of the serpin PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) are based on molecular interactions with its target proteases uPA and tPA (urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator respectively), with vitronectin and with endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein family. Understanding the significance of these interactions would be facilitated by the ability to block them individually. Using phage display, we have identified the disulfide-constrained peptide motif CFGWC with affinity for natural human PAI-1. The three-dimensional structure of a peptide containing this motif (DVPCFGWCQDA) was determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A binding site in the so-called flexible joint region of PAI-1 was suggested by molecular modelling and validated through binding studies with various competitors and site-directed mutagenesis of PAI-1. The peptide with an N-terminal biotin inhibited the binding of the uPA–PAI-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1A (LRP-1A) and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) in vitro and inhibited endocytosis of the uPA–PAI-1 complex in U937 cells. We conclude that the isolated peptide represents a novel approach to pharmacological interference with the functions of PAI-1 based on inhibition of one specific molecular interaction. PMID:16813566

  15. Effect of the combination of methyltestosterone and esterified estrogens compared with esterified estrogens alone on apolipoprotein CIII and other apolipoproteins in very low density, low density, and high density lipoproteins in surgically postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; Martin, Lisa A; Campos, Hannia; Sacks, Frank M

    2004-05-01

    Androgens are known to lower plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Triglycerides are carried in plasma on very low density (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein particles. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a strong predictor of CHD, impairs the metabolism of VLDL and LDL, contributing to increased triglycerides. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral methyltestosterone (2.5 mg/d), added to esterified estrogens (1.25 mg/d), on concentrations of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, specifically those containing apoCIII, compared with esterified estrogens alone in surgically postmenopausal women. The women in the methyltestosterone plus esterified estrogen group had significant decreases in total triglycerides, apoCI, apoCII, apoCIII, apoE, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with those in the esterified estrogen group. The decreases in apoCIII concentrations occurred in VLDL (62%; P = 0.02), LDL (35%; P = 0.001), and HDL (17%; P < 0.0001). There were also decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations of apoCIII containing LDL, and apoCI concentration of apoCIII containing VLDL. There was no effect on VLDL and LDL particles that did not contain apoCIII or on apoB concentrations. In conclusion, methyltestosterone, when administered to surgically postmenopausal women taking esterified estrogen, has a selective effect to reduce the apoCIII concentration in VLDL and LDL, a predictor of CHD. Methyltestosterone may lower plasma triglycerides through a reduction in apoCIII.

  16. Effects of a 12-week healthy-life exercise program on oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in obese elderly women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Hyuntae; Lim, Seung-Taek; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of a 12-week exercise program on plasma level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese elderly women, who are at increased risk of heart disease morbidity. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants were assigned into either a control (n = 10) or a supervised exercise program (n = 10) group. The 12-week exercise intervention was performed 3 days per week and involved combined aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and traditional Korean dance. [Results] Two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant group × time interactions for body mass, diastolic blood pressure, appendicular muscle mass. For high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of oxidized low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, two-factor analysis of variance revealed significant interactions (group × time), indicating responses differed significantly between the control and exercise groups after 12 weeks. [Conclusion] A 12-week low- to moderate-intensity exercise program appears to be beneficial for obese elderly women by improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  17. Uptake of zinc(II)-phthalocyanine by HepG2 cells expressing the low-density lipoprotein receptor: studies with the liposomal formulation CGP55847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, William G.; Havenaar, Ellen C.; Lowe, Philip J.; Taylor, Peter W.

    1994-03-01

    Hydrophobic photosensitizers readily intercalate into plasma lipoproteins. Some tumors acquire cholesterol from the circulation as a result of increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity. Thus, circulating LDL may function as a vehicle for the delivery of bound Zn-Pc to cells within a tumor. Zn-Pc:LDL complexes, resulting from the interaction of LDL with the liposomal Zn-Pc formulation CGP55847, bind to the LDL receptor expressed on HepG2 cells but with reduced affinity in comparison to LDL. Confocal fluorescence microscopy facilitated the subcellular localization of Zn-Pc in microcolonies of HepG2 cells; the photosensitizer was distributed throughout the cellular membrane systems but was absent from the cell nucleus. Uptake of Zn-Pc in the presence of LDL was twofold greater than in the absence of the lipoprotein. These data suggest that the LDL uptake pathway may contribute to the localization of Zn-Pc in hyperproliferative tissue.

  18. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-NGF increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in neuronal cells partly by different mechanisms: role of LDL in neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Pham, Dan Duc; Jauhiainen, Matti; Eriksson, Ove; Korhonen, Laura T; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) mediate the uptake of lipoprotein particles into cells, as studied mainly in peripheral tissues. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) increases LDLR levels in PC6.3 cells and in cultured septal neurons from embryonic rat brain. Study of the mechanisms showed that NGF enhanced transcription of the LDLR gene, acting mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A receptors. Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also increased the LDLR expression in PC6.3 cells. In addition, pro-NGF and pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acting via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) also increased LDLRs. We further observed that Myosin Regulatory Light Chain-Interacting Protein/Inducible Degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) was down-regulated by pro-NGF, whereas the other LDLR regulator, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) was not significantly changed. On the functional side, NGF and pro-NGF increased lipoprotein uptake by neuronal cells as shown using diacetyl-labeled LDL. The addition of serum-derived lipoprotein particles in conjunction with NGF or simvastatin enhanced neurite outgrowth. Collectively, these results show that NGF and simvastatin are able to stimulate lipoprotein uptake by neurons with a positive effect on neurite outgrowth. Increases in LDLRs and lipoprotein particles in neurons could play a functional role during brain development, in neuroregeneration and after brain injuries. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-NGF induce the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in neuronal cells leading to increased LDLR levels. Pro-NGF also down-regulated myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein/inducible degrader of the LDLR (Mylip/Idol) that is involved in the degradation of LDLRs. NGF acts mainly via Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptors, whereas pro-NGF stimulates p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Elevated LDLRs upon NGF and pro-NGF treatments enhanced lipoprotein uptake

  19. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS: Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30

  20. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response.

    PubMed

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-10-21

    To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30.6%, GG: 17.2%) (P < 0

  1. ST7 is a novel low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) with a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with proteins related to signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Battle, Michele A; Maher, Veronica M; McCormick, J Justin

    2003-06-24

    In 1997, McCormick and co-workers identified a novel putative tumor suppressor gene, designated ST7, encoding a unique protein with transmembrane receptor characteristics [Qing et al. (1999) Oncogene 18, 335-342]. Using degenerate primers corresponding to the highly conserved region of the ligand-binding domains of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily, Ishii et al. [Genomics (1998) 51, 132-135] discovered a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) that closely resembles ST7. Later, another LRP closely resembling ST7 and LRP3 was found (murine LRP9) [Sugiyama et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 15817-15825]. These results strongly suggested that ST7 was also a novel member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily. Proteins of this superfamily have been shown to function in endocytosis and/or signal transduction. To evaluate the relationship of ST7 to the LDLR superfamily proteins and to determine whether ST7 may function in endocytosis and/or signal transduction, we used proteomic tools to analyze the functional motifs present in the protein. Our results indicate that ST7 is a member of a subfamily of the LDLR superfamily and that its cytoplasmic domain contains several motifs implicated in endocytosis and signal transduction. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system to identify proteins that associate with ST7's cytoplasmic domain revealed that this domain interacts with three proteins involved in signal transduction and/or endocytosis, viz., receptor for activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1), muscle integrin binding protein (MIBP), and SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA), suggesting that ST7, like other proteins in the LDLR superfamily, functions in these two pathways. Clearly, ST7 is an LRP, and therefore, it should now be referred to as LRP12.

  2. Soy consumption and phytoestrogens: effect on serum prostate specific antigen when blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein are reduced in hyperlipidemic men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C; D'Costa, Mario A; Jackson, Chung-Ja; Vidgen, Edward; Singer, William; Silverman, Jason A; Koumbridis, George; Honey, John; Rao, A Venket; Fleshner, Neil; Klotz, Laurence

    2003-02-01

    Herbal remedies high in phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and have been proposed as a treatment for prostate cancer. Soy proteins used to lower serum cholesterol are rich sources of phytoestrogens. Therefore, we assessed the effect of soy consumption on serum PSA in men who had participated in cholesterol lowering studies. For 3 to 4 weeks 46 healthy middle-aged men with a range of starting PSA values took soy (mean 44 gm. soy protein daily, 116 mg. isoflavones daily) or control foods, and a subgroup of men took a lower level of soy supplements for 3 months. PSA was measured at the start and end of each treatment. Soy had no significant effect on serum total or free PSA, independent of PSA starting value or isoflavone intake. The lack of effect on PSA was seen, although soy intake was sufficient to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.8 +/- 2.2%, p = 0.012), the estimated coronary heart disease risk (6.1 +/- 2.8% for 10 years, p = 0.032) and the serum concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein measured as conjugated dienes (9.5 +/- 3.4%, p = 0.008) in the 3 to 4-week study. In addition, the lack of effect of soy on PSA persisted for the 3 months of the extended study. At levels of soy intake which reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol any potential benefits of soy consumption on prostate cancer are likely to occur for reasons other than alterations in hormone activity.

  3. [Effect and related mechanism of microRNA-181 attenuates oxidized low density lipoprotein induced vascular endothelial cell injury].

    PubMed

    Wang, N N; Sun, X; Zhang, X L; Lou, L; Chen, K M; Li, H; Tang, L; Wang, W G; Zhang, M

    2017-03-24

    Objective: To observe the expression level of microRNA-181 (miR-181) and importin-α3 in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced vascular endothelial cell injury models, and explore the effect and mechanism of miR-181 on endothelial cell injury. Methods: Human vein endothelial cell line CRL-1730 were cultured and vascular endothelial cell injury model was established by intervention with ox-LDL. The cells were divided into control group (intervened by double distilled water), low-dose group (intervened by 10 μg/ml ox-LDL) and high-dose group (intervened by 20 μg/ml ox-LDL). In addition, cells of low-dose group were divided into miR-181 mimic group (miR-181 mimic was transfected) and mimic control group (miR-181 mimic control was transfected). Cell viabilities, mRNA and protein expression level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), miR-181, importin-α3, and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: (1) The cell viabilities in low-dose group and high-dose group were lower than control group (0.207±0.012 and 0.204±0.007 vs. 0.323±0.018, all P <0.01). The relative IL-6 mRNA expression in low-dose group and high-dose group were higher than control group (1.24±0.16 and 1.36±0.23 vs. 0.22±0.03, all P <0.01). The relative miR-181 mRNA expression in low-dose group and high-dose group were lower than control group (0.91±0.11 and 0.88±0.07 vs. 2.20±0.13, all P <0.01). The relative importin-α3 mRNA expression in low-dose group and high-dose group were higher than control group (1.23±0.22 and 0.55±0.03 vs. 0.44±0.06, all P <0.01). The relative NF-κB mRNA expression in low-dose group and high-dose group were higher than control group (1.67±0.34 and 0.41±0.11 vs. 0.11±0.04, all P <0.01). The relative importin-α3 protein expression in low-dose group and high-dose group were higher than control group (1.44±0.23 and 1.31±0.22 vs. 0.29±0.08, all P <0

  4. High-Density and Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Have Opposing Roles in Regulating Tumor-Initiating Cells and Sensitivity to Radiation in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Adam R.; Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Atkinson, Rachel L.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL),more » or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC

  5. Hydroxychloroquine reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal evaluation of the lipid-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Cairoli, E; Rebella, M; Danese, N; Garra, V; Borba, E F

    2012-10-01

    The influence of antimalarials on lipids in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been identified in several studies but not in many prospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to longitudinally determine the effect of antimalarials on the lipoprotein profile in SLE. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) plasma levels were determined at entry and after 3 months of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment in a longitudinal evaluation of 24 patients with SLE. a significant decrease in TC (198 ± 33.7 vs. 183 ± 30.3 mg/dl, p = 0.023) and LDL levels (117 ± 31.3 vs. 101 ± 26.2 mg/dl, p = 0.023) were detected after the 3 months of HCQ therapy. The reduction of 7.6% in TC (p = 0.055) and 13.7% in LDL levels (p = 0.036) determined a significant decrease in the frequency of dyslipidemia (26% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.013) after HCQ therapy. This longitudinal study demonstrated the beneficial effect of antimalarials on lipids in SLE since this therapy induced a reduction of atherogenic lipoproteins.

  6. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor in the vascular wall. Analysis of human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Multhaupt, H A; Gåfvels, M E; Kariko, K; Jin, H; Arenas-Elliot, C; Goldman, B I; Strauss, J F; Angelin, B; Warhol, M J; McCrae, K R

    1996-06-01

    The recently cloned very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor binds triglyceride-rich, apolipoprotein-E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The observation that VLDL receptor mRNA is abundantly expressed in extracts of tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart, but not liver, has led to the hypothesis that this receptor may facilitate the peripheral uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. However, little information is available concerning the types of cells that express this receptor in vivo. As expression of the VLDL receptor in the vascular wall might have important implications for the uptake and transport of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and perhaps facilitate the development of atherosclerosis in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether VLDL receptor mRNA and protein was expressed in human vascular tissue. We observed expression of the receptor by both endothelial and smooth muscle cells within normal arteries and veins, as well as within atherosclerotic plaques. In the latter, the VLDL receptor was also expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells. The widespread distribution of the VLDL receptor in vascular tissue suggests a potentially important role for this receptor in normal and pathophysiological vascular processes.

  7. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor in the vascular wall. Analysis of human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Multhaupt, H. A.; Gåfvels, M. E.; Kariko, K.; Jin, H.; Arenas-Elliot, C.; Goldman, B. I.; Strauss, J. F.; Angelin, B.; Warhol, M. J.; McCrae, K. R.

    1996-01-01

    The recently cloned very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor binds triglyceride-rich, apolipoprotein-E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The observation that VLDL receptor mRNA is abundantly expressed in extracts of tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart, but not liver, has led to the hypothesis that this receptor may facilitate the peripheral uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. However, little information is available concerning the types of cells that express this receptor in vivo. As expression of the VLDL receptor in the vascular wall might have important implications for the uptake and transport of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and perhaps facilitate the development of atherosclerosis in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether VLDL receptor mRNA and protein was expressed in human vascular tissue. We observed expression of the receptor by both endothelial and smooth muscle cells within normal arteries and veins, as well as within atherosclerotic plaques. In the latter, the VLDL receptor was also expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells. The widespread distribution of the VLDL receptor in vascular tissue suggests a potentially important role for this receptor in normal and pathophysiological vascular processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8669483

  8. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Márcia Dias Teixeira; Alonso, Diego Peres; Vendrame, Célia Maria Vieira; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triacylglycerol (TAG), and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples) (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation) revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003). The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05) and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05). An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene (n = 248) revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014). High TAG (P = 0.021) and VLDL-C (P = 0.023) levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006) levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL. PMID:25242866

  9. Comparison of a direct enzymatic assay and polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis for measurement of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Vanavanan, Somlak; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Rochanawutanon, Mana; Kerdmongkol, Jirapa; Kroll, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease. We compared two methods for determination of sdLDL-C, a direct enzymatic (ENZ) method and a polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis (PGE) assay, and investigated the associations of both sdLDL-C measurements with metabolic syndrome. We analyzed 242 patient sera for sdLDL and atherosclerosis-related markers. The PGE method separates the intermediate-density lipoprotein particles into three midbands (MID-A to MID-C) and the LDL particles into seven subfractions (LDL1 to LDL7); the sdLDL-PGE result is calculated as the sum of cholesterol concentrations from LDL3 to LDL7. The regression equation for sdLDL-C was [ENZmmol/L]=0.779[PGE]+0.67, r=0.713. ENZ showed higher sdLDL-C concentrations than PGE (0.86±0.33 vs. 0.24±0.32 mmol/L); however, the difference was not associated with sdLDL-C concentration (p=0.290). sdLDL-C, as measured with the enzymatic assay, exhibited significant positive correlations with very-low-density lipoprotein, MID-C, MID-B, and LDL2 (all p<0.001), considered atherogenic lipoproteins, but did not correlate with the less atherogenic lipoproteins MID-A and LDL1 (all p>0.600). The ENZ and PGE methods yielded similar patterns of correlation between sdLDL-C, and atherosclerosis-related markers. Using logistic regression, sdLDL-ENZ and apolipoprotein B were identified as significant predictors of metabolic syndrome (p<0.03). The ENZ assay for sdLDL-C correlated well with the PGE method. The ENZ method measures a broader range of atherogenic lipoprotein particles than PGE and has the potential to identify subjects with vascular risk, thus contributing in directing specific interventions for cardiovascular prevention.

  10. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  11. A novel oxidized low-density lipoprotein marker, serum amyloid A-LDL, is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Noriko; Kato, Yasuhisa; Araki, Rika; Koyama, Kazunori; Okajima, Taiichiro; Tanabe, Makito; Oishi, Mariko; Yamakage, Hajime; Yamada, Kazunori; Hattori, Masakazu; Shimatsu, Akira

    2009-06-01

    The putative association between the novel oxidized low-density lipoprotein markers, serum amyloid A-LDL (SAA-LDL) and alpha1-antitrypsin-LDL (AT-LDL), and obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been previously studied. In the present report, we investigated the levels of SAA-LDL and AT-LDL in relation to the components of the MetS. We also assessed the effect of weight reduction therapy on serum SAA-LDL and AT-LDL levels among obese subjects. The study population included 421 obese Japanese outpatients (185 men and 236 women, mean age: 51.1 years) enrolled in the multicenter Japan Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Study (JOMS). The novel oxidized low-density lipoprotein markers, serum SAA-LDL and AT-LDL, were measured in all participants. Circulating SAA-LDL levels were independently associated with the presence and the number of components of the MetS. SAA-LDL levels were also significantly and independently correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Notably, successful weight reduction resulted in a significant decrease in circulating SAA-LDL concentrations. Levels of AT-LDL were not associated with the MetS. We documented, for the first time, that serum SAA-LDL levels correlate positively with the number of components of the MetS and weight reduction. Whether SAA-LDL may be involved in the pathophysiology of MetS and atherosclerosis deserves further investigation.

  12. Anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibody levels are not related to increasing circulating oxLDL concentrations during the course of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pecks, Ulrich; Tillmann, Dagmar; Ernst, Sabine; Maass, Nicolai; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo

    2012-10-01

    To address the question of whether the high levels of oxidative modified low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in pregnancy are opposed by an appropriate humoral autoimmune response providing anti-oxLDL autoantibodies in maternal serum of healthy women throughout gestation. Blood was taken from 33 patients at four different time points from early to late gestation and post-partum. OxLDL and anti-oxLDL concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. ANOVA was used for statistical evaluations followed by post hoc test with Bonferoni adjustment. Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein concentrations increased while anti-oxLDL levels decreased significantly from early to late gestation. OxLDL was strongly positively correlated with LDL concentration and mildly negatively associated with anti-oxLDL levels. Estimating the status of oxidation by calculating oxLDL/LDL ratio revealed decreasing values with ongoing pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that anti-oxLDL levels were dependent on gestational age but neither on oxLDL levels nor on the oxLDL/LDL ratio. The results indicate that normal pregnancy is a well-balanced state of oxidative and anti-oxidative processes. However, we could not confirm a dependence of anti-oxLDL autoantibodies on oxLDL concentration. Whether or not the humoral immune system is involved in oxidative defence remains to be elucidated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effects of low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of plasma cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in three ultra-centrifugally separated low-density lipoprotein subfractions: 12- month, open-label trial.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yasuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2010-10-27

    The effects of statins on the distribution of oxidized LDL in plasma LDL subfractions have not been well defined. Effects of 12-month treatment with low-dose simvastatin on the distribution of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin was administered to 30 hypercholesterolemic subjects for 12 months at an initial dose of 5 mg/day, which was increased to 20 mg/day via 10mg/day to decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) lower than 130 mg/dL. Simvastatin dose was fixed after 3 months of treatment. The amounts of cholesterol and oxidized LDL in 3 ultracentrifugally separated plasma LDL subfractions were compared between 0 and 12 months of treatment. The distribution of ox-LDL skewed to denser LDL fractions, compared with cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions. Plasma cholesterol in low-density LDL, medium-density LDL and high-density LDL decreased significantly by 31%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.0001) after 12 months of simvastatin treatment. Plasma oxidized LDL was decreased from 70 U/L to 56 U/L in medium-density LDL (p=0.042). Oxidized LDL in low-density LDL and high-density LDL did not change significantly after 12 months of treatment. Treatment with low-dose simvastatin decreased plasma cholesterol in 3 LDL subfractions and oxidized LDL in medium-density LDL. The decrease of oxidized LDL seemed to be not due to the decrease of cholesterol in plasma LDL subfractions because the decreasing patterns of cholesterol and ox-LDL were different in 3 LDL subfractions.

  14. Measurement of very low density and low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 and high density lipoprotein Apo A-I production in human subjects using deuterated leucine. Effect of fasting and feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.S.; Wagner, D.A.; Cohn, S.D.

    1990-03-01

    Six normolipidemic male subjects, after an 8-h overnight fast, were given a bolus injection and then a 15-h constant intravenous infusion of (D3)L-leucine. Subjects were studied in the fasted state and on a second occasion in the fed state (small, physiological meals were given every hour for 15 h). Apolipoproteins were isolated by preparative gradient gel electrophoresis from plasma lipoproteins separated by sequential ultracentrifugation. Incorporation of (D3)L-leucine into apolipoproteins was monitored by negative ionization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Production rates were determined by multiplying plasma apolipoprotein pool sizes by fractional production rates calculated as the rate of isotopic enrichment (IE) ofmore » each protein as a fraction of IE achieved by VLDL (d less than 1.006 g/ml) apo B-100 at plateau. VLDL apo B-100 production was greater, and LDL (1.019 less than d less than 1.063 g/ml) apo B-100 production was less in the fed compared with the fasted state (9.9 +/- 1.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 1.7 mg/kg per d, P less than 0.01, and 8.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 13.1 +/- 1.2 mg/kg per d, P less than 0.05, respectively). No mean change was observed in high density lipoprotein apo A-I production. We conclude that: (a) this stable isotope, endogenous-labeling technique, for the first time allows for the in vivo measurement of apolipoprotein production in the fasted and fed state; and (b) since LDL apo B-100 production was greater than VLDL apo B-100 production in the fasted state, this study provides in vivo evidence that LDL apo B-100 can be produced independently of VLDL apo B-100 in normolipidemic subjects.« less

  15. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-rmore » mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.« less

  16. The effects of lifestyle modification on a new oxidized low-density lipoprotein marker, serum amyloid A-LDL, in subjects with primary lipid disorder.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Koibuchi, Harumi; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2009-11-01

    Lifestyle modification improves the pathophysiology of lipid disorder, leading to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) may be involved in this mechanism, various oxLDL measurements have recently been developed and therefore further detailed studies are called for in this area. Our aim was to investigate the effects of lifestyle modification on serum amyloid A-LDL (SAA-LDL), a new oxLDL, in subjects with primary lipid disorder. A total of 141 asymptomatic subjects (women/men=100/41, mean age 57.6 years) with>or=1 lipid abnormality (circulating high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and triglyceride [TG] or low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]), who completed a 6-month lifestyle modification program in combination with diet and exercise, were analyzed. In the pre- and post-intervention, the metabolic variables including SAA-LDL were assessed. During our intervention, the body mass index, blood pressure, LDL-C, TG, glucose and SAA-LDL significantly decreased, while HDL-C significantly increased. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the change levels of TG (positive) and HDL-C (inverse) were significantly and independently correlated to those of SAA-LDL. These results suggest that SAA-LDL may contribute to the link between lipid disorder and the development of CVD, and that the application of SAA-LDL measurements may be useful for the assessment of the risk of CVD as a biochemical marker.

  17. Effect of ezetimibe/atorvastatin combination on oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with coronary artery disease or coronary artery disease equivalent.

    PubMed

    Azar, Rabih R; Badaoui, Georges; Sarkis, Antoine; Azar, Mireille; Aydanian, Herminé; Harb, Serge; Achkouty, Guy; Kassab, Roland

    2010-07-15

    Ezetimibe is effective in providing additional low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering when coadministered with statins, but its effect beyond LDL cholesterol lowering is unknown. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is a better predictor of adverse cardiovascular events than standard lipid parameters. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ezetimibe on ox-LDL. A total of 100 patients with coronary artery disease or coronary artery disease equivalent were randomized to atorvastatin 40 mg/day and ezetimibe 10 mg/day or to atorvastatin 40 mg/day and placebo. LDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol subfractions, and ox-LDL were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. The ezetimibe group had a larger reduction in total LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. This was due mainly to a larger reduction in large buoyant LDL (24% vs 10%, p = 0.008). Ox-LDL level did not change in the placebo group (50 +/- 13 vs 51 +/- 13 U/L), while it decreased in the ezetimibe group, from 51 +/- 13 to 46 +/- 10 U/L (p = 0.01 vs baseline and p = 0.02 vs final level in placebo). The change in ox-LDL correlated significantly with those in total LDL and in large buoyant LDL (r = 0.6 and r = 0.5, respectively, p <0.01 for both), but not with that of small dense LDL, high-density lipoprotein, or very low density lipoprotein. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ezetimibe decreases ox-LDL cholesterol through reductions in total LDL cholesterol and in large buoyant LDL cholesterol. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events. PMID:29394290

  19. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events.

  20. [Effects of electroacupuncture on the expression of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its receptors in rats with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Cai, Rong-Lin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zi-Jian; Sun, Xu; Wang, Ke-Ming; He, Lu; Peng, Chuan-Yu

    2013-09-01

    To explore action mechanism of electroacupuncture for coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) in order to provide experimental support for clinical acupoint selection. Among sixty clean-grade healthy male Wistar rats, twenty-four cases were randomly selected as a normal control group and an electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning group, 12 cases in each one. Then rats in the EA preconditioning group and the rest 36 rats were fed with high fat diet for 12 weeks to duplicate the CHD model. When the models were successfully established, the rats were randomly divided into a model control group, an EA group and a medication group, 12 cases in each one. EA was applied with Hwa-to SDZ-IV apparatus in the EA preconditioning group at "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Xinshu" (BL 15), 1 mA in current intensity, 2 Hz in frequency, 30 min per times, once every other day for 14 weeks. When model was established, the same acupoint and method was used in the EA group for 2 weeks while intragastric administration of atorvastatin mixed suspension, 0.25 mg/kg, once a day, was applied in the medication group for 2 weeks. The content of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the serum was tested by double antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while content of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in coronary arterial tissue was test by western blot method. Expression of LOX-1 mRNA was tested by fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After model was duplicated successfully, the content of oxLDL in the serum and the expression of LOX-1 and its mRNA in coronary arterial tissue in the model control group were increased significantly compared with those in the normal control group (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model control group, the content of oxLDL in the serum and the expression of LOX-1 and its mRNA in coronary arterial tissue in the EA preconditioning group, EA group and medication group were significantly reduced (all P

  1. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein(a) levels in chronic kidney disease patients under hemodialysis: influence of adiponectin and of a polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) gene.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra; Faria, Maria do Sameiro; Silva, Gil; Nascimento, Henrique; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Miranda, Vasco; Vieira, Emília; Santos, Rosário; Mendonça, Denisa; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with an abnormal lipid profile. Our aim was to study the interplay between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), adiponectin, and blood lipids and lipoproteins in Portuguese patients with CKD under hemodialysis (HD); the influence of the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) (apo [a]) gene upon lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels in these patients. We studied 187 HD patients and 25 healthy individuals. ox-LDL and adiponectin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Apo(a) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel. Compared with controls, patients presented with significantly higher levels of adiponectin, Lp(a), and ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) ratio; significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDLc, apo A-I, apo B, ox-LDL, and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) ratio were also observed. Similar changes were observed for patients with or without statin therapy, as compared with controls, except for Lp(a). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that body mass index, HDLc, time on HD, and triglycerides (TG) were independent determinants of adiponectin levels, and that apo B, TG and LDLc were independent determinants of ox-LDL concentration. Concerning the apo(a) genotype, the homozygous (TTTTA)8/8 repeats was the most prevalent (50.8%). A raised proportion of LDL particles that are oxidized was observed. Adiponectin almost doubled its values in patients and seems to be an important determinant in HDLc and TG levels, improving the lipid profile in these patients. Apo(a) alleles with a lower number of repetitions are more frequent in patients with higher Lp(a). © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Interaction of high-density and low-density lipoproteins to solid surfaces coated with cholesterol as determined by an optical fiber-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bal R.; Poirier, Michelle A.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years, the use of fiber optics has become an important tool in biomedicine and biotechnology. We are involved in developing and employing a new system which, through the use of fiber optics, may be capable of measuring the content of cholesterol and lipoproteins in blood samples in real time. In the optical fiber-based biosensor, a laser beam having a wavelength of 512 nm (green light) is launched into an optical fiber, which transmits the light to its distal end. An evanescent wave (travelling just outside the fiber core) is used to excite rhodamine-labelled HDL or LDL which become bound to the fiber or to fiber-bound molecules. The fluorescence (red light) is coupled back into the fiber and detected with a photodiode. Preliminary work has involved testing of high density lipoprotein (HDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber and to a bare fiber and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to a cholesterol-coated fiber. A significant difference was observed in the binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL and lower) to a bare fiber as opposed to a cholesterol-coated fiber. The binding rate of HDL (5 (mu) g/mL) to a bare fiber was 7.5 (mu) V/sec and to a cholesterol-coated fiber was 3.5 (mu) V/sec. We have calculated the binding affinity of LDL to a cholesterol- coated fiber as 1.4 (mu) M-1. These preliminary results suggest that the optical fiber-based biosensor can provide a unique and promising approach to the analysis of lipoprotein interaction with solid surfaces and with cholesterol. More importantly, the results suggest that this technique may be used to assess the binding of blood proteins to artificial organs/tissues, and to measure the amount of cholesterol, HDL and LDL in less than a minute.

  3. Genome-wide analyze of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites revealed parent-of-origin effect on triglycerides in medium very low-density lipoprotein in PTPRD gene.

    PubMed

    Pervjakova, N; Kukushkina, V; Haller, T; Kasela, S; Joensuu, A; Kristiansson, K; Annilo, T; Perola, M; Salomaa, V; Jousilahti, P; Metspalu, A; Mägi, R

    2018-03-14

    The aim of the study was to explore the parent-of-origin effects (POEs) on a range of human nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. We search for POEs in 14,815 unrelated individuals from Estonian and Finnish cohorts using POE method for the genotype data imputed with 1000 G reference panel and 82 nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. Meta-analysis revealed the evidence of POE for the variant rs1412727 in PTPRD gene for the metabolite: triglycerides in medium very low-density lipoprotein. No POEs were detected for genetic variants that were previously known to have main effect on circulating metabolites. We demonstrated possibility to detect POEs for human metabolites, but the POEs are weak, and therefore it is hard to detect those using currently available sample sizes.

  4. Pro and con: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering is and will be the key to the future of lipid management.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T R

    2001-03-08

    A wealth of data demonstrate that reduction of cholesterol levels is associated with benefit in reducing coronary artery disease risk. The magnitude of benefit observed with statin treatment, which acts primarily to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is greater than that observed with any other lipid-modifying intervention, and data from large statin trials indicate that this benefit is caused by LDL-C reduction. Statin treatment is highly cost-effective compared with other accepted therapies, at least in the secondary prevention setting, and has a superior safety and tolerability profile. For the foreseeable future, LDL-C reduction will remain the goal of lipid-modifying therapy, and statins will remain the primary therapeutic modality for achieving that goal.

  5. Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solutions from patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal treatment: evaluation of cardiovascular risk markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Andréa M.; Jardini, Maria A. N.; Giampaoli, Viviana; Alves, Sarah; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio M.; Gidlund, Magnus

    2012-11-01

    The Z-Scan (ZS) technique in the thermal regime has been used to measure the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The ZS technique is carried out in LDL from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis before and after three, six, and 12 months of periodontal treatment. Clinical parameters such as probing depths, bleeding on probing, total and differential white blood cells counts, lipid profiles, cytokine levels, and antibodies against oxidized LDL are also determined and compared over time. Before the treatment, the ZS experimental results reveal that the LDL particles of these patients are heavily modified. Only after 12 months of the periodontal treatment, the ZS results obtained reveal behavioral characteristics of healthy particles. This conclusion is also supported by complementary laboratorial analysis showing that the periodontal treatment induces systemic changes in several inflammatory markers.

  6. Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for efficient and repetitive removal of low density lipoprotein in plasma and on blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Juan; Yue, Danyang; Fan, Yijuan; Yi, Caixia; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Mengxue; Pan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis therapy, which directly removes LDL from plasma by LDL-adsorbents in vitro is found to be clinically effective and safe to lower the LDL content in blood to prevent cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing excellent LDL adsorbents are becoming more and more attractive. Herein, functional Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile and eco-friendly two-step method. Not only do they possess high LDL adsorption (in PBS/plasma as well as on blood vessels) and favorable magnetic targeting ability but they can also be reused conveniently, which offer the Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites significant potential in the removal of LDL in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Low-density lipoprotein upregulate SR-BI through Sp1 Ser702 phosphorylation in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Du, Yu; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Zhibo; Wang, Li; Hong, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is one of the key proteins in the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and its major function is to uptake high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol from plasma into liver cells. The regulation of SR-BI expression is important for controlling serum lipid content and reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Here we found that SR-BI expression was significantly increased by LDL in vivo and in vitro, and the transcription factor specific protein 1 (Sp1) plays a critical role in this process. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the activation of SR-BI was associated with Sp1-recruited protein complexes in the promoter region of SR-BI, where histone acetyltransferase p300 was recruited and histone deacetylase HDAC1 was dismissed. As a result, histone acetylation increased, leading to activation of SR-BI transcription. With further investigation, we found that LDL phosphorylated Sp1 through ERK1/2 pathway, which affected Sp1 protein complexes formation in SR-BI promoter. Using mass spectrometry and site directed mutagenesis, a new Sp1 phosphorylation site Ser702 was defined to be associated with Sp1-HDAC1 interaction and may be important in SR-BI activation, shedding light on the knowledge of delicate mechanism of hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI gene modulation by LDL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulating soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels are associated with erectile dysfunction in patients without known coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kobat, Mehmet Ali; Fırdolas, Fatih; Balin, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet; Bentli, Recep; Baydas, Adil

    2013-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and microvascular damage are involved in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). Soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) is identified endothelial receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) that plays a pivotal role in ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of the current study was to determine the association between sLOX-1 and ED in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD). Diagnosis of ED was based on the International Index of Erectile Function Score-5. Levels of sLOX-1 were measured in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One hundred thirty-eight subjects with ED patients without known CAD (ED group) and 75 age-matched subjects without ED and known CAD (Non-ED Group) were included in this study. Plasma levels of sLOX-1 were significantly higher in ED than in Non-ED group (95±87 and 49±30 pg/mL, respectively, P<0.001). The levels of sLOX-1 highly negative correlated with score of ED (r=-0.618, P<0.001). The sLOX-1 levels>75 pg/mL predicts ED with 26.8% sensitivity and 96.0% specificity on receiver operator characteristic analysis. Our study demonstrated that serum sLOX-1 levels were associated with endothelial dysfunction that predicts ED. Moreover, the current study revealed that there was strong negative correlation between the levels of circulating sLOX-1 and score of ED. This study suggested sLOX-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of ED in patients without known CAD. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Additional consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein plus zeaxanthin concentration and lowers oxidized low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic males.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Chie; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains antioxidative carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, but its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern, especially for individuals who have high serum cholesterol levels. We conducted this study to determine whether and how the daily additional consumption of one egg affects serum lipid profiles and parameters of LDL oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic males. Nineteen male Japanese adults (total cholesterol [TC]>5.2mmol/L) participated, consuming one soft boiled egg per day for 4weeks in addition to their habitual diet. Despite the significant increase in their intake of dietary cholesterol during the intervention period, the subjects' serum concentrations of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not increase. Their serum malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations were significantly decreased and their LDL oxidation lag times, reflecting the resistance of free-radical-induced LDL lipid peroxidation (ex vivo), was prolonged after 2 and 4weeks. At weeks 2 and 4, the subjects' serum lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly higher than their baseline values and showed both an inverse relation with MDA-LDL and a positive relationship with the LDL oxidation lag time. These data showed that in moderately hypercholesterolemic males, the additional consumption of one egg per day for 4weeks did not have adverse effects on serum TC or LDL-C, and it might reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation through an increase in the serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels Independently Predict 10-Year Progression of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shen; Zhao, Dong; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Jing

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters. Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination. The mean age of the subjects was 58.6±7.7 years at baseline and 43.3% were men. A total of 504 (62.7%) subjects had carotid plaque progression at re-examination. Subjects in the intermediate and highest tertiles of ox-LDL had a significantly higher adjusted risk of atherosclerosis progression than those in the lowest tertile [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.17 (1.01-1.34) for the intermediate tertile and 1.23 (1.07-1.42) for the highest tertile]. This association was independent of baseline levels of LDL-C, total LDL particle number, and small LDL particle number. This study demonstrates that serum ox-LDL levels predict 10-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, this effect is independent of the cholesterol content, the number, and the size of LDL particles.

  11. Rapamycin Inhibits Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Uptake in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via mTOR/NF-κB/LOX-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Liu, Chun-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Xie, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Previously, we found that rapamycin inhibited ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs, and this effect was related to its role in increasing the activity of autophagy-lysosome pathway. In this study, we determined whether rapamycin could also reduce ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs and investigated the underlying signaling mechanisms. Results Flow cytometry and live cell imaging showed that rapamycin reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in HUVECs. Furthermore, rapamycin reduced the ox-LDL-induced increase in LOX-1 mRNA and protein levels. Western blotting showed that rapamycin inhibited mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70s6k and IκBα phosphorylation triggered by ox-LDL. Flow cytometry implied that mTOR, NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors significantly reduced Dil-ox-LDL uptake. Moreover, immunofluorescent staining showed that rapamycin reduced the accumulation of p65 in the nucleus after ox-LDL treatment for 30 h. mTOR knockdown decreased LOX-1 protein production and IκBα phosphorylation induced by ox-LDL. NF-κB knockdown and NF-κB inhibitors reduced LOX-1 protein production, but did not inhibit mTOR phosphorylation stimulated by ox-LDL. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that rapamycin reduce mTOR phosphorylation and subsequently inhibit NF-κB activation and suppresses LOX-1, resulting in a reduction in ox-LDL uptake in HUVECs. PMID:26752047

  12. Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Patients With Identical Mutations Variably Express the LDLR (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor): Implications for the Efficacy of Evolocumab.

    PubMed

    Thedrez, Aurélie; Blom, Dirk J; Ramin-Mangata, Stéphane; Blanchard, Valentin; Croyal, Mikaël; Chemello, Kévin; Nativel, Brice; Pichelin, Matthieu; Cariou, Bertrand; Bourane, Steeve; Tang, Lihua; Farnier, Michel; Raal, Frederick J; Lambert, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    Evolocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9)-neutralizing antibody, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic (HoFH) patients with reduced LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) function. However, their individual responses are highly variable, even among carriers of identical LDLR genetic defects. We aimed to elucidate why HoFH patients variably respond to PCSK9 inhibition. Lymphocytes were isolated from 22 HoFH patients enrolled in the TAUSSIG trial (Trial Assessing Long Term Use of PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Genetic LDL Disorders). Ten patients were true homozygotes (FH1/FH1) and 5 identical compound heterozygotes (FH1/FH2). Lymphocytes were plated with or without mevastatin, recombinant PCSK9 (rPCSK9), or a PCSK9-neutralizing antibody. Cell surface LDLR expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. All HoFH lymphocytes had reduced cell surface LDLR expression compared with non-FH lymphocytes, for each treatment modality. Lymphocytes from FH1/FH2 patients (LDLR defective/negative) displayed the lowest LDLR expression levels followed by lymphocytes from FH1/FH1 patients (defective/defective). Mevastatin increased, whereas rPCSK9 reduced LDLR expression. The PCSK9-neutralizing antibody restored LDLR expression. Lymphocytes displaying higher LDLR expression levels were those isolated from patients presenting with lowest levels of LDL-C and apolipoprotein B, before and after 24 weeks of evolocumab treatment. These negative correlations remained significant in FH1/FH1 patients and appeared more pronounced when patients with apolipoprotein E3/E3 genotypes were analyzed separately. Significant positive correlations were found between the levels of LDLR expression and the percentage reduction in LDL-C on evolocumab treatment. Residual LDLR expression in HoFH is a major determinant of LDL-C levels and seems to drive their individual response to evolocumab. © 2017 American Heart Association

  13. Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Yen, Hsien-Tung; Sheu, Wayne H-H

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of a plant-extractive compound on lipid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice have synergistic benefits on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome. In this double-blinded study, adult subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive a plant-extractive compound or a placebo treatment for 12 weeks. Both total cholesterol (5.4 ± 0.8 to 4.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.4 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L, P < .001) were significantly reduced after treatment with the plant extractives, and the magnitudes of reduction were significantly greater than in the placebo group (-1.0 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6mmol/L, P < .001; -0.7 ± 0.6 vs 0.0 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001). The reduction in the fasting triglycerides level was significantly greater in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs -0.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L, P = .039). There was also a significantly greater reduction in the proportion of subjects with hypertensive criteria in the plant-extractive group than in the placebo group (P = .040). In conclusion, the plant extractives from red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice were effective in reducing total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plant extractives also showed potential for reducing triglyceride and normalizing blood pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function

    PubMed Central

    Selvais, Charlotte; D'Auria, Ludovic; Tyteca, Donatienne; Perrot, Gwenn; Lemoine, Pascale; Troeberg, Linda; Dedieu, Stéphane; Noël, Agnès; Nagase, Hideaki; Henriet, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Marbaix, Etienne; Emonard, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a plasma membrane scavenger and signaling receptor, composed of a large ligand-binding subunit (515-kDa α-chain) linked to a shorter transmembrane subunit (85-kDa β-chain). LRP-1 cell-surface level and function are controlled by proteolytic shedding of its ectodomain. Here, we identified ectodomain sheddases in human HT1080 cells and demonstrated regulation of the cleavage by cholesterol by comparing the classical fibroblastoid type with a spontaneous epithelioid variant, enriched ∼2-fold in cholesterol. Two membrane-associated metalloproteinases were involved in LRP-1 shedding: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM-12) and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Although both variants expressed similar levels of LRP-1, ADAM-12, MT1-MMP, and specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), LRP-1 shedding from epithelioid cells was ∼4-fold lower than from fibroblastoid cells. Release of the ectodomain was triggered by cholesterol depletion in epithelioid cells and impaired by cholesterol overload in fibroblastoid cells. Modulation of LRP-1 shedding on clearance was reflected by accumulation of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in the medium. We conclude that cholesterol exerts an important control on LRP-1 levels and function at the plasma membrane by modulating shedding of its ectodomain, and therefore represents a novel regulator of extracellular proteolytic activities.—Selvais, C., D'Auria, L., Tyteca, D., Perrot, G, Lemoine, P., Troeberg, L., Dedieu, S., Noël, A., Nagase, H., Henriet, P., Courtoy, P. J., Marbaix, E., Emonard, H. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function. PMID:21518850

  15. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Statin Therapy: 20-Year Follow-Up of West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ian; Murray, Heather; McCowan, Colin; Packard, Chris J

    2016-03-15

    Extended follow-up of statin-based low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering trials improves the understanding of statin safety and efficacy. Examining cumulative cardiovascular events (total burden of disease) gives a better appreciation of the clinical value of statins. This article evaluates the long-term impact of therapy on mortality and cumulative morbidity in a high-risk cohort of men. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study was a primary prevention trial in 45- to 64-year-old men with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A total of 6595 men were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg once daily or placebo for an average of 4.9 years. Subsequent linkage to electronic health records permitted analysis of major incident events over 20 years. Post trial statin use was recorded for 5 years after the trial but not for the last 10 years. Men allocated to pravastatin had reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94; P=0.0007), attributable mainly to a 21% decrease in cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.90; P=0.0004). There was no difference in noncardiovascular or cancer death rates between groups. Cumulative hospitalization event rates were lower in the statin-treated arm: by 18% for any coronary event (P=0.002), by 24% for myocardial infarction (P=0.01), and by 35% for heart failure (P=0.002). There were no significant differences between groups in hospitalization for noncardiovascular causes. Statin treatment for 5 years was associated with a legacy benefit, with improved survival and a substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease outcomes over a 20-year period, supporting the wider adoption of primary prevention strategies. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Changes in apolipoprotein B and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in gingival crevicular fluids as a result of periodontal tissue conditions.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, M; Kato, R; Moriya, Y; Noguchi, E; Koide, Y; Inoue, S; Itabe, H; Yamamoto, M

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection that can lead to tooth loss. Gingival crevicular fluid can be collected easily and noninvasively. We previously discovered the presence of apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main constituent of low-density lipoprotein, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the gingival crevicular fluid of healthy subjects. In this study, we investigated whether periodontal conditions affect the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid. The study population comprised 11 patients with chronic periodontitis. A pair of gingival crevicular fluid samples was collected from each patient at a healthy site and at a site with periodontitis (baseline samples). Thereafter, gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the same patients again at 4 and 8 wk after scaling and root planing (SRP). The levels of apoB, oxLDL, protein and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid, in addition to gingival crevicular fluid volume, were measured. At baseline, the levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid were higher at the sites with periodontitis than at the healthy sites. The levels of apoB and oxLDL at periodontal sites decreased after SRP. The level of oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid correlated well with the probing pocket depth. The oxLDL : apoB ratio in gingival crevicular fluid was significantly higher than that in plasma. The levels of apoB and oxLDL in gingival crevicular fluid change according to the periodontal tissue conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polysorbates as novel lipid-modulating candidates for reducing serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhang; Ho, Yeung; Yang, Dongxu; Chen, Yi; Hu, Xiaomin; Xue, Ming

    2011-06-25

    Polysorbates are amphiphilic, non-ionic surfactants composed of fatty acid esters of polyoxyethylene sorbitan which are widely used in the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries owing to these special characteristics and their low toxicity profiles. In the present study, polysorbates were investigated for their hypolipidemic activity. C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for four weeks, then were divided into several groups, normal saline, polysorbates and positive control drugs such as lovastatin and colestyramine were administered orally to the animals for another four weeks. Complete lipid profiles of the experimental animals were determined by assessing the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that polysorbates significantly lowered the lipid components. Polysorbates are potential candidates for preventing intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from daily intake and subsequently for preventing hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-12

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  19. SKI-II--a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor--exacerbates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that contributes to their anti-atherogenic potential. We investigated whether a reduction in S1P plasma levels affects atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice. LDL-R-/- mice on Western diet containing low (0.25% w/w) or high (1.25% w/w) cholesterol were treated for 16 weeks with SKI-II, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor that significantly reduced plasma S1P levels. SKI-II treatment increased atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta in mice on high but not low cholesterol diet. This compound did not affect body weight, blood cell counts and plasma total and HDL cholesterol, but decreased triglycerides. In addition, mice on high cholesterol diet receiving SKI-II showed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1). Prolonged lowering of plasma S1P produces pro-atherogenic effects in LDL-R-/- mice that are evident under condition of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  1. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels and carotid intima-media thickness as markers of early atherosclerosis in prepubertal obese children.

    PubMed

    Okur, Ilyas; Tumer, Leyla; Ezgu, Fatih Suheyl; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Aral, Arzu; Oktar, Suna Ozhan; Bideci, Aysun; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2013-01-01

    Children with obesity have a high cardiovascular risk and an impaired oxidant-antioxidant status, which may lead to endothelial dysfunction and increased carotid intima media thickness (IMT) even in childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations and the IMT of carotid arteries in prepubertal obese children, and also to search for its possible association with carotid atherosclerosis. Twenty-seven prepubertal obese children (age, 7.48±2.05 years; boys, 59%) and 30 healthy children (age, 7.80±2.19 years; boys, 55%) were included in the study. Serum concentrations of oxidized LDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, LDL, and glucose were measured, and carotid IMT was determined by ultrasound. Serum oxidized LDL levels were significantly higher in prepubertal obese children than in healthy children (p<0.01). No significant correlation was observed between oxidized LDL levels and carotid IMT measurements. However, a significant positive correlation was found between oxidized LDL levels and body mass index, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol. Our findings revealed that the oxidation of LDL starts early in obese children but the carotid IMT is not significantly affected. Also, oxidized LDL levels are more strongly associated with obesity and dyslipidemia than the carotid IMT in prepubertal children.

  2. The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Is Related to Plasma Concentration of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Adolescents with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Morais, Carla C; Alves, Maira C; Augusto, Elaine M; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Horst, Maria A; Cominetti, Cristiane

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships among the A1298C (rs1801131) and C677T (rs1801133) polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and levels of homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, folic acid and lipid profile, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), of adolescents at cardiovascular risk. We recruited 115 adolescents (10-19 years old), 58.3% (n = 67) female, from a public school in Brazil who underwent anthropometric, biochemical and genetic tests as well as food consumption evaluation. An important prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (19.1%) and alterations in triacylglycerol (17.4%), total cholesterol (26.9%) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (48.0%) concentrations were observed, as well as low vitamin B6 concentrations (23.5%). The categorization of homocysteine concentrations into tertiles revealed significant differences in serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and HDL, waist circumference and intake of total and saturated fat among the tertiles. The presence of variant alleles regarding the MTHFR C677T polymorphism interfered with vitamin B6 and ox-LDL cholesterol concentrations. There was a trend for higher waist circumference values in T carriers (C677T), but not in C carriers (A1298C). The MTHFR C677T allele was associated with higher plasma vitamin B6 and ox-LDL compared to the CC genotype. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Cidón, Bárbara; Padró-Miquel, Ariadna; Alía-Ramos, Pedro; Castro-Castro, María José; Fanlo-Maresma, Marta; Dot-Bach, Dolors; Valero-Politi, José; Pintó-Sala, Xavier; Candás-Estébanez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Background High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c) particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation). Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73) + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13), demonstrating no significant statistical differences between the modified precipitation method and the ultracentrifugation reference method. Similarly, no differences were detected when considering only sd-LDL-c from dyslipidemic patients, since the modifications added to the precipitation method facilitated the proper sedimentation of triglycerides and other lipoproteins. The reference interval for sd-LDL-c concentration estimated in a Mediterranean population was 0.04–0.47 mmol/L. Conclusion An optimization of the heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method for sd-LDL particle isolation was performed, and reference intervals were established in a Spanish Mediterranean population. Measured values were equivalent to those obtained with the reference method, assuring its clinical

  4. The assembly of very low density lipoproteins in rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells is inhibited by phospholipase A2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tran, K; Wang, Y; DeLong, C J; Cui, Z; Yao, Z

    2000-08-11

    In McA-RH7777 cells, the oleate-stimulated assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was associated with enhanced deacylation of phospholipids, which was markedly decreased by inactivation of the cellular phospholipase A(2). Treatment of the cells with antagonists or antisense oligonucleotide of the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) significantly inhibited secretion of apoB100-VLDL and triglyceride. Similar inhibitory effect of the iPLA(2) antagonists was observed on apoB48-VLDL secretion, but secretion of high density lipoprotein particles (such as apoAI- and apoB48-high density lipoprotein) or proteins in general was unaffected. The iPLA(2) antagonist did not affect the synthesis of apoB100 or triglyceride, nor did it affect the activities of phospholipase D, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, or microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Inactivation of iPLA(2) resulted in impaired apoB100-VLDL assembly as shown by decreased apoB100-VLDL and triglyceride within the microsomal lumen, with concomitant increase in apoB100 association with the microsomal membranes. The inhibitory effect of iPLA(2) antagonists on apoB100-VLDL assembly/secretion could be abated by pretreatment of cells with oleate. Analysis of molecular species of microsomal phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by electron spray tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the enrichment of oleoyl moieties was altered by the treatment of iPLA(2) antagonist. These results suggest that the oleate-induced VLDL assembly/secretion may depend upon the establishment of membrane glycerolipids enriched in oleoyl chain, a process mediated by the iPLA(2) activity.

  5. High circulating autoantibodies against human oxidized low-density lipoprotein are related to stable and lower titers to unstable clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andreza O; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Fischer, Simone M; Monteiro, Carlos M C; Brandão, Sergio A B; Póvoa, Rui M S; Bombig, Maria T N; Carvalho, Antonio C; Monteiro, Andréa M; Ramos, Eduardo; Gidlund, Magnus; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M; Izar, Maria C O

    2009-08-01

    Oxidized lipoproteins and antibodies anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) have been detected in human plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions. However, the role of these autoantibodies in the maintenance of vascular health or in the pathogenesis of acute vascular insults remains unclear. We examined the relationship of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-oxLDL antibodies with cardiovascular disease risk markers in stable subjects and in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Titers of human anti-oxLDL antibodies were measured in hypertensive subjects in primary prevention (n=94), without other risk factors, and in individuals after a recent ACS event who also had metabolic syndrome (n=116). Autoantibodies against copper ion oxidized LDL were measured by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Anti-oxLDL titers were higher in hypertensive patients and these subjects presented lower high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) than those with ACS (p<0.0001). We found significant correlations between anti-oxLDL and hs-CRP (r=-0.284), body mass index (r=-0.256), waist circumference (r=-0.368), apolipoprotein B (r=-0.191), glucose (r=-0.303), systolic blood pressure (r=0.319), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.167), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.224) and apolipoprotein A1 (r=0.257) (p<0.02 for all). After multiple linear regression hs-CRP, fasting glucose and waist circumference remained independently and inversely associated with anti-oxLDL. Acute inflammatory and metabolic conditions decrease titers of human antibodies of IgG class against oxidized LDL, and that circulating anti-oxLDL antibodies could be associated with a protective role in atherosclerosis.

  6. Elevated remnant cholesterol causes both low-grade inflammation and ischemic heart disease, whereas elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol causes ischemic heart disease without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-09-17

    Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown. We studied 60 608 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease study, of whom 10 668 had IHD diagnosed between 1977 and 2011. We genotyped for variants affecting levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein by CRP alleles, and C-reactive protein by IL6R alleles. Using a multidirectional mendelian randomization design, we investigated possible causal associations between the lipoproteins and C-reactive protein and between the lipoproteins and IHD. A 1-mmol/L(39 mg/dL) higher level of nonfasting remnant cholesterol was associated observationally with a 37% (95% confidence interval, 35-39) higher C-reactive protein level and causally with a 28% (95% confidence interval, 10-48) higher level. For LDL cholesterol, a 1-mmol/L (39-mg/dL) higher level was associated observationally with a 7% (95% confidence interval, 6-7) higher C-reactive protein level, but we found no causal association. Likewise, higher levels of C-reactive protein did not associate causally with elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol or LDL cholesterol. Finally, the causal risk ratio for IHD for a 1-mmol/L (39-mg/dL) higher level was 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-5.2) for nonfasting remnant cholesterol and 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.2) for LDL cholesterol. The causal associations for remnant cholesterol were present even in those without diabetes mellitus and obesity. Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol is causally associated with low-grade inflammation and with IHD, whereas elevated LDL cholesterol is associated causally with IHD without inflammation.

  7. Protective Effect of the Silkworm Protein 30Kc6 on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Damaged by Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  8. Protective effect of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on human vascular endothelial cells damaged by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL).

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Ying, Huihui; Tong, Fudan; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Yanping; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti

  9. Serum paraoxonase phenotype distribution in exudative age-related macular degeneration and its relationship to homocysteine and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh, Alireza; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Bahreini, Elham; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Argani, Hassan; Alizadeh, Samira

    2012-04-01

    Disequilibrium between oxidative stress and antioxidant levels has been proposed as an important case of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of the present study was to investigate homocysteine (Hcy) level and antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity within its phenotypes together with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OX-LDL) levels in the patients with exudative AMD. Serum PON1 activity and plasma Hcy and OX-LDL levels were analyzed in 45 exudative AMD patients and compared with 45 healthy controls. Paraoxonase 1 activity was measured in serum using paraoxon and phenylacetate as substrates. The PON1 phenotype was determined using double-substrate method. Homocysteine and OX-LDL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The distribution of PON1 phenotypes was significantly different between the patients with exudative AMD and control subjects (chi-square = 6.17, P = 0.01). AA phenotype with low activity was significantly more frequent in exudative AMD patients compared with healthy subjects (62.2% vs. 35.6%, respectively). Other phenotype frequencies in the patients compared with controls were as AB phenotype (intermediate activity) 28.9% versus 46.7% and BB phenotype (high activity) 8.9% versus 17.8%, respectively. Except in BB phenotype (P = 0.2), patients with AA and AB phenotypes had higher plasma Hcy levels in comparison to those of controls (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The mean OX-LDL levels, in all 3 phenotypes (P < 0.05), and OX-LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio, in AA and AB phenotypes (P = 0.001, P = 0.1, respectively) but not in BB (P = 0.1), were significantly higher in the patients than controls. No significant differences in comparison of Hcy and OX-LDL levels between 3 PON1 phenotypes in both control (P = 0.6 for Hcy, P = 0.7 for OX-LDL) and patients (P = 0.8 for Hcy, P = 0.6 for OX-LDL) were found Increased plasma OX-LDL levels and ratios of OX-LDL/high-density lipoprotein, as biomarkers

  10. Cultured cells of the blood-brain barrier from apolipoprotein B-100 transgenic mice: effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein treatment.

    PubMed

    Lénárt, Nikolett; Walter, Fruzsina R; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Tóth, Melinda E; Harazin, András; Tóth, Andrea E; Vizler, Csaba; Török, Zsolt; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Vígh, László; Puskás, László G; Sántha, Miklós; Deli, Mária A

    2015-07-17

    The apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) transgenic mouse line is a model of human atherosclerosis. Latest findings suggest the importance of ApoB-100 in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and microvascular/perivascular localization of ApoB-100 protein was demonstrated in the cerebral cortex of ApoB-100 transgenic mice. The aim of the study was to characterize cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from wild-type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice and to study the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on these cells. Morphology of cells isolated from brains of wild type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice was characterized by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of immunolabeling was quantified by image analysis. Toxicity of oxLDL treatment was monitored by real-time impedance measurement and lactate dehydrogenase release. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, barrier permeability in triple co-culture blood-brain barrier model and membrane fluidity were also determined after low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxLDL treatment. The presence of ApoB-100 was confirmed in brain endothelial cells, while no morphological change was observed between wild type and transgenic cells. Oxidized but not native LDL exerted dose-dependent toxicity in all three cell types, induced barrier dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both genotypes. A partial protection from oxLDL toxicity was seen in brain endothelial and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice. Increased membrane rigidity was measured in brain endothelial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice and in LDL or oxLDL treated wild type cells. The morphological and functional properties of cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice were characterized and compared to wild type cells for the first time. The membrane fluidity changes in ApoB-100 transgenic cells related to brain microvasculature indicate

  11. Human Degenerative Valve Disease Is Associated With Up-Regulation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 5 Receptor-Mediated Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Caira, Frank C.; Stock, Stuart R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; McGee, Edwin C.; Huang, Jie; Bonow, Robert O.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Rahimtoola, Shahbudin H.; Rajamannan, Nalini M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goal of this research was to define the cellular mechanisms involved in myxomatous mitral valve disease and calcific aortic valve disease and to redefine the term degenerative valve disease in terms of an active cellular biology. BACKGROUND “Degenerative” valvular heart disease is the primary cause of regurgitant and stenotic valvular lesion in the U.S. However, the signaling pathways are not known. We hypothesize that valve degeneration occurs due to an osteoblastic differentiation process mediated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) signaling pathway to cause valve thickening. METHODS We examined human diseased valves: myxomatous mitral valves (n = 23), calcified tricuspid aortic valves (n = 27), calcified bicuspid aortic valves (n = 23), and control tissue from mitral and aortic valves (n = 40). The valves were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry for signaling markers important in osteoblast differentiation: Sox9 and Cbfa1 (transcription factors for osteoblast differentiation); Lrp5 and Wnt3 (osteoblast differentiation signaling marker), osteopontin and osteocalcin (osteoblast endochrondral bone matrix proteins), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (a marker of cell proliferation). Cartilage development and bone formation was measured by Alcian blue stain and Alizarin red stain. Computed Scano MicroCT-40 (Bassersdorf, Switzerland) analysis measured calcium burden. RESULTS Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, osteocalcin, and other osteochrondrogenic differentiation markers were increased in the calcified aortic valves by protein and gene expression (p > 0.001). Sox9, Lrp5 receptor, and osteocalcin were increased in myxomatous mitral valves by protein and gene expression (p > 0.001). MicroCT was positive in the calcified aortic valves and negative in the myxomatous mitral valves. CONCLUSIONS The mechanism of valvular heart disease

  12. High plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) A and low IgG antibody titers to oxidized low-density lipoprotein are associated with markers of glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sämpi, Maritta; Veneskoski, Marja; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2010-05-01

    Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is known to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between plasma IgA, IgM, and IgG titers to OxLDL, phosphocholine (PC), and streptococcal cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS) and markers of glucose metabolism, type 2 diabetes, and liver adiposity. A population-based cohort of middle-aged Finns (n = 1039) participated in the study. Plasma IgM, IgG, and IgA to copper oxidized LDL (CuOx-LDL) and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), PC, and CWPS were determined with chemiluminescent ELISA and liver adiposity with ultrasonography. IgA autoantibody titers to OxLDL and PC, but not CWPS, were positively associated with fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and inversely with insulin sensitivity index. IgA to OxLDL was significantly higher (P = 0.013 for CuOx-LDL and P = 0.016 for MDA-LDL) and IgG to OxLDL significantly lower (P = 0.036 for CuOx-LDL and P = 0.001 for MDA-LDL) among the subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with subjects with normal or impaired glucose metabolism when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis showed that high plasma IgA to OxLDL and low IgG to MDA-LDL were independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Plasma IgA titers to OxLDL demonstrated a significant association with liver adiposity (P = 0.012) and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels (P = 0.002). Plasma IgA titers to OxLDL were positively and IgG titers negatively associated with markers of glucose metabolism. High plasma IgA and low IgG to OxLDL were independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

  13. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The effect of simvastatin alone versus simvastatin plus ezetimibe on the concentration of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Florentin, Matilda; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Moutzouri, Elisavet; Rizos, Christos V; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2011-03-01

    To compare the effects of simvastatin alone versus simvastatin plus ezetimibe on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) concentration in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia. Patients with LDL-C levels above those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III were randomized to open-label simvastatin 40 mg (n = 50) or simvastatin/ezetimibe 10/10 mg as a fixed combination (n = 50) daily. LDL particle size (estimated by electrophoresis), sdLDL-C levels, and lipid profile were blindly assessed at baseline and 3 months. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00932620. Both simvastatin 40 mg and simvastatin/ezetimibe 10/10 mg decreased total cholesterol (-31% and -36%, respectively), LDL-C (-43% and -49%, respectively), triglycerides (-17% and -19%, respectively), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C; -40% and -46%, respectively), large LDL-C (-40 and -44%, respectively) and sdLDL-C levels (-42% and -46%, respectively, all p < 0.000 vs baseline) and increased LDL particle size (+0.5% and +0.7%, respectively, both p < 0.05 vs baseline). The changes in total cholesterol, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were greater in the simvastatin/ezetimibe group (all p < 0.05). Changes in triglycerides, large LDL-C, sdLDL-C levels and LDL particle size were similar in the two groups. In multivariate analysis, baseline sdLDL-C and triglyceride levels, but not the choice of treatment, were significantly and independently correlated with the changes in sdLDL-C levels. The combination of simvastatin 10 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg is similarly effective to simvastatin 40 mg in improving sdLDL-C concentration and LDL particle size in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia.

  15. The second and fourth cluster of class A cysteine-rich repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein share ligand-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Neels, J G; van Den Berg, B M; Lookene, A; Olivecrona, G; Pannekoek, H; van Zonneveld, A J

    1999-10-29

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a multifunctional endocytic cell-surface receptor that binds and internalizes a diverse array of ligands. The receptor contains four putative ligand-binding domains, generally referred to as clusters I, II, III, and IV. In this study, soluble recombinant receptor fragments, representing each of the four individual clusters, were used to map the binding sites of a set of structurally and functionally distinct ligands. Using surface plasmon resonance, we studied the binding of these fragments to methylamine-activated alpha(2)-macroglobulin, pro-urokinase-type plasminogen activator, tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, t-PA.plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complexes, lipoprotein lipase, apolipoprotein E, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, lactoferrin, the light chain of blood coagulation factor VIII, and the intracellular chaperone receptor-associated protein (RAP). No binding of the cluster I fragment to any of the tested ligands was observed. The cluster III fragment only bound to the anti-LRP monoclonal antibody alpha(2)MRalpha3 and weakly to RAP. Except for t-PA, we found that each of the ligands tested binds both to cluster II and to cluster IV. The affinity rate constants of ligand binding to clusters II and IV and to LRP were measured, showing that clusters II and IV display only minor differences in ligand-binding kinetics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the subdomains C3-C7 of cluster II are essential for binding of ligands and that this segment partially overlaps with a RAP-binding site on cluster II. Finally, we show that one RAP molecule can bind to different clusters simultaneously, supporting a model in which RAP binding to LRP induces a conformational change in the receptor that is incompatible with ligand binding.

  16. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is a novel modulator of radial glia stem cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Safina, Dina; Schlitt, Frederik; Romeo, Ramona; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Pietrzik, Claus U; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Edenhofer, Frank; Faissner, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The LDL family of receptors and its member low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) have classically been associated with a modulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Current studies, however, indicate diverse functions for this receptor in various aspects of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. LRP1 is essential for normal neuronal function in the adult CNS, whereas the role of LRP1 in development remained unclear. Previously, we have observed an upregulation of LewisX (LeX) glycosylated LRP1 in the stem cells of the developing cortex and demonstrated its importance for oligodendrocyte differentiation. In the current study, we show that LeX-glycosylated LRP1 is also expressed in the stem cell compartment of the developing spinal cord and has broader functions in the developing CNS. We have investigated the basic properties of LRP1 conditional knockout on the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from the cortex and the spinal cord, created by means of Cre-loxp-mediated recombination in vitro. The functional status of LRP1-deficient cells has been studied using proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis assays. LRP1 deficient NSPCs from both CNS regions demonstrated altered differentiation profiles. Their differentiation capacity toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), mature oligodendrocytes and neurons was reduced. In contrast, astrocyte differentiation was promoted. Moreover, LRP1 deletion had a negative effect on NSPCs proliferation and survival. Our observations suggest that LRP1 facilitates NSPCs differentiation via interaction with apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Upon ApoE4 stimulation wild type NSPCs generated more oligodendrocytes, but LRP1 knockout cells showed no response. The effect of ApoE seems to be independent of cholesterol uptake, but is rather mediated by downstream MAPK and Akt activation. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1363-1380. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enzymatically Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein Is Present in All Stages of Aortic Valve Sclerosis: Implications for Pathogenesis of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Laura; Cheng, Fei; Michaelsen, Jens; Winter, Stefan; Hofmann, Ute; Schaeffeler, Elke; Müller, Simon; Sonnenberg, Maike; Steuer, Kristin; Ott, German; Schwab, Matthias; Franke, Ulrich F W; Torzewski, Michael

    2015-10-16

    We have demonstrated previously that enzymatically degraded low-density lipoprotein (eLDL) is an essential causative component for the initiation of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the different stages of human aortic valve sclerosis for the presence of eLDL and effectors of the innate immune system, as well as the interaction of eLDL with isolated valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts to discover possible pathways leading to aortic valve sclerosis. Human aortic valvular tissue was obtained from 68 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. Patients were classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, or severe aortic valve sclerosis), and clinical data for statistical analysis were gathered from all patients. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated extensive extracellular deposits of eLDL throughout all grades of aortic valve sclerosis. Complementary analysis of lipid composition revealed higher concentrations of the decisive components of eLDL (ie, unesterified cholesterol and linoleic acid) compared with internal control tissues. Further, the complement component C3d and terminal complement complexes colocalized with eLDL compatible with the proposal that subendothelially deposited eLDL is enzymatically transformed into a complement activator at early stages of valvular cusp lesion development. Gene expression profiles of proteases and complement components corroborated by immunohistochemistry demonstrated an upregulation of the protease cathepsin D (a possible candidate for LDL degradation to eLDL) and the complement inhibitor CD55. Surprisingly, substantial C-reactive protein expression was not observed before grade 2 aortic valve sclerosis as investigated with microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Finally, we demonstrated cellular uptake of eLDL by valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts. The present study is a startup of a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of aortic valve

  18. Soy protein reduces the arterial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration and delivery of LDL cholesterol to the arteries of diabetic and nondiabetic male cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J D; Zhang, L; Greaves, K A; Shadoan, M K; Schwenke, D C

    2000-09-01

    We have previously shown that soy protein consumption improves lipoprotein concentrations and reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys. The mechanism for these beneficial effects is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine potential mechanisms for the atheroprotective effects of soy and to determine if these effects extend to diabetic monkeys. We designed an experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial design in which adult male monkeys (N = 23) were fed an atherogenic diet with a protein source of either soy isolate or casein and lactalbumin, and the monkeys were either control or streptozotocin-induced diabetic. Diabetics had significantly increased fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (GHb) levels; this relationship was not affected by the type of dietary protein. Diabetics also had increased total (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) concentrations. However, soy consumption significantly reduced TC and LDLC concentrations in both control and diabetic monkeys. Plasma and arterial LDL metabolism was determined by injecting 125I-LDL at 48 hours and 131I-tyramine cellobiose LDL at 1 hour prior to necropsy. This allowed a determination of the arterial LDL concentration, permeability, and arterial LDL delivery. An increase in the whole-body plasma LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was found with soy. Soy significantly reduced the arterial LDL concentration across all arterial sites by an average of 50%. Soy also significantly reduced the delivery of LDLC to all arterial sites by an average of 40%. While this was primarily due to the lower plasma LDLC concentration, LDL permeability in the carotid bifurcation and internal carotid arteries was also reduced. There was no additional effect of diabetes. These beneficial effects on plasma and arterial LDL metabolism would be expected to reduce atherosclerosis and were found in both control and diabetic monkeys.

  19. Blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and incidences of coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke in Japanese: the Suita study.

    PubMed

    Tsukinoki, Rumi; Okamura, Tomonori; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Takegami, Misa; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Okayama, Akira; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2014-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke. However, the hazards of their coexistence are not fully understood in Asian populations. We investigated whether the relationship between BP and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes are modified by LDL-C level in a Japanese population. Individuals aged 30-79 years (n = 5,151) were classified into 6 groups according to LDL-C levels (<140 and ≥140mg/dL or lipid medication) and BP levels (optimal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension; reference: low LDL-C and optimal BP). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated after adjusting for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. The effect modification of LDL-C on BP-CVD association was assessed using likelihood ratio tests. There were 264 CAD and 215 ischemic stroke events during 13 years of follow-up. With low LDL-C, the HRs of prehypertension and hypertension for CAD were 2.01 and 4.71, respectively. Similar trends of HRs were observed with high LDL-C (optimal BP = 2.09, prehypertension = 3.45, hypertension = 5.94). However, the HRs for ischemic stroke did not differ between normal and high LDL-C levels at the same BP level. The apparent effect modification of LDL-C was not observed in the BP-CVD association in either CAD (P = 0.48) or ischemic stroke (P = 0.39). The HRs for CAD in prehypertensive and hypertensive groups were higher than those in the optimal BP group at the same LDL-C levels in a Japanese population; however, there was no statistical effect modification of LDL-C on the BP-CAD association. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of glioma tumour microenvironment on the transport of ANG1005 via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Y; Currie, J-C; Poirier, J; Demeule, M; Abulrob, A; Fatehi, D; Stanimirovic, D; Sartelet, H; Castaigne, J-P; Béliveau, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: ANG1005 consists of three molecules of paclitaxel conjugated via ester bonds to the 19-amino-acid peptide Angiopep-2. The new chemical agent has been shown to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) by receptor-mediated transcytosis via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). The experiments here examined the role of LRP1 in the subsequent endocytosis of drug into cancer cells. Methods: Localisation of ANG1005 and Angiopep-2 was examined by immunohistochemistry and in-vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging in mice carrying orthotopic glioma tumours. Transport of ANG1005 and Angiopep-2 was examined in U87 glioblastoma cell lines. Results: Systemically administered ANG1005 and Cy5.5Angiopep-2 localised to orthotopic glioma tumours in mice. The glioma transplants correlated with high expression levels of LRP1. Decreasing LRP1 activity, by RNA silencing or LRP1 competitors, decreased uptake of ANG1005 and Angiopep-2 into U87 glioblastoma cells. Conversely, LRP1 expression and endocytosis rates for ANG1005 and Angiopep-2 increased in U87 cells under conditions that mimicked the microenvironment near aggressive tumours, that is, hypoxic and acidic conditions. Conclusion: ANG1005 might be a particularly effective chemotherapeutic agent for the wide array of known LRP1-expressing brain and non-brain cancers, in particular those with an aggressive phenotype. PMID:22027709

  1. Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on concentrations of plasma lipids, concentration and composition of very-low-density lipoproteins, and glucose dynamics in healthy adult mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicholas; Sommardahl, Carla S; Eiler, Hugo; Webb, Latisha L; Denhart, Joseph W; Boston, Ray C

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy adult horses administered levothyroxine sodium (L-T4). 12 healthy adult mares. 8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provide between 7 AM and 8 AM in the morning grain meal for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured and composition of VLDL examined in samples obtained between 8 AM and 9 AM at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Glucose dynamics were assessed by use of a combined IV glucose-insulin tolerance test (IVGITT) conducted before and at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Data for each combined IVGITT were interpreted by use of the minimal model. Plasma TG, TC, and VLDL concentrations significantly decreased over time in treated horses. At the completion of the 8-week treatment period, mean plasma VLDL concentration was 46% of the mean value for week 0 in treated horses. Insulin sensitivity significantly increased (> 2-fold) in treated horses, but glucose effectiveness and net insulin response were not affected. Levothyroxine sodium significantly increased the rate of insulin disposal. Administration of L-T4 decreases blood lipid concentrations, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases insulin disposal in horses. Levothyroxine sodium may have potential as a treatment for horses with reduced insulin sensitivity.

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction combined with a maternal high-fat diet increases hepatic cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein receptor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zinkhan, Erin K; Zalla, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Jeanette R; Yu, Baifeng; Yu, Xing; Chan, Gary; Joss-Moore, Lisa; Lane, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) increase the risk of hypercholesterolemia, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Many pregnant women eat a HFD, thus exposing the fetus to a HFD in utero. The cumulative effect of in utero exposure to IUGR and a HFD on offspring cholesterol levels remains unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanism through which IUGR and maternal HFD consumption increase cholesterol. We hypothesize that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD would increase offspring serum and hepatic cholesterol accumulation via alteration in levels of key proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. To test our hypothesis we used a rat model of surgically induced IUGR and fed the dams a regular diet or a HFD HFD-fed dams consumed the same kilocalories as regular diet-fed dams, with no difference between surgical intervention groups. In the offspring, IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increased hepatic cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor protein levels, and Ldlr activity in female rat offspring at birth and both sexes at postnatal day 14 relative to non-IUGR offspring both from regular diet- and HFD-fed dams. These findings suggest that IUGR combined with a maternal HFD increases hepatic cholesterol accumulation via increased LDL cholesterol uptake into the liver with resulting persistent increases in hepatic cholesterol accumulation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Association of biological markers of activity of systemic lupus erythematosus with levels of anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Tinahones, F J; De Ramón, E; Camps, M; Garrido, L; Soriguer, F J

    2004-04-01

    To study the levels of anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at two different points during the disease, and evaluate their relation with markers of SLE activity in serial blood samples. To investigate the correlations at two points in time between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and anti-beta2-glycoprotein-I antibodies, leucocytes, immunoglobulin G, anti-deoxyribonucleic acid, complement 3, complement 4 and the disease activity index. A total of 49 patients with SLE according to ACR criteria were studied at two points, 3 to 4 months apart, Time 1 and Time 2. There were ostensible changes in levels of anti-oxidized LDL antibodies between Times 1 and 2, which correlated significantly with disease activity markers. The association between levels of anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and complement system activation remained after multiple regression analysis with stepwise adjustment. Antibody levels against oxidized LDL vary with time and are closely related to the degree of SLE activity. There is an association between levels of autoantibodies to oxidized LDL and complement system activation.

  4. The effect of egg yolk, low density lipoproteins, methylxanthines and fertilization diluent on cryopreservation efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Babiak, I; Glogowski, J; Luczynski, M J; Luczynski, M; Demianowicz, W

    1999-08-01

    The effect of egg yolk, low density lipoproteins (LDL) as well as methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline) and fertilization diluent on cryopreservation efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, spermatozoa was tested. Milt was cryopreserved in pellets on dry ice then stored in liquid nitrogen. The extender consisted of 0.6 M sucrose + 15% DMSO supplemented with egg yolk or LDL fractions. The most effective results (77.3% hatched larvae vs 74.1% in the control group) were obtained from extender that contained only 0.6 M sucrose + 15% DMSO and was used for freezing, while the fertilization diluent was used for thawing. Addition of egg yolk or LDL to the extender did not improve the results. The presence of caffeine in the thawing solution significantly lowered fertilization rate of cryopreserved spermatozoa, whereas theophylline did not significantly affect the results. The addition of fertilization diluent to the eggs prior to insemination was superior to the other treatments. The proposed procedure constitutes a complete method for the efficient cryopreservation of northern pike semen.

  5. rs3751812, a common variant in fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, is associated with serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Pakistani individuals.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sarah Anwar; Mumtaz, Amir; Shahid, Saleem Ullah; Shabana, N A

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a common variant of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene, rs3751812 in obese Pakistani individuals, compare this effect with nonobese controls of the same ethnicity, and then correlate it with serum lipid profile and anthropometric parameters. We genotyped 475 samples using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high- (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were measured. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 22 and the results were analyzed for any significant associations. Results demonstrated that the variant is significantly associated with obesity in Pakistan. The study found, for the first time, that the variant has a significant effect on lowering HDL-C and increasing LDL-C. Among anthropometric measures, the variant showed significant association with body mass index and weight. The study concludes that the FTO variant is consistently associated with obesity in the Pakistani population and its association with anthropometric and lipid parameters show that it may mediate its role by altering fat deposition and disturbing serum lipid profile. However, future studies with larger sample size are needed to validate the results of the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazawwi, Nora; Le, Khuong; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2017-10-18

    The present study examined the effects of wild rice on monocyte adhesion, inflammatory and fibrinolytic mediators in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. Male LDLr-KO mice received a cholesterol (0.06%, w/w)-supplemented diet with or without white or wild rice (60%, w/w) for 20 weeks. White rice significantly increased monocyte adhesion and abundances of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tissue necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor in aortae and hearts of LDLr-KO mice compared to the control diet. Wild rice inhibited monocyte adhesion to the aorta, atherosclerosis, and abundances of the inflammatory and fibrinolytic regulators in the cardiovascular tissue of LDLr-KO mice compared to white rice. White or wild rice did not significantly alter the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or antioxidant enzymes in plasma. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of wild rice may result from its inhibition on monocyte adhesion and inflammatory modulators in LDLr-KO mice.

  7. Lipid profile, low-density lipoprotein oxidation and ceruloplasmin in the progeny of families with a positive history of cardiovascular diseases and/or hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Makedou, Kali G; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Makedou, Areti; Iliadis, Stavros; Kourtis, Anargyros; Vavatsi-Christaki, Norma; Papageorgiou, Georgios E

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-eight healthy progeny (mean age +/- SD 13.9 +/- 7.9 years) of 39 families with a positive history for cardiovascular diseases ([CVD] n = 44) or hyperlipidemia (n = 14) were included in the study and were compared with 30 age-matched control participants, with a negative family history, to evaluate lipid profile, ceruloplasmin (Cp), and lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde [MDA]) levels, as well as in vitro copper-induced Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability. Mean serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B-100, and MDA of the participants were significantly higher than those of the controls. Lag time, an LDL resistance oxidation marker, was lower in the study group and negatively correlated with LDL-C (r = -.437, P < .05) and Cp (r = -.272, P < .05) serum levels. In conclusion, progeny with a positive family history for CVD or hyperlipidemia have an atherogenic lipid profile and increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation. High Cp levels seem to be related to lower resistance of LDL to oxidation.

  8. Specific binding of alpha-macroglobulin to complement-type repeat CR4 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    Andersen, O M; Christensen, P A; Christensen, L L; Jacobsen, C; Moestrup, S K; Etzerodt, M; Thogersen, H C

    2000-09-05

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a large surface receptor that mediates binding and internalization of a large number of structurally and functionally unrelated ligands. The ligand binding sites are located in clusters of complement-type repeats (CR), where the general absence of mutual binding competition suggests that different ligands map to distinct sites. Binding of alpha(2)-macroglobulin-protease complexes to the LRP is mediated by the receptor binding domain (RBD) of alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M). To determine the major binding epitope(s) in the LRP, we generated a complete set of tandem CR proteins spanning the second cluster of CR domains, and identified a binding site for alpha(2)M in the N-terminal part of the cluster comprising CR3-CR6, using ligand blotting and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The specific site involved in alpha(2)M recognition resides in the fourth CR domain, CR4, whereas another site is identified in CR5. An acidic epitope in CR4 is identified as important for binding alpha(2)M by mutagenesis and SPR analysis. The formation of the complex between the rat alpha(1)-macroglobulin RBD and CR domain pairs is characterized by analytical size-exclusion chromatography, which demonstrates a sufficiently strong interaction between the alpha(1)M RBD and CR34 or CR45 for the isolation of a complex.

  9. FE65 constitutes the functional link between the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Pietrzik, Claus U; Yoon, Il-Sang; Jaeger, Sebastian; Busse, Tracy; Weggen, Sascha; Koo, Edward H

    2004-04-28

    Increasing evidence has implicated the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and the adaptor protein FE65 in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. We have shown previously that LRP mediates beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and affects amyloid beta-protein and APP secretion and APP-c-terminal fragment generation. Furthermore, LRP mediates APP processing through its intracellular domain. Here, we set out to examine whether this interaction is of direct or indirect nature. Specifically, we asked whether adaptor proteins such as FE65 influence the LRP-mediated effect on APP processing by forming a protein complex. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we confirmed the postulated APP-FE65 and the LRP-FE65 interaction. However, we also showed an LRP-FE65-APP trimeric complex using pull-down techniques. Because FE65 alters APP processing, we investigated whether this effect is LRP dependent. Indeed, FE65 was only able to increase APP secretion in the presence of LRP. In the absence of LRP, APP secretion was unchanged compared with the LRP knock-out phenotype. Using RNA short interference techniques against FE65, we demonstrated that a reduction in FE65 protein mimics the LRP knock-out phenotype on APP processing. These results clearly demonstrate that FE65 acts as a functional linker between APP and LRP.

  10. Low-density lipoprotein accumulation within a carotid artery with multilayer elastic porous wall: fluid-structure interaction and non-Newtonian considerations.

    PubMed

    Deyranlou, Amin; Niazmand, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mahmood-Reza

    2015-09-18

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is recognized as bad cholesterol, typically has been regarded as a main cause of atherosclerosis. LDL infiltration across arterial wall and subsequent formation of Ox-LDL could lead to atherogenesis. In the present study, combined effects of non-Newtonian fluid behavior and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) on LDL mass transfer inside an artery and through its multilayer arterial wall are examined numerically. Navier-Stokes equations for the blood flow inside the lumen and modified Darcy's model for the power-law fluid through the porous arterial wall are coupled with the equations of mass transfer to describe LDL distributions in various segments of the artery. In addition, the arterial wall is considered as a heterogeneous permeable elastic medium. Thus, elastodynamics equation is invoked to examine effects of different wall elasticity on LDL distribution in the artery. Findings suggest that non-Newtonian behavior of filtrated plasma within the wall enhances LDL accumulation meaningfully. Moreover, results demonstrate that at high blood pressure and due to the wall elasticity, endothelium pores expand, which cause significant variations on endothelium physiological properties in a way that lead to higher LDL accumulation. Additionally, results describe that under hypertension, by increasing angular strain, endothelial junctions especially at leaky sites expand more dramatic for the high elastic model, which in turn causes higher LDL accumulation across the intima layer and elevates atherogenesis risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  12. Amino acid sequence of the signal peptide of apoVLDL-II, a major apoprotein in avian very low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Bradley, W A; Means, A R

    1980-11-10

    ApoVLDL-II is a major apoprotein in avian very low density lipoproteins (Jackson, R. L., Lin, H.-Y., Chan, L., and Means, A.R. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 250-253). Partially purified apoVLDL-II mRNA was translated in vitro in a wheat germ system in the presence of various labeled amino acids. The product, designated preapoVLDL-II, was purified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was subjected to automated Edman degradation in a Beckman Sequencer. The signal peptide was found to be a 23-amino acid NH2-terminal extension of the mature protein with the following sequence: Met-Gln-Tyr-Arg-Ala-Leu-Val-Ile-Ala-Val-Ile-Leu-Leu-Leu-Ser-Thr-Val-Pro-Glu-Val-Cys-Ser-Lys where Lys is the NH2-terminal residue of mature apoVLDL-II. The abundance and distribution of the hydrophobic amino acid residues are very similar to those of other signal sequences and the average hydrophobicity for the 23 residues is -1227 cal/mol/residue. However, translocation of preapoVLDL-II would represent a unique case of vectorial migration of a protein through a membrane since apoVLDL-II is itself an apolipoprotein and binds lipid spontaneously.

  13. Assessment of the 1% of Patients with Consistent < 15% Reduction in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: Pooled Analysis of 10 Phase 3 ODYSSEY Alirocumab Trials.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold E; Rosenson, Robert S; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Louie, Michael J; Thompson, Desmond; Hovingh, G Kees

    2018-04-07

    Clinical trials of statins and other lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) often report large inter-individual variations in their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We evaluated apparent hyporesponsiveness to the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab (defined as < 15% LDL-C reduction from baseline at all timepoints) using data from 10 Phase 3 trials (3120 hypercholesterolemic patients). This report assessed the LDL-C percent reduction from baseline at weeks 4-104 (depending on study), and alirocumab serum levels and antidrug antibodies, in patients with apparent hyporesponsiveness. Among the 3120 patients evaluated, 98.9% responded to alirocumab, and 33 (1.1%) had < 15% LDL C reduction at all measured timepoints. Pharmacokinetics data indicated that 13/33 apparent hyporesponders had not received alirocumab; no pharmacokinetics data were available for 14/33, and 6/33 had detectable alirocumab. For the six patients with confirmed alirocumab receipt, the degree of adherence to pre-study concurrent LLTs could not be determined after study start; one of these patients had persistent antidrug antibodies. Apparent hyporesponsiveness to alirocumab appeared to be due to lack of receipt of alirocumab determined by serum alirocumab levels, possible lack of adherence to concurrent LLTs, a theoretical and rare possibility of biological non-responsiveness due to persistent antidrug antibodies, or other causes, as yet unidentified.

  14. ORMDL3 contributes to the risk of atherosclerosis in Chinese Han population and mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced autophagy in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaochun; Qiu, Rongfang; Dang, Jie; Li, Jiangxia; Hu, Qin; Shan, Shan; Xin, Qian; Pan, Wenying; Bian, Xianli; Yuan, Qianqian; Long, Feng; Liu, Na; Li, Yan; Gao, Fei; Zou, Chengwei; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

    2015-01-01

    ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 (ORMDL3) is a universally confirmed susceptibility gene for asthma and has recently emerged as a crucial modulator in lipid metabolism, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-the mechanisms also closely involved in atherosclerosis (AS). Here we first presented the evidence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms regulating ORMDL3 expression (rs7216389 and rs9303277) significantly associated with AS risk and the evidence of increased ORMDL3 expression in AS cases compared to controls, in Chinese Han population. Following the detection of its statistical correlation with AS, we further explored the functional relevance of ORMDL3 and hypothesized a potential role mediating autophagy as autophagy is activated upon modified lipid, inflammation and ER stress. Our results demonstrated that in endothelial cells oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) up-regulated ORMDL3 expression and knockdown of ORMDL3 alleviated not only ox-LDL-induced but also basal autophagy. BECN1 is essential for autophagy initiation and silencing of ORMDL3 suppressed ox-LDL-induced as well as basal BECN1 expression. In addition, deletion of ORMDL3 resulted in greater sensitivity to ox-LDL-induced cell death. Taken together, ORMDL3 might represent a causal gene mediating autophagy in endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26603569

  15. Emodin enhances cholesterol efflux by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in oxidized low density lipoprotein-loaded THP1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Xu, Ai-Guo; Yao, Meng-Ying; Guo, Li; Zhao, Luo-Sha

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a nuclear receptor involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from the roots of Rheum palmatum, on PPARγ signalling and cholesterol efflux in macrophage foam cells. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated THP1 macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of emodin (0-10 μmol/L) for 18 h. Western blot analysis and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol efflux, namely PPARγ, liver X receptor (LXR) α, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1. In addition, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in emodin-treated cells was measured. Expresssion of PPARγ mRNA and protein was increased in emodin-treated cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Emodin treatment also concentration-dependently induced LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Moreover, emodin promoted apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-loaded THP1 macrophages, which was significantly abolished by pretreatment with the PPARγ-selective antagonist GW9662 or the specific small interfering RNA for PPARγ. Together, the results demonstrate that emodin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP1 macrophages via activation of the PPARγ signalling pathway and may represent a potential anti-atherosclerotic drug. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  17. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma viscosity, and whole blood viscosity by the application of pulsed corona discharges and filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin M.; Fridman, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.; Cho, Young I.

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of applying pulsed corona discharges to blood plasma to reduce the viscosity of blood plasma and whole blood. Blood plasma was separated from blood cells, treated with corona discharges, and filtered before it was re-mixed with blood cells. Plasma viscosity (PV), whole blood viscosity (WBV), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-c concentration were measured before and after the corona treatment and filtration. Both PV and WBV increased in the case of the corona treatment only, whereas both of them decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration. In particular, the LDL-c decreased in the case of the corona treatment plus filtration by 31.5% from the baseline value. The effect of the corona treatment on the reduction of the WBV was significant at low shear rates, but not at high shear rates, suggesting that the precipitation of the molecules in blood plasma by the corona treatment and subsequent removal may suppress the aggregation of erythrocytes and improve rheological properties of blood.

  18. miR-497 accelerates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing the expression of apelin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Junfeng; Ren, Zhong; Zou, Wenshuang; Jiang, Yanling

    2017-09-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A previous study has reported that miR-497 is elevated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in an apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse model. The purpose of this study is to test whether miR-497 can modulate macrophage foam cell formation, an initiating event in atherosclerosis. We found that miR-497 was upregulated in THP-1 macrophages after treatment with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Enforced expression of miR-497 promoted lipid accumulation and decreased cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-exposed THP-1 macrophages. In contrast, downregulation of miR-497 suppressed oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. Apelin was identified to be a downstream target of miR-497. Overexpression of miR-497 significantly reduced the expression of apelin in THP-1 macrophages. Interestingly, delivery of a miR-497-resistant variant of apelin significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and enhanced cholesterol efflux in miR-497-overexpressing THP-1 macrophages in response to oxLDL. In addition, miR-497 expression was increased and negatively correlated with apelin protein expression in human atherosclerotic lesions. In conclusion, miR-497 contributes to oxLDL-induced lipid deposition in macrophages largely via targeting of apelin and thus represents a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. PTPRO Promotes Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis through Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caihong; Wang, Xiaochen; Hu, Jianping; Lian, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Tiantian; Zhang, Hui; Gu, Ning; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Critical roles of phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been implicated in inflammation. However, little is known about their functional effects on atherosclerosis (AS). We aim to study their potential function in AS. An oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced AS model constructed with PTPRO over-expressing RAW264.7 cells and PTPRO knockout macrophages. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry and fatty accumulation was evaluated by oil red staining. The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), SOD (superoxide dismutase), MDA (malondialdehyde), TC (Triglyceride), and TG (total cholesterol) was evaluated. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of CD36, TLR4 and nuclear factor kB (NF-κB). PTPRO expression was promoted in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner following ox-LDL challenging. In PTPRO-over-expressing cells, CD36 expression and the level of oil-red staining, TC and TG were increased; ROS production, MDA and level of cell apoptosis were improved, but SOD was reduced. However, in PTPRO knockout cells opposite results were found. TLR4 and NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation was significantly enhanced in PTPRO over-expressing cells, while significantly down-regulated in PTPRO knockout cells. PTPRO plays ital roles in AS via promoting ox-LDL induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis through TLR4/NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved.

  1. Quercetin Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation in the Liver: Implication for Autophagy Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has indicated that high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is usually accompanied by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) deposited in the liver. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced ox-LDL accumulation in the liver and to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that quercetin supplementation for 24 weeks significantly alleviated high-fat diet-induced liver damage and reduced hepatic cholesterol and ox-LDL level. Quercetin notably inhibited both mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (reduced by 53% and 71%, resp.) and MSR1 (reduced by 25% and 45%, resp.), which were upregulated by high-fat diet. The expression of LC3II was upregulated by 2.4 times whereas that of p62 and mTOR was downregulated by 57% and 63% by quercetin treatment. Therefore, the significantly improved autophagy lysosomal degradation capacity for ox-LDL may be implicated in the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin; scavenger receptors mediated ox-LDL uptake might also be involved. PMID:26697490

  2. α-Defensins Induce a Post-translational Modification of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) That Promotes Atherosclerosis at Normal Levels of Plasma Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Abu-Fanne, Rami; Maraga, Emad; Abd-Elrahman, Ihab; Hankin, Aviel; Blum, Galia; Abdeen, Suhair; Hijazi, Nuha; Cines, Douglas B; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2016-02-05

    Approximately one-half of the patients who develop clinical atherosclerosis have normal or only modest elevations in plasma lipids, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to pathogenesis. In view of increasing evidence that inflammation contributes to atherogenesis, we studied the effect of human neutrophil α-defensins on low density lipoprotein (LDL) trafficking, metabolism, vascular deposition, and atherogenesis using transgenic mice expressing human α-defensins in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (Def(+/+)). Accelerated Def(+/+) mice developed α-defensin·LDL complexes that accelerate the clearance of LDL from the circulation accompanied by enhanced vascular deposition and retention of LDL, induction of endothelial cathepsins, increased endothelial permeability to LDL, and the development of lipid streaks in the aortic roots when fed a regular diet and at normal plasma levels of LDL. Transplantation of bone marrow from Def(+/+) to WT mice increased LDL clearance, increased vascular permeability, and increased vascular deposition of LDL, whereas transplantation of WT bone marrow to Def(+/+) mice prevented these outcomes. The same outcome was obtained by treating Def(+/+) mice with colchicine to inhibit the release of α-defensins. These studies identify a potential new link between inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. A potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, t-AUCB, modulates cholesterol balance and oxidized low density lipoprotein metabolism in adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Peng, Hongchun; Zhao, Shuiping; Xu, Danyan

    2014-04-01

    The cholesterol metabolism in adipose tissue is dependent on the balance between cholesterol uptake and efflux. Adipocytes dysfunction and its cholesterol imbalance are associated with obesity. Adipocytes are the site for clearance of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in blood. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is highly expressed in adipocytes. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) into less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, which regulate cholesterol metabolism in adipocytes and block the development of atherosclerosis. In vitro, 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes were incubated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB (0, 1, 10, 50 or 100 μmol/l) for 24 h with or without the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. To determine the effect of t-AUCB on oxLDL endocytosis, degradation and cholesterol efflux from adipocytes, we demonstrated that t-AUCB enhances the CD36-mediated recognition and degradation of oxLDL and improves cholesterol efflux via the upregulation of ABCA1 expression. Furthermore, t-AUCB blocked TNF-α secretion and increased adiponectin levels found in adipocytes culture medium. We provide evidence that these effects are PPARγ-dependent. These results suggest that an increase in EETs because of sEH inhibition could maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis by the regulation of oxLDL clearance and cholesterol efflux via the EETs-PPARγ pathway.

  4. Detection and imaging of the reconstituted pyropheophorbide-cholesterol oleate labeled low-density lipoprotein in the HepG2 tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessington, Dana M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Lanlan; Glickson, Jerry D.; Zheng, Gang; Chance, Britton

    2003-07-01

    We utilized the nude mouse model bearing the human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) tumor and B-16 Murine Melanoma tumor to study the delivery and detection of the reconstituted Pyropheophorbide Cholesterol Oleate (r-pyroCE) molecular beacon. The delivery vehicle, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), labeled with the porphyrin derivative, was employed in response of the overexpression of LDL receptors in the HepG2 tumor. The B-16 melanoma tumor was also observed in this study for its overexpression of the LDL receptors. The tumors were imaged using the 3D low temperature scanner to produce images throughout several sliced sections of each tumor. The fluorescence signal of the pyropheophorbide was detected at 720nm when excited at 670nm in the tumor tissue. The uniform distribution of the signal in the HepG2 tumor shows extravasation of the beacon from the blood vessels. The B-16 tumor did not exhibit strong fluorescent signals and successful delivery as the HepG2 tumor outside the blood vessels and into the tumor tissue.

  5. Low-density lipoprotein and other predictors of response with telaprevir-based therapy in treatment-experienced HCV genotype 1 patients: REALIZE study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Andreone, Pietro; Pol, Stanislas; Roberts, Stuart; Younossi, Zobair; Diago, Moises; Lawitz, Eric J; Focaccia, Roberto; Foster, Graham R; Horban, Andrzej; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; DeMasi, Ralph; Picchio, Gaston; Luo, Donghan; De Meyer, Sandra; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Predictors of response to treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin are well established. In these post-hoc analyses of the REALIZE study, we sought to identify predictors of response for telaprevir-based triple therapy. Patients from the REALIZE study with baseline data for all predictors evaluated (including baseline disease characteristics and demographics, prior treatment response and baseline laboratory assessments) were included in the post-hoc analyses (n = 465). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors predicting treatment outcomes. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates were 86% in prior relapsers, 63% in prior partial responders and 32% in prior null-responders. In the final multivariate analysis, baseline factors predicting SVR were prior response to treatment [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.13-3.69], low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (≥2.6 mmol/L) (OR = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.52-2.93), HCV genotype (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.93), and maximum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40-0.97). Prior response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment and LDL levels are the main independent predictive markers of response with telaprevir-based triple therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative reactivity of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants HOCl and HOSCN with low-density lipoprotein (LDL): Implications for foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ismael, Fahd O; Proudfoot, Julie M; Brown, Bronwyn E; van Reyk, David M; Croft, Kevin D; Davies, Michael J; Hawkins, Clare L

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterised by the accumulation of lipids within macrophages in the artery wall. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the source of this lipid, owing to the uptake of oxidised LDL by scavenger receptors. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) released by leukocytes during inflammation produces oxidants that are implicated in atherosclerosis. Modification of LDL by the MPO oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), results in extensive lipid accumulation by macrophages. However, the reactivity of the other major MPO oxidant, hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with LDL is poorly characterised, which is significant given that thiocyanate is the favoured substrate for MPO. In this study, we comprehensively compare the reactivity of HOCl and HOSCN with LDL, and show key differences in the profile of oxidative damage observed. HOSCN selectively modifies Cys residues on apolipoprotein B100, and oxidises cholesteryl esters resulting in formation of lipid hydroperoxides, 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) and F2-isoprostanes. The modification of LDL by HOSCN results macrophage lipid accumulation, though generally to a lesser extent than HOCl-modified LDL. This suggests that a change in the ratio of HOSCN:HOCl formation by MPO from variations in plasma thiocyanate levels, will influence the nature of LDL oxidation in vivo, and has implications for the progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MiR-370 inhibits vascular inflammation and oxidative stress triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein through targeting TLR4.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dan; Sha, Yin; Lu, Jing-Min; Du, Xian-Jin

    2018-04-16

    Atherosclerosis, as a chronic cardiovascular disease, still remains a serious threat to human health. Inflammation and oxidative stress are commonly involved in various stages of atherosclerosis development. MicroRNAs are reported to play important roles in macrophages, which can respond to inflammation and oxidative stress. In our current study, we focused on the biological roles of miR-370 in atherosclerosis. According to the previously research, miR-370 was downregulated in AS mice models. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is regarded as a crucial regulator of atherosclerosis and we observed that miR-370 was decreased by ox-LDL dose-dependently and time-dependently in THP-1 cells. Then, it was found that miR-370 overexpression was able to inhibit inflammation molecules including IL-6 and IL-1β. Meanwhile, ROS levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also restrained by miR-370 mimics in vitro. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in many inflammation diseases. It can serve as a target of miR-370 and TLR4 expression was greatly increased in ox-LDL-incubated THP-1 cells in a time and dose dependent manner. The negative correlation was validated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in our study. In conclusion, our present study revealed that miR-370 can reduce inflammatory reaction and inhibit the ROS production by targeting TLR4 in THP-1 cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  10. Multilayer Cucurbit[6]uril-Based Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared by Host-Guest Interaction: Remarkable Adsorbent for Low Density Lipoprotein Removal from Plasma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dandan; Li, Xiqian; Jia, Qiong

    2018-02-09

    Efficient removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key challenge due to its high level in plasma as a primary risk factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this work, a facile synthesis strategy based on host-guest interactions was developed to prepare multilayer cucurbit[6]uril-based magnetic nanoparticles, MNPs-(HA-DAH 5 /HA-CB[6] 5 ). The compound was employed as a blood purification material for the removal of LDL from plasma because it had good blood compatibility and could be easily separated with an external magnet. The efficient removal of LDL was attributed to the electrostatic interactions between the positive charged apoB-100 domain of LDL and the negative charged adsorbent. Moreover, the prepared material exhibited high recyclability and could release LDL in physiological saline for recyclable use. MNPs-(HA-DAH 5 /HA-CB[6] 5 ) offered promising perspectives and broad applications in extracorporeal treatment for the removal of LDL. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Influence of folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to ex-vivo oxidation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, N; Feussner, A; Hailer, S; Spengel, F A; Keller, C; Wolfram, G

    1999-10-15

    Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. In-vitro studies have shown that autooxidation of homocyst(e)ine is accompanied by the generation of oxygen radicals. This may lead to oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promote atherosclerotic vascular lesions. In male patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease we determined fasting and post methionine load homocyst(e)ine levels by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility of their LDL particles to ex-vivo oxidation by continously measuring the conjugated diene production induced by incubation with copper ions. Oxidation resistance (expressed as lag time), maximal oxidation rate, and extent of oxidation (expressed of total diene production) of LDL from patients with normal or mildly elevated homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ significantly. Folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in hyperhomocyst(e)inaemic patients. This went along with a significant decrease in the extent of LDL oxidation and additionally increased HDL-cholesterol levels. The clinical relevance of these findings for the long-term course of atherosclerotic vascular disorders has to be determined by intervention studies.

  12. Effects of red wine polyphenolic compounds on paraoxonase-1 and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in hyperhomocysteinemic mice.

    PubMed

    Noll, Christophe; Hamelet, Julien; Matulewicz, Ewelina; Paul, Jean-Louis; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Janel, Nathalie

    2009-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, or abnormally high plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, has often been associated with vascular thrombosis and the development of premature atherosclerosis. Many studies have shown that moderate wine consumption has potential beneficial effects related to the prevention of atherosclerosis, in part attributed to the biological properties of polyphenolic components, mainly flavonoids. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of a red wine polyphenolic extract (PE) administration on hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency and on the associated biochemical markers of hepatic and endothelial dysfunctions in mice. Red wine PE was added for 4 weeks to the drinking water of heterozygous CBS-deficient mice fed a high-methionine diet, a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Red wine PE supplementation at low dose significantly reduced plasma Hcy levels and restored the hepatic and plasma-decreased paraoxonase-1 activity induced by chronic hyperhomocysteinemia. Moreover, aortic expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules and levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 were reduced in hyperhomocysteinemic mice fed the red wine PE supplementation. These findings suggest that red wine PE administration in low quantities has beneficial effects on biochemical markers of endothelial dysfunction due to hyperhomocysteinemia.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of consumption of 'Yabukita' or 'Benifuuki' encapsulated tea-powder on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and body weight.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yuko; Obara, Taku; Ishikuro, Mami; Matsubara, Hiroko; Shigihara, Michiko; Metoki, Hirohito; Kikuya, Masahiro; Sameshima, Yoichi; Tachibana, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies have reported controversial results for the association between green tea consumption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and body weight. Objective : The objective of this trial was to determine the effects of two kinds of green tea on LDL-cholesterol and body weight. Methods : We randomly assigned 151 participants (98 men, 53 women) aged 30-70 years into three groups: Yabukita green tea group, Benifuuki green tea group, or placebo group. Participants consumed 1.8 g/day of green tea extract powder or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were LDL-cholesterol level and body weight, and the secondary outcomes were risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Results : Both Yabukita and Benifuuki green tea significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol. The magnitudes of the lipid-lowering effect of both types of tea were significantly larger than that of placebo. No differences with respect to changes in LDL-cholesterol were observed between the Yabukita and Benifuuki green tea groups. Neither Yabukita nor Benifuuki green tea had any effect on body weight and no difference was observed among groups regarding changes in body weight. Conclusion : Both Yabukita and Benifuuki green tea lowered LDL-cholesterol, and the lipid-lowering effects of these two green teas were not different. Neither tea lowered body weight.

  14. Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 reduces cardiac fibroblast proliferation by suppressing GATA Binding Protein 4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Ning-Ning; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-07-08

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and GATA Binding Protein 4 (GATA4) are important for the growth of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). When deregulated, LOX-1 and GATA4 can cause cardiac remodeling. In the present study, we found novel evidence that GATA4 was required for the LOX-1 regulation of CF proliferation. The inhibition of LOX-1 by RNA interference LOX-1 lentivirus resulted in the loss of PI3K/Akt activation and GATA4 protein expression. The overexpression of LOX-1 by lentivirus rescued CF proliferation, PI3K/Akt activation, and GATA4 protein expression. Moreover, GATA4 overexpression enhanced CF proliferation with LOX-1 inhibition. We also found that the inhibition ofmore » PI3K/Akt activation by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and protein level of GATA4. In summary, GATA4 may play an important role in the LOX-1 and PI3K/Akt regulation of CF proliferation. -- Highlights: •GATA4 is regulated by LOX-1 signaling in CFs. •GATA4 is involved in LOX-1 regulating CF proliferation. •GATA4 is regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling in CFs.« less

  15. Restraint stress up-regulates lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Irene J; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Davidge, Sandra T

    2010-09-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. The vascular lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in vascular pathology and early atherogenesis. We hypothesized that LOX-1 is up-regulated by psychological stress via the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, and that treatment with EUK-8 (a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic) prevents production of oxygen-derived free radicals and leads to reduced expression of LOX-1 in the vascular wall. As a model for psychological stress, we exposed male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to repeated restraint stress by placement in a conical tube for 2 h per day for 14 consecutive days. Stressed and control mice were treated with EUK-8 (n = 4-5) or vehicle (n = 4-5). Reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite levels, as detected by oxidative fluorescence microscopy, were increased in the aortic root of mice exposed to stress compared to those of controls by 212 +/- 22% (mean +/- SEM; p < 0.001) and 110 +/- 6% (p < 0.001), respectively. LOX-1, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was increased by 443 +/- 63% in stressed mice compared to control mice (p < 0.001). EUK-8 reduced reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and LOX-1 levels in stressed mice compared to vehicle-treated stressed mice. To conclude, LOX-1 induced by reactive oxygen species and/or peroxynitrite could be one mechanism by which stress promotes cardiovascular disease.

  16. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila R; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C; Monteiro, Andrea M; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  17. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1) C4408R Mutant Promotes Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) α-Cleavage in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huayan; Habib, Ahsan; Zi, Dan; Tian, Kathy; Tian, Jun; Giunta, Brian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Tan, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) plays conflicting roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, clearing β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain while also enhancing APP endocytosis and resultant amyloidogenic processing. We have recently discovered that co-expression of mutant LRP1 C-terminal domain (LRP1-CT C4408R) with Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decreases Aβ production, while also increasing sAPPα and APP α-C-terminal fragment (α-CTF), compared with CHO cells expressing APPswe alone. Surprisingly, the location of this mutation on LRP1 corresponded with the α-secretase cleavage site of APP. Further experimentation confirmed that in CHO cells expressing APPswe or wild-type APP (APPwt), co-expression of LRP1-CT C4408R decreases Aβ and increases sAPPα and α-CTF compared with co-expression of wild-type LRP1-CT. In addition, LRP1-CT C4408R enhanced the unglycosylated form of LRP1-CT and reduced APP endocytosis as determined by flow cytometry. This finding identifies a point mutation in LRP1 which slows LRP1-CT-mediated APP endocytosis and amyloidogenic processing, while enhancing APP α-secretase cleavage, thus demonstrating a potential novel target for slowing AD pathogenesis.

  18. Thioredoxin attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by reducing NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Beidong; Meng, Li; Shen, Tao; Gong, Huan; Qi, Ruomei; Zhao, Yanyang; Sun, Jie; Bao, Li; Zhao, Gexin

    2017-09-02

    Oxidative stress is recognized as one of the most important contributing factors to the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, trigger endothelial dysfunction and initiate the progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is one of the key regulators of intracellular redox, which is pivotal in atherogenesis. However, the regulation mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trx1 on NADPH oxidase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whose ROS level is mainly produced by NADPH oxidase, especially Nox4 isoform. Our data demonstrated that Trx decreased NADPH oxidase activity, ROS production and ICAM-1 expression in ox-LDL treated HUVECs. Genetic gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies showed that Trx1 suppressed ox-LDL-induced Nox4 and p22phox expression. A co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Trx1 decreased Nox4-p22phox complex level during ox-LDL stimulation. Transient transfection of Nox4 and p22phox significantly increased intracellular ROS generation, which could be blocked by Trx overexpression. In addition, Trx overexpression also prevented ox-LDL-induced Nox2 and Rac1 protein levels. These results suggest that Trx suppresses NADPH oxidase activity in vascular endothelia under pathological conditions and may prevent the initiation of atherosclerosis by attenuating exceeding ROS production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Insulin-induced exocytosis regulates the cell surface level of low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 in Müller Glial cells.

    PubMed

    Actis Dato, Virginia; Grosso, Rubén A; Sánchez, María C; Fader, Claudio M; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2018-04-18

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is expressed in retinal Müller glial cells (MGCs) and regulates intracellular translocation to the plasma membrane (PM) of the membrane proteins involved in cellular motility and activity. Different functions of MGCs may be influenced by insulin, including the removal of extracellular glutamate in the retina. In the present work, we investigated whether insulin promotes LRP1 translocation to the PM in the Müller glial-derived cell line MIO-M1. We demonstrated that LRP1 is stored in small vesicles containing an approximate size of 100 nm (mean diameter range of 100 nm to 120 nm), which were positive for sortilin and VAMP2, and also incorporated GLUT4 when it was transiently transfected.. Next, we observed that LRP1 translocation to the PM was promoted by insulin-regulated exocytosis through intracellular activation of the IR/PI 3 K/Akt axis and Rab-GTPase proteins such as Rab8A and Rab10. In addition, these Rab-GTPases regulated both the constitutive and insulin-induced LRP1 translocation to the PM. Finally, we found that dominant-negative Rab8A and Rab10 mutants impaired insulin-induced intracellular signalling of the IR/PI3K/Akt axis, suggesting that these GTPase proteins as well as the LRP1 level at the cell surface are involved in insulin-induced IR activation. ©2018 The Author(s).

  20. Low-density lipoprotein from apolipoprotein E-deficient mice induces macrophage lipid accumulation in a CD36 and scavenger receptor class A-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenze; de Beer, Maria C; Cai, Lei; Asmis, Reto; de Beer, Frederick C; de Villiers, Willem J S; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the potential of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL), isolated from apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice (E-/-LDL) and from LDL receptor-deficient mice (Lr-/-LDL), to induce foam cell formation. Binding studies using COS-7 cells overexpressing CD36, J774 cells, and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) unexpectedly showed for the first time that E-/-LDL, which is enriched in cholesterol, is a high-affinity ligand for CD36 and exhibited greater macrophage uptake than Lr-/-LDL or normal LDL. Minimal copper-mediated oxidization of Lr-/-LDL or C57LDL in vitro resulted in increased ligand internalization, although cell uptake of these oxidized LDLs was lower than that of E-/-LDL, even at oxidation levels similar to that found in E-/-LDL. Treatment of MPMs with E-/-LDL and Lr-/-LDL (to a 2- to 3-fold lesser extent), but not normal LDL, resulted in significant cellular cholesteryl ester accumulation and foam cell formation. Experiments using MPMs lacking CD36, scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), or both, indicated a major contribution of CD36 ( approximately 50%), and to a lesser extent, SR-A (24% to 30%), to E-/-LDL uptake. Because of its increased state of oxidation and high cholesterol content, LDL in apoE-deficient mice acts in a proatherogenic manner, without requiring further modification in the vascular wall, to induce foam cell formation through its uptake by scavenger receptors.

  1. The association of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) haplotypes with egg production indicates VLDLR is a candidate gene for modulating egg production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZhePeng; Meng, GuoHua; Li, Na; Yu, MingFen; Liang, XiaoWei; Min, YuNa; Liu, FuZhu; Gao, YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) transports egg yolk precursors into oocytes. However, our knowledge of the distribution patterns of VLDLR variants among breeds and their relationship to egg production is still incomplete. In this study, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that account for 87% of all VLDLR variants were genotyped in Nick Chick (NC, n=91), Lohmann Brown (LohB, n=50) and Lueyang (LY, n=381) chickens, the latter being an Chinese indigenous breed. Egg production by NC and LY chickens was recorded from 17 to 50 weeks. Only four similar haplotypes were found in NC and LohB, of which two accounted for 100% of all NC haplotypes and 92.5% of LohB haplotypes. In contrast, there was considerable haplotypic diversity in LY. Comparison of egg production in LY showed that hens with NC-like haplotypes had a significantly higher production (p < 0.05) than those without the haplotypes. However, VLDLR expression was not significantly different between the haplotypes. These findings indicate a divergence in the distribution of VLDLR haplotypes between selected and non-selected breeds and suggest that the near fixation of VLDLR variants in NC and LohB is compatible with signature of selection. These data also support VLDLR as a candidate gene for modulating egg production. PMID:27560838

  2. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 Mediates Endocytic Clearance of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Promotes Its Cytokine-Like Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devy, Jerôme; Etique, Nicolas; Jeanne, Albin; Schneider, Christophe; Hachet, Cathy; Ferracci, Géraldine; David, Marion; Martiny, Laurent; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Rivera, Santiago; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) regulates the extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TIMP-1 also displays MMP-independent activities that influence the behavior of various cell types including neuronal plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The trans-membrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) consists of a large extracellular chain with distinct ligand-binding domains that interact with numerous ligands including TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and a short transmembrane chain with intracellular motifs that allow endocytosis and confer signaling properties to LRP-1. We addressed TIMP-1 interaction with recombinant ligand-binding domains of LRP-1 expressed by CHO cells for endocytosis study, or linked onto sensor chips for surface plasmon resonance analysis. Primary cortical neurons bound and internalized endogenous TIMP-1 through a mechanism mediated by LRP-1. This resulted in inhibition of neurite outgrowth and increased growth cone volume. Using a mutated inactive TIMP-1 variant we showed that TIMP-1 effect on neurone morphology was independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. We conclude that TIMP-1 is a new ligand of LRP-1 and we highlight a new example of its MMP-independent, cytokine-like functions. PMID:25075518

  3. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins provide a differential molecular signature between parental and CD133+ DAOY medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Doumit, Jinane; Plouffe, Karine; Laflamme, Carl; Lord-Dufour, Simon; Béliveau, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) family are involved in metabolic stress and resistance phenotypes of cancer cells. New breakthroughs in brain cancer therapy have exploited that molecular signature and proved that efficient delivery of therapeutic agents involve LRP-mediated mechanisms. We performed gene expression profiling of CD133, a cell surface cancer stem cell marker, and of LRP in response to in vitro nutrient deprivation. We found that CD133 was selectively induced in serum-starved DAOY medulloblastoma cells but not in U87MG glioblastoma cells. Such CD133 induction was correlated to increases in LRP-1 and LRP-1b gene and protein expression. When a specific CD133(+) DAOY cell population was sorted from parental DAOY, we found increases in LRP-5 and LRP-8. Uptake of alpha(2)-macroglobulin, a specific LRP-1/1b ligand, was increased in serum-starved parental DAOY cells but not in CD133(+) DAOY cells, and receptor-associated protein (RAP), which binds to all cell surface LRPs, was able to compete for that uptake. Conversely, RAP binding was increased in serum-starved parental DAOY but alpha(2)-macroglobulin was unable to compete for such uptake. Strategies aiming at targeting cancer stem cell metabolic adaptative responses, such as that through LRP differential expression within the brain tissue microenvironmental niche, can now be envisioned.

  4. Inflammation-induced dysfunction of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier: Protection by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Michelle A.; Hansen, Kim; Banks, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in two blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters, p-glycoprotein (Pgp) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) are thought to contribute to the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by resulting in the brain accumulation of their substrate amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). The initial cause of impaired efflux, however, is unknown. We have shown that induction of systemic inflammation by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide impairs the efflux of Aβ from the brain, suggesting that systemic inflammation could be one such initiator. In this study, we determined whether pre-administration of the antioxidant N-aceytlcysteine (Nac) has a protective effect against LPS-induced Aβ transporter dysfunction. Our findings were that Nac protected against LPS-induced Aβ transport dysfunction at the BBB through an LRP-1-dependent and Pgp-independent mechanism. This was associated with Nac exerting antioxidant effects in the periphery but not the brain, despite an increased rate of entry of Nac into the brain following LPS. We also found that Nac pre-administration resulted in lower blood levels of the cytokines and chemokines interferon-γ, interleukin-10, CCL2, CCL4, and CL5, but only lowered CCL4 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Finally, we observed that hippocampal cytokine responses to LPS were decreased compared to cortex. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism by which antioxidants prevent Aβ accumulation in the brain caused by inflammation, and therefore protect against AD. PMID:22809665

  5. Differential Regulation of Extracellular Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-3 Levels by Cell Membrane-bound and Shed Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Scilabra, Simone D.; Troeberg, Linda; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Emonard, Hervé; Thøgersen, Ida; Enghild, Jan J.; Strickland, Dudley K.; Nagase, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) plays a key role in regulating extracellular matrix turnover by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), adamalysins (ADAMs), and adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs). We demonstrate that levels of this physiologically important inhibitor can be regulated post-translationally by endocytosis. TIMP-3 was endocytosed and degraded by a number of cell types including chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and monocytes, and we found that the endocytic receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) plays a major role in TIMP-3 internalization. However, the cellular uptake of TIMP-3 significantly slowed down after 10 h due to shedding of LRP-1 from the cell surface and formation of soluble LRP-1 (sLRP-1)-TIMP-3 complexes. Addition of TIMP-3 to HTB94 human chondrosarcoma cells increased the release of sLRP-1 fragments of 500, 215, 160, and 110 kDa into the medium in a concentration-dependent manner, and all of these fragments were able to bind to TIMP-3. TIMP-3 bound to sLRP-1, which was resistant to endocytosis, retained its inhibitory activity against metalloproteinases. Extracellular levels of sLRP-1 can thus increase the half-life of TIMP-3 in the extracellular space, controlling the bioavailability of TIMP-3 to inhibit metalloproteinases. PMID:23166318

  6. Utility of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) in the postmortem diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Shojiro; Matsumoto, Sari; Kanto, Yuko; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2018-04-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of death in developed countries. Postmortem IHD diagnosis using biochemical markers is difficult because of the postmortem changes. In the present study, we investigated the utility of soluble lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) in body fluids obtained from forensic autopsy cases. We measured pericardial fluid, urine, and serum sLOX-1 levels; these samples were obtained from medicolegal autopsy cases (n = 149, postmortem interval <72 h), and the utility of these biomarkers postmortem acute IHD diagnosis was evaluated. The pericardial fluid and urine of patients with acute IHD had higher sLOX-1 levels (p < .05) compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between the sLOX-1 level and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, body mass index, and postmortem interval. sLOX-1 levels in pericardial fluid and urine samples obtained postmortem are useful markers of acute IHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. DC-SIGN and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Liu, Xinhe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinqiong; Cao, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Chundi; Shen, Weifeng; Zhou, Tong

    2017-06-12

    The regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune receptors is recognized as a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on illustrating the roles of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)- and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-regulated inflammatory responses in macrophages. We found that DC-SIGN expression levels were increased in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) significantly enhanced DC-SIGN protein expression levels after a short-term exposure. Knockdown of DC-SIGN decreased expression and secretion of interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that DC-SIGN and TLR4 co-localized in regions of the plaques. Moreover, DC-SIGN was co-expressed with TLR4 on the plasma membrane after oxLDL stimulation. The presence of an endogenous interaction and the results of the in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DC-SIGN binds directly with TLR4. We also present evidence that DC-SIGN mediates TLR4-regulated NFκB activation but not activation of p38 and JNK. Our results suggest an essential role of DC-SIGN/TLR4 signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  8. Resveratrol protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis via inhibition of mitochondrial-derived oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yujie; Chen, Xizhou; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural phytochemical found in grapes and red wine, has been found to possess protective effects against endothelial cell apoptosis and oxidative damage. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce apoptosis of endothelial cells, which is an important initial event in several cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of resveratrol on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage, and the possible associated mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, following exposure to ox-LDL, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with or without resveratrol. Cell viability was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine uptake assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis-associated markers were detected using western blot analysis. Oxidative stress was analyzed using molecular and biochemical approaches. Resveratrol restored ox-LDL-induced HUVEC injury and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control group, ox-LDL treatment decreased the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of superoxide dismutase, and enhanced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, the activation of caspase and lipid peroxidation. All these alterations were significantly inhibited following treatment with resveratrol. The results demonstrated that resveratrol prevented HUVEC apoptosis through inhibiting mitochondria-derived oxidative damage. These findings may provide a novel mechanism by which resveratrol prevents against endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:28447714

  9. Pdcd4 Is Involved in the Formation of Stress Granule in Response to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein or High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dong, Zhaojing; Shang, Qianwen; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Liyang; Guo, Chun; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) in response to various stresses have been reported in many diseases. We previously reported the implication of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) in obesity-induced stress responses, but the possible link between Pdcd4 and SGs remains lacking. In this study we showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) or high-fat diet (HFD) induced SG formation in mouse macrophages and liver tissues, and Pdcd4 deficiency in mice remarkably reduced its formation. In response to ox-LDL, either endogenous or ectopic Pdcd4 displayed granule-like expression and co-localized with SG markers including T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A. Ectopic expression of truncated Pdcd4 that depleted specific RNA-binding motif significantly disrupted the SG formation, suggesting the direct involvement of Pdcd4 in ox-LDL-induced SGs through its RNA-binding activity. Additionally, Pdcd4 deficiency drove AKT activation and suppression of eIF2α phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the resistance to ox-LDL or HFD-induced SG formation. Collectively, our data suggest that Pdcd4 as a crucial regulator in SGs induced by ox-LDL or HFD maybe a potential target for mitigating SG-associated stress responses in obesity and related diseases.

  10. A Method for In Vitro Measurement of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Blood, Using Its Antibody, Fluorescence-Labeled Heptapeptide and Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2017-11-01

    Two oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized (Ox-LDL) and minimally modified (MM-LDL), and the immune complexes (LDL-ICs) that they form with their corresponding antibodies, play a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that the heptapeptide KP6 (Lys-Trp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Gly-Asp) coupled through its ε-amino group present on the N-terminal Lys to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)- (FITC)KP6- binds specifically to Ox-LDL and MM-LDL, but not to native LDL. Here, to develop a novel method for measuring the levels of oxidatively modified LDL in blood, using (FITC)KP6, we analyzed the latter's binding with MM-LDL-IC and Ox-LDL-IC. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that (FITC)KP6 could efficiently and specifically bind to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-precipitated MM-LDL-IC and Ox-LDL-IC in a dose-dependent manner with high sensitivity in plasma and serum. Our results indicate that the above method for measuring the levels of PEG-precipitated, oxidatively modified LDL-ICs, formed by the addition of anti-Ox-LDL antibody to blood, using (FITC)KP6, can aid the diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

  11. Pdcd4 Is Involved in the Formation of Stress Granule in Response to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein or High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Dong, Zhaojing; Shang, Qianwen; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Liyang; Guo, Chun; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) in response to various stresses have been reported in many diseases. We previously reported the implication of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) in obesity-induced stress responses, but the possible link between Pdcd4 and SGs remains lacking. In this study we showed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) or high-fat diet (HFD) induced SG formation in mouse macrophages and liver tissues, and Pdcd4 deficiency in mice remarkably reduced its formation. In response to ox-LDL, either endogenous or ectopic Pdcd4 displayed granule-like expression and co-localized with SG markers including T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A. Ectopic expression of truncated Pdcd4 that depleted specific RNA-binding motif significantly disrupted the SG formation, suggesting the direct involvement of Pdcd4 in ox-LDL-induced SGs through its RNA-binding activity. Additionally, Pdcd4 deficiency drove AKT activation and suppression of eIF2α phosphorylation, thereby contributing to the resistance to ox-LDL or HFD-induced SG formation. Collectively, our data suggest that Pdcd4 as a crucial regulator in SGs induced by ox-LDL or HFD maybe a potential target for mitigating SG-associated stress responses in obesity and related diseases. PMID:27454120

  12. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Priscila R.; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Monteiro, Andrea M.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M.

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  13. Lysophosphatidylcholine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and cardiovascular disease in Korean hemodialysis patients: analysis at 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Jin Kyung; Park, Min-Jeong; Yan, Ji-Jing; Song, Dong-Keun; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Noh, Jung-Woo

    2013-02-01

    Although oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) have been proposed as important mediators of the atherosclerosis, the long-term contribution to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hemodialysis patients has not been evaluated. This study investigated the relation between oxidized LDL and LPC levels with long term risk of CVD. Plasma oxidized LDL and LPC levels were determined in 69 Korean hemodialysis patients as a prospective observational study for 5 yr. During the observation period, 18 cardiovascular events (26.1%) occurred including 6 deaths among the hemodialysis patients. The low LPC level group (≤ 254 µM/L, median value) had much more increased risk of CVD compared to the high LPC level group (> 254 µM/L) (P = 0.01). However, serum levels of oxidized LDL were not significantly different between groups with and without CVD. In adjusted Cox analysis, previous CVD, (hazard ratio [HR], 5.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94-16.63, P = 0.002) and low LPC level (HR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.04-11.42, P = 0.04) were significant independent risk factors for development of CVD. It is suggested that low LPC, but not oxidized LDL, is associated with increased risk of CVD among a group of Korean hemodialysis patients.

  14. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to LDL Ratio (ox-LDL/LDL) and ox-LDL to High-Density Lipoprotein Ratio (ox-LDL/HDL).

    PubMed

    Motamed, Mahtab; Nargesi, Arash A; Heidari, Behnam; Mirmiranpour, Hossein; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2016-09-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a principal role in diabetes complications, though ox-LDL concentrations and its functions are dependents of other oxidative and anti-oxidative particles. The oxLDL to low-density lipoprotein ratio (ox-LDL/LDL) and ox-LDL to high-density lipoprotein ratio (ox-LDL/HDL) as new lipid biomarkers may serve as a good estimation of oxidation and anti-oxidation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was first to examine ox-LDL/LDL and ox-LDL/HDL levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to a control group and evaluate their diagnostic accuracies, and, second, to investigate the correlation of these two ratios with triglyceride and HDL levels. This study was included 144 patients admitted to the diabetes clinic of a University general hospital and 41 healthy individuals as controls. Levels of LDL, HDL, triglyceride (TG) ox-LDL, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured for all patients. Levels of ox-LDL/LDL and ox-LDL/HDL were calculated. Diagnostic accuracies were determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis by measuring the area under the curve. Ox-LDL, ox-LDL/LDL, and ox-LDL/HDL were significantly higher in patients compared to the control group after adjustment for age, gender, and BMI (p = 0.000). The area under the curve for diagnosing diabetes was 0.946 for ox-LDL/HDL, 0.918 for ox-LDL/LDL, and 0.832 for ox-LDL. Ox-LDL/HDL was positively correlated with MDA (r = 0.210, p = 0.011). Ox-LDL/LDL was negatively correlated with HDL (r = -0.2 p = 0.016) and positively correlated with TG (r = 0.45 p = 0.000). Ox-LDL/HDL and TG had significant positive correlation (r = 0.173 p = 0.037). The ox-LDL/LDL level was significantly higher in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or hypertension (HTN) compared to those without (p = 0.042). Our findings revealed that ox-LDL/LDL and ox-LDL/HDL are potent biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, which apparently reflect the association between lipids

  15. Achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in high-risk patients in managed care: comparison of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and simvastatin in the SOLAR trial.

    PubMed

    Insull, William; Ghali, Jalal K; Hassman, David R; Y As, Joseph W; Gandhi, Sanjay K; Miller, Elinor

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate attainment of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL with statin treatments in managed care patients at high risk for coronary heart disease. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial (SOLAR [Satisfying Optimal LDL-C ATP III goals with Rosuvastatin]) performed at 145 US clinical centers from June 5, 2002 to July 12, 2004, high-risk men and women in a managed care population received typical starting doses of rosuvastatin (10 mg/d), atorvastatin (10 mg/d), or simvastatin (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks. Those who did not meet the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL at 6 weeks had their dose titrated (doubled), and all patients were followed up for another 6 weeks. A total of 1632 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment regimens. After 6 weeks, 65% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 41% with atorvastatin and 39% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). After 12 weeks, 76% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 58% with atorvastatin and 53% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). Reductions in the LDL-C level, total cholesterol level, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly greater with rosuvastatin at both 6 and 12 weeks compared with the other statins. Adverse events were similar in type and frequency in all treatment groups, and only 3% of all patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. No myopathy was observed, no clinically important impact on renal function was attributed to study medications, and clinically important increases in serum transaminases were rare. In a managed care population, 10 mg of rosuvastatin treatment resulted in more patients reaching the NCEP ATP III LDL-C goal compared with 10 mg of atorvastatin and 20 mg of

  16. Anti-(apolipoprotein A-1) IgGs are associated with high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Charbonney, Emmanuel; Fontao, Lionel; Alvarez, Montserrat; Turck, Natacha; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Burkhard, Pierre R; Mensi, Noury; Righini, Marc; Reber, Guido; James, Richard; Mach, François; Chevrolet, Jean-Claude; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Frostegard, Johan; Roux-Lombard, Pascale

    2008-07-01

    ApoA-1 (apolipoprotein A-1) is the main component of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and stabilizes PON-1 (paraoxonase-1), which prevents lipid peroxidation and oxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) formation. Autoantibodies against apoA-1 [anti-(apoA-1) IgG] have been found in antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosous, two diseases with an increased risk of thrombotic events, as well as in ACS (acute coronary syndrome). OxLDL levels are also elevated in these diseases. Whether anti-(apoA-1) IgGs exist in other prothrombotic conditions, such as APE (acute pulmonary embolism) and stroke, has not been studied and their potential association with oxLDL and PON-1 activity is not known. In the present study, we determined prospectively the prevalence of anti-(apoA-1) IgG in patients with ACS (n=127), APE (n=58) and stroke (n=34), and, when present, we tested their association with oxLDL levels. The prevalance of anti-(apoA-1) IgG was 11% in the ACS group, 2% in the control group and 0% in the APE and stroke groups. The ACS group had significantly higher median anti-(apoA-1) IgG titres than the other groups of patients. Patients with ACS positive for anti-(apoA-1) IgG had significantly higher median oxLDL values than those who tested negative (226.5 compared with 47.7 units/l; P<0.00001) and controls. The Spearman ranked test revealed a significant correlation between anti-(apoA-1) IgG titres and serum oxLDL levels (r=0.28, P<0.05). No association was found between PON-1 activity and oxLDL or anti-(apoA-1) IgG levels. In conclusion, anti-(apoA-1) IgG levels are positive in ACS, but not in stroke or APE. In ACS, their presence is associated with higher levels of oxLDL and is directly proportional to the serum concentration of oxLDL. These results emphasize the role of humoral autoimmunity as a mediator of inflammation and coronary atherogenesis.

  17. Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-07-19

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for

  18. Enhancement in efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through Sirt1-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoxin; Zhang, Buchun; Guo, Rong; Li, Shuang; Xu, Yawei

    2014-03-01

    Macrophages play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. These phagocytic cells are important in the scavenging of modified lipoproteins, unwanted or dead cells and cellular debris through efferocytosis. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a member of the conserved sirtuin family and a key regulator in the progression of atherosclerosis exerts protective effects by regulating autophagy, a well-known survival mechanism. Inhibition of autophagy may also result in defective efferocytosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Sirt1 on the efferocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptotic RAW264.7 cells through upregulation of autophagy. The apoptotic cells were incubated with high and low concentrations of Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RSV) and Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) as well as autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA) + low concentration RSV. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) of annexin-V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) dual staining. Total proteins were extracted and protein levels were detected through western blot analysis. The ox-LDL uptake and efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells were detected by oil red O staining and calculation of the phagocytic index of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells. The expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins was simultaneously increased with the stimulation of low concentration RSV (all P<0.05) and decreased in low and high NAM groups (all P<0.05), compared with the control group. Efferocytosis was highest in the low concentration RSV group (P<0.001) and relatively lower in the low and high concentration NAM groups (both P<0.05) compared with the control group, which was similar to the change in the expression of Sirt1 and autophagy marker proteins. The results showed that the efferocytosis of apoptotic RAW264.7 cells was significantly improved with the upregulation of Sirt1‑mediated autophagy. Therefore, Sirt1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of

  19. Activated α2 -Macroglobulin Induces Mesenchymal Cellular Migration Of Raw264.7 Cells Through Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Darío G; Dato, Virginia Actis; Fincati, Javier R Jaldín; Lorenc, Valeria E; Sánchez, María C; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2017-07-01

    Distinct modes of cell migration contribute to diverse types of cell movements. The mesenchymal mode is characterized by a multistep cycle of membrane protrusion, the formation of focal adhesion, and the stabilization at the leading edge associated with the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and with regulated extracellular proteolysis. Both α 2 -Macroglobulin (α 2 M) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), play important roles in inflammatory processes, by controlling the extracellular activity of several proteases. The binding of the active form of α 2 M (α 2 M*) to LRP1 can also activate different signaling pathways in macrophages, thus inducing extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and cellular proliferation. In the present study, we investigated whether the α 2 M*/LRP1 interaction induces cellular migration of the macrophage-derived cell line, Raw264.7. By using the wound-scratch migration assay and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that α 2 M* induces LRP1-mediated mesenchymal cellular migration. This migration exhibits the production of enlarged cellular protrusions, MT1-MMP distribution to these leading edge protrusions, actin polymerization, focal adhesion formation, and increased intracellular LRP1/β1-integrin colocalization. Moreover, the presence of calphostin-C blocked the α 2 M*-stimulated cellular protrusions, suggesting that the PKC activation is involved in the cellular motility of Raw264.7 cells. These findings could constitute a therapeutic target for inflammatory processes with deleterious consequences for human health, such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1810-1818, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Switching the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine promptly improves triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in dyslipidaemic patients.

    PubMed

    Valantin, M A; Bittar, R; de Truchis, P; Bollens, D; Slama, L; Giral, P; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Pétour, P; Aubron-Olivier, C; Costagliola, D; Katlama, C

    2010-03-01

    To assess the impact of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine on lipid parameters. HIV-infected patients with plasma viral load <400 copies/mL, fasted triglycerides from 2.3 to 11.4 mmol/L and/or fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol >4.1 mmol/L were randomized to switch the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone to fixed-dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine or to maintain the baseline antiretroviral regimen (the control group). The study has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT00323492. Ninety-one patients were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis with triglycerides 2.4 mmol/L and LDL-cholesterol 4.0 mmol/L (median values). At week 12, the median changes from baseline of triglycerides were -0.5 mmol/L (-25%; n = 46) and -0.1 mmol/L (-6%; n = 45) in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine and control groups, respectively, indicating a difference of -0.4 mmol/L (P = 0.034) [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.9 to -0.0]. Similarly for LDL-cholesterol, changes of -0.4 mmol/L (-9%) and -0.1 mmol/L (-1%) were observed in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine and control groups, respectively, indicating a difference of -0.4 mmol/L (P = 0.031) [95% CI: -0.7 to -0.0]. The proportion of patients with LDL-cholesterol >4.1 mmol/L decreased from 48% at baseline to 26% at week 12 in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine group versus no change in the control group. No virological failure was observed during the study. Switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine in dyslipidaemic HIV-infected patients improves triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol.