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Sample records for a1c low-density lipoprotein

  1. Low-Density Lipoproteins Oxidation and Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Grzegorz; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Wiesława; Wertel, Iwona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of endometriosis still remains unknown. Recent data provide new valuable information concerning the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of the disease. It has been proved that levels of different lipid peroxidation end products are increased in both peritoneal fluid (PF) and serum of endometriotic patients. We assessed the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in PF of 110 women with different stages of endometriosis and 119 women with serous (n = 78) or dermoid (n = 41) ovarian cysts, as the reference groups. PF oxLDL levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found that concentrations of oxLDL in PF of endometriotic women were significantly higher compared to women with serous but not dermoid ovarian cysts. Interestingly, by analyzing concentrations of oxLDL in women with different stages of the disease, it was noted that they are significantly higher only in the subgroup of patients with stage IV endometriosis as compared to women with ovarian serous cysts. In case of minimal, mild, and moderate disease, PF oxLDL levels were similar to those noted in reference groups. Our results indicate that disrupted oxidative status in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of advanced stages of the disease. PMID:23861560

  2. Metabolism of cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Faergeman, O; Havel, R J

    1975-06-01

    Rat very low density lipoproteins (d smaller than 1.006), biologically labeled in esterified and free cholesterol, were obtained form serum 6 h after intravenous injection of particulate (3-H) cholesterol. When injected into recipient animals, the esterified cholesterol was cleared form plasma with a half-life of 5 min. After 15 min, 71% of the injected esterified (3-H) cholesterol had been taken up by the liver, where it was rapidly hydrolyzed. After 60 min only 3.3% of the amount injected had been transferred, via lipoproteins of intermediate density, to the low density lipoproteins of plasma (d 1.019-1.063). Both uptake in the liver and transfer to low density lipoproteins occurred without change of distribution of 3-H in the various cholesteryl esters. 3-H appearing in esterified cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (d greater than 1.063) was derived from esterification, presumably by lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, of simultaneously injected free (3-H) cholesterol. Content of free (3-H) cholesterol in the very low density lipoproteins used for injection could be reduced substantially by incubation with erythrocytes. This procedure, however, increased the rate of clearance of the lipoproteins after injection into recipient rats. These studies show that hepatic removal is the major catabolic pathway for cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins and that transfer to low density lipoproteins occurs to only a minor extent.

  3. Proteomic analysis of electronegative low-density lipoprotein[S

    PubMed Central

    Bancells, Cristina; Canals, Francesc; Benítez, Sònia; Colomé, Nuria; Julve, Josep; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Sánchez-Quesada, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein is a heterogeneous group of lipoproteins that differs in lipid and protein composition. One copy of apolipoprotein (apo)B accounts for over 95% of the LDL protein, but the presence of minor proteins could disturb its biological behavior. Our aim was to study the content of minor proteins in LDL subfractions separated by anion exchange chromatography. Electropositive LDL [LDL(+)] is the native form, whereas electronegative LDL [LDL(−)] is a minor atherogenic fraction present in blood. LC-ESI MS/MS analysis of both LDL fractions identified up to 28 different proteins. Of these, 13 proteins, including apoB, were detected in all the analyzed samples. LDL(−) showed a higher content of most minor proteins. Statistical analysis of proteomic data indicated that the content of apoE, apoA-I, apoC-III, apoA-II, apoD, apoF, and apoJ was higher in LDL(−) than in LDL(+). Immunoturbidimetry, ELISA, or Western blot analysis confirmed these differences. ApoJ and apoF presented the highest difference between LDL(+) and LDL(−) (>15-fold). In summary, the increased content of several apolipoproteins, and specifically of apoF and apoJ, could be related to the physicochemical characteristics of LDL(−), such as apoB misfolding, aggregation, and abnormal lipid composition. PMID:20699421

  4. Effect of Multifactorial Treatment Targets and Relative Importance of Hemoglobin A1c, Blood Pressure, and Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol on Cardiovascular Diseases in Chinese Primary Care Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-08-17

    The relative effect of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) ("ABC" factors) on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association of key clinical parameters on CVD risk using a multifactorial optimal control approach in Chinese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 144 271 Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus primary care patients, aged 18 to 79 and without prior clinical diagnosis of CVD in 2008-2011. Cox regressions were conducted to examine the association between the combinations of ABC targets (hemoglobin A1c <7%, blood pressure <130/90 mm Hg, and LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L) and risks of CVD (overall), coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Achieving more ABC targets incrementally reduced the incidence of total CVD and individual disease including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure, irrespective of other patient characteristics. Compared with suboptimal control in all ABC levels, achieving any 1, 2, and all 3 ABC targets reduced the relative risk of CVD by 13% to 42%, 31% to 52%, and 55%, respectively. Among those achieving only 1 ABC target, LDL-C reduction was associated with the greatest CVD risk reduction (42%), followed by blood pressure reduction (18%), and hemoglobin A1c reduction (13%). To achieve the greatest risk reduction for the incidence of CVD, the ultimate goal of treatment should be to achieve target control of hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C. If it is not possible to achieve all 3 targets, efforts should be prioritized on treating the LDL-C to minimize CVD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  6. Auto antibodies against oxidized low density lipoprotein in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Meenakshi; Sawhney, Harjeet; Aggarwal, Neelam; Vashistha, Kala; Majumdhar, Siddarth

    2004-06-01

    To study autoantibody titres against oxidized low density lipoprotein in preeclamsia. Ten millimeters of heparinized blood samples were collected from 20 primigravidae with severe preeclamsia (study group) and 20 gestation-matched normotensive primigravidae (control group). Concentration of malondialdehyde, metabolite of lipid peroxidation were measured in sera by HPLC and autoantibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins (obtained after oxidation with 2 mm CuSO(4)) were determined by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test and chi(2) test. Mean triglyceride levels were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the study group (193.20 +/- 31.16 mg/dL) compared to the control group (170.60 +/- 23.2 mg/dL). Mean plasma lipid per oxide levels were not significantly different between the study (4.45 +/- 1.28 mmol/mL) and control (3.88 +/- 0.99 mmol/mL) groups. The majority of women in both groups had low antibody titres (<1.32) against low density lipoprotein. Six women (30%) of the study group and four (20%) of the control group had high autoantibody titres (>/=1.32). In preeclamptic women, diastolic blood pressure, the amount of urinary protein excretion and the plasma level of urea were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with higher auto antibody titre. Titres of autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein were similar in normotensive and preeclamptic women. In preeclamptic women, titres correlated positively with the severity of preeclampsia.

  7. Very low density lipoprotein receptor in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Helbecque, N; Amouyel, P

    2000-08-15

    The apolipoprotein (APO) E4 isoform is associated with an accelerated rate of Alzheimer disease (AD) expression in sporadic as well as late-onset familial forms of the disease but the precise mechanism is unknown. In an attempt to approach the possible mechanisms involved, APOE receptors have been studied. They all belong to the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family and share the same structural motifs. Some of them are preferentially expressed in the brain such as the LDL receptor related protein, the apolipoprotein E receptor 2, and the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor. These receptors have been suspected to be involved in Alzheimer disease at various levels. Among them, the VLDL receptor was extensively explored. Although genetic studies conducted on a polymorphism in the promoter of the VLDL receptor in Japanese and Caucasian populations gave divergent results, this does not exclude a possible involvement of the VLDL receptor in AD. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effect of phospholipase A treatment of low density lipoproteins on the dextran sulfate--lipoprotein interaction.

    PubMed

    Nishida, T

    1968-09-01

    The effect of phospholipase A on the interaction of low density lipoproteins of the S(f) 0-10 class with dextran sulfate was studied in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4, ionic strength 0.1, by chemical, spectrophotometric, and centrifugal methods. When low density lipoproteins that had been treated with phospholipase A were substituted for untreated lipoproteins, the amount of insoluble dextran sulfate-lipoprotein complex formed was greatly reduced. Hydrolysis of over 20% of the lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine constituents of the lipoproteins prevented the formation of insoluble complex. However, even the lipoproteins in which almost all the phosphoglycerides were hydrolyzed produced soluble complex, which was converted to insoluble complex upon addition of magnesium sulfate. It is apparent that the lipoproteins altered extensively by treatment with phospholipase A retain many characteristic properties of native low density lipoproteins. Fatty acids, but not lysolecithin, released by the action of phospholipase A interfered with the formation of insoluble complex; this interference was due to association of the fatty acids with the lipoproteins. With increases in the concentration of the associated fatty acids, the amounts of magnesium ion required for the conversion of soluble complex to insoluble complex increased progressively. Charge interaction is evidently of paramount importance in the formation of sulfated polysaccharide-lipoprotein complexes.

  9. Novel nonstatin strategies to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    There remains an unmet need to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients who are maximized on current therapy or intolerant to statins. Several novel agents have been developed to lower LDL-C, either as monotherapy or in combination with statins. These novel therapies include squalene synthase inhibitors, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitors, and antisense apolipoprotein B. Although each of these novel therapies effectively lowers LDL-C, challenges remain in the clinical development to assess long-term safety.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5600 Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A low-density lipoprotein... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5600 - Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the low-density lipoprotein in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low-density lipoprotein immunological test system. 866.5600 Section 866.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. Threshold level or not for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Barter, P J; Sacks, F M

    2001-05-01

    As drugs, such as the statins, and other therapies demonstrate the ability to significantly lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), one issue is whether there is a lower threshold below which no further decline in coronary heart disease occurs. Those who evaluate the data from multiple trials and conclude that no significant decrease in coronary event rates occurs at or below 125 mg/dL suggest using this level as a guideline for clinical application of cholesterol-lowering therapy. On the other hand, analysis of the results of the same population and primary prevention studies concludes that no such threshold exists. The issues affected by the decision of whether to use a threshold include costs to the healthcare system for additional physician time, tests, and medication; unknown clinical events and safety related to very low LDL-C; and resource prioritization to an unestablished therapeutic approach.

  16. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein subfractions by carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A; Berneis, Kaspar

    2012-07-01

    This article aims at reviewing the recent findings that have been made concerning the crosstalk of carbohydrate metabolism with the generation of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which are known to be associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Studies conducted during the past few years have quite unanimously shown that the quantity of carbohydrates ingested is associated with a decrease of LDL particle size and an increase in its density. Conversely, diets that aim at a reduction of carbohydrate intake are able to improve LDL quality. Furthermore, a reduction of the glycaemic index without changing the amount of carbohydrates ingested has similar effects. Diseases with altered carbohydrate metabolism, for example, type 2 diabetes, are associated with small, dense LDL particles. Finally, even the kind of monosaccharide the carbohydrate intake consists of is important concerning LDL particle size: fructose has been shown to alter the LDL particle subclass profile more adversely than glucose in many recent studies. LDL particle quality, rather than its quantity, is affected by carbohydrate metabolism, which is of clinical importance, in particular, in the light of increased carbohydrate consumption in today's world.

  17. Novel Therapies for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter P

    2016-09-15

    Although many clinical trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated that lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are associated with proportionately greater reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease events, not all patients with hypercholesterolemia are able to attain risk-stratified LDL-C goals with statin monotherapy. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of genetic disorders of lipid metabolism (e.g., familial hypercholesterolemia) has led to the development of several novel lipid-lowering strategies, including blocking the degradation of hepatic LDL-C receptors that are important in LDL-C clearance, or the inhibition of apoprotein synthesis and lipidation. Mipomersen and lomitapide are highly efficacious new agents available for the treatment of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The recent introduction of PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab) have made it possible for many patients to achieve very low LDL-C concentrations (e.g., <40 mg/dl) that are usually not attainable with statin monotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials are examining the impact of very low LDL-C levels on cardiovascular disease event rates and the long-term safety of this approach. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Aggregation and fusion of modified low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pentikäinen, M O; Lehtonen, E M; Kovanen, P T

    1996-12-01

    In atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL, diameter 22 nm) accumulates in the extracellular space of the arterial intima in the form of aggregates of lipid droplets (droplet diameter up to 400 nm). Here we studied the effects of various established in vitro LDL modifications on LDL aggregation and fusion. LDL was subjected to vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin, lipolysis by sphingomyelinase, and nonenzymatic glycosylation, and was induced to form adducts with malondialdehyde or complexes with anti-apoB-100 antibodies. To assess the amount of enlarged LDL-derived structures formed (due to aggregation or fusion), we measured the turbidity of solutions containing modified LDL, and quantified the proportion of modified LDL that 1) sedimented at low-speed centrifugation (14,000 g), 2) floated at an increased rate at high-speed centrifugation (rate zonal flotation at 285,000 gmax), 3) were excluded in size-exclusion column chromatography (exclusion limit 40 MDa), or 4) failed to enter into 0.5%. Fast Lane agarose gel during electrophoresis. To detect whether particle fusion had contributed to the formation of the enlarged LDL-derived structures, particle morphology was examined using negative staining and thin-section transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1) aggregation was induced by the formation of LDL-antibody complexes, malondialdehyde treatment, and glycosylation of LDL; 2) fusion of LDL was induced by proteolysis of LDL by alpha-chymotrypsin; and 3) aggregation and fusion of LDL were induced by vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, and lipolysis by sphingomyclinase of LDL. The various modifications of LDL differed in their ability to induce aggregation and fusion.

  19. Low density lipoprotein subclasses in Asian and Caucasian adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Verena; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Bermingham, Margaret A; Steinbeck, Kate

    2006-01-01

    South Asian adults are known to have very high rates of Coronary heart disease (CHD) and insulin resistance and, even as adolescents, may show higher risk factors for CHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) subclasses in a cohort of adolescent boys. The specific objective was to investigate the relationship between measures of fatness, ethnicity and LDL diameter in this cohort. Preformed native (non-denaturing) polyacrylamide 3-13% gradient gels and a multipurpose vertical electrophoresis system were used for the separation of LDL sub-fractions in a single school year cohort of boys aged 15-16 years (n=135). Latex beads and thyroglobulin standards were used to construct a calibration curve in order to calculate LDL particle diameters by regression (Total Lab Software v1.11). ANOVA was used to compare LDL size among different ethnic groups (SPSS and Stat View). The study sample was comprised of 45.2% Caucasians, 41.5% East Asians and 13.3% from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians). There was a non-significant trend for South Asians to have a lower LDL diameter than either Caucasians or East Asian boys which was independent of % total body fat (%TBF) and body mass index (BMI). This is the first adolescent cohort to examine sdLDL which included Caucasians, East and South Asians. It appears that the higher risk profile for CHD and diabetes noted in South Asian adults may be evident even during adolescence.

  20. Low-density lipoprotein reconstituted by pyropheophorbide cholesteryl oleate as target-specific photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Min; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Chance, Britton; Glickson, Jerry D

    2002-01-01

    To target tumors overexpressing low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLr), a pyropheophorbide cholesterol oleate conjugate was synthesized and successfully reconstituted into the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipid core. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that this photosensitizer-reconstituted LDL can be internalized via LDLr by human hepatoblastoma G(2) (HepG(2)) tumor cells.

  1. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). BACKGROUND ON FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol

  2. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in assessment and management of cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Jialal, I; Remaley, A T

    2014-07-01

    The deposition of cholesterol in the arterial wall by the infiltration of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. In this Commentary, we discuss recent recommendations for clinical laboratory measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and its utility both for assessing cardiovascular disease risk and as a tool in the management of patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

  3. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    PubMed

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The mean triglyceride and total body weight were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the exposed group when compared with the unexposed. The plasma level of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  4. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Masafumi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL) complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin(®), a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD. This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I-II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin(®) or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated. There were no differences between the Theracurmin(®) and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020) lower in the Theracurmin(®) group compared with the placebo group. Theracurmin(®) reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects.

  5. Thermal transitions in the low-density lipoprotein and lipids of the egg yolk of hens.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Back, J F

    1975-05-22

    1. Differential sanning calorimetry and light-scattering have been used to investigate temperature-dependent transitions in low-density lipoprotein and in lipids from hens' egg yolk. Yolks of different fatty acid composition were obtained by varying the dietary lipid and by adding methyl sterculate to the hen's diet. 2. Lipoprotein solutions in 50 percent glycerol/water gave characteristic melting curves between -25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and on cooling showed increases in light-scattering between 10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. The temperatures at which major changes occurred depended on the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. The thermal transitions in the intact lipoprotein in glycerol solution were reversible, but with marked hysteresis. Lipid extracted from the lipoprotein did not show temperature hystersis but the transition heats and melting curves similar to those of the intact lipoprotein. The results support the hypothesis of a "lipid-core" structure for low-density lipoproteins. 4. Scanning calorimetry of egg-yolk lecithins indicated a strong dependence of transition temperature on water content in the rane 3 percent-20 percent water. A rise in the mid-temperature of the liquid-crystalline to gel transition as the water content is lowered on freezing may be the primary event in the irreversible gelation of egg yolk and aggregation of lipoprotein.

  6. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. The association of very-low-density lipoprotein with ankle-brachial index in peritoneal dialysis patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) represents atherosclerotic disease and is a risk factor for death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, who tend to show an atherogenic lipid profile. In this study, we investigated the relationship between lipid profile and ankle-brachial index (ABI) as an index of atherosclerosis in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. Methods Thirty-five PD patients, whose serum LDL cholesterol level was controlled at less than 120mg/dl, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol level to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the mean size of lipoprotein particles were measured using an improved method, namely, high-performance gel permeation chromatography. Multivariate linear regression analysis was adjusted for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular diseases. Results The mean (standard deviation) age was 61.6 (10.5) years; PD vintage, 38.5 (28.1) months; ABI, 1.07 (0.22). A low ABI (0.9 or lower) was observed in 7 patients (low-ABI group). The low-ABI group showed significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the chylomicron fraction and large very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) (Fractions 3–5) than the high-ABI group (ABI>0.9). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis showed that ABI was negatively associated with serum VLDL cholesterol level (parameter estimate=-0.00566, p=0.0074); the cholesterol proportions in large VLDLs (Fraction 4, parameter estimate=-3.82, p=0.038; Fraction 5, parameter estimate=-3.62, p=0.0039) and medium VLDL (Fraction 6, parameter estimate=-3.25, p=0.014); and the size of VLDL particles (parameter estimate=-0.0352, p=0.032). Conclusions This study showed that the characteristics of VLDL particles were associated with ABI among PD patients. Lowering serum VLDL level may be an effective therapy against atherosclerosis in PD patients after the

  8. Uptake of acetaldehyde-modified (ethylated) low-density lipoproteins by mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Hanna; Mirkiewicz, Ewa; Rodo, Maria; Bednarska-Makaruk, Malgorzata

    2002-04-01

    The uptake of acetaldehyde-modified (ethylated) low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by murine peritoneal macrophages is described and compared with the uptake of acetylated LDLs. The fluorescent marker DiI was used. No competition between ethylated and acetylated LDLs was observed. Ethylated LDL uptake was not inhibited by polyinosinic acid or fucoidin. Our conclusion is that uptake of ethylated and acetylated LDLs can be done by two different receptors.

  9. Fluorine-18 radiolabeling of low-density lipoproteins: a potential approach for characterization and differentiation of metabolism of native and oxidized low-density lipoproteins in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [(18)F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.

  10. Regulation of plasma cholesterol by hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, P T

    1987-02-01

    The endogenous lipoprotein system (very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], intermediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cascade) holds the key to understanding the mechanisms by which hormones, diet, and drugs interact to regulate the plasma cholesterol level. Crucial components of this system are hepatic LDL receptors that mediate the uptake and degradation of plasma LDL. With experimental animals, it has been possible to demonstrate that hepatic LDL receptors are sensitive to hormonal, dietary, and pharmacologic manipulation. The decrease in number of hepatic LDL receptors in hypothyroidism or after cholesterol feeding leads to elevation of plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Conversely, the increase in number of hepatic LDL receptors results in lowering of plasma LDL cholesterol levels. This can be observed in hyperthyroidism, during administration of pharmacologic doses of 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol, or during treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs such as the bile acid-binding resins and cholesterol-synthesis inhibitors. Since cholesterol excretion from the body occurs via the liver, the increased efficiency of disposal of plasma cholesterol by increasing hepatic LDL receptors will ultimately lead to depletion of excessive body cholesterol. Pharmacologic regulation of hepatic LDL receptors should be a valuable tool in the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis.

  11. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor in HepG2 cells by tropical plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Mohd Nizar; Runnie, Irine; Roach, Paul D; Mohamed, Suhaila; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2002-06-19

    Twelve edible plant extracts rich in polyphenols were screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and to modulate LDL receptor (LDLr) activity in cultured HepG2 cells. The antioxidant activity (inhibition of LDL oxidation) was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes (lag time) and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS). Betel leaf (94%), cashew shoot (63%), Japanese mint (52%), semambu leaf (50%), palm frond (41%), sweet potato shoot, chilli fruit, papaya shoot, roselle calyx, and maman showed significantly increased lag time (>55 min, P < 0.05) and inhibition of TBARS formation (P < 0.05) compared to control. LDLr was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) by Japanese mint (67%), semambu (51%), cashew (50%), and noni (49%). Except for noni and betel leaf, most plant extracts studied demonstrated a positive association between antioxidant activity and the ability to up-regulate LDL receptor. Findings suggest that reported protective actions of plant polyphenols on lipoprotein metabolism might be exerted at different biochemical mechanisms.

  12. Practical technique to quantify small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol using dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trirongjitmoah, Suchin; Iinaga, Kazuya; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Chiba, Hitoshi; Sriyudthsak, Mana; Shimizu, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) cholesterol is clinically significant. We propose a practical technique to estimate the amount of sdLDL cholesterol using dynamic light scattering (DLS). An analytical solution in a closed form has newly been obtained to estimate the weight fraction of one species of scatterers in the DLS measurement of two species of scatterers. Using this solution, we can quantify the sdLDL cholesterol amount from the amounts of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which are commonly obtained through clinical tests. The accuracy of the proposed technique was confirmed experimentally using latex spheres with known size distributions. The applicability of the proposed technique was examined using samples of human blood serum. The possibility of estimating the sdLDL amount using the HDL data was demonstrated. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation of sdLDL amounts using DLS is feasible for point-of-care testing in clinical practice.

  13. Low density lipoprotein delays clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Simon; Salem, Huda; Wassef, Hanny; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Tardif, Annie; Baass, Alexis; Dufour, Robert; Faraj, May

    2013-01-01

    Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) by white adipose tissue (WAT) promotes hypertriglyceridemia and elevated apoB-lipoproteins, which are primarily in the form of LDL. This study examines whether LDL promotes delayed clearance of TRL by WAT. Following the ingestion of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal, obese women with high plasma apoB (> median 0.93 g/l, N = 11, > 98% as IDL/LDL) had delayed clearance of postprandial 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA over 6 h compared with controls. AUC6 h of plasma 13C-triglyceride and 13C-NEFA correlated with plasma apoB but not with LDL diameter or adipocyte area. There was no group difference in 13C-triolein oxidation rate, which suggests lower 13C-NEFA storage in peripheral tissue in women with high apoB. Ex vivo/in vitro plasma apoB correlated negatively with WAT 3H-lipid following a 4 h incubation of women's WAT with synthetic 3H-triolein-TRL. LDL-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes had lower 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA storage. Treatment of women's WAT with their own LDL decreased 3H-TRL hydrolysis and 3H-NEFA uptake. Finally, LDL, although not an LPL substrate, reduced LPL-mediated 3H-TRL hydrolysis as did VLDL and HDL. Exposure to LDL decreases TRL clearance by human WAT ex vivo. This may promote production of apoB-lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemia through a positive-feedback mechanism in vivo. PMID:23417739

  14. In vitro glycoxidized low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins isolated from type 2 diabetic patients activate platelets via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Catherine; Coulon, Laurent; Halimi, Déborah; Le Coquil, Elodie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valérie; Moulin, Philippe; Ponsin, Gabriel; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel

    2007-05-01

    Platelet hyperactivation contributes to the increased risk for atherothrombosis in type 2 diabetes and is associated with oxidative stress. Plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are exposed to both hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, and their role in platelet activation remains to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LDLs modified by both glycation and oxidation in vitro or in vivo on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade. The activation of platelet p38 MAPK, the stress kinase responsible for the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), and the concentration of thromboxane B(2), the stable catabolite of the proaggregatory arachidonic acid metabolite thromboxane A(2), were assessed. First, in vitro-glycoxidized LDLs increased the phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK as well as the concentration of thromboxane B(2). Second, LDLs isolated from plasma of poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients stimulated both platelet p38 MAPK phosphorylation and thromboxane B(2) production and possessed high levels of malondialdehyde but normal alpha-tocopherol concentrations. By contrast, LDLs from sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers had no activating effects on platelets. Our results indicate that LDLs modified by glycoxidation may play an important contributing role in platelet hyperactivation observed in type 2 diabetes via activation of p38 MAPK.

  15. Common low-density lipoprotein receptor p.G116S variant has a large effect on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in circumpolar inuit populations.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. N-Succinyl-chitosan nanoparticles coupled with low-density lipoprotein for targeted osthole-loaded delivery to low-density lipoprotein receptor-rich tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-ge; Zhu, Qiao-ling; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei-liang; Yuan, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Shu-di; Zhou, Xiao-feng; Zhu, Ai-jun; Zhang, Xue-nong; Jin, Yong

    2014-01-01

    N-Succinyl-chitosan (NSC) was synthesized and NSC nanoparticles (NPs) with loaded osthole (Ost) (Ost/NSC-NPs) were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion. Subsequently, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated NSC-NPs with loaded Ost (Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs) were obtained by coupling LDL with Ost/NSC-NPs through amide linkage. The average particle size of Ost/NSC-NPs was approximately 145 nm, the entrapment efficiency was 78.28%±2.06%, and the drug-loading amount was 18.09%±0.17%. The release of Ost from Ost/NSC-NPs in vitro showed a more evident sustained effect than the native material. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs was only 16.23% that of the free Ost at 24 hours in HepG2 cells. Ost inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation by arresting cells in the synthesis phase of the cell cycle and by triggering apoptosis. Cellular uptake and subcellular localization in vitro and near-infrared fluorescence real-time imaging in vivo showed that Ost/LDL-NSC-NPs had high targeting efficacy. Therefore, LDL-NSC-NPs are a promising system for targeted Ost delivery to liver tumor. PMID:24966673

  17. Investigation of the mechanism for penetration of low density lipoprotein into the arterial wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Zyktin, A. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the pathology of the cardiovascular system is an extremely urgent problem of fundamental and clinical medicine. These diseases are caused, mainly, by atherosclerotic changes in the wall of blood vessels. The predominant role in the development of atherosclerosis is attributed to the penetration of various kinds of lipoproteins into the arterial intima. In this paper, we in silico investigated the dynamics of the penetration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) through the intercellular gap using molecular modeling methods. The simulation was carried out in the GROMACS software package using a coarse-grained MARTINI model. During investigation we carried out the LDL self-assembly for the first time. The coarse-grained model of LDL was collected from the following molecules: POPC (phosphatidylcholine) - 630 molecules, LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine) - 80 molecules CHOL (cholesterol) - 600 molecules CHYO (cholesteryl oleate) - 1600 molecules TOG (glycerol trioleate) 180 Molecules. The coarse-grained model of the intercellular endothelial gap was based on a model of lipid bilayer consisting of DPPC phospholipids and cholesterol in a percentage ratio of 70% and 30%, respectively. Based on the obtained results, we can predict the mechanism of LDL diffusion. Lipoproteins can be deformed so as to pass through narrow gaps. Our investigations open the way for the research of the behavior dynamics of LDL moving with the blood flow rate when interacting with the intercellular gaps of the endothelial layer of the vessel inner wall.

  18. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus particle number in middle school children.

    PubMed

    Mietus-Snyder, Michele; Drews, Kimberly L; Otvos, James D; Willi, Steven M; Foster, Gary D; Jago, Russell; Buse, John B

    2013-08-01

    To characterize lipids and lipoproteins in a diverse school-based cohort and identify features associated with discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL particle (LDL-P). Sixth-grade children enrolled in the HEALTHY trial (n = 2384; mean age 11.3 ± 0.6 years; 54.2% female) were evaluated for standard lipids, lipoprotein particles measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance. Characteristics of subgroups with values of LDL-C and LDL-P discordant by >20 percentile units, an amount reasoned to be clinically significant, were compared. Four-hundred twenty-eight (18%) of children were in the LDL-P < LDL-C subgroup and 375 (16%) in the LDL-P > LDL-C subgroup. Those with LDL-P > LDL-C had significantly greater body mass index, waist circumference, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and reflected a greater Hispanic ethnic composition but fewer of black race than both the concordant (LDL-P ≅ LDL-C) and opposite discordant (LDL-P < LDL-C) subgroups. There is as much lipoprotein cholesterol compositional heterogeneity in sixth graders as has been described in adults and a discordant atherogenic phenotype of LDL-P > LDL-C, common in obesity, is often missed when only LDL-C is considered. Conversely, many children with moderate-risk cholesterol measures (75th to 99th percentile) have a lower LDL-P burden. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis C virus stimulates low-density lipoprotein receptor expression to facilitate viral propagation.

    PubMed

    Syed, Gulam Hussain; Tang, Huihui; Khan, Mohsin; Hassanein, Tarek; Liu, Jingwen; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2014-03-01

    Lipids play a crucial role in multiple aspects of hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. HCV modulates host lipid metabolism to enrich the intracellular milieu with lipids to facilitate its proliferation. However, very little is known about the influence of HCV on lipid uptake from bloodstream. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is involved in uptake of cholesterol rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles from the bloodstream. The association of HCV particles with lipoproteins implicates their role in HCV entry; however, the precise role of LDLR in HCV entry still remains controversial. Here, we investigate the effect of HCV infection on LDLR expression and the underlying mechanism(s) involved. We demonstrate that HCV stimulates LDLR expression in both HCV-infected Huh7 cells and in liver tissue from chronic hepatitis C patients. Fluorescence activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence analysis revealed enhanced cell surface and total expression of LDLR in HCV-infected cells. Increased LDLR expression resulted in the enhanced uptake of lipoprotein particles by HCV-infected cells. Analysis of LDLR gene promoter identified a pivotal role of sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), in the HCV-mediated stimulation of LDLR transcription. In addition, HCV negatively modulated the expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that facilitates LDLR degradation. Ectopic expression of wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutant negatively affected HCV replication. Overall, our results demonstrate that HCV regulates LDLR expression at transcriptional and posttranslational level via SREBPs and PCSK9 to promote lipid uptake and facilitate viral proliferation. HCV modulates host lipid metabolism to promote enrichment of lipids in intracellular environment, which are essential in multiple aspects of HCV life cycle. However, very little is known about the influence of HCV on lipid uptake from the bloodstream. LDLR is

  20. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Accumulation and interaction of hypericin in low-density lipoprotein--a photophysical study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Prasun; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Halder, Mintu; Petrich, Jacob W; Miskovsky, Pavol

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation and interaction of hypericin with the biologically important macromolecule, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is investigated using various steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. It is concluded that multiple hypericins can penetrate considerably deeply into the LDL molecule. Up to approximately 20 nonaggregated hypericin molecules can enter LDL; but upon increasing the hypericin concentration, the fluorescence lifetime of hypericin decreases drastically, suggesting most likely the self-quenching of aggregated hypericin. There is also evidence of energy transfer from tryptophans of the constituent protein, apoB-100, to hypericin in LDL. The results demonstrate the ability of LDL to solubilize hypericin (a known photosensitizer) in nonaggregated form, which has implications for the construction of drug delivery systems.

  2. Low density lipoprotein levels linkage with the periodontal status patients of coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nafisah Ibrahim; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Studies found an association between periodontitis and coronary heart disease (CHD), but relationship between periodontal status CHD patients with LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) levels, as risk factors for atherosclerosis, has not been studied. Objective: To analyze relationship between LDL and periodontal status CHD. Methods: Periodontal status of 60 CHD, 40 controls were examined (PBI, PPD, CAL) and their blood was taken to assess levels of LDL. Result: Found significant differences LDL (p=0.005), correlation between LDL with PPD (p=0.003) and CAL CHD (p=0.013), and PPD (p=0.001), CAL (p=0.008) non-CHD, but no significant correlation between LDL with PBI CAD (p=0.689) and PBI non-CHD (p=0.320). Conclusion: There is a correlation between the LDL levels with periodontal status.

  3. Long-term Low-density Lipoprotein Apheresis in a Patient with Refractory Idiopathic Membranous Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Junko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Hiroki; Ueno, Toshiharu; Hoshino, Junichi; Sekine, Akinari; Kawada, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man developed nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). He received immunosuppressive therapy for two years, including prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine A, but the NS persisted. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) was initiated at a frequency of twice a month and continued for 9 years (203 sessions in total). His proteinuria reduced to less than 1 g daily after 9 years. LDL-A was stopped, and the NS has not relapsed for five years. This case suggests that long-term LDL-A therapy may be a treatment option for idiopathic MGN refractory to immunosuppressive therapy or short-term LDL-A.

  4. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant biflavonoids from Garcinia madruno.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison; Londoño, Julián; Bastida, Jaume

    2013-05-22

    Six biflavonoids were isolated from G. madruno, one of which, 7''-O-(6''''-acetyl)-glucoside of morelloflavone, is a new compound identified on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC) spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The antioxidant activity of the biflavonoids against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation induced with Cu²⁺, was studied by means of a TBARS assay. The antioxidant potential of a biflavonoid fraction (BF) was also evaluated and correlated with its biflavonoid content. The flavanone-(3→8'')-flavone biflavonoids displayed antioxidant activity, particularly morelloflavone, which was significantly more potent than quercetin, with a CE₅₀ of 12.36 μg/mL. Lipid peroxidation, was also significantly reduced in the presence of the BF (EC₅₀ = 11.85 μg/mL). These results suggest that the BF is an excellent antioxidant.

  5. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications. PMID:27519944

  6. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  7. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  8. Role of dietary supplements in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a review.

    PubMed

    Nijjar, Prabhjot S; Burke, Frances M; Bloesch, Annette; Rader, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. As the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension continues to grow among young adults, the population at risk for atherosclerotic CHD is ever increasing. More than a century of laboratory and human findings link cholesterol levels with a propensity to develop atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major atherogenic lipoprotein, and numerous clinical trials have shown the efficacy of lowering LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) for reducing CHD risk. New trial data have resulted in LDL-C goals being lowered over time and expansion of the population of patients that are candidates for LDL-lowering therapy to decrease their lifetime risk of CHD. Although statins are relatively safe and well tolerated, there are still significant numbers of patients who cannot tolerate them and many others who only require mild LDL-C reduction and prefer nonprescription alternatives to statin therapy. A number of dietary supplements and functional foods have been suggested to reduce LDL-C levels, but only a few have withstood the rigors of randomized controlled trials. Here we review the evidence in support of dietary supplements and their LDL-C-lowering effects. We also review supplements that, after initial excitement about their purported effect, were not found to lower LDL-C significantly. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomimetics: reconstitution of low-density lipoprotein for targeted drug delivery and related theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunlei; Xia, Younan

    2017-12-11

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), one of the four major groups of lipoproteins for lipid transport in vivo, is emerging as an attractive carrier for the targeted delivery of theranostic agents. In contrast to the synthetic systems, LDL particles are intrinsically biocompatible and biodegradable, together with reduced immunogenicity and natural capabilities to target cancerous cells and to escape from the recognition and elimination by the reticuloendothelial system. Enticed by these attributes, a number of strategies have been developed for reconstituting LDL particles, including conjugation to the apolipoprotein, insertion into the phospholipid layer, and loading into the core. Here we present a tutorial review on the development of reconstituted LDL (rLDL) particles for theranostic applications. We start with a brief introduction to LDL and LDL receptor, as well as the advantages of using rLDL particles as a natural and versatile platform for the targeted delivery of theranostic agents. After a discussion of commonly used strategies for the reconstitution of LDL, we highlight the applications of rLDL particles in the staging of disease progression, treatment of lesioned tissues, and delivery of photosensitizers for photodynamic cancer therapy. We finish this review with a perspective on the remaining challenges and future directions.

  10. Maternal loading with very low-density lipoproteins stimulates fetal surfactant synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alan J; Medh, Jheem D; McCoy, Diann M; Salome, Ronald G; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2002-08-01

    We examined whether administration of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) to pregnant rats increases surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) content in fetal pre-type II alveolar epithelial cells. VLDL-triglycerides are hydrolyzed to fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme activated by heparin. Fatty acids released by LPL can incorporate into the PtdCho molecule or activate the key biosynthetic enzyme cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Dams were given BSA, heparin, VLDL, or VLDL with heparin intravenously. Radiolabeled VLDL given to the pregnant rat crossed the placenta and was distributed systemically in the fetus and incorporated into disaturated PtdCho (DSPtdCho) in pre-type II cells. Maternal administration of VLDL with heparin increased DSPtdCho content in cells by 45% compared with control (P < 0.05). VLDL produced a dose-dependent, saturable, and selective increase in CCT activity. VLDL did not significantly alter immunoreactive CCT content but increased palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in pre-type II cells. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice contained significantly greater levels of DSPtdCho content in alveolar lavage and CCT activity compared with either LDL receptor knockout mice or wild-type controls that have normal serum triglycerides. Thus the nutritional or genetic modulation of serum VLDL-triglycerides provides specific fatty acids that stimulate PtdCho synthesis and CCT activity thereby increasing surfactant content.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    PubMed Central

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure. PMID:28382948

  12. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  13. Mipomersen preferentially reduces small low-density lipoprotein particle number in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raul D; Raal, Frederick J; Donovan, Joanne M; Cromwell, William C

    2015-01-01

    Because of variability in lipoprotein cholesterol content, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol frequently underrepresents or overrepresents the number of LDL particles. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that reduces hepatic production of apolipoprotein B-100, the sole apolipoprotein of LDL. To characterize the effects of mipomersen on lipoprotein particle numbers as well as subclass distribution using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We compared the tertiary results for the direct measurement of LDL particle numbers by NMR among 4 placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies of mipomersen that had similar study designs but different patient populations: homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), severe hypercholesterolemia, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia with established coronary artery disease, or hypercholesterolemia with high risk for coronary heart disease (HC-CHD). HoFH patients had the highest median total LDL particles at baseline compared with HC-CHD patients, who had the lowest. At baseline, the HoFH population uniquely had a greater mean percentage of large LDL particles (placebo, 60.2%; mipomersen, 54.9%) compared with small LDL particles (placebo, 33.1%; mipomersen, 38.9%). In all 4 studies, mipomersen was associated with greater reductions from baseline in the concentrations of small LDL particles compared with those of large LDL particles, and both total LDL particles and small LDL particles were statistically significantly reduced. Mipomersen consistently reduced all LDL particle numbers and preferentially reduced the concentration of small LDL particles in all 4 phase 3 studies. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in children with familial hypercholesterolemia and unaffected siblings: effect of pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N; Wiegman, Albert; Miller, Elizabeth R; Ridker, Paul M; Witztum, Joseph L; Kastelein, John J P; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2006-05-02

    To assess the role of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and the effect of pravastatin. Oxidized phospholipids are a major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and are bound to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. The significance of OxPL markers in children is unknown. Children with FH were randomized to placebo (n = 88) or pravastatin (n = 90) after instruction on American Heart Association step II diet. Unaffected siblings (n = 78) served as controls. The OxPL content on apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) detected by antibody E06 (OxPL/apoB ratio), immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM immune complexes per apoB (IC/apoB) and on all apoB particles (total apoB-IC = IC/apoB multiplied by plasma apoB levels), autoantibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Lp(a), and apoB levels were measured at baseline and after two years of treatment. Compared with unaffected siblings, children with FH had significantly lower levels of OxPL/apoB but higher levels of IgG and IgM total apoB-IC and IgM MDA-LDL autoantibodies. From baseline to two-year follow-up, compared with placebo pravastatin treatment resulted in a greater mean percentage change in apoB (-18.7% vs. 0.3%; p = 0.001), total IgG apoB-IC (-31.9% vs. -12.2%; p < 0.001), and total IgM apoB-IC (-25.5% vs. 13.2%; p = 0.001). Interestingly, pravastatin also resulted in higher OxPL/apoB (48.7% vs. 29.3%; p = 0.028) and Lp(a) levels (21.9% vs. 10.7%; p = 0.044). Compared with unaffected siblings, children with FH are characterized by elevated levels of apoB-IC and IgM MDA-LDL autoantibodies. Compared with placebo, pravastatin led to a greater reduction in apoB-IC but also to a greater increase in OxPL/apoB and Lp(a), which may represent a novel mechanism of mobilization and clearance of OxPL.

  15. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Lu, Jonathan; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ching-Chu; Chen, Jeffrey L; Elayda, MacArthur; Ballantyne, Christie M; Shayani, Steven; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01). The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5%) and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001). L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  16. A Spectrum of PCSK9 Alleles Contributes to Plasma Levels of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Kotowski, Ingrid K.; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S.; Vega, Gloria L.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2006-01-01

    Selected missense mutations in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 serine protease gene (PCSK9) cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, whereas nonsense mutations in the same gene are associated with low plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Here, DNA sequencing and chip-based oligonucleotide hybridization were used to determine whether other sequence variations in PCSK9 contribute to differences in LDL-C levels. The coding regions of PCSK9 were sequenced in the blacks and whites from the Dallas Heart Study (n=3,543) who had the lowest (<5th percentile) and highest (>95th percentile) plasma levels of LDL-C. Of the 17 missense variants identified, 3 (R46L, L253F, and A443T) were significantly and reproducibly associated with lower plasma levels of LDL-C (reductions ranging from 3.5% to 30%). None of the low–LDL-C variants were associated with increased hepatic triglyceride content, as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This finding is most consistent with the reduction in LDL-C being caused primarily by accelerating LDL clearance, rather than by reduced lipoprotein production. Association studies with 93 noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the PCSK9 locus identified 3 SNPs associated with modest differences in plasma LDL-C levels. Thus, a spectrum of sequence variations ranging in frequency (from 0.2% to 34%) and magnitude of effect (from a 3% increase to a 49% decrease) contribute to interindividual differences in LDL-C levels. These findings reveal that PCSK9 activity is a major determinant of plasma levels of LDL-C in humans and make it an attractive therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. PMID:16465619

  17. Dietary saturated triacylglycerols suppress hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor activity in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1985-07-01

    The liver plays a key role in the regulation of circulating levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) because it is both the site for the production of and the major organ for the degradation of this class of lipoproteins. In this study, the effects of feeding polyunsaturated or saturated triacylglycerols on receptor-dependent and receptor-independent hepatic LDL uptake were measured in vivo in the hamster. In control animals, receptor-dependent LDL transport manifested an apparent Km value of 85 mg/dl (plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration) and reached a maximum transport velocity of 131 micrograms of LDL-cholesterol/hr per g, whereas receptor-independent uptake increased as a linear function of plasma LDL levels. Thus, at normal plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations, the hepatic clearance rate of LDL equaled 120 and 9 microliter/hr per g by receptor-dependent and receptor-independent mechanisms, respectively. As the plasma LDL-cholesterol was increased, the receptor-dependent (but not the receptor-independent) component declined. When cholesterol (0.12%) alone or in combination with polyunsaturated triacylglycerols was fed for 30 days, receptor-dependent clearance was reduced to 36-42 microliter/hr per g, whereas feeding of cholesterol plus saturated triacylglycerols essentially abolished receptor-dependent LDL uptake (5 microliter/hr per g). When compared to the appropriate kinetic curves, these findings indicated that receptor-mediated LDL transport was suppressed approximately equal to 30% by cholesterol feeding alone and this was unaffected by the addition of polyunsaturated triacylglycerols to the diet. In contrast, receptor-dependent uptake was suppressed approximately equal to 90% by the intake of saturated triacylglycerols. As compared to polyunsaturated triacylglycerols, the intake of saturated lipids was also associated with significantly higher plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower levels of cholesteryl esters in the liver.

  18. Surrogate Lipid Markers for Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Overweight Youth

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Stephen F.; Lee, So Jung; Arslanian, Silva A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and non–HDL cholesterol concentration could identify youth with small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Study design One hundred forty-one (75 black and 66 white) overweight adolescents (9 to <18 years) had a fasting measurement of plasma lipids and LDL particle concentrations and size. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to indicate the ability of different TG/HDL ratios and non–HDL cholesterol concentrations to identify overweight youth with atherogenic LDL concentration and size. Results Youth with a TG/HDL ratio of ≥3 vs <3 had higher concentrations of small dense LDL (1279.5 ± 60.1 vs 841.8 ± 24.2 nmol/L, P < .001) and smaller LDL particle size (20.3 ± 0.1 vs 21.2 ± 0.1 nm, P < .001). In receiver operating characteristic analyses a TG/HDL cut-point of 3 best predicted LDL concentration in white youth, and 2.5 in black youth. Non-HDL cholesterol cut-point of 120 mg/dL and 145 mg/dL predicted LDL particle concentration in white and in black youth, respectively. TG/HDL ratio with body mass index or waist circumference explained 71% and 79% of the variance, respectively, in total small LDL. Conclusions TG/HDL ratio and non-HDL cholesterol can identify overweight youth with atherogenic LDL particles. These easily obtained clinical lipid markers, in combination with body mass index and waist circumference, could be cost effective, in observational or interventional studies, for screening and follow-up of youth at heightened risk for atherogenic LDL. PMID:22809659

  19. Surrogate lipid markers for small dense low-density lipoprotein particles in overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Burns, Stephen F; Lee, So Jung; Arslanian, Silva A

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol concentration could identify youth with small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). One hundred forty-one (75 black and 66 white) overweight adolescents (9 to <18 years) had a fasting measurement of plasma lipids and LDL particle concentrations and size. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to indicate the ability of different TG/HDL ratios and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations to identify overweight youth with atherogenic LDL concentration and size. Youth with a TG/HDL ratio of ≥3 vs <3 had higher concentrations of small dense LDL (1279.5 ± 60.1 vs 841.8 ± 24.2 nmol/L, P < .001) and smaller LDL particle size (20.3 ± 0.1 vs 21.2 ± 0.1 nm, P < .001). In receiver operating characteristic analyses a TG/HDL cut-point of 3 best predicted LDL concentration in white youth, and 2.5 in black youth. Non-HDL cholesterol cut-point of 120 mg/dL and 145 mg/dL predicted LDL particle concentration in white and in black youth, respectively. TG/HDL ratio with body mass index or waist circumference explained 71% and 79% of the variance, respectively, in total small LDL. TG/HDL ratio and non-HDL cholesterol can identify overweight youth with atherogenic LDL particles. These easily obtained clinical lipid markers, in combination with body mass index and waist circumference, could be cost effective, in observational or interventional studies, for screening and follow-up of youth at heightened risk for atherogenic LDL. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of cocoa bran on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and fecal bulking.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vuksan, V; Vidgen, E; Wong, E; Augustin, L S; Fulgoni, V

    Legumes have reported benefits in terms of reduced risk for coronary heart disease and of colonic health. A novel legume fiber, cocoa bran, also may have favorable health effects on serum lipid levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, and fecal bulk. Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic subjects (13 men and 12 women) (mean +/- SEM age, 37 +/- 2 years; mean +/- SEM body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 24.6 +/- 0.7) ate cocoa-bran and chocolate-flavored low-fiber breakfast cereals for 2-week periods, with 2-week washout, in a double-blind crossover study. The cocoa-bran cereal provided 25.0 g/d of total dietary fiber (TDF). The low-fiber cereal (5.6 g/d TDF) was of similar appearance and energy value. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the start and end of each period, and 4-day fecal collections were made from days 11 through 14. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was higher (7.6% +/- 2.9%; P =.02) and the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was lower (6.7% +/- 2.3%; P =.007) for cocoa-bran compared with low-fiber cereal at 2 weeks. No effect was seen on LDL cholesterol oxidation. Mean fecal output was significantly higher for cocoa-bran than for low-fiber cereal (56 +/- 14 g/d; P<.001) and equal to the increase seen in the same subjects with wheat fiber in a previous study. A chocolate-flavored cocoa-bran cereal increased fecal bulk similarly to wheat bran and was associated with a reduction in the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. In view of the low-fat, high-fiber nature of the material, these results suggest a possible role for this novel fiber source in the diets of normal, hyperlipidemic, and constipated subjects.

  1. The level of serum lipids, vitamin E and low density lipoprotein oxidation in Wilson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rodo, M; Czonkowska, A; Pulawska, M; Swiderska, M; Tarnacka, B; Wehr, H

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of lipids and of the main serum antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), and to evaluate the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in Wilson's disease patients. It was assumed that enhanced LDL peroxidation caused by high copper levels could contribute to the injury of liver and other tissues. The group investigated comprised 45 individuals with Wilson's disease treated with penicillamine or zinc salts and a control group of 36 healthy individuals. Lipids were determined by enzymatic methods, alpha-tocopherol by high performance liquid chromatography, the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in vitro by absorption changes at 234 nm during 5 h and end-products of LDL lipid oxidation as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. In Wilson's disease patients total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly lower compared with the control group. No difference in LDL oxidation in vitro between the patients and the controls was stated. enhanced susceptibility of isolated LDL for lipid peroxidation in vitro was not observed in Wilson's disease patients. One cannot exclude, however, that because of low alpha-tocopherol level lipid peroxidation in the tissues can play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in this disease.

  2. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by Nagano purple grape (Vitis viniferaxVitis labrusca).

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Tani, Mariko; Andoh, Kunihiko; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    The Nagano Purple grape (Vitis (V.) viniferaxV. labrusca) is a hybrid created by a cross between Kyoho (V. viniferaxV. labrusca) and Rosario Bianco (V. vinifera) grapes. The grape, including its skin, can be eaten and contains no seeds because of gibberellin treatment. The skins of various fruits have been shown to contain antioxidant activity. However, it is unclear whether the Nagano Purple grape contains antioxidant activity. We prepared the skins and dried fruits (including the skins) of the Nagano Purple grape, so as to assay for the presence of an antioxidant activity. We examined the concentration of polyphenols in the grape and further assayed whether components in the grape inhibited the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We detected the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glc), five anthocyanidins and resveratrol in the skins. A trace of resveratrol was detected in the pulp. LDL collected from human subjects 1 h following the consumption of the skins or dried fruits revealed significant inhibition of LDL oxidation compared to that observed in fasting venous blood samples. We further observed the antioxidant activity of Cy-3-glc. Our results suggest that the consumption of the Nagano Purple grape can give rise to resistance to LDL oxidation.

  3. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged. Hydrogenated coconut oil had no effect on LDL receptor activity but increased the rate of LDL-cholesterol production causing plasma LDL-cholesterol levels to increase 46%. Dietary fish oil had no effect on the receptor-dependent transport of asialofetuin by the liver, suggesting that the effect of fish oil on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physical properties of hepatic membranes. Finally, dietary fish oil increased hepatic cholesteryl ester levels and suppressed hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, suggesting that the up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor activity in these animals was not simply a response to diminished cholesterol availability in the liver. PMID:2760200

  4. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  5. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Prapaiwan, N.; Tharasanit, T.; Punjachaipornpol, S.; Yamtang, D.; Roongsitthichai, A.; Moonarmart, W.; Kaeoket, K.; Manee-in, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa. PMID:26954170

  6. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwan, N; Tharasanit, T; Punjachaipornpol, S; Yamtang, D; Roongsitthichai, A; Moonarmart, W; Kaeoket, K; Manee-In, S

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  7. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhijuan, E-mail: zjlee038@163.com; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuatedmore » the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.« less

  8. Acceleration of atherogenesis by COX-1-dependent prostanoid formation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Tillmann, C; Zhang, Z B; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2001-03-13

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) product, prostacyclin (PGI(2)), inhibits platelet activation and vascular smooth-muscle cell migration and proliferation. Biochemically selective inhibition of COX-2 reduces PGI(2) biosynthesis substantially in humans. Because deletion of the PGI(2) receptor accelerates atherogenesis in the fat-fed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse, we wished to determine whether selective inhibition of COX-2 would accelerate atherogenesis in this model. To address this hypothesis, we used dosing with nimesulide, which inhibited COX-2 ex vivo, depressed urinary 2,3 dinor 6-keto PGF(1alpha) by approximately 60% but had no effect on thromboxane formation by platelets, which only express COX-1. By contrast, the isoform nonspecific inhibitor, indomethacin, suppressed platelet function and thromboxane formation ex vivo and in vivo, coincident with effects on PGI(2) biosynthesis indistinguishable from nimesulide. Indomethacin reduced the extent of atherosclerosis by 55 +/- 4%, whereas nimesulide failed to increase the rate of atherogenesis. Despite their divergent effects on atherogenesis, both drugs depressed two indices of systemic inflammation, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to a similar but incomplete degree. Neither drug altered serum lipids and the marked increase in vascular expression of COX-2 during atherogenesis. Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis is unlikely during chronic intake of specific COX-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, evidence that COX-1-derived prostanoids contribute to atherogenesis suggests that controlled evaluation of the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or aspirin on plaque progression in humans is timely.

  9. Dietary corn fractions reduce atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Le, Khuong; Ghazzawi, Nora; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that intake of whole grains is a protective factor against pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The exact mechanisms, however, are still not clearly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that adequate intake of corn fractions (aleurone, endosperm and germ) can modify lipid profiles in relation to atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of corn fractions in LDLr-KO mice through a number of biomarkers including lipid profile, and morphologic and morphometrical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root. Four groups of male LDLr-KO mice were fed with the experimental diets supplemented with (3 treated) or without (control) 5% (wt/wt) of each of corn fractions for 10 weeks. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (wt/wt) cholesterol. Compared with mice in the control group, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were significantly reduced (P=.003) in the mice that were fed diet supplemented with aleurone and germ fractions. This effect was associated with significant reductions in plasma total (P=.02) and LDL (P=.03) cholesterol levels, and an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion (P=.04). Furthermore, abdominal fat mass was significantly reduced by consumption of aleurone (P=.03). In summary, the consumption of aleurone and germ may help attenuate atherosclerosis by reducing plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidation-labile subfraction of human plasma low density lipoprotein isolated by ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shimano, H; Yamada, N; Ishibashi, S; Mokuno, H; Mori, N; Gotoda, T; Harada, K; Akanuma, Y; Murase, T; Yazaki, Y

    1991-05-01

    We isolated subfractions of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) using ion-exchange chromatography. Plasma LDL from normolipidemic subjects were applied to a DEAE Sepharose 6B column. After elution of the bulk of LDL at 150 mM NaCl (the major fraction), the residual LDL was eluted at 500 mM NaCl and designated as the minor fraction. The minor fraction, only less than 1% of total LDL, tended to be somewhat similar in certain properties to oxidized LDL, e.g., an increased negative charge, higher protein/cholesterol ratio, and a higher flotation density than native LDL. These results were consistent with data reported by Avogaro et al. (1988. Arteriosclerosis. 8: 79-87). However, assays of 125I-labeled LDL binding activity for LDL receptors equal to that of the major fraction. Incorporation of [14C]oleate into cholesteryl ester [acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity] in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with the minor fraction was only slightly greater than that with the major fraction. Incubation of the minor fraction with 0.5 microM Cu2+ caused a remarkable stimulation of ACAT activity, while stimulation by the major fraction required incubation with 5 microM Cu2+, suggesting that the minor fraction was relatively labile to oxidation. The minor but definite presence of a plasma LDL subfraction more negative and susceptible to oxidation implicates the possibility of its association with atherogenesis.

  11. Comparing the Impact of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Randall P; Gales, Barry J; Sirajuddin, Riaz

    2018-04-01

    Elevated levels of triglycerides are associated with pancreatitis and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Numerous pharmacologic therapies are available to treat hypertriglyceridemia, including prescription omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglyceride levels by 20-50%. Available data indicate the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be beneficial for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Products containing DHA may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and, subsequently, coronary heart disease risk. We reviewed prescription omega-3 fatty acid products, of which two-omega-3 acid ethyl esters (OM3EE) and omega-3 carboxylic acid (OM3CA)-contain both DHA and EPA, whereas the other-icosapent ethyl (IPE)-contains EPA only. We identified three retrospective chart reviews and three case reports comparing IPE with OM3EE, whereas two studies compared IPE with placebo. We also reviewed the major studies of OM3EE versus placebo used to gain US FDA approval. LDL-C levels decreased or did not increase significantly in all available studies and case reports in patients receiving the IPE product, with the best data supporting a dose of 4 g per day. The majority of studies only included patients taking IPE concomitantly with statins, but limited data from one study using IPE monotherapy showed a small reduction in LDL-C. Many questions remain regarding IPE, including whether the product reduces cardiovascular events and mortality.

  12. Anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Charach, Gideon; Rabinovich, Alexander; Argov, Ori; Weintraub, Moshe; Charach, Lior; Ayzenberg, Oded; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL Abs) reflect an immune response to LDL over a prolonged period and may represent long-term oxidative stress in HF. The oxLDL plasma level is a useful predictor of mortality in HF patients, and measurement of the oxLDL Abs level may allow better management of those patients. Antibodies to oxLDL also significantly correlate with the New York Heart Association score. Hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, and obesity are risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) leading to HF, but these factors account for only one-half of all cases, and understanding of the pathologic process underlying HF remains incomplete. Nutrients with antioxidant properties can reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. Antioxidant therapy may be an adjunct to lipid-lowering, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and metformin (in diabetes) therapy for the greatest impact on CHD and HF. Observational data suggest a protective effect of antioxidant supplementation on the incidence of HD. This review summarizes the data on oxLDL Abs as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in HF patients. PMID:23185651

  13. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  14. Low-density lipoprotein transport in blood vessel walls of squirrel monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Yarmush, M.L.; Schnitzer, J.J.

    1989-08-01

    Transmural accumulations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were examined in the blood vessel walls of four squirrel monkeys. Vascular wall concentrations of LDL were measured using quantitative autoradiography after {sup 125}I-labeled LDL circulation for 30 min. Profiles of relative tissue concentration from different sections in the same region were similar to each other, and there was little animal-to-animal variation. Concentrations were highest near the luminal endothelium, lower near the medial-adventitial border, and lowest within the media. Profiles from different regions fell into three groups: (1) aortic samples had steep intimal concentration gradients and near-zero media concentrations; (2) the iliac, femoral, popliteal,more » and common carotid arteries had higher intimal concentrations than group 1 but had similar concentrations deep within the media; and (3) the cerebral and coronary arteries, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary artery had intimal concentrations that were similar to group 2, but the concentrations deep within the media were greater than either groups 1 or 2. Arterial bifurcation profiles from the inner wall and the outer walls were similar to each other and to profiles from the upstream and downstream areas. Out of 280 total sites examined, 15 examples of profiles with substantially increased concentrations near the luminal endothelium were found scattered throughout the cardiovascular system, demonstrating that there are focal regions throughout the cardiovascular system which have greatly increased {sup 125}I-LDL transendothelial permeability.« less

  15. Low-density lipoprotein peptide-combined DNA nanocomplex as an efficient anticancer drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Tao, Jun; Hua, Haiying; Sun, Pengchao; Zhao, Yongxing

    2015-08-01

    DNA is a type of potential biomaterials for drug delivery due to its nanoscale geometry, loading capacity of therapeutics, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, DNA is easily degraded by DNases in the body circulation and has low intracellular uptake. In the present study, we selected three cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor targeted peptide (RLT), to modify DNA and improve the issues. A potent anti-tumor anthracycline-doxorubicin (DOX) was intercalated into DNA non-covalently and the DOX/DNA was then combined with PEI, CTAB, and RLT, respectively. Compact nanocomplexes were formed by electrostatic interaction and could potentially protect DNA from DNases. More importantly, RLT had the potential to enhance intracellular uptake by LDL receptor mediated endocytosis. In a series of in vitro experiments, RLT complexed DNA enhanced intracellular delivery of DOX, increased tumor cell death and intracellular ROS production, and reduced intracellular elimination of DOX. All results suggested that the easily prepared and targeted RLT/DNA nanocomplexes had great potential to be developed into a formulation for doxorubicin with enhanced anti-tumor activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole-Cell Analysis of Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages Using STEM Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W. Gray; Kübel, Christian; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80° thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL) conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters. PMID:23383042

  17. A Selective and Regenerable Surface Based on β-Cyclodextrin for Low-Density Lipoprotein Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Yi Zong; Hong, Xiao; Wu, Hui Min; Liu, Rong; Chen, Da Jing

    2018-06-20

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides and its unique hydrophilic outer surface and lipophilic central cavity facilitate the formation of inclusion complexes with various biomolecules, such as cholesterol and phospholipids, via multi-interactions. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the main carrier of cholesterol in bloodstream and is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. The surface of LDL is composed of a shell of phospholipids monolayer containing most of the free unesterified cholesterol, as well as the single copy of apolipoprotein B-100. Till date, various LDL adsorbents have been fabricated to interact with the biomolecules on LDL surface. Owing to its elegant structure, CD is considered to be a promising choice for preparation of more economical and effective LDL-adsorbing materials. Therefore, in this study, interaction between β-CD and LDL in solution was investigated by dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Further, a supramolecular surface based on β-CD was simply prepared by self-assembled monolayer on gold surface. The effect of hydrogen bond and the cavity of β-CD on the interaction between β-CD and LDL was particularly explored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The SPR results showed that such β-CD-modified surface exhibited good selectivity and could be largely regenerated by sodium dodecyl sulfate wash. This study may extend the understanding of the interaction between LDL and LDL adsorbent, or the design and development of more efficient and lower cost LDL adsorbents in the future.

  18. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro)

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Hady, Faten K.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine–xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids. PMID:18955249

  19. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-antioxidant flavonoids from roots of Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Sook; Ryu, Young Bae; Kim, Hoi Young; Curtis-Long, Marcus John; An, Sojin; An, So Jin; Lee, Jin Hwan; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun

    2008-11-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is strongly implicated as a key process in the onset of atherosclerosis. In this study, nine alkylated (C10-C5) flavonoids from Sophora flavescens were examined for their inhibitory effects on copper-induced LDL oxidation. Of the flavonoids tested, sophoraflavanone G (1), kurarinone (2), kurarinol (3), norkurarinol (4), and kuraridin (9) inhibited the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with IC50s of 7.9, 14.5, 22.0, 26.9, and 17.5 microM, respectively. The most potent inhibitor, compound 1, also demonstrated significant activities in complementary in vitro investigations, such as lag time (130 min at 5 microM), relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of ox-LDL (80% inhibition at 20 microM), and fragmentation of apoB-100 (inhibition of 71% at 20 microM). Analysis of the structures of these compounds reveals that a resorcinol moiety in the B-ring is strongly correlated with protection of LDL-oxidation.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a low density lipoprotein from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Prassl, R; Chapman, J M; Nigon, F; Sara, M; Eschenburg, S; Betzel, C; Saxena, A; Laggner, P

    1996-11-15

    Single crystals of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL), the major transport vehicle for cholesterol in blood, have been produced with a view to analysis of the three-dimensional structure by x-ray crystallography. Crystals with dimensions of approximately 200 x 100 x 50 microm have been reproducibly obtained from highly homogeneous LDL particle subspecies, isolated in the density ranges d = 1.0271-1. 0297 g/ml and d = 1.0297-1.0327 g/ml. Electron microscopic imaging of ultrathin-sectioned preparations of the crystals confirmed the existence of a regular, quasihexagonal arrangement of spherical particles of approximately 18 nm in diameter, thereby resembling the dimensions characteristic of LDL after dehydration and fixation. X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation under cryogenic conditions revealed the presence of well resolved diffraction spots, to a resolution of about 29 A. The diffraction patterns are indexed in terms of a triclinic lattice with unit cell dimensions of a = 16. 1 nm, b = 39.0 nm, c = 43.9 nm; alpha = 96.2 degrees, beta = 92.1 degrees, gamma = 102 degrees, and with space group P1.

  1. The advantages of combining low-density lipoproteins with glutamine for cryopreservation of canine semen.

    PubMed

    Bencharif, D; Amirat, L; Pascal, O; Anton, M; Schmitt, E; Desherces, S; Delhomme, G; Langlois, M-L; Barrière, P; Larrat, M; Tainturier, D

    2010-04-01

    Twenty sperm samples from five dogs were frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C in 16 different media, two control media containing 20% egg yolk and 6% low-density lipoproteins (LDL); 10 test media containing 6% LDL (the active cryoprotective ingredient of chicken egg yolk) combined with 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 mmol of glutamine respectively at 4%, 5%, 7%, and 8% LDL. Following thawing, sperm mobility was assessed using an image analyser, HAMILTON THORN CERROS 12. The percentage of mobile spermatozoa was 62.05% in the 6% LDL + 20 mmol glutamine medium compared with 48.90% in the egg yolk-based medium (p < 0.05) or 57.55% for the 6% LDL medium (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in most cases, the motility parameters (average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity) in the 6% LDL + 20 mmol glutamine medium, were superior, to a statistically significant extent, to those in the control media. Finally, the 6% LDL + 20 mmol glutamine combination provides spermatozoa with better protection during freezing than egg yolk or the 6% LDL medium alone in terms of acrosome integrity (fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin test: p < 0.05), the flagellar plasma membrane (hypo-osmotic test: p < 0.05 for 6% LDL), the DNA (acridine orange test; no significant difference) and the integrity of the acrosome (Spermac test: no significant difference).

  2. Effect of soy-based breakfast cereal on blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Vidgen, E; Vuksan, V; Jackson, C J; Augustin, L S; Lee, B; Garsetti, M; Agarwal, S; Rao, A V; Cagampang, G B; Fulgoni, V

    2000-11-01

    Consumption of soy protein may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease both through reduction in serum lipids and by the antioxidant properties of protein-associated soy isoflavones. However, the effect that processing required for the manufacture of breakfast cereals may have on the lipid lowering and antioxidant activities of soy has not been studied. We have therefore assessed the health benefits of soy incorporation into breakfast cereals. Twenty-five hyperlipidemic men and women took soy (providing 36 g/d soy protein and 168 mg/d isoflavones) and control breakfast cereals, each for 3 weeks in a randomized crossover study with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Fasting blood samples were obtained pretreatment and at weeks 2 and 3 of each treatment. No significant difference was seen in serum lipids between treatments at week 3 apart from a 3.8% +/- 1.5% higher apolipoprotein A-1 level on control versus soy (P = .021). However, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was reduced on the test compared with the control both as total dienes in LDL and as the ratio of conjugated dienes to cholesterol in the LDL fraction by 9.2% +/- 4.3% (P = .042) and 8.7% +/- 4.2% (P = .050), respectively. High isoflavone intakes in soy breakfast cereals may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by reducing oxidized LDL, while having no significant effect on the absolute concentration of LDL cholesterol.

  3. Nanostructured NiO-based reagentless biosensor for total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein detection.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide (NiO) thin film has been explored as a matrix to develop a reagentless biosensor for free and total cholesterol as well as low density lipoprotein (LDL) detection. The redox property of the matrix has been exploited to enhance the electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode as well as to eliminate the toxic mediator in solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the NiO thin film. Biosensing response studies were accomplished using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The developed biosensors exhibited a high sensitivity of 27 and 63 μA/mM/cm 2 over a linear range of 0.12-10.23 and 1-12 mM, respectively, for free and total cholesterol. Reagentless estimation of LDL was also achieved over the wide range 0.018-0.5 μM with a sensitivity of 0.12 mA/μM/cm 2 . The results are extremely promising for the realization of an integrated biosensor for complete detection of cholesterol in the serum samples. Graphical Abstract Reagentless sensing mechanism of (a) free cholesterol and (b) total cholesterol using nanostructured NiO matrix.

  4. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Ahmed G; Abd El-Hady, Faten K

    2009-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids.

  5. Caveolae and caveolin-1 mediate endocytosis and transcytosis of oxidized low density lipoprotein in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shao-wei; Zu, Xu-yu; Tuo, Qin-hui; Chen, Lin-xi; Lei, Xiao-yong; Li, Kai; Tang, Chao-ke; Liao, Duan-fang

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To explore the mechanisms involved in ox-LDL transcytosis across endothelial cells and the role of caveolae in this process. Methods: An in vitro model was established to investigate the passage of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) through a tight monolayer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured on a collagen-coated filter. Passage of DiI-labeled ox-LDL through the monolayer was measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The uptake and efflux of ox-LDL by HUVEC were determined using fluorescence microscopy and HPLC. Results: Caveolae inhibitors – carrageenan (250 μg/mL), filipin (5 μg/mL), and nocodazole (33 μmol/L)–decreased the transport of ox-LDL across the monolayer by 48.9%, 72.4%, and 79.8% as compared to the control group. In addition, they effectively decreased ox-LDL uptake and inhibited the efflux of ox-LDL. Caveolin-1 and LOX-1 were up-regulated by ox-LDL in a time-dependent manner and decreased gradually after depletion of ox-LDL (P<0.05). After treatment HUVEC with ox-LDL and silencing caveolin-1, NF-κB translocation to the nucleus was blocked and LOX-1 expression decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Caveolae can be a carrier for ox-LDL and may be involved in the uptake and transcytosis of ox-LDL by HUVEC. PMID:20835266

  6. Stable isotope tracer dilution for quantifying very low-density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol kinetics in man.

    PubMed

    Sidossis, Labros S; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Wolfe, Robert R

    2004-08-01

    A number of approaches have been employed in the past to measure very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol (TG) kinetics in humans in vivo, varying in the selection of tracer and mode of administration. All, however, make use of labeled TG precursors and more or less complicated mathematical models to derive the kinetic parameters of interest. The aim of the present study was to develop a conceptually straightforward method, based on the traditional tracer infusion technique, for quantifying VLDL-TG production rates in man using stable isotopes. Our approach involves ingestion of [U-13C3]glycerol to endogenously label the glycerol in VLDL-TG, plasmapheresis, isolation of the newly 13C-labeled VLDL from plasma, and administration within the next 2-3 days via a primed constant autologous reinfusion. This procedure produces enough tracer for a priming dose plus 2-3 h of infusion. In the physiological conditions examined (basal and hyperglycemic states, fat- and carbohydrate-rich diets), with almost 3-fold ranging VLDL-TG pool sizes, a steady state in plasma VLDL-TG glycerol tracer-to-tracee ratio was readily achieved within 2 h. Consequently, calculations are made according to the isotope dilution principle, thus avoiding assumptions implicit in more complicated models. The stable isotope VLDL-TG tracer dilution method offers an alternative and reliable tool for the determination of endogenous VLDL-TG kinetics in man under a variety of metabolic states. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  8. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol-a possible antecedent of atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in type 2 diabetes patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inaku, Kenneth O; Ogunkeye, Obasola O; Abbiyesuku, Fayeofori M; Chuhwak, Evelyn K; Isichei, Christian O; Imoh, Lucius C; Amadu, Noel O; Abu, Alexander O

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Dyslipidaemia is a known complication of diabetes mellitus manifesting frequently as cardiovascular diseases and stoke. Elevation of small, dense low density lipoprotein has been recognised as a component of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype associated with cardiovascular complications. We speculate that the elevation of this lipoprotein particle may be the antecedent of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. This study therefore aims to determine the pattern of dyslipidaemia among diabetes mellitus patients in Jos, North-Central Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-six patients with type 2 diabetes and 154 age-matched controls were studied. The patients with diabetes were regular clinic attenders and had stable glycaemic control. None were on lipid-lowering therapy. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, and lipids (including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride) were measured by chemical methods using the Hitachi 902 analyzer. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald's equation. Small, dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol, -sdLDL-C was measured using the precipitation method by Hirano et al. Means of the different groups were compared using EPI Info and a P -value of <0.05 was accepted as significant difference. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and small, dense lipoprotein cholesterol were all significantly higher in diabetes patients than controls except high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The percentage of LDL-C as sdLDL-C among the diabetes versus control group was 45% ± 17.79 v 32.0% ± 15.93. Serum sdLDL-C concentration was determined to be 1.45 ± 0.64 among diabetes patients and 0.8 ± 0.54 among control subjects. 75% of diabetes patients had hypertension and were taking blood pressure lowering medications. The classical atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype was not demonstrated

  9. Collagenase-3 binds to a specific receptor and requires the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for internalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmina, O. Y.; Walling, H. W.; Fiacco, G. J.; Freije, J. M.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Jeffrey, J. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously identified a specific receptor for collagenase-3 that mediates the binding, internalization, and degradation of this ligand in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that collagenase-3 binding is calcium-dependent and occurs in a variety of cell types, including osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells. We also present evidence supporting a two-step mechanism of collagenase-3 binding and internalization involving both a specific collagenase-3 receptor and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Ligand blot analysis shows that (125)I-collagenase-3 binds specifically to two proteins ( approximately 170 kDa and approximately 600 kDa) present in UMR 106-01 cells. Western blotting identified the 600-kDa protein as the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Our data suggest that the 170-kDa protein is a specific collagenase-3 receptor. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-null mouse embryo fibroblasts bind but fail to internalize collagenase-3, whereas UMR 106-01 and wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts bind and internalize collagenase-3. Internalization, but not binding, is inhibited by the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein. We conclude that the internalization of collagenase-3 requires the participation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and propose a model in which the cell surface interaction of this ligand requires a sequential contribution from two receptors, with the collagenase-3 receptor acting as a high affinity primary binding site and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediating internalization.

  10. Low-Density Lipoprotein Electronegativity Is a Novel Cardiometabolic Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jonathan; Chen, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ching-Chu; Chen, Jeffrey L.; Elayda, MacArthur; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Shayani, Steven; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction–L5–is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. Methods In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. Results L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01). The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5%) and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001). L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. Conclusion Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index. PMID:25203525

  11. Partial resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidation in vivo after increased intake of berries.

    PubMed

    Marniemi, J; Hakala, P; Mäki, J; Ahotupa, M

    2000-12-01

    The health-promoting effects of fruit- and vegetable-based diets are known to be associated with their antioxidative components. We found in our preliminary in vitro laboratory tests that extracts of many common Finnish edible berries are potent scavengers of peroxyl radicals and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. We therefore designed the current study to evaluate both the long-term (8 weeks) and short-term (5 hours) effects of increased intake of three berries on antioxidant potential and lipid peroxidation. Healthy 60-year-old men were randomized to berry, supplement and control groups (20 men in each group). The berry group ate, in addition to their normal diet, a 100 g portion of deep-frozen berries (bilberries, lingonberries, or black currants) daily for 8 weeks. The other groups ingested daily 100 mg of alpha-tocopherol and 500 mg of ascorbic acid (supplement group) or 500 mg of calcium gluconate (control group). In the short-term experiment 6 men ate 80 g of each of the three berries in one go. Serum ascorbate concentrations increased significantly in both the berry and the supplement group. Serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the antioxidant potential (TRAP) in low density lipoprotein (LDL) increased in the supplement group only. In the berry group, slightly lowered LDL diene conjugation (p = 0.074) and slightly increased total serum TRAP (p = 0.084) values were observed. No changes were found in these measures in the supplement or the control group. In the short-term experiment, LDL TRAP showed a small increase (about 10%, p = 0.039) during five hours after the intake of 240 g berries. The effects of consumption of berries on antioxidant potential and diene conjugation in LDL particles in vivo appear to be small.

  12. Cryoprotective effects of low-density lipoproteins, trehalose and soybean lecithin on murine spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Li, Ying; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Cai, Xiao-Li; Hou, Li-Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Suo, Li-Juan; Fan, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at -80°C or -196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at -80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at -196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at -80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at -80°C compared with at -196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at -80°C. In the freezing-thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing-thawing of SSCs.

  13. Systemic Free Fatty Acid Disposal Into Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Ali, Asem H.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the incorporation of systemic free fatty acids (FFA) into circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TGs) under postabsorptive, postprandial, and walking conditions in humans. Fifty-five men and 85 premenopausal women with BMI 18–24 (lean) and 27–36 kg/m2 (overweight/obese) received an intravenous bolus injection of [1,1,2,3,3-2H5]glycerol (to measure VLDL-TG kinetics) and either [1-14C]palmitate or [9,10-3H]palmitate to determine the proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG. Experiments started at 0630 h after a 12-h overnight fast. In the postabsorptive protocol, participants rested and remained fasted until 1330 h. In the postprandial protocol, volunteers ingested frequent portions of a fat-free smoothie. In the walking protocol, participants walked on a treadmill for 5.5 h at ∼3× resting energy expenditure. Approximately 7% of circulating FFA was converted into VLDL-TG. VLDL-TG secretion rates (SRs) were not statistically different among protocols. Visceral fat mass was the only independent predictor of VLDL-TG secretion, explaining 33–57% of the variance. The small proportion of systemic FFA that is converted to VLDL-TG can confound the expected relationship between plasma FFA concentration and VLDL-TG SRs. Regulation of VLDL-TG secretion is complex in that, despite a broad spectrum of physiological FFA concentrations, VLDL-TG SRs did not vary based on different acute substrate availability. PMID:23434937

  14. Electronegative Low-density Lipoprotein Increases Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Uremia Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, Guei-Jane; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Lee, An-Sean; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Chun-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Yang, Chao-Yuh; Stancel, Nicole; Chen, Chu-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a recognized factor in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population, but its role in the development of CAD in uremia patients is unknown. L5 is the most electronegative subfraction of LDL isolated from human plasma. In this study, we examined the distribution of L5 (L5%) and its association with CAD risk in uremia patients. The LDL of 39 uremia patients on maintenance hemodialysis and 21 healthy controls was separated into 5 subfractions, L1–L5, with increasing electronegativity. We compared the distribution and composition of plasma L5 between uremia patients and controls, examined the association between plasma L5% and CAD risk in uremia patients, and studied the effects of L5 from uremia patients on endothelial function. Compared to controls, uremia patients had significantly increased L5% (P < 0.001) and L5 that was rich in apolipoprotein C3 and triglycerides. L5% was significantly higher in uremia patients with CAD (n = 10) than in those without CAD (n = 29) (P < 0.05). Independent of other major CAD risk factors, the adjusted odds ratio for CAD was 1.88 per percent increase in plasma L5% (95% CI, 1.01–3.53), with a near-linear dose–response relationship. Compared with controls, uremia patients had decreased flow-mediated vascular dilatation. In ex vivo studies with preconstricted rat thoracic aortic rings, L5 from uremia patients inhibited acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In cultured human endothelial cells, L5 inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and induced endothelial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that elevated plasma L5% may induce endothelial dysfunction and play an important role in the increased risk of CAD in uremia patients. PMID:26765403

  15. Alterations in very low density lipoprotein subfractions in normotriglyceridemic non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Patti, L; Swinburn, B; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Howard, B V

    1991-11-01

    Lipid and apoprotein composition of four very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions decreasing in Sf value were evaluated in the fasting state in 12 normolipidemic Pima Indians (6 M, 6 F, age 39 +/- 1.7 yrs) (mean +/- SEM) with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in poor glycemic control (HbA1 9.8 +/- 2.9%) and in 14 normoglycemic Pima controls matched for age, BMI and lipid values. Total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG), phospholipids (PL), total protein (TP), apo B, apo CII, apo CIII and apoE were assayed in total VLDL and in each of the four VLDL subfractions designed as A (Sf greater than 400), B (Sf 175-400), C (Sf 100-175), and D (Sf 20-100). Diabetics compared to nondiabetics had higher concentrations of all constituents of VLDL D, with the largest changes being in TG (38.0 +/- 3.8 vs 28.0 +/- 2.5 mg/dl, P less than 0.04), PL (14.0 +/- 1.3 vs 10.0 +/- 1.0 mg/dl, P less than 0.04), TP (9.8 +/- 0.8 vs 7.6 +/- 2.4 mg/dl, P less than 0.05), apo B (6.3 +/- 0.5 vs 4.7 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, P less than 0.03) and apoE (0.73 +/- 0.09 vs 0.52 +/- 0.04 mg/dl, P less than 0.04). Since no difference was found between the groups in percentage composition of lipids or apoproteins in total VLDL and in all VLDL subfractions, the data suggest that in diabetics, even when normolipidemic, there is an increase in the number rather than in the composition of the smallest VLDL subfraction (VLDL D), which are usually considered to be more atherogenic.

  16. Arsenic association with circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein in a Native American community.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Molly E; Lewis, Johnnye; Miller, Curtis; Hoover, Joseph; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Shuey, Chris; Cajero, Miranda; Lucas, Selita; Pacheco, Bernadette; Erdei, Esther; Ramone, Sandy; Nez, Teddy; Campen, Matthew J; Gonzales, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    More than 500 abandoned uranium (U) mines within the Navajo Nation contribute U, arsenic (As) and other metals to groundwater, soil and potentially air through airborne transport. The adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to cumulative exposure to these metals remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine whether environmental exposure to these metals may promote or exacerbate the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in this Native American population. The correlation of cardiovascular biomarkers (oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) from a Navajo cohort (n = 252) with mean annual As and U intakes from water and urine metals was estimated using linear regression. Proof-of-concept assays were performed to investigate whether As and U directly oxidize human LDL. Mean annual As intake from water was positively and significantly associated with oxLDL, but not CRP in this study population, while U intake estimates were negatively associated with oxLDL. In an acellular system, As, but not U, directly oxidized the apolipoprotein B-100 component of purified human LDL. Neither metal promoted lipid peroxidation of the LDL particle. Both the population and lab results are consistent with the hypothesis that As promotes oxidation of LDL, a crucial step in vascular inflammation and chronic vascular disease. Conversely, for outcomes related to U, negative associations were observed between U intake and oxLDL, and U only minimally altered human LDL in direct exposure experiments. Only urine U was correlated with CRP, whereas no other metals in water or urine were apparently reliable predictors of this inflammatory marker.

  17. Effect of Native and Minimally Modified Low-density Lipoprotein on the Activation of Monocyte Subsets.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Espinosa-Luna, José Esteban; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis

    2017-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, monocytes are essential and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Human CD14 ++ CD16 - , CD14 ++ CD16 + and CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes produce different cytokines. The objective of this research was to determine the number of monocyte subsets positives to cytokines in response to native (nLDL) and minimally modified LDL (mmLDL). Human monocytes from healthy individuals were purified by negative selection and were stimulated with nLDL, mmLDL or LPS. Subsequently, human total monocytes were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14 or both CD14 and CD16 to characterize total monocytes and monocyte subsets and with antibodies specific to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-IL-10. The number of cells positive for cytokines was determined and cells cultured with nLDL, mmLDL and LPS were compared with cells cultured only with culture medium. We found that nLDL does not induce in the total monocyte population or in the three monocyte subsets positives to cytokines. MmLDL induced in total monocytes positives to TNF-α and IL-6 as well as in both CD14 ++ CD16 + and CD14 + CD16 ++ and in CD14 ++ CD16 + monocytes, respectively. Moreover, total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets expressed few amounts of cells positives to IL-10 in response to mmLDL. Our study demonstrated that nLDL did not induce cells positives to cytokines and that the CD14 ++ CD16 + and CD14 + CD16 ++ monocyte subsets could be the main sources of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, in response to mmLDL, which promotes the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Mediates Vascular Effects of Inhaled Vehicle Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, JoAnn; Harman, Melissa; Madden, Michael C.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Seagrave, Jean Clare; Campen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: To determine vascular signaling pathways involved in inhaled air pollution (vehicular engine emission) exposure–induced exacerbation of atherosclerosis that are associated with onset of clinical cardiovascular events. Objectives: To elucidate the role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and its primary receptor on endothelial cells, the lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX-1), in regulation of endothelin-1 expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity associated with inhalational exposure to vehicular engine emissions. Methods: Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E knockout mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air or mixed whole engine emissions (250 μg particulate matter [PM]/m3 diesel + 50 μg PM/m3 gasoline exhausts) 6 h/d for 7 days. Concurrently, mice were treated with either mouse IgG or neutralizing antibodies to LOX-1 every other day. Vascular and plasma markers of oxidative stress and expression proatherogenic factors were assessed. In a parallel study, healthy human subjects were exposed to either 100 μg PM/m3 diesel whole exhaust or high-efficiency particulate air and charcoal-filtered “clean” air (control subjects) for 2 hours, on separate occasions. Measurements and Main Results: Mixed emissions exposure increased oxLDL and vascular reactive oxygen species, as well as LOX-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and endothelin-1 mRNA expression and also monocyte/macrophage infiltration, each of which was attenuated with LOX-1 antibody treatment. In a parallel study, diesel exhaust exposure in volunteer human subjects induced significant increases in plasma-soluble LOX-1. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that acute exposure to vehicular source pollutants results in up-regulation of vascular factors associated with progression of atherosclerosis, endothelin-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediated through oxLDL–LOX-1 receptor signaling, which may serve as a novel target for future therapy. PMID:21493736

  19. A vitamin D pathway gene-gene interaction affects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Grave, Nathália; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; da Silveira, Janaína; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Contini, Verônica; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini

    2016-12-01

    Much evidence suggests an association between vitamin D deficiency and chronic diseases such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Although genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of these diseases, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between vitamin D-related genes and anthropometric and lipid profiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of three vitamin D-related genes with anthropometric and lipid parameters in 542 adult individuals. We analyzed the rs2228570 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), rs2134095 in the retinoid X receptor gamma gene (RXRG) and rs7041 in the vitamin D-binding protein gene (GC). Polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination. Gene-gene interactions were evaluated by the general linear model. The functionality of the polymorphisms was investigated using the following predictors and databases: SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant), PolyPhen-2 (Polymorphism Phenotyping v2) and Human Splicing Finder 3. We identified a significant effect of the interaction between RXRG (rs2134095) and GC (rs7041) on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels (P=.005). Furthermore, our in silico analysis suggested a functional role for both variants in the regulation of the gene products. Our results suggest that the vitamin D-related genes RXRG and GC affect LDL-c levels. These findings are in agreement with other studies that consistently associate vitamin D and lipid profile. Together, our results corroborate the idea that analyzing gene-gene interaction would be helpful to clarify the genetic component of lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Hypertriglyceridemia on Carotid Stenosis Progression under Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Kitagami, Masayuki; Yasuda, Ryuta; Toma, Naoki; Shiba, Masato; Nampei, Mai; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is a well-known risk factor for carotid stenosis progression, but triglycerides have attracted little attention. The aim of this study was to assess if serum triglycerides affect progression of carotid stenosis in patients with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. This is a retrospective study in a single hospital consisting of 71 Japanese patients with internal carotid artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and normal serum LDL-C levels who underwent angiographic examination with or without the resultant carotid artery stenting or endarterectomy from 2007 to 2011, and were subsequently followed up for 4 years. Clinical factors including fasting serum triglyceride values were compared between the progression (≥10% increase in degree of carotid stenosis on ultrasonography) and the nonprogression groups. During 4 years, 15 patients (21.1%) had carotid stenosis progression on either side. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that symptomatic cases (hazard ratio [HR], 4.327; P = .019), coexisting intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis (HR, 5.341; P = .005), and hypertriglyceridemia (HR, 6.228; P = .011) were associated with subsequent progression of carotid stenosis. Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated that the progression-free survival rate was significantly higher in patients without hypertriglyceridemia and intracranial arteriosclerotic stenosis at baseline. Among patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis and well-controlled LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia was an important risk factor for progression of carotid stenosis irrespective of surgical treatments. It would be worthwhile to test if triglyceride-lowering medications suppress carotid stenosis progression. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein and cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Liu, J; Meng, X; Li, J; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Su, Z; Zhang, N; Dai, L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y

    2018-01-01

    The association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and cognitive impairment is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between oxLDL and cognitive impairment among patients with acute ischemic stroke. We measured the levels of oxLDL and recorded the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in patients with acute ischemic stroke who were recruited from the Study of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score of <24. The association between oxLDL and cognitive impairment was assessed by multivariate logistic or linear regression analysis. Other clinical variables of interest were also studied. A total of 3726 patients [1287 (34.54%) female] were included in this study, with a mean age of 63.62 ± 11.96 years. After adjusting for potential confounders in our logistic regression model, each SD increase in oxLDL was associated with a 26% increase in the prevalence of cognitive impairment (odds radio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39; P < 0.0001). Similarly, higher oxLDL was associated with lower MMSE scores, with a 0.56-point decrease in MMSE score for every SD increase in oxLDL in a linear regression analysis (β = -0.56; 95% confidence interval, -0.81 to -0.32; P < 0.0001). There were no significant interactions between oxLDL and age, sex or education levels for cognitive impairment (all interactions, P > 0.05). Elevated levels of oxLDL were associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  2. [Effects of thyroid hormone on macrophage dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein].

    PubMed

    Ning, Yu; Zhang, Ming; DU, Yun-Hui; Zhang, Hui-Na; Li, Lin-Yi; Qin, Yan-Wen; Wen, Wan-Wan; Zhao, Quan-Ming

    2018-04-25

    It has been recognized that patients with hypothyroidism have higher risks of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Considering that macrophage dysfunction plays an important role in the formation and development of atherosclerosis plaques, this study aimed to investigate the direct effects of thyroid hormone on macrophage functions and to provide new insight for the mechanism of hypothyroid atherosclerosis. RAW264.7 cells (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line) were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to establish macrophage foam cells model in vitro, and the protective effects of different concentration of thyroxine (T4) on the macrophage foam cells function were explored. The proliferation, migration and cell aging of macrophages were detected by MTT method, scratch test and β-galactosidase staining respectively. The ELISA method was used to detect the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Western blot analysis was applied to measure the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which was required for the process of proliferation and migration of macrophages. The results showed that oxLDL significantly inhibited the macrophage proliferation and migration, induced cell senescence, and promoted the secretion of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β; while T4 reversed those effects of oxLDL on macrophage in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, oxLDL increased the phosphorylation of FAK in macrophage, while T4 concentration-dependently reversed the effect. These results suggest that T4 modulates macrophage proliferation, migration, senescence, and secretion of inflammation factors in a concentration-dependent way.

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce insulin and very low density lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Crespo, N; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dietary fatty acid profiles on plasma levels of insulin, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), cholesterol, and glucose. Diets with four types of fat (tallow, olive, sunflower, and linseed oils) at an inclusion level of 10% and a basal diet without additional fat were administered to female broiler chickens. Serum insulin, cholesterol, and plasma VLDL were affected by the different treatments; however, glucose concentrations were similar among treatments. In the fasted state, broilers fed diets with sunflower or linseed oil presented lower levels of insulin and cholesterol with respect to those fed tallow or olive oil (P < 0.05). VLDL in the fasted state was reduced in broilers fed sunflower and linseed oils (P < 0.05) with respect to those fed tallow, olive oil, or the basal diet. Plasma levels of VLDL were only significantly correlated with abdominal fat in birds fed the basal diet, in the fed and in the fasted state, and in those fed linseed oil in the fed state (P < 0.05). Results of this experiment suggest that higher insulin levels in broilers fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids could be related to higher fat deposition. Fat deposition in birds fed high fat diets was not correlated with circulating VLDL, which suggested direct dietary fat deposition, except for birds fed linseed oil diets. Although birds fed linseed oil diets presented lower levels of VLDL than those fed tallow, olive oil, or the basal diet, the higher correlation with abdominal fat suggests that in these birds, fat deposition is more dependent on hepatic VLDL secretion, despite the high dietary fat level.

  4. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-induced signals mediating aldosterone production.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ying-Ying; Rainey, William E; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-02-01

    Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which is correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear. Several studies have suggested that aldosterone levels are elevated with obesity and may represent a link between obesity and hypertension. In addition to hypertension, obese patients typically have dyslipidemia, including elevated serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDL, which functions to transport triglycerides from the liver to peripheral tissues, has been demonstrated to stimulate aldosterone production. Recent studies suggest that the signaling pathways activated by VLDL are similar to those utilized by AngII. Thus, VLDL increases cytosolic calcium levels and stimulates phospholipase D (PLD) activity to result in the induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression. These effects seem to be mediated by the ability of VLDL to increase the phosphorylation (activation) of their regulatory transcription factors, such as the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. Thus, research into the pathways by which VLDL stimulates aldosterone production may identify novel targets for the development of therapies for the treatment of hypertension, particularly those associated with obesity, and other aldosterone-modulated pathologies. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 and 6 gene variants and ischemic stroke risk

    PubMed Central

    Harriott, Andrea M.; Heckman, Michael G.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Bu, Guojun; Malik, Rainer; Cole, John W.; Meschia, James F.; Ross, Owen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins-1 and 6 have been implicated in cerebral ischemia. In addition, genetic variation in LRP1 and LRP6 has been linked with various factors that are related to risk of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the association of LRP1 and LRP6 gene variants with risk of ischemic stroke as part of the Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS). Methods We included a Caucasian series (434 stroke patients, 319 controls) and an African American series (161 stroke patients, 116 controls). Fourteen LRP6 variants and 3 LRP1 variants were genotyped and assessed for association with ischemic stroke. Results In the Caucasian series, significant associations with ischemic stroke were observed for LRP6 rs2075241 (OR:0.42, P=0.023), rs2302685 (OR:0.44, P=0.049), rs7975614 (OR: 0.07, P=0.017), rs10492120 (OR: 0.62, P=0.036), and rs10743980 (OR: 0.66, P=0.037). Risk of ischemic stroke was significantly lower for carriers of any of these five protective LRP6 variants (24.0% of subjects) compared to non-carriers (OR:0.57, P=0.003). The protective association for LRP6 rs2075241 was observed at a similar magnitude across ischemic stroke subtypes, while the effects of rs23022685, rs10492120, and rs10743980 were most apparent for cardioembolic and large vessel stroke. In the African American series, LRP1 rs11172113 was associated with an increased risk of stroke (OR:1.89, P=0.006). Conclusions The results of our preliminary study provide evidence that LRP6 and LRP1 variants may be associated with risk of ischemic stroke. Validation in larger studies is warranted. PMID:26031789

  7. Uptake of lactosylated low-density lipoprotein by galactose-specific receptors in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, M K; Van Berkel, T J

    1990-08-15

    The liver contains two types of galactose receptors, specific for Kupffer and parenchymal cells respectively. These receptors are only expressed in the liver, and therefore are attractive targets for the specific delivery of drugs. We provided low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a particle with a diameter of 23 nm in which a variety of drugs can be incorporated, with terminal galactose residues by lactosylation. Radioiodinated LDL, lactosylated to various extents (60-400 mol of lactose/ mol of LDL), was injected into rats. The plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of radioactivity were correlated with the extent of lactosylation. Highly lactosylated LDL (greater than 300 lactose/LDL) is completely cleared from the blood by liver within 10 min. Pre-injection with N-acetylgalactosamine blocks liver uptake, which indicates that the hepatic recognition sites are galactose-specific. The hepatic uptake occurs mainly by parenchymal and Kupffer cells. At a low degree of lactosylation, approx. 60 lactose/LDL, the specific uptake (ng/mg of cell protein) is 28 times higher in Kupffer cells than in parenchymal cells. However, because of their much larger mass, parenchymal cells are the main site of uptake. At high degrees of lactosylation (greater than 300 lactose/LDL), the specific uptake in Kupffer cells is 70-95 times that in parenchymal cells. Under these conditions, Kupffer cells are, despite their much smaller mass, the main site of uptake. Thus not only the size but also the surface density of galactose on lactosylated LDL is important for the balance of uptake between Kupffer and parenchymal cells. This knowledge should allow us to design particulate galactose-bearing carriers for the rapid transport of various drugs to either parenchymal cells or Kupffer cells.

  8. The UCL low-density lipoprotein receptor gene variant database: pathogenicity update

    PubMed Central

    Futema, Marta; Whittall, Ros; Taylor-Beadling, Alison; Williams, Maggie; den Dunnen, Johan T; Humphries, Steve E

    2017-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolaemia (OMIM 143890) is most frequently caused by variations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Predicting whether novel variants are pathogenic may not be straightforward, especially for missense and synonymous variants. In 2013, the Association of Clinical Genetic Scientists published guidelines for the classification of variants, with categories 1 and 2 representing clearly not or unlikely pathogenic, respectively, 3 representing variants of unknown significance (VUS), and 4 and 5 representing likely to be or clearly pathogenic, respectively. Here, we update the University College London (UCL) LDLR variant database according to these guidelines. Methods PubMed searches and alerts were used to identify novel LDLR variants for inclusion in the database. Standard in silico tools were used to predict potential pathogenicity. Variants were designated as class 4/5 only when the predictions from the different programs were concordant and as class 3 when predictions were discordant. Results The updated database (http://www.lovd.nl/LDLR) now includes 2925 curated variants, representing 1707 independent events. All 129 nonsense variants, 337 small frame-shifting and 117/118 large rearrangements were classified as 4 or 5. Of the 795 missense variants, 115 were in classes 1 and 2, 605 in class 4 and 75 in class 3. 111/181 intronic variants, 4/34 synonymous variants and 14/37 promoter variants were assigned to classes 4 or 5. Overall, 112 (7%) of reported variants were class 3. Conclusions This study updates the LDLR variant database and identifies a number of reported VUS where additional family and in vitro studies will be required to confirm or refute their pathogenicity. PMID:27821657

  9. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    PubMed

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  10. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: Two lifetime journeys of lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Reyhana; Mulder, Monique T; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Williams, Monique; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E

    We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue-hua; Yang, Chuan-hua; Li, Wei; Wu, Sai; Meng, Xian-qing; Li, Dong-na

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris (TT) against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction in vitro. HUVECs were pre-incubated for 60 min with TT (30 and 3 μg/mL respectively) or 10(-5) mol/L valsartan (as positive controls) and then the injured endothelium model was established by applying 100 μg/mL ox-LDL for 24 h. Cell viability of HUVECs was observed by real-time cell electronic sensing assay and apoptosis rate by Annexin V/PI staining. The cell migration assay was performed with a transwell insert system. Cytoskeleton remodeling was observed by immunofluorescence assay. The content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometer. Key genes associated with the metabolism of ox-LDL were chosen for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the possible mechanism of TT against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. TT suppressed ox-LDL-induced HUVEC proliferation and apoptosis rates significantly (41.1% and 43.5% after treatment for 3 and 38 h, respectively; P<0.05). It also prolonged the HUVEC survival time and postponed the cell's decaying stage (from the 69th h to over 100 h). According to the immunofluorescence and transwell insert system assay, TT improved the endothelial cytoskeletal network, and vinculin expression and increased cell migration. Additionally, TT regulated of the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (P<0.05). Both 30 and 3 μg/mL TT demonstrated similar efficacy to valsartan. TT normalized the increased mRNA expression of PI3Kα and Socs3. It also decreased mRNA expression of Akt1, AMPKα1, JAK2, LepR and STAT3 induced by ox-LDL. The most notable changes were JAK2, LepR, PI3Kα, Socs3 and STAT3. TT

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid increases low-density lipoprotein binding, uptake and degradation in isolated hamster hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bouscarel, B; Fromm, H; Ceryak, S; Cassidy, M M

    1991-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), in contrast to both chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), its 7 alpha-epimer, and lithocholic acid, enhanced receptor-dependent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and degradation in isolated hamster hepatocytes. The increase in cell-associated LDL was time- and concentration-dependent, with a maximum effect observed at approx. 60 min with 1 mM-UDCA. This increase was not associated with a detergent effect of UDCA, as no significant modifications were observed either in the cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase or in Trypan Blue exclusion. The effect of UDCA was not due to a modification of the LDL particle, but rather was receptor-related. UDCA (1 mM) maximally increased the number of 125I-LDL-binding sites (Bmax.) by 35%, from 176 to 240 ng/mg of protein, without a significant modification of the binding affinity. Furthermore, following proteolytic degradation of the LDL receptor with Pronase, specific LDL binding decreased to the level of non-specific binding, and the effect of UDCA was abolished. Conversely, the trihydroxy 7 beta-hydroxy bile acid ursocholic acid and its 7 alpha-epimer, cholic acid, induced a significant decrease in LDL binding by approx. 15%. The C23 analogue of UDCA (nor-UDCA) and CDCA did not affect LDL binding. On the other hand, UDCA conjugated with either glycine (GUDCA) or taurine (TUDCA), increased LDL binding to the same extent as did the free bile acid. The half maximum time (t1/2) to reach the full effect was 1-2 min for UDCA and TUDCA, while GUDCA had a much slower t1/2 of 8.3 min. Ketoconazole (50 microM), an antifungal agent, increased LDL binding, but this effect was not additive when tested in the presence of 0.7 mM-UDCA. The results of the studies indicate that, in isolated hamster hepatocytes, the UDCA-induced increase in receptor-dependent LDL binding and uptake represents a direct effect of this bile acid. The action of the bile acid is closely related to its specific structural conformation, since

  13. The Potential Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds against Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    The exact mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis in humans remains elusive, but one theory hypothesizes that this deleterious process results from the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Research suggests that foods rich in dietary phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity can mitigate the extent of LDL oxidation in vivo. With regard to the different classes of flavonoids, there appears to be a structurefunction relationship between the various moieties/constituents attached to the flavonoids' three ring system and their impact at retarding LDL oxidation. This article summarizes the findings to date of both in vitro and in vivo studies using foods or phenolic extracts isolated from foodstuffs at inhibiting the incidence of LDL oxidation. Three bases: SCOPUS, Web Science, and PubMed were used for search. An often used method for the determination of antioxidant properties of natural phenolic compounds is the LDL oxidation assay. LDLs are isolated from human plasma and their oxidation is induced by Cu2+ ions or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The sample is incubated with a phenolic extract or individual/isolated phenolic compounds. LDL oxidation is then monitored by various chemical methods (e.g., measurement of the generation of conjugated dienes and trienes). This technique confirmed the antioxidant properties of several extracts as obtained from plant material (e.g., grapes, berries, orange, grapefruit, coffee, tea, chocolate, olives, nuts) as well as the individual phenolic compounds (e.g., luteolinidin, apigenidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin). Several studies in vivo confirmed protective effects of phenolic compounds against LDL oxidation. They covered the healthy subjects with hyperlipidaemia, overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, heavy smokers, patients receiving haemodialysis, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The studies comprise

  14. Atorvastatin Restores Endothelial Function in Normocholesterolemic Smokers Independent of Changes in Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Joshua A.; Liao, James K.; Hurley, Shauna; Garrett, Leslie A.; Chui, Daoshan; Mitra, Debi; Creager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking impairs endothelial function. Hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) may favorably affect endothelial function via nonlipid mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that statins would improve endothelial function independent of changes in lipids in cigarette smokers. Twenty normocholesterolemic cigarette smokers and 20 matched healthy control subjects were randomized to atorvastatin 40 mg daily or placebo for 4 weeks, washed out for 4 weeks, and then crossed-over to the other treatment. Baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were similar in smokers and healthy subjects, 103±22 versus 95±27 mg/dL, respectively (P=NS) and were reduced similarly in smokers and control subjects by atorvastatin, to 55±30 and 58±20 mg/dL, respectively (P=NS). Vascular ultrasonography was used to determine brachial artery, flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent, and nitroglycerin-mediated, endothelium-independent vasodilation. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms that may account for changes in endothelial function, skin biopsy specimens were assayed for eNOS mRNA, eNOS activity, and nitrotyrosine. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was less in smokers than nonsmoking control subjects during placebo treatment, 8.0±0.6% versus 12.1±1.1%, (P=0.003). Atorvastatin increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation in smokers to 10.5±1.3% (P=0.017 versus placebo) but did not change endothelium-dependent vasodilation in control subjects (to 11.0±0.8%, P=NS). Endothelium-independent vasodilation did not differ between groups during placebo treatment and was not significantly affected by atorvastatin. Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate any association between baseline lipid levels or the change in lipid levels and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Cutaneous nitrotyrosine levels and skin microvessel eNOS mRNA, but not ENOS activity, were increased in smokers compared with controls but unaffected by atorvastatin treatment. Atorvastatin

  15. Different responses to oxidized low-density lipoproteins in human polarized macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake by macrophages plays an important role in foam cell formation. It has been suggested the presence of heterogeneous subsets of macrophage, such as M1 and M2, in human atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate which types of macrophages contribute to atherogenesis, we performed cDNA microarray analysis to determine oxLDL-induced transcriptional alterations of each subset of macrophages. Results Human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized toward the M1 or M2 subset, followed by treatment with oxLDL. Then gene expression levels during oxLDL treatment in each subset of macrophages were evaluated by cDNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In terms of high-ranking upregulated genes and functional ontologies, the alterations during oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages were similar to those in nonpolarized macrophages (M0). Molecular network analysis showed that most of the molecules in the oxLDL-induced highest scoring molecular network of M1 macrophages were directly or indirectly related to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed commonly upregulated genes in all subset of macrophages, some of which contained antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoter regions. A cluster of genes that were specifically upregulated in M1 macrophages included those encoding molecules related to nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-8 after oxLDL treatment in M2 macrophages was markedly lower than those in M0 and M1 cells. HMOX1 gene expression levels were almost the same in all 3 subsets of macrophages even after oxLDL treatment. Conclusions The present study demonstrated transcriptional alterations in polarized macrophages during oxLDL treatment. The data suggested that oxLDL uptake may affect TGF-β1- and NF

  16. microRNA-185 modulates low density lipoprotein receptor expression as a key posttranscriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huajun; Zhang, Jin; Du, Yu; Jia, Xiaojian; Yang, Fan; Si, Shuyi; Wang, Li; Hong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mediates endocytosis of LDL particles and is important in maintaining plasma cholesterol levels, thus its expression is under extensive regulation at multiple levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here, we identified microRNA-185 (miR-185) as a novel direct posttranscriptional regulator of LDLR and an indirect LDLR modulator through KSRP in hepatic cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we detected the effect of predicted LDLR-targeting miRNAs and found that overexpression of miR-185 repressed LDLR expression and LDL uptake in HepG2 cells by 62.4 ± 6.0% (p = 7.0 × 10(-5)) and 32.5 ± 6.0% (p = 7.7 × 10(-4)) respectively, through directly targeting LDLR 3'UTR. Unexpectedly, the antisense inhibitor of miR-185 had similar repression effect on LDLR although it reduced the association of endogenous miR-185 with LDLR mRNA. Further experiments revealed that KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), one of the LDLR-destabilizing RBPs, is also a target of miR-185. KSRP silencing reversed the repression effects of miR-185-inhibitor on LDLR. Thus miR-185 regulates LDLR expression not only through directly targeting but also by a RBP-involved indirect pathway. Finally, the in vivo results showed that miR-185-inhibitor upregulated hepatic LDLR expression and correlated with a decrease in plasma cholesterol level and arterial plaque area in ApoE KO mice. These findings reveal that miR-185 controls cholesterol homeostasis as a key posttranscriptional LDLR modulator in hepatic cells, providing novel insight into the regulatory mechanism for LDLR expression and the anti-atherosclerosis effect of miR-185-inhibitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and β-glycerophosphate synergistically induce endothelial progenitor cell ossification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Liu, Zhi-zhong; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kong, Yu-hua; Kang, Xi-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ability of ox-LDL to induce ossification of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro and explored whether oxidative stress, especially hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), participate in the ossific process. Methods: Rat bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs) were cultured in endothelial growth medium supplemented with VEGF (40 ng/mL) and bFGF (10 ng/mL). The cells were treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 5 μg/mL) and/or β-glycerophosphate (β-GP, 10 mmol/L). Calcium content and Von Kossa staining were used as the measures of calcium deposition. Ossific gene expression was determined using RT-PCR. The expression of osteocalcin (OCN) was detected with immunofluorescence. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed using colorimetric assay. Intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured with flow cytometry. Results: BMEPCs exhibited a spindle-like shape. The percentage of cells that expressed the cell markers of EPCs CD34, CD133 and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) were 46.2%±5.8%, 23.5%±4.0% and 74.3%±8.8%, respectively. Among the total cells, 78.3%±4.2% were stained with endothelial-specific fluorescence. Treatment of BMEPCs with ox-LDL significantly promoted calcium deposition, which was further significantly enhanced by co-treatment with β-GP. The same treatments significantly increased the gene expression of core-binding factor a-1 (cbfa-1) and OCN, while decreased the gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). The treatments also significantly enhanced the activity of ALP, but did not affect the number of OCN+ cells. Furthermore, the treatments significantly increased ROS and activated the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In all these effects, ox-LDL acted synergistically with β-GP. Conclusion: Ox-LDL and β-GP synergistically induce ossification of BMEPCs, in which an oxidizing mechanism is involved. PMID:22036865

  18. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and β-glycerophosphate synergistically induce endothelial progenitor cell ossification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Zhi-zhong; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kong, Yu-hua; Kang, Xi-xiong

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the ability of ox-LDL to induce ossification of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro and explored whether oxidative stress, especially hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), participate in the ossific process. Rat bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs) were cultured in endothelial growth medium supplemented with VEGF (40 ng/mL) and bFGF (10 ng/mL). The cells were treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 5 μg/mL) and/or β-glycerophosphate (β-GP, 10 mmol/L). Calcium content and Von Kossa staining were used as the measures of calcium deposition. Ossific gene expression was determined using RT-PCR. The expression of osteocalcin (OCN) was detected with immunofluorescence. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed using colorimetric assay. Intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured with flow cytometry. BMEPCs exhibited a spindle-like shape. The percentage of cells that expressed the cell markers of EPCs CD34, CD133 and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) were 46.2%±5.8%, 23.5%±4.0% and 74.3%±8.8%, respectively. Among the total cells, 78.3%±4.2% were stained with endothelial-specific fluorescence. Treatment of BMEPCs with ox-LDL significantly promoted calcium deposition, which was further significantly enhanced by co-treatment with β-GP. The same treatments significantly increased the gene expression of core-binding factor a-1 (cbfa-1) and OCN, while decreased the gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). The treatments also significantly enhanced the activity of ALP, but did not affect the number of OCN(+) cells. Furthermore, the treatments significantly increased ROS and activated the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In all these effects, ox-LDL acted synergistically with β-GP. Ox-LDL and β-GP synergistically induce ossification of BMEPCs, in which an oxidizing mechanism is involved.

  19. Remnant cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure as mediators from obesity to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-02-13

    Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. The increased IHD risk because of obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest that there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Gholamin, Sharareh; Eskandari, Ali; Mohsenian, Nakta; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Delazar, Abbas; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Argani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.

  1. PFOS induced lipid metabolism disturbances in BALB/c mice through inhibition of low density lipoproteins excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-04-01

    Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.

  2. Balancing Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction and Hepatotoxicity With Lomitapide Mesylate and Mipomersen in Patients With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Won, Jane I; Zhang, Jun; Tecson, Kristen M; McCullough, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is an autosomal codominant disorder manifested by high concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and premature cardiovascular disease. Despite conventional lipid-lowering therapy, LDL cholesterol levels remain elevated in patients with HoFH; these patients are considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular events. In 2012-2013, two drugs with novel mechanisms of action were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HoFH: lomitapide mesylate and mipomersen. Both of these treatments reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein a, and triglyceride levels. This review describes the clinical tradeoffs in efficacy and hepatotoxicity of these drugs in two cases of HoFH.

  3. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  4. Z-Scan Analysis: a New Method to Determine the Oxidative State of Low-Density Lipoprotein and Its Association with Multiple Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Maria Camila Pruper; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins; Giampaoli, Viviane; da Conceição Quintaneiro Aubin, Elisete; de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Milena Maria; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira

    2016-04-01

    The great atherogenic potential of oxidized low-density lipoprotein has been widely described in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the state of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human plasma measured by the Z-scan technique has an association with different cardiometabolic biomarkers. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B, paraoxonase-1, and glucose were analyzed using standard commercial kits, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was estimated using the Friedewald equation. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect electronegative low-density lipoprotein. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein sizes were determined by Lipoprint® system. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the non-linear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solution. Principal component analysis and correlations were used respectively to resize the data from the sample and test association between the θ parameter, measured with the Z-scan technique, and the principal component. A total of 63 individuals, from both sexes, with mean age 52 years (±11), being overweight and having high levels of total cholesterol and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, were enrolled in this study. A positive correlation between the θ parameter and more anti-atherogenic pattern for cardiometabolic biomarkers together with a negative correlation for an atherogenic pattern was found. Regarding the parameters related with an atherogenic low-density lipoprotein profile, the θ parameter was negatively correlated with a more atherogenic pattern. By using Z-scan measurements, we were able to find an association between oxidized low-density lipoprotein state and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers in samples from individuals with different cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. In vitro production of beta-very low density lipoproteins and small, dense low density lipoproteins in mildly hypertriglyceridemic plasma: role of activities of lecithin:cholester acyltransferase, cholesterylester transfer proteins and lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Chung, B H; Segrest, J P; Franklin, F

    1998-12-01

    As a model for the formation of beta-very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and small, dense LDL by the intraplasma metabolic activities in vivo, lipoproteins in fresh plasma were interacted in vitro with endogenous lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterylester transfer proteins (CETP) and subsequently with purified lipoprotein lipase (LpL). The LCAT and CETP reactions in a mildly hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) plasma at 37 degrees C for 18 h resulted in (1) esterification of about 45% plasma unesterified cholesterol (UC), (2) a marked increase in cholesterylester (CE) (+129%) and a decrease in triglyceride (TG) (-45%) in VLDL, and (3) a marked increase of TG (+ 341%) with a small net decrease of CE (-3.6%) in LDL, causing a significant alteration in the TG/CE of VLDL (from 8.0 to 1.9) and of LDL (from 0.20 to 0.93). The LDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma is larger and more buoyant than that in control plasma. In vitro lipolysis of control and LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma by LpL, which hydrolyzed >90% of VLDL-TG and about 50-60% of LDL-TG, converted most of VLDL in control plasma (>85%) but less than half (40%) of VLDL in LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into the IDL-LDL density fraction and transformed the large, buoyant LDL in the LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma into particles smaller and denser than those in the control plasma. The remnants that accumulated in the VLDL density region of the postlipolysis LCAT and CETP-reacted plasma contained apo B-100 and E but little or no detectable apo Cs and consisted of particles having pre-beta and beta-electrophoretic mobilities. The inhibition of LCAT during incubation of plasma, which lessened the extent of alteration in VLDL and LDL core lipids, increased the extent of lipolytic removal of VLDL from the VLDL density region but lowered the extent of alteration in the size and density of LDL. The LCAT, CETP and/or LpL-mediated alterations in the density of LDL in normolipidemic fasting plasma were less pronounced

  6. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714; Kim, Sang Doo

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foammore » cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.« less

  7. Low-density lipoprotein transport through an arterial wall under hyperthermia and hypertension conditions--An analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Iasiello, Marcello; Vafai, Kambiz; Andreozzi, Assunta; Bianco, Nicola

    2016-01-25

    An analytical solution for Low-Density Lipoprotein transport through an arterial wall under hyperthermia conditions is established in this work. A four-layer model is used to characterize the arterial wall. Transport governing equations are obtained as a combination between Staverman-Kedem-Katchalsky membrane equations and volume-averaged porous media equations. Temperature and solute transport fields are coupled by means of Ludwig-Soret effect. Results are in excellent agreement with numerical and analytical literature data under isothermal conditions, and with numerical literature data for the hyperthermia case. Effects of hypertension combined with hyperthermia, are also analyzed in this work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro studies of PBT Nonwoven Fabrics adsorbent for the removal of low density lipoprotein from hyperlipemia plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Zhong, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin

    2011-06-01

    Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.

  9. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor mRNA in circulating human monocytes: its up-regulation by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, K; Ishibashi, T; Nagata, K; Seino, Y; Wada, Y; Sakamoto, T; Matsuoka, R; Teramoto, T; Sekimata, M; Homma, Y; Maruyama, Y

    2001-04-01

    Although very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor expression by macrophages has been shown in the vascular wall, it is not clear whether or not circulating monocytes express the VLDL receptor. We investigated the expression of VLDL receptor mRNA in human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing after subcloning of PCR product. VLDL receptor mRNA was detected both in peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Expression of VLDL receptor mRNA was upregulated by hypoxia in monocytes, whereas treatment with oxidized LDL, interleukin-1beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 did not affect the levels of VLDL receptor mRNA in monocytes and macrophages. The present study shows a novel response of VLDL receptor mRNA to hypoxia, suggesting a role for VLDL receptor in the metabolism of lipoproteins in the vascular wall and the development of atherosclerosis.

  10. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis. PMID:21197233

  12. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in amenorrheic athletes: effects of endogenous hormone status and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Friday, K E; Drinkwater, B L; Bruemmer, B; Chesnut, C; Chait, A

    1993-12-01

    To determine the interactive effects of hormones, exercise, and diet on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, serum estrogen and progesterone levels, nutrient intake, and plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 24 hypoestrogenic amenorrheic and 44 eumenorrheic female athletes. When compared to eumenorrheic athletes, amenorrheic athletes had higher levels of plasma cholesterol (5.47 +/- 0.17 vs. 4.84 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.003), triglyceride (0.75 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mmol/L, P = 0.046), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; 3.16 +/- 0.15 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.09 mmol/L, P = 0.037), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; 1.95 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.73 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.007), and HDL2 (0.84 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.02) cholesterol. Plasma LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios, very low-density lipoprotein and HDL3 cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I and A-II levels were similar in the two groups. Amenorrheic athletes consumed less fat than eumenorrheic subjects (52 +/- 5 vs. 75 +/- 3 g/day, P = 0.02), but similar amounts of calories, cholesterol, protein, carbohydrate, and ethanol. HDL cholesterol levels in amenorrheic subjects correlated positively with the percent of dietary calories from fat (r = 0.42, n = 23, P = 0.045) but negatively with the percent from protein (r = -0.49, n = 23, P = 0.017). Thus, exercise-induced amenorrhea may adversely affect cardiovascular risk by increasing plasma LDL and total cholesterol. However, cardioprotective elevations in plasma HDL and HDL2 cholesterol may neutralize the risk of cardiovascular disease in amenorrheic athletes.

  13. Direct isolation of labeled low density lipoproteins for the determination of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity.

    PubMed

    Sich, D; Saïdi, Y; Egloff, M; Giral, P; Gautier, V; Federspiel, M C; Turpin, G; Beucler, I

    1997-10-31

    The measurement of the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), is of high clinical interest and this study reports the use of a direct LDL isolation (d-LDL) technique to determine in one step the amount of radiolabeled cholesteryls esters ([3H]-CE) transferred from exogenous HDL3 to LDL, avoiding the conveniences of the usually used ultracentrifugation or precipitation of apo-B containing lipoproteins in the CETP methodologies. The d-LDL technique providing a specific immunoprecipitation of VLDL, IDL and HDL allowed to directly determine the [3H]-CE transferred on LDL (d-[3H]-CE-LDL). Two methodologies were assayed for the CETP activity using either exogenous or endogenous lipoproteins, and the results with the d-LDL technique were compared with those obtained using the ultracentrifugation (u-[3H]-CE-LDL) considered as the reference method. The intra- and inter-assays were similar in both techniques for the two CETP activity assays. Strong positive correlations were established between values obtained with d-[3H]-CE-LDL and u-[3H]-CE-LDL isolation procedures for CETP activities with exogenous or endogenous lipoproteins (r = 0.972; p = 0.0001 and r = 0.965; p = 0.0001 respectively). In conclusion, the d-LDL technique represents an easy and accurate procedure to measure directly, in normotriglyceridemic plasmas, the amount of [3H]-CE transferred from HDL to LDL by the CETP.

  14. Antagonism of Secreted PCSK9 Increases Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Expression in HepG2 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Markey C.; Kwon, Hyock Joo; Chen, Chiyuan

    2009-07-10

    PCSK9 is a secreted protein that degrades low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in liver by binding to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGF-A) domain of the LDLR. It is not known whether PCSK9 causes degradation of LDLRs within the secretory pathway or following secretion and reuptake via endocytosis. Here we show that a mutation in the LDLR EGF-A domain associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, H306Y, results in increased sensitivity to exogenous PCSK9-mediated cellular degradation because of enhanced PCSK9 binding affinity. The crystal structure of the PCSK9-EGF-A(H306Y) complex shows that Tyr-306 forms a hydrogen bond with Asp-374 in PCSK9 at neutralmore » pH, which strengthens the interaction with PCSK9. To block secreted PCSK9 activity, LDLR (H306Y) subfragments were added to the medium of HepG2 cells stably overexpressing wild-type PCSK9 or gain-of-function PCSK9 mutants associated with hypercholesterolemia (D374Y or S127R). These subfragments blocked secreted PCSK9 binding to cell surface LDLRs and resulted in the recovery of LDLR levels to those of control cells. We conclude that PCSK9 acts primarily as a secreted factor to cause LDLR degradation. These studies support the concept that pharmacological inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR interaction extracellularly will increase hepatic LDLR expression and lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels.« less

  15. Endothelial NOS-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)- terminal kinase by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, Y. M.; Levonen, A. L.; Moellering, D.; Ramachandran, A.; Patel, R. P.; Jo, H.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to activate a number of signal transduction pathways in endothelial cells. Among these are the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), also known as stress-activated protein kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinase) determine cell survival in response to environmental stress. Interestingly, JNK signaling involves redox-sensitive mechanisms and is activated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both NADPH oxidases, nitric oxide synthases (NOS), peroxides, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The role of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the activation of JNK in response to oxLDL has not been examined. Herein, we show that on exposure of endothelial cells to oxLDL, both ERK and JNK are activated through independent signal transduction pathways. A key role of eNOS activation through a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent mechanism leading to phosphorylation of eNOS is demonstrated for oxLDL-dependent activation of JNK. Moreover, we show that activation of ERK by oxLDL is critical in protection against the cytotoxicity of oxLDL.

  16. Modulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing by the low density lipoprotein receptor family.

    PubMed

    Cam, Judy A; Bu, Guojun

    2006-08-18

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) accumulation in the brain is an early, toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta is produced by proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), by beta- and gamma-secretases. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that alterations in APP cellular trafficking and localization directly impact its processing to Abeta. Recent studies have shown that members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, including LRP, LRP1B, SorLA/LR11, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) receptor 2, interact with APP and regulate its endocytic trafficking. Another common feature of these receptors is their ability to bind apoE, which exists in three isoforms in humans and the presence of the epsilon4 allele represents a genetic risk factor for AD. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the function of these apoE receptors with a focus on their role in APP trafficking and processing. Knowledge of the interactions between these distinct low-density lipoprotein receptor family members and APP may ultimately influence future therapies for AD.

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein and upregulated expression of osteonectin and bone sialoprotein in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Effat; Samani, Keihan Ghatreh; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis and activation of genes that lead to increased deposition of proteins in the extracellular matrix. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteonectin are proteins involved in the initiation and progression of vascular calcification. To investigate the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein on osteonectin and BSP expression in human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HA/VSMCs). We treated HA/VSMCs with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and measured the relative expression of osteonectin and BSP genes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We investigated the protein levels produced by each gene using the western blotting technique. oxLDL increased osteonectin and BSP levels (mean [SD], 9.1 [2.1]-fold and 4.2 [0.75]-fold, respectively) after 48 hours. The western blotting results also confirmed the increased levels of osteonectin and BSP. oxLDL may enhance vascular calcification by promoting the expression of osteonectin and BSP. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  18. Effects of nonesterified fatty acids on the synthesis and assembly of very low density lipoprotein in bovine hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Li, Xinwei; Li, Yu; Guan, Yuan; Song, Yuxiang; Yin, Liheng; Chen, Hui; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Juxiong; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-03-01

    High serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which may affect the synthesis and assembly of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), are associated with fatty liver during the early lactation period. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NEFA on the synthesis and assembly of VLDL in bovine hepatocytes. Bovine hepatocytes were cultured and treated with different concentrations of NEFA. The mRNA expression of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) was significantly lower in the NEFA treatment groups than in the control group (0mM NEFA). The abundance of mRNA from microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was significantly lower in the medium- and high-dose NEFA treatment groups. The protein expression of ApoB100, ApoE, MTP, and LDLR was found to be significantly and dose-dependently decreased in groups of NEFA-treated hepatocytes. The VLDL content was also significantly decreased in the NEFA-treated hepatocytes. Large amounts of triglycerides accumulated in the hepatocytes. These results indicate that NEFA significantly inhibits the expression of ApoB100, ApoE, MTP, and LDLR, thereby decreasing the synthesis and assembly of VLDL and inducing TG accumulation in bovine hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism requires assessment of small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C).

    PubMed

    Saric, Maida Seferovic; Jurasic, Miljenka-Jelena; Sovic, Slavica; Kranjcec, Bojana; Glivetic, Tatjana; Demarin, Vida

    2017-09-26

    Usually both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are related to the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease development. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism has been widely investigated but the findings remain controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo) in comparison to controls and to determine the association of SHypo and dyslipidemia in attempt to find importance of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) in atherosclerosis. In this study we included 100 women, aged 30 to 70 years that were divided into subgroups according to their age. According to the values of levels of thyroid hormones they were divided into euthyroid (control) group (n = 64) and (newly discovered) subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo) group (n = 36). A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid profile, including small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) were determined. Body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. History of the current illness, medication, alcohol consumption and cigarettes smoking were noted. Changed lipid profile as well as elevated triglycerides and sdLDL-C were observed in the group with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to the control group. It is important to determine serum lipid levels, especially serum sdLDL-C levels at an early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism, since they represent atherogenic LDL particles and are better indicators for dyslipidaemia in subclinical hypothyroidism and the development of atherosclerosis with potential complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

  20. Triglycerides and small dense low density lipoprotein in the discrimination of coronary heart disease risk in South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Patel, J V; Caslake, M J; Vyas, A; Cruickshank, J K; Prabhakaran, D; Bhatnagar, D; Reddy, K S; Lip, G Y H; Mackness, M I; Hughes, E A; Durrington, P N

    2010-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is exceptionally prevalent amongst globally dispersed migrant groups originating from the Indian subcontinent, but the contribution of dyslipidaemia to their increased risk remains poorly defined. Fasting lipids and lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (Apo), low density lipoprotein (LDL) diameter and oxidised LDL were measured amongst rural Indians in India (n=294) and their migrant contemporaries in the UK (n=242). The performance of qualitative and quantitative measures of lipid metabolism were compared in the discrimination of WHO defined metabolic risk and raised Framingham CHD risk scores (>15%) using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. LDL diameter was correlated with triglycerides (R(2)=0.12, P<0.001) and with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (R(2)=0.15, P<0.001) in both groups. Migrants had less small dense LDL (95% CI: 12.5-14.2%) vs. rural Indians (15.7-17.2, P<0.05). On ROC analysis, triglycerides were the only consistent discriminators of metabolic and CHD risk scores (all P< or =0.001). Apo B was also a strong indicator of raised CHD risk scores. Irrespective of site, individuals with raised triglycerides also had higher total cholesterol and Apo B, denser LDL, lower HDL and more oxidised LDL (all P< or =0.01). Fasting triglycerides reflect both qualitative and quantitative aspects of lipid metabolism, and are a comprehensive discriminator of CHD risk in this South Asian population. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Haplotypes identified by 10 DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene locus.

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, M J; Langenhoven, E; Retief, A E; Seftel, H C; Henderson, H E; Weich, H F

    1989-01-01

    Ten useful two allele restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene were used for haplotype analysis in 45 unrelated familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) patients, 60 normal controls, and 32 FH homozygotes, all of whom were white Afrikaners. Pedigree analysis in 27 informative heterozygous FH and 23 normal families has shown the segregation of at least 17 haplotypes in the normal population (111 chromosomes) compared to a predominant association of two of these haplotypes with the disease in the FH subjects. This association was further confirmed in 32 FH homozygotes, indicating at least two 'founder' members for the disease in the Afrikaner population. Recombination events were not detected in any of the families studied and we thus conclude that the haplotypes associated with FH function as specific markers for the disease and will allow presymptomatic diagnosis in affected families. PMID:2565980

  2. A common factor suppresses thickening in young women with malar area port wine stains and delays low density lipoprotein elevation: is it estrogen?

    PubMed

    Klapman, M H; Sosa, V B; Yao, J F

    2014-06-01

    Port wine stains in the malar area of the face can develop thickening in early adult life. We began a study with a hypothesis that this thickening can be associated with elevation of low density lipoprotein. In a retrospective review, we divided 53 subjects with malar port wine stains into 4 groups, adults 25-39 years of age with thickening, that age group without thickening, adults 40+ years of age with thickening, and that age group without thickening. Low density lipoprotein levels in the subjects were compared to age and sex matched controls randomly selected from the general Dermatology clinic. The younger subjects with thickening demonstrated significantly higher low density lipoprotein levels than their controls (p .0082) and without thickening lower low density lipoprotein levels than their controls with great significance (p .00058). The subjects without thickening also consisted mainly of women. The low density lipoprotein levels in the older age groups, whether thickened or not, demonstrated no significant difference in low density lipoprotein levels between subjects and controls. This led to a new hypothesis that there is a factor in a subgroup of young adult women with malar port wine stains that suppresses thickening and delays the elevation of low density lipoprotein and that this factor might be estrogen. The implications of this hypothesis are that it could define a marker for a subset of the population that might be protected from the diseases associated with early elevation of low density lipoprotein and provide a source of cutaneous tissue for studying the basic science of this protection (although limited by cosmetic considerations). Future laboratory research to test the new hypothesis might include testing blood of women with malar port wine stains with or without thickening for estrogen and other sex hormones. It might also include skin biopsies to study receptors for estrogen, other sex hormones, and angiogenic factors in malar port wine

  3. Protective Effects of Let-7a and Let-7b on Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Endothelial Cell Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Mei-hua; Zhang, Yi-wen; Lou, Xiao-ya; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong-hao

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. The activation of LOX-1 by oxLDL stimulates the apoptosis and dysfunction of endothelial cells, and contributes to atherogenesis. However, the regulatory factors for LOX-1 are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expressions at a post-transcriptional level. The let-7 family is the second microRNA been discovered, which plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. Let-7a and let-7b were predicted to target LOX-1 3′-UTR and be highly expressed in endothelial cells. The present study demonstrated that LOX-1 was a target of let-7a and let-7b. They inhibited the expression of LOX-1 by targeting the positions of 310-316 in LOX-1 3′-UTR. Over-expression of let-7a and let-7b inhibited the oxLDL-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, NO deficiency, ROS over-production, LOX-1 upregulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) downregulation. Moreover, we found that oxLDL treatment induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, IκB degradation and PKB dephosphorylation. Let-7a or let-7b over-expression attenuated these alterations significantly. The present study may provide a new insight into the protective properties of let-7a and let-7b in preventing the endothelial dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:25247304

  4. Lipoprotein lipase-dependent binding and uptake of low density lipoproteins by THP-1 monocytes and macrophages: possible involvement of lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Castel, Susanna; Vilaró, Senen; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2004-11-08

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by cells in the artery wall and can mediate binding of lipoproteins to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), resulting in endocytosis (the bridging function). Active, dimeric LPL may dissociate to inactive monomers, the main form found in plasma. We have studied binding/internalization of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), mediated by bovine LPL, using THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. Uptake of (125)I-LDL was similar in monocytes and macrophages and was not affected by the LDL-receptor family antagonist receptor-associated protein (RAP) or by the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. In contrast, uptake depended on HSPG and on membrane cholesterol. Incubation in the presence of dexamethasone increased the endogenous production of LPL by the cells and also increased LPL-mediated binding of LDL to the cell surfaces. Monomeric LPL was bound to the cells mostly in a heparin-resistant fashion. We conclude that the uptake of LDL mediated by LPL dimers is receptor-independent and involves cholesterol-enriched membrane areas (lipid rafts). Dimeric and monomeric LPL differ in their ability to mediate binding/uptake of LDL, probably due to different mechanisms for binding/internalization.

  5. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2008-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

  6. Concentration, composition and apolipoprotein B species of very low density lipoprotein subfractions from normolipidemic and hypertriglyceridemic humans.

    PubMed

    Bittolo Bon, G; Cazzolato, G; Zago, S; Avogaro, P

    1985-01-01

    Lipoproteins in the d less than 1.006 g/ml density range obtained form 13 healthy normolipidemic subjects and from 15 patients affected by primary endogenous hypertriglyceridemia after 14-h fasting were subfractionated by filtration in Biogel A-15 M columns. The mass values and chemical composition of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subfractions 1 and 2 thus obtained were studied. In each subfraction the behavior of apolipoprotein B (Apo B) was tested by sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. VLDL2 was higher and richer in cholesterol and proteins than VLDL1, while the percentage content of triglycerides was lower. In hypertriglyceridemic patients both VLDL1 and VLDL2 were higher than in normolipidemic subjects, the difference being particularly evident for VLDL1. In both VLDL1 and VLDL2 of nearly all the subjects studied the presence in electrophoretic gels of a large Apo B-100 band and of a minor Apo B-48 band with the appropriate mobility of lymph chylomicrons was detected. The Apo B-100/Apo B-48 ratio was about 6 in VLDL1 and 24 in VLDL2. A trend of a reduced Apo B-100/Apo B-48 ratio was observed in VLDL1 of hypertriglyceridemic patients.

  7. [Removal of low density lipoproteins on dextrans sulfate in 2 patients with familial monogenic hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Aubert, I; Bombail, D; Erlich, D; Goy-Loeper, J; Chanu, B; Bussel, A; Rouffy, J

    1988-01-01

    Two patients-a 32 year old man with severe heterozygote familial hyperlipoproteinemia (FH) and a 9 years old girl with homozygote FH-were treated over eight months by LDL apheresis using dextran sulfate cellulose column (Liposorber, Kaneka, Japon). Plasma was separated from blood cells by filtration (TPE Cobe) or centrifugation (2,997 Cobe) through peripheral veins. An IV bolus of 10 IU/kg heparin was given together with local anti-coagulation with 55 g/l sodium citrate, 20 g/l citric acid at a ratio 1:25. Albumin supply was unnecessary. Plasma was removed every 2 weeks through liposorber LA 40 in the adult, and every week through liposorber LA 40 then 2 LA 15 in the child, mean plasma volume exchanged being 1.2 litres in the adult and 1.5 litres par session in the child. the DSC column removed on the average 60 p. 100 of total cholesterol (TC) and 65 p. 100 of LDL.C. Apoproteins B levels were reduced by 58 p. 100. After each procedure there was a rapid increase in lipid levels to about the 80 to 90 p. 100 of pretreatment value. In the adult, we obtained levels of TC of less than 300 mg/dl with exchanges every 2 weeks combined with an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (40 mg/day); in the child, with exchanges every week the same inhibitor did not permit a prolongation of the interval between 2 aphereses. this was confirmed by elution of DSC column bound lipoproteins by 0.1 mol/l NaCl solution. However, the average removal of HDL.C and apoprotein A1 was respectively 31 p. 100 and 32 p. 100. Triglycerides levels were also reduced (48 p. 100). this was good in both cases. Using the filtration technic, hypotension was reported; this side effect did not appear with centrifugation. In the child, we observed immediate type reactions: nasal obstruction, headache and abdominal pain. The change in plasma protein concentration was caused by dilution and/or non specific absorption. LDL apheresis alone or combined with an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor is a safe technic, simple to

  8. Roles of the low density lipoprotein receptor and related receptors in inhibition of lipoprotein(a) internalization by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    PubMed

    Romagnuolo, Rocco; Scipione, Corey A; Marcovina, Santica M; Gemin, Matthew; Seidah, Nabil G; Boffa, Michael B; Koschinsky, Marlys L

    2017-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying Lp(a) clearance from plasma remain unclear, which is an obvious barrier to the development of therapies to specifically lower levels of this lipoprotein. Recently, it has been documented that monoclonal antibody inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) can lower plasma Lp(a) levels by 30%. Since PCSK9 acts primarily through the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), this result is in conflict with the prevailing view that the LDLR does not participate in Lp(a) clearance. To support our recent findings in HepG2 cells that the LDLR can act as a bona fide receptor for Lp(a) whose effects are sensitive to PCSK9, we undertook a series of Lp(a) internalization experiments using different hepatic cells, with different variants of PCSK9, and with different members of the LDLR family. We found that PCSK9 decreased Lp(a) and/or apo(a) internalization by Huh7 human hepatoma cells and by primary mouse and human hepatocytes. Overexpression of human LDLR appeared to enhance apo(a)/Lp(a) internalization in both types of primary cells. Importantly, internalization of Lp(a) by LDLR-deficient mouse hepatocytes was not affected by PCSK9, but the effect of PCSK9 was restored upon overexpression of human LDLR. In HepG2 cells, Lp(a) internalization was decreased by gain-of-function mutants of PCSK9 more than by wild-type PCSK9, and a loss-of function variant had a reduced ability to influence Lp(a) internalization. Apo(a) internalization by HepG2 cells was not affected by apo(a) isoform size. Finally, we showed that very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), LDR-related protein (LRP)-8, and LRP-1 do not play a role in Lp(a) internalization or the effect of PCSK9 on Lp(a) internalization. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PCSK9 inhibits Lp(a) clearance through the LDLR, but do not exclude other effects of

  9. Roles of the low density lipoprotein receptor and related receptors in inhibition of lipoprotein(a) internalization by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9

    PubMed Central

    Marcovina, Santica M.; Gemin, Matthew; Seidah, Nabil G.; Boffa, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying Lp(a) clearance from plasma remain unclear, which is an obvious barrier to the development of therapies to specifically lower levels of this lipoprotein. Recently, it has been documented that monoclonal antibody inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) can lower plasma Lp(a) levels by 30%. Since PCSK9 acts primarily through the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), this result is in conflict with the prevailing view that the LDLR does not participate in Lp(a) clearance. To support our recent findings in HepG2 cells that the LDLR can act as a bona fide receptor for Lp(a) whose effects are sensitive to PCSK9, we undertook a series of Lp(a) internalization experiments using different hepatic cells, with different variants of PCSK9, and with different members of the LDLR family. We found that PCSK9 decreased Lp(a) and/or apo(a) internalization by Huh7 human hepatoma cells and by primary mouse and human hepatocytes. Overexpression of human LDLR appeared to enhance apo(a)/Lp(a) internalization in both types of primary cells. Importantly, internalization of Lp(a) by LDLR-deficient mouse hepatocytes was not affected by PCSK9, but the effect of PCSK9 was restored upon overexpression of human LDLR. In HepG2 cells, Lp(a) internalization was decreased by gain-of-function mutants of PCSK9 more than by wild-type PCSK9, and a loss-of function variant had a reduced ability to influence Lp(a) internalization. Apo(a) internalization by HepG2 cells was not affected by apo(a) isoform size. Finally, we showed that very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), LDR-related protein (LRP)-8, and LRP-1 do not play a role in Lp(a) internalization or the effect of PCSK9 on Lp(a) internalization. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PCSK9 inhibits Lp(a) clearance through the LDLR, but do not exclude other effects of

  10. Role of low density lipoprotein in the activation of plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase activity. Effect of chemical and enzymatic modifications of the lipoprotein on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, P V; Chen, C H; Bagdade, J D; Albers, J J

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various chemical and enzymatic modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on its ability to activate the isolated human plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase (LAT) was studied. Removal of all lipids from LDL resulted in the complete loss of LAT activation. Removal of only neutral lipids by extraction with heptane retained up to 50% of the original activity, which was not increased further by reconstitution of the LDL with the extracted lipids. Hydrolysis of the diacylphosphoglycerides of the LDL with phospholipases resulted in complete loss of LAT activation which was partially restored by the addition of egg lecithin. Hydrolysis of more than 4% of LDL protein by trypsin led to a linear decrease in activity with complete loss of activity occurring when about 25% of the LDL protein is hydrolyzed. Modification of the arginine groups of LDL reversibly inhibited the activation of LAT. Modification of lysine residues of LDL by acetylation, acetoacetylation or succinylation also abolished its ability to activate lysolecithin acylation.

  11. Modified Low Density Lipoprotein and Lipoprotein-Containing Circulating Immune Complexes as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis and Type 1 Diabetes Macrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Melnichenko, Alexandra A.; Chistiakov, Dimitry A.

    2014-01-01

    In atherosclerosis; blood low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are subjected to multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications that increase their atherogenicity and induce immunogenicity. Modified LDL are capable of inducing vascular inflammation through activation of innate immunity; thus, contributing to the progression of atherogenesis. The immunogenicity of modified LDL results in induction of self-antibodies specific to a certain type of modified LDL. The antibodies react with modified LDL forming circulating immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes exhibit prominent immunomodulatory properties that influence atherosclerotic inflammation. Compared to freely circulating modified LDL; modified LDL associated with the immune complexes have a more robust atherogenic and proinflammatory potential. Various lipid components of the immune complexes may serve not only as diagnostic but also as essential predictive markers of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that LDL-containing immune complexes can also serve as biomarker for macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. PMID:25050779

  12. Low density lipoproteins develop resistance to oxidative modification due to inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Sugano, M; Sawada, S; Tsuchida, K; Makino, N; Kamada, M

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous studies have investigated the relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling, the relationship between CETP and low density lipoproteins (LDL) is still not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of the inhibition of CETP on both LDL oxidation and the uptake of the oxidized LDL, which were made from LDL under condition of CETP inhibition, by macrophages using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CETP in incubated plasma. The 6-h incubation of plasma derived from healthy, fasting human subjects led to the transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) from HDL to VLDL and LDL, and of triglycerides (TG) from VLDL to HDL and LDL. These net mass transfers of neutral lipids among the lipoproteins were eliminated by the mAb. The incubation of plasma either with or without the mAb did not affect the phospholipid compositions in any lipoproteins. As a result, the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated with the mAb contained significantly less CE and TG in comparison to the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated without the mAb. The percentage of fatty acid composition of LDL did not differ among the unincubated plasma, the plasma incubated with the mAb, and that incubated without the mAb. When LDL were oxidized with CuSO4, the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated with the mAb were significantly resistant to the oxidative modification determined by measuring the amount of TBARS and by continuously monitoring the formation of the conjugated dienes, in comparison to the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated without the mAb. The accumulation of cholesteryl ester of oxidized LDL, which had been oxidized for 2 h with CuSO4, in J774.1 cells also decreased significantly in the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated with mAb in comparison to the LDL fractionated from the plasma incubated without the mAb. These results indicate that CETP inhibition reduces the composition of

  13. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) strongly links native and oxidized low density lipoprotein particles to decorin-coated collagen. Roles for both dimeric and monomeric forms of LPL.

    PubMed

    Pentikäinen, M O; Oörni, K; Kovanen, P T

    2000-02-25

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized LDL are associated with collagen in the arterial intima, where the collagen is coated by the small proteoglycan decorin. When incubated in physiological ionic conditions, decorin-coated collagen bound only small amounts of native and oxidized LDL, the interaction being weak. When decorin-coated collagen was first allowed to bind lipoprotein lipase (LPL), binding of native and oxidized LDL increased dramatically (23- and 7-fold, respectively). This increase depended on strong interactions between LPL that was bound to the glycosaminoglycan chains of the collagen-bound decorin and native and oxidized LDL (kDa 12 and 5.9 nM, respectively). To distinguish between binding to monomeric (inactive) and dimeric (catalytically active) forms of LPL, affinity chromatography on heparin columns was conducted, which showed that native LDL bound to the monomeric LPL, whereas oxidized LDL, irrespective of the type of modification (Cu(2+), 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride, hypochlorite, or soybean 15-lipoxygenase), bound preferably to dimeric LPL. However, catalytic activity of LPL was not required for binding to oxidized LDL. Finally, immunohistochemistry of atherosclerotic lesions of human coronary arteries revealed specific areas in which LDL, LPL, decorin, and collagen type I were present. The results suggest that LPL can retain LDL in atherosclerotic lesions along decorin-coated collagen fibers.

  14. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Taniguchi, Yoshie; Yoshioka, Noriko; Yoshida, Aya; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Miyake, Shin-ichiro; Kohchi, Chie; Kuroki, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    At present, lifestyle-related diseases are one of the most critical health issues worldwide. It has been reported that lipopolysaccharide derived from a Gram-negative bacteria (IP-PA1) symbiotic with wheat exhibited several advantageous biological effects, such as the reduction of plasma glucose levels in NOD mice and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in WHHL rabbits. In this study, the beneficial effects on plasma glucose and lipids of a tea (SI tea) consisting of IP-PA1 and Salacia (which contains an inhibitor of α-glucosidase) were investigated in the KK-Ay/TaJcl type 2 diabetic model mice and in human subjects with premetabolic syndrome in a double-blind, randomized study. SI tea significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. A clinical trial of SI tea was performed with 41 subjects between the ages of 40 and 69, who belonged either to a high plasma glucose group (HG: FPG 100-125 mg/dl) or to a hyperlipidemia group (HL: TG ≥ 150 mg/dl, or LDL ≥ 120 mg/dl, or HDL < 40 mg/dl). These subjects ingested either Salacia without IP-PA1 (the control) or SI tea. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days after initiating SI tea treatment, and were measured for FPG, HbA1c, TG, LDL, and HDL. These results showed that SI tea reduced FPG and HbA1c more rapidly than the control in the HL group, and also significantly improved LDL and HDL levels in the HG group. Thus, SI tea may be helpful in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:22125681

  15. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein by retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stitt, A W; Anderson, H R; Gardiner, T A; Bailie, J R; Archer, D B

    1994-08-01

    The authors investigated the receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) and intracellular trafficking of insulin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cultured retinal vascular endothelial cells (RVECs). Low-density lipoprotein and insulin were conjugated to 10 nm colloidal gold, and these ligands were added to cultured bovine RVECs for 20 minutes at 4 degrees C. The cultures were then warmed to 37 degrees C and fixed after incubation times between 30 seconds and 1 hour. Control cells were incubated with unconjugated gold colloid at times and concentrations similar to those of the ligands. Additional control cells were exposed to several concentrations of anti-insulin receptor antibody or a saturating solution of unconjugated insulin before incubation with gold insulin. Using transmission electron microscopy, insulin gold and LDL gold were both observed at various stages of RME. Insulin-gold particles were first seen to bind to the apical plasma membrane (PM) before clustering in clathrin-coated pits and internalization in coated vesicles. Gold was later visualized in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, corresponding to early endosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or late endosomes. In several instances, localized regions of the limiting membrane of the MVBs appeared coated, a feature of endosomal membranes not previously described. After RME at the apical PM and passage through the endosomal system, the greater part of both insulin- and LDL-gold conjugates was seen to accumulate in large lysosome-like compartments. However, a small but significant proportion of the internalized ligands was transcytosed and released as discrete membrane-associated quanta at the basal cell surface. The uptake of LDL gold was greatly increased in highly vacuolated, late-passage RVECs. In controls, anti-insulin receptor antibody and excess unconjugated insulin caused up to 89% inhibition in gold-insulin binding and internalization. These results illustrate the internalization and intracellular

  16. Effect of exercise and menstrual cycle status on plasma lipids, low density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lamon-Fava, S; Fisher, E C; Nelson, M E; Evans, W J; Millar, J S; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1989-01-01

    Habitual physical exercise has been reported to have beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins. To examine this question in women, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and B levels, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size were determined in 25 women runners (9 of whom had exercise-related secondary amenorrhea) and 36 age-matched nonexercising women (controls). The eumenorrheic runners had significantly lower apo B levels and significantly greater mean apo A-I/apo B ratios and LDL particle sizes than did the control women (P less than 0.05). Lower apo B levels were correlated with decreased body mass index, a known exercise effect (P less than 0.0001). In addition, normally menstruating runners had cholesterol and triglyceride levels that were 7.6% and 25.4% lower, respectively, and apo A-I levels that were 6.4% higher than control women (P = NS). In amenorrheic runners all parameters were similar to values in control women, except that apo B levels were 20% lower (P less than 0.05). Amenorrheic runners had lower plasma apo A-I levels (13%) and significantly lower apo A-I/apo B ratios and estradiol levels than eumenorrheic runners, and serum estradiol values in the runners were correlated with apo A-I levels (P less than 0.01). These data indicate that the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise on plasma apo A-I levels and apo A-I/apo B ratios in women runners can be reversed by exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased serum estradiol levels, and that women runners have lower apo B levels than nonexercising women, regardless of menstrual status.

  17. Metabolism of native and naturally occurring multiple modified low density lipoprotein in smooth muscle cells of human aortic intima.

    PubMed

    Tertov, V V; Orekhov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The subfraction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with low sialic acid content that caused accumulation of cholesterol esters in human aortic smooth muscle cells has been found in the blood of coronary atherosclerosis patients. It was demonstrated that this subfraction consists of LDL with small size, high electronegative charge, reduced lipid content, altered tertiary structure of apolipoprotein B, etc. LDL of this subfraction is naturally occurring multiple-modified LDL (nomLDL). In this study we compared the binding, uptake and proteolytic degradation of native LDL and nomLDL by smooth muscle cells cultured from human grossly normal intima, fatty streaks, and atherosclerotic plaques. Uptake of nomLDL by normal and atherosclerotic cells was 3.5- and 6-fold, respectively, higher than uptake of native LDL. Increased uptake of nomLDL was due to increased binding of this LDL by intimal smooth muscle cells. The enhanced binding is explained by the interaction of nomLDL with cellular receptors other than LDL-receptor. Modified LDL interacted with the scavenger receptor, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and also with cell surface proteoglycans. Rates of degradation of nomLDL were 1.5- and 5-fold lower than degradation of native LDL by normal and atherosclerotic cells, respectively. A low rate of nomLDL degradation was also demonstrated in homogenates of intimal cells. Activities of lysosomal proteinases of atherosclerotic cells were decreased compared with normal cells. Pepstatin A, a cathepsin D inhibitor, completely inhibited lipoprotein degradation, while serine, thiol, or metallo-proteinase inhibitors had partial effect. This fact reveals that cathepsin D is involved in initial stages of apoB degradation by intimal smooth muscle cells. Obtained data show that increased uptake and decreased lysosomal degradation of nomLDL may be the main cause of LDL accumulation in human aortic smooth muscle cells, leading to foam cell formation.

  18. Site-specific O-glycosylation of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily enhances ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjun; Mao, Yang; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Ye, Zilu; Tian, Weihua; Goth, Christoffer K; Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Pedersen, Nis B; Benito-Vicente, Asier; Martin, Cesar; Uribe, Kepa B; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Christoffersen, Christina; Seidah, Nabil G; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Hansen, Lars; Bennett, Eric P; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Clausen, Henrik

    2018-05-11

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related receptors are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O -glycan sites. Moreover, we found that O -glycan modifications at these sites are selectively controlled by the GalNAc-transferase isoform, GalNAc-T11. However, the effects of GalNAc-T11-mediated O -glycosylation on LDLR and related receptor localization and function are unknown. Here, we characterized O -glycosylation of LDLR-related proteins and identified conserved O -glycosylation sites in the LA linker regions of VLDLR, LRP1, and LRP2 (Megalin) from both cell lines and rat organs. Using a panel of gene-edited isogenic cell line models, we demonstrate that GalNAc-T11-mediated LDLR and VLDLR O -glycosylation is not required for transport and cell-surface expression and stability of these receptors but markedly enhances LDL and VLDL binding and uptake. Direct ELISA-based binding assays with truncated LDLR constructs revealed that O -glycosylation increased affinity for LDL by ∼5-fold. The molecular basis for this observation is currently unknown, but these findings open up new avenues for exploring the roles of LDLR-related proteins in disease. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling.

    PubMed

    McMillen, T S; Minami, E; Leboeuf, R C

    2013-06-24

    Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called 'yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the contributions of major diet and body weight changes on heart and vascular functions. Our purpose is to determine the effects of weight cycling on cardiac function and atherosclerosis development in a mouse model. We used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice due to their sensitivity to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases when fed high-fat diets. Alternating ad libitum feeding of high-fat and low-fat (rodent chow) diets was used to instigate weight cycling during a 29-week period. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were done at 22 and 24 weeks, echocardiograms at 25 weeks and atherosclerosis and plasma lipoproteins assessed at 29 weeks. Mice subjected to weight cycling showed improvements in glucose homeostasis during the weight loss cycle. Weight-cycled mice showed a reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis as compared with high-fat diet-fed mice. However, atherosclerosis still persisted in weight-cycled mice as compared with mice fed rodent chow. Cardiac function was impaired in weight-cycled mice and matched with that of mice fed only the high-fat diet. This model provides an initial structure in which to begin detailed studies of diet, calorie restriction and surgical modifications on energy balance and metabolic diseases. This model also shows differential effects of yo-yo dieting on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Effect of mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B synthesis inhibitor, on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Akdim, Fatima; Visser, Maartje E; Tribble, Diane L; Baker, Brenda F; Stroes, Erik S G; Yu, Rosie; Flaim, Joann D; Su, John; Stein, Evan A; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-05-15

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of mipomersen (ISIS 301012), an antisense inhibitor of apolipoprotein B, when added to conventional lipid-lowering therapy for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. A total of 44 patients were enrolled and were separated into 4 cohorts, with doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg (4:1 active treatment/placebo ratio). Patients received 8 doses subcutaneously during a 6-week treatment period. Patients assigned to the 300-mg dose continued for an additional 7 weeks with once-per-week dosing. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of change from baseline to week 7 in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Safety was assessed using the laboratory test results and according to the incidence, severity, and relation of adverse events to drug dose. Mipomersen produced significant reductions in LDL cholesterol and other atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. After 6 weeks of treatment, the LDL cholesterol level was reduced by 21% from baseline in the 200-mg/week dose group (p <0.05) and 34% from baseline in the 300-mg/week dose group (p <0.01), with a concomitant reduction in apolipoprotein B of 23% (p <0.05) and 33% (p <0.01), respectively. Injection site reactions were the most common adverse event. Elevations in liver transaminase levels (> or =3 times the upper limit of normal) occurred in 4 (11%) of 36 patients assigned to active treatment; 3 of these patients were in the highest dose group. In conclusion, mipomersen has an incremental LDL cholesterol lowering effect when added to conventional lipid-lowering therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired receptor-mediated catabolism of low density lipoprotein in the WHHL rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Bilheimer, David W.; Watanabe, Yoshio; Kita, Toru

    1982-01-01

    The homozygous WHHL (Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic) rabbit displays either no or only minimal low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity on cultured fibroblasts and liver membranes and has therefore been proposed as an animal model for human familial hypercholesterolemia. To assess the impact of this mutation on LDL metabolism in vivo, we performed lipoprotein turnover studies in normal and WHHL rabbits using both native rabbit LDL and chemically modified LDL (i.e., methyl-LDL) that does not bind to LDL receptors. The total fractional catabolic rate (FCR) for LDL in the normal rabbit was 3.5-fold greater than in the WHHL rabbit. Sixty-seven percent of the total FCR for LDL in the normal rabbit was due to LDL receptor-mediated clearance and 33% was attributable to receptor-independent processes; in the WHHL rabbit, essentially all of the LDL was catabolized via receptor-independent processes. Despite a 17.5-fold elevated plasma pool size of LDL apoprotein (apo-LDL) in WHHL as compared to normal rabbits, the receptor-independent FCR—as judged by the turnover of methyl-LDL—was similar in the two strains. Thus, the receptor-independent catabolic processes are not influenced by the mutation affecting the LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbits also exhibited a 5.6-fold increase in the absolute rate of apo-LDL synthesis and catabolism. In absolute terms, the WHHL rabbit cleared 19-fold more apo-LDL via receptor-independent processes than did the normal rabbit and cleared virtually none by the receptor-dependent pathway. These results indicate that the homozygous WHHL rabbit shares a number of metabolic features in common with human familial hypercholesterolemia and should serve as a useful model for the study of altered lipoprotein metabolism associated with receptor abnormalities. We also noted that the in vivo metabolic behavior of human and rabbit LDL in the normal rabbit differed such that the mean total FCR for human LDL was only 64% of the mean total FCR for

  2. Differential effects of grape ( Vitis vinifera ) skin polyphenolics on human platelet aggregation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Beahm, Mark R; Kuhns, Melissa A; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D; Folts, John D

    2012-06-13

    Antioxidant and antiplatelet properties of grape products are thought to be responsible for observed antiatherosclerotic effects. Diverse classes of phenolics are derived from the seed and skin (GSK) of grapes. The relative contributions of the classes of phenolics to observed properties of grape products are unknown. In this paper, GSK fractions were used to examine effects on platelet aggregation, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro, and relative binding of phenolics to LDL. GSK was separated into six fractions (fractions 1-6), and primary phenolics were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fractions 4, 5, and 6, enriched in polygalloyl polyflavan-3-ols (PGPFs) with 3-6, 4-8, and 6-15 degrees of polymerization, respectively, inhibited platelet aggregation. Fractions 1-3, containing various amounts of oligosaccharides, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavanols, and low molecular weight PGPFs, significantly increased platelet aggregation. Fractions 4-6 were most effective in binding LDL and inhibiting LDL oxidation. Fractions 5 and 6 exhibited the greatest inhibition of platelet aggregation and LDL oxidation, suggesting that polymeric PGPFs are responsible for the beneficial effects of grape products. Conversely, phenolics in fractions 1-3 may reduce the net biological potency of the grape products and have undesirable effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans reveals a FxNPxY-independent low-density lipoprotein receptor internalization mechanism mediated by epsin1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yuan-Lin; Yochem, John; Bell, Leslie; Sorensen, Erika B.; Chen, Lihsia; Conner, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) internalization clears cholesterol-laden LDL particles from circulation in humans. Defects in clathrin-dependent LDLR endocytosis promote elevated serum cholesterol levels and can lead to atherosclerosis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that control LDLR uptake remains incomplete. To identify factors critical to LDLR uptake, we pursued a genome-wide RNA interference screen using Caenorhabditis elegans LRP-1/megalin as a model for LDLR transport. In doing so, we discovered an unanticipated requirement for the clathrin-binding endocytic adaptor epsin1 in LDLR endocytosis. Epsin1 depletion reduced LDLR internalization rates in mammalian cells, similar to the reduction observed following clathrin depletion. Genetic and biochemical analyses of epsin in C. elegans and mammalian cells uncovered a requirement for the ubiquitin-interaction motif (UIM) as critical for receptor transport. As the epsin UIM promotes the internalization of some ubiquitinated receptors, we predicted LDLR ubiquitination as necessary for endocytosis. However, engineered ubiquitination-impaired LDLR mutants showed modest internalization defects that were further enhanced with epsin1 depletion, demonstrating epsin1-mediated LDLR endocytosis is independent of receptor ubiquitination. Finally, we provide evidence that epsin1-mediated LDLR uptake occurs independently of either of the two documented internalization motifs (FxNPxY or HIC) encoded within the LDLR cytoplasmic tail, indicating an additional internalization mechanism for LDLR. PMID:23242996

  4. Size and oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein particles in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Saibara, Toshiji; Okatani, Yuji; Fukaya, Takao

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen on the size and oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-induced fatty liver. We investigated the following breast cancer patients: 13 receiving no tamoxifen (group A), 13 receiving tamoxifen 40 mg daily but without fatty liver (group B), and 13 receiving tamoxifen 40 mg daily with fatty liver (group C). Plasma lipids and diameter of LDL particles were measured. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was analyzed by incubation with CuSO(4) while monitoring conjugated diene formation and assaying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in groups B and C were significantly lower than those in group A. In group C, concentrations of plasma triglyceride (TG) and TBARS were significantly greater, but LDL particle diameter and lag time for LDL oxidation were significantly smaller than those in groups A and B. Plasma TG concentrations correlated negatively with computed tomography ratio of liver to spleen (r = -0.76; P < 0.001). LDL particle diameter correlated negatively with plasma TG (r = -0.62; P < 0.001) and TBARS (r = -0.44; P < 0.01), but positively with LDL lag time (r = 0.47; P < 0.01). Tamoxifen-induced fatty liver in breast cancer patients may be atherogenic, via increased TG and consequent small, easily oxidized LDL particles.

  5. Horizontal semi-dry electroblotting for the detection of the low density lipoprotein receptor in solubilized liver membranes.

    PubMed

    Himber, J

    1993-08-01

    A high efficiency transfer of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor proteins from polyacrylamide slab gel onto immobilizing nitrocellulose membranes using the horizontal semi-dry electrophoretic system is described. The transfer of the LDL receptors from solubilized rat liver microsomes was performed between two graphite plate electrodes in a continuous buffer system containing methanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The protein transfer was achieved in only 150 min at a constant current of 0.8 mA/cm2 at room temperature with very low Joule heat development. The homogeneous electric field yield between the two electrode plates produced a satisfactory transfer of the LDL-receptor protein band in spite of its high molecular weight, and only few protein traces remained in the polyacrylamide gel after blotting. This improved method allows a rapid and quantitative transfer of the LDL receptors without protein denaturation, since the specific binding activity of the blotted receptor is retained as demonstrated by ligand-blotting and immunoblotting.

  6. Kinetic modeling of low density lipoprotein oxidation in arterial wall and its application in atherosclerotic lesions prediction.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Safoora; Dadvar, Mitra; Modarress, Hamid; Dabir, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the major factors in atherogenic process. Trapped oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the subendothelial matrix is taken up by macrophage and leads to foam cell generation creating the first step in atherosclerosis development. Many researchers have studied LDL oxidation using in vitro cell-induced LDL oxidation model. The present study provides a kinetic model for LDL oxidation in intima layer that can be used in modeling of atherosclerotic lesions development. This is accomplished by considering lipid peroxidation kinetic in LDL through a system of elementary reactions. In comparison, characteristics of our proposed kinetic model are consistent with the results of previous experimental models from other researches. Furthermore, our proposed LDL oxidation model is added to the mass transfer equation in order to predict the LDL concentration distribution in intima layer which is usually difficult to measure experimentally. According to the results, LDL oxidation kinetic constant is an important parameter that affects LDL concentration in intima layer so that existence of antioxidants that is responsible for the reduction of initiating rates and prevention of radical formations, have increased the concentration of LDL in intima by reducing the LDL oxidation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Consensus on objectives and action guidelines on low density lipoproteins-cholesterol control in very high risk cardiovascular patients].

    PubMed

    Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Low density lipoprotein receptor founder mutations in Afrikaner familial hypercholesterolaemic patients: a comparison of two geographical areas.

    PubMed

    Graadt van Roggen, F; van der Westhuyzen, D R; Marais, A D; Gevers, W; Coetzee, G A

    1991-12-01

    Afrikaners with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were screened for the presence of three point mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene that were previously described as being relatively common in this population. The prevalence and distribution of the mutations were compared in 27 unrelated homozygous and 79 unrelated heterozygous FH Afrikaner patients from two regions in South Africa, the Transvaal and Cape Provinces. The relative distribution of the three mutations was similar in the two regions, with the FH1 mutation being the most prevalent (66%), followed by the FH2 mutation (27%) and the FH3 mutation (7%). Interestingly, defects other than the three common mutations are more common in the Cape than in the Transvaal; thus the three known mutations account for 98% of FH alleles in the Transvaal and only 74% in the Cape Province. None of the patients carried the recently described familial defective apolipoprotein B100 mutation. These results establish that three "founder" mutant genes occur amongst the Afrikaner and are responsible for the overall high prevalence of FH in this population.

  9. Berberine as a photosensitizing agent for antitumoral photodynamic therapy: Insights into its association to low density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Luiza Andreazza, Nathalia; Vevert-Bizet, Christine; Bourg-Heckly, Geneviève; Sureau, Franck; José Salvador, Marcos; Bonneau, Stephanie

    2016-08-20

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in Berberine, a phytochemical with multispectrum therapeutic activities, as anti-tumoral agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this context, low density lipoproteins (LDL) play a key role in the delivery of the photosensitizer in tumor cells. We correlate the physicochemical parameters of the berberine association to LDL with the influence of LDL-delivery on its accumulation in a glioma cell line and on its photo-induced activity in view of antitumor PDT. Our results evidence an important binding of 400 berberine molecules per LDL. Changes in berberine and apoprotein fluorescence suggest different fixation types, involving various LDL compartments including the vicinity of the apoprotein. The berberine association to LDL does not affect their recognition by the specific B/E receptors, of which over-expression increases the cellular uptake of LDL-preloaded berberine. Fluorescence microscopy evidences the mitochondrial labeling of the glioma model cells, with no significant modification upon LDL-delivery. Moreover, the cellular delivery of berberine by LDL increases its photocytotoxic effects on such cells. So, this research illustrates the potential of berberine as a photosensitizing agent for PDT, in particular due to their behavior towards LDL as plasma vehicles, and gives insights into its mechanisms of cell uptake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Mode-of-action evaluation for the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Reichard, John F; Haber, Lynne T

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to systematically consider the data relating to the mode of action (MOA) for the effects of industrially produced trans fatty acid (iTFA) on plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The hypothesized MOA is composed of two key events: increased LDL production and decreased LDL clearance. A substantial database supports this MOA, although the key events are likely to be interdependent, rather than sequential. Both key events are functions of nonlinear biological processes including rate-limited clearance, receptor-mediated transcription, and both positive and negative feedback regulation. Each key event was evaluated based on weight-of-evidence analysis and for human relevance. We conclude that the data are inadequate for a detailed dose-response analysis in the context of the evolved Bradford Hill considerations; however, the weight of evidence is strong and the overall shape of the dose-response curves for markers of the key events and the key determinants of those relationships is well understood in many cases and is nonlinear. Feedback controls are responsible for maintaining homeostasis of cholesterol and triglyceride levels and underlie both of the key events, resulting in a less-than-linear or thresholded relationship between TFA and LDL-C. The inconsistencies and gaps in the database are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Recognition of Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain Epitopes by Natural IgM Binding to Malondialdehyde Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Turunen, S. Pauliina; Kummu, Outi; Harila, Kirsi; Veneskoski, Marja; Soliymani, Rabah; Baumann, Marc; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Hörkkö, Sohvi

    2012-01-01

    Objective Increased risk for atherosclerosis is associated with infectious diseases including periodontitis. Natural IgM antibodies recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, and oxidized lipid and protein epitopes on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoptotic cells. We aimed to identify epitopes on periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis recognized by natural IgM binding to malondialdehyde (MDA) modified LDL. Methods and Results Mouse monoclonal IgM (MDmAb) specific for MDA-LDL recognized epitopes on P. gingivalis on flow cytometry and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and apoptotic cells. Immunization of LDLR−/− mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and diminished aortic lipid deposition. On Western blot MDmAb bound to P. gingivalis fragments identified as arginine-specific gingipain (Rgp) by mass spectrometry. Recombinant domains of Rgp produced in E. coli were devoid of phosphocholine epitopes but contained epitopes recognized by MDmAb and human serum IgM. Serum IgM levels to P. gingivalis were associated with anti-MDA-LDL levels in humans. Conclusion Gingipain of P. gingivalis is recognized by natural IgM and shares molecular identity with epitopes on MDA-LDL. These findings suggest a role for natural antibodies in the pathogenesis of two related inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and periodontitis. PMID:22496875

  12. Very low density lipoprotein receptor regulates dendritic spine formation in a RasGRF1/CaMKII dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    DiBattista, Amanda Marie; Dumanis, Sonya B.; Song, Jung Min; Bu, Guojun; Weeber, Edwin; Rebeck, G. William; Hoe, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR) is an apolipoprotein E receptor involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, it is unknown how VLDLR can regulate synaptic and cognitive function. In the present study, we found that VLDLR is present at the synapse both pre- and post-synaptically. Overexpression of VLDLR significantly increases, while knockdown of VLDLR decreases, dendritic spine number in primary hippocampal cultures. Additionally, knockdown of VLDLR significantly decreases synaptophysin puncta number while differentially regulating cell surface and total levels of glutamate receptor subunits. To identify the mechanism by which VLDLR induces these synaptic effects, we investigated whether VLDLR affects dendritic spine formation through the Ras signaling pathway, which is involved in spinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, we found that VLDLR interacts with RasGRF1, a Ras effector, and knockdown of RasGRF1 blocks the effect of VLDLR on spinogenesis. Moreover, we found that VLDLR did not rescue the deficits induced by the absence of Ras signaling proteins CaMKIIα or CaMKIIβ. Taken together, our results suggest that VLDLR requires RasGRF1/CaMKII to alter dendritic spine formation. PMID:25644714

  13. Effects of retinoids on differentiation, lipid metabolism, epidermal growth factor, and low-density lipoprotein binding in squamous carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ponec, M.; Weerheim, A.; Havekes, L.

    The relationship among keratinocyte differentiation capacity, lipid synthesis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism, plasma membrane composition, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding has been studied in SCC-12F2 cells. The differentiation capacity of the cells, i.e., ionophore-induced cornified envelope formation, was inhibited by various retinoids and stimulated by hydrocortisone. Retinoids that caused a significant reduction of cornified envelope formation, i.e., retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid, caused only minor changes in lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Arotinoid ethylsulfone, having a minor effect on cornified envelope formation, caused a drastic inhibition of cholesterol synthesis resulting in changes in the plasma membrane composition. Hydrocortisonemore » stimulated cornified envelope formation but had only minor effects on lipid synthesis and plasma membrane composition. Of all retinoids tested, only arotinoid ethylsulfone caused a drastic increase in EGF binding, while hydrocortisone had no effect. These results clearly demonstrate that the plasma membrane composition is not related to keratinocyte differentiation capacity, but most likely does determine EGF binding. Furthermore, EGF binding does not determine keratinocyte differentiation capacity.« less

  14. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    PubMed

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  15. Hydroxytyrosol in functional hydroxytyrosol-enriched biscuits is highly bioavailable and decreases oxidised low density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Raquel; Martínez-López, Sara; Baeza Arévalo, Gema; Amigo-Benavent, Miryam; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo-Clemente, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives in olive oil protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. Biscuits could be a convenient alternative to broaden consumers' choice of HT-rich foods, although the biscuit matrix could affect HT bioavailability. We performed a crossover, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate HT bioavailability in HT-enriched biscuits (HT-B) versus non-enriched biscuits (C-B), and the effects on oxidative postprandial status. On two separate days, 13 subjects consumed 30 g of C-B or HT-B (5.25mg HT) after overnight-fasting. Blood and urine were collected at different intervals and analysed by LC-MS-QToF. After HT-B consumption, plasma metabolites peaked between 0.5 and 1h and were extensively excreted in urine. HT-sulphate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)-sulphate were the main metabolites, followed by DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA). HT-glucuronide, DOPAC-glucuronide, HVA-glucuronide and HVA-sulphate were also detected. Postprandial oxidised-LDL concentrations decreased with HT-B. HT is a promising functional ingredient and, in biscuits, it is highly bioavailable and lowers postprandial oxidised-LDL levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein uptake in selected tissues of the squirrel monkey by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Schnitzer, J.J.; Yarmush, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    A recently developed technique of absolute quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of /sup 125/I-labeled proteins in biologic specimens was used to measure /sup 125/I-low density lipoprotein (/sup 125/I-LDL) concentration levels in various tissues of the squirrel monkey after 30 minutes of in vivo LDL circulation. Liver and adrenal cortex exhibited high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations, presumably because of binding to specific cell surface receptors and/or internalization in vascular beds with high permeability to LDL. High tissue concentrations of LDL were associated with the zona fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex and the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testis; significantly lowermore » levels of /sup 125/I-LDL were observed in the adrenal medulla, the zona glomerulosa, and germinal centers of the testis. Contrary to previous reports, low /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in lymph nodes. In addition, multiple arterial intramural focal areas of high /sup 125/I-LDL concentrations were identified in arteries supplying the adrenal gland, lymph node, small bowel, and liver.« less

  17. Immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates on polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Cao, Jian-Da; Lan, Ping; Wu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates (SAS) on polysulfone (PSu) ultrafiltration membranes to achieve selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide on the membrane and the Hofmann rearrangement reaction of grafted acrylamide followed by chemical binding of SAS with glutaraldehyde. The surface modification processes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the binding of LDL on plain and modified PSu membranes. It was found that the PSu membrane immobilized with sodium alginate sulfates (PSu-SAS) greatly enhanced the selective adsorption of LDL from protein solutions and the absorbed LDL could be easily eluted with sodium chloride solution, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to SAS, mainly driven by electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the PSu-SAS membrane showed good blood compatibility as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the PSu-SAS membranes are promising for application in simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL apheresis therapy. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Localized delivery of low-density lipoprotein docosahexaenoic acid nanoparticles to the rat brain using focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mulik, Rohit S; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R

    2016-03-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2 × more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Localized Delivery of Low-Density Lipoprotein Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanoparticles to the Rat Brain using Focused Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mulik, Rohit S.; Bing, Chenchen; Ladouceur-Wodzak, Michelle; Munaweera, Imalka; Chopra, Rajiv; Corbin, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound exposures in the presence of microbubbles can achieve transient, non-invasive, and localized blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, offering a method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles reconstituted with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could have significant therapeutic value in the brain, since DHA is known to be neuroprotective. BBB opening was achieved using pulsed ultrasound exposures in a localized brain region in normal rats, after which LDL nanoparticles containing the fluorescent probe DiR (1,1′-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-Tetramethylindotricarbocyanine Iodide) or DHA were administered intravenously. Fluorescent imaging of brain tissue from rats administered LDL-DiR demonstrated strong localization of fluorescence signal in the exposed hemisphere. LDL-DHA administration produced 2× more DHA in the exposed region of the brain, with a corresponding increase in Resolvin D1 levels, indicating DHA was incorporated into cells and metabolized. Histological evaluation did not indicate any evidence of increased tissue damage in exposed brain regions compared to normal brain. This work demonstrates that localized delivery of DHA to the brain is possible using systemically-administered LDL nanoparticles combined with pulsed focused ultrasound exposures in the brain. This technology could be used in regions of acute brain injury or as a means to target infiltrating tumor cells in the brain. PMID:26790145

  20. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by Maharishi Ayur-Veda herbal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H M; Hanna, A N; Kauffman, E M; Newman, H A

    1992-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the Maharishi Ayur-Veda herbal mixtures (MAHMs) Maharishi Amrit Kalash-4 and -5 (M-4 and M-5), MA-631, and Maharishi Coffee Substitute (MCS) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and compared the potency of these mixtures to ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and probucol. LDL was incubated in 95% air and 5% CO2, with or without 3 microM Cu(+2), in the presence or absence of MAHMs, for 6 or 24 h. In a separate experiment, LDL was incubated as above except MAHMs were added at 0, 1.5, and 3.5 h after incubation started to assess their effect on initiation and propagation of LDL oxidation. Our results demonstrate that MAHMs caused concentration-dependent inhibition of LDL oxidation as assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and electrophoretic mobility. The MAHM showed more antioxidant potency in preventing LDL oxidation than ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or probucol. Also, MAHMs inhibited both initiation and propagation of cupric ion-catalyzed LDL oxidation. These results suggest the importance of further research on these herbal mixtures in the investigation of atherosclerosis and free radical-induced injury.

  1. Tanshindiol C inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced macrophage foam cell formation via a peroxiredoxin 1 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyu; Li, Xueyan; Peng, Liying; An, Lin; Sun, Ningyuan; Hu, Xuewen; Zhou, Ping; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis. The loss of Nrf2 in macrophages enhances foam cell formation and promotes early atherogenesis. Tanshindiol C (Tan C) is isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases for many years. This study was aimed to test the potential role of Tan C against macrophage foam cell formation and to explore the underlying mechanism. Firstly, we observed that Tan C markedly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced macrophage foam cell formation. Then, we found that Tan C was an activator of both Nrf2 and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in macrophages. Nrf2 and Sirt1 synergistically activated the transcription of anti-oxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) after Tan C treatment. More important, we demonstrated that silencing of Prdx1 promoted oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Prdx1 upregulated adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and decreased intracellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, Tan C ameliorated oxLDL induced macrophage foam cell formation in a Prdx1-dependent manner. These observations suggest that Tan C protects macrophages from oxLDL induced foam cell formation via activation of Prdx1/ABCA1 signaling and that Prdx1 may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Boca-dependent maturation of β-propeller/EGF modules in low-density lipoprotein receptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Culi, Joaquim; Springer, Timothy A; Mann, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    The extracellular portions of cell surface receptor proteins are often comprised of independently folding protein domains. As they are translated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), some of these domains require protein chaperones to assist in their folding. Members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family require the chaperone called Boca in Drosophila or its ortholog, Mesoderm development, in the mouse. All LDLRs have at least one six-bladed β-propeller domain, which is immediately followed by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeat. We show here that Boca is specifically required for the maturation of these β-propeller/EGF modules through the secretory pathway, but is not required for other LDLR domains. Protein interaction data suggest that as LDLRs are translated into the ER, Boca binds to the β-propeller. Subsequently, once the EGF repeat is translated, the β-propeller/EGF module achieves a more mature state that has lower affinity for Boca. We also show that Boca-dependent β-propeller/EGF modules are found not only throughout the LDLR family but also in the precursor to the mammalian EGF ligand. PMID:15014448

  3. Association between Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and occipital periventricular hyperintensities in a group of Chinese patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dazhi; Shen, Lin; Cui, Chun; Shu, Tongsheng; Zheng, Jian

    2017-02-27

    While occipital periventricular hyperintensities (OPVHs) are among the most common mild white matter hyperintensities, the clinical factors associated with OPVHs remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of clinical factors in development of pure OPVHs. This study included 97 patients with OPVHs and 73 healthy controls. Univariate analysis of clinical factors in OPVH patients and controls was followed by binomial logistic regression analysis to identify clinical factors significantly associated with OPVHs. Univariate analysis indicated that age, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein-B (Apo-B) levels differed significantly between the OPVH patients and controls (p < 0.05). Age and gender were correlated with OPVH scores (p < 0.05), while LDL-C, triglycerides, Apo-B and TC were anti-correlated with OPVHs scores (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that LDL-C is negatively correlated with OPVHs (p < 0.05), and age is positively correlated with OPVHs (p < 0.001). In summary, LDL-C was negatively and age was positively associated with OPVHs among Chinese patients in a hospital.

  4. [Application of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation for size characterization of low density lipoprotein in egg yolk plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cai, Chunxue; Wang, Jing; Mao, Zhen; Li, Yueqiu; Ding, Liang; Shen, Shigang; Dou, Haiyang

    2017-08-08

    Home-made asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) system, online coupled with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) detector was employed for the separation and size characterization of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in egg yolk plasma. At close to natural condition of egg yolk, the effects of cross flow rate, sample loading, and type of membrane on the size distribution of LDL were investigated. Under the optimal operation conditions, AF4-UV/Vis provides the size distribution of LDL. Moreover, the precision of AF4-UV/Vis method proposed in this work for the analysis of LDL in egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The intra-day precisions were 1.3% and 1.9% ( n =7) and the inter-day precisions were 2.4% and 2.3% ( n =7) for the elution peak height and elution peak area of LDL, respectively. Results reveal that AF4-UV/Vis is a useful tool for the separation and size characterization of LDL in egg yolk plasma.

  5. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: a physiological Aβ homeostatic mechanism with multiple therapeutic opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sagare, Abhay P.; Deane, Rashid; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is the main cell surface receptor involved in brain and systemic clearance of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) toxin amyloid-beta (Aβ). In plasma, a soluble form of LRP1 (sLRP1) is the major transport protein for peripheral Aβ. LRP1 in brain endothelium and mural cells mediates Aβ efflux from brain by providing a transport mechanism for A across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). sLRP1 maintains a plasma ‘sink’ activity for Aβ through binding of peripheral Aβ which in turn inhibits re-entry of free plasma Aβ into the brain. LRP1 in the liver mediates systemic clearance of Aβ. In AD, LRP1 expression at the BBB is reduced and Aβ binding to circulating sLRP1 is compromised by oxidation. Cell surface LRP1 and circulating sLRP1 represent druggable targets which can be therapeutically modified to restore the physiological mechanisms of brain Aβ homeostasis. In this review, we discuss how increasing LRP1 expression at the BBB and liver with lifestyle changes, statins, plant-based active principles and/or gene therapy on one hand, and how replacing dysfunctional plasma sLRP1 on the other regulate Aβ clearance from brain ultimately controlling the onset and/or progression of AD. PMID:22820095

  6. Nanoscale amphiphilic macromolecules with variable lipophilicity and stereochemistry modulate inhibition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Poree, Dawanne E; Zablocki, Kyle; Faig, Allison; Moghe, Prabhas V; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-08-12

    Amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs) based on carbohydrate domains functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) can inhibit the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and counteract foam cell formation, a key characteristic of early atherogenesis. To investigate the influence of lipophilicity and stereochemistry on the AMs' physicochemical and biological properties, mucic acid-based AMs bearing four aliphatic chains (2a) and tartaric acid-based AMs bearing two (2b and 2l) and four aliphatic chains (2g and 2k) were synthesized and evaluated. Solution aggregation studies suggested that both the number of hydrophobic arms and the length of the hydrophobic domain impact AM micelle sizes, whereas stereochemistry impacts micelle stability. 2l, the meso analogue of 2b, elicited the highest reported oxLDL uptake inhibition values (89%), highlighting the crucial effect of stereochemistry on biological properties. This study suggests that stereochemistry plays a critical role in modulating oxLDL uptake and must be considered when designing biomaterials for potential cardiovascular therapies.

  7. Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiong-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Sze, Siu Kwan; van de Weg, Sander M; Vernooij, Flora; Schoneveld, Arjan H; Tan, Sock-Hwee; Versteeg, Henri H; Timmers, Leo; Lam, Carolyn S P; de Kleijn, Dominique P V

    2017-12-29

    Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles involved in several biological processes including coagulation. Both coagulation and lipid metabolism are strongly associated with cardiovascular events. Lowering very-low- and low-density lipoprotein ((V)LDL) particles via dextran sulphate LDL apheresis also removes coagulation proteins. It remains unknown, however, how coagulation proteins are removed in apheresis. We hypothesize that plasma EVs that contain high levels of coagulation proteins are concomitantly removed with (V)LDL particles by dextran sulphate apheresis. For this, we precipitated (V)LDL particles from human plasma with dextran sulphate and analyzed the abundance of coagulation proteins and EVs in the precipitate. Coagulation pathway proteins, as demonstrated by proteomics and a bead-based immunoassay, were over-represented in the (V)LDL precipitate. In this precipitate, both bilayer EVs and monolayer (V)LDL particles were observed by electron microscopy. Separation of EVs from (V)LDL particles using density gradient centrifugation revealed that almost all coagulation proteins were present in the EVs and not in the (V)LDL particles. These EVs also showed a strong procoagulant activity. Our study suggests that dextran sulphate used in LDL apheresis may remove procoagulant EVs concomitantly with (V)LDL particles, leading to a loss of coagulation proteins from the blood.

  8. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Suppresses Expression of Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype EP3 in Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuxia; Liu, Yanmin; Li, Qi; Liu, Gefei; Song, Xuhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingbi; Liang, Bin; Huang, Dongyang

    2014-01-01

    EP3, one of four prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, is significantly lower in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal arteries and is localized predominantly in macrophages of the plaque shoulder region. However, mechanisms behind this EP3 expression pattern are still unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanism of EP3 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) treatment. We found that oxLDL decreased EP3 expression, in a dose-dependent manner, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oxLDL inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent transcription of the EP3 gene by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed decreased binding of NF-κB to the EP3 promoter with oxLDL and PPAR-γ agonist treatment. Our results show that oxLDL suppresses EP3 expression by activation of PPAR-γ and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB in macrophages. These results suggest that down-regulation of EP3 expression by oxLDL is associated with impairment of EP3-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, and that EP3 receptor activity may exert a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis. PMID:25333975

  9. CRISPR Correction of a Homozygous Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Mutation in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Omer, Linda; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Zheng, Shirong; Hoying, James B; Shan, Yuan; Boyd, Nolan L

    2017-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a hereditary disease primarily due to mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that lead to elevated cholesterol and premature development of cardiovascular disease. Homozygous FH patients (HoFH) with two dysfunctional LDLR alleles are not as successfully treated with standard hypercholesterol therapies, and more aggressive therapeutic approaches to control cholesterol levels must be considered. Liver transplant can resolve HoFH, and hepatocyte transplantation has shown promising results in animals and humans. However, demand for donated livers and high-quality hepatocytes overwhelm the supply. Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate to hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) with the potential for experimental and clinical use. To be of future clinical use as autologous cells, LDLR genetic mutations in derived FH-HLCs need to be corrected. Genome editing technology clustered-regularly-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) can repair pathologic genetic mutations in human induced pluripotent stem cells. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to permanently correct a 3-base pair homozygous deletion in LDLR exon 4 of patient-derived HoFH induced pluripotent stem cells. The genetic correction restored LDLR-mediated endocytosis in FH-HLCs and demonstrates the proof-of-principle that CRISPR-mediated genetic modification can be successfully used to normalize HoFH cholesterol metabolism deficiency at the cellular level.

  10. Surface glycosylation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) membrane for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of constructing a glycosylated surface on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] membrane surface for the selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid followed by the chemical binding of carboxyl groups with glucosamine in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy-succinimide. The chemical structures of the fabricated membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes, respectively. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the LDL adsorption on the plain and modified membrane surfaces. It was found that the surface glycosylation of P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane greatly enhanced the affinity interactions with LDL and the absorbed LDL could be easily desorbed with eluents, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to the surface. Furthermore, the hemocompatibility of glycosylated membrane was improved as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the glycosylated P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane is promising for application in LDL apheresis therapy.

  11. A correlation between secondary structure and rheological properties of low-density lipoproteins at air/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Khattari, Ziad

    2017-09-01

    The secondary structure of apolipoprotein B-100 is studied within the bulk phase and at the air/water interface. In these "in viro" experiments, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) study was performed at the air/water interface while circular dichroism (CD) was conducted in the bulk phase. In the bulk phase, the conformational structure containing a significant amount of β-structure, whereas varying amount of α-helix, unordered structures, and β-sheet were observed at the air/water interface depending on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) film interfacial pressure. The present IRRAS results demonstrate the importance of interfacial pressure-induced structural conformations on the apoB-100. A correlation between the secondary structure of the apoB-100 protein and the monomolecular film elasticity at the air/water interface was also established. The orientation of apoB-100 with respect to the LDL film-normal was found to depend on the interfacial pressure exhibited by the monomolecular film. These results may shed light on LDL's pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease as demonstrated previously by clinical trials.

  12. Systemic delivery of estradiol, but not testosterone or progesterone, alters very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride kinetics in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Reeds, Dominic N; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism is well established but it is unclear to what extent it is driven by differences in the sex hormone milieu. RESULTS from previous studies evaluating the effects of sex steroids on plasma TG homeostasis are inconclusive because they relied on orally administered synthetic hormone preparations or evaluated only plasma lipid concentrations but not kinetics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemically delivered 17β-estradiol, progesterone, and T on very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) concentration and kinetics in postmenopausal women. VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics were evaluated by using stable isotope-labeled tracer techniques in four groups of postmenopausal women (n = 27 total) who were studied before and after treatment with either 17β-estradiol (0.1 mg/d via continuous delivery skin patch), progesterone (100 mg/d via vaginal insert) and T (12.5 mg/d via skin gel), or no intervention (control group). VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics were unchanged in the control group and not altered by T and progesterone administration. Estradiol treatment, in contrast, reduced VLDL-TG concentration by approximately 30% due to accelerated VLDL-TG plasma clearance (25.1 ± 2.5 vs. 17.4 ± 2.7 mL/min; P < .01). Estradiol, but not progesterone or T, is a major regulator of VLDL-TG metabolism.

  13. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol vs low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a risk factor for ischemic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianwei; Chen, Shengyun; Liu, Liping; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Chunxue; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Anxin; Hussain, Mohammed; Sun, Baoying; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2013-06-01

    To compare the predictive value of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels for ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. We performed a four-year cohort study of 95 778 men and women, aged 18-98 years, selected from the Kailuan study (2006-2007). Baseline LDL cholesterol levels were estimated using direct test method. Total cholesterol levels were estimated using endpoint test method. The predictive values of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke were compared. During the follow-up period, there were 1153 incident cases of ischemic stroke. The hazard ratio (HR) for ischemic stroke in the top quintile of LDL cholesterol was the highest among five quintiles (HR: 1·25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1·01-1·53). The HR in the top quintile of non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke was also the highest among five quintiles (HR: 1·53; 95% CI, 1·24-1·88). Analysis of trends showed a significant positive relationship between ischemic stroke incidence and serum LDL cholesterol level, and non-HDL cholesterol level, respectively (both P < 0·05). The area under the curve of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol for ischemic stroke was 0·51 and 0·56, respectively (P < 0·05 for the difference). Serum Non-HDL cholesterol level is a stronger predictor for the risk of ischemic stroke than serum LDL cholesterol level in the Chinese population.

  14. Effects of Baseline Blood Pressure and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Safety and Efficacy of Canagliflozin in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Goda, Maki; Yokota, Shoko; Maruyama, Nobuko; Iijima, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood pressure (BP) and slightly increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of baseline BP and LDL-C on the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in patients were analyzed post hoc in a phase III study. Japanese patients with T2DM were classified by baseline systolic BP (SBP) of <130 or ≥130 mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) of <80 or ≥80 mmHg, and LDL-C of <120 or ≥120 mg/dL. Canagliflozin was administered daily to patients for 52 weeks at doses of either 100 mg (n = 584) or 200 mg (n = 715). The effects of canagliflozin on the incidence of adverse events (AEs), BP, and LDL-C were evaluated. No clear differences were observed in overall safety among the subgroups classified by baseline SBP, DBP, or LDL-C, except for a slight imbalance in AEs associated with volume depletion with 200 mg of canagliflozin. The decrease in mean SBP and DBP was evident in subgroups with baseline SBP ≥130 mmHg and DBP ≥80 mmHg. Mean LDL-C was decreased in subgroups with baseline LDL-C ≥120 mg/dL at both canagliflozin doses, and they were slightly increased, but did not exceed 120 mg/dL in subgroups with baseline LDL-C <120 mg/dL. The changes in HbA1c and body weight from those observed at baseline were not different between subgroups classified by SBP, DBP, and LDL-C at either dose. The present post hoc analysis indicates that canagliflozin is well tolerated irrespective of baseline BP and LDL-C in patients with T2DM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01387737. Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

  15. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =< 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 1.895; area under curve (AUC) = 0.681) in women and the waist to hip ratio (WHR) (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.624; AUC = 0.633) in men. In women, the strongest indicator of LDL was age (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.662; AUC by NB = 0.653 ; AUC by LR = 0.636). Among the anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =< 0.0001; OR = 1.369; AUC by NB = 0.594; AUC by LR = 0.595 ). The predictive power of almost all individual anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol

  16. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to <100 mg/dL (70.3%, 83.0%, and 87.2% of diabetic patients in the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity therapy groups, respectively). The rapid decrease of LDL-C was observed in the first 8 months, and LDL-C-lowering effect was maintained throughout the observation period in even the low-intensity statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-regression analysis of the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bruce C; Vincent, Melissa J; Liska, DeAnn; Haber, Lynne T

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a meta-regression of controlled clinical trial data to investigate quantitatively the relationship between dietary intake of industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Previous regression analyses included insufficient data to determine the nature of the dose response in the low-dose region and have nonetheless assumed a linear relationship between iTFA intake and LDL-C levels. This work contributes to the previous work by 1) including additional studies examining low-dose intake (identified using an evidence mapping procedure); 2) investigating a range of curve shapes, including both linear and nonlinear models; and 3) using Bayesian meta-regression to combine results across trials. We found that, contrary to previous assumptions, the linear model does not acceptably fit the data, while the nonlinear, S-shaped Hill model fits the data well. Based on a conservative estimate of the degree of intra-individual variability in LDL-C (0.1 mmoL/L), as an estimate of a change in LDL-C that is not adverse, a change in iTFA intake of 2.2% of energy intake (%en) (corresponding to a total iTFA intake of 2.2-2.9%en) does not cause adverse effects on LDL-C. The iTFA intake associated with this change in LDL-C is substantially higher than the average iTFA intake (0.5%en). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Catabolism of native and oxidized low density lipoproteins: in vivo insights from small animal positron emission tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Pietzsch, J; Bergmann, R; Wuest, F; Pawelke, B; Hultsch, C; van den Hoff, J

    2005-12-01

    The human organism is exposed to numerous processes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS may directly or indirectly cause oxidative modification and damage of proteins. Protein oxidation is regarded as a crucial event in the pathogenesis of various diseases ranging from rheumatoid arthritis to Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. As a representative example, oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Data concerning the role of circulating oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in the development and outcome of diseases are scarce. One reason for this is the shortage of methods for direct assessment of the metabolic fate of circulating oxLDL in vivo. We present an improved methodology based on the radiolabelling of apoB-100 of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL, respectively, with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). Radiolabelling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively, in vitro. The method was further evaluated with respect to the radiopharmacological properties of both [(18)F]fluorobenzoylated nLDL and oxLDL by biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats. The metabolic fate of [(18)F]fluorobenzoylated nLDL and oxLDL in rats in vivo was further delineated by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) using a dedicated small animal tomograph (spatial resolution of 2 mm). From this study we conclude that the use of [(18)F]FB-labelled LDL particles is an attractive alternative to, e.g., LDL iodination methods, and is of value to characterize and to discriminate the kinetics and the metabolic fate of nLDL and oxLDL in small animals in vivo.

  19. The association between achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal and statin treatment in an employee population.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2010-02-01

    Statin medications are recommended for patients who have not achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals through lifestyle modifications. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to examine statin medication usage patterns and the relationship with LDL-C goal levels (according to Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines) among a cohort of employees of a major financial services corporation. From 1995 to 2004, a total of 1607 executives participated in a periodic health examination program. An index date was assigned for each study participant (date of their exam) and statin medication usage was determined from the pharmacy claims database for 365 days before the index date. Patients were identified as adherent to statins if the medication possession ratio was > or =80%. In all, 150 (9.3%) executives filled at least 1 statin prescription in the 365 days prior to their exam. A total of 102 statin users (68%) were adherent to statin medication. Among all executives who received statin treatment, 70% (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.82, 2.90) achieved near-optimal (<130 mg/dL) and 30% (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.76) achieved optimal (<100 mg/dL) LDL-C goals, which is significantly higher than the rates among statin nonusers (55% and 21%). Adherent statin users were more likely to achieve recommended near-optimal LDL-C goals compared to statin nonusers (overall P = 0.002; adherent: OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.662, 4.550), while nonadherent statin users were more likely to achieve the optimal goal compared to statin nonusers (OR = 2.223; CI = 1.145, 4.313). Statin usage was associated with improvements in LDL-C goal attainment among executives who participated in a periodic health examination. Appropriate statin medication adherence should be encouraged in working populations in order to achieve LDL-C goals.

  20. Germinated Brown Rice Attenuates Atherosclerosis and Vascular Inflammation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazzawi, Nora; Wu, Jiansu; Le, Khuong; Li, Chunyang; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Siow, Yaw L; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Yin, Zhengfeng; Shen, Garry X

    2018-05-02

    The present study investigates the impact of germinated brown rice (GBR) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The intensity of atherosclerosis in aortas of LDLr-KO mice receiving diet supplemented with 60% GBR (weight/weight) was significantly less than that in mice fed with 60% white rice (WR) or control diet ( p < 0.05); all diets contained 0.06% cholesterol. WR or GBR diet did not significantly alter plasma total or LDL-cholesterol, fecal sterols, or glucose, or the activities of antioxidant enzymes, compared to the control diet. The adhesion of monocytes to aortas from LDLr-KO mice fed with WR diet was significantly more than that from mice receiving the control diet ( p < 0.01). GBR diet decreased monocyte adhesion to aortas compared to WR diet ( p < 0.01). GBR diet also reduced the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma, and the abundances of MCP-1, PAI-1, TNF-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, toll-like receptor-4, PAI-1, LDLr-like protein, and urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in aortas or hearts from LDLr-KO mice in comparison to the WR diet ( p < 0.05, 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that GBR administration attenuated atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in LDLr-KO mice compared to WR. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of GBR in LDLr-KO mice at least in part results from its anti-inflammatory activity.

  1. [Achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic goal in lipid and vascular risk units of the Spanish Arteriosclerosis Society].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Mostaza, José M; Pintó, Xavier; Banegas, José R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc) goal achievement among dyslipidemic patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA). The LDLc goal was based on the 2007 European guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter national study that included consecutive patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. Information was collected from medical records corresponding to two visits in the lipid unit. We included 1,828 patients from 43 lipid units. In the initial visit, 846 (46.3%) patients were on lipid lowering drug treatment. On the follow-up there was a significant increase in the use of cholesterol-lowering agents, except for a decrease in the use of nicotinic acid. 65.3% of patients with vascular disease and 50.4% with diabetes achieved an LDLc level <100mg/dL. Overall, 44.7% of patients achieved the LDLc goal and the predictors in the multivariate analysis were age, waist circumference, diabetes and the presence of vascular disease. Dyslipidemic patients referred to SEA lipid units have improved LDLc goal achievement after follow-up compared with data reported from previous studies in other health care settings. This improvement was associated with a substantial increase in the prescription of statins, both in monotherapy and combined with ezetimibe. There is still a wide room for improvement in the effectiveness of hypercholesterolemia treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  2. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  3. Quantification of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts to lysine residues in native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Requena, J R; Fu, M X; Ahmed, M U; Jenkins, A J; Lyons, T J; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R

    1997-01-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are major end-products of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and are frequently measured as indicators of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in vivo. MDA forms Schiff-base adducts with lysine residues and cross-links proteins in vitro; HNE also reacts with lysines, primarily via a Michael addition reaction. We have developed methods using NaBH4 reduction to stabilize these adducts to conditions used for acid hydrolysis of protein, and have prepared reduced forms of lysine-MDA [3-(N epsilon-lysino)propan-1-ol (LM)], the lysine-MDA-lysine iminopropene cross-link [1,3-di(N epsilon-lysino)propane (LML)] and lysine-HNE [3-(N epsilon-lysino)-4-hydroxynonan-l-ol (LHNE)]. Gas chromatography/MS assays have been developed for quantification of the reduced compounds in protein. RNase incubated with MDA or HNE was used as a model for quantification of the adducts by gas chromatography/MS. There was excellent agreement between measurement of MDA bound to RNase as LM and LML, and as thiobarbituric acid-MDA adducts measured by HPLC; these adducts accounted for 70-80% of total lysine loss during the reaction with MDA. LM and LML (0.002-0.12 mmol/ mol of lysine) were also found in freshly isolated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from healthy subjects. LHNE was measured in RNase treated with HNE, but was not detectable in native LDL. LM, LML and LHNE increased in concert with the formation of conjugated dienes during the copper-catalysed oxidation of LDL, but accounted for modification of < 1% of lysine residues in oxidized LDL. These results are the first report of direct chemical measurement of MDA and HNE adducts to lysine residues in LDL. LM, LML and LHNE should be useful as biomarkers of lipid peroxidative modification of protein and of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:9078279

  4. Identification of miR-185 as a regulator of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Liu, Weidong; Pellicane, Christina; Sahyoun, Christine; Joseph, Biny K.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Pandya, Devanshi; Giordano, Caroline; Bata, Adam; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis is associated with various metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. The sterol response element binding protein (SREBP)-2 transcription factor induces the expression of genes involved in de novo cholesterol biosynthesis and low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, thus it plays a crucial role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we found that overexpressing microRNA (miR)-185 in HepG2 cells repressed SREBP-2 expression and protein level. miR-185-directed inhibition caused decreased SREBP-2-dependent gene expression, LDL uptake, and HMG-CoA reductase activity. In addition, we found that miR-185 expression was tightly regulated by SREBP-1c, through its binding to a single sterol response element in the miR-185 promoter. Moreover, we found that miR-185 expression levels were elevated in mice fed a high-fat diet, and this increase correlated with an increase in total cholesterol level and a decrease in SREBP-2 expression and protein. Finally, we found that individuals with high cholesterol had a 5-fold increase in serum miR-185 expression compared with control individuals. Thus, miR-185 controls cholesterol homeostasis through regulating SREBP-2 expression and activity. In turn, SREBP-1c regulates miR-185 expression through a complex cholesterol-responsive feedback loop. Thus, a novel axis regulating cholesterol homeostasis exists that exploits miR-185-dependent regulation of SREBP-2 and requires SREBP-1c for function. PMID:24296663

  5. Effect of Acute Negative and Positive Energy Balance on Basal Very-Low Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Metabolism in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bellou, Elena; Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Botonaki, Helena; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. Design Ten healthy women (age: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) isocaloric feeding (control) ii) hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii) hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ∼26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P = 0.037), owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P = 0.023) and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ∼12%, P = 0.016). Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.042) but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. Conclusion Acute dietary energy deficit (∼3MJ) leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (∼3MJ) does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women. PMID:23533676

  6. Salusin-α attenuates hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis in high fat diet-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Wang, Fei; Zeng, Yi; Chen, XueMeng; Xu, XiaoLe

    2018-07-05

    Salusin-α is an endogenous bioactive peptide and likely to prevent atherosclerosis. But its protective effect against atherosclerosis in vivo remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential effects of salusin-α on atherosclerosis and its associated metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD)-fed low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice, and also explore the possible underlying mechanisms involved. Our data showed that after 12 weeks treatment, salusin-α ameliorated HFD-induced weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Salusin-α suppressed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and regulated gene expression of fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, camitine palmitoyltransferase-1α and CYP7A1 in liver. Salusin-α reduced atherosclerotic plaque area and macrophage foam cell formation. Salusin-α prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced macrophage recruitment and mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in both liver and aorta. Salusin-α also reduced hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and protein expressions of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 in both liver and aorta. Our present data suggest that salusin-α could reduce hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including amelioration of lipid profiles, regulation of some key molecules involved in lipid metabolism in liver, anti-oxidative effect and anti-inflammatory action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

  8. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. Results: In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Conclusions: Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. PMID:26884836

  9. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon Hyeock; Yi, Bong Gu; Wang, Wi Kwang; Ko, In Young; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kwon, Young Guen; Won, Moo Ho; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2018-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  10. Arginase Inhibition Suppresses Native Low-Density Lipoprotein-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by NADPH Oxidase Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wi-Kwang; Ko, In-Young; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kwon, Young-Guen; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. Materials and Methods Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. Results Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Conclusion Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation. PMID

  11. Control of very low-density lipoprotein secretion by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and miR-33.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ryan M; Marquart, Tyler J; Jesse, Jordan J; Baldán, Angel

    2014-06-20

    Several reports suggest that antisense oligonucleotides against miR-33 might reduce cardiovascular risk in patients by accelerating the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. However, conflicting reports exist about the impact of anti-miR-33 therapy on the levels of very low-density lipoprotein-triglycerides (VLDL-TAG). We test the hypothesis that miR-33 controls hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion. Using therapeutic silencing of miR-33 and adenoviral overexpression of miR-33, we show that miR-33 limits hepatic secretion of VLDL-TAG by targeting N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), both in vivo and in primary hepatocytes. We identify conserved sequences in the 3'UTR of NSF as miR-33 responsive elements and show that Nsf is specifically recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex following induction of miR-33. In pulse-chase experiments, either miR-33 overexpression or knock-down of Nsf lead to decreased secretion of apolipoproteins and TAG in primary hepatocytes, compared with control cells. Importantly, Nsf rescues miR-33-dependent reduced secretion. Finally, we show that overexpression of Nsf in vivo increases global hepatic secretion and raises plasma VLDL-TAG. Together, our data reveal key roles for the miR-33-NSF axis during hepatic secretion and suggest that caution should be taken with anti-miR-33-based therapies because they might raise proatherogenic VLDL-TAG levels. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Activated c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Regulates Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Takabe, Wakako; Li, Rongsong; Ai, Lisong; Yu, Fei; Berliner, Judith A.; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) modulates intracellular redox status and induces apoptosis in endothelial cells. However, the signal pathways and molecular mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) on oxLDL-induced apoptosis via c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Methods and Results OxLDL induced JNK phosphorylation that peaked at 30 minutes in human aortic endothelial cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that oxLDL increased mitochondrial superoxide production by 1.88±0.19-fold and mitochondrial membrane potential by 18%. JNK small interference RNA (siJNK) reduced oxLDL-induced mitochondrial superoxide production by 88.4% and mitochondrial membrane potential by 61.7%. OxLDL did not affect Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but it significantly reduced Mn-SOD protein level, which was restored by siJNK. Immunoprecipitation by ubiquitin antibody revealed that oxLDL increased ubiquitination of Mn-SOD, which was inhibited by siJNK. OxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities were also attenuated by siJNK but were enhanced by Mn-SOD small interfering RNA. Furthermore, overexpression of Mn-SOD abrogated oxLDL-induced caspase-3 activities. Conclusion OxLDL-induced JNK activation regulates mitochondrial redox status and Mn-SOD protein degradation via JNK-dependent ubiquitination, leading to endothelial cell apoptosis. PMID:20139358

  13. Interaction of human low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B with ternary lipid microemulsion. Physical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Chun, P W; Brumbaugh, E E; Shiremann, R B

    1986-12-31

    Based on data from sedimentation velocity experiments, electrophoresis, electron microscopy, cellular uptake studies, scanning molecular sieve chromatography using a quasi-three-dimensional data display and flow performance liquid chromatography (FPLC), models for the interaction of human serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apolipoprotein B (apo B) with a ternary lipid microemulsion (ME) are proposed. The initial step in the interaction of LDL (Stokes radius 110 A) with the ternary microemulsion (Stokes radius 270 A) appears to be attachment of the LDL to emulsion particles. This attachment is followed by a very slow fusion into particles having a radius of approx. 280 A. Sonication of this mixture yields large aggregates. Electron micrographs of deoxycholate-solubilized apo B indicate an arrangement of apo B resembling strings of beads. During incubation, these particles also attach to the ternary microemulsion particles and, upon sonication, spherical particles result which resemble native LDL particles in size. Scanning chromatography corroborates the electron microscopy results. By appropriate choice of display angles in a quasi-three-dimensional display of the scanning data (corrected for gel apparent absorbance) taken at equal time intervals during passage of a sample through the column, changes in molecular radius of less than 10 A can be detected visually. Such a display gives a quantitative estimate of 101 +/- 2 A for these particles (compared to 110 A for native LDL). The LDL-ME particles and apo B-ME particles compete efficiently with native LDL for cellular binding and uptake. Cellular association studies indicate that both LDL- and apo B-ME particles are effective vehicles for lipid delivery into cells.

  14. Combined measurement of plasma cystatin C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A valuable tool for evaluating progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ruihui; Wei, Xiaobo; Yu, Bin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xiaohua; Xie, Fen; Zhang, Mahui; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xia, Ying; Jin, Kunlin; Chan, Piu; Wang, Qing; Gao, Xiaoya

    2018-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was previously thought as a cause of atypical Parkinsonism. Although Cystatin C (Cys C) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) are known to play critical roles in Parkinsonism, it is unknown whether they can be used as markers to distinguish PSP patients from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C/HDL/LDL-C levels of 40 patients with PSP and 40 healthy age-matched controls. An extended battery of motor and neuropsychological tests, including the PSP-Rating Scale (PSPRS), the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used to evaluate the disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were adopted to assess the prognostic accuracy of Cys C/LDL-C levels in distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects. Patients with PSP exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of Cys C and lower LDL-C. The levels of plasma Cys C were positively and inversely correlated with the PSPRS/NMSS and MMSE scores, respectively. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with PSPRS/NMSS and GDS scores. The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and LDL-C yielded a better accuracy for distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Plasma Cys C and LDL-C may be valuable screening tools for differentiating PSP from healthy subjects; while they could be useful for the PSP intensifies and severity evaluation. A better understanding of Cys C and LDL-C may yield insights into the pathogenesis of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can We Eliminate Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Related Cardiovascular Events Through More Aggressive Primary Prevention Therapy?

    PubMed

    Mancini, G B John; Hegele, Robert A

    2018-05-01

    Intravascular levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at approximately ≤ 0.6 mmol/L are likely to minimize, and perhaps eliminate, LDL-C-related vascular toxicity while having no effect on essential, intracellular cholesterol homeostatic pathways, according to accumulated knowledge from basic science. Randomized clinical trials, observational reports, and Mendelian randomization trials are also forcing a reconsideration of what "normal" LDL-C means. Recent trials of secondary prevention have substantiated that such levels are safe and associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with patients with higher levels of LDL-C. Similarly, treatment to this low range is associated with regression and stabilization of established atherosclerosis. Primary prevention trials also show that low levels of LDL-C are safe and associated with decreased risk of CVEs through cholesterol-lowering in adults with LDL-C ≥ 3.5 mmol/L or when levels are < 3.5 mmol/L in association with other cardiovascular risks. Although there are no randomized clinical outcome trials of familial hypercholesterolemia patients, such patients have very high, lifetime risk of CVE, and registry studies show that LDL-C reduction has nearly normalized their CVE rates. The possibility of familial hypercholesterolemia should be considered if LDL-C is > 4.5 and > 4.0 mmol/L at ages 18-39 years and younger than 18 years, respectively. On the basis of these convergent and internally consistent lines of evidence, in this article we speculate on a translational paradigm aimed at eliminating LDL-C-related CVEs through aggressive primary prevention strategies that are already proven and well accepted in principle. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Severe hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein, and neonatal death in lipoprotein lipase knockout mice. Mild hypertriglyceridemia with impaired very low density lipoprotein clearance in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, P H; Bisgaier, C L; Aalto-Setälä, K; Radner, H; Ramakrishnan, R; Levak-Frank, S; Essenburg, A D; Zechner, R; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-deficient mice have been created by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. At birth, homozygous knockout pups have threefold higher triglycerides and sevenfold higher VLDL cholesterol levels than controls. When permitted to suckle, LPL-deficient mice become pale, then cyanotic, and finally die at approximately 18 h of age. Before death, triglyceride levels are severely elevated (15,087 +/- 3,805 vs 188 +/- 71 mg/dl in controls). Capillaries in tissues of homozygous knockout mice are engorged with chylomicrons. This is especially significant in the lung where marginated chylomicrons prevent red cell contact with the endothelium, a phenomenon which is presumably the cause of cyanosis and death in these mice. Homozygous knockout mice also have diminished adipose tissue stores as well as decreased intracellular fat droplets. By crossbreeding with transgenic mice expressing human LPL driven by a muscle-specific promoter, mouse lines were generated that express LPL exclusively in muscle but not in any other tissue. This tissue-specific LPL expression rescued the LPL knockout mice and normalized their lipoprotein pattern. This supports the contention that hypertriglyceridemia caused the death of these mice and that LPL expression in a single tissue was sufficient for rescue. Heterozygous LPL knockout mice survive to adulthood and have mild hypertriglyceridemia, with 1.5-2-fold elevated triglyceride levels compared with controls in both the fed and fasted states on chow, Western-type, or 10% sucrose diets. In vivo turnover studies revealed that heterozygous knockout mice had impaired VLDL clearance (fractional catabolic rate) but no increase in transport rate. In summary, total LPL deficiency in the mouse prevents triglyceride removal from plasma, causing death in the neonatal period, and expression of LPL in a single tissue alleviates this problem. Furthermore, half-normal levels of LPL cause a decrease in VLDL fractional catabolic rate and mild

  17. Glycaemic, Blood Pressure and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control in Adult Patients with Diabetes in Singapore: A Review of Singapore Literature Over Two Decades.

    PubMed

    Poh, Zhongxian; Venkataraman, Kavita; Toh, Sue-Anne Es; Low, Lian Leng

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a burgeoning global health epidemic, with an estimated 422 million people living with diabetes in 2014. The number of adult diabetic patients in Singapore is expected to rise to 1 million in 2050. Despite advances made in the management of diabetes and improvements in healthcare accessibility and delivery, the rate and complications of diabetes (myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney failure and lower limb amputation) in Singapore have not decreased. Gaps between guidelines and practice have been reported in several parts of the world. In this narrative review, we aimed to describe the control of diabetes in Singapore over the past 20 years. We reviewed studies describing, or trials intervening in, the glycaemic, blood pressure (BP) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control of adult diabetic patients in Singapore published over the past 20 years (1997-2016). Studies selected from comprehensive electronic databases searches were reviewed by 4 reviewers (2 primary care physicians, 1 diabetologist and 1 public health epidemiologist). The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. We included 23 articles involving 257,097 subjects. There were 9 longitudinal, 12 cross-sectional and 2 case-control studies. All studies reported mean/median HbA1c between 7.2%-8.6%. BP ranged between 126.5-144 mmHg (systolic) and 70-84 mmHg (diastolic) in 9 studies. Nine studies reported LDL-C between 2.4-3.3 mmol/L. Mirroring global patterns, the glycaemic, BP and LDL-C control in adult diabetic patients in Singapore do not appear to be treated to target in the majority of patients.

  18. Small, qualitative changes in fatty acid intake decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic outpatients on their usual high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Luc, Gérald; Marécaux, Nadine; Bal, Sylvie; Bonte, Jean-Paul; Lacroix, Brigitte; Cayzeele, Amélie

    2009-01-01

    The diet is the first step in managing hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study is to assess whether moderate changes in dietary fatty acids improve plasma lipid parameters in mildly hypercholesterolemic outpatients. Using a randomized double-blind study, 121 outpatients within two groups received an isocaloric amount of unsaturated margarine or butter. Clinical and anthropometric measurements and a 3-day food record were made. Chi-square and Fisher's tests were used to compare qualitative variables and the general linear procedure was used to compare the groups. Additional analyses were performed after adjustment. There was a significant difference (P <0.03) in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels between the groups. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B values decreased in the unsaturated group in comparison with the saturated group. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol changes were correlated with the variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and with plasma phospholipid linoleic acid levels. A small change in saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acid intake may improve plasma lipid parameters in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  19. [Characteristics of fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl cholines and sphingomyelins of low-density lipoproteins in the plasma of native inhabitants of Chukotka].

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E N; Levachev, M M; Perova, N V; Nikitin, Iu P; Ozerova, I N

    1986-01-01

    Contents of cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol as well as phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of phosphatidyl cholines and sphingomyelins in low density lipoproteins (LDL) were studied in blood plasma of Chukot aborigenes--Eskimos as compared with Moscow inhabitants. In Eskimos content of HDL cholesterol was higher but concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was lower in blood plasma. In LDL concentration of sphingomyelins was increased and fatty acid composition of phosphatidyl cholines and sphingomyelins was altered where amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids was elevated (20:5 + 22:5 + 22:6). The specific characteristics of the LDL phospholipids observed in Eskimos might be responsible for the higher liquid properties of the surface monolayer in the lipoproteins; this alteration might be important for the lipoprotein properties and transformation as well as for the properties of membrane-bound enzymes, for synthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclins.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease, Mortality Risk and Healthcare Costs by Lipoprotein(a) Levels According to Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels in Older High Risk Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanglu; Delaney, Joseph A; Quek, Ruben G.W.; Gardin, Julius M.; Hirsch, Calvin; Gandra, Shravanthi R.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The value of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) across low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. We examined in older high risk adults these associations with CVD events, mortality, and healthcare costs. Methods We included 3,251 high risk subjects (prior CVD, diabetes or 10-year Framingham CVD risk > 20%) aged ≥ 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study with LDL-C and Lp(a). We examined the relation of Lp(a) tertiles with incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality within LDL-C strata (< 70 mg/dL, 70–99 mg/dL, 100–129 mg/dL, 130–159 mg/dL and ≥ 160 mg/dL). We also examined 1-year all-cause and CVD healthcare costs from Medicare claims. Results Over up a 22.5-year follow-up, higher Lp(a) levels predicted CVD and total mortality [both standardized hazard ratio (HR) =1.06, p<0.01] while higher LDL-C levels predicted higher CHD (standardized HR =1.09, p<0.01) but lower total mortality (standardized HR =0.94, p< 0.001). Adjusted HRs in the highest (vs. lowest) tertile of Lp(a) level were 1.95 (p=0.06) for CVD events and 2.68 (p=0.03) for CHD events when LDL-C was < 70 mg/dL. One year all-cause healthcare costs were increased for Lp(a) [$771 per SD of 56 ug/mL (p=0.03), $1,976 for Lp(a) 25–64 ug/mL vs. < 25 ug/mL (p=0.02) and $1648 for Lp(a) ≥ 65 ug/mL vs. < 25 ug/mL (p=0.054)], but not LDL-C. Conclusion In older high risk adults, increased Lp(a) levels were associated with higher CVD risk especially in those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL and with higher healthcare costs. PMID:27177347

  1. Effect of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) levels: a prospective observational trial

    PubMed

    Sponder, Michael; Campean, Ioana-Alexandra; Dalos, Daniel; Emich, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Litschauer, Brigitte; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Graf, Senta; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2017-08-09

    INTRODUCTION    Since proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors were introduced to the market, the interest in PCSK9 metabolism has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVES    We investigated prospectively the influence of long-term physical activity on PCSK9, highand low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C, respectively), and lipoprotein(a) levels [Lp(a)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS    A total of 109 participants were recruited and instructed to increase their sport pensum by 75 min/wk of vigorous-intensity or 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity endurance training (or a mixture) within the calculated training pulse for 8 months. Stress tests were performed at baseline and at the end of the study to prove and quantify the performance gain. PCSK9 levels were measured at baseline and after 2, 6, and 8 months by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HDL-C, LDL-C, and Lp(a) levels were measured at baseline and every 2 months. RESULTS    The final study sample included 79 subjects, who showed a mean performance gain of 11.4%. Mean (SD) PCSK9 and HDL-C levels increased significantly from 224.7 (66.8) ng/ml to 243.4 (84.0) ng/ml (P = 0.04) and 58.3 (18.4) mg/dl to 61.1 (18.5) mg/dl (P = 0.014), respectively. Mean (SD) LDL-C levels decreased significantly from 115.0 (33.4) mg/dl to 109.8 (31.7) mg/dl (P = 0.04), but there was no significant change in mean (SD) Lp(a) levels: 37.9 (51.9) nmol/l to 43.3 (60.6) nmol/l; P = 0.218. CONCLUSIONS    Our study showed a decrease in LDL-C levels induced by a long-term physical activity with a simultaneous increase in PCSK9 levels. PCSK9 is essential in lipid metabolism and should not be basically considered as harmful. It is possible that a certain amount of PCSK9 is beneficial to ensure an adequate lipid supply.

  2. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, and Apolipoprotein B and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Manifest Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, M Johanneke; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Borst, Gert Jan; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nathoe, Hendrik M; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-09-15

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) only partly represents the atherogenic lipid burden, and a growing body of evidence suggests that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) are more accurate in estimating lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk. Our objective was to compare the relation among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and apoB and the occurrence of future vascular events and mortality in patients with manifest arterial disease. This is a prospective cohort study of 7,216 patients with clinically manifest arterial disease in the Secondary Manifestations of Arterial Disease Study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify the risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE; i.e., stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular mortality) and all-cause mortality. Interaction was tested for type of vascular disease at inclusion. MACE occurred in 1,185 subjects during a median follow-up of 6.5 years (interquartile range 3.4 to 9.9 years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of MACE per 1 SD higher were for LDL-C (HR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.22), for non-HDL-C (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.23), for log(triglycerides) (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19), and for apoB HR (1.12, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.28). The relation among LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and cardiovascular events was comparable in patients with cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, or polyvascular disease and absent in those with aneurysm of abdominal aorta or peripheral artery disease. In conclusion, in patients with a history of cerebrovascular, coronary artery, or polyvascular disease, but not aneurysm of abdominal aorta or peripheral artery disease, higher levels of LDL-C and non-HDL-C are related to increased risk of future MACE and of comparable magnitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rabbit aortic endothelial dysfunction by low-density lipoprotein is attenuated by L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong; Han, Yi; Diao, Jianxin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relative effectiveness of L-arginine, L-ascorbate and pyridoxine in preventing the impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) from healthy subjects, oxidised LDL (oxLDL, formed by oxidation of nLDL) or nLDL from type II diabetic patients (dLDL). Rabbit aortic rings were exposed to nLDL, dLDL or oxLDL (50–200 mg protein l−1), or corresponding vehicle, following which they were constricted with noradrenaline 10−6 M; concentration–relaxation curves were determined to acetylcholine (ACh), A23187, or sodium nitroprusside (NP), in the absence or presence of L-arginine (10−5–10−3 M), L-ascorbate (10−5–10−3 M) and pyridoxine (0.5–2.0 mM). nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL all inhibited relaxant responses to ACh and A23187, but not to NP, in a concentration-dependent manner (oxLDL>dLDL>nLDL). In the presence of all LDL preparations, L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine each improved ACh and A23187 responses, although none completely normalised endothelium-dependent relaxations. The maximal effect of L-arginine occurred at 10−4 M. The combination of L-arginine 10−4 M, L-ascorbate 10−5 M and pyridoxine 2.0 mM was equally effective as L-arginine 10−4 M alone. Our results confirm that nLDL, dLDL and oxLDL exert inhibitory effects on endothelium dependent, but not endothelium independent, relaxation of rabbit aorta. ACh and A23187 responses in the presence of any LDL species can be ameliorated by supplementation with L-arginine, L-ascorbate or pyridoxine, either singly or in combination, with no agent or combination proving superior to L-arginine alone. Nevertheless, ACh and A23187 responses are not completely normalised with such supplements, suggesting that there also exists a component of LDL-induced inhibition of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation that is independent of the nitric oxide system. PMID:14597596

  4. NADPH oxidase activation contributes to native low-density lipoprotein-induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Il Hwan; Hwang, Hye Mi; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2015-06-12

    Elevated plasma concentration of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the mechanisms of superoxide generation and its contribution to pathophysiological cell proliferation in response to nLDL stimulation. Lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence was used to measure nLDL-induced superoxide production in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs). Superoxide production was increased by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and decreased by NADPH oxidase inhibitors in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMC and hAoSMC homogenates, as well as in prepared membrane fractions. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) and protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) were phosphorylated and maximally activated within 3 min of nLDL stimulation. Phosphorylated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, PKCθ and PKCβ stimulated interactions between p47phox and p22phox; these interactions were prevented by MEK and PKC inhibitors (PD98059 and calphostin C, respectively). These inhibitors decreased nLDL-dependent superoxide production and blocked translocation of p47phox to the membrane, as shown by epifluorescence imaging and cellular fractionation experiments. Proliferation assays showed that a small interfering RNA against p47phox, as well as superoxide scavenger and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, blocked nLDL-induced hAoSMC proliferation. The nLDL stimulation in deendothelialized aortic rings from C57BL/6J mice increased dihydroethidine fluorescence and induced p47phox translocation that was blocked by PD98059 or calphostin C. Isolated aortic SMCs from p47phox(-/-) mice (mAoSMCs) did not respond to nLDL stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was responsible for superoxide generation and cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation contributed to cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs.

  5. Low Density Lipoproteins Promote Unstable Calcium Handling Accompanied by Reduced SERCA2 and Connexin-40 Expression in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Llach, Anna; Vallmitjana, Alexander; Benítez, Raúl; Badimon, Lina; Cinca, Juan; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2013-01-01

    The damaging effects of high plasma levels of cholesterol in the cardiovascular system are widely known, but little attention has been paid to direct effects on cardiomyocyte function. We therefore aimed at testing the hypothesis that Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol affects calcium dynamics and signal propagation in cultured atrial myocytes. For this purpose, mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and intracellular calcium was visualized in fluo-4 loaded atrial HL-1 myocyte cultures subjected to field stimulation. At low stimulation frequencies all cultures had uniform calcium transients at all tested LDL concentrations. However, 500 µg LDL/mL maximally reduced the calcium transient amplitude by 43% from 0.30±0.04 to 0.17±0.02 (p<0.05). Moreover, LDL-cholesterol dose-dependently increased the fraction of alternating and irregular beat-to-beat responses observed when the stimulation interval was shortened. This effect was linked to a concurrent reduction in SERCA2, RyR2, IP3RI and IP3RII mRNA levels. SERCA2 protein levels were also reduced by 43% at 200 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05) and SR calcium loading was reduced by 38±6% (p<0.001). By contrast, HDL-cholesterol had no significant effect on SERCA expression or SR calcium loading. LDL-cholesterol also slowed the conduction velocity of the calcium signal from 3.2+0.2 mm/s without LDL to 1.7±0.1 mm/s with 500 µg LDL/mL (p<0.05). This coincided with a reduction in Cx40 expression (by 44±3%; p<0.05 for mRNA and by 79±2%; p<0.05 for Cx40 protein at 200 µg/ml LDL) whereas the Cx-43 expression did not significantly change. In conclusion, LDL-cholesterol destabilizes calcium handling in cultured atrial myocytes subjected to rapid pacing by reducing SERCA2 and Cx40 expression and by slowing the conduction velocity of the calcium signal. PMID:23516438

  6. Fertility and flow cytometric evaluations of frozen-thawed rooster semen in cryopreservation medium containing low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A; Sharafi, M; Gourabi, H; Yekta, A Amiri; Esmaeili, V; Sharbatoghli, M; Janzamin, E; Hajnasrollahi, M; Mostafayi, F

    2015-01-01

    Frozen-thawed rooster semen is not reliable for use in artificial insemination in commercial stocks. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been assessed for effectiveness as a cryoprotectant in the extender to improve the quality of frozen-thawed rooster semen. Although LDL has been evaluated in a few studies in other species for semen cryopreservation, so far no study has been conducted to examine this cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of fowl semen. Thus, this study aims to analyze the effects of different concentrations of LDL (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) in a Beltsville extender for cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. In experiment 1, motion parameters, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, apoptosis status, and mitochondria activity were assessed after freeze-thawing. The highest quality frozen-thawed semen was selected to be used for evaluation of the fertility rate in experiment 2. Semen was collected from six roosters, twice weekly, then extended in a Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of LDL as follows: 0% (control), 1% (Beltsville plus 1% LDL [BLDL1]), 2% (BLDL2), 4% (BLDL4), 6% (BLDL6), and 8% (BLDL8). Supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL produced the most significant percentage of motility (43.1 ± 1.3), membrane integrity (59.4 ± 2.1),mitochondria activity (49.1 ± 1.19), and viable spermatozoa (45 ± 2.28) compared with the control treatment with the results of 22.7 ± 1.3 (motility), 38.4 ± 2.1 (membrane integrity), 40.25 ± 1.19 (mitochondrial activity), and 37.8 ± 2.28 (viability). In experiment 2, a significantly higher percentage of fertility rate was observed for frozen-thawed semen in the extender supplemented with 4% LDL (49.5 ± 1.6) compared with the control (29.2 ± 2.9). Progressive motility and acrosome integrity were not affected by LDL levels in the extenders. The results revealed that supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL resulted in higher quality of frozen-thawed rooster

  7. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  8. Effect of olive and sunflower oils on low density lipoprotein level, composition, size, oxidation and interaction with arterial proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Carmena, R; Ascaso, J F; Camejo, G; Varela, G; Hurt-Camejo, E; Ordovas, J M; Martinez-Valls, J; Bergstöm, M; Wallin, B

    1996-09-06

    The atherogenicity of low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be modulated by its serum levels, structure and affinity for components of the intima, all properties that can be altered by diet. Linoleic acid-rich diets (n-G, 18:2) reduce the levels of LDL whereas those rich in oleic (n-9,18:1) are considered 'neutral'. However, LDL enriched in linoleic acid have been reported to be more vulnerable to free radical-mediated oxidation than those enriched in oleic, a potentially atherogenic property. The effect of dietary fats on other properties of LDL that may also modulate atherogenesis, such as size and capacity to interact with intima components, are not well established. We explored here how a change from an olive oil-rich diet (OO) to a sunflower oil-rich one (SFO) affects these parameters in a community with a traditional Mediterranean diet. Eighteen free-living volunteers were placed for 3 weeks on a diet with 31% of caloric intake as sunflower oil and then shifted for an additional 3 weeks to a diet in which OO provided 30.5% of the calories. The LDL after SFO had a fatty acids ratio of (18:2 + 18:3 + 20:4) to (16:0 + 16:1 + 18:0 + 18:1) of 1.06 +/- 0.11 compared to 0.73 +/- 0.06 after the OO period. Serum LDL was significantly lower after SFO than after OO. Unexpectedly, copper-catalyzed oxidation of LDL from the SFO period was significantly less than that of the particles from the OO period. The resistance to oxidation of LDL of the SFO and OO period related to alterations in content of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol, in addition to changes in size and fatty acids composition. In vitro binding of LDL to human arterial proteoglycans was also significantly lower for the SFO-LDL than the OO-LDL, a result that can also be attributed to the larger size of the SFO-LDL. Therefore, three properties of LDL: circulating levels, oxidizability, and affinity with intima proteoglycans, that may modulate its atherogenicity, were shifted in a

  9. Associations of insulin resistance, inflammation and liver synthetic function with very low-density lipoprotein: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z Gordon; de Boer, Ian H; Mackey, Rachel H; Jensen, Majken K; Lai, Michelle; Robson, Simon C; Tracy, Russell; Kuller, Lewis H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2016-03-01

    Production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is increased in states of metabolic syndrome, leading to hypertriglyceridemia. However, metabolic syndrome is often associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which leads to liver fibrosis and inflammation that may decrease VLDL production. In this study, we aim to determine the interactive impact on VLDL profiles from insulin resistance, impairment in liver synthetic function and inflammation. We examined cross-sectional associations of insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and liver synthetic function with VLDL particle (VLDL-P) concentration and size among 1,850 older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Indices for high insulin sensitivity and low liver synthetic function were associated with lower concentrations of VLDL-P. In addition, insulin resistance preferentially increased concentration of large VLDL and was associated with mean VLDL size. Indices for inflammation however demonstrated a nonlinear relationship with both VLDL-P concentration and VLDL size. When mutually adjusted, one standard deviation (SD) increment in Matsuda index and C-reactive protein (CRP) were associated with 4.9 nmol/L (-8.2 to -1.5, p=0.005) and 6.3 nmol/L (-11.0 to -1.6, p=0.009) lower VLDL-P concentration respectively. In contrast, one-SD increment in factor VII, a marker for liver synthetic function, was associated with 16.9 nmol/L (12.6-21.2, p<0.001) higher VLDL-P concentration. Furthermore, a one-SD increment in the Matsuda index was associated with 1.1 nm (-2.0 to -0.3, p=0.006) smaller mean VLDL size, whereas CRP and factor VII were not associated with VLDL size. Insulin sensitivity, inflammation and markers for liver synthetic function differentially impact VLDL-P concentration and VLDL size. These results underscore the complex effects of insulin resistance and its complications on VLDL production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioactive components and mechanisms of Chinese poplar propolis alleviates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial cells injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huasong; Yuan, Wenwen; Wu, Haizhu; Yin, Xusheng; Xuan, Hongzhuan

    2018-05-03

    Propolis, a polyphenol-rich natural product, has been used as a functional food in anti-inflammation. However, its bioactive components and mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To discover the bioactive components and anti-inflammatory mechanism, we prepared and separated 8 subfractions from ethyl acetate extract of Chinese propolis (EACP) and investigated the mechanism in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) damage. Eight subfractions were prepared and separated from ethyl acetate extract of Chinese propolis (EACP) with different concentrations of methanol-water solution, and analysed its chemical constituents by HPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS. Then 80% confluent HUVECs were stimulated with 40 μg/mL ox-LDL. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Hoechst 33,258 staining, respectively. Levels of caspase 3, PARP, LC3B, p62, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-PI3K, p-Akt, LOX-1 and p-p38 MAPK were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. Each subfraction exhibited similar protective effect although the contents of chemical constituents were different. EACP attenuated ox-LDL induced HUVECs apoptosis, depressed the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I and enhanced the p62 level. In addition, treatment with EACP also activated the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and deactivated the level of LOX-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. The overproduction of ROS and the damage of MMP were also ameliorated after ECAP treatment. These findings indicated that the bioactive component of propolis on anti-inflammatory activity was not determined by a single constituent, but a complex interaction including flavonoids, esters and phenolic acids. EACP attenuated ox-LDL induced HUVECs injury by inhibiting LOX-1 level and depressed ROS production against oxidative stress in ox

  11. Electronegative Low-Density Lipoprotein Increases C-Reactive Protein Expression in Vascular Endothelial Cells through the LOX-1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Sheng; Wang, Yu-Chen; Lu, Long-Sheng; Walton, Brian; Yilmaz, H. Ramazan; Huang, Roger Y.; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Dixon, Richard A. F.; Lai, Wen-Ter; Chen, Chu-Huang; Lu, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of acute coronary syndrome. We investigated whether CRP can be generated in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) after exposure to the most electronegative subfraction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), L5, which is atherogenic to ECs. Because L5 and CRP are both ligands for the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), we also examined the role of LOX-1. Methods and Results Plasma LDL samples isolated from asymptomatic hypercholesterolemic (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] levels, 154.6±20 mg/dL; n = 7) patients and normocholesterolemic (LDL-C levels, 86.1±21 mg/dL; P<0.001; n = 7) control individuals were chromatographically resolved into 5 subfractions, L1-L5. The L5 percentage (L5%) and the plasma L5 concentration ([L5]  =  L5% × LDL-C) in the patient and control groups were 8.1±2% vs. 2.3±1% (P<0.001) and 12.6±4 mg/dL vs. 1.9±1 mg/dL (P<0.001), respectively. In hypercholesterolemic patients treated with atorvastatin for 6 months (10 mg/day), [L5] decreased from 12.6±4 mg/dL to 4.5±1.1 mg/dL (P = 0.011; n = 5), whereas both [L5] and L5% returned to baseline levels in 2 noncompliant patients 3 months after discontinuation. In cultured human aortic ECs (HAECs), L5 upregulated CRP expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner up to 2.5-fold (P<0.01), whereas the least electronegative subfraction, L1, had no effect. DiI-labeled L1, internalized through the LDL receptor, became visible inside HAECs within 30 seconds. In contrast, DiI-labeled L5, internalized through LOX-1, became apparent after 5 minutes. L5-induced CRP expression manifested at 30 minutes and was attenuated by neutralizing LOX-1. After 30 minutes, L5 but not L1 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both L5-induced ROS and CRP production were attenuated by ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRP, L5, and LOX-1 form a cyclic

  12. G-protein estrogen receptor as a regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism: cellular and population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Yasin; Ding, Qingming; Connelly, Philip W; Brunt, J Howard; Ban, Matthew R; McIntyre, Adam D; Huff, Murray W; Gros, Robert; Hegele, Robert A; Feldman, Ross D

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is linked with increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The hormone receptor mediating this effect is unknown. G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) is a recently recognized G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by estrogens. We recently identified a common hypofunctional missense variant of GPER, namely P16L. However, the role of GPER in LDL metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we examined the association of the P16L genotype with plasma LDL cholesterol level. Furthermore, we studied the role of GPER in regulating expression of the LDL receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9. Our discovery cohort was a genetically isolated population of Northern European descent, and our validation cohort consisted of normal, healthy women aged 18 to 56 years from London, Ontario. In addition, we examined the effect of GPER on the regulation of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 and LDL receptor expression by the treatment with the GPER agonist, G1. In the discovery cohort, GPER P16L genotype was associated with a significant increase in LDL cholesterol (mean±SEM): 3.18±0.05, 3.25±0.08, and 4.25±0.33 mmol/L, respectively, in subjects with CC (homozygous for P16), CT (heterozygotes), and TT (homozygous for L16) genotypes (P<0.05). In the validation cohort (n=339), the GPER P16L genotype was associated with a similar increase in LDL cholesterol: 2.17±0.05, 2.34±0.06, and 2.42±0.16 mmol/L, respectively, in subjects with CC, CT, and TT genotypes (P<0.05). In the human hepatic carcinoma cell line, the GPER agonist, G1, mediated a concentration-dependent increase in LDL receptor expression, blocked by either pretreatment with the GPER antagonist G15 or by shRNA-mediated GPER downregulation. G1 also mediated a GPER- and concentration-dependent decrease in proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 expression. GPER activation upregulates LDL receptor expression, probably at least, in part, via proprotein convertase

  13. Protection capacity against low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant potential of some organic and non-organic wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice; Delen Akçay, Yasemin; Güvenç, Ulgar; Yildirim Sözmen, Eser

    2004-08-01

    Current research suggests that phenolics from wine may play a positive role against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Considering the effects of different wine-making techniques on phenols and the wine consumption preference influencing the benefical effects of the product, organically and non-organically produced wines were obtained from the grapes of Vitis vinifera origin var: Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Columbard and Semillon. Levels of total phenols [mg/l gallic acid equivalents (GAE)], antioxidant activity (%) and inhibition of LDL oxidation [%, inhibition of diene and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] were determined. Some phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrochemical detection carried at +0.65 V (versus Ag/AgCl, 0.5 microA full scale). The highest concentrations of gallic, syringic and ferulic acids were found in organic Cabernet Sauvignon; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in organic Carignan and p-coumaric and vanillic acids in non-organic Merlot wine. High levels of antioxidant activity (AOA), inhibition of LDL oxidation and total phenol levels were found in non-organic Merlot (101.950% AOA; 88.570% LDL-diene; 41.000% LDL-MDA; 4700.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon (92.420% AOA; 91.430% LDL-diene; 67.000% LDL-MDA; 3500.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) grape varieties. Concentrations of some individual phenolic constituents (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic) are correlated with high antioxidant activity and inhibition of LDL oxidation. The best r value for all examined characteristics was determined for gallic acid, followed by 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Negative correlation of vanillic with MDA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid with LDL were

  14. Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Related Genetic Variants With Aortic Valve Calcium and Incident Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Luk, Kevin; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Engert, James C.; Do, Ron; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Dufresne, Line; Almgren, Peter; Owens, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rich, Stephen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; Thanassoulis, George

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a Mendelian randomization study design, we evaluated whether weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), a measure of the genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids, constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies for plasma lipids, were associated with aortic valve disease. We included community-based cohorts participating in the CHARGE consortium (n = 6942), including the Framingham Heart Study (cohort inception to last follow-up: 1971-2013; n = 1295), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012; n = 2527), Age Gene/Environment Study-Reykjavik (2000-2012; n = 3120), and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, 1991-2010; n = 28 461). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Aortic valve calcium quantified by computed tomography in CHARGE and incident aortic stenosis in the MDCS. RESULTS The prevalence of aortic valve calcium across the 3 CHARGE cohorts was 32% (n = 2245). In the MDCS, over a median follow-up time of 16.1 years, aortic stenosis developed in 17 per 1000 participants (n = 473) and aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis occurred in 7 per 1000 (n = 205). Plasma LDL-C, but not HDL-C or TG, was significantly associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] per mmol/L, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.3% and 2.4% in lowest and highest LDL-C quartiles, respectively). The LDL-C GRS, but not HDL-C or TG GRS, was significantly associated with presence of

  15. NG2 Proteoglycan Ablation Reduces Foam Cell Formation and Atherogenesis via Decreased Low-Density Lipoprotein Retention by Synthetic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    She, Zhi-Gang; Chang, Yunchao; Pang, Hong-Bo; Han, Wenlong; Chen, Hou-Zao; Smith, Jeffrey W; Stallcup, William B

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and hyperlipidemia are critical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Because ablation of NG2 proteoglycan in mice leads to hyperlipidemia and obesity, we investigated the impact of NG2 ablation on atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Immunostaining indicates that NG2 expression in plaque, primarily by synthetic smooth muscle cells, increases during atherogenesis. NG2 ablation unexpectedly results in decreased (30%) plaque development, despite aggravated obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mechanistic studies reveal that NG2-positive plaque synthetic smooth muscle cells in culture can sequester low-density lipoprotein to enhance foam-cell formation, processes in which NG2 itself plays direct roles. In agreement with these observations, low-density lipoprotein retention and lipid accumulation in the NG2/ApoE knockout aorta is 30% less than that seen in the control aorta. These results indicate that synthetic smooth muscle cell-dependent low-density lipoprotein retention and foam cell formation outweigh obesity and hyperlipidemia in promoting mouse atherogenesis. Our study sheds new light on the role of synthetic smooth muscle cells during atherogenesis. Blocking plaque NG2 or altering synthetic smooth muscle cells function may be promising therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 binding to endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor family by a peptide isolated from a phage display library

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jan K.; Malmendal, Anders; Schiøtt, Birgit; Skeldal, Sune; Pedersen, Katrine E.; Celik, Leyla; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Andreasen, Peter A.; Wind, Troels

    2006-01-01

    The functions of the serpin PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) are based on molecular interactions with its target proteases uPA and tPA (urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator respectively), with vitronectin and with endocytosis receptors of the low-density-lipoprotein family. Understanding the significance of these interactions would be facilitated by the ability to block them individually. Using phage display, we have identified the disulfide-constrained peptide motif CFGWC with affinity for natural human PAI-1. The three-dimensional structure of a peptide containing this motif (DVPCFGWCQDA) was determined by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. A binding site in the so-called flexible joint region of PAI-1 was suggested by molecular modelling and validated through binding studies with various competitors and site-directed mutagenesis of PAI-1. The peptide with an N-terminal biotin inhibited the binding of the uPA–PAI-1 complex to the endocytosis receptors low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 1A (LRP-1A) and very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) in vitro and inhibited endocytosis of the uPA–PAI-1 complex in U937 cells. We conclude that the isolated peptide represents a novel approach to pharmacological interference with the functions of PAI-1 based on inhibition of one specific molecular interaction. PMID:16813566

  17. Effect of the combination of methyltestosterone and esterified estrogens compared with esterified estrogens alone on apolipoprotein CIII and other apolipoproteins in very low density, low density, and high density lipoproteins in surgically postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; Martin, Lisa A; Campos, Hannia; Sacks, Frank M

    2004-05-01

    Androgens are known to lower plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Triglycerides are carried in plasma on very low density (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein particles. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a strong predictor of CHD, impairs the metabolism of VLDL and LDL, contributing to increased triglycerides. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral methyltestosterone (2.5 mg/d), added to esterified estrogens (1.25 mg/d), on concentrations of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, specifically those containing apoCIII, compared with esterified estrogens alone in surgically postmenopausal women. The women in the methyltestosterone plus esterified estrogen group had significant decreases in total triglycerides, apoCI, apoCII, apoCIII, apoE, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with those in the esterified estrogen group. The decreases in apoCIII concentrations occurred in VLDL (62%; P = 0.02), LDL (35%; P = 0.001), and HDL (17%; P < 0.0001). There were also decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations of apoCIII containing LDL, and apoCI concentration of apoCIII containing VLDL. There was no effect on VLDL and LDL particles that did not contain apoCIII or on apoB concentrations. In conclusion, methyltestosterone, when administered to surgically postmenopausal women taking esterified estrogen, has a selective effect to reduce the apoCIII concentration in VLDL and LDL, a predictor of CHD. Methyltestosterone may lower plasma triglycerides through a reduction in apoCIII.

  18. Discordant response of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) levels to monoclonal antibodies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Jonathan B; Brooks, Nathan; Tavori, Hagai; Minnier, Jessica; Duell, Bart; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kaufman, Tina; Wojcik, Cezary; Voros, Szilard; Fazio, Sergio; Shapiro, Michael D

    Clinical trials testing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) have demonstrated an unanticipated but significant lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a))-lowering effect, on the order of 25% to 30%. Although the 50% to 60% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) achieved by PCSK9i is mediated through its effect on LDL receptor (LDLR) preservation, the mechanism for Lp(a) lowering is unknown. We sought to characterize the degree of concordance between LDL-C and Lp(a) lowering because of PCSK9i in a standard of care patient cohort. Participants were selected from our Center for Preventive Cardiology, an outpatient referral center in a tertiary academic medical center. Subjects were included in this study if they had (1) at least 1 measurement of LDL-C and Lp(a) before and after initiation of the PCSK9i; (2) baseline Lp(a) > 10 mg/dL; and (3) continued adherence to PCSK9i therapy. They were excluded if (1) they were undergoing LDL apheresis; (2) pre- or post-PCSK9i LDL-C or Lp(a) laboratory values were censored; or (3) subjects discontinued other lipid-modifying therapies. In total, 103 subjects were identified as taking a PCSK9i and 26 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Concordant response to therapy was defined as an LDL-C reduction >35% and an Lp(a) reduction >10%. The cohort consisted of 26 subjects (15 females, 11 males, mean age 63 ± 12 years). Baseline mean LDL-C and median Lp(a) levels were 167.4 ± 72 mg/dL and 81 mg/dL (interquartile range 38-136 mg/dL), respectively. The average percent reductions in LDL-C and Lp(a) were 52.8% (47.0-58.6) and 20.2% (12.2-28.1). The correlation between %LDL and %Lp(a) reduction was moderate, with a Spearman's correlation of 0.56 (P < .01). All subjects except for 1 had a protocol-appropriate LDL-C response to therapy. However, only 16 of the 26 (62%; 95% confidence interval 41%-82%) subjects had a protocol-concordant Lp(a) response. Although some subjects demonstrated

  19. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. METHODS: Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30

  20. Low-density lipoprotein receptor genetic polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C virus Egyptian patients affects treatment response.

    PubMed

    Naga, Mazen; Amin, Mona; Algendy, Dina; Elbadry, Ahmed; Fawzi, May; Foda, Ayman; Esmat, Serag; Sabry, Dina; Rashed, Laila; Gabal, Samia; Kamal, Manal

    2015-10-21

    To correlate a genetic polymorphism of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor with antiviral responses in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Our study included 657 HCV-infected patients with genotype 4 who received interferon-based combination therapy. Patients were divided into two groups based on their response to therapy: 356 were responders, and 301 were non-responders. Patients were compared to 160 healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent a thorough physical examination, measurement of body mass index (BMI) and the following laboratory tests: serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, INR, complete blood count, serum creatinine, fasting blood sugar, HCV antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen. All HCV patients were further subjected to the following laboratory tests: HCV-RNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antinuclear antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone, an LDL receptor (LDLR) genotype study of LDLR exon8c.1171G>A and exon10c.1413G>A using real-time PCR-based assays, abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy, and histopathological examination of liver biopsies. Correlations of LDL receptor polymorphisms with HAI, METAVIR score, presence of steatosis, and BMI were performed in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in response rates between the different types of interferon used or LDLR exon10c.1413G>A. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the LDL receptor exon8c.1171G>A genotype between cases (AA: 25.9%, GA: 22.2%, GG: 51.9%) and controls (AA: 3.8%, GA: 53.1% and GG: 43.1%) (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the LDLR exon 8C:1171 G>A polymorphism between responders (AA: 3.6%, GA: 15.2%, GG: 81.2%) and non-responders (AA: 52.2%, GA: 30.6%, GG: 17.2%) (P < 0

  1. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Quarfordt, S H; Frank, A; Shames, D M; Berman, M; Steinberg, D

    1970-12-01

    Transport of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and of fatty acids in triglycerides of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-TGFA) was studied in two normal subjects, five patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, and two patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. After intravenous pulse-labeling with albumin-bound 1-palmitate-(14)C, specific radioactivity of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA were determined at intervals up to 24 hr. The results were analyzed using several different multicompartmental models each compatible with the experimental data. Fractional transport of VLDL-TGFA was distinctly lower (no overlap) in the type IV patients than in the control subjects, both on a usual balanced diet (40% of calories from carbohydrate) and on a high-carbohydrate diet (80% of calories). However, net or total transport of VLDL-TGFA in the type IV patients was not clearly distinguishable from that in the control subjects, there being considerable overlap on either diet. The results suggest that in this group of type IV patients the underlying defect leading to the increased pool size of VLDL-TGFA is not overproduction but a relative defect in mechanisms for removal of VLDL-TGFA. Since some of these type IV patients had only a moderate degree of hypertriglyceridemia at the time they were studied, and since it is not established that patients with the type IV phenotype constitute a biochemically homogeneous population, the present results should not be generalized. Four studies were done (in two control subjects and two type IV patients) in which the kinetic parameters in the same individual were determined on the balanced diet and on the high-carbohydrate diet. All subjects showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA pool size. Using two of the models for analysis, all showed an increase in net transport of VLDL-TGFA; using the third model, three of the four studies showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA transport. The results are compatible with the interpretation that the carbohydrate

  2. Inhibition of triacylglycerol and apoprotein B secretion and of low density lipoprotein binding in Hep G2 cells by eicosapentaenoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.H.; Nestel, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of fish oils leads to profound lowering of plasma triacylglyercol (TAG) but not of plasma cholesterol. Reasons for this were investigated with the human hepatoma cell line, the Hep G2 cell. Incubations with oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and the characteristic marine fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched cellular TAG mass, though least with EPA. However, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG and apoprotein B (apo B), measured from (/sup 3/H)-glycerol and (/sup 3/H)-leucine was markedly inhibited by EPA. Preincubation with LA reduced VLDL-TAG but not apo B secretion inmore » comparison with OA which stimulated both. A possible effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) removal was studied by measuring (/sup 125/I)-LDL binding. Preincubation with either EPA or LA inhibited the saturable binding of LDL, observed with OA and control incubations. The binding of lipoproteins containing chylomicron remnants was not affected by any of the fatty acids.« less

  3. Analysis of the Afrikaner mutation in exon 9 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in a large Dutch kindred suffering from familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Defesche, J C; Lansberg, P J; Reymer, P W; Lamping, R J; Kastelein, J J

    1993-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common genetic metabolic disorder, affecting about 1 in 500 persons in the general population. With novel techniques, it is possible to identify the molecular defects underlying FH in the gene coding for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, thereby confirming the diagnosis of FH. In this study we present a large family with a specific mutation in exon 9 of the LDL-receptor gene (an Afrikaner mutation) and we demonstrate that by a large-scale case-finding study in this family, carriers of such a mutation can be detected. Of 63 family members, 13 were shown to be at risk for cardiovascular disease as judged by their lipoprotein profile or the presence of the Afrikaner mutation. Two persons were detected, affected with a dyslipidaemia other than FH. Medical management was initiated in order to reduce the high cardiovascular risk associated with this disorder.

  4. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Methods Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Results Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). Conclusions HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin. PMID:24161017

  5. Hydroxychloroquine reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: a longitudinal evaluation of the lipid-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Cairoli, E; Rebella, M; Danese, N; Garra, V; Borba, E F

    2012-10-01

    The influence of antimalarials on lipids in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been identified in several studies but not in many prospective cohorts. The aim of this study was to longitudinally determine the effect of antimalarials on the lipoprotein profile in SLE. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) plasma levels were determined at entry and after 3 months of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment in a longitudinal evaluation of 24 patients with SLE. a significant decrease in TC (198 ± 33.7 vs. 183 ± 30.3 mg/dl, p = 0.023) and LDL levels (117 ± 31.3 vs. 101 ± 26.2 mg/dl, p = 0.023) were detected after the 3 months of HCQ therapy. The reduction of 7.6% in TC (p = 0.055) and 13.7% in LDL levels (p = 0.036) determined a significant decrease in the frequency of dyslipidemia (26% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.013) after HCQ therapy. This longitudinal study demonstrated the beneficial effect of antimalarials on lipids in SLE since this therapy induced a reduction of atherogenic lipoproteins.

  6. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: a possible link to atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rucha; Thomas, Raison; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2014-02-01

    To investigate a possible link between periodontitis and atherogenesis by examining the levels of anti-oxidized low density lipoprotien (ox LDL) and low density lipoprotien (LDL) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients. Sixty male subjects (35-55 years) were grouped into 30 healthy individuals and 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Serum and GCF samples were obtained from each subject and were assessed for anti-ox LDL and LDL levels. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the anti-ox-LDL levels in GCF of healthy vs chronic periodontitis groups. Also the ratio of GCF anti-ox LDL to GCF LDL was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in chronic periodontitis patients as compared to the healthy group. A significant rise in ox LDL level in otherwise systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients may put these subjects at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  7. Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Alirocumab in Healthy Volunteers or Hypercholesterolemic Subjects Using an Indirect Response Model to Predict Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering: Support for a Biologics License Application Submission: Part II.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Xavier; Djebli, Nassim; Rauch, Clémence; Brunet, Aurélie; Hurbin, Fabrice; Martinez, Jean-Marie; Fabre, David

    2018-05-03

    Alirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), significantly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This analysis aimed to develop and qualify a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for alirocumab based on pooled data obtained from 13 phase I/II/III clinical trials. From a dataset of 2799 individuals (14,346 low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values), individual pharmacokinetic parameters from the population pharmacokinetic model presented in Part I of this series were used to estimate alirocumab concentrations. As a second step, we then developed the current population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model using an indirect response model with a Hill coefficient, parameterized with increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol elimination, to relate alirocumab concentrations to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. The population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model allowed the characterization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties of alirocumab in the target population and estimation of individual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and derived pharmacodynamic parameters (the maximum decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values from baseline and the difference between baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the pre-dose value before the next alirocumab dose). Significant parameter-covariate relationships were retained in the model, with a total of ten covariates (sex, age, weight, free baseline PCSK9, total time-varying PCSK9, concomitant statin administration, total baseline PCSK9, co-administration of high-dose statins, disease status) included in the final population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to explain between-subject variability. Nevertheless, the high number of covariates included in the model did not have a clinically meaningful impact on model-derived pharmacodynamic parameters. This model successfully allowed the

  8. Effects of an evidence-based computerized virtual clinician on low-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults without cardiovascular disease: The Interactive Cholesterol Advisory Tool.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Niemiec, Christopher P; Rigby, C Scott; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of research on the use of electronic tools that guide patients toward reducing their cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a 9-month clinical trial in which participants who were at low (n = 100) and moderate (n = 23) cardiovascular disease risk-based on the National Cholesterol Education Program III's 10-year risk estimator-were randomized to usual care or to usual care plus use of an Interactive Cholesterol Advisory Tool during the first 8 weeks of the study. In the moderate-risk category, an interaction between treatment condition and Framingham risk estimate on low-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed, such that participants in the virtual clinician treatment condition had a larger reduction in low-density lipoprotein and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as their Framingham risk estimate increased. Perceptions of the Interactive Cholesterol Advisory Tool were positive. Evidence-based information about cardiovascular disease risk and its management was accessible to participants without major technical challenges. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), α-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 on the assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins in cow hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Guan, Yuan; Li, Ying; Wu, Dianjun; Liu, Lei; Deng, Qinghua; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Guowen

    2016-01-15

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder of dairy cows. One important reason is that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) assembly was significant decreased in dairy cows with fatty liver. In addition, the impairment of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synthesis was involved in the development of fatty liver. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of IGF-1 on the VLDL assembly in cow hepatocytes. In this study, cow hepatocytes were cultured and then transfected with Ad-GFP-IGF-1 (inhibited the IGF-1 expression) and Ad-GFP (negative control), and treated with different concentrations of IGF-1, respectively. The results showed that IGF-1 increased the mRNA abundance of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and then increased the VLDL assembly in cow hepatocytes. Nevertheless, impairment of IGF-1 expression by Ad-GFP-IGF-1 could inhibit above genes expression and VLDL assembly in hepatocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that IGF-1 increases the VLDL assembly and impairment of IGF-1 expression decreases the VLDL assembly in cow hepatocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant/prooxidant effects of dietary non-flavonoid phenols on the Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

    PubMed

    Briante, Raffaella; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Nucci, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    A central role in the oxidative development of atherosclerotic lesions has been ascribed to the peroxidation of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Dietary supplementation with virgin olive oils increases the total plasma antioxidant status and the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to ex vivo oxidation. We have studied the effects of some dietary non-flavonoid phenols from Olea europaea L., both in purified form or in complex mixtures obtained by biotransformation of olive leaf extracts, on the LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+ ions. Cu2+-Induced LDL oxidation is inhibited by oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in the initiation phase of the reaction at concentrations of phenols higher than that of Cu2+ ions. Interestingly, at lower concentration, both phenols anticipated the initiation process of LDL oxidation, thus exerting prooxidant capacities. Although similar effects are already described for flavonoids, such as quercetin, rutin, and apigenin, it is the first time that a prooxidant effect of dietary non-flavonoid phenols, such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, on the LDL oxidation is reported. Our results show that a net effect of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol on Cu2+-induced LDL peroxidation is determined by a balance of their pro- and antioxidant capacities. It is worth to underline that, during Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation in the presence of bioreactor eluates, we have evidence of a synergistic effect among phenolic compounds that enhance their antioxidant capacities so avoiding the prooxidant effects.

  12. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-rmore » mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.« less

  13. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events. PMID:29394290

  14. Impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and paraoxonase 1 levels in professional runners.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Serena; Catalani, Simona; Peda, Federica; Luchetti, Francesca; Citarella, Roberto; Battistelli, Serafina

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association. Blood samples were collected from each participant before, during (14 h), and immediately after (24 h) the competition, thus to monitor the serum changes in Hcy, oxLDL, and PON1 levels, as well as other oxidative stress-related parameters, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and total antioxidant capacity (PAT). As a result, a significant PON1 increase was recorded after 14 h of racing that persisted until the end of the performance. The same trend was observed for PAT values, which positively correlated to PON1 levels (R = 0.643, P<0.001). Hcy, oxLDL, and ROM remained almost unchanged throughout the competition. In conclusion, the present study suggested a protective role of PON1 in sustaining the antioxidant defense system and contrasting lipoprotein oxidative modifications over the 24-h race, and did not specifically evidence either Hcy or oxLDL accumulation in such challenging sporting events.

  15. Aggregated low-density lipoprotein induces LRP1 stabilization through E3 ubiquitin ligase CHFR downregulation in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cal, Roi; García-Arguinzonis, Maisa; Revuelta-López, Elena; Castellano, José; Padró, Teresa; Badimon, Lina; Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta

    2013-02-01

    Low density lipoprotein retention and aggregation in the arterial intima are key processes in atherogenesis. Aggregated LDL (agLDL) is taken up through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) by human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). AgLDL increases LRP1 expression, at least in part, by downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins. It is unknown whether agLDL has some effect on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and therefore on the LRP1 receptor turnover. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of agLDL on the degradation of LRP1 by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in human VSMC. Human VSMC were isolated from the media of human coronary arteries. Ubiquitinylated LRP1 protein levels were significantly reduced in human VSMC exposed to agLDL (100 μg/mL) for 20 hours (agLDL: 3.70±0.44 a.u. versus control: 9.68±0.55 a.u). Studies performed with cycloheximide showed that agLDL prolongs the LRP1 protein half life. Pulse-chase analysis showed that LRP1 turnover rate is reduced in agLDL-exposed VSMC. Two-dimensional electrophoresis shows an alteration in the proteomic profile of a RING type E3 ubiquitin ligase, CHFR. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that agLDL (100 μg/mL) decreased the transcriptional and protein expression of CHFR. CHFR silencing increased VSMC, but not macrophage, LRP1 expression. However, CHFR silencing did not exert any effect on the classical low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the physical interaction between CHFR and LRP1 decreased in the presence of agLDL. Our results demonstrate that agLDL prolongs the half life of LRP1 by preventing the receptor ubiquitinylation, at least in part, through CHFR targeting. This mechanism seems to be specific for LRP1 and VSMC.

  16. Linkage study of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor gene and cholesterol levels in an Afrikaner family. Quantitative genetics and identification of a minor founder effect.

    PubMed

    Brink, P A; Brink, L T; Torrington, M; Bester, A J

    1990-03-17

    Overlap of clinical and biochemical characteristics between hypercholesterolaemia in members of the general population and familial hypercholesterolaemic (FH) individuals may lead to misdiagnosis. Quantitative analysis of family data may circumvent this problem. A way of looking for an association between plasma cholesterol levels and restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (RFLP) on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene by using reference cholesterol distributions was explored. Linkage, with a logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 6.8 at theta 0, was detected between cholesterol levels and the LDL receptor in an extended Afrikaner family. Two RFLP-haplotypes, one previously found in a majority of Afrikaner FH homozygotes, and a second, Stu I-, BstE II+, Pvu II+, Nco I+, were associated with high cholesterol levels in this pedigree.

  17. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

    PubMed

    Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2005-03-01

    The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (p<0.05) in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on LDL oxidation was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mg/ml. Moreover, 5 mg/ml of roselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro.

  18. Measurement of the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein solutions from patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal treatment: evaluation of cardiovascular risk markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Andréa M.; Jardini, Maria A. N.; Giampaoli, Viviana; Alves, Sarah; Figueiredo Neto, Antônio M.; Gidlund, Magnus

    2012-11-01

    The Z-Scan (ZS) technique in the thermal regime has been used to measure the nonlinear optical response of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The ZS technique is carried out in LDL from 40 patients with chronic periodontitis before and after three, six, and 12 months of periodontal treatment. Clinical parameters such as probing depths, bleeding on probing, total and differential white blood cells counts, lipid profiles, cytokine levels, and antibodies against oxidized LDL are also determined and compared over time. Before the treatment, the ZS experimental results reveal that the LDL particles of these patients are heavily modified. Only after 12 months of the periodontal treatment, the ZS results obtained reveal behavioral characteristics of healthy particles. This conclusion is also supported by complementary laboratorial analysis showing that the periodontal treatment induces systemic changes in several inflammatory markers.

  19. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% andmore » 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.« less

  20. Genome-wide analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites revealed parent-of-origin effect on triglycerides in medium very low-density lipoprotein in PTPRD gene.

    PubMed

    Pervjakova, N; Kukushkina, V; Haller, T; Kasela, S; Joensuu, A; Kristiansson, K; Annilo, T; Perola, M; Salomaa, V; Jousilahti, P; Metspalu, A; Mägi, R

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the parent-of-origin effects (POEs) on a range of human nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. We search for POEs in 14,815 unrelated individuals from Estonian and Finnish cohorts using POE method for the genotype data imputed with 1000 G reference panel and 82 nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. Meta-analysis revealed the evidence of POE for the variant rs1412727 in PTPRD gene for the metabolite: triglycerides in medium very low-density lipoprotein. No POEs were detected for genetic variants that were previously known to have main effect on circulating metabolites. We demonstrated possibility to detect POEs for human metabolites, but the POEs are weak, and therefore it is hard to detect those using currently available sample sizes.

  1. Kinetic analysis of thermal stability of human low density lipoproteins: a model for LDL fusion in atherogenesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengxiao; Gantz, Donald L.; Herscovitz, Haya; Gursky, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Fusion of modified LDL in the arterial wall promotes atherogenesis. Earlier we showed that thermal denaturation mimics LDL remodeling and fusion, and revealed kinetic origin of LDL stability. Here we report the first quantitative analysis of LDL thermal stability. Turbidity data show sigmoidal kinetics of LDL heat denaturation, which is unique among lipoproteins, suggesting that fusion is preceded by other structural changes. High activation energy of denaturation, Ea = 100 ± 8 kcal/mol, indicates disruption of extensive packing interactions in LDL. Size-exclusion chromatography, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, and negative-stain electron microscopy suggest that LDL dimerization is an early step in thermally induced fusion. Monoclonal antibody binding suggests possible involvement of apoB N-terminal domain in early stages of LDL fusion. LDL fusion accelerates at pH < 7, which may contribute to LDL retention in acidic atherosclerotic lesions. Fusion also accelerates upon increasing LDL concentration in near-physiologic range, which likely contributes to atherogenesis. Thermal stability of LDL decreases with increasing particle size, indicating that the pro-atherogenic properties of small dense LDL do not result from their enhanced fusion. Our work provides the first kinetic approach to measuring LDL stability and suggests that lipid-lowering therapies that reduce LDL concentration but increase the particle size may have opposite effects on LDL fusion. PMID:22855737

  2. Kinetic analysis of thermal stability of human low density lipoproteins: a model for LDL fusion in atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mengxiao; Gantz, Donald L; Herscovitz, Haya; Gursky, Olga

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of modified LDL in the arterial wall promotes atherogenesis. Earlier we showed that thermal denaturation mimics LDL remodeling and fusion, and revealed kinetic origin of LDL stability. Here we report the first quantitative analysis of LDL thermal stability. Turbidity data show sigmoidal kinetics of LDL heat denaturation, which is unique among lipoproteins, suggesting that fusion is preceded by other structural changes. High activation energy of denaturation, E(a) = 100 ± 8 kcal/mol, indicates disruption of extensive packing interactions in LDL. Size-exclusion chromatography, nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, and negative-stain electron microscopy suggest that LDL dimerization is an early step in thermally induced fusion. Monoclonal antibody binding suggests possible involvement of apoB N-terminal domain in early stages of LDL fusion. LDL fusion accelerates at pH < 7, which may contribute to LDL retention in acidic atherosclerotic lesions. Fusion also accelerates upon increasing LDL concentration in near-physiologic range, which likely contributes to atherogenesis. Thermal stability of LDL decreases with increasing particle size, indicating that the pro-atherogenic properties of small dense LDL do not result from their enhanced fusion. Our work provides the first kinetic approach to measuring LDL stability and suggests that lipid-lowering therapies that reduce LDL concentration but increase the particle size may have opposite effects on LDL fusion.

  3. Loss of Macrophage Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Confers Resistance to the Antiatherogenic Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Tavori, Hagai; Covarrubias, Roman; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Youmin; Ormseth, Michelle; Major, Amy S; Stafford, John M; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Antiatherosclerotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockade in patients with systemic inflammatory states are not conclusively demonstrated, which suggests that effects depend on the cause of inflammation. Macrophage LRP1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and apoE contribute to inflammation through different pathways. We studied the antiatherosclerosis effects of TNF-α blockade in hyperlipidemic mice lacking either LRP1 (MΦLRP1(-/-)) or apoE from macrophages. Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)(-/-) mice were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type, MΦLRP1(-/-), apoE(-/-) or apoE(-/-)/MΦLRP1(-/-)(DKO) mice, and then treated with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab while fed a Western-type diet. Adalimumab reduced plasma TNF-α concentration, suppressed blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels and their migration into the lesion, and reduced lesion cellularity and inflammation in both wild-type→LDLR(-/-) and apoE(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) mice. Overall, adalimumab reduced lesion burden by 52% to 57% in these mice. Adalimumab reduced TNF-α and blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels in MΦLRP1(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) and DKO→LDLR(-/-) mice, but it did not suppress ly6C(hi) monocyte migration into the lesion or atherosclerosis progression. Our results show that TNF-α blockade exerts antiatherosclerotic effects that are dependent on the presence of macrophage LRP1. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. A Genomic DNA Reporter Screen Identifies Squalene Synthase Inhibitors That Act Cooperatively with Statins to Upregulate the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Alastair G.; Tam, Lawrence C. S.; Hale, Ashley B.; Cioroch, Milena; Douglas, Gillian; Agkatsev, Sarina; Hibbitt, Olivia; Mason, Joseph; Holt-Martyn, James; Bataille, Carole J. R.; Wynne, Graham M.; Channon, Keith M.; Russell, Angela J.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia remains one of the leading risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Many large double-blind studies have demonstrated that lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol using a statin can reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event by approximately 30%. However, despite the success of statins, some patient populations are unable to lower their LDL cholesterol to meet the targeted lipid levels, due to compliance or potency issues. This is especially true for patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who may require additional upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) to reduce LDL cholesterol levels below those achievable with maximal dosing of statins. Here we identify a series of small molecules from a genomic DNA reporter screen that upregulate the LDLR in mouse and human liver cell lines at nanomolar potencies (EC50 = 39 nM). Structure-activity relationship studies carried out on the lead compound, OX03771 [(E)-N,N-dimethyl-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-amine], led to the identification of compound OX03050 [(E)-3-(4-styrylphenoxy)propan-1-ol], which had similar potency (EC50 = 26 nM) but a much-improved pharmacokinetic profile and showed in vivo efficacy. Compounds OX03050 and OX03771 were found to inhibit squalene synthase, the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. These squalene synthase inhibitors were shown to act cooperatively with statins to increase LDLR expression in vitro. Overall, we demonstrated here a novel series of small molecules with the potential to be further developed to treat patients either alone or in combination with statins. PMID:28360334

  5. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function

    PubMed Central

    Selvais, Charlotte; D'Auria, Ludovic; Tyteca, Donatienne; Perrot, Gwenn; Lemoine, Pascale; Troeberg, Linda; Dedieu, Stéphane; Noël, Agnès; Nagase, Hideaki; Henriet, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Marbaix, Etienne; Emonard, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a plasma membrane scavenger and signaling receptor, composed of a large ligand-binding subunit (515-kDa α-chain) linked to a shorter transmembrane subunit (85-kDa β-chain). LRP-1 cell-surface level and function are controlled by proteolytic shedding of its ectodomain. Here, we identified ectodomain sheddases in human HT1080 cells and demonstrated regulation of the cleavage by cholesterol by comparing the classical fibroblastoid type with a spontaneous epithelioid variant, enriched ∼2-fold in cholesterol. Two membrane-associated metalloproteinases were involved in LRP-1 shedding: a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-12 (ADAM-12) and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Although both variants expressed similar levels of LRP-1, ADAM-12, MT1-MMP, and specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), LRP-1 shedding from epithelioid cells was ∼4-fold lower than from fibroblastoid cells. Release of the ectodomain was triggered by cholesterol depletion in epithelioid cells and impaired by cholesterol overload in fibroblastoid cells. Modulation of LRP-1 shedding on clearance was reflected by accumulation of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in the medium. We conclude that cholesterol exerts an important control on LRP-1 levels and function at the plasma membrane by modulating shedding of its ectodomain, and therefore represents a novel regulator of extracellular proteolytic activities.—Selvais, C., D'Auria, L., Tyteca, D., Perrot, G, Lemoine, P., Troeberg, L., Dedieu, S., Noël, A., Nagase, H., Henriet, P., Courtoy, P. J., Marbaix, E., Emonard, H. Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and clearance function. PMID:21518850

  6. Additional consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein plus zeaxanthin concentration and lowers oxidized low-density lipoprotein in moderately hypercholesterolemic males.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Chie; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains antioxidative carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, but its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern, especially for individuals who have high serum cholesterol levels. We conducted this study to determine whether and how the daily additional consumption of one egg affects serum lipid profiles and parameters of LDL oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic males. Nineteen male Japanese adults (total cholesterol [TC]>5.2mmol/L) participated, consuming one soft boiled egg per day for 4weeks in addition to their habitual diet. Despite the significant increase in their intake of dietary cholesterol during the intervention period, the subjects' serum concentrations of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not increase. Their serum malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations were significantly decreased and their LDL oxidation lag times, reflecting the resistance of free-radical-induced LDL lipid peroxidation (ex vivo), was prolonged after 2 and 4weeks. At weeks 2 and 4, the subjects' serum lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly higher than their baseline values and showed both an inverse relation with MDA-LDL and a positive relationship with the LDL oxidation lag time. These data showed that in moderately hypercholesterolemic males, the additional consumption of one egg per day for 4weeks did not have adverse effects on serum TC or LDL-C, and it might reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation through an increase in the serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Free and esterified oxysterol: formation during copper-oxidation of low density lipoprotein and uptake by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Dean, R T; Jessup, W

    1996-02-01

    We have defined the lipid composition of copper-oxidized LDL (Cu-oxLDL) and a macrophage-foam cell model generated by the uptake of this modified lipoprotein. An HPLC method previously developed by our group for the measurement of lipid oxidation products of LDL was extended to permit the analysis of an array of 7-ketocholesteryl esters. Gas chromatography was used for the quantitation of oxysterols (free and esterified) in Cu-oxLDL and their subsequent uptake by macrophages. LDL (1.0 mg protein/ml) was oxidized using Cu(II) (20 microM) for up to 48 h at 37 degrees C. Resident mouse peritoneal macrophages were incubated with 24 h Cu-oxLDL (50 micrograms/ml) for 24 h. In 24 h Cu-oxLDL, cholesterol comprised approximately 50% of total sterols, 7-ketocholesterol comprised approximately 30% with five other oxysterols comprising the remainder (7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol, cholesterol alpha- and beta-epoxides, and 6 beta-hydroxycholesterol). Macrophages that were incubated with 24 h Cu-oxLDL displayed a profile of oxysterols remarkably similar to that of 24 h Cu-oxLDL itself. The majority of cholesteryl esters and 7-ketocholesteryl esters in Cu-oxLDL and in Cu-oxLDL-loaded macrophages contained fatty acyl chains which are presumed oxidized. This work represents a comprehensive survey of free and esterified oxysterols in Cu-oxLDL and Cu-oxLDL-loaded macrophages and provides a basis for exploring how oxysterols are metabolized by macrophages and authentic human foam cells, and how, in turn, these oxysterols influence cellular metabolism.

  8. Oxidation of cholesterol moiety of low density lipoprotein in the presence of human endothelial cells or Cu+2 ions: identification of major products and their effects.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, S; Arshad, M A; Rymaszewski, Z; Norman, E; Wherley, R; Subbiah, M T

    1991-04-15

    Oxidation of lipoproteins is believed to play a key role in atherogenesis. In this study, low density lipoproteins (LDL) was subjected to oxidation in the presence of either human umbilical vein endothelial cells or with Cu+2 ions and the major oxides formed were identified. While cholesterol-alpha-epoxide (C-alpha EP) was the major product of cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of endothelial cells, cholest-3,5-dien-7-one (CD) predominated in the presence of Cu+2 ion. Both steroids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. HDL cholesterol was resistant to oxidation. When tested on human skin fibroblasts in culture C-alpha EP (10 micrograms/ml) caused marked stimulation of 14C-oleate incorporation into cholesterol esters, while CD stimulated cholesterol esterification only mildly. These studies show that a) C-alpha EP is the major peroxidation product of LDL cholesterol moiety in the presence of endothelial cells and b) it causes marked stimulation of cholesterol esterification in cells. C-alpha EP may play a key role in increasing cholesterol esterification noted in atherogenesis.

  9. Metabolomics reveals the sex-specific effects of the SORT1 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol locus in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias S; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S

    2014-11-07

    Metabolite profiles of individuals possessing either the cardiovascular risk or protective variants of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) associated 1p13.3 locus of the SORT1 gene (rs646776) were analyzed. Serum metabolites and lipids were assessed using LC-MS-based metabolomics in a healthy young population (n = 138: 95 males, 43 females). Although no significant differences were observed in the combined cohort, divergent sex effects were identified. Females carrying the protective allele showed increased phosphatidylcholines, very long chain fatty acids (>C20), and unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, males carrying the protective allele exhibited decreased long-chain fatty acids (≤C20) and sphingomyelins, which is similarly considered to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. No significant changes in clinically assessed lipids such as LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), total cholesterol, or triglycerides were observed in females, whereas only LDL-C was significantly changed in males. This indicates that, apart from reducing LDL-C, other mechanisms may contribute to the protective effect of the SORT1 locus. Thus, the analysis of metabolic biomarkers might reveal early disease development that may be overlooked by relying on standard clinical parameters.

  10. Study of low-density lipoprotein receptor regulation by oral (steroid) contraceptives: desogestrel, levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol in JEG-3 cell line and placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan; Rana, Anita; Das, Chandana; Chandra, Nimai Chand

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the role of two oral contraceptives, desogestrel (a less androgenic derivative of levonorgestrel) and levonorgestrel--alone and in combination with ethinyl estradiol--on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor regulation by assessing receptor protein expression and functional effectiveness. Placental tissue and cultured placental cells (JEG-3) were used to study the expression and endocytotic activity of LDL receptor protein. The expression of the receptor was assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblot assays with and without contraceptive challenge. Functioning activity of LDL receptor was studied by measuring the rate of uptake of LDL by placental cells. Quantification of LDL was based on the total cholesterol content of the lipoprotein. A combination of desogestrel (20 ng/mL of incubation medium) and ethinyl estradiol (10 ng/mL of incubation medium) maintained the LDL receptor at high level of expression and functioning mode. In contrast, the double-blind preparation of levonorgestrel (20 ng/mL) and ethinyl estradiol (10 ng/mL) had shown much lower expression as well as receptor-mediated LDL uptake. The concentration of contraceptives used in this study was similar to the prevailing concentration of oral contraceptives in clinical use. Higher expression of LDL receptor and enhanced rate of LDL uptake by the receptor protein projects the possibility that there might be less atherosclerosis-related disorders from the combination of desogestrol and ethinyl estradiol.

  11. SKI-II--a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor--exacerbates atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Ceglarek, Uta; Burkhardt, Ralph; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysosphingolipid associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) that contributes to their anti-atherogenic potential. We investigated whether a reduction in S1P plasma levels affects atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-R-/-) mice. LDL-R-/- mice on Western diet containing low (0.25% w/w) or high (1.25% w/w) cholesterol were treated for 16 weeks with SKI-II, a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor that significantly reduced plasma S1P levels. SKI-II treatment increased atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta in mice on high but not low cholesterol diet. This compound did not affect body weight, blood cell counts and plasma total and HDL cholesterol, but decreased triglycerides. In addition, mice on high cholesterol diet receiving SKI-II showed elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1). Prolonged lowering of plasma S1P produces pro-atherogenic effects in LDL-R-/- mice that are evident under condition of pronounced hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for simple and easy determination of chylomicron-triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichi; Seimiya, Masanori; Kodera, Yoshio; Kitamura, Akihide; Nomura, Fumio

    2010-02-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a simple and reagent-free physicochemical analysis method, and is a potential alternative to more time-consuming and labor-intensive procedures. In this study, we aimed to use FT-IR spectroscopy to determine serum concentrations of chylomicron-triglyceride (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG. We analyzed a chylomicron fraction and VLDL fraction, which had been obtained by ultracentrifugation, to search for wavelengths to designate to each fraction. Then, partial least square (PLS) calibrations were developed using a training set of samples, for which TG concentrations had been determined by conventional procedures. Validation was conducted with another set of samples using the PLS model to predict serum TG concentrations on the basis of the samples' IR spectra. We analyzed a total of 150 samples. Serum concentrations of chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG estimated by FT-IR spectroscopy agreed well with those obtained by the reference method (r=0.97 for both lipoprotein fractions). FT-IR spectrometric analysis required 15mul of serum and was completed within 1min. Serum chylomicron-TG and VLDL-TG concentrations can be determined with FT-IR spectroscopy. This rapid and simple test may have a great impact on the management of patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lolita M.; Lough, Christopher M.; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Smith, Thomas L.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model. PMID:23857172

  14. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-12

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  15. Reference values assessment in a Mediterranean population for small dense low-density lipoprotein concentration isolated by an optimized precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cidón, Bárbara; Padró-Miquel, Ariadna; Alía-Ramos, Pedro; Castro-Castro, María José; Fanlo-Maresma, Marta; Dot-Bach, Dolors; Valero-Politi, José; Pintó-Sala, Xavier; Candás-Estébanez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c) particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg 2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation). Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. The Passing-Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73) + 0.07 x (-0.1 to 0.13), demonstrating no significant statistical differences between the modified precipitation method and the ultracentrifugation reference method. Similarly, no differences were detected when considering only sd-LDL-c from dyslipidemic patients, since the modifications added to the precipitation method facilitated the proper sedimentation of triglycerides and other lipoproteins. The reference interval for sd-LDL-c concentration estimated in a Mediterranean population was 0.04-0.47 mmol/L. An optimization of the heparin-Mg 2+ precipitation method for sd-LDL particle isolation was performed, and reference intervals were established in a Spanish Mediterranean population. Measured values were equivalent to those obtained with the reference method, assuring its clinical application when tested in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic

  16. Modification of the plasma clearance and liver uptake of steroid ester-conjugated oligodeoxynucleotides by association with (lactosylated) low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Rump, E T; de Vrueh, R L; Manoharan, M; Waarlo, I H; van Veghel, R; Biessen, E A; van Berkel, T J; Bijsterbosch, M K

    2000-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been proposed as carrier for the selective delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells. We reported earlier the association of several lipidic steroid-conjugated anticancer oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with LDL. In the present study, we determined the stability of these complexes. When the complexes were incubated with a mixture of high-density lipoprotein and albumin, or with rat plasma, the oleoyl steroid-conjugated ODNs appeared to be more stably associated with LDL than the cholesteryl-conjugated ODN. Intravenously injected free lipid-ODNs were very rapidly cleared from the circulation of rats. The area under the curve (AUC) of the lipid-ODNs in plasma was <0.4 microg x min/mL. After complexation with LDL, plasma clearance of the lipid-ODNs was delayed. This was most evident for ODN-5, the ODN conjugated with the oleoyl ester of lithocholic acid (AUC = 6.82 +/- 1.34 microg x min/mL). The AUC of ODN-4, a cholesteryl-conjugated ODN, was 1.49 +/- 0.37 microg x min/mL. In addition, the liver uptake of the LDL-complexed lipid-ODNs was reduced. The lipid-ODNs were also administered as a complex with lactosylated LDL, a modified LDL particle that is selectively taken up by the liver. A high proportion of ODN-5 was transported to the liver along with lactosylated LDL (69.1 +/- 8.1% of the dose at 15 min after injection), whereas much less ODN-4 was transported (36.6 +/- 0.1% of the dose at 15 min after injection). We conclude that the oleoyl ester of lithocholic acid is a more potent lipid anchor than the other steroid lipid anchors. Because of the stable association, the oleoyl ester of lithocholic acid is an interesting candidate for tumor targeting of anticancer ODNs with lipoproteins.

  17. Human absorption of a supplement containing purified hydroxytyrosol, a natural antioxidant from olive oil, and evidence for its transient association with low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    González-Santiago, Maria; Fonollá, Juristo; Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    There is growing interest in the health effects of olive oil polyphenols, particularly hydroxytyrosol (HT), for their potential application in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). As oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a central role in the development of CVD, natural antioxidants are a main target for the nutraceutical industry. In this study we firstly investigated the absorption of pure hydroxytyrosol (99.5%) administered as a supplement in an aqueous solution (2.5mg/kg BW) in the plasma and urine of healthy volunteers (n=10). Plasma C(max) for HT and homovanillic alcohol (HvOH) were detected at 13.0+/-1.5 and 16.7+/-2.4min, respectively. The HT and HvOH levels were undetectable 2-h after the administration. HT, HvOH, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were found as free forms (44%) or as glucuronide (34.4%) or sulphate (21.2%) conjugates in the 24-h urine samples of the subjects. In a second phase of the study, the same amounts of HT were administered to the subjects and the presence of HT in purified plasma lipoproteins was investigated in LDL fractions freshly isolated. 10min after the ingestion of the HT supplement, more than 50% of the total amount detected was present in the LDL-purified fractions and its concentration declined in accordance with its presence in plasma but no changes were found in total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde or LDL lag time. These results indicate that pure HT transiently associates with LDL lipoproteins in vivo. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-bound flavonoids increase the resistance of LDL to oxidation and glycation under pathophysiological concentrations of glucose in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Hao; Lin, Jer-An; Hsieh, Wen-Ching; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2009-06-10

    The higher susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation and glycation in diabetes has been shown to be related to poor glycemic control. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL-bound flavonoids attenuate high-glucose (HG)-mediated LDL oxidation and glycation. For this purpose, human plasma was preincubated with individual flavonoids for 3 h, followed by sequential ultracentrifugation and extensive dialysis to remove unbound flavonoid samples. Enriched LDL was subsequently isolated and challenged for its resistance to oxidation and glycation. Results showed that glucose (5-30 mM) dose-dependently accelerates copper (Cu(2+))-mediated LDL oxidative modification. The enrichment of flavonoids such as luteolin, naringenin, and kaempferol significantly increased the resistance of LDL to oxidation and prevented endogenous alpha-tocopherol consumption caused by HG/Cu(2+) (p < 0.05). The long-term glycation of LDL, which was measured by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)-related fluorescence and boronate affinity chromatography, was found to be inhibited by LDL-bound flavonoids in the following order: rutin > luteolin > quercetin > kaempferol > naringenin > catechin approximately EC > naringin. Moreover, a solid-phase extraction system with HPLC-diode array detection provided evidence that flavonoids were bound to LDL particles to a certain extent concurrently facilitating the lipoprotein antioxidant and antiglycation activities. In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that HG promoted oxidative and glycative modifications of LDL. This is the first study to show that the introduction of flavonoids into LDL particles protects the lipoprotein against glycotoxin-mediated adverse effects.

  19. Effects of tomato juice consumption on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoid concentrations and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, C; Imamura, K; Oshima, S; Suzukawa, M; Egami, S; Tonomoto, M; Baba, N; Harada, M; Ayaori, M; Inakuma, T; Ishikawa, T

    2001-06-01

    Effects of tomato juice supplementation on the carotenoid concentration in lipoprotein fractions and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL were investigated in 31 healthy Japanese female students. These subjects were randomized to one of three treatment groups; Control, Low and High. The Control, Low and High groups consumed 480 g of a control drink, 160 g of tomato juice plus 320 g of the control drink, and 480 g of tomato juice, providing 0, 15 and 45 mg of lycopene, respectively, for one menstrual cycle. The ingestion of tomato juice, rich in lycopene but having little beta-carotene, increased both lycopene and beta-carotene. Sixty-nine percent of lycopene in plasma was distributed in the LDL fraction and 24% in the HDL fraction. In the Low group, the lycopene concentration increased 160% each in the VLDL+IDL, LDL and HDL fractions (p<0.01). In the High group, the lycopene concentration increased 270% each in the VLDL+IDL and LDL fractions, and 330% in the HDL fraction (p<0.01). Beta-carotene also increased 120% and 180% in LDL fractions of the Low and the High groups, respectively. Despite these carotenoid increases in LDL, the lag time before oxidation was not prolonged as compared with that of the Control group. The propagation rate decreased significantly after consumption in the High group. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between lag time changes and changes in the alpha-tocopherol concentration per triglyceride in LDL, and a negative correlation between propagation rate changes and changes in the lycopene concentration per phospholipid in LDL. These data suggest that alpha-tocopherol is a major determinant in protecting LDL from oxidation, while lycopene from tomato juice supplementaion may contribute to protect phospholipid in LDI, from oxidation. Thus, oral intake of lycopene might be beneficial for ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  20. Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Lowering Genetic Variants and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lotta, Luca A; Sharp, Stephen J; Burgess, Stephen; Perry, John R B; Stewart, Isobel D; Willems, Sara M; Luan, Jian'an; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Deloukas, Panos; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, Jose-Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salamanca, Elena C; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke Mw; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; McCarthy, Mark I; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Savage, David B; Sattar, Naveed; Langenberg, Claudia; Scott, Robert A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-10-04

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 or HMGCR, encoding the respective molecular targets of ezetimibe and statins, have previously been used as proxies to study the efficacy of these lipid-lowering drugs. Alleles near HMGCR are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, similar to the increased incidence of new-onset diabetes associated with statin treatment in randomized clinical trials. It is unknown whether alleles near NPC1L1 are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. To investigate whether LDL-C-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 and other genes encoding current or prospective molecular targets of lipid-lowering therapy (ie, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, LDLR) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. The associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease of LDL-C-lowering genetic variants were investigated in meta-analyses of genetic association studies. Meta-analyses included 50 775 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 270 269 controls and 60 801 individuals with coronary artery disease and 123 504 controls. Data collection took place in Europe and the United States between 1991 and 2016. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, and LDLR. Odds ratios (ORs) for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering genetic variants at NPC1L1 were inversely associated with coronary artery disease (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L [38.7-mg/dL] reduction in LDL-C of 0.61 [95% CI, 0.42-0.88]; P = .008) and directly associated with type 2 diabetes (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L reduction in LDL-C of 2.42 [95% CI, 1.70-3.43]; P < .001). For PCSK9 genetic variants, the OR for type 2 diabetes per 1-mmol/L genetically predicted reduction in LDL-C was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.38; P = .03). For a given reduction in LDL-C, genetic variants were associated with a similar reduction in

  1. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome: analysis of the Treating to New Targets study.

    PubMed

    Deedwania, Prakash; Barter, Philip; Carmena, Rafael; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Grundy, Scott M; Haffner, Steven; Kastelein, John J P; LaRosa, John C; Schachner, Holly; Shepherd, James; Waters, David D

    2006-09-09

    Despite the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome for predicting cardiovascular events, few trials have investigated the effects of statin therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Our post hoc analysis of the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study assessed whether intensive lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with high-dose atorvastatin therapy results in cardiovascular benefits for patients with both coronary heart disease and the metabolic syndrome. The TNT study was a prospective, double blind, parallel-group trial done at 256 sites in 14 countries between April, 1998, and August, 2004, with a median follow-up of 4.9 years. 10,001 patients were enrolled aged 35-75 years with clinically evident coronary heart disease. Our analysis includes 5584 patients with metabolic syndrome based on the 2005 NCEP ATP III criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg per day (n=2820) or 80 mg per day (n=2764). The primary outcome measure was time to first major cardiovascular event, defined as death from coronary heart disease, non-fatal non-procedure-related myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or fatal or non-fatal stroke. In patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome, mean on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations at 3 months were 2.6 mmol/L (99.3 mg/dL) with atorvastatin 10 mg, and 1.9 mmol/L (72.6 mg/dL) with atorvastatin 80 mg. At a median follow-up of 4.9 years, major cardiovascular events occurred in 367 (13%) patients receiving atorvastatin 10 mg, compared with 262 (9.5%) receiving atorvastatin 80 mg (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.84; p<0.0001). Irrespective of treatment assignment, significantly more patients with metabolic syndrome (11.3%) had a major cardiovascular event at a median of 4.9 years than those without metabolic syndrome (8.0%; hazard ratio 1.44; 95% CI 1.26-1.64; p<0.0001). This increased risk was

  2. Estimation of the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia in a rural Afrikaner community by direct screening for three Afrikaner founder low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Steyn, K; Goldberg, Y P; Kotze, M J; Steyn, M; Swanepoel, A S; Fourie, J M; Coetzee, G A; Van der Westhuyzen, D R

    1996-10-01

    We have determined the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) in a rural Afrikaner community by means of direct DNA screening for three founder-related Afrikaner low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene mutations. A random sample of 1612 persons, aged 15-64 years, was selected as a subsample of 4583 subjects from an Afrikaner community living in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Participants who had a total serum cholesterol (TC) in the high TC category as defined in the consensus recommendations by the Southern African Heart Foundation, were screened for three founder-related LDL receptor gene mutations, causing FH in 90% of Afrikaners. Of the subsample, 201 participants (12.5%) had TC levels above the 80th percentile. In this group the combined prevalence of the three common Afrikaner LDL receptor gene defects (D206E, FH Afrikaner-1; V408M, FH Afrikaner-2; D154N, FH Afrikaner-3) was calculated as 1: 83. When taking into account the reported background prevalence of other FH gene defects of 1:500 in this community, their overall prevalence of FH was estimated to be 1:72. The significant differences found between the FH patients and other high risk patients with raised cholesterol levels were higher TC and LDL cholesterol levels and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in FH patients. The treatment status of the molecularly identified FH patients and other hypercholesterolaemic persons suggests that this condition is inadequately diagnosed and poorly managed in this study population. An extrapolation to the entire South African population suggests that there are about 112000 FH patients in the country who are under-diagnosed as a group and therefore not receiving the care that would help to reduce the burden of FH-associated ischaemic heart disease in South Africa.

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemia of garlic by reducing the level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-E; Wang, Weidong; Qin, Jie

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the impact of garlic on improving blood lipids using a meta-analysis. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed using keywords such as "garlic" and "hypercholesterolemia," and the deadline "July 14 (th), 2017." After extracting relevant details, each selected literature was evaluated for quality according to the quality evaluation criteria of bias risk recommended by Cochrane Collaboration recommendations and heterogeneity tests were performed. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were evaluated using R 3.12 software. The publication bias was assessed using Egger method. A total of 14 eligible papers published from 1981 to 2016 were included. The quality of the literatures was of moderate to high qualities. The values of TC (SMD = -1.26, 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.66), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI, -1.67 to -0.47), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.06-0.94) after taking garlic in the experimental group and the control group have statistical significance, while there was no significant difference of TG in the 2 groups (SMD = -0.16, 95% CI, -0.87-0.55). However, the result of HDL was reversed when removed some of the literatures. No significant publication bias among the eligible studies with values of TC (P = .0625), LDL (P = .0770), HDL (P = .2293), and TG (P = .3436). Garlic can reduce the level of TC and LDL instead of HDL and TG, indicating the ability of anti-hyperlipidemia.

  4. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Low-density lipoproteins modulate endothelial cells to secrete endothelin-1 in a polarized pattern: a study using a culture model system simulating arterial intima.

    PubMed

    Unoki, H; Fan, J; Watanabe, T

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the structural and functional properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured on a two-chamber culture model system using an amnion membrane. Compared to HUVECs cultured on a plastic dish, HUVECs cultured on the model system exhibited several features similar to those of in vivo vessels, including formation of the intercellular junctional devices and expression of tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 and adherence junction-associated protein alpha-catenin. Furthermore, we found that HUVECs had a property of polar secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1). About 90% of the total amount of synthesized ET-1 was found in the lower well, designated as the basal side. When HUVECs were incubated with either native low-density lipoproteins (nLDLs) or oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs) at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml, ET-1 secretion was significantly increased, dependent on the cell side (apical vs basal) on which the nLDLs or oxLDLs were loaded. When the LDLs were loaded on the apical side, the secretion of ET-1 from HUVECs on the apical side was increased by 48% (nLDL) and 61% (oxLDL), whereas it was accompanied by a concomitant decrease of ET-1 on the basal side (45% by nLDLs and 38% by oxLDLs). When loaded on the basal side, however, ET-1 was increased by 23% (nLDLs) and 53% (oxLDLs) on the basal side, with a 26% simultaneous decrease of ET-1 on the opposite side for both nLDLs and oxLDLs. On the contrary, high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) inhibited ET-1 secretion from HUVECs on the opposite side of the well on which HDLs were loaded; there was a 57% decrease on the basal side when HDLs were loaded on the apical side, and a 46% decrease on the apical side when loaded on the basal side. These results indicate that modulation of ET-1 secretion from ECs by lipoproteins is virtually dependent on the place (apical vs basal) where these proteins are present. The finding that nLDLs and oxLDLs enhance ET-1 secretion by ECs in a polarized pattern

  6. Phosphorescence Kinetics of Singlet Oxygen Produced by Photosensitization in Spherical Nanoparticles. Part II. The Case of Hypericin-Loaded Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles.

    PubMed

    Datta, Shubhashis; Hovan, Andrej; Jutková, Annamária; Kruglik, Sergei G; Jancura, Daniel; Miskovsky, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2018-05-24

    The phosphorescence kinetics of singlet oxygen produced by photosensitized hypericin (Hyp) molecules inside low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was studied experimentally and by means of numerical and analytical modeling. The phosphorescence signal was measured after short laser pulse irradiation of aqueous Hyp/LDL solutions. The Hyp triplet state lifetime determined by a laser flash-photolysis measurement was 5.3 × 10 -6 s. The numerical and the analytical model described in part I of the present work (DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.8b00658) were used to analyze the observed phosphorescence kinetics of singlet oxygen. It was shown that singlet oxygen diffuses out of LDL particles on a time scale shorter than 0.1 μs. The total (integrated) concentration of singlet oxygen inside LDL is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the total singlet oxygen concentration in the solvent. The time course of singlet oxygen concentrations inside and outside the particles was calculated using simplified representations of the LDL internal structure. The experimental phosphorescence data were fitted by a linear combination of these concentrations using the emission factor E (the ratio of the radiative singlet oxygen depopulation rate constants inside and outside LDL) as a fitting parameter. The emission factor was determined to be E = 6.7 ± 2.5. Control measurements were carried out by adding sodium azide, a strong singlet oxygen quencher, to the solution.

  7. The antioxidant effects of soybean lecithin- or low-density lipoprotein-based extenders for the cryopreservation of brown-bear (Ursus arctos) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, M; Alvarez, M; Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Martínez-Pastor, F; Borragan, S; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2013-01-01

    Egg yolk low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and soybean lecithin were evaluated as replacements for egg yolk in extenders used for the cryopreservation of brown-bear spermatozoa. The motility, viability and acrosomal status of post-thawed spermatozoa were analysed, and an egg-yolk extender was used as a control. The total antioxidant capacity of these extenders was tested. Soybean lecithin showed an effect that was dependent on the soybean concentration (2%, 3.5% and 5%) and source (Type A: 24% L-α-phosphatidylcholine, and Type B: 14-23% L-α-phosphatidylcholine). Only semen cryopreserved with 5% Type A soybean exhibited a sperm motility similar to that of semen cryopreserved in egg-yolk-based extender after thawing, although the sperm viability and acrosome status were not as high. Semen frozen in an extender containing LDL (10-15%) exhibited improved sperm viability in comparison with the control, but sperm motility was lower. The LDL-based extender exhibited a higher anti-oxidant activity than the egg-yolk extender and soy lecithin-based extenders. The extenders with higher anti-oxidant activity showed improvements in frozen sperm viability but lower semen motility. These results indicate that soybean lecithin did not have the same protective effect as egg yolk during the freezing of brown-bear spermatozoa but suggest that LDL (10-15%) could be a useful substitute for egg yolk in these extenders.

  8. L-Cysteine-induced up-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor is mediated via a transforming growth factor-alpha signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuma; Shimada, Masaya; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2014-02-14

    Sulphur-containing amino acids regulate plasma cholesterol levels in animals and humans. However, their mechanism of action remains unclear. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism. We therefore investigated the effects of sulphur-containing amino acids on the expression of LDLR in hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with or without sulphur-containing amino acids and cysteine-containing compounds. We found that L-cysteine increased LDLR mRNA and enhanced LDLR gene promoter activity through the extracellular-signal-related kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in HepG2 cells. Moreover, we observed that L-cysteine stimulated the release of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and that TGF-α increased the LDLR mRNA levels. This study provides a report of the L-cysteine mediated up-regulation of the LDLR expression via TGF-α signalling pathway. Our findings provide insights into cholesterol homeostasis and amino acid signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 5 Polymorphisms and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese: a Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    You, Hai Fei; Zhao, Jing Zhi; Zhai, Yu Jia; Yin, Lei; Pang, Chao; Luo, Xin Ping; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Jin Jin; Li, Lin Lin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wang, Bing Yuan; Ren, Yong Cheng; Hu, Dong Sheng

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) variants (rs12363572 and rs4930588) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Han Chinese. A total of 1842 T2DM cases (507 newly diagnosed cases and 1335 previously diagnosed cases) and 7777 controls were included in this case-control study. PCR-RFLP was conducted to detect the genotype of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to describe the strength of the association by logistic regression. In the study subjects, neither rs12363572 nor rs4930588 was significantly associated with T2DM, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), the two SNPs were also not associated with T2DM. Among the 3 common haplotypes, only haplotype TT was associated with reduced risk of T2DM (OR 0.820, 95% CI 0.732-0.919). In addition, rs12363572 was associated with BMI (P<0.001) and rs4930588 was associated with triglyceride levels (P=0.043) in 507 newly diagnosed T2DM cases but not in healthy controls. No LRP5 variant was found to be associated with T2DM in Han Chinese, but haplotype TT was found to be associated with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ithnin, Hairuszah

    2013-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR) on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies. PMID:23671850

  11. Detection and imaging of the reconstituted pyropheophorbide-cholesterol oleate labeled low-density lipoprotein in the HepG2 tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessington, Dana M.; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Lanlan; Glickson, Jerry D.; Zheng, Gang; Chance, Britton

    2003-07-01

    We utilized the nude mouse model bearing the human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2) tumor and B-16 Murine Melanoma tumor to study the delivery and detection of the reconstituted Pyropheophorbide Cholesterol Oleate (r-pyroCE) molecular beacon. The delivery vehicle, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), labeled with the porphyrin derivative, was employed in response of the overexpression of LDL receptors in the HepG2 tumor. The B-16 melanoma tumor was also observed in this study for its overexpression of the LDL receptors. The tumors were imaged using the 3D low temperature scanner to produce images throughout several sliced sections of each tumor. The fluorescence signal of the pyropheophorbide was detected at 720nm when excited at 670nm in the tumor tissue. The uniform distribution of the signal in the HepG2 tumor shows extravasation of the beacon from the blood vessels. The B-16 tumor did not exhibit strong fluorescent signals and successful delivery as the HepG2 tumor outside the blood vessels and into the tumor tissue.

  12. Numerical simulation of haemodynamics and low-density lipoprotein transport in the rabbit aorta and their correlation with atherosclerotic plaque thickness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Feng, Chenglong; Sun, Anqiang; Kang, Hongyan; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Two mechanisms of shear stress and mass transport have been recognized to play an important role in the development of localized atherosclerosis. However, their relationship and roles in atherogenesis are still obscure. It is necessary to investigate quantitatively the correlation among low-density lipoproteins (LDL) transport, haemodynamic parameters and plaque thickness. We simulated blood flow and LDL transport in rabbit aorta using computational fluid dynamics and evaluated plaque thickness in the aorta of a high-fat-diet rabbit. The numerical results show that regions with high luminal LDL concentration tend to have severely negative haemodynamic environments (HEs). However, for regions with moderately and slightly high luminal LDL concentration, the relationship between LDL concentration and the above haemodynamic indicators is not clear cut. Point-by-point correlation with experimental results indicates that severe atherosclerotic plaque corresponds to high LDL concentration and seriously negative HEs, less severe atherosclerotic plaque is related to either moderately high LDL concentration or moderately negative HEs, and there is almost no atherosclerotic plaque in regions with both low LDL concentration and positive HEs. In conclusion, LDL distribution is closely linked to blood flow transport, and the synergetic effects of luminal surface LDL concentration and wall shear stress-based haemodynamic indicators may determine plaque thickness. PMID:28424305

  13. Simulation of the induction of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein by high copper concentrations: evidence for a nonconstant rate of initiation.

    PubMed

    Abuja, P M; Albertini, R; Esterbauer, H

    1997-06-01

    Kinetic simulation can help obtain deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of complex processes, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We have previously set up a single-compartment model of this process, initiating with radicals generated externally at a constant rate to show the interplay of radical scavenging and chain propagation. Here we focus on the initiating events, substituting constant rate of initiation (Ri) by redox cycling of Cu2+ and Cu+. Our simulation reveals that early events in copper-mediated LDL oxidation include (1) the reduction of Cu2+ by tocopherol (TocOH) which generates tocopheroxyl radical (TocO.), (2) the fate of TocO. which either is recycled or recombines with lipid peroxyl radical (LOO.), and (3) the reoxidation of Cu+ by lipid hydroperoxide which results in alkoxyl radical (LO.) formation. So TocO., LOO., and LO. can be regarded as primordial radicals, and the sum of their formation rates is the total rate of initiation, Ri. As experimental information of these initiating events cannot be obtained experimentally, the whole model was validated experimentally by comparison of LDL oxidation in the presence and absence of bathocuproine as predicted by simulation. Simulation predicts that Ri decreases by 2 orders of magnitude during lag time. This has important consequences for the estimation of oxidation resistance in copper-mediated LDL oxidation: after consumption of tocopherol, even small amounts of antioxidants may prolong the lag phase for a considerable time.

  14. Rapid endocytosis of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein modulates cell surface distribution and processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Cam, Judy A; Zerbinatti, Celina V; Li, Yonghe; Bu, Guojun

    2005-04-15

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a approximately 600-kDa multifunctional endocytic receptor that is highly expressed in the brain. LRP and its ligands apolipoprotein E, alpha2-macroglobulin, and beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), are genetically linked to Alzheimer disease and are found in characteristic plaque deposits in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. To identify which extracellular domains of LRP interact with APP, we used minireceptors of each of the individual LRP ligand binding domains and assessed their ability to bind and degrade a soluble APP fragment. LRP minireceptors containing ligand binding domains II and IV, but not I or III, interacted with APP. To test whether APP trafficking is directly related to the rapid endocytosis of LRP, we generated stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either a wild-type LRP minireceptor or its endocytosis mutants. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type LRP minireceptor had less cell surface APP than pcDNA3 vector-transfected cells, whereas those stably expressing endocytosis-defective LRP minireceptors accumulated APP at the cell surface. We also found that the steady-state levels of the amyloid beta-peptides (Abeta) is dictated by the relative expression levels of APP and LRP, probably reflecting the dual roles of LRP in both Abeta production and clearance. Together, these data establish a relationship between LRP rapid endocytosis and APP trafficking and proteolytic processing to generate Abeta.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazawwi, Nora; Le, Khuong; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2017-10-18

    The present study examined the effects of wild rice on monocyte adhesion, inflammatory and fibrinolytic mediators in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. Male LDLr-KO mice received a cholesterol (0.06%, w/w)-supplemented diet with or without white or wild rice (60%, w/w) for 20 weeks. White rice significantly increased monocyte adhesion and abundances of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tissue necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor in aortae and hearts of LDLr-KO mice compared to the control diet. Wild rice inhibited monocyte adhesion to the aorta, atherosclerosis, and abundances of the inflammatory and fibrinolytic regulators in the cardiovascular tissue of LDLr-KO mice compared to white rice. White or wild rice did not significantly alter the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or antioxidant enzymes in plasma. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of wild rice may result from its inhibition on monocyte adhesion and inflammatory modulators in LDLr-KO mice.

  16. Inhibitory effect of hot-water extract from dried fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in cell and cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Yih; Lee, Miao-Jane; Liao, Chuen-Lan; Lin, Wea-Lung; Yin, Yu-Fang; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

    2003-12-17

    The dried fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida, a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess potential against oxidative stress. In the preliminary study, the antioxidant potential of a hot-water extract obtained from the dried fruit of C. pinnatifida (CF-H) was evaluated in terms of its capacity of quenching 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals (EC(50) = 0.118 mg/mL). After content analysis, it was found that CF-H is mainly composed of polyphenols including flavonoids (6.9%), procyanidins (2.2%), (+)-catechin (0.5%), and (-)-epicatechin (0.2%). The antioxidative bioactivity of CF-H had been assess previously using the models of CuSO(4) as cell-free system and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) plus macrophage RAW 264.7 cells as cell system to induce human low-density lipoprotein oxidation. CF-H was found to inhibit relative electrophoretic mobility and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at the concentration of 0.5-1.0 mg/mL in the cell-free system and at 0.01-0.10 mg/mL in the cell system. Furthermore, it was found that CF-H decreased the SNP-induced cell lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione depletion.

  17. Lysosomes are involved in induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression and progesterone synthesis through low-density lipoprotein in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-You; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Zhang, Gui-Xue

    2015-09-15

    Progesterone is an important steroid hormone in the regulation of the bovine estrous cycle. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is an indispensable component for transporting cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is one of the rate-limiting steps for progesterone synthesis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) supplies cholesterol precursors for progesterone formation, and the lysosomal degradation pathway of LDL is essential for progesterone biosynthesis in granulosa cells after ovulation. However, it is currently unknown how LDL and lysosomes coordinate the expression of the StAR gene and progesterone production in bovine granulosa cells. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomes in LDL-treated bovine granulosa cells. Our results reported that LDL induced expression of StAR messenger RNA and protein as well as expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1) messenger RNA and progesterone production in cultured bovine granulosa cells. The number of lysosomes in the granulosa cells was also significantly increased by LDL; whereas the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, strikingly abolished these LDL-induced effects. Our results indicate that LDL promotes StAR expression, synthesis of progesterone, and formation of lysosomes in bovine granulosa cells, and lysosomes participate in the process by releasing free cholesterol from hydrolyzed LDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The lipolysis/esterification cycle of hepatic triacylglycerol. Its role in the secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein and its response to hormones and sulphonylureas.

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, D; Gibbons, G F

    1992-01-01

    In hepatocyte cultures maintained in the absence of extracellular fatty acids, at least 70% of the secreted very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol was derived via lipolysis of intracellular triacylglycerol. This proportion was unchanged when the cells were exposed for 24 h to insulin or glucagon, hormones which decreased the overall secretion of intracellular triacylglycerol, or to chloroquine or tolbutamide, agents which inhibit lysosomal lipolysis. The rate of intracellular lipolysis was 2-3-fold greater than that required to maintain the observed rate of triacylglycerol secretion. Most of the fatty acids released were returned to the intracellular pool. Neither insulin nor glucagon had any significant effect on the overall lipolysis and re-esterification of intracellular triacylglycerol. In these cases a greater proportion of the released fatty acids re-entered the cellular pool, rather than being recruited for VLDL assembly. Tolbutamide inhibited intracellular lipolysis, but suppressed VLDL secretion to a greater extent. 3,5-Dimethylpyrazole did not affect lipolysis or VLDL secretion. The increased secretion of VLDL triacylglycerol observed after exposure of cells to insulin for 3 days was not accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular lipolysis. However, a larger proportion of the triacylglycerol secreted under these conditions may not have undergone prior lipolysis. PMID:1599431

  19. Effects of oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on concentrations of plasma lipids, concentration and composition of very-low-density lipoproteins, and glucose dynamics in healthy adult mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, Nicholas; Sommardahl, Carla S; Eiler, Hugo; Webb, Latisha L; Denhart, Joseph W; Boston, Ray C

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy adult horses administered levothyroxine sodium (L-T4). 12 healthy adult mares. 8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provide between 7 AM and 8 AM in the morning grain meal for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured and composition of VLDL examined in samples obtained between 8 AM and 9 AM at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Glucose dynamics were assessed by use of a combined IV glucose-insulin tolerance test (IVGITT) conducted before and at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Data for each combined IVGITT were interpreted by use of the minimal model. Plasma TG, TC, and VLDL concentrations significantly decreased over time in treated horses. At the completion of the 8-week treatment period, mean plasma VLDL concentration was 46% of the mean value for week 0 in treated horses. Insulin sensitivity significantly increased (> 2-fold) in treated horses, but glucose effectiveness and net insulin response were not affected. Levothyroxine sodium significantly increased the rate of insulin disposal. Administration of L-T4 decreases blood lipid concentrations, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases insulin disposal in horses. Levothyroxine sodium may have potential as a treatment for horses with reduced insulin sensitivity.

  20. Role of contact inhibition in the regulation of receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vlodavsky, I; Fielding, P E; Fielding, C J; Gospodarowicz, D

    1978-01-01

    Bovine vascular endothelial cells during logarithmic growth bind, internalize, and degrade low density lipoprotein (LDL) via a receptor-mediated pathway. However, contact-inhibited (confluent) monolayers bind but do not internalize LDL. This is in contrast to aortic smooth muscle cells or endothelial cells that have lost the property of contact inhibition. These cells internalize and degrade LDL at both high and low cell densities. The LDL receptors of smooth muscle and sparse endothelial cells down-regulate in response to LDL. In contrast, normal endothelial cells at confluency show little response. When contact inhibition in endothelial monolayers was locally released by wounding, and LDL was present, only cells released from contact inhibition accumulated LDL cholesterol. In smooth muscle cells under the same conditions, the entire culture interiorized lipid. It thus appears that in endothelial cells, unlike smooth muscle cells, contact inhibition is the major factor regulating cellular uptake of LDL cholesteryl ester. Reversal of contact inhibition by wounding provides a mechanism by which the endothelium could be the primary initiator of the atherosclerotic plaque. Images PMID:203937

  1. Influence of folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to ex-vivo oxidation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, N; Feussner, A; Hailer, S; Spengel, F A; Keller, C; Wolfram, G

    1999-10-15

    Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. In-vitro studies have shown that autooxidation of homocyst(e)ine is accompanied by the generation of oxygen radicals. This may lead to oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promote atherosclerotic vascular lesions. In male patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease we determined fasting and post methionine load homocyst(e)ine levels by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility of their LDL particles to ex-vivo oxidation by continously measuring the conjugated diene production induced by incubation with copper ions. Oxidation resistance (expressed as lag time), maximal oxidation rate, and extent of oxidation (expressed of total diene production) of LDL from patients with normal or mildly elevated homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ significantly. Folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in hyperhomocyst(e)inaemic patients. This went along with a significant decrease in the extent of LDL oxidation and additionally increased HDL-cholesterol levels. The clinical relevance of these findings for the long-term course of atherosclerotic vascular disorders has to be determined by intervention studies.

  2. Native low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated human macrophages is mediated by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Anzinger, Joshua J; Chang, Janet; Xu, Qing; Buono, Chiara; Li, Yifu; Leyva, Francisco J; Park, Bum-Chan; Greene, Lois E; Kruth, Howard S

    2010-10-01

    To examine the pinocytotic pathways mediating native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages (the predominant macrophage phenotype in human atherosclerotic plaques). We identified the kinase inhibitor SU6656 and the Rho GTPase inhibitor toxin B as inhibitors of macrophage fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL. Assessment of macropinocytosis by time-lapse microscopy revealed that both drugs almost completely inhibited macropinocytosis, although LDL uptake and cholesterol accumulation by macrophages were only partially inhibited (approximately 40%) by these agents. Therefore, we investigated the role of micropinocytosis in mediating LDL uptake in macrophages and identified bafilomycin A1 as an additional partial inhibitor (approximately 40%) of macrophage LDL uptake that targeted micropinocytosis. When macrophages were incubated with both bafilomycin A1 and SU6656, inhibition of LDL uptake was additive (reaching 80%), showing that these inhibitors target different pathways. Microscopic analysis of fluid-phase uptake pathways in these macrophages confirmed that LDL uptake occurs through both macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis. Our findings show that human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages take up native LDL by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis, underscoring the importance of both pathways in mediating LDL uptake by these cells.

  3. Lupin Peptides Modulate the Protein-Protein Interaction of PCSK9 with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor in HepG2 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Aiello, Gilda; Arnoldi, Anna; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been recently identified as a new useful target for hypercholesterolemia treatment. This work demonstrates that natural peptides, deriving from the hydrolysis of lupin protein and absorbable at intestinal level, are able to inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). In order to sort out the best potential inhibitors among these peptides, a refined in silico model of the PCSK9/LDLR interaction was developed. Docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and peptide binding energy estimations, by MM-GBSA approach, permitted to select the two best candidates among tested peptides that were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity. The most active was P5 that induced a concentration dependent inhibition of the PCSK9-LDLR binding, with an IC50 value equal to 1.6 ± 0.33 μM. Tested at a 10 μM concentration, this peptide increased by 66 ± 21.4% the ability of HepG2 cells to take up LDL from the extracellular environment.

  4. Divergent Pseudomonas exotoxin A sensitivity in normal and transformed liver cells is correlated with low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein expression.

    PubMed

    Laithwaite, J E; Benn, S J; Marshall, W S; FitzGerald, D J; LaMarre, J

    2001-09-01

    Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PEA) is an extracellular virulence factor produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aerguinosa. PEA intoxification begins when PEA binds to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). The liver is the primary target of systemic PEA, due largely to the high levels of functional LRP expressed by liver cells. Using a 3H-leucine incorporation assay to measure inhibition of protein synthesis we have demonstrated that normal (BNL CL.2) and transformed (BNL 1ME A7R.1) liver cells exhibit divergent PEA sensitivity; with BNL 1ME A7R.1 cells demonstrating greater PEA sensitivity than their non-transformed counterparts. The receptor-associated protein, a LRP antagonist, decreased PEA toxicity in BNL 1ME A7R.1 cells, confirming the importance of the LRP in PEA intoxification in this cell type. Increased PEA sensitivity in BNL 1ME A7R.1 cells was associated with increased functional cell surface LRP expression, as measured by alpha2-macroglobulin binding and internalization studies, and increased LRP mRNA levels, as determined by Northern blot analysis. Interestingly, BNL CL.2 cells were more sensitive than BNL 1ME A7R.1 cells to conjugate and mutant PEA toxins that do not utilize the LRP for cellular entry. These data demonstrate that increased LRP expression is an important mechanism by which PEA sensitivity is increased in BNL 1ME A7R.1 transformed liver cells.

  5. Study on aggregation behavior of low density lipoprotein in hen egg yolk plasma by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detectors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Magnusson, Emma; Choi, Jaeyeong; Duan, Fei; Nilsson, Lars; Lee, Seungho

    2016-02-01

    In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled online with UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS), and fluorescence (FS) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-FS) was employed for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. AF4 provided separation of three major components of the egg yolk plasma i.e. soluble proteins, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and their aggregates, based on their respective hydrodynamic sizes. Identification of LDL was confirmed by staining the sample with a fluorescent dye, Nile Red. The effect of carrier liquids on aggregation of LDL was investigated. Collected fractions of soluble proteins were characterized using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Moreover, the effect of heat and enzymatic treatment on egg yolk plasma was investigated. The results suggest that enzymatic treatment with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) significantly enhances the heat stability of LDL. The results show that AF4-UV-MALS-FS is a powerful tool for the fractionation and characterization of egg yolk plasma components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA XIST alleviates oxidative low-density lipoprotein-mediated endothelial cells injury through modulation of miR-320/NOD2 axis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ma, Congmin; Liu, Chao; Duan, Zhihui; Zhang, Li

    2018-06-14

    Atherosclerosis remains to be one of the most common vascular disorders resulting in morbidity and mortality in the world. Recent studies suggested that endothelial cells (ECs) injury caused by oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an early marker for atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of ox-LDL-induced ECs injury are complicated and largely unknown. Here, we found lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) was upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by ox-LDL. Knockdown of XIST boosted the cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis under ox-LDL stimuli. Further experiments identified XIST regulated the expression of Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 (NOD2) by sponging miR-320. XIST silencing exerted a protective effect on ox-LDL-induced HUVECs injury via miR-320/NOD2 regulatory network. Our data provide insight into the role of the lncRNA XIST in ox-LDL mediated ECs injury, which can aid in developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinal expression of Wnt-pathway mediated genes in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Stahl, Andreas; Krah, Nathan M; Seaward, Molly R; Joyal, Jean-Sebastian; Juan, Aimee M; Hatton, Colman J; Aderman, Christopher M; Dennison, Roberta J; Willett, Keirnan L; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Smith, Lois E H

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) impair retinal angiogenesis in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), a rare type of blinding vascular eye disease. The defective retinal vasculature phenotype in human FEVR patients is recapitulated in Lrp5 knockout (Lrp5(-/-)) mouse with delayed and incomplete development of retinal vessels. In this study we examined gene expression changes in the developing Lrp5(-/-) mouse retina to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of FEVR in humans. Gene expression levels were assessed with an Illumina microarray on total RNA from Lrp5(-/-) and WT retinas isolated on postnatal day (P) 8. Regulated genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. Consistent with a role in vascular development, we identified expression changes in genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and membrane transport in Lrp5(-/-) retina compared to WT retina. In particular, tight junction protein claudin5 and amino acid transporter slc38a5 are both highly down-regulated in Lrp5(-/-) retina. Similarly, several Wnt ligands including Wnt7b show decreased expression levels. Plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (plvap), an endothelial permeability marker, in contrast, is up-regulated consistent with increased permeability in Lrp5(-/-) retinas. Together these data suggest that Lrp5 regulates multiple groups of genes that influence retinal angiogenesis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of FEVR.

  8. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces calpain-dependent cell death and ubiquitination of caspase 3 in HMEC-1 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pörn-Ares, M Isabella; Saido, Takaomi C; Andersson, Tommy; Ares, Mikko P S

    2003-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, and this is believed to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study we made the novel observation that oxLDL-induced death of HMEC-1 cells is accompanied by activation of calpain. The mu-calpain inhibitor PD 151746 decreased oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, whereas the general caspase inhibitor BAF (t-butoxycarbonyl-Asp-methoxyfluoromethylketone) had no effect. Also, oxLDL provoked calpain-dependent proteolysis of cytoskeletal alpha-fodrin in the HMEC-1 cells. Our observation of an autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of mu-calpain provided further evidence for an oxLDL-induced stimulation of calpain activity. The Bcl-2 protein Bid was also cleaved during oxLDL-elicited cell death, and this was prevented by calpain inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of cathepsin B and caspases. Treating the HMEC-1 cells with oxLDL did not result in detectable activation of procaspase 3 or cleavage of PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase], but it did cause polyubiquitination of caspase 3, indicating inactivation and possible degradation of this protease. Despite the lack of caspase 3 activation, oxLDL treatment led to the formation of nucleosomal DNA fragments characteristic of apoptosis. These novel results show that oxLDL initiates a calpain-mediated death-signalling pathway in endothelial cells. PMID:12775216

  9. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease. PMID:27488468

  10. Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in human atherosclerosis and regulation in macrophages by colony stimulating factors and oxidized low density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ricote, Mercedes; Huang, Jannet; Fajas, Luis; Li, Andrew; Welch, John; Najib, Jamila; Witztum, Joseph L.; Auwerx, Johan; Palinski, Wulf; Glass, Christopher K.

    1998-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been demonstrated to regulate fat cell development and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ is also expressed in a subset of macrophages and negatively regulates the expression of several proinflammatory genes in response to natural and synthetic ligands. We here demonstrate that PPARγ is expressed in macrophage foam cells of human atherosclerotic lesions, in a pattern that is highly correlated with that of oxidation-specific epitopes. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which are known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions, stimulated PPARγ expression in primary macrophages and monocytic cell lines. PPARγ mRNA expression was also induced in primary macrophages and THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Inhibition of protein kinase C blocked the induction of PPARγ expression by TPA, but not by oxLDL, suggesting that more than one signaling pathway regulates PPARγ expression in macrophages. TPA induced the expression of PPARγ in RAW 264.7 macrophages by increasing transcription from the PPARγ1 and PPARγ3 promoters. In concert, these observations provide insights into the regulation of PPARγ expression in activated macrophages and raise the possibility that PPARγ ligands may influence the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:9636198

  11. Current and future pharmacologic options for the management of patients unable to achieve low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals with statins.

    PubMed

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Akdim, Fatima; Stroes, Erik S G; Trip, Mieke D; Kastelein, John J P

    2008-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the mainstay of the current treatment guidelines in the management of cardiovascular risk. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are currently the most effective LDL-C-lowering drugs. However, a substantial number of patients do not reach treatment targets with statins. Therefore, an unmet medical need exists for lipid-lowering drugs with novel mechanisms of action to reach the recommended cholesterol target levels, either by monotherapy or combination therapy. Upregulation of the LDL receptor with squalene synthase inhibitors has shown promising results in animal studies but the clinical development of the lead compound lapaquistat (TAK-475) has recently been discontinued. Ezetimibe combined with statins allowed significantly more patients to reach their LDL-C targets. Other inhibitors of intestinal cholesterol absorption such as disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphate (FM-VP4) and bile acid transport inhibitors have shown positive results in early development trials, whereas the prospect of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibition in cardiovascular prevention is dire. Selective inhibition of messenger RNA (mRNA) by antisense oligonucleotides is a new approach to modify cholesterol levels. The inhibition of apolipoprotein B mRNA is in advanced development and mipomersen sodium (ISIS 301012) has shown striking results in phase II studies both as monotherapy as well as in combination with statins.

  12. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  13. Factor VIII Interacts with the Endocytic Receptor Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 1 via an Extended Surface Comprising "Hot-Spot" Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Madsen, Jesper J; Faber, Johan H; Zuurveld, Marleen G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; Olsen, Ole H; Stennicke, Henning R; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2015-07-03

    Lysine residues are implicated in driving the ligand binding to the LDL receptor family. However, it has remained unclear how specificity is regulated. Using coagulation factor VIII as a model ligand, we now study the contribution of individual lysine residues in the interaction with the largest member of the LDL receptor family, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP1). Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and SPR interaction analysis on a library of lysine replacement variants as two independent approaches, we demonstrate that the interaction between factor VIII (FVIII) and LRP1 occurs over an extended surface containing multiple lysine residues. None of the individual lysine residues account completely for LRP1 binding, suggesting an additive binding model. Together with structural docking studies, our data suggest that FVIII interacts with LRP1 via an extended surface of multiple lysine residues that starts at the bottom of the C1 domain and winds around the FVIII molecule. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether as an effective protector of 15-lipoxygenase-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Hirayama, Akari; Urata, Shino; Mano, Nobutaka; Fukagawa, Keiko; Imamura, Midori; Irii, Ayumi; Kitajima, Satomi; Masuyama, Tomoko; Nomiyama, Mai; Tatei, Sachiko; Tomita, Saari; Kudo, Taichi; Noguchi, Momoko; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis John; Aramaki, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Both enzymatic (15-LOX) and non-enzymatic (Cu(2+)) mechanisms have been proposed for the production of ox-LDL. We have recently reported that cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of 15-LOX-catalyzed linoleic acid oxygenation (Takeda et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 37, 1733-1737 (2009)). In the LDL, linoleic acid is present as cholesteryl linoleate, the major fatty acid esterified to cholesterol, and is susceptible to oxidative modification by 15-LOX or Cu(2+). In this investigation, we examined the efficacy of CBDD on i) 15-LOX-catalyzed oxygenation of cholesteryl linoleate, and ii) ox-LDL formation catalyzed by 15-LOX versus Cu(2+)-mediated non-enzymatic generation of this important mediator. The results obtained demonstrate that CBDD is a potent and selective inhibitor of ox-LDL formation generated by the 15-LOX pathway. These studies establish CBDD as both an important experimental tool for characterizing 15-LOX-mediated ox-LDL formation, and as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis.

  15. Cannabidiol-2′,6′-dimethyl Ether as an Effective Protector of 15-Lipoxygenase-Mediated Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Shuso; Hirayama, Akari; Urata, Shino; Mano, Nobutaka; Fukagawa, Keiko; Imamura, Midori; Irii, Ayumi; Kitajima, Satomi; Masuyama, Tomoko; Nomiyama, Mai; Tatei, Sachiko; Tomita, Saari; Kudo, Taichi; Noguchi, Momoko; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis John; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Both enzymatic (15-LOX) and non-enzymatic (Cu2+) mechanisms have been proposed for the production of ox-LDL. We have recently reported that cannabidiol-2′,6′-dimethyl ether (CBDD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of 15-LOX-catalyzed linoleic acid oxygenation (Takeda et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 37, 1733–1737 (2009)). In the LDL, linoleic acid is present as cholesteryl linoleate, the major fatty acid esterified to cholesterol, and is susceptible to oxidative modification by 15-LOX or Cu2+. In this investigation, we examined the efficacy of CBDD on i) 15-LOX-catalyzed oxygenation of cholesteryl linoleate, and ii) ox-LDL formation catalyzed by 15-LOX versus Cu2+-mediated non-enzymatic generation of this important mediator. The results obtained demonstrate that CBDD is a potent and selective inhibitor of ox-LDL formation generated by the 15-LOX pathway. These studies establish CBDD as both an important experimental tool for characterizing 15-LOX-mediated ox-LDL formation, and as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:21804214

  16. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  17. [THE SPIRIT CHOLESTEROL, BIOLOGICA L ROLE AT STAGES OF PHYLOGENESIS, MECHANISMS OF INHIBITION OF SYNTHESIS OF STEROL BY STATINS, FACTORS OF PHARMACOGENOMICS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHOLESTEROL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF LOW DENSITY].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Kotlovskii, M Yu; Pokrovskii, A A; Kotlovskaia, O S; Osedko, A V; Titova, N M; Kotlovskii, Yu V; Digaii, A M

    2015-04-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of statins is realized by inhibition of synthesis of local pool of cholesterol spirit in endoplasmic net of hepatocytes. The cholesterol spirit covers all hydrophobic medium of triglycerides with polar mono layer of phosphatidylcholines and cholesterol spirit prior to secretion of lipoproteins of very low density into hydrophilic medium. The lesser mono layer between lipase enzyme and triglycerides substrate contains of cholesterol spirit the higher are the parameters of hydrolysis of palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density. The sequence of effect of statins is as follows: blocking of synthesis in hepatocytes and decreasing of content of unesterified cholesterol spirit in blood plasma; activation of hydrolysis of triglycerides in palmitic and oleic lipoproteins of very low density; formation of ligand lipoproteins of very low density and their absorption by cells by force of apoB-100 endocytosis; decreasing in blood of content of polyenoic fatty acids, equimolar esterified by cholesterol spirit, polyethers of cholesterol spirit and decreasing of level of cholesterol spirit-lipoproteins of very low density. There is no way to eliminate aphysiological effect of disordered biological function of trophology (nutrition) on metabolism of fatty acids in population by means of pharmaceuticals intake. It is necessary to eliminate aphysiological effect of environment. To decrease rate of diseases of cardiovascular system one has to decrease in food content of saturated fatty acids and in the first instance palmitic saturated fatty acid, trans-form fatty acid, palmitoleic fatty acids up to physiological values and increase to the same degree the content of polyenoic fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids block absorption of polyenoic fatty acids by cells. The atherosclerosis is a deficiency of polyenoic fatty acids under surplus of palmitic saturated fatty acid.

  18. Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-07-19

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for

  19. Effect of short-term low- and high-fat diets on low-density lipoprotein particle size in normolipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Guay, Valérie; Lamarche, Benoît; Charest, Amélie; Tremblay, André J; Couture, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to raise plasma cholesterol levels, an effect associated with the formation of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, the impact of dietary intervention on time-course changes in LDL particle size has not been investigated. To test whether a short-term dietary intervention affects LDL particle size, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study using an intensive dietary modification in 12 nonobese healthy men with normal plasma lipid profile. Participants were subjected to 2 isocaloric 3-day diets: high-fat diet (37% energy from fat and 50% from carbohydrates) and low-fat diet (25% energy from fat and 62% from carbohydrates). Plasma lipid levels and LDL particle size were assessed on fasting blood samples after 3 days of feeding on each diet. The LDL particles were characterized by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Compared with the low-fat diet, plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased (4.45 vs 4.78 mmol/L, P = .04; 2.48 vs 2.90 mmol/L, P = .005; and 1.29 vs 1.41 mmol/L, P = .005, respectively) following the 3-day high-fat diet. Plasma triglycerides and fasting apolipoprotein B-48 levels were significantly decreased after the high-fat diet compared with the low-fat diet (1.48 vs 1.01 mmol/L, P = .0003 and 9.6 vs 5.5 mg/L, P = .008, respectively). The high-fat diet was also associated with a significant increase in LDL particle size (255.0 vs 255.9 Å;P = .01) and a significant decrease in the proportion of small LDL particle (<255.0 Å) (50.7% vs 44.6%, P = .01). As compared with a low-fat diet, the cholesterol-raising effect of a high-fat diet is associated with the formation of large LDL particles after only 3 days of feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical analysis of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in patients with in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Liu, Yunde; Jia, Kegang; Huo, Zhixiao; Huo, Qianyu; Liu, Zhili; Li, Yongshu; Han, Xuejing; Wang, Rong

    2018-04-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is the most common complication associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although some studies have reported an association between lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and ISR, not enough clinical validation data are available to support this link. Here, we report our cross-sectional study aimed at exploring the feasibility of LOX-1 as a biomarker for the prognostic diagnosis of patients undergoing PCI.Three groups were included: ISR group, including 99 patients with ISR diagnosed with coronary arteriography (CAG) after PCI; lesion group, comprising 87 patients with coronary artery stenosis (<50%) diagnosed with CAG after PCI; and control group, consisting of 96 volunteers with no coronary artery disease. The levels of LOX-1 were measured in each patient by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their general information as well as laboratory parameters were recorded and followed up during a period of 2 years.LOX-1 levels gradually increased after PCI along with the progression of the lesion in the 3 groups. The levels of LOX-1 were significantly higher in the ISR group than in the other 2 groups (P < .001). LOX-1 levels were correlated with the levels of uric acid (UA) (r = 0.289, P = .007), creatinine (CREA) (r = .316, P = .003), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = -0.271, P = .012), whereas no statistically significant correlation was detected with the Gensini score (r = 0.157, P = .141). The sensitivity and specificity of LOX-1 were 81.5% and 55.7%, respectively, with the most optimal threshold (5.04 μg/L). The area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of LOX-1 was 0.720, and LOX-1 had the highest AUC compared with CREA, UA, and HDL-C, both individually and in combination.A high level of LOX-1 in the early period after PCI has a certain predictive power and diagnostic value for ISR. However

  1. Achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals in high-risk patients in managed care: comparison of rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and simvastatin in the SOLAR trial.

    PubMed

    Insull, William; Ghali, Jalal K; Hassman, David R; Y As, Joseph W; Gandhi, Sanjay K; Miller, Elinor

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate attainment of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL with statin treatments in managed care patients at high risk for coronary heart disease. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial (SOLAR [Satisfying Optimal LDL-C ATP III goals with Rosuvastatin]) performed at 145 US clinical centers from June 5, 2002 to July 12, 2004, high-risk men and women in a managed care population received typical starting doses of rosuvastatin (10 mg/d), atorvastatin (10 mg/d), or simvastatin (20 mg/d) for 6 weeks. Those who did not meet the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL at 6 weeks had their dose titrated (doubled), and all patients were followed up for another 6 weeks. A total of 1632 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment regimens. After 6 weeks, 65% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 41% with atorvastatin and 39% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). After 12 weeks, 76% of patients taking rosuvastatin reached the LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL vs 58% with atorvastatin and 53% with simvastatin (P<.001 vs rosuvastatin for both). Reductions in the LDL-C level, total cholesterol level, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly greater with rosuvastatin at both 6 and 12 weeks compared with the other statins. Adverse events were similar in type and frequency in all treatment groups, and only 3% of all patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. No myopathy was observed, no clinically important impact on renal function was attributed to study medications, and clinically important increases in serum transaminases were rare. In a managed care population, 10 mg of rosuvastatin treatment resulted in more patients reaching the NCEP ATP III LDL-C goal compared with 10 mg of atorvastatin and 20 mg of

  2. Sex-dependent Association of a Common Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Polymorphism with RNA Splicing Efficiency in the Brain and Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fanggeng; Gopalraj, Rangaraj K.; Lok, Johann; Zhu, Haiyan; Ling, I-Fang; Simpson, James F.; Tucker, H. Michael; Kelly, Jeremiah F.; Younkin, Samuel G.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Bennett, David A.; Crook, Julia E.; G.Younkin, Steven; Estus, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Since apoE allele status is the predominant Alzheimers disease (AD) genetic risk factor, functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s in brain apoE receptors represent excellent candidates for association with AD. Recently, we identified a SNP, rs688, as modulating the splicing efficiency of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) exon 12 in the female human liver and in minigene transfected HepG2 cells. Moreover, the rs688T minor allele associated with significantly higher LDL and total cholesterol in women in the Framingham Offspring Study. Since LDLR is a major apoE receptor in the brain, we hypothesized that rs688 modulates LDLR splicing in neural tissues and associates with AD. To evaluate this hypothesis, we first transfected LDLR minigenes into SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and found that rs688T reduces exon 12 inclusion in this neural model. We then evaluated rs688 association with exon 12 splicing efficiency in vivo by quantifying LDLR splicing in human anterior cingulate tissue obtained at autopsy; the rs688T allele associated with decreased LDLR exon 12 splicing efficiency in aged men but not women. Lastly, we evaluated whether rs688 associates with AD by genotyping DNA from 1,457 men and 2,055 women drawn from three case-control series. The rs688T/T genotype was associated with increased AD odds in males (recessive model, odds ratio (OR) of 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.13−1.97, uncorrected p=0.005), but not in females. In summary, these studies identify a functional apoE receptor SNP that is associated with AD in a sex-dependent fashion. PMID:18065781

  3. Ellagic acid protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Hsiu-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jane; Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

    Endothelial apoptosis is a driving force in atherosclerosis development. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes inflammatory and thrombotic processes and is highly atherogenic, as it stimulates macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Previous studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO) pathway is involved in oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in berries and nuts, has in recent years been the subject of intense research within the fields of cancer and inflammation. However, its protective effects against oxLDL-induced injury in vascular endothelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigatedmore » the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to oxLDL and explored the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that pretreatment with ellagic acid (5-20 {mu}M) significantly attenuated oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, apoptotic features, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the anti-apoptotic effect of ellagic acid was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and a specific eNOS inhibitor (cavtratin) but not by an ERK inhibitor (PD98059). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of ellagic acid action, we found that oxLDL decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, which in turn activated NF-{kappa}B and downstream pro-apoptotic signaling events including calcium accumulation, destabilization of mitochondrial permeability, and disruption of the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Those alterations induced by oxLDL, however, were attenuated by pretreatment with ellagic acid. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced endothelial apoptosis by ellagic acid is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.« less

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Farnesoid X receptor deficiency induces nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Luyendyk, James P; Tawfik, Ossama; Guo, Grace L

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) comprises dysregulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Identification of the various genetic and environmental susceptibility factors for NASH may provide novel treatments to limit inflammation and fibrosis in patients. This study utilized a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia, low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet for 5 months, to test the hypothesis that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) deficiency contributed to NASH development. Either the high-fat diet or FXR deficiency increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, whereas only FXR deficiency increased bile acid and alkaline phosphatase levels. FXR deficiency and high-fat feeding increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Although high fat led to macrosteatosis and hepatocyte ballooning in livers of mice regardless of genotype, no inflammatory infiltrate was observed in the livers of LDLr(-/-) mice. In contrast, in the livers of LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice, foci of inflammatory cells were observed occasionally when fed the control diet and were greatly increased when fed the high-fat diet. Consistent with enhanced inflammatory cells, hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA were increased by the high-fat diet in LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice. In agreement with elevated levels of procollagen 1 alpha 1 and TGF-beta mRNA, type 1 collagen protein levels were increased in livers of LDLr(-/-)/FXR(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, FXR deficiency induces pathologic manifestations required for NASH diagnosis in a mouse model of hypercholesterolemia, including macrosteatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and inflammation, which suggest a combination of FXR deficiency and high-fat diet is a risk factor for NASH development, and activation of FXR may be a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of NASH.

  6. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B retains beta-amyloid precursor protein at the cell surface and reduces amyloid-beta peptide production.

    PubMed

    Cam, Judy A; Zerbinatti, Celina V; Knisely, Jane M; Hecimovic, Silva; Li, Yonghe; Bu, Guojun

    2004-07-09

    The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) is a newly identified member of the LDL receptor family that shares high homology with the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). LRP1B was originally described as a putative tumor suppressor in lung cancer cells; however, its expression profile in several regions of adult human brain suggests it may have additional functions in the central nervous system. Since LRP1B has overlapping ligand binding properties with LRP, we investigated whether LRP1B, like LRP, could interact with the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and modulate its processing to amyloid-beta peptides (Abetas). Using an LRP1B minireceptor (mLRP1B4) generated to study the trafficking of LRP1B, we found that mLRP1B4 and APP form an immunoprecipitable complex. Furthermore mLRP1B4 bound and facilitated the degradation of a soluble isoform of APP containing a Kunitz proteinase inhibitor domain but not soluble APP lacking a Kunitz proteinase inhibitor domain. A functional consequence of mLRP1B4 expression was a significant accumulation of APP at the cell surface, which is likely related to the slow endocytosis rate of LRP1B. More importantly, mLRP1B4-expressing cells that accumulated cell surface APP produced less Abeta and secreted more soluble APP. These findings reveal that LRP1B is a novel binding partner of APP that functions to decrease APP processing to Abeta. Consequently LRP1B expression could function to protect against the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Malaysian brown seaweeds Sargassum siliquosum and Sargassum polycystum: Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibition activities.

    PubMed

    Nagappan, Hemlatha; Pee, Poh Ping; Kee, Sandra Hui Yin; Ow, Ji Tsong; Yan, See Wan; Chew, Lye Yee; Kong, Kin Weng

    2017-09-01

    Two Malaysian brown seaweeds, Sargassum siliquosum and Sargassum polycystum were first extracted using methanol to get the crude extract (CE) and further fractionated to obtain fucoxanthin-rich fraction (FRF). Samples were evaluated for their phenolic, flavonoid, and fucoxanthin contents, as well as their inhibitory activities towards low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. In LDL oxidation assay, an increasing trend in antioxidant activity was observed as the concentration of FRF (0.04-0.2mg/mL) and CE (0.2-1.0mg/mL) increased, though not statistically significant. As for serum oxidation assay, significant decrease in antioxidant activity was observed as concentration of FRF increased, while CE showed no significant difference in inhibitory activity across the concentrations used. The IC 50 values for ACE inhibitory activity of CE (0.03-0.42mg/mL) were lower than that of FRF (0.94-1.53mg/mL). When compared to reference drug Voglibose (IC 50 value of 0.61mg/mL) in the effectiveness in inhibiting α-amylase, CE (0.58mg/mL) gave significantly lower IC 50 values while FRF (0.68-0.71mg/mL) had significantly higher IC 50 values. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of CE (IC 50 value of 0.57-0.69mg/mL) and FRF (IC 50 value of 0.50-0.53mg/mL) were comparable to that of reference drug (IC 50 value of 0.54mg/mL). Results had shown the potential of S. siliquosum and S. polycystum in reducing cardiovascular diseases related risk factors following their inhibitory activities on ACE, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In addition, it is likelihood that FRF possessed antioxidant activity at low concentration level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What is needed to make low-density lipoprotein transport in human aorta computational models suitable to explore links to atherosclerosis? Impact of initial and inflow boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Giuseppe; Zhang, Peng; Calò, Karol; Liu, Xiao; Ponzini, Raffaele; Bignardi, Cristina; Rizzo, Giovanna; Deng, Xiaoyan; Gallo, Diego; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2018-02-08

    Personalized computational hemodynamics (CH) is a promising tool to clarify/predict the link between low density lipoproteins (LDL) transport in aorta, disturbed shear and atherogenesis. However, CH uses simplifying assumptions that represent sources of uncertainty. In particular, modelling blood-side to wall LDL transfer is challenged by the cumbersomeness of protocols needed to obtain reliable LDL concentration profile estimations. This paucity of data is limiting the establishment of rigorous CH protocols able to balance the trade-offs among the variety of in vivo data to be acquired, and the accuracy required by biological/clinical applications. In this study, we analyze the impact of LDL concentration initialization (initial conditions, ICs) and inflow boundary conditions (BCs) on CH models of LDL blood-to-wall transfer in aorta. Technically, in an image-based model of human aorta, two different inflow BCs are generated imposing subject-specific inflow 3D PC-MRI measured or idealized (flat) velocity profiles. For each simulated BC, four different ICs for LDL concentration are applied, imposing as IC the LDL distribution resulting from steady-state simulations with average conditions, or constant LDL concentration values. Based on CH results, we conclude that: (1) the imposition of realistic 3D velocity profiles as inflow BC reduces the uncertainty affecting the representation of LDL transfer; (2) different LDL concentration ICs lead to markedly different patterns of LDL transfer. Given that it is not possible to verify in vivo the proper LDL concentration initialization to be applied, we suggest to carefully set and unambiguously declare the imposed BCs and LDL concentration IC when modelling LDL transfer in aorta, in order to obtain reproducible and ultimately comparable results among different laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Metformin-sustained Release Therapy on Low-density Lipoprotein Size and Adiponectin in the South Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D Rama Nagendra; Seshadri, Krishna G; Pandurangi, Monna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, such as adiponectin (APN) levels and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size, before and after sustained release metformin (Met-SR) therapy in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Sixty women with PCOS and sixty age-matched controls in the age group 18-45 years were recruited after obtaining informed consent. Women with PCOS were initiated on Met-SR 1 g orally, which was increased to 1.5 g after 2 weeks and continued up to 24 weeks. Demographic data along with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, PCOS, and CVD were collected. Lipid profile plasma APN levels and LDL size were measured before and after therapy in the PCOS group. Data analysis was performed using the GraphPad Prism-5 software. Women with PCOS had greater dyslipidemia, lower APN level and LDL size, and increased lipid accumulating product index as compared to controls. After 6 months of Met-SR therapy, women with PCOS demonstrated significant increase in plasma APN levels and LDL size and significant decrease in weight, waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP). A significant decrease was observed in body mass index (BMI) in the overweight and obese PCOS subgroups. Met-SR increases LDL size, APN concentration and decreases weight, WC, WHR, and BP in patients with PCOS. Met-SR may have salutary effects on LDL particle size through effects on APN levels in women with PCOS.

  10. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with 3-year all-cause mortality among Chinese oldest old: data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yue-Bin; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Chei, Choy-Lye; Qian, Han-Zhu; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Zhang, Juan; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Matchar, David Bruce; Zeng, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a risk factor for survival in middle-aged individuals, but conflicting evidence exists on the relationship between LDL-C and all-cause mortality among the elderly. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between LDL-C and all-cause mortality among Chinese oldest old (aged 80 and older) in a prospective cohort study. LDL-C concentration was measured at baseline and all-cause mortality was calculated over a 3-year period. Multiple statistical models were used to adjust for demographic and biological covariates. During three years of follow-up, 447 of 935 participants died, and the overall all-cause mortality was 49.8%. Each 1 mmol/L increase of LDL-C concentration corresponded to a 19% decrease in 3-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.92). The crude HR for abnormally higher LDL-C concentration (≥3.37 mmol/L) was 0.65 (0.41-1.03); and the adjusted HR was statistically significant around 0.60 (0.37-0.95) when adjusted for different sets of confounding factors. Results of sensitivity analysis also showed a significant association between higher LDL-C and lower mortality risk. Among the Chinese oldest old, higher LDL-C level was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. Our findings suggested the necessity of re-evaluating the optimal level of LDL-C among the oldest old. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol was Inversely Associated with 3-Year All-Cause Mortality among Chinese Oldest Old: Data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey

    PubMed Central

    LV, Yue-Bin; YIN, Zhao-Xue; CHEI, Choy-Lye; QIAN, Han-Zhu; Kraus, Virginia Byers; ZHANG, Juan; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; SHI, Xiao-Ming; Matchar, David Bruce; ZENG, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a risk factor for survival in middle-aged individuals, but conflicting evidence exists on the relationship between LDL-C and all-cause mortality among the elderly. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between LDL-C and all-cause mortality among Chinese oldest old (aged 80 and older) in a prospective cohort study. Methods LDL-C concentration was measured at baseline and all-cause mortality was calculated over a 3-year period. Multiple statistical models were used to adjust for demographic and biological covariates. Results During three years of follow-up, 447 of 935 participants died, and the overall all-cause mortality was 49.8%. Each 1 mmol/L increase of LDL-C concentration corresponded to a 19% decrease in 3-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–0.92). The crude HR for abnormally higher LDL-C concentration (≥3.37 mmol/L) was 0.65 (0.41–1.03); and the adjusted HR was statistically significant around 0.60 (0.37–0.95) when adjusted for different sets of confounding factors. Results of sensitivity analysis also showed a significant association between higher LDL-C and lower mortality risk. Conclusions Among the Chinese oldest old, higher LDL-C level was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality. Our findings suggested the necessity of re-evaluating the optimal level of LDL-C among the oldest old. PMID:25602855

  12. Interferon-Free Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Subjects Results in Increased Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kerry; Meissner, Eric G.; Sidharthan, Sreetha; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T.; Tang, Lydia; Kohli, Anita; Osinusi, Anu; Masur, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with lower serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), the primary cholesterol metabolite targeted pharmaceutically to modulate cardiovascular risk. Chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treatment with antiretrovirals (ARVs) are associated with dyslipidemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In subjects coinfected with HIV and HCV, lipid abnormalities associated with either infection alone are often attenuated. Treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects is now possible with interferon (IFN)-free regimens composed of directly acting antivirals (DAAs). We previously observed a marked increase in serum LDL-C in HCV-monoinfected subjects treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin (SOF/RBV) that correlated with viral decline in serum, suggesting a direct influence of HCV clearance on serum cholesterol. In the present study, we assessed longitudinal changes in cholesterol in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects during treatment of HCV genotype-1 (GT1) infection with combination DAA therapy. We report a rapid increase in LDL-C and LDL particle size by week 2 of treatment that was sustained during and after treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects. No change in serum LDL-C was observed at day 3 of treatment, in spite of a marked reduction in serum HCV viral load, suggesting LDL-C increases do not directly reflect HCV clearance as measured in peripheral blood. After effective DAA therapy for HCV, an increase in LDL should be anticipated in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects. PMID:26559180

  13. Cardiomyocyte-Restricted Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6) Deletion Leads to Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy Partly Through Drp1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhidan; Li, Yang; Wang, Ying; Qian, Juying; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Guoliang; Liu, Ming; An, Yanpeng; Ma, Leilei; Kang, Le; Jia, Jianguo; Yang, Chunjie; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Ying; Gao, Wei; Fu, Mingqiang; Huang, Zheyong; Tang, Huiru; Zhu, Yichun; Ge, Junbo; Gong, Hui; Zou, Yunzeng

    2018-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a wnt co-receptor, regulates multiple functions in various organs. However, the roles of LRP6 in the adult heart are not well understood. Methods: We observed LRP6 expression in heart with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by western blot. Tamoxifen-inducible cardiac-specific LRP6 knockout mouse was constructed. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were performed to these mice. Results: Cardiac LRP6 expression was dramatically decreased in patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) compared to control group. Tamoxifen-inducible cardiac-specific LRP6 knockout mice developed acute heart failure and mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced survival. Proteomic analysis suggests the fatty acid metabolism disorder involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) signaling in the LRP6 deficient heart. Accumulation of mitochondrial targeting to autophagosomes and lipid droplet were observed in LRP6 deletion hearts. Further analysis revealed cardiac LRP6 deletion suppressed autophagic degradation and fatty acid utilization, coinciding with activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and downregulation of nuclear TFEB (Transcription factor EB). Injection of Mdivi-1, a Drp1 inhibitor, not only promoted nuclear translocation of TFEB, but also partially rescued autophagic degradation, improved PPARs signaling, and attenuated cardiac dysfunction induced by cardiac specific LRP6 deletion. Conclusions: Cardiac LRP6 deficiency greatly suppressed autophagic degradation and fatty acid utilization, and subsequently leads to lethal dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac dysfunction through activation of Drp1 signaling. It suggests that heart failure progression may be attenuated by therapeutic modulation of LRP6 expression. PMID:29344294

  14. Bilirubin Prevents Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice by Inhibiting Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Megan E; Idelman, Gila; Konaniah, Eddy S; Zucker, Stephen D

    2017-04-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support an inverse association between serum bilirubin levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanism(s) by which bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis is undefined. The goals of the present investigations were to assess the ability of bilirubin to prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice and elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect. Bilirubin, at physiological concentrations (≤20 μmol/L), dose-dependently inhibits THP-1 monocyte migration across tumor necrosis factor α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers without altering leukocyte binding or cytokine production. A potent antioxidant, bilirubin effectively blocks the generation of cellular reactive oxygen species induced by the cross-linking of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). These findings were validated by treating cells with blocking antibodies or with specific inhibitors of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 signaling. When administered to Ldlr -/- mice on a Western diet, bilirubin (30 mg/kg intraperitoneally) prevents atherosclerotic plaque formation, but does not alter circulating cholesterol or chemokine levels. Aortic roots from bilirubin-treated animals exhibit reduced lipid and collagen deposition, decreased infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes, fewer smooth muscle cells, and diminished levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine, without changes in VCAM-1 or ICAM-1 expression. Bilirubin suppresses atherosclerotic plaque formation in Ldlr -/- mice by disrupting endothelial VCAM-1- and ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte migration through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species signaling intermediaries. These findings suggest a potential mechanism for the apparent cardioprotective effects of bilirubin. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc

  15. Small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations predict risk for coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Hoogeveen, Ron C; Gaubatz, John W; Sun, Wensheng; Dodge, Rhiannon C; Crosby, Jacy R; Jiang, Jennifer; Couper, David; Virani, Salim S; Kathiresan, Sekar; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between plasma levels of small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a prospective study among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants. Plasma sdLDL-C was measured in 11 419 men and women of the biracial ARIC study using a newly developed homogeneous assay. A proportional hazards model was used to examine the relationship among sdLDL-C, vascular risk factors, and risk for CHD events (n=1158) for a period of ≈11 years. Plasma sdLDL-C levels were strongly correlated with an atherogenic lipid profile and were higher in patients with diabetes mellitus than non-diabetes mellitus (49.6 versus 42.3 mg/dL; P<0.0001). In a model that included established risk factors, sdLDL-C was associated with incident CHD with a hazard ratio of 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.88) for the highest versus the lowest quartile, respectively. Even in individuals considered to be at low cardiovascular risk based on their LDL-C levels, sdLDL-C predicted risk for incident CHD (hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.49). Genome-wide association analyses identified genetic variants in 8 loci associated with sdLDL-C levels. These loci were in or close to genes previously associated with risk for CHD. We discovered 1 novel locus, PCSK7, for which genetic variation was significantly associated with sdLDL-C and other lipid factors. sdLDL-C was associated with incident CHD in ARIC study participants. The novel association of genetic variants in PCSK7 with sdLDL-C and other lipid traits may provide new insights into the role of this gene in lipid metabolism.

  16. Enhanced Macrophage Resistance to Pseudomonas Exotoxin A Is Correlated with Decreased Expression of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Laithwaite, James E.; Benn, Sally J.; Yamate, Jyoji; FitzGerald, David J.; LaMarre, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Cellular intoxification by exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PEA) begins when PEA binds to its cellular receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). This receptor is particularly abundant on macrophages. We hypothesize here that inducible changes in cellular expression levels of the LRP represent an important mechanism by which macrophage susceptibility to PEA is regulated by the host. We have examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on LRP expression and PEA sensitivity in the macrophage-like cell line HS-P. Using a [3H]leucine incorporation assay to measure inhibition of protein synthesis, we have demonstrated that HS-P macrophages are highly sensitive to PEA and that PEA toxicity is decreased by the LRP antagonist receptor-associated protein. LPS pretreatment decreases HS-P PEA sensitivity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The dose of toxin required to inhibit protein synthesis by 50% increased from 11.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml in untreated cells to 25.7 ± 2.0 ng/ml in cells treated with LPS. In pulse experiments, involving brief exposure to saturating concentrations of PEA, [3H]leucine incorporation was more than threefold higher in cells pretreated with LPS than in untreated macrophages. These changes in HS-P PEA sensitivity following LPS treatment were consistently associated with a fivefold decrease in HS-P LRP mRNA expression as measured by Northern blot analysis and a three-and-a-half-fold decrease in HS-P LRP-specific ligand internalization as determined by activated α2-macroglobulin internalization studies. These data demonstrate for the first time that modulation of LRP levels by extracellular signaling molecules can alter cellular PEA sensitivity. PMID:10531236

  17. Activation of PPAR-δ induces microRNA-100 and decreases the uptake of very low-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xi; Fang, Li; Liu, Ao; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Beilei; Wang, Nanping

    2015-08-01

    Increased level of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. PPAR-δ agonists play a protective role in lipid metabolism and vascular function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PPAR-δ in the uptake of VLDL in endothelial cells and its underlying mechanism(s). Uptake of VLDL in HUVECs was assessed by Dil-fluorescent labelling of VLDL. Levels of VLDL receptor mRNA and microRNA (miR-100) were detected by quantitative PCR. The target genes of miR-100 were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. 3'-Untranslated region (3'-UTR) luciferase reporter and Argonaute 1 pull-down assays were used to validate the target of miR-100. PPAR-δ agonist GW501516 decreased uptake of VLDL and expression of VLDL receptor at mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 inhibited the luciferase reporter activity of the 3'-UTR of VLDL receptor. VLDL receptor was a direct target of miR-100. miR-100 was significantly increased by GW501516 in HUVECs. Transfection of a miR-100 mimic decreased the mRNA and protein levels of VLDL receptor and uptake of VLDL. Furthermore, a miR-100 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effect of PPAR-δ on VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake. In endothelial cells, activation of PPAR-δ decreased VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake via the induction of miR-100. These results provided a novel mechanism for the vascular protective effect of PPAR-δ agonists. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and garlic (Allium sativum) have been previously observed to have cardioprotective influence in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Since low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process, we evaluated their potential in minimizing the LDL oxidation in rats. Fenugreek seeds, garlic, and their combination were included along with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL in vivo was considerably lowered by dietary fenugreek and garlic. The extent of copper-induced oxidation of isolated LDL in vitro was also significantly lesser in fenugreek-fed or fenugreek+garlic-fed rats. Anodic electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL on agarose gel in case of spice-fed animals was decreased and hence consistent with the observed protective influence on LDL oxidation. Dietary fenugreek, garlic, and their combination significantly lowered lipid peroxide levels in plasma, liver, and heart in iron (II)-administered rats. The results suggest that these two dietary spices have protective effect on LDL oxidation under normal situation as well as in hypercholesterolemic situation. The protective effect of the combination of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro was greater than that of the individual spices. The protective effect of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro as evidenced in the present study is suggestive of their cardioprotective potential since LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process.

  19. Insulin-induced exocytosis regulates the cell surface level of low-density lipoprotein-related protein-1 in Müller Glial cells.

    PubMed

    Actis Dato, Virginia; Grosso, Rubén A; Sánchez, María C; Fader, Claudio M; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2018-05-15

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is expressed in retinal Müller glial cells (MGCs) and regulates intracellular translocation to the plasma membrane (PM) of the membrane proteins involved in cellular motility and activity. Different functions of MGCs may be influenced by insulin, including the removal of extracellular glutamate in the retina. In the present work, we investigated whether insulin promotes LRP1 translocation to the PM in the Müller glial-derived cell line MIO-M1 (human retinal Müller glial cell-derived cell line). We demonstrated that LRP1 is stored in small vesicles containing an approximate size of 100 nm (mean diameter range of 100-120 nm), which were positive for sortilin and VAMP2, and also incorporated GLUT4 when it was transiently transfected. Next, we observed that LRP1 translocation to the PM was promoted by insulin-regulated exocytosis through intracellular activation of the IR/PI 3 K/Akt axis and Rab-GTPase proteins such as Rab8A and Rab10. In addition, these Rab-GTPases regulated both the constitutive and insulin-induced LRP1 translocation to the PM. Finally, we found that dominant-negative Rab8A and Rab10 mutants impaired insulin-induced intracellular signaling of the IR/PI3K/Akt axis, suggesting that these GTPase proteins as well as the LRP1 level at the cell surface are involved in insulin-induced IR activation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Identification of mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein (electronegative LDL) and its auto-antibodies IgG in children and adolescents hypercholesterolemic offsprings.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcos Roberto Andrade Costa; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Ferreira, Waldinai Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an essential step in atherogenesis, generating minimally oxidized LDL, also called electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], which has chemotactic, cytotoxic and immunogenic properties. Serum LDL(-) and anti-LDL(-) auto-antibodies (IgG) were evaluated in 28 children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) antecedents, with or without early coronary artery disease in first-degree relatives (eCAD), hypercholesterolemic (hc) or normocholesterolemic (nc) versus a control group of normocholesterolemic children without pathologic antecedents (C). ELISA method was used for detection of LDL(-) and anti-LDL(-) IgG. LDL(-) serum levels did not differ among the four groups (FH-eCAD-hc 41.4 +/- 24.9 microg/dl; FH-hc 38.3 +/- 11.2 microg/dl; FH-nc 47.3 +/- 17.0 microg/dl and C 44.2 +/- 28.8 microg/dl, p = 0.659). However, IgG anti-LDL(-) auto-antibodies were significantly higher in the control group in comparison to the FH groups with or without eCAD, independent of hypercholesterolemia or normocholesterolemia (FH-eCAD-hc 0.825 +/- 0.289 microg/dl; FH-hc 0.667 +/- 0.307 microg/dl; FH-nc 0.763 +/- 0.204 microg/dl and C 1.105 +/- 0.233 microg/dl, p = 0.006). When the auto-antibodies of groups with FH, with or without eCAD and with or without hypercholesterolemia were compared, no differences were found (p = 0.509). These results showed that FH and/or eCAD children and adolescents have lower titers of auto-antibodies anti-LDL(-) than children from normal families, independent of serum LDL-cholesterol or serum LDL(-).

  1. Guideline-directed low-density lipoprotein management in high-risk patients with ischemic stroke: findings from Get with the Guidelines-Stroke 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Fonarow, Gregg C; Pan, Wenquin; Liang, Li; Hernandez, Adrian F; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E

    2014-11-01

    Limited information is available on stroke prevention in high-risk patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to use admission low-density lipoprotein (LDL) values to evaluate differences in the attainment of National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines goals at the time of the index event in high-risk patients with stroke and preexisting cardio- or cerebrovascular disease. Observational study, using data from the Get-With-The-Guidelines-Stroke Registry including 913 436 patients with an acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from April 2003 to September 2012. Participants were classified as high risk if they had history of transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke (cardiovascular disease), and coronary artery disease (CAD). Of the 913 436 patients admitted with an acute stroke or TIA, 194 557 (21.3%) had previous stroke/TIA, 148 833 (16.3%) had previous CAD, and 88 605 (9.7%) had concomitant CAD and cardiovascular disease. Overall, only 68% of patients with stroke were at their preadmission National Cholesterol Education Program III guideline-recommended LDL target; 51.3% had LDL <100 mg/dL; and only 19.8% had LDL<70 mg/dL. Among those presenting with a recurrent stroke, >45% had LDL>100 mg/dL. When compared with patients with CAD, patients with previous TIA/stroke were less likely to have LDL<100 or <70 mg/dL. In multivariable analysis, older age, men, white race, lack of major vascular risk factors, previous use of cholesterol-lowering therapy, and care provided in larger hospitals were associated with meeting LDL targets on admission testing. Management of dyslipidemia in high-risk patients with preexistent CAD or stroke continues to be suboptimal. Only 1 in 5 patients with prior TIA/stroke had LDL levels <70 mg/dL. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. A fluorescently labeled undecapeptide derived from a protein in royal jelly of the honeybee-royalisin-for specific detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Unuma, Hiroto; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2018-06-01

    The probes for detection of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma and in atherosclerotic plaques are expected to facilitate the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of atherosclerosis. Recently, we have reported that a heptapeptide (Lys-Trp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Gly-Asp, KP6) coupled through the ε-amino group of N-terminal Lys to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), (FITC)KP6, can be useful as a fluorescent probe for specific detection of ox-LDL. In the present study, to develop a novel fluorescent peptide for specific detection of ox-LDL, we investigated the interaction (with ox-LDL) of an undecapeptide corresponding to positions 41 to 51 of a potent antimicrobial protein (royalisin, which consists of 51 residues; from royal jelly of honeybees), conjugated at the N-terminus to FITC in the presence of 6-amino-n-caproic acid (AC) linker, (FITC-AC)-royalisin P11, which contains both sequences, Phe-Lys-Asp and Asp-Lys-Tyr, similar to Tyr-Lys-Asp in (FITC)KP6. The (FITC-AC)-royalisin P11 bound with high specificity to ox-LDL in a dose-dependent manner, through the binding to major lipid components in ox-LDL (lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine). In contrast, a (FITC-AC)-shuffled royalisin P11 peptide, in which sequences Phe-Lys-Asp and Asp-Lys-Tyr were modified to Lys-Phe-Asp and Asp-Tyr-Lys, respectively, hardly bound to LDL and ox-LDL. These findings strongly suggest that (FITC-AC)-royalisin P11 may be an effective fluorescent probe for specific detection of ox-LDL and that royalisin from the royal jelly of honeybees may play a role in the treatment of atherosclerosis through the specific binding of the region at positions 41 to 51 to ox-LDL. Copyright © 2018 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ciriacks, Kevin; Coly, Gerard; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Patel, Shailendra B; Kidambi, Srividya

    2015-03-01

    Statins are used to lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there are no studies of statin efficacy among T1DM patients. T1DM patients have higher gut cholesterol absorption than synthesis; hence cholesterol absorption inhibitors such as ezetimibe may also be effective in T1DM. Here, we compare the effects of simvastatin and ezetimibe among subjects with T1DM and T2DM. Subjects with T1DM (n=20, 45% female) or T2DM (n=27, 56% female) were assigned to alternating therapy with simvastatin (40 mg) or ezetimibe (10 mg) for 6 weeks in a crossover design. Among T2DM subjects, simvastatin lowered TC and LDL-C from the baseline (-25±4% and -40±5%, respectively, P<0.001), whereas ezetimibe was not as effective (-2±4% and -3±5%, respectively). Among T1DM subjects, both statin and ezetimibe showed significant decreases in TC and LDL-C from baseline, although ezetimibe lowered LDL-C much more than simvastatin (-32±12 (P<0.001) and -19±5% (P<0.01), respectively). Effect of simvastatin on LDL-C was much lower among T1DM subjects compared to T2DM subjects (P=0.02). This study shows that the cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin was less effective in lowering LDL-C in T1DM than T2DM subjects, whereas the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe was at least as effective in lowering LDL-C as simvastatin among T1DM subjects.

  4. Investigation into the distinct subcellular effects of docosahexaenoic acid loaded low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles in normal and malignant murine liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Lacy R.; Mulik, Rohit S.; Van Treuren, Tim; Kim, Soo Young; Corbin, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that low density lipoproteins reconstituted with the natural omega 3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (LDL-DHA) is selectively cytotoxic to liver cancer cells over normal hepatocytes. To date, little is known about the subcellular events which transpire following LDL-DHA treatment. Methods Herein, murine noncancer and cancer liver cells, TIB-73 and TIB-75 respectively, were investigated utilizing confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and viability assays to demonstrate differential actions of LDL-DHA nanoparticles in normal versus malignant cells. Results Our studies first showed that basal levels of oxidative stress are significantly higher in the malignant TIB-75 cells compared to the normal TIB-73 cells. As such, upon entry of LDL-DHA into the malignant TIB-75 cells, DHA is rapidly oxidized precipitating global and lysosomal lipid peroxidation along with increased lysosomal permeability. This leakage of lysosomal contents and lipid peroxidation products trigger subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear injury. The cascade of LDL-DHA mediated lipid peroxidation and organelle damage was partially reversed by the administration of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, or the iron-chelator, deferoxamine. LDL-DHA treatment in the normal TIB-73 cells was well tolerated and did not elicit any cell or organelle injury. Conclusion These studies have shown that LDL-DHA is selectively cytotoxic to liver cancer cells and that increased levels of ROS and iron catalyzed reactions promote the peroxidation of DHA which lead to organelle dysfunction and ultimately the demise of the cancer cell. General significance LDL-DHA selectively disrupts lysosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear function in cancer cells as a novel pathway for eliminating cancer cells. PMID:27418237

  5. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Aronia berry polyphenol consumption reduces plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in former smokers without lowering biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liyang; Vance, Terrence; Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Caceres, Christian; Wang, Ying; Hubert, Patrice A; Lee, Ji-Young; Chun, Ock K; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-01-01

    Former smokers are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that dietary aronia polyphenols would reduce biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation, and oxidative stress in former smokers. We also determined the extent these effects were associated with polyphenol bioavailability. A 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 49 healthy adult former smokers (n = 24/placebo, n = 25/aronia) to evaluate if daily consumption of 500 mg aronia extract modulated plasma lipids, blood pressure, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and lipid transport genes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The primary outcome was change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline, and multivariate correlation analysis was performed to determine if changes in lipids were associated with urinary polyphenol excretion. Aronia consumption reduced fasting plasma total cholesterol by 8% (P = .0140), LDL-C by 11% (P = .0285), and LDL receptor protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = .0036) at 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. Positive changes in the urinary polyphenol metabolites peonidin-3-O-galactoside, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, and unmetabolized anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were associated with lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL-C in the aronia group. Aronia consumption did not change blood pressure or biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Aronia polyphenols reduced total and LDL-C in former smokers but did not improve biomarkers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The cholesterol-lowering activity of aronia extract was most closely associated with urinary levels of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside and peonidin-3-O-galactoside, its methylated metabolite. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01541826. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive Value of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein/β2-Glycoprotein-I Complexes (oxLDL/β2GPI) in Nonautoimmune Atherothrombosis.

    PubMed

    Ames, Paul R J; Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; D'Andrea, Giovanna; Lopez, Luis R; Gaeta, Giovanni; Iannaccone, Luigi; Maraglione, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is a definite feature of atherosclerosis, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is not only highly immunogenic but toxic to several cell types. Beta-2-glycoprotein-I (β 2 GPI) dampens oxLDL toxicity by forming binary oxLDL/β 2 GPI complexes. We evaluated whether circulating oxLDL/β 2 GPI complexes are associated to atherosclerosis-related events (ARE) and to venous thromboembolism (VTE). In a cross-sectional case-control study, cases were (a) 57 consecutive patients (male/female [M/F] 33/24, mean age 57 [10] years) attending a thrombosis unit for ARE (myocardial infarction [MI] n = 20, peripheral vascular disease n = 7, and ischemic strokes n = 30); (b) 52 consecutive patients (M/F 22/30, mean age 55 [17] years) attending the same unit for unprovoked (VTE); (c) normal controls comprised 90 participants (M/F 35/55, mean age 41 [15] years); and (d) oxLDL/β 2 GPI complexes were measured by immunoassay and resulting levels divided into quartiles. The odds ratio (OR) of ARE was greater in the fourth and second quartiles than in the first quartile (8.5 and 6.0, respectively); the OR of developing MI was greatest in the fourth quartile (17.8). By multivariable analysis with age, sex, smoking, lipid status, statin, and ARE phenotypes as independent variables and oxLDL/β 2 GPI as the dependent variable, only MI predicted oxLDL/β 2 GPI ( P < .0001). OxLDL/β 2 GPI may be regarded as a marker of ARE, in particular of MI.

  8. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) can mediate degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1).

    PubMed

    Canuel, Maryssa; Sun, Xiaowei; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Paramithiotis, Eustache; Prat, Annik; Seidah, Nabil G

    2013-01-01

    Elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDLc) levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. LDLc is cleared from circulation by the LDL receptor (LDLR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) enhances the degradation of the LDLR in endosomes/lysosomes, resulting in increased circulating LDLc. PCSK9 can also mediate the degradation of LDLR lacking its cytosolic tail, suggesting the presence of as yet undefined lysosomal-targeting factor(s). Herein, we confirm this, and also eliminate a role for the transmembrane-domain of the LDLR in mediating its PCSK9-induced internalization and degradation. Recent findings from our laboratory also suggest a role for PCSK9 in enhancing tumor metastasis. We show herein that while the LDLR is insensitive to PCSK9 in murine B16F1 melanoma cells, PCSK9 is able to induce degradation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), suggesting distinct targeting mechanisms for these receptors. Furthermore, PCSK9 is still capable of acting upon the LDLR in CHO 13-5-1 cells lacking LRP-1. Conversely, PCSK9 also acts on LRP-1 in the absence of the LDLR in CHO-A7 cells, where re-introduction of the LDLR leads to reduced PCSK9-mediated degradation of LRP-1. Thus, while PCSK9 is capable of inducing degradation of LRP-1, the latter is not an essential factor for LDLR regulation, but the LDLR effectively competes with LRP-1 for PCSK9 activity. Identification of PCSK9 targets should allow a better understanding of the consequences of PCSK9 inhibition for lowering LDLc and tumor metastasis.

  9. Antioxidants inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation less at lysosomal pH: A possible explanation as to why the clinical trials of antioxidants might have failed.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Feroz; Leake, David S

    2018-03-05

    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (LDL) was considered to be important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the large clinical trials of antioxidants, including the first one using probucol (the PQRST Trial), failed to show benefit and have cast doubt on the importance of oxidised LDL. We have shown previously that LDL oxidation can be catalysed by iron in the lysosomes of macrophages. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing LDL oxidation at lysosomal pH and also establish the possible mechanism of oxidation. Probucol did not effectively inhibit the oxidation of LDL at lysosomal pH, as measured by conjugated dienes or oxidised cholesteryl esters or tryptophan residues in isolated LDL or by ceroid formation in the lysosomes of macrophage-like cells, in marked contrast to its highly effective inhibition of LDL oxidation at pH 7.4. LDL oxidation at lysosomal pH was inhibited very effectively for long periods by N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, which is more hydrophobic than probucol and has been shown by others to inhibit atherosclerosis in rabbits, and by cysteamine, which is a hydrophilic antioxidant that accumulates in lysosomes. Iron-induced LDL oxidation might be due to the formation of the superoxide radical, which protonates at lysosomal pH to form the much more reactive, hydrophobic hydroperoxyl radical, which can enter LDL and reach its core. Probucol resides mainly in the surface monolayer of LDL and would not effectively scavenge hydroperoxyl radicals in the core of LDL. This might explain why probucol failed to protect against atherosclerosis in various clinical trials. The oxidised LDL hypothesis of atherosclerosis now needs to be re-evaluated using different and more effective antioxidants that protect against the lysosomal oxidation of LDL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatic Effects of Estrogen on Plasma Distribution of Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein and Free Radical Production in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Nii, Shota; Shinohara, Koichi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic effects of estrogen therapy on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction or oxidative stress have not been previously evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the differential hepatic effects of estrogen affect plasma distribution of small dense LDL and free radical production in postmenopausal women. In all, 45 postmenopausal women were given 0.625 mg/day of oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) (n=15), 1.0 mg/day of oral 17β estradiol (E2) (n=15), or 50 μg/day of transdermal 17βE2 (n=15) for 3 months. Subjects received either estrogen alone or with dydrogesterone at 5 mg/day. Plasma concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), lipids, metallic ions, and derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were measured. CEE, but not oral 17βE2, increased the plasma concentrations of triglyceride, copper (Cu), and d-ROMs and the ratio of small dense LDL/total LDL cholesterol, a marker for plasma distribution of small dense LDL. Transdermal 17βE2 decreased d-ROMs concentrations but did not significantly change other parameters. Plasma concentrations of SHBG increased in the 3 groups. Estrogen-induced changes in triglyceride correlated positively either with changes in SHBG (R=0.52, P=0.0002) or the ratio of small dense LDL/total LDL cholesterol (R=0.65, P<0.0001). Changes in Cu also correlated positively either with changes in SHBG (R=0.85, P<0.0001) or d-ROMs (R=0.86, P<0.0001). The hepatic effects of different routes or types of estrogen therapy may be associated with plasma distribution of small dense LDL and free radical production in postmenopausal women.

  11. Up-regulated expression of type II very low density lipoprotein receptor correlates with cancer metastasis and has a potential link to β-catenin in different cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Lu, Yanjun; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Chuanchang; Qu, Shen

    2010-11-03

    Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) has been considered as a multiple function receptor due to binding numerous ligands, causing endocytosis and regulating cellular signaling. Our group previously reported that enhanced activity of type II VLDLR (VLDLR II), one subtype of VLDLR, promotes adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells proliferation and migration. The aim of this study is to explore the expression levels of VLDLR II in human gastric, breast and lung cancer tissues, and to investigate its relationship with clinical characteristics and β-catenin expression status. VLDLR II expression was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot in tumor tissues from 213 gastric, breast and lung cancer patients, tumor adjacent noncancerous tissues by same methods. Correlations between VLDLR II and clinical features, as well as β-catenin expression status were evaluated by statistical analysis. The immunohistochemical staining of VLDLR II showed statistical difference between tumor tissues and tumor adjacent noncancerous tissues in gastric, breast and lung cancers (P = 0.034, 0.018 and 0.043, respectively). Moreover, using Western, we found higher VLDLR II expression levels were associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in gastric and breast cancer (P < 0.05). Furthermore, highly significant positive correlations were found between VLDLR II and β-catenin in gastric cancer (r = 0.689; P < 0.001)breast cancer (r = 0.594; P < 0.001). According to the results of the current study, high VLDLR II expression is correlated with lymph node and distant metastasis in gastric and breast cancer patients, the data suggest that VLDLR II may be a clinical marker in cancers, and has a potential link with β-catenin signaling pathway. This is the first to reveal the closer relationship of VLDLR II with clinical information.

  12. Comparison of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target value and the preventive effect of statins in elderly patients and younger patients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihiro; Okada, Taiji; Pak, Misun; Kagawa, Yuzo; Ito, Shimpei; Sato, Hirotomo; Kageshima, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target value and preventive effect of statins are different between elderly and younger patients. We investigated 304 patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who underwent coronary angiography from January 2007 to December 2016 for examination of recurrent ischemia beyond the early restenosis. Patients were classified into two groups: age ≥ 75 years (elderly group: n = 140) and < 75 years (younger group: n = 164). Relationships between the achieved LDL-C level, incidence of late coronary events, and the effectiveness of statins were evaluated. During follow-up, 179 patients underwent late coronary revascularization. Recurrent ischemia presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurred in 83 cases. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that in the younger group, recurrent ACS was significantly lower in patients with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL than in those with LDL-C ranging from 70 to < 100 mg/dL ( P = 0.035); however, there was no difference between these in the elderly group ( P = 0.863). Instead, recurrent ACS was less frequent in patients with LDL-C ranging from 70 mg/dL to < 100 mg/dL than in those with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL in the elderly group ( P = 0.033). Statin use was associated with decreased recurrent ACS ( P = 0.005); moreover, only using statins was an independent predictor in the elderly group (HR: 0.375; P = 0.007). Strict control of LDL-C to < 70 mg/dL was effective for reducing the incidence of recurrent ACS in younger patients. However, LDL-C < 100 mg/dL might be sufficient as the target value of LDL-C-lowering therapy for secondary prevention of ischemic events in Japanese elderly patients.

  13. Projected Real-World Effectiveness of Using Aggressive Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Targets Among Elderly Statin Users Following Acute Coronary Syndromes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alter, David A; Tu, Jack V; Koh, Maria; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Austin, Peter C; Rezai, Mohammad R; Bhatia, R Sacha; Johnston, Sharon; Udell, Jacob A; Ko, Dennis T

    2018-05-12

    The extent to which outcome benefits may be achieved through the implementation of aggressive low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol targets in real world settings remains unknown, especially among elderly statin users following acute coronary syndromes. A population-based cohort study consisting of 19 544 post-acute coronary syndrome statin-users aged ≥66 years between January 1, 2017 and March 31, 2014 was used to project the number of adverse outcome events (acute myocardial infarction or death from any cause) that could be prevented if all post-acute coronary syndrome elderly statin users were treated to 1 of 2 LDL cholesterol target levels (≤50 and ≤70 mg/dL). The number of preventable adverse outcomes was estimated by using model-based expected event probabilities as derived from Cox Proportional hazards models. In total, 61.6% and 25.5% of the elderly patients met LDL cholesterol targets of ≤70 and ≤50 mg/dL, respectively, based on current management. No more than 2.3 adverse events per 1000 elderly statin users (95% confidence interval: -0.7 to 5.4, P =0.62) could be prevented over 8.1 years if all patients were to be treated from current LDL cholesterol levels to either of the 2 LDL cholesterol targets of 70 or 50 mg/dL. The number of acute myocardial infarctions or death that could be prevented through the implementation of LDL cholesterol targets with statins is negligible among an elderly post-acute coronary syndrome population. Such findings may have implications for the applicability of newer agents, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9- inhibitors. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein attenuates glucose uptake via a nitric oxide-mediated pathway in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung; Lee, Kyoung Jae; Hwang, Eun Ah; Mun, Kyo-Cheol; Ha, Eunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Carbamylation is a cyanate-mediated posttranslational modification. We previously reported that carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) increases reactive oxygen species and apoptosis via a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor mediated pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A recent study reported an association between cLDL and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the current study, the effects of cLDL on glucose transport were explored in skeletal muscle cells. The effect of cLDL on glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation, and signaling pathway were examined in cultured rat L6 muscle cells using 2-deoxyglucose uptake, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis. The quantity of nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by the Griess reaction. The effect of native LDL (nLDL) from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF-nLDL) on glucose uptake was also determined. It was observed that cLDL significantly attenuated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the membrane, which was mediated via the increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO production. Tyrosine nitration of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS‑1) was increased. It was demonstrated that CRF-nLDL markedly reduced glucose uptake compared with nLDL from healthy subjects. Collectively, these findings indicate that cLDL, alone, attenuates glucose uptake via NO-mediated tyrosine nitration of IRS‑1 in L6 rat muscle cells and suggests the possibility that cLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  16. Use of health information technology (HIT) to improve statin adherence and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment in high-risk patients: proceedings from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jerome D; Aspry, Karen E; Brown, Alan S; Foody, Joanne M; Furman, Roy; Jacobson, Terry A; Karalis, Dean G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Laforge, Ralph; O'Toole, Michael F; Scott, Ronald D; Underberg, James A; Valuck, Thomas B; Willard, Kaye-Eileen; Ziajka, Paul E; Ito, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The workshop discussions focused on how low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment can be enhanced with the use of health information technology (HIT) in different clinical settings. A gap is acknowledged in LDL-C goal attainment, but because of the passage of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Acts there is now reason for optimism that this gap can be narrowed. For HIT to be effectively used to achieve treatment goals, it must be implemented in a setting in which the health care team is fully committed to achieving these goals. Implementation of HIT alone has not resulted in reducing the gap. It is critical to build an effective management strategy into the HIT platform without increasing the overall work/time burden on staff. By enhancing communication between the health care team and the patient, more timely adjustments to treatment plans can be made with greater opportunity for LDL-C goal attainment and improved efficiency in the long run. Patients would be encouraged to take a more active role. Support tools are available. The National Lipid Association has developed a toolkit designed to improve patient compliance and could be modified for use in an HIT system. The importance of a collaborative approach between nongovernmental organizations such as the National Lipid Association, National Quality Forum, HIT partners, and other members of the health care industry offers the best opportunity for long-term success and the real possibility that such efforts could be applied to other chronic conditions, for example, diabetes and hypertension. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of quercetin in copper-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. Quercetin as an effective antioxidant against pro-oxidant effects of urate.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Paulo; Haigle, Josiane; Silva, João Nuno; Freitas, João; Fernandes, Afonso; Mazière, Jean-Claude; Mazière, Cécile; Santus, René; Morlière, Patrice

    2004-05-01

    We recently reported that, depending on its concentration, urate is either a pro- or an antioxidant in Cu(2+)-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. We also previously demonstrated an antioxidant synergy between urate and some flavonoids in the Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of diluted serum. As a result, the effect of the flavonoid quercetin on the Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of isolated LDL has been studied either in the presence or absence of urate. We demonstrate that, like urate, quercetin alone, at low concentration, exhibits a pro-oxidant activity. The pro-oxidant behavior depends on the Cu(2+) concentration but it is not observed at high Cu(2+) concentration. When compared with urate, the switch between the pro- and the antioxidant activities occurs at much lower quercetin concentrations. As for urate, the pro-oxidant character of quercetin is related to its ability to reduce Cu(2+) with the formation of semioxidized quercetin and Cu(+) with an expected yield larger than that obtained with urate owing to a more favorable redox potential. It is also shown that the pro-oxidant activity of urate can be inhibited by quercetin. An electron transfer between quercetin and semioxidized urate leading to the repair of urate could account for this observation as suggested by recently published pulse radiolysis data. It is anticipated that the interactions between quercetin-Cu(2+)-LDL and urate, which are tightly controlled by their respective concentration, determine the balance between the pro- and antioxidant behaviors. Moreover, as already observed with other antioxidants, it is demonstrated that quercetin alone behaves as a pro-oxidant towards preoxidized LDL.

  18. Antiatherosclerotic Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide in Apolipoprotein E/Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice: A Comparison with Nicotinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Maslak, Edyta; Gasior-Glogowska, Marlena; Baranska, Malgorzata; Sitek, Barbara; Kostogrys, Renata; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Walczak, Maria; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), the major endogenous metabolite of nicotinic acid (NicA), may partially contribute to the vasoprotective properties of NicA. Here we compared the antiatherosclerotic effects of MNA and NicA in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice. ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were treated with MNA or NicA (100 mg/kg). Plaque size, macrophages, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery, endothelial function in the aorta, systemic inflammation, platelet activation, as well as the concentration of MNA and its metabolites in plasma and urine were measured. MNA and NicA reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, plaque inflammation, and cholesterol content in the brachiocephalic artery. The antiatherosclerotic actions of MNA and NicA were associated with improved endothelial function, as evidenced by a higher concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 α and nitrite/nitrate in the aortic ring effluent, inhibition of platelets (blunted thromboxane B2 generation), and inhibition of systemic inflammation (lower plasma concentration of serum amyloid P, haptoglobin). NicA treatment resulted in an approximately 2-fold higher concentration of MNA and its metabolites in urine and a 4-fold higher nicotinamide/MNA ratio in plasma, compared with MNA treatment. In summary; MNA displays pronounced antiatherosclerotic action in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, an effect associated with an improvement in prostacyclin- and nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function, inhibition of platelet activation, inhibition of inflammatory burden in plaques, and diminished systemic inflammation. Despite substantially higher MNA availability after NicA treatment, compared with an equivalent dose of MNA, the antiatherosclerotic effect of NicA was not stronger. We suggest that detrimental effects of NicA or its metabolites other than MNA may limit beneficial effects of NicA-derived MNA. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  19. Changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after discharge for acute myocardial infarction in a real-world patient population.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Tang, Fengming; Zhao, Zhenxiang; McCollam, Patrick L; Birt, Julie; Spertus, John A

    2014-06-01

    Aggressively managing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. The changes in LDL-C after MI and the factors associated with LDL-C levels are unknown. Therefore, we directly measured fasting LDL-C levels in 797 MI patients from 24 US hospitals from 2005 to 2008. Mean LDL-C levels at discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 95.1, 81.9, and 87.1 mg/dL, respectively. In a hierarchical, multivariable, repeated measures model, older age, male sex, and hypertension were associated with lower LDL-C levels, whereas self-reported avoidance of health care because of cost was associated with higher LDL-C. Both the presence and intensity of statin therapy at discharge were strongly associated with LDL-C levels, with adjusted mean 6-month changes of -3.4 mg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): -12.1, 5.3) for no statins; 1.7 mg/dL (95% CI: -4.7, 8.1) for low statins; -10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: -14.5, -6.0) for moderate statins; and -13.9 mg/dL (95% CI: -19.7, -8.0) for intensive statins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that greater reductions in LDL-C levels after MI were strongly associated with the presence and intensity of statin therapy, older age, male sex, hypertension, and better socioeconomic status. These findings support the use of intensive statin therapy in post-MI patients and provide estimates of the expected LDL-C changes after MI in a real-world population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded miR-US25-1 Aggravates the Oxidised Low Density Lipoprotein-Induced Apoptosis of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianmin; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Qiming

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is linked to the development and severity of the cardiovascular disease atherosclerosis; however, there is little known about the promotion of atherosclerosis. miR-US25-1 is one of HCMV-encoded miRNAs and targets cellular genes that are essential for virus growth to control the life cycle of the virus and host cells. The prominent regulation on cell cycle genes of the miR-US25-1 attracts us to explore its role in the atherosclerosis promotion. It was indicated that miR-US25-1 level was upregulated in subjects or in endothelial cells with HCMV infection; and the miR-US25-1 downregulated the expression of BRCC 3 by targeting the 5′ UTR of BRCC 3. And a miR-US25-1 mimics transfection could reduce the EAhy926 cell viability but did not induce apoptosis in EAhy926 cells. And what is more, miR-US25-1 mimicis transfection deteriorated the ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and aggravated the upregulation of apoptosis-associated molecules by oxidised low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in EAhy926 cells. And we have also confirmed the deregulation of BRCC 3 expression by miR-US25-1 by targeting the 5′ UTR of it. Given the vital role of BRCC 3 in DNA damage repairing, we speculated that the targeting inhibition of BRCC 3 by miR-US25-1 may contribute to the aggravation of ox-LDL-promoted apoptosis of endothelial EAhy926 cells. PMID:24895586

  1. MicroRNA-155 silencing enhances inflammatory response and lipid uptake in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-sheng; Hu, Guan-qiong; Lin, Bin; Lin, Zhi-yi; Sun, Cheng-chao

    2010-12-01

    It has been proposed that the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been shown to be involved in acute inflammatory response. However, the function of miR-155 in oxLDL-stimulated inflammation and atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show that the exposure of human THP-1 macrophages to oxLDL led to a marked up-regulation of miR-155 in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of endogenous miR-155 in THP-1 cells using locked nucleic acid-modified antisense oligonucleotides significantly enhanced oxLDL-induced lipid uptake, up-regulated the expression of scavenger receptors (lectinlike oxidized LDL receptor-1, cluster of differentiation 36 [CD36], and CD68), and promoted the release of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, -8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Luciferase reporter assay showed that targeting miR-155 promoted nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and potentiated the NF-κB-driven transcription activity. Moreover, miR-155 knockdown resulted in a marked increase in the protein amount of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an important adapter protein used by Toll-like receptors to activate the NF-κB pathway. Our data demonstrate that miR-155 serves as a negative feedback regulator in oxLDL-stimulated THP-1 inflammatory responses and lipid uptake and thus might have potential therapeutic implications in atherosclerosis.

  2. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced downregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is proatherogenic and induces smooth muscle cell apoptosis, which contributes to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. We showed previously that oxidized LDL downregulates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human smooth muscle cells and that this is critical for induction of apoptosis. To identify mechanisms, we exposed smooth muscle cells to 60 μg/ml oxidized LDL or native LDL and assessed insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA levels, protein synthesis rate, and receptor protein stability. Oxidized LDL decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor mRNA levels by 30% at 8 h compared with native LDL, and this decrease was maintained for up to 20 h. However, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein synthesis rate was not altered by oxidized LDL. Pulse-chase labeling experiments revealed that oxidized LDL reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein half-life to 12.2 ± 1.7 h from 24.4 ± 4.7 h with native LDL. This destabilization of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein was accompanied by enhanced receptor ubiquitination. Overexpression of dominant-negative Nedd4 prevented oxidized LDL-induced downregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, suggesting that Nedd4 was the ubiquitin ligase that mediated receptor downregulation. However, the proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG-132, and proteasome inhibitor-1 failed to block oxidized LDL-induced downregulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Thus oxidized LDL downregulates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by destabilizing the protein via Nedd4-enhanced ubiquitination, leading to degradation via a proteasome-independent pathway. This finding provides novel insights into oxidized LDL-triggered oxidant signaling and mechanisms of smooth muscle cell depletion that contribute to plaque destabilization and coronary events. PMID:18723765

  3. Effect of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering by Ezetimibe/Simvastatin on Outcome Incidence: Overview, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Regression Analyses of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Costas; Skalis, George; Michalopoulou, Helena; Tsioufis, Costas; Makris, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This analysis investigated the extent of different outcome reductions from low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering following ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment and the proportionality of outcome to LDL-C reductions. The authors searched PubMed between 1997 and mid-June 2015 (any language) and the Cochrane Library to identify all randomized controlled trials comparing ezetimibe/simvastatin with placebo or less intensive LDL-C lowering. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), standardized to 20 mg/dL LDL-C reduction, were calculated for 5 primary outcomes (fatal and nonfatal) and 4 secondary outcomes (non-cardiovascular [CV] death, cancer, myopathy, and hepatopathy). Five ezetimibe/simvastatin RCTs (30 051 individuals) were eligible, 2 comparing ezetimibe/simvastatin vs placebo and 3 vs less intensive treatment. Outcomes reduced almost to the same extent were stroke (RR: -13%, 95% CI: -21% to -3%), coronary heart disease (CHD; RR: -12%, 95% CI: -19% to -5%), and composite of stroke and CHD (RR: -14%, 95% CI: -20% to -8%). Absolute risk reductions: 5 strokes, 10 CHD events, and 16 stroke and CHD events prevented for every 1000 patients treated for 5 years. Residual risk was almost 7× higher than absolute risk reduction for all the above outcomes. All death outcomes were not reduced, and secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. Logarithmic risk ratios were not associated with LDL-C lowering. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that, in patients with different CV disease burden, major CV events are safely reduced by LDL-C lowering with ezetimibe/simvastatin, while raising the hypothesis that the extent of LDL-C lowering might not be accompanied by incremental clinical-event reduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolase, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, paraoxonase 1 and arylesterase levels in treated and untreated patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carlioglu, Ayse; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Karakurt, Feridun; Gumus, Ilknur Inegol; Uysal, Aysel; Kasapoglu, Benan; Armutcu, Ferah; Uysal, Sema; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Koca, Cemile

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the platelet activating factor acetyl hydrolyze (PAF-AH), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), arylesterase (ARE) levels and the effects of metformin and Diane-35 (ethinyl oestradiol + cyproterone acetate) therapies on these parameters and to determine the PON1 polymorphisms among PCOS patients. Ninety patients with PCOS, age 30, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups: metformin treatment, Diane-35 treatment and no medication groups. The treatment with metformin or Diane-35 was continued for 6 months and all subjects were evaluated with clinical and biochemical parameters 6 months later. One-way Anova test, t test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels were statistically significantly higher in untreated PCOS patients than controls, and they were statistically significantly lower in patients treated with metformin or Diane-35 than untreated PCOS patients. In contrast, there were lower PON1 (not statistically significant) and ARE (statistically significant) levels in untreated PCOS patients than the control group and they significantly increased after metformin and Diane-35 treatments. In PCOS patients serum PON1 levels for QQ, QR and RR phenotypes were statistically significantly lower than the control group. In patients with PCOS, proatherogenic markers increase. The treatment of PCOS with metformin or Diane-35 had positive effects on lipid profile, increased PON1 level, which is a protector from atherosclerosis and decreased the proatherogenic PAF-AH and ox-LDL levels.

  5. Pharmacologic profile of the Adnectin BMS-962476, a small protein biologic alternative to PCSK9 antibodies for low-density lipoprotein lowering.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tracy; Chao, Ginger; Sitkoff, Doree; Lo, Fred; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Meyers, Daniel; Low, Simon; Russo, Katie; DiBella, Rose; Denhez, Fabienne; Gao, Mian; Myers, Joseph; Duke, Gerald; Witmer, Mark; Miao, Bowman; Ho, Siew P; Khan, Javed; Parker, Rex A

    2014-08-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 (PCSK9) is an important pharmacological target for decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cardiovascular disease, although seemingly inaccessible to small molecule approaches. Compared with therapeutic IgG antibodies currently in development, targeting circulating PCSK9 with smaller molecular scaffolds could offer different profiles and reduced dose burdens. This inspired genesis of PCSK9-binding Adnectins, a protein family derived from human fibronectin-10th-type III-domain and engineered for high-affinity target binding. BMS-962476, an ∼11-kDa polypeptide conjugated to polyethylene glycol to enhance pharmacokinetics, binds with subnanomolar affinity to human. The X-ray cocrystal structure of PCSK9 with a progenitor Adnectin shows ∼910 Å(2) of PCSK9 surface covered next to the LDL receptor binding site, largely by residues of a single loop of the Adnectin. In hypercholesterolemic, overexpressing human PCSK9 transgenic mice, BMS-962476 rapidly lowered cholesterol and free PCSK9 levels. In genomic transgenic mice, BMS-962476 potently reduced free human PCSK9 (ED50 ∼0.01 mg/kg) followed by ∼2-fold increases in total PCSK9 before return to baseline. Treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with BMS-962476 rapidly suppressed free PCSK9 >99% and LDL-cholesterol ∼55% with subsequent 6-fold increase in total PCSK9, suggesting reduced clearance of circulating complex. Liver sterol response genes were consequently downregulated, following which LDL and total PCSK9 returned to baseline. These studies highlight the rapid dynamics of PCSK9 control over LDL and liver cholesterol metabolism and characterize BMS-962476 as a potent and efficacious PCSK9 inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Predictors of Subclinical Inflammatory Obesity: Plasma Levels of Leptin, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and CD14 Expression of CD16+ Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda; Leite, Ângela; Santos, Ana; Lima, Margarida; Barbosa, Joselina; Cosentino, Marco; Ribeiro, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Objective Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO) can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC) and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i) identify SIO predictors and ii) investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally) or WC-defined (centrally) obesity. Methods Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline) parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that best predict SIO. Results CD16+ monocyte counts were similar in BMI and WC groups. CD16+ monocytes from centrally obese (CO) showed a more inflammatory pattern, as compared to non-CO subjects. WC was sensitive to lipidemia and, in CO subjects, lipidemia was associated with a more inflammatory phenotype of CD16+ monocytes. These differences were not noticed between BMI groups. Adrenaline was correlated with CD16+ monocyte expansion with a lower inflammatory pattern. Leptin, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes were found to be CO predictors. Conclusions WC-, but not BMI-defined obesity, was associated with a more inflammatory pattern of CD16+ monocytes, without monocyte expansion, suggesting that a monocyte maturation process rather than an independent arise of CD16+ monocytes occurs in CO. Thus, in a population with low cardiovascular risk, leptin, VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes predict CO, constituting a putative tool for screening of SIO. PMID:28738359

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein acts synergistically with beta-glycerophosphate to induce osteoblast differentiation in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bear, Mackenzie; Butcher, Martin; Shaughnessy, Stephen G

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have localized osteoblast specific markers to sites of calcified atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore decided to use an established in vitro model of vascular calcification in order to confirm earlier reports of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promoting the osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of primary bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with beta-glycerophosphate was found to induce a time-dependent increase in osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, no effect was seen when BASMCs were cultured in the presence of oxLDL alone. However, when the BASMCs were cultured in the presence of both beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL, beta-glycerophosphate's ability to induce osteoblast differentiation was significantly enhanced. In an attempt to resolve the mechanism by which this effect was occurring, we examined the effect of beta-glycerophosphate and oxLDL on several pathways known to be critical to the differentiation of osteoblasts. Surprisingly, beta-glycerophosphate alone was found to enhance Osterix (Osx) expression by inducing both Smad 1/5/8 activation and Runx2 expression. In contrast, oxLDL did not affect either Smad 1/5/8 activation or Runx2 activation but rather, it enhanced both beta-glycerophosphate-induced Osx expression and osteoblast differentiation in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk 1 and 2) -dependent manner. When taken together, these findings suggest a plausible mechanism by which oxLDL may promote osteogenic differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 185-193, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Efficacy and safety of ETC-1002, a novel investigational low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapy for the treatment of patients with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria J; Rosenberg, Noah L; Macdougall, Diane E; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Margulies, Janice R; Strange, Poul; Milad, Mark A; McBride, Scott J; Newton, Roger S

    2014-03-01

    8-Hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid (ETC-1002) is a small molecule with a unique mechanism of action shown in nonclinical studies to modulate pathways of cholesterol, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. In previous phase 2 clinical trials, once daily oral treatment with ETC-1002 significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia. In this trial, the lipid-lowering efficacy of ETC-1002 was evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Additional cardiometabolic biomarkers, including glycemic measures, were also assessed. A single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Patients discontinued all diabetes mellitus and lipid-regulating drugs and were randomized to receive ETC-1002 80 mg QD for 2 weeks followed by 120 mg QD for 2 weeks or placebo for 4 weeks. ETC-1002 lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 43±2.6% (least squares mean±SE), compared with a reduction of 4±2.5% by placebo at day 29 (P<0.0001; primary end point). Non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly lowered by ETC-1002 compared with placebo (P<0.0001). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was reduced by 41% (median) compared with a placebo reduction of 11% (P=0.0011). No clinically meaningful safety findings were observed. ETC-1002 lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and other lipids and demonstrated improvement in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia without worsening glycemic control. ETC-1002 was well tolerated in this population. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT# 01607294.

  9. Lupus high-density lipoprotein induces proinflammatory responses in macrophages by binding lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 and failing to promote activating transcription factor 3 activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carolyne K; Seto, Nickie L; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Yuan, Wenmin; Playford, Martin P; Manna, Zerai; Hasni, Sarfaraz A; Kuai, Rui; Mehta, Nehal N; Schwendeman, Anna; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2017-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) exerts vasculoprotective activities by promoting activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), leading to downregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory responses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk not explained by the Framingham risk score. Recent studies have indicated oxidised HDL as a possible contributor. We investigated the potential mechanisms by which lupus HDL may lose its anti-inflammatory effects and promote immune dysregulation. Control macrophages were challenged with control and SLE HDL in vitro and examined for inflammatory markers by real-time qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy, ELISA and flow cytometry. Lupus-prone mice were treated with an HDL mimetic (ETC-642) in vivo and inflammatory cytokine levels measured by real-time qRT-PCR and ELISA. Compared with control HDL, SLE HDL activates NFκB, promotes inflammatory cytokine production and fails to block TLR-induced inflammation in control macrophages. This failure of lupus HDL to block inflammatory responses is due to an impaired ability to promote ATF3 synthesis and nuclear translocation. This inflammation is dependent on lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1R) binding and rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 and 2 (ROCK1/2) kinase activity. HDL mimetic-treated lupus mice showed significant ATF3 induction and proinflammatory cytokine abrogation. Lupus HDL promotes proinflammatory responses through NFκB activation and decreased ATF3 synthesis and activity in an LOX1R-dependent and ROCK1/2-dependent manner. HDL mimetics should be explored as potential therapies for inflammation and SLE cardiovascular risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Uptake of gold- and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate-labeled human low density lipoprotein by cultured rat granulosa cells: cellular mechanisms involved in lipoprotein metabolism and their importance to steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We used electron microscopy, acid hydrolase cytochemistry, and biochemistry to analyze the uptake and metabolism of colloidal gold- and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate-labeled human low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured rat granulosa cells. The initial interaction of gold- LDL conjugates with granulosa cells occurred at binding sites diffusely distributed over the plasma membrane. After incubation with ligand in the cold, 99.9% of the conjugates were at the cell surface but less than 4% lay over coated pits. Uptake was specific since it was decreased 93-95% by excess unconjugated LDL and heparin, but only 34- 38% by excess unconjugated human high density lipoprotein. LDL uptake was related to granulosa cell differentiation; well-luteinized cells bound 2-3 times as much gold-LDL as did poorly luteinized cells. Ligand internalization was initiated by warming and involved coated pits, coated vesicles, pale multivesicular bodies (MVBs), dense MVBs, and lysosomes. A key event in this process was the translocation of gold- LDL conjugates from the cell periphery to the Golgi zone. This step was carried out by the pale MVB, a prelysosomal compartment that behaves like an endosome. Granulosa cells exposed to LDL labeled with gold and [3H]cholesteryl linoleate converted [3H]sterol to [3H]progestin in a time-dependent manner. This conversion was paralleled by increased gold- labeling of lysosomes and blocked by chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosomal activity. In brief, granulosa cells deliver LDL to lysosomes by a receptor-mediated mechanism for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters. The resulting cholesterol is, in turn, transferred to other cellular compartments, where conversion to steroid occurs. These events comprise the pathway used by steroid-secreting cells to obtain the LDL- cholesterol vital for steroidogenesis. PMID:3920223

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 gene Gly482Ser polymorphism is associated with the response of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations to exercise training in elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Tobina, Takuro; Mori, Yukari; Doi, Yukiko; Nakayama, Fuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-09-01

    Muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α gene expression is influenced by the Gly482Ser gene polymorphism, which is a candidate genetic risk factor for diabetes mellitus and obesity. This study investigated the effects of PGC-1 gene Gly482Ser polymorphisms on alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism induced by exercise training. A 12-week intervention study was performed for 119 participants who were more than 65 years of age and completed exercise training at lactate threshold intensity. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced in Gly/Gly but not in Gly/Ser and Ser/Ser participants after exercise. The Gly/Gly genotype of the PGC-1 gene Gly482Ser polymorphism influences the effects of moderate-intensity exercise training on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations in older people.

  12. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively.

  13. Pyridoxine inhibits endothelial NOS uncoupling induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein via the PKCα signalling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liping; Liu, Zhen; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Wen; Mi, Qiongyu; Li, Xiaozhen; Tang, Yan; Chen, Qi; Ferro, Albert; Ji, Yong

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One key mechanism for endothelial dysfunction is endothelial NOS (eNOS) uncoupling, whereby eNOS generates superoxide (O2•−) rather than NO. We explored the effect of pyridoxine on eNOS uncoupling induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential molecular mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH HUVECs were incubated with ox-LDL with/without pyridoxine, NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), chelerythrine chloride (CHCI) or apocynin. Endothelial O2•− was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence, and O2•−-sensitive fluorescent dye dihydroethidium (DHE). NO levels were measured by chemiluminescence, PepTag Assay for non-radioactive detection of PKC activity, depletion of PKCα and p47phox by siRNA silencing and the states of phospho-eNOS Thr495, total-eNOS, phospho-PKCα/βII, total PKC, phospho-PKCα, total PKCα and p47phox were measured by Western blot. KEY RESULTS Ox-LDL significantly increased O2•− production and reduced NO levels released from HUVECs; an effect reversed by eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME. Pyridoxine pretreatment significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced O2•− generation and preserved NO levels. Pyridoxine also prevented the ox-LDL-induced reduction in phospho-eNOS Thr495 and PKC activity. These protective effects of pyridoxine were abolished by the PKC inhibitor, CHCI, or siRNA silencing of PKCα. However, depletion of p47phox or treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, had no influence on these effects. Also, cytosol p47phox expression was unchanged by the different treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Pyridoxine mitigated eNOS uncoupling induced by ox-LDL. This protectant effect was related to phosphorylation of eNOS Thr495 stimulated by PKCα, not via NADPH oxidase. These results provide support for the use of pyridoxine in ox-LDL-related vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:21797845

  14. APOC3 Loss-of-Function Mutations, Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Cardiovascular Risk: Mediation- and Meta-Analyses of 137 895 Individuals.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Anders B; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2018-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3 associate with low remnant cholesterol levels and low risk of ischemic vascular disease (IVD). Because some studies show an additional association with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low LDL-C may explain the low risk of IVD in APOC3 loss-of-function heterozygotes. We tested to what extent the low risk of IVD in APOC3 loss-of-function heterozygotes is mediated by low plasma remnant cholesterol and LDL-C. In APOC3 loss-of-function heterozygotes versus noncarriers, we first determined remnant cholesterol and LDL-C levels in meta-analyses of 137 895 individuals. Second, we determined whether the association with LDL-C was masked by lipid-lowering therapy. Finally, using mediation analysis, we determined the fraction of the low risk of IVD and ischemic heart disease mediated by remnant cholesterol and LDL-C. In meta-analyses, remnant cholesterol was 43% lower (95% confidence interval, 40%-47%), and LDL-C was 4% lower (1%-6%) in loss-of-function heterozygotes (n=776) versus noncarriers. In the general population, LDL-C was 3% lower in loss-of-function heterozygotes versus noncarriers, 4% lower when correcting for lipid-lowering therapy, and 3% lower in untreated individuals ( P values, 0.06-0.008). Remnant cholesterol mediated 37% of the observed 41% lower risk of IVD and 54% of the observed 36% lower risk of ischemic heart disease; corresponding values mediated by LDL-C were 1% and 2%. The low risk of IVD observed in APOC3 loss-of-function heterozygotes is mainly mediated by the associated low remnant cholesterol and not by low LDL-C. Furthermore, the contribution of LDL-C to IVD risk was not masked by lipid-lowering therapy. This suggests APOC3 and remnant cholesterol as important new targets for reducing cardiovascular risk. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Hepatic Arterial Infusion of Low-Density Lipoprotein Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanoparticles Selectively Disrupts Redox Balance in Hepatoma cells and Reduces Growth of Orthotopic Liver Tumors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaodong; Reynolds, Lacy; Mulik, Rohit S.; Kim, Soo Young; Van Treuren, Tim; Nguyen, Liem H.; Zhu, Hao; Corbin, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Dietary intake of the natural omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been implicated in protecting patients with viral hepatitis B or C from developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Little is known about the effects of DHA on established solid tumors. Herein, we describe a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-based nanoparticle that acts as a transporter for unesterified DHA (LDL–DHA) and demonstrates selective cytotoxicity towards HCC cells. We investigated the ability of LDL–DHA to reduce growth of orthotopic hepatomas in rats. Methods ACI rats were given intrahepatic injections of rat hepatoma cells (H4IIE); 24 tumor-bearing rats (mean tumor diameter, ~1 cm) were subject to a single hepatic artery injection of LDL nanoparticles (2 mg/kg) loaded with DHA (LDL–DHA), triolein (LDL–TO) or sham surgery controls. Tumor growth was measured by magnetic resonance imaging and other methods; tumor, liver and serum samples were collected and assessed by histochemical, immunofluorescence, biochemical and immunoblot analyses. Results Three days after administration of LDL–TO or sham surgery, the control rats had large, highly vascularized tumors that contained proliferating cells. However, rats given LDL–DHA had smaller, pale tumors that were devoid of vascular supply and greater than 80% of the tumor tissue was necrotic. Four to 6 days after injection of LDL–DHA, the tumors were 3-fold smaller than those of control rats. The liver tissue that surrounded the tumors showed no histologic or biochemical evidence of injury. Injection of LDL–DHA into the hepatic artery of rats selectively deregulated redox reactions in tumor tissues by: increasing levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, depleting and oxidizing glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and significantly downregulating the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-4. Remarkably, the redox balance in the surrounding liver was not disrupted

  16. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Research Design and Methods Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannula into the lateral (LV) or third (3V) ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v.) injection of Tran35S (100 µCi) followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW), enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF), synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF) or vehicle (aCSF), or an i.v. injection of PYY3–36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS) or vehicle (PBS). Results Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively). NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3–36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. Conclusion In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species. PMID:23460782

  17. Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Janet D.; Collins, Heidi L.; Chirieac, Doru V.; Cianci, Joanne; Jokinen, Jenny; Sowden, Mark P.; Galloway, Chad A.; Sparks, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine–homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639–645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met restriction alone. No changes in percentage of edited ApoB mRNA were observed on the test diets. An increase in liver ApoB mRNA correlated with an 82% and 46% increase in ApoB and triacylglycerol production respectively using in vivo Triton WR 1339. Increased secretion of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) with Met restriction plus betaine was associated with a 45% reduction in liver triacylglycerol compared with control. Nuclear run-off assays established that transcription of both bhmt and apob genes was also increased in Met-restricted plus betaine diets. No change in ApoB mRNA stability was detected in BHMT-transfected McA cells. Hepatic ApoB and BHMT mRNA levels were also increased by 1.8- and 3-fold respectively by betaine supplementation of Met-replete diets. Since dietary betaine increased ApoB mRNA, VLDL ApoB and triacylglycerol production and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol, results suggest that induction of apob transcription may provide a potential mechanism for mobilizing hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing ApoB available for VLDL assembly and secretion

  18. Cost-effectiveness of lower targets for blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetes: the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) .

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charlton; Huang, Chun-Chih; Shara, Nawar; Howard, Barbara V; Fleg, Jerome L; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Howard, Wm James; Huentelman, Heather; Lee, Elisa T; Mete, Mihriye; Russell, Marie; Galloway, James M; Silverman, Angela; Stylianou, Mario; Umans, Jason; Weir, Matthew R; Yeh, Fawn; Ratner, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) reported cardiovascular benefit of aggressive versus standard treatment targets for both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) in diabetic individuals. In this analysis, we examined within trial cost-effectiveness of aggressive targets of LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL and systolic BP ≤115 mmHg versus standard targets of LDL-C ≤100 mg/dL and systolic BP ≤130 mmHg. Randomized, open label blinded-to-endpoint 3-year trial. SANDS clinical trial database, Quality of Wellbeing survey, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Wholesale Drug Prices. American Indians ≥ age 40 years with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events. April 2003 to July 2007. Health payer. Participants were randomized to aggressive versus standard groups with treatment algorithms defined for both. Incremental cost-effectiveness. Compared with the standard group, the aggressive group had slightly lower costs of medical services (-$116) but a 54% greater cost for BP medication ($1,242) and a 116% greater cost for lipid-lowering medication ($2,863), resulting in an increased cost of $3,988 over 3 years. Those in the aggressively treated group gained 0.0480 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) over the standard group. When a 3% discount rate for costs and outcomes was used, the resulting cost per QALY was $82,589. The use of a 25%, 50%, and 75% reduction in drug costs resulted in a cost per QALY of $61,329, $40,070, and $18,810, respectively. This study was limited by use of a single ethnic group and by its 3-year duration. Within this 3-year study, treatment to lower BP and LDL-C below standard targets was not cost-effective because of the cost of the additional medications required to meet the lower targets. With the anticipated availability of generic versions of the BP and lipid-lowering drugs used in SANDS, the cost-effectiveness of this intervention should improve. Published by Elsevier Inc on

  19. Hypochlorous acid-mediated oxidation of lipid components and antioxidants present in low-density lipoproteins: absolute rate constants, product analysis, and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J

    2003-04-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components and antioxidants in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The reactions of HOCl with phosphoryl-serine and phosphoryl-ethanolamine are rapid (k approximately 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and of comparable reactivity to many of the protein sites. The major products formed in these reactions are chloramines, which decay to give both nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k < 10(-)(2) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds and yielded k = 9 M(-)(1) s(-)(1). The reactions of the lipid-soluble antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol-10, with HOCl were investigated with model compounds. For the reactions of HOCl with both Trolox and ubiquinol-0, k = 1.3 x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1); thus, these lipid soluble antioxidants are relatively ineffective as direct scavengers for HOCl as compared to water soluble antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate, k ca. 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The reaction of HOCl with hydroquinone (a simple model for ubiquinol-10) was also investigated both in aqueous solution (k = 45 M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in a less polar environment (k approximately 0.5 M(-)(1) s(-)(1) in THF). A computational model was developed using these kinetic parameters to predict which LDL targets are oxidized

  20. Analysis and comparison of the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y J; Kim, H; Baik, S J; Kim, T M; Yang, S J; Lee, S-H; Cho, J-H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Choi, I Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, H-S

    2017-06-01

    There are a few Korean studies on the economics of statins based on reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) data from other countries. This study aimed to analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline LDL-C level in Korea. Between January 2009 and December 2015, the data of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted from electronic medical records. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on the LDL-C reduction rate (CEA-RR) and target achievement rate. Among high-intensity statins, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was significantly lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) at all baseline LDL-C levels, except levels of 160-189 mg/dL. Additionally, at baseline LDL-C levels of 130-159 mg/dL, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was three times lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) (9·1 ± 2·5 $/% vs. 31·7 ± 15·0 $/%, P < 0·001). Among moderate-to-low-intensity statins, rosuvastatin (5 mg) showed the lowest CEA-RR value (4·0 ± 0·6 $/%), and the value significantly increased for pitavastatin (2 mg) (8·0 ± 0·6 $/%), atorvastatin (10 mg) (9·5 ± 0·5 $/%), simvastatin (10·8 ± 1·1 $/%) and pravastatin (40 mg) (11·5 ± 0·9 $/%) in order (P < 0·0001). On changing from atorvastatin (10 mg) to atorvastatin (20 mg), the additional yearly cost was 16·0 and additional CEA-RR value was 2·74 $/%. On the other hand, on changing from atorvastatin (10 mg) to rosuvastatin (10 mg), the additional yearly cost was -16·3 and additional CEA-RR value was -1·8 $/%. We successfully compared the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline LDL-C level in Korea. It is expected that our findings will help clinical decision-making with regard to statin prescription, and this will help reduce national medical expenditure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Use of low density lipoprotein particle number levels as an aid in statin treatment decisions for intermediate risk patients: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Dov; Arellano, Andre R; Caulfield, Michael P; Louie, Judy Z; Bare, Lance A; Devlin, James J; Melander, Olle

    2016-12-07

    The 2013 ACC/AHA guideline recommended either no statin therapy or moderate-intensity statin therapy (MST) for intermediate risk patients-those with 5-7.5% 10-year risk and without cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypercholesterolemia or diabetes. The guideline further suggested that the therapy choice be based on patient-clinician discussions of risks and benefits. Since low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) levels were reported to be associated with CVD independently of traditional risk factors in intermediate and low risk patients, we investigated the cost-effectiveness of using LDL-P levels to identify intermediate risk patients likely to benefit from initiating or intensifying statin therapy. We evaluated 5 care strategies for intermediate risk patients. These included the strategies suggested by the guideline: no-statin therapy and MST. We compared each of these strategies to a related strategy that incorporated LDL-P testing. No-statin therapy was compared with the strategy of MST for those with high LDL-P levels and no statin therapy for all other patients (test-and-MST). MST was compared with the strategy of high-intensity statin therapy (HST) for those with high LDL-P levels and MST for all other patients (test-and-HST). We also evaluated the strategy of HST for all. Costs (payer perspective) and utilities were assessed over a 5-year time horizon in a Markov model of 100,000 hypothetical intermediate risk patients. HST dominated all other strategies, costing less and-despite causing 739 more cases of diabetes than did MST-resulting in more quality adjusted life-years (QALYs). For patient-clinician discussions that would otherwise lead to the MST strategy, we found the test-and-HST strategy reduced costs by $4.67 MM and resulted in 134 fewer CVD events and 115 additional QALYs. For patient-clinician discussions that would otherwise lead to no statin therapy, we found that the test-and-MST strategy reduced costs by $3.25 MM, resulted in 97 fewer CVD events

  2. Hepatic Arterial Infusion of Low-Density Lipoprotein Docosahexaenoic Acid Nanoparticles Selectively Disrupts Redox Balance in Hepatoma Cells and Reduces Growth of Orthotopic Liver Tumors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaodong; Reynolds, Lacy; Mulik, Rohit S; Kim, Soo Young; Van Treuren, Tim; Nguyen, Liem H; Zhu, Hao; Corbin, Ian R

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake of the natural omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been implicated in protecting patients with viral hepatitis B or C from developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Little is known about the effects of DHA on established solid tumors. Here we describe a low-density lipoprotein-based nanoparticle that acts as a transporter for unesterified DHA (LDL-DHA) and demonstrates selective cytotoxicity toward HCC cells. We investigated the ability of LDL-DHA to reduce growth of orthotopic hepatomas in rats. AxC-Irish (ACI) rats were given intrahepatic injections of rat hepatoma cells (H4IIE); 24 tumor-bearing rats (mean tumor diameter, ∼1 cm) were subject to a single hepatic artery injection of LDL nanoparticles (2 mg/kg) loaded with DHA (LDL-DHA), triolein (LDL-TO), or sham surgery controls. Tumor growth was measured by magnetic resonance imaging and other methods; tumor, liver, and serum samples were collected and assessed by histochemical, immunofluorescence, biochemical, and immunoblot analyses. Three days after administration of LDL-TO or sham surgery, the control rats had large, highly vascularized tumors that contained proliferating cells. However, rats given LDL-DHA had smaller, pale tumors that were devoid of vascular supply and >80% of the tumor tissue was necrotic. Four to 6 days after injection of LDL-DHA, the tumors were 3-fold smaller than those of control rats. The liver tissue that surrounded the tumors showed no histologic or biochemical evidence of injury. Injection of LDL-DHA into the hepatic artery of rats selectively deregulated redox reactions in tumor tissues by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, depleting and oxidizing glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and significantly down-regulating the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-4. Remarkably, the redox balance in the surrounding liver was not disrupted. LDL-DHA nanoparticle selectively kills hepatoma cells

  3. Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and cholesterol ratios to predict arterial stiffness progression in normotensive subjects over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wu, Hui-Kun; Wu, Xiao-Wei; Cao, Zhe; Tu, Yuan-Chao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Jian; Zhou, Zi-Hua

    2018-02-12

    Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C), cholesterol ratios and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) impart risk for all-cause morbidity and mortality independently of conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study was designed to identify feasible indicators for predicting arterial stiffness progression. We followed up 816 normotensive participants without diabetes or CVD for nearly 5.0 years. Cholesterol parameters, ratios and other clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline. cf-PWV were measured at baseline and the end of follow-up. PWV progression subjects had higher levels of PWV parameters, sdLDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio. sdLDL-C and TG/HDL-C were significantly correlated with all PWV parameters. Multiple regression models showed that sdLDL-C was closely associated with follow-up PWV (β = 0.222, p < 0.001) and △PWV (β = 0.275, p < 0.001). TG/HDL-C was only one cholesterol ratios that associated with all PWV parameters. sdLDL-C (OR = 2.070, 95%CI: 1.162 to 3.688, p = 0.014) and TG/HDL-C (OR = 1.355, 95%CI: 1.136 to 1.617, p = 0.001) could significantly determine the progression of PWV after correction for covariates. High sd-LDL-C quantiles subjects were more likely to develop arterial stiffness progression than low quantiles (Tertiles 3 vs Tertiles1, RR = 2.867, 95%CI: 1.106 to 7.434, p = 0.03). We founded that sdLDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio can independently predict arterial stiffness progression in normotensive subjects, and high level sdLDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio were associated with a higher risk of arterial stiffness.

  4. Detection of early stage atherosclerotic plaques using PET and CT fusion imaging targeting P-selectin in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ikuko, E-mail: nakamuri@riken.jp; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saga University, Saga; Hasegawa, Koki

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► P-selectin regulates leukocyte recruitment as an early stage event of atherogenesis. ► We developed an antibody-based molecular imaging probe targeting P-selectin for PET. ► This is the first report on successful PET imaging for delineation of P-selectin. ► P-selectin is a candidate target for atherosclerotic plaque imaging by clinical PET. -- Abstract: Background: Sensitive detection and qualitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques are in high demand in cardiovascular clinical settings. The leukocyte–endothelial interaction mediated by an adhesion molecule P-selectin participates in arterial wall inflammation and atherosclerosis. Methods and results: A {sup 64}Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugated anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody ({sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectinmore » mAb) probe was prepared by conjugating an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody with DOTA followed by {sup 64}Cu labeling. Thirty-six hours prior to PET and CT fusion imaging, 3 MBq of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin mAb was intravenously injected into low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient Ldlr-/- mice. After a 180 min PET scan, autoradiography and biodistribution of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody was examined using excised aortas. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet for promotion of atherosclerotic plaque development, PET and CT fusion imaging revealed selective and prominent accumulation of the probe in the aortic root. Autoradiography of aortas that demonstrated probe uptake into atherosclerotic plaques was confirmed by Oil red O staining for lipid droplets. In Ldlr-/- mice fed with a chow diet to develop mild atherosclerotic plaques, probe accumulation was barely detectable in the aortic root on PET and CT fusion imaging. Probe biodistribution in aortas was 6.6-fold higher in Ldlr-/- mice fed with a high cholesterol diet than in those fed with a normal chow diet. {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-anti-P-selectin m

  5. Isolation and characterization of rhamnose-binding lectins from eggs of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) homologous to low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily.

    PubMed

    Tateno, H; Saneyoshi, A; Ogawa, T; Muramoto, K; Kamiya, H; Saneyoshi, M

    1998-07-24

    methodology to investigate the interactions between STL2 and major egg yolk proteins from steelhead trout, lipovitellin, and beta'-component, which are known as vitellogenin digests. Interestingly, STL2 showed distinct interactions with both egg yolk proteins. The estimated values for the affinity constant (Ka) of STL2 to lipovitellin and beta' component were 3.44 x 10(6) and 4.99 x 10(6), respectively. These results suggest that the fish egg lectins belong to a new family of animal lectin structurally related to the low density lipoprotein receptor super- family.

  6. Treatment patterns and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients receiving high- or moderate-intensity statins.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathleen M; Tai, Ming-Hui; Kostev, Karel; Hatz, Maximilian; Qian, Yi; Laufs, Ulrich

    2018-05-01

    European clinical guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of < 70 mg/dL. Statin use varies and past studies suggest low rates of real-world goal attainment. This study describes LDL-C goal attainment among atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) patients with various utilization patterns of moderate- or high-intensity statins in routine care. This retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records data from the QuintilesIMS® Disease Analyzer (> 2 million individuals annually) to identify ASCVD (coronary atherosclerosis, stable/unstable angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease) patients on moderate-/high-intensity statin in Germany. Proportion of patients with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL was determined using the lowest LDL-C value for each patient (index) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, while on statin. Treatment patterns were assessed for patients with at least 1 year of post-index follow-up. Results were stratified by year and treatment pattern [no change, switch, dose up-/down-titration, discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap)]. In > 14,000 patients assessed in each year (mean age 71 years, 35% female, 8-12% taking high-intensity statins), approximately 80% had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL. Treatment patterns were assessed for most (88-93%) patients. Approximately 79-81% of patients made no change to statin regimens, 1% switched statins, 14-16% discontinued; 1% of moderate-intensity patients up-titrated, and 3% of all patients down-titrated. LDL-C goal attainment in these treatment pattern groups was 20, 16-24, 17, 11-14, and 17-19%, respectively. Majority of ASCVD patients had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL while on moderate-/high-intensity statins. Despite low LDL-C goal attainment, few patients changed their treatment regimens.

  7. HIV replication enhances production of free fatty acids, low density lipoproteins and many key proteins involved in lipid metabolism: a proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Suraiya; Yan, Jasper S; Lau, Alex; Chan, Arvan S

    2008-08-20

    HIV-infected patients develop multiple metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia. Although progression of these disorders has been associated with the use of various protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral drugs, HIV-infected individuals who have not received these treatments also develop lipid abnormalities albeit to a lesser extent. How HIV alters lipid metabolism in an infected cell and what molecular changes are affected through protein interaction pathways are not well-understood. Since many genetic, epigenetic, dietary and other factors influence lipid metabolism in vivo, we have chosen to study genome-wide changes in the proteomes of a human T-cell line before and after HIV infection in order to circumvent computational problems associated with multiple variables. Four separate experiments were conducted including one that compared 14 different time points over a period of >3 months. By subtractive analyses of protein profiles overtime, several hundred differentially expressed proteins were identified in HIV-infected cells by mass spectrometry and each protein was scrutinized for its biological functions by using various bioinformatics programs. Herein, we report 18 HIV-modulated proteins and their interaction pathways that enhance fatty acid synthesis, increase low density lipoproteins (triglycerides), dysregulate lipid transport, oxidize lipids, and alter cellular lipid metabolism. We conclude that HIV replication alone (i.e. without any influence of antiviral drugs, or other human genetic factors), can induce novel cellular enzymes and proteins that are significantly associated with biologically relevant processes involved in lipid synthesis, transport and metabolism (p = <0.0002-0.01). Translational and clinical studies on the newly discovered proteins may now shed light on how some of these proteins may be useful for early diagnosis of individuals who might be at high risk for developing lipid

  8. Situational Analysis of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Control and the Use of Statin Therapy in Diabetes Patients Treated in Community Hospitals in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Qing; Chen, Ji-Hai; Li, Ting; Lu, Tian-Tian; Bian, Rong-Wen

    2018-02-05

    Comprehensive management of diabetes should include management of its comorbid conditions, especially cardiovascular complications, which are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. Dyslipidemia is a comorbid condition of diabetes and a risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Therefore, lipid level management is a key of managing patients with diabetes successfully. However, it is not clear that how well dyslipidemia is managed in patients with diabetes in local Chinese health-care communities. This study aimed to assess how well low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was managed in Nanjing community hospitals, China. We reviewed clinical records of 7364 diabetic patients who were treated in eleven community hospitals in Nanjing from October 2005 to October 2014. Information regarding LDL-C level, cardiovascular risk factors, and use of lipid-lowering agents were collected. In patients without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), 92.1% had one or more CVD risk factors, and the most common CVD risk factor was dyslipidemia. The overall average LDL-C level was 2.80 ± 0.88 mmol/L, which was 2.62 ± 0.90 mmol/L and 2.82 ± 0.87 mmol/L in patients with and without CVD history respectively. Only 38% of all patients met the target goal and 37.3% of patients who took lipid-lowering agents met target goal. Overall, 24.5% of all patients were on lipid-lowering medication, and 36.3% of patients with a CVD history and 20.9% of patients without CVD history took statins for LDL-C management. The mean statin dosage was 13.9 ± 8.9 mg. Only a small portion of patients achieved target LDL-C level, and the rate of using statins to control LDL-C was low. Managing LDL-C with statins in patients with diabetes should be promoted, especially in patients without a CVD history and with one or more CVD risk factors.

  9. Association of anti-Mullerian hormone and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Caglar, Gamze S; Kaya, Cemil; Karadag, Demet; Demirtas, Selda; Kurt, Mevlut; Pabuccu, Recai

    2014-11-01

    To study the association of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL) with hepatosteatosis among young, lean, polycystic ovary patients. A prospective, case control study was carried out including 79 young lean women. Fifty-eight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 21 age-and BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited. Anthropometric variables, biochemical and hormonal parameters, insulin-resistance indices, lipid profiles including sd-LDL levels and serum AMH levels were determined. Hepatic lipid content was evaluated by abdominal ultrasonography (USG). Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate normal USG and hepatosteatosis was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. PCOS patients had an increased prevalence of hepatosteatosis by 41.4% (P = 0.006) and they had significantly higher levels of sd-LDL and AMH when compared with the control group (P < 0.001). AMH and sd-LDL levels were positively and significantly associated with hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without PCOS (OR: 2.877, 95%CI: 1.453-5.699, P: 0.02 and OR: 1.336, 95%CI: 1.083-1.648, P: 0.007, respectively). AMH and sd-LDL levels were positively correlated in PCOS patients (r = 0.626, P < 0.001). Both sd-LDL and AMH levels were the most predictive parameters for the determination of hepatosteatosis within the PCOS group. (OR: 3.347, 95%CI: 1.348-8.313, P = 0.009 and OR: 1.375, 95%CI: 1.072-1.764, P = 0.012, respectively). Statistically significant higher levels of AMH were associated with hepatosteatosis both in insulin resistance (IR) positive and IR negative PCOS patients (P < 0.001). Hepatosteatosis is common in young lean PCOS patients. Increased AMH and sd-LDL levels may independently predict hepatosteatosis in young lean women with and without PCOS.

  10. Simvastatin but not bezafibrate decreases plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A₂ mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: relevance of high sensitive C-reactive protein, lipoprotein profile and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) electronegativity.

    PubMed

    Constantinides, Alexander; de Vries, Rindert; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J J; Gautier, Thomas; van Pelt, L Joost; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Lagrost, Laurent; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2012-10-01

    Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) levels predict incident cardiovascular disease, impacting Lp-PLA(2) as an emerging therapeutic target. We determined Lp-PLA(2) responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and assessed relationships of changes in Lp-PLA(2) with subclinical inflammation and lipoprotein characteristics. A placebo-controlled cross-over study (three 8-week treatment periods with simvastatin (40 mg daily), bezafibrate (400mg daily) and their combination) was carried out in 14 male type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) mass was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. Plasma Lp-PLA(2) decreased (-21 ± 4%) in response to simvastatin (p<0.05 from baseline and placebo), but was unaffected by bezafibrate (1 ± 5%). The drop in Lp-PLA(2) during combined treatment (-17 ± 3%, p<0.05) was similar compared to that during simvastatin alone. The Lp-PLA(2) changes during the 3 active lipid lowering treatment periods were related positively to baseline levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and less LDL electronegativity (p<0.02 to p<0.01), and inversely to baseline Lp-PLA(2) (p<0.01). LpPLA(2) responses correlated inversely with changes in non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio during treatment (p<0.05 to p<0.02). In type 2 diabetes mellitus, plasma Lp-PLA(2) is likely to be lowered by statin treatment only. Enhanced subclinical inflammation and more severe dyslipidemia may predict diminished LpPLA(2) responses during lipid lowering treatment, which in turn appear to be quantitatively dissociated from decreases in apolipoprotein B lipoproteins. Conventional lipid lowering treatment may be insufficient for optimal LpPLA(2) lowering in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybrid Revascularization for Critical Limb Ischemia Triggered by Multiple Organ Dysfunction Due to Acute Pneumonia; Urgent Catheter Intervention Followed by Low-Density-Lipoprotein Apheresis and Elective Peripheral Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old man was referred for treatment of critical limb ischemia arising with multiple organ dysfunction due to acute pneumonia. Angiographic examinations demonstrated total obstruction of the bilateral external iliac arteries and the bilateral superficial femoral arteries with collateral circulation to the distal vessels. Urgent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty dissolved the obstruction of the left external iliac artery, and subsequent low-density-lipoprotein apheresis ameliorated his progressive ischemia in the lower extremities. Femoro-femoral and bilateral femoro-popliteal bypasses were performed 31 days after the endovascular intervention, which achieved successful limb salvage with the relief of ischemic symptoms related to arteriosclerotic obliterans. PMID:24995063

  12. Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-producing and hepatitis C virus-replicating HepG2 cells secrete no more lipoviroparticles than VLDL-deficient Huh7.5 cells.

    PubMed

    Jammart, Baptiste; Michelet, Maud; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Parent, Romain; Bartosch, Birke; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David

    2013-05-01

    In the plasma samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, lipoviroparticles (LVPs), defined as (very-) low-density viral particles immunoprecipitated with anti-β-lipoproteins antibodies are observed. This HCV-lipoprotein association has major implications with respect to our understanding of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry. However, cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) virions produced in Huh7 cells, which are deficient for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, are only associated with and dependent on apolipoprotein E (apoE), not apolipoprotein B (apoB), for assembly and infectivity. In contrast to Huh7, HepG2 cells can be stimulated to produce VLDL by both oleic acid treatment and inhibition of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but are not permissive for persistent HCV replication. Here, we developed a new HCV cell culture model to study the interaction between HCV and lipoproteins, based on engineered HepG2 cells stably replicating a blasticidin-tagged HCV JFH1 strain (JB). Control Huh7.5-JB as well as HepG2-JB cell lines persistently replicated viral RNA and expressed viral proteins with a subcellular colocalization of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), core, gpE2, and NS5A compatible with virion assembly. The intracellular RNA replication level was increased in HepG2-JB cells upon dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, MEK/ERK inhibition, and NS5A overexpression to a level similar to that observed in Huh7.5-JB cells. Both cell culture systems produced infectious virions, which were surprisingly biophysically and biochemically similar. They floated at similar densities on gradients, contained mainly apoE but not apoB, and were not neutralized by anti-apoB antibodies. This suggests that there is no correlation between the ability of cells to simultaneously replicate HCV as well as secrete VLDL and their capacity to produce LVPs.

  13. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  14. [The high content of palmitinic fatty acid in food as a major cause of increase of concentration of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins and atheromatous plaques of arteries' intima].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2013-02-01

    The positioning of individual triglycerides of blood serum in palmitinic and oleic lipoproteins ofvery low density in the order ofincrease of the rate constant of their hydrolysis under action of post-heparin lipoprotein leads to the sequence as follows: palmitoil-palmitoil-palmitate-->palmitoil-palmitoil-oleate-->palmitoil-oleil-palmitat-->oleil-palmitoil-palmitate-->oleil-palmitate-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-palmitate-->oleil-oleil-oleate. The shift to the left and to the right is discerned with this spectrum of isoforms of triglycerides. The shift to the left into direction of palmitinicc triglycerides occurs in case of eating of animal food (i.e. beef andfoodstuf of fat saw milk) when the content of palmitinic saturated fatty acid supersedes 15% of fatty acids total and under the development of endogenic syndrome of insulin resistance. The content of low density lipoproteins cholesterol is high in blood The shift to the right with prevalence of oleinic triglycerides occurs in case of low content of beef and foodstuff of fat saw milk in food, fish eating, seafood and olive oil. The physiologic levels of carbohydrates in food and insulin function are present too. The shift to the right initiates the action of insulin, ometa-3 essential polyenic fatty acids, glytazones and fibrates. They increase the activity of delta9-stearil-KoA-desaturase-2 and the transformation of palmitine saturated fatty acid into mono unsaturated oleinic fatty acid. The shift to the left forms the palmitine alternative of metabolism of substrate to supply cells with energy. The shift to the right is a more effective oleinic alternative.

  15. Akt3 kinase suppresses pinocytosis of low-density lipoprotein by macrophages via a novel WNK/SGK1/Cdc42 protein pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Kim, Michael; Byzova, Tatiana; Podrez, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL by macrophages is regarded as a novel promising target to reduce macrophage cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. The mechanisms of regulation of fluid-phase pinocytosis in macrophages and, specifically, the role of Akt kinases are poorly understood. We have found previously that increased lipoprotein uptake via the receptor-independent process in Akt3 kinase-deficient macrophages contributes to increased atherosclerosis in Akt3−/− mice. The mechanism by which Akt3 deficiency promotes lipoprotein uptake in macrophages is unknown. We now report that Akt3 constitutively suppresses macropinocytosis in macrophages through a novel WNK1/SGK1/Cdc42 pathway. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated that the lack of Akt3 expression in murine and human macrophages results in increased expression of with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1), which, in turn, leads to increased activity of serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). SGK1 promotes expression of the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, a positive regulator of actin assembly, cell polarization, and pinocytosis. Individual suppression of WNK1 expression, SGK1, or Cdc42 activity in Akt3-deficient macrophages rescued the phenotype. These results demonstrate that Akt3 is a specific negative regulator of macropinocytosis in macrophages. PMID:28389565

  16. Anti-miR-33 therapy does not alter the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Marquart, Tyler J; Wu, Judy; Lusis, Aldons J; Baldán, Ángel

    2013-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of long-term anti-miR-33 therapy on the progression of atherosclerosis in high-fat, high-cholesterol-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice. Ldlr(-/-) mice received saline, or control or anti-miR-33 oligonucleotides once a week for 14 weeks. The treatment was effective, as measured by reduced levels of hepatic miR-33 and increased hepatic expression of miR-33 targets. Analysis of plasma samples revealed an initial elevation in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 2 weeks of treatment that was not sustained by the end of the experiment. Additionally, we found a significant increase in circulating triglycerides in anti-miR-33-treated mice, compared with controls. Finally, examination of atheromata revealed no significant changes in the size or composition of lesions between the 3 groups. Prolonged silencing of miR-33 fails to maintain elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and does not prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in Ldlr(-/-) mice.

  17. Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)-Producing and Hepatitis C Virus-Replicating HepG2 Cells Secrete No More Lipoviroparticles than VLDL-Deficient Huh7.5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jammart, Baptiste; Michelet, Maud; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Parent, Romain; Bartosch, Birke; Zoulim, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    In the plasma samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, lipoviroparticles (LVPs), defined as (very-) low-density viral particles immunoprecipitated with anti-β-lipoproteins antibodies are observed. This HCV-lipoprotein association has major implications with respect to our understanding of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry. However, cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) virions produced in Huh7 cells, which are deficient for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, are only associated with and dependent on apolipoprotein E (apoE), not apolipoprotein B (apoB), for assembly and infectivity. In contrast to Huh7, HepG2 cells can be stimulated to produce VLDL by both oleic acid treatment and inhibition of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but are not permissive for persistent HCV replication. Here, we developed a new HCV cell culture model to study the interaction between HCV and lipoproteins, based on engineered HepG2 cells stably replicating a blasticidin-tagged HCV JFH1 strain (JB). Control Huh7.5-JB as well as HepG2-JB cell lines persistently replicated viral RNA and expressed viral proteins with a subcellular colocalization of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), core, gpE2, and NS5A compatible with virion assembly. The intracellular RNA replication level was increased in HepG2-JB cells upon dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, MEK/ERK inhibition, and NS5A overexpression to a level similar to that observed in Huh7.5-JB cells. Both cell culture systems produced infectious virions, which were surprisingly biophysically and biochemically similar. They floated at similar densities on gradients, contained mainly apoE but not apoB, and were not neutralized by anti-apoB antibodies. This suggests that there is no correlation between the ability of cells to simultaneously replicate HCV as well as secrete VLDL and their capacity to produce LVPs. PMID:23427158

  18. Relevance of serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and very low-density lipoproteins in nulli/primiparous and multiparous cows in the close-up period

    PubMed Central

    OIKAWA, Shin; SAITOH-OKUMURA, Haruka; TANJI, Masaki; NAKADA, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in close-up dairy cattle were compared in relation to parity. Data were obtained from 37 nulli/primiparous (NP) and 24 multiparous (MU, parity: 2–7) cows between 14 days and 1 day prepartum. A positive correlation (r=0.684, P<0.01) was found between serum NEFA and VLDL concentrations in NP cows. Among the VLDL constituents, the NEFA concentration was particularly correlated with the triglyceride (TG) concentration (r=0.658, P<0.01). However, no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of NEFA and VLDL or VLDL-TG in MU cows (r=−0.028 and 0.307). These results suggest the presence of higher hepatic secretion of NEFA-derived VLDL in NP cows. PMID:28804115

  19. Relevance of serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and very low-density lipoproteins in nulli/primiparous and multiparous cows in the close-up period.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shin; Saitoh-Okumura, Haruka; Tanji, Masaki; Nakada, Ken

    2017-10-07

    Serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in close-up dairy cattle were compared in relation to parity. Data were obtained from 37 nulli/primiparous (NP) and 24 multiparous (MU, parity: 2-7) cows between 14 days and 1 day prepartum. A positive correlation (r=0.684, P<0.01) was found between serum NEFA and VLDL concentrations in NP cows. Among the VLDL constituents, the NEFA concentration was particularly correlated with the triglyceride (TG) concentration (r=0.658, P<0.01). However, no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of NEFA and VLDL or VLDL-TG in MU cows (r=-0.028 and 0.307). These results suggest the presence of higher hepatic secretion of NEFA-derived VLDL in NP cows.

  20. Induction of protein oxidation in human low density lipoprotein by the photosensitive organic hydroperoxide, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyperoxy-2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetra-carb oxylic- diimide.

    PubMed

    Matsugo, S; Yan, L J; Han, D; Packer, L

    1995-01-05

    We have developed a new molecular probe, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyperoxy-2-methyoxyethyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalen e-tetra-carboxylic- diimide (NP-III), that specifically generates hydroxyl radical upon irradiation with longer wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA). Hydroxyl radicals are generated only upon irradiation, thus NP-III is a new controllable hydroxyl radical source. Apolipoprotein (apo-B) of human low density lipoprotein (LDL), and bovine serum alubumin (BSA), were irradiated with UVA in the presence of NP-III and their oxidation was evaluated by two independent methods: assay of protein carbonyl groups and gel electrophoresis. NP-III oxidized apo-B and BSA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that NP-III is a controllable, precise, and potentially tagetable source of hydroxyl radicals with which to induce protein oxidation.

  1. In vitro cell injury by oxidized low density lipoprotein involves lipid hydroperoxide-induced formation of alkoxyl, lipid, and peroxyl radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M D; Cole, R A; Colles, S M; Chisolm, G M

    1995-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports current theories linking lipoprotein oxidation to atherosclerosis. We sought the cellular biochemical mechanism by which oxidized LDL inflicts cell injury. Inhibitors of candidate pathways of cell death were used to treat human fibroblast target cells exposed to oxidized LDL.. Ebselen, which degrades lipid hydroperoxides, inhibited oxidized LDL toxicity, consistent with our recent report that 7 beta-hydroperoxycholesterol (7 beta-OOH chol) is the major cytotoxin of oxidized LDL. Intracellular chelation of metal ions inhibited, while preloading cells with iron enhanced, toxicity, Inhibition of oxidized LDL and 7 beta-OOH chol toxicity by 2-keto-4-thiolmethyl butyric acid, a putative alkoxyl radical scavenger and by vitamin E, probucol and diphenylphenylenediamine, putative scavengers of peroxyl radicals was consistent with the involvement of these radicals in the lethal sequence. Cell death was thus postulated to occur due to lipid peroxidation via a sequence involving lipid hydroperoxide-induced, iron-mediated formation of alkoxyl, lipid, and peroxyl radicals. Pathways involving other reactive oxygen species, new protein synthesis, or altered cholesterol metabolism were considered less likely, since putative inhibitors failed to lessen toxicity. Understanding the mechanism of cell injury by oxidized LDL and its toxic moiety, 7 beta-OOH chol, may indicate specific interventions in the cell injury believed to accompany vascular lesion development. PMID:7560078

  2. Retinoic Acid-inducible Gene I-inducible miR-23b Inhibits Infections by Minor Group Rhinoviruses through Down-regulation of the Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Ouda, Ryota; Onomoto, Koji; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Edwards, Michael R.; Kato, Hiroki; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, viral infections are detected by innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptor and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR), which activate the type I interferon (IFN) system. IFN essentially activates genes encoding antiviral proteins that inhibit various steps of viral replication as well as facilitate the subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression of non-coding RNA upon viral infection or RLR activation. Using a microarray, we identified several microRNAs (miRNA) specifically induced to express by RLR signaling. As suggested by Bioinformatics (miRBase Target Data base), one of the RLR-inducible miRNAs, miR-23b, actually knocked down the expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein 5 (LRP5). Transfection of miR-23b specifically inhibited infection of rhinovirus 1B (RV1B), which utilizes the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family for viral entry. Conversely, introduction of anti-miRNA-23b enhanced the viral yield. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that VLDLR, but not LRP5, is critical for an efficient infection by RV1B. Furthermore, experiments with the transfection of infectious viral RNA revealed that miR-23b did not affect post-entry viral replication. Our results strongly suggest that RIG-I signaling results in the inhibitions of infections of RV1B through the miR-23b-mediated down-regulation of its receptor VLDLR. PMID:21642441

  3. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I-inducible miR-23b inhibits infections by minor group rhinoviruses through down-regulation of the very low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ryota; Onomoto, Koji; Takahasi, Kiyohiro; Edwards, Michael R; Kato, Hiroki; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Fujita, Takashi

    2011-07-22

    In mammals, viral infections are detected by innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptor and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR), which activate the type I interferon (IFN) system. IFN essentially activates genes encoding antiviral proteins that inhibit various steps of viral replication as well as facilitate the subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression of non-coding RNA upon viral infection or RLR activation. Using a microarray, we identified several microRNAs (miRNA) specifically induced to express by RLR signaling. As suggested by Bioinformatics (miRBase Target Data base), one of the RLR-inducible miRNAs, miR-23b, actually knocked down the expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein 5 (LRP5). Transfection of miR-23b specifically inhibited infection of rhinovirus 1B (RV1B), which utilizes the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family for viral entry. Conversely, introduction of anti-miRNA-23b enhanced the viral yield. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that VLDLR, but not LRP5, is critical for an efficient infection by RV1B. Furthermore, experiments with the transfection of infectious viral RNA revealed that miR-23b did not affect post-entry viral replication. Our results strongly suggest that RIG-I signaling results in the inhibitions of infections of RV1B through the miR-23b-mediated down-regulation of its receptor VLDLR.

  4. Withdrawal from high-carbohydrate, high-saturated-fat diet changes saturated fat distribution and improves hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor expression to ameliorate metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2017-06-01

    The "lipid hypothesis" determined that saturated fatty acid (SFA) raises low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thereby increasing the risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic withdrawal from a high-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat (HCHF) diet during MetS with reference to changes in deleterious SFA (C12:0, lauric acid; C14:0, myristic acid; C16:0, palmitic acid; C18:0, stearic acid) distribution in liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and feces. MetS induced by prolonged feeding of an HCHF diet in Wistar albino rat is used as a model of human MetS. The MetS-induced rats were withdrawn from the HCHF diet and changed to a basal diet for final 4 wk of the total experimental duration of 16 wk. SFA distribution in target tissues and hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) expression were analyzed. Analyses of changes in SFA concentration of target tissues indicate that C16:0 and C18:0 reduced in WAT and liver after withdrawal of the HCHF diet. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in fecal C12:0 with HCHF feeding, which significantly (P < 0.01) increased after withdrawal of this diet. Also, an improvement in expression of hepatic LDLr was observed after withdrawal of HCHF diet. The prolonged consumption of an HCHF diet leads to increased SFA accumulation in liver and WAT, decreased SFA excretion, and reduced hepatic LDLr expression during MetS, which is prominently reversed after subchronic withdrawal of the HCHF diet. This can contribute to better understanding of the metabolic fate of dietary SFA during MetS and may apply to the potential reversal of complications by the simple approach of nutritional modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ethanolic extract as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradana, Dimas Adhi; Pondawinata, Marizki; Widyarini, Sitarina

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential activity of standardized ethanolic extract of red spinach as prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. A total of 42 animals was divided into 6 groups: normal control group, negative control group, positive control group (0.9 mg/kgBW of simvastatin), first intervention group (200 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), second intervention group (400 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract), and third intervention group (800 mg/kgBW of red spinach extract). From the first day up to the 66th day, all the groups, except the normal control group and negative control group, were administered simvastatin (positive control) and extract of amaranth (intervention). Then, from the eighth day until Day 66, induction of high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was given in two hours after the simvastatin and red spinach extract administration. The determination of LDL parameters was conducted on Day 0, Day 35, and Day 67. On the 67th day, the animals were dissected to examine the aortic histopathological parameters. The results showed that the ethanolic extract of red spinach with a dose of 200 mg/kgBW, 400 mg/kgBW, and 800 mg/kgBW statistically demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.05). The histopathological feature of the aorta in the treatment indicated the absence of fat in the blood vessel walls or even of foam cells supporting thereby the result of LDL level. This means there was a significant effect of ethanolic extract of red spinach on the prevention against atherosclerosis based on the level of Low-Density Lipoprotein and the histopathological feature of aorta in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  6. Effects of dexamethasone and insulin on the synthesis of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholine and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mangiapane, E H; Brindley, D N

    1986-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were preincubated for 19 h with 1 microM-dexamethasone, and the incubation was continued for a further 23 h with [14C]oleate, [3H]glycerol and 1 microM-dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the secretion of triacylglycerol into the medium in particles that had the properties of very-low-density lipoproteins. The increased secretion was matched by a decrease in the triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine that remained in the hepatocytes. Preincubating the hepatocytes for the total 42 h period with 36 nM-insulin decreased the amount of triacylglycerol in the medium and in the cells after the final incubation for 23 h with radioactive substrates. However, insulin had no significant effect on the triacylglycerol content of the cell and medium when it was present only in the final 23 h incubation. Insulin antagonized the effects of dexamethasone in stimulating the secretion of triacylglycerol from the hepatocytes, especially when it was present throughout the total 42 h period. The labelling of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium when hepatocytes were incubated with [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol was greater than that of phosphatidylcholine. The appearance of this lipid in the medium, unlike that of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, was not stimulated by dexamethasone, or inhibited by colchicine. However, the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium was decreased when the hepatocytes were incubated with both dexamethasone and insulin. These findings are discussed in relation to the control of the synthesis of glycerolipids and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by the liver, particularly in relation to the interactions of glucocorticoids and insulin. PMID:3513755

  7. The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis among adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <70 mg/dL: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Martin, Seth S; McEvoy, John W; Nasir, Khurram; Blankstein, Ron; Yeboah, Joseph; Miedema, Michael; Shea, Steven J; Polak, Joseph F; Ouyang, Pamela; Blumenthal, Roger S; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bensenor, Isabela; Santos, Raul D; Duncan, Bruce B; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are low remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis among individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL. We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohorts. To optimize accuracy, LDL-C was calculated by the validated Martin/Hopkins equation that uses an adjustable factor for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We defined subclinical atherosclerosis as a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score >0 in the combined cohort or common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in the 4 th quartile, using cohort-specific cIMT distributions at baseline. Logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional associations of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Among 9411 participants not on lipid lowering therapy, 263 (3%) had LDL-C <70 mg/dL (MESA: 206, ELSA: 57). Mean age in this population was 58 (SD 12) years, with 43% men, and 41% Black. The prevalence of CAC >0 in those with untreated LDL-C<70 mg/dL was 30%, and 18% were in 4th quartile of cIMT. In demographically adjusted models, only ever smoking was significantly associated with both CAC and cIMT. Similar results were obtained in risk factor-adjusted models (smoking: OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.10-4.80 and OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.41-8.37 for CAC and cIMT, respectively). Among middle-aged to older individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL, subclinical atherosclerosis remains moderately common and is associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome: Influence of liver fibrosis stages on characteristics of very low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Diego; Miksztowicz, Verónica; Gualano, Gisela; Longo, Cristina; Landeira, Graciela; Álvarez, Estela; Zago, Valeria; Brites, Fernando; Berg, Gabriela; Fassio, Eduardo; Schreier, Laura

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated possible changes in VLDLcharacteristics, and metabolic related factors, in MetS-associated NAFLD and accompanying liver fibrosis. We studied 36 MetS patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (MetS+NAFLD) and 24 MetS without ultrasound NAFLD evidence. Further, MetS+NAFLD was sub-divided according to fibrosis stage into, non-to-moderate (F0-F2, n=27) and severe (F3-F4, n=9) fibrosis. We measured: lipid profile, VLDL composition and size (size exclusion-HPLC), CETP and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities and adiponectin. Additionally, in MetS+NAFLD type IV collagen 7S domain was measured. MetS+NAFLD showed increased VLDL-mass, VLDL particle number, VLDL-triglyceride% and large VLDL-% (p<0.04). CETP activity tended to increase in MetS+NAFLD (p=0.058), while LPL activity was unchanged. Moreover, in MetS+NAFLD, adiponectin was decreased (p<0.001), and negatively correlated with VLDL-mass and VLDL particle number (p<0.05), independently of insulin-resistance. Within MetS+NAFLD group, despite greater insulin-resistance, patients with severe fibrosis showed lower plasma triglycerides, VLDL-mass, VLDL-triglyceride%, large VLDL-% and CETP activity (p<0.05), while type IV collagen was increased (p=0.009) and inversely correlated with large VLDL-% (p=0.045). In MetS, NAFLD is associated with larger and triglyceride over-enriched circulating VLDLs, of greater atherogenicity. However, when NAFLD progresses to severe fibrosis, circulating VLDL features apparently improved, probably due to early alterations in hepatic synthetic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Paraoxonase gene Q192R & L55M polymorphisms in Indians with acute myocardial infarction & association with oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ahmad, Dilawar; Abraham, Rani Ann; Sharma, Mukta; Vemparala, Kranthi; Das, Siuli; Reddy, K Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2010-04-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an HDL associated ester hydrolase with an ability to retard LDL oxidation in vitro by preventing lipid peroxide generation. The population variability in enzyme activity is attributed to polymorphisms in paraoxonase gene. For example, polymorphism at codon 192 and 55 of the paraoxonase gene has been reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CAD) and diabetes among different ethnic groups. The present study looks at PON192 and 55 polymorphism among hospitalized Asian Indian patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and their association with circulating oxidized LDL and antioxidant status. One hundred and twenty four consecutive patients of acute myocardial infarction and 221 age-matched controls were recruited for the study. Oxidized LDL was measured in serum by ELISA and total antioxidant levels by the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3 ethyl benzothiozoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) method. Other known cardiovascular risk factors, apolipoprotein B, apolipoproteinA1, lipoprotein(a), hsCRP and homocysteine were also measured. Paraoxonase gene polymorphism at codon 192 and 55 were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Patients with MI had significantly higher oxidized LDL (P<0.05) and lower total antioxidant capacity (P<0.001) as compared to controls. Oxidized LDL correlated with total cholesterol, LDL and Apo B in patients. B allele frequency of the codon 192 polymorphism in paraoxonase gene was higher in cases as compared to controls and odds ratio of developing the MI with BB genotype versus AA genotype was 2.37, (P=0.044). Codon 55 polymorphism in paraoxonase gene was not associated with CAD. There was no difference in oxidized LDL between the different genotypes of PON192 and PON55. Although PON192 polymorphism was associated with CAD, no correlation of PON192 or 55 polymorphism was found with oxidized LDL suggesting that presence of other antioxidant factors may be of equal importance in preventing LDL oxidation.

  10. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% ( P <0.05). There were statistically significant interaction for FM ( P =0.015), FM% ( P =0.017) with lower values for CT group. For LDL-c, there was significant interaction ( P =0.002) with greater values for FT group in relation to CG and CT. Furthermore, when performed the post hoc test on the "mean absolute differences" (Δ), it can observed statistically significant difference between FT, CT, and CG (-13.0±16.5 mg/dL vs. 4.8±18.4 mg/dL vs. 9.2±18.8 mg/dL, P <0.05). In conclusion, when training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.

  11. Onion extract (Allium cepa L.), quercetin and catechin up-regulate paraoxonase 1 activity with concomitant protection against low-density lipoprotein oxidation in male Wistar rats subjected to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nidhi; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) protects the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a major anti-atherosclerotic protein component of high-density lipoprotein. We explored the effect of onion extract and flavonoids (quercetin and catechin) in the regulation of PON1 expression and correlating with oxidised LDL levels in male Wistar rats subjected to mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) induced oxidative insult. Rats were divided into eight groups: Control, Experimental (HgCl₂), Experimental + onion/catechin/quercetin, Positive control (Normal + onion/catechin/quercetin). Treatment continued for 4 weeks. PON1 activity and radical scavenging activity decreased in the Experimental group (P < 0.001) with increased susceptibility of LDL for oxidation and plasma malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.001). Onion extract significantly attenuated the adverse effects of HgCl₂ by up-regulating PON1 activity (P < 0.05), radical scavenging activity (P < 0.01), and protected against LDL oxidation (P < 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01). Similar effects were observed with quercetin and to a lesser extent with catechin. The findings may explain the anti-atherosclerotic effect of onion and also foods containing quercetin and catechins.

  12. Liver-specific inhibition of acyl-coenzyme a:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 with antisense oligonucleotides limits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein B100-only low-density lipoprotein receptor-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Bell, Thomas A; Brown, J Mark; Graham, Mark J; Lemonidis, Kristina M; Crooke, Rosanne M; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of liver-specific inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) on the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Apolipoprotein B100-only low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-/- mice were given saline, a nontargeting control antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), or ASOs targeting ACAT2 biweekly for a period spanning 16 weeks. Mice treated with ACAT2 targeting ASOs had liver-specific reduction in ACAT2 mRNA, yet intestinal ACAT2 and cholesterol absorption was left undisturbed. ASO-mediated knockdown of ACAT2 resulted in reduction of total plasma cholesterol, increased levels of plasma triglyceride, and a shift in LDL cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acid composition from mainly saturated and monounsaturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment. Furthermore, the liver-specific depletion of ACAT2 resulted in protection against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and aortic CE deposition. This is the first demonstration that specific pharmacological inhibition of ACAT2, without affecting ACAT1, is atheroprotective. Hepatic ACAT2 plays a critical role in driving the production of atherogenic lipoproteins, and therapeutic interventions, such as the ACAT2-specific ASOs used here, which reduce acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) function in the liver without affecting ACAT1, may provide clinical benefit for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  13. Release of Infectious Hepatitis C Virus from Huh7 Cells Occurs via a trans-Golgi Network-to-Endosome Pathway Independent of Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Mankouri, Jamel; Walter, Cheryl; Stewart, Hazel; Bentham, Matthew; Park, Wei Sun; Heo, Won Do; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The release of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles from infected cells remains poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that virus release is dependent on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). Here, we show a critical role of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-endosome trafficking during the assembly, but principally the secretion, of infectious virus. This was demonstrated by both small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of TGN-associated adaptor proteins and a panel of dominant negative (DN) Rab GTPases involved in TGN-endosome trafficking steps. Importantly, interfering with factors critical for HCV release did not have a concomitant effect on secretion of triglycerides, ApoB, or ApoE, indicating that particles are likely released from Huh7 cells via pathways distinct from that of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Finally, we show that HCV NS2 perturbs TGN architecture, redistributing TGN membranes to closely associate with HCV core protein residing on lipid droplets. These findings support the notion that HCV hijacks TGN-endosome trafficking to facilitate particle assembly and release. Moreover, although essential for assembly and infectivity, the trafficking of mature virions is seemingly independent of host lipoproteins. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which infectious hepatitis C virus particles are assembled and released from the cell are poorly understood. We show that the virus subverts host cell trafficking pathways to effect the release of virus particles and disrupts the structure of the Golgi apparatus, a key cellular organelle involved in secretion. In addition, we demonstrate that the mechanisms used by the virus to exit the cell are distinct from those used by the cell to release lipoproteins, suggesting that the virus effects a unique modification to cellular trafficking pathways. PMID:27226379

  14. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7α-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mutation Mycophenolic Acid Mycoplasma Myoglobin Nicotine and Cotinine Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Opioid Testing Osmolality Ova ... as older RBCs die and younger RBCs (with non-glycated hemoglobin) take their place. This test may ...

  16. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  17. Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok; Jang, Sungok; Son, Heejeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio of triglycerides to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:VLDL-C ratio). However, the novel LDL-C (LDL-CN) estimates were calculated using the N-strata-specific median TG:VLDL-C ratios, LDL-C5 and LDL-C25 from respective ratios derived from our data set, and LDL-C180 from the 180-cell table reported by the original study. Compared with LDL-CF, each LDL-CN estimate exhibited a significantly higher overall concordance in the NCEP-ATP III guideline classification with LDL-CD (p< 0.001 for each comparison). Overall concordance was 78.2% for LDL-CF, 81.6% for LDL-C5, 82.3% for LDL-C25, and 82.0% for LDL-C180. Compared to LDL-C5, LDL-C25 significantly but slightly improved overall concordance (p = 0.008). LDL-C25 and LDL-C180 provided almost the same overall concordance; however, LDL-C180 achieved superior improvement in classifying LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared to the other estimates. In subjects with triglycerides of 200 to 399 mg/dL, each LDL-CN estimate showed a significantly higher concordance than that of LDL-CF (p< 0.001 for each comparison). The novel method offers a significant improvement in LDL-C estimation when compared with the Friedewald formula. However, it requires further modification and validation considering the racial differences as well as the specific character of the applied measuring method. PMID:26824910

  18. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    ... every 3 or 6 months is recommended. Normal Results The following are the results when A1C is ... meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means that you have ...

  19. Gene-diet interactions with polymorphisms of the MGLL gene on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and size following an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Catherine; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-05-24

    Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) concentrations and particle size. Studies showed that individuals with large, buoyant LDL particles have decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, a large inter-individual variability is observed in LDL particle size. Genetic factors may explain the variability of LDL-C concentrations and particle size after an n-3 PUFA supplementation. The monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) enzyme, encoded by the MGLL gene, plays an important role in lipid metabolism, especially lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MGLL gene influence the variability of LDL-C and LDL particle size in response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation. 210 subjects completed the study. They consumed 5 g/d of a fish oil supplement (1.9-2.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosaexaenoic acid) during 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured before and after the supplementation period and 18 SNPs of the MGLL gene, covering 100% of common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥0.05), have been genotyped using TaqMan technology (Life Technologies Inc., Burlington, ON, CA). Following the n-3 PUFA supplementation, 55% of subjects increased their LDL-C levels. In a model including the supplementation, genotype and supplementation*genotype effects, gene-diet interaction effects on LDL-C concentrations (rs782440, rs6776142, rs555183, rs6780384, rs6787155 and rs1466571) and LDL particle size (rs9877819 and rs13076593) were observed for the MGLL gene SNPs (p < 0.05). SNPs within the MGLL gene may modulate plasma LDL-C levels and particle size following an n-3 PUFA supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01343342.

  20. The regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity, cholesterol esterification and the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, B L; Patel, D D; Soutar, A K

    1983-01-01

    Human blood monocytes cultured in medium containing 20% whole serum showed the greatest activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and [14C]acetate incorporation into non-saponifiable lipids around the 7th day after seeding, the period of greatest growth. Although there was enough low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the medium to saturate the LDL receptors that were expressed by normal cells at that time, HMG-CoA reductase activity and acetate incorporation were as high in normal cells as in cells from familial-hypercholesterolaemic (FH) patients. Both the addition of extra LDL, which interacted with the cells by non-saturable processes, and receptor-mediated uptake of acetylated LDL significantly reduced reductase activity and increased incorporation of [14C]oleate into cholesteryl esters in normal cells and cells from FH patients ('FH cells'), and reduced the expression of LDL receptors in normal cells. Pre-incubation for 20h in lipoprotein-deficient medium apparently increased the number of LDL receptors expressed by normal cells but reduced the activity of HMG-CoA reductase in both normal and FH cells. During subsequent incubations the same rate of degradation of acetylated LDL and of non-saturable degradation of LDL by FH cells was associated with the same reduction in HMG-CoA reductase activity, although LDL produced a much smaller stimulation of oleate incorporation