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Sample records for a1d l-type ca

  1. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Molly E; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T; Konradi, Christine

    2004-11-24

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators of Ca2+ influx. In D1 receptor-stimulated neurons, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. This leads to the activation of a molecular signal transduction pathway and CREB phosphorylation. In the absence of dopamine receptor stimulation, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit CREB phosphorylation. The effect of dopamine on L-type Ca2+ channel blockers is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays a role in this phenomenon. Because of the adverse effect of activated dopamine receptors on L-type Ca2+ channel blocker action, the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in the dopamine D1 receptor signal transduction pathway cannot be assessed with pharmacological tools. However, with antisense technology, we demonstrate that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation. We conclude that the D1 receptor signal transduction pathway depends on L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate CREB phosphorylation.

  2. 12-lipoxygenase regulates hippocampal long-term potentiation by modulating L-type Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCostanzo, Anthony J.; Voloshyna, Iryna; Rosen, Zev B.; Feinmark, Steven J.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Although long-term potentiation (LTP) has been intensely studied, there is disagreement as to which molecules mediate and modulate LTP. This is partly due to the presence of mechanistically distinct forms of LTP that are induced by different patterns of stimulation and that depend on distinct Ca2+ sources. Here we report a novel role for the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) in LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses that is dependent on the pattern of tetanic stimulation. We find that 12-LO activity is required for the induction of LTP in response to a theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocol, which depends on Ca2+ influx through both NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. In contrast, LTP induced by 100 Hz tetanic stimulation, which requires Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors but not L-type channels, does not require 12-LO. We find that 12-LO regulates LTP by enhancing postsynaptic somatodendritic Ca2+ influx through L-type channels during theta burst stimulation, an action exerted via 12(S)-HPETE, a downstream metabolite of 12-LO. These results help define the role of a long-disputed signaling enzyme in LTP. PMID:20130191

  3. Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Mei Lin; Thomas, Andrew P; Berlin, Joshua R

    1999-01-01

    The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 μM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 μM).Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 ± 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 ± 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 ± 0.03 μm (mean ± s.e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential.The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current.A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential. PMID:10066927

  4. Role of L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms in the extinction of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Busquet, Perrine; Hetzenauer, Alfred; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Striessnig, Jörg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) antagonists, such as nifedipine, have been reported to impair the extinction of conditioned fear without interfering with its acquisition. Identification of the LTCC isoforms mediating this DHP effect is an essential basis to reveal their role as potential drug targets for the treatment of specific anxiety disorders. CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 are the predominant LTCCs in the mammalian brain. However, since no isoform-selective DHP blockers are available, their individual contribution to fear memory extinction is unknown. We used a novel mouse model expressing DHP-insensitive CaV1.2 LTCCs (CaV1.2DHP−/− mice) to address this question. In line with previous studies, wild-type (WT) mice treated with systemic nifedipine displayed markedly impaired fear extinction. This DHP effect was completely abolished in CaV1.2DHP−/− mice, indicating that it is mediated by CaV1.2, but not by CaV1.3 LTCCs. Supporting this conclusion, CaV1.3-deficient mice (CaV1.3−/−) showed extinction identical to the respective WT mice. The inhibition of fear extinction was not observed after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) application of different doses of nifedipine, suggesting that this effect is secondary to inhibition of peripheral CaV1.2 channels. The LTCC activator BayK, which lacks neurotoxic effects in CaV1.2DHP−/− mice, did not influence the extinction time course. In summary, we demonstrate that LTCC signaling through the CaV1.2 isoform of LTCCs interferes with fear memory extinction, presumably via a peripherally mediated mechanism. Activation of other LTCC isoforms (predominantly CaV1.3) is not sufficient to accelerate extinction of conditioned fear in mice. PMID:18441296

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation regulates L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Huiyun; Tang, Xiaohong; Bai, Wenwen; Wang, Guolin; Tian, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Sevoflurane might be harmful to the developing brain. Therefore, it is essential to reverse sevoflurane-induced brain injury. This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, which is inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, sevoflurane, and rTMS groups. A Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to record L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The I-V curve, steady-state activation and inactivation curves were studied in rats of each group at different ages (1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks old). In the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel current density significantly increased from week 2 to week 3. Compared with the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel currents of rats in the sevoflurane group were significantly inhibited from week 1 to week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel shifted significantly towards depolarization at week 1 and week 2. Moreover, steady-state inactivation curves shifted towards hyperpolarization from week 1 to week 3. Compared with the sevoflurane group, rTMS significantly increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents at week 2 and week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel significantly shifted towards hyperpolarization at week 2. Meanwhile, steady-state inactivation curves significantly shifted towards depolarization at week 2. The period between week 2 and week 3 is critical for the development of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Early sevoflurane exposure inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel activity and rTMS can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CaMKII-Induced Shift in Modal Gating Explains L-Type Ca2+ Current Facilitation: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Greenstein, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an important role in L-type Ca2+ channel (LCC) facilitation: the Ca2+-dependent augmentation of Ca2+ current (ICaL) exhibited during rapid repeated depolarization. Multiple mechanisms may underlie facilitation, including an increased rate of recovery from Ca2+-dependent inactivation and a shift in modal gating distribution from mode 1, the dominant mode of LCC gating, to mode 2, a mode in which openings are prolonged. We hypothesized that the primary mechanism underlying facilitation is the shift in modal gating distribution resulting from CaMKII-mediated LCC phosphorylation. We developed a stochastic model describing the dynamic interactions among CaMKII, LCCs, and phosphatases as a function of dyadic Ca2+ and calmodulin levels, and we incorporated it into an integrative model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The model reproduces behaviors at physiologic protein levels and allows for dynamic transition between modes, depending on the LCC phosphorylation state. Simulations showed that a CaMKII-dependent shift in LCC distribution toward mode 2 accounted for the ICaL positive staircase. Moreover, simulations demonstrated that experimentally observed changes in LCC inactivation and recovery kinetics may arise from modal gating shifts, rather than from changes in intrinsic inactivation properties. The model therefore serves as a powerful tool for interpreting ICaL experiments. PMID:19254537

  7. Intermolecular failure of L-type Ca2+ channel and ryanodine receptor signaling in hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Zhou, Peng; Xu, Shi-Ming; Liu, Yin; Feng, Xinheng; Bai, Shu-Hua; Bai, Yan; Hao, Xue-Mei; Han, Qide; Zhang, Youyi; Wang, Shi-Qiang

    2007-02-01

    Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy is a key step leading to heart failure. The Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) process that governs cardiac contractility is defective in hypertrophy/heart failure, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the intermolecular aspects of CICR during hypertrophy, we utilized loose-patch confocal imaging to visualize the signaling between a single L-type Ca(2+) channel (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in aortic stenosis rat models of compensated (CHT) and decompensated (DHT) hypertrophy. We found that the LCC-RyR intermolecular coupling showed a 49% prolongation in coupling latency, a 47% decrease in chance of hit, and a 72% increase in chance of miss in DHT, demonstrating a state of "intermolecular failure." Unexpectedly, these modifications also occurred robustly in CHT due at least partially to decreased expression of junctophilin, indicating that intermolecular failure occurs prior to cellular manifestations. As a result, cell-wide Ca(2+) release, visualized as "Ca(2+) spikes," became desynchronized, which contrasted sharply with unaltered spike integrals and whole-cell Ca(2+) transients in CHT. These data suggested that, within a certain limit, termed the "stability margin," mild intermolecular failure does not damage the cellular integrity of excitation-contraction coupling. Only when the modification steps beyond the stability margin does global failure occur. The discovery of "hidden" intermolecular failure in CHT has important clinical implications.

  8. Lysophosphatidyl choline modulates mechanosensitive L-type Ca2+ current in circular smooth muscle cells from human jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Kraichely, Robert E.; Strege, Peter R.; Sarr, Michael G.; Kendrick, Michael L.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2009-01-01

    The L-type Ca2+ channel expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle is mechanosensitive. Direct membrane stretch and shear stress result in increased Ca2+ entry into the cell. The mechanism for mechanosensitivity is not known, and mechanosensitivity is not dependent on an intact cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was to determine whether L-type Ca2+ channel mechanosensitivity is dependent on tension in the lipid bilayer in human jejunal circular layer myocytes. Whole cell currents were recorded in the amphotericin-perforated-patch configuration, and lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and choline were used to alter differentially the tension in the lipid bilayer. Shear stress (perfusion at 10 ml/min) was used to mechanostimulate L-type Ca2+ channels. The increase in L-type Ca2+ current induced by shear stress was greater in the presence of LPC (large head-to-tail proportions), but not LPA or choline, than in the control perfusion. The increased peak Ca2+ current also did not return to baseline levels as in control conditions. Furthermore, steady-state inactivation kinetics were altered in the presence of LPC, leading to a change in window current. These findings suggest that changes in tension in the plasmalemmal membrane can be transmitted to the mechanosensitive L-type Ca2+ channel, leading to altered activity and Ca2+ entry in the human jejunal circular layer myocyte. PMID:19179622

  9. L-type Ca(2+) channel contributes to alterations in mitochondrial calcium handling in the mdx ventricular myocyte.

    PubMed

    Viola, Helena M; Davies, Stefan M K; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Hool, Livia C

    2013-03-15

    The L-type Ca(2+) channel is the main route for calcium entry into cardiac myocytes, and it is essential for contraction. Alterations in whole cell L-type Ca(2+) channel current and Ca(2+) homeostasis have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathies. Cytoskeletal proteins can influence whole cell L-type Ca(2+) current and mitochondrial function. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal X-linked disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness due to the absence of cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This includes dilated cardiomyopathy, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We sought to identify the effect of alterations in whole cell L-type Ca(2+) channel current on mitochondrial function in the murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mdx). Activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel with the dihydropyridine agonist BayK(-) caused a significantly larger increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) in mdx vs. wild-type (wt) ventricular myocytes. Consistent with elevated cytosolic Ca(2+), resting mitochondrial Ca(2+), NADH, and mitochondrial superoxide were significantly greater in mdx vs. wt myocytes. Activation of the channel with BayK(-) caused a further increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+), NADH, and superoxide in mdx myocytes. The ratios of the increases were similar to the ratios recorded in wt myocytes. In mitochondria isolated from 8-wk-old mdx hearts, respiration and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex activity were similar to mitochondria isolated from wt hearts. We conclude that mitochondria function at a higher level of resting calcium in the intact mdx myocyte and activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel contributes to alterations in calcium handling by the mitochondria. This perturbation may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy.

  10. Clotrimazole inhibits the recombinant human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel α1C subunit

    PubMed Central

    Fearon, I M; Ball, S G; Peers, C

    2000-01-01

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is an antimycotic agent with a potential role in the treatment of cancer. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings and Fura-2 AM fluorescence measurements were used to investigate the inhibition by CLT of recombinant human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel α1C subunits, stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. CLT (100 nmol l−1 to 25 μmol l−1) reduced Ca2+ channel currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition was neither use- or voltage-dependent. The effects of CLT were rapid and maximal effects were attained within 3 min. Application of CLT also caused an acceleration of apparent Ca2+ channel current inactivation. Basal current density and the degree of inhibition due to CLT were not significantly altered by pretreating cells with 3 mmol l−1 1-aminobenzotriazole for 1 h, or by dialysing cells for 10 min with 2 mmol l−1 α-napthoflavone via the patch pipette, suggesting that the inhibitory action of CLT was not due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450. CLT (10 μmol l−1) did not influence [Ca2+]i, as determined by Fura-2 AM fluorescence measurements. Dialysing cells for 10 min with the non-specific serine/threonine kinase inhibitor H-7 (10 μmol l−1) was without effect on basal current density or on the inhibitory response to 10 μmol l−1 CLT, indicating that CLT is not acting via an indirect effect on these kinases. These data suggest that CLT exerts a direct blocking effect on the α1C subunit at therapeutic concentrations. This effect may explain the abbreviation of the action potential duration by CLT observed in cardiac myocytes. PMID:10711354

  11. Barnidipine block of L-type Ca2+ channel currents in rat ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Jörg W; Meyrer, Hans; Rupp, Johanna; Nawrath, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    The effects of barnidipine and nifedipine on L-type Ca2+ current (ICa(L)) were investigated in ventricular cardiomyocytes from rats.Both barnidipine and nifedipine reduced ICa(L) in a concentration and voltage dependent manner; the EC50 were 80 and 130 nM at a holding potential of −80 mV, respectively, and 18 and 6 nM at −40 mV, respectively.Both drugs induced a leftward shift of the steady-state inactivation curve of ICa(L).Using a twin pulse protocol, the relationships between the amount of block of ICa(L) by either drug, seen during the second pulse, and the length of the first pulse were described by monoexponential functions reflecting onset of block, dependent on drug concentration. The onset of block by barnidipine was three times faster than that by nifedipine.With both drugs, recovery of ICa(L) was 50 times slower than under control conditions and described by monoexponential functions reflecting offset of block (independent of drug concentration). The offset of block with barnidipine was three times slower than that with nifedipine.The time constants of block and unblock of ICa(L) by both drugs were used to calculate binding and unbinding and to predict their effects at two frequencies.It is suggested that barnidipine exhibits a higher affinity to the inactivated Ca2+ channel state as compared to nifedipine. PMID:10952695

  12. Direct Interaction of CaVβ with Actin Up-regulates L-type Calcium Currents in HL-1 Cardiomyocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Stölting, Gabriel; de Oliveira, Regina Campos; Guzman, Raul E.; Miranda-Laferte, Erick; Conrad, Rachel; Jordan, Nadine; Schmidt, Silke; Hendriks, Johnny; Gensch, Thomas; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the β-subunit (CaVβ) is required for normal function of cardiac L-type calcium channels, and its up-regulation is associated with heart failure. CaVβ binds to the α1 pore-forming subunit of L-type channels and augments calcium current density by facilitating channel opening and increasing the number of channels in the plasma membrane, by a poorly understood mechanism. Actin, a key component of the intracellular trafficking machinery, interacts with Src homology 3 domains in different proteins. Although CaVβ encompasses a highly conserved Src homology 3 domain, association with actin has not yet been explored. Here, using co-sedimentation assays and FRET experiments, we uncover a direct interaction between CaVβ and actin filaments. Consistently, single-molecule localization analysis reveals streaklike structures composed by CaVβ2 that distribute over several micrometers along actin filaments in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CaVβ2-N3 in HL-1 cells induces an increase in L-type current without altering voltage-dependent activation, thus reflecting an increased number of channels in the plasma membrane. CaVβ mediated L-type up-regulation, and CaVβ-actin association is prevented by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Our study reveals for the first time an interacting partner of CaVβ that is directly involved in vesicular trafficking. We propose a model in which CaVβ promotes anterograde trafficking of the L-type channels by anchoring them to actin filaments in their itinerary to the plasma membrane. PMID:25533460

  13. Postnatal development and activation of L-type Ca2+ currents in locus ceruleus neurons: implications for a role for Ca2+ in central chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Imber, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of Ca2+ in central chemosensitive signaling. We use electrophysiology to examine the chemosensitive responses of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive oscillations and spikes in neurons of the locus ceruleus (LC), a chemosensitive region involved in respiratory control. We show that both TTX-insensitive spikes and oscillations in LC neurons are sensitive to L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition and are activated by increased CO2/H+. Spikes appear to arise from L-type Ca2+ channels on the soma whereas oscillations arise from L-type Ca2+ channels that are distal to the soma. In HEPES-buffered solution (nominal absence of CO2/HCO3−), acidification does not activate either oscillations or spikes. When CO2 is increased while extracellular pH is held constant by elevated HCO3−, both oscillation and spike frequency increase. Furthermore, plots of both oscillation and spike frequency vs. intracellular [HCO3−]show a strong linear correlation. Increased frequency of TTX-insensitive spikes is associated with increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Finally, both the appearance and frequency of TTX-insensitive spikes and oscillations increase over postnatal ages day 3–16. Our data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ currents in LC neurons arise from channel populations that reside in different regions of the neuron, 2) these L-type Ca2+ currents undergo significant postnatal development, and 3) the activity of these L-type Ca2+ currents is activated by increased CO2 through a HCO3−-dependent mechanism. Thus the activity of L-type Ca2+ channels is likely to play a role in the chemosensitive response of LC neurons and may underlie significant changes in LC neuron chemosensitivity during neonatal development. PMID:22403350

  14. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Role of L-Type Ca[superscript 2+] Channel Isoforms in the Extinction of Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquet, Perrine; Hetzenauer, Alfred; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Striessnig, Jorg; Singewald, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type Ca[superscript 2+] channel (LTCC) antagonists, such as nifedipine, have been reported to impair the extinction of conditioned fear without interfering with its acquisition. Identification of the LTCC isoforms mediating this DHP effect is an essential basis to reveal their role as potential drug targets for the…

  16. 1,25 (OH)2D3 enhances PTH-induced Ca2+ transients in preosteoblasts by activating L-type Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Duncan, R. L.; Karin, N. J.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated electrophysiologically that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] shifts the activation threshold of L-type Ca2+ channels in osteoblasts toward the resting potential and prolongs mean open time. Presently, we used single-cell Ca2+ imaging to study the combined effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) during generation of Ca2+ transients in fura 2-loaded MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, which alone did not produce Ca2+ transients, consistently enhanced Ca2+ responses to PTH. Enhancement was dose dependent over the range of 1 to 10 nM and was blocked by pretreatment with 5 microM nitrendipine during pretreatment. A 1,25(OH)2D3 analog that activates L-type channels and shifts their activation threshold also enhanced PTH responses. In contrast, an analog devoid of membrane Ca2+ effects did not enhance PTH-induced Ca2+ transients. The PTH-induced Ca2+ transient involved activation of a dihydropyridine-insensitive cation channel that was inhibited by Gd3+. Together, these data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 increases osteoblast responsiveness to PTH through rapid modification of L-type Ca2+ channel gating properties, whose activation enhances Ca2+ entry through other channels such as the PTH-responsive, Gd(3+)-sensitive cation channel.

  17. Temperature-dependence of L-type Ca2+ current in ventricular cardiomyocytes of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Kubly, Kerry L.; Stecyk, Jonathan A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To lend insight into the overwintering strategy of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), we acclimated fish to 15°C or 5°C and then utilized whole-cell patch-clamp to characterize the effects of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the density and kinetics of ventricular L-type Ca2+ current (ICa). Peak ICa density at 5°C (−1.1± 0.1 pA pF−1) was 1/8th that at 15°C (−8.8 ± 0.6 pA pF−1). However, alterations of the Ca2+- and voltage-dependent inactivation properties of L-type Ca2+ channels partially compensated against the decrease. The time constant tau (τ) for the kinetics of inactivation of ICa was ~4.5-times greater at 5°C than at 15°C, and the voltage for half-maximal inactivation was shifted from −23.3 ± 1.0 mV at 15°C to - 19.8 ± 1.2 mV at 5°C. These modifications increase the open probability of the channel and culminated in an approximate doubling of the L-type Ca2+ window current, which contributed to approximately 15% of the maximal Ca2+ conductance at 5°C. Consequently, the charge density of ICa (QCa) and the total Ca2+ transferred through the L-type Ca channels (Δ[Ca2+]) were not as severely reduced at 5°C as compared to peak ICa density. In combination, the results suggest that while the Alaska blackfish substantially down-regulates ICa with acclimation to low temperature, there is sufficient compensation in the kinetics of the L-type Ca2+ channel to support the level of cardiac performance required for the fish to remain active throughout the winter. PMID:26439127

  18. Reduced density and altered regulation of rat atrial L-type Ca2+current in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bond, Richard C; Bryant, Simon M; Watson, Judy J; Hancox, Jules C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2017-03-01

    Constitutive regulation by PKA has recently been shown to contribute to L-type Ca 2+ current ( I CaL ) at the ventricular t-tubule in heart failure. Conversely, reduction in constitutive regulation by PKA has been proposed to underlie the downregulation of atrial I CaL in heart failure. The hypothesis that downregulation of atrial I CaL in heart failure involves reduced channel phosphorylation was examined. Anesthetized adult male Wistar rats underwent surgical coronary artery ligation (CAL, N =10) or equivalent sham-operation (Sham, N =12). Left atrial myocytes were isolated ~18 wk postsurgery and whole cell currents recorded (holding potential=-80 mV). I CaL activated by depolarizing pulses to voltages from -40 to +50 mV were normalized to cell capacitance and current density-voltage relations plotted. CAL cell capacitances were ~1.67-fold greater than Sham ( P ≤ 0.0001). Maximal I CaL conductance ( G max ) was downregulated more than 2-fold in CAL vs. Sham myocytes ( P < 0.0001). Norepinephrine (1 μmol/l) increased G max >50% more effectively in CAL than in Sham so that differences in I CaL density were abolished. Differences between CAL and Sham G max were not abolished by calyculin A (100 nmol/l), suggesting that increased protein dephosphorylation did not account for I CaL downregulation. Treatment with either H-89 (10 μmol/l) or AIP (5 μmol/l) had no effect on basal currents in Sham or CAL myocytes, indicating that, in contrast to ventricular myocytes, neither PKA nor CaMKII regulated basal I CaL Expression of the L-type α 1C -subunit, protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, and inhibitor-1 proteins was unchanged. In conclusion, reduction in PKA-dependent regulation did not contribute to downregulation of atrial I CaL in heart failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Whole cell recording of L-type Ca 2+ currents in atrial myocytes from rat hearts subjected to coronary artery ligation compared with those from sham-operated controls reveals marked reduction in current density

  19. Polycystin-1 Is a Cardiomyocyte Mechanosensor That Governs L-Type Ca2+ Channel Protein Stability.

    PubMed

    Pedrozo, Zully; Criollo, Alfredo; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Morales, Cyndi R; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Fernández, Carolina; Jiang, Nan; Luo, Xiang; Caplan, Michael J; Somlo, Stefan; Rothermel, Beverly A; Gillette, Thomas G; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A

    2015-06-16

    L-type calcium channel activity is critical to afterload-induced hypertrophic growth of the heart. However, the mechanisms governing mechanical stress-induced activation of L-type calcium channel activity are obscure. Polycystin-1 (PC-1) is a G protein-coupled receptor-like protein that functions as a mechanosensor in a variety of cell types and is present in cardiomyocytes. We subjected neonatal rat ventricular myocytes to mechanical stretch by exposing them to hypo-osmotic medium or cyclic mechanical stretch, triggering cell growth in a manner dependent on L-type calcium channel activity. RNAi-dependent knockdown of PC-1 blocked this hypertrophy. Overexpression of a C-terminal fragment of PC-1 was sufficient to trigger neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy. Exposing neonatal rat ventricular myocytes to hypo-osmotic medium resulted in an increase in α1C protein levels, a response that was prevented by PC-1 knockdown. MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, rescued PC-1 knockdown-dependent declines in α1C protein. To test this in vivo, we engineered mice harboring conditional silencing of PC-1 selectively in cardiomyocytes (PC-1 knockout) and subjected them to mechanical stress in vivo (transverse aortic constriction). At baseline, PC-1 knockout mice manifested decreased cardiac function relative to littermate controls, and α1C L-type calcium channel protein levels were significantly lower in PC-1 knockout hearts. Whereas control mice manifested robust transverse aortic constriction-induced increases in cardiac mass, PC-1 knockout mice showed no significant growth. Likewise, transverse aortic constriction-elicited increases in hypertrophic markers and interstitial fibrosis were blunted in the knockout animals PC-1 is a cardiomyocyte mechanosensor that is required for cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves stabilization of α1C protein. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Methylene blue counteracts H2S toxicity-induced cardiac depression by restoring L-type Ca channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Sonobe, Takashi; Song, Jianliang; Rannals, Matthew D.; Wang, JuFang; Tubbs, Nicole; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that methylene blue (MB) can counteract hydrogen sulfide (H2S) intoxication-induced circulatory failure. Because of the multifarious effects of high concentrations of H2S on cardiac function, as well as the numerous properties of MB, the nature of this interaction, if any, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify 1) the effects of MB on H2S-induced cardiac toxicity and 2) whether L-type Ca2+ channels, one of the targets of H2S, could transduce some of the counteracting effects of MB. In sedated rats, H2S infused at a rate that would be lethal within 5 min (24 μM·kg−1·min−1), produced a rapid fall in left ventricle ejection fraction, determined by echocardiography, leading to a pulseless electrical activity. Blood concentrations of gaseous H2S reached 7.09 ± 3.53 μM when cardiac contractility started to decrease. Two to three injections of MB (4 mg/kg) transiently restored cardiac contractility, blood pressure, and V̇o2, allowing the animals to stay alive until the end of H2S infusion. MB also delayed PEA by several minutes following H2S-induced coma and shock in unsedated rats. Applying a solution containing lethal levels of H2S (100 μM) on isolated mouse cardiomyocytes significantly reduced cell contractility, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) transient amplitudes, and L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa) within 3 min of exposure. MB (20 mg/l) restored the cardiomyocyte function, ([Ca2+]i) transient, and ICa. The present results offer a new approach for counteracting H2S toxicity and potentially other conditions associated with acute inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:26962024

  1. Methylene blue counteracts H2S toxicity-induced cardiac depression by restoring L-type Ca channel activity.

    PubMed

    Judenherc-Haouzi, Annick; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Sonobe, Takashi; Song, Jianliang; Rannals, Matthew D; Wang, JuFang; Tubbs, Nicole; Cheung, Joseph Y; Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We have previously reported that methylene blue (MB) can counteract hydrogen sulfide (H2S) intoxication-induced circulatory failure. Because of the multifarious effects of high concentrations of H2S on cardiac function, as well as the numerous properties of MB, the nature of this interaction, if any, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify 1) the effects of MB on H2S-induced cardiac toxicity and 2) whether L-type Ca(2+) channels, one of the targets of H2S, could transduce some of the counteracting effects of MB. In sedated rats, H2S infused at a rate that would be lethal within 5 min (24 μM·kg(-1)·min(-1)), produced a rapid fall in left ventricle ejection fraction, determined by echocardiography, leading to a pulseless electrical activity. Blood concentrations of gaseous H2S reached 7.09 ± 3.53 μM when cardiac contractility started to decrease. Two to three injections of MB (4 mg/kg) transiently restored cardiac contractility, blood pressure, and V̇o2, allowing the animals to stay alive until the end of H2S infusion. MB also delayed PEA by several minutes following H2S-induced coma and shock in unsedated rats. Applying a solution containing lethal levels of H2S (100 μM) on isolated mouse cardiomyocytes significantly reduced cell contractility, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) transient amplitudes, and L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa) within 3 min of exposure. MB (20 mg/l) restored the cardiomyocyte function, ([Ca(2+)]i) transient, and ICa The present results offer a new approach for counteracting H2S toxicity and potentially other conditions associated with acute inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Modeling regulation of cardiac KATP and L-type Ca2+ currents by ATP, ADP, and Mg2+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, Anushka; Saucerman, Jeffrey; Belik, Mary Ellen; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in cytosolic free Mg(2+) and adenosine nucleotide phosphates affect cardiac excitability and contractility. To investigate how modulation by Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP of K(ATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels influences excitation-contraction coupling, we incorporated equations for intracellular ATP and MgADP regulation of the K(ATP) current and MgATP regulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current in an ionic-metabolic model of the canine ventricular myocyte. The new model: 1), quantitatively reproduces a dose-response relationship for the effects of changes in ATP on K(ATP) current, 2), simulates effects of ADP in modulating ATP sensitivity of K(ATP) channel, 3), predicts activation of Ca(2+) current during rapid increase in MgATP, and 4), demonstrates that decreased ATP/ADP ratio with normal total Mg(2+) or increased free Mg(2+) with normal ATP and ADP activate K(ATP) current, shorten action potential, and alter ionic currents and intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data measured under normal and a variety of pathological conditions.

  3. Superoxide enhances Ca2+ entry through L-type channels in the renal afferent arteriole.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Paul A; Yang, Xi; Moss, Nicholas G; Arendshorst, William J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species regulate cardiovascular and renal function in health and disease. Superoxide participates in acute calcium signaling in afferent arterioles and renal vasoconstriction produced by angiotensin II, endothelin, thromboxane, and pressure-induced myogenic tone. Known mechanisms by which superoxide acts include quenching of nitric oxide and increased ADP ribosyl cyclase/ryanodine-mediated calcium mobilization. The effect(s) of superoxide on other calcium signaling pathways in the renal microcirculation is poorly understood. The present experiments examined the acute effect of superoxide generated by paraquat on calcium entry pathways in isolated rat afferent arterioles. The peak increase in cytosolic calcium concentration caused by KCl (40 mmol/L) was 99±14 nmol/L. The response to this membrane depolarization was mediated exclusively by L-type channels because it was abolished by nifedipine but was unaffected by the T-type channel blocker mibefradil. Paraquat increased superoxide production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), tripled the peak response to KCl to 314±68 nmol/L (P<0.001) and doubled the plateau response. These effects were abolished by tempol and nitroblue tetrazolium, but not by catalase, confirming actions of superoxide and not of hydrogen peroxide. Unaffected by paraquat and superoxide was calcium entry through store-operated calcium channels activated by thapsigargin-induced calcium depletion of sarcoplasmic reticular stores. Also unresponsive to paraquat was ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results provide new evidence that superoxide enhances calcium entry through L-type channels activated by membrane depolarization in rat cortical afferent arterioles, without affecting calcium entry through store-operated entry or ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium mobilization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Stimulation of a nicotinic ACh receptor causes depolarization and activation of L-type Ca2+ channels in rat pinealocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Letz, B; Schomerus, C; Maronde, E; Korf, H W; Korbmacher, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Membrane voltage (Vm) recordings were obtained from isolated rat pinealocytes using the patch-clamp technique. In parallel to the electrophysiological experiments, intracellular Ca2+ measurements were performed using fura-2. 2. The resting Vm averaged -43 mV and replacement of extracellular NaCl by KCl completely depolarized the cells. This indicates that the resting Vm is dominated by a K+ conductance. Single-channel recordings revealed the presence of a large conductance Ca(2+)-activated charybdotoxin-sensitive K+ channel. 3. Application of ACh (100 microM) depolarized the pinealocytes on average by 16 mV. The depolarizing effect of ACh was mimicked by nicotine (50 microM) and was prevented by tubocurarine (100 microM). 4. The ACh-induced depolarization was largely abolished in the absence of extracellular Na+, but was not significantly affected by extracellular Ca2+ removal. 5. Application of ACh (100 microM) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i. This increase was completely dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and was largely reduced after extracellular Na+ removal. Nifedipine (1 microM) reduced the ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i by about 50%. 6. Our findings indicate that in rat pinealocytes stimulation of a nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) induces depolarization mainly by Na+ influx via the nAChR. The depolarization then activates L-type Ca2+ channels, which are responsible for the nifedipine-sensitive portion of the intracellular Ca2+ increase. Ca2+ influx via the nAChR probably also contributes to the observed rise in [Ca2+]i. PMID:9080363

  5. Phosphodiesterase 5 restricts NOS3/Soluble guanylate cyclase signaling to L-type Ca2+ current in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglan; Kohr, Mark J; Traynham, Christopher J; Ziolo, Mark T

    2009-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) regulates the functional response to beta-adrenergic (beta-AR) stimulation via modulation of the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)). However, the NOS3 signaling pathway modulating I(Ca) is unknown. This study investigated the contribution of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), a cGMP-specific PDE, in the NOS3-mediated regulation of I(Ca). Myocytes were isolated from NOS3 knockout (NOS3(-/-)) and wildtype (WT) mice. We measured I(Ca) (whole-cell voltage-clamp), and simultaneously measured Ca(2+) transients (Fluo-4 AM) and cell shortening (edge detection). Zaprinast (selective inhibitor of PDE5), decreased beta-AR stimulated (isoproterenol, ISO)-I(Ca), and Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes in WT myocytes. However, YC-1 (NO-independent activator of sGC) only reduced ISO-stimulated I(Ca), but not cardiac contraction. We further investigated the NOS3/sGC/PDE5 pathway in NOS3(-/-) myocytes. PDE5 is mislocalized in these myocytes and we observed dissimilar effects of PDE5 inhibition and sGC activation compared to WT. That is, zaprinast had no effect on ISO-stimulated I(Ca), or Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes. Conversely, YC-1 significantly decreased both ISO-stimulated I(Ca), and cardiac contraction. Further confirming that PDE5 localizes NOS3/cGMP signaling to I(Ca); YC-1, in the presence of zaprinast, now significantly decreased ISO-stimulated Ca(2+) transient and cell shortening amplitudes in WT myocytes. The effects of YC-1 on I(Ca) and cardiac contraction were blocked by KT5823 (a selective inhibitor of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKG). Our data suggests a novel physiological role for PDE5 in restricting the effects of NOS3/sGC/PKG signaling pathway to modulating beta-AR stimulated I(Ca), while limiting effects on cardiac contraction.

  6. Toosendanin, a triterpenoid derivative, increases Ca2+ current in NG108-15 cells via L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu-Feng; Wu, Ying; Wang, Zhong-Feng; Shi, Yu-Liang

    2004-06-01

    Toosendanin, a triterpenoid derivative extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, was demonstrated to be a selective presynaptic blocker and an effective antibotulismic agent in previous studies. Here, we observed its effects on Ca(2+) channels in NG108-15 cells by whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Obtained data showed that toosendanin concentration dependently increased the high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) current with an EC(50) of 5.13 microM in differentiated NG108-15 cells. The enhancement effect was still observed when the cells were pretreated with 5 microM omega-conotoxin MVIIC. However, when the cells were preincubated with 5 microM nifedipine or 10 microM verapamil-containing solution, the effect was absent. In undifferentiated NG108-15 cells, which only express T-type Ca(2+) channels, toosendanin did not affect Ca(2+) currents. These results show that toosendanin increases Ca(2+) influx in NG108-15 cells via L-type Ca(2+) channels.

  7. A central role for ROS in the functional remodelling of L-type Ca2+ channels by hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Chris; Scragg, Jason L; Boyle, John P; Fearon, Ian M; Taylor, Shafeena C; Green, Kim N; Webster, Nicola J; Ramsden, Martin; Pearson, Hugh A

    2005-01-01

    Periods of prolonged hypoxia are associated clinically with an increased incidence of dementia, the most common form of which is Alzheimer's disease. Here, we review recent studies aimed at providing a cellular basis for this association. Hypoxia promoted an enhanced secretory response of excitable cells via formation of a novel Ca2+ influx pathway associated with the formation of amyloid peptides of Alzheimer's disease. More strikingly, hypoxia potentiated Ca2+ influx specifically through L-type Ca2+ channels in three distinct cellular systems. This effect was post-transcriptional, and evidence suggests it occurred via increased formation of amyloid peptides which alter Ca2+ channel trafficking via a mechanism involving increased production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria. This action of hypoxia is likely to contribute to dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, which has been proposed as a mechanism of cell death in Alzheimer's disease. We suggest, therefore, that our data provide a cellular basis to account for the known increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease in patients who have suffered prolonged hypoxic episodes. PMID:16321794

  8. Phosphodiesterase 4D regulates baseline sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and cardiac contractility, independently of L-type Ca2+ current.

    PubMed

    Beca, Sanja; Helli, Peter B; Simpson, Jeremy A; Zhao, Dongling; Farman, Gerrie P; Jones, Peter; Tian, Xixi; Wilson, Lindsay S; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Chen, S R Wayne; Movsesian, Matthew A; Manganiello, Vincent; Maurice, Donald H; Conti, Marco; Backx, Peter H

    2011-10-14

    Baseline contractility of mouse hearts is modulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-γ-dependent manner by type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4), which regulate cAMP levels within microdomains containing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium ATPase type 2a (SERCA2a). The goal of this study was to determine whether PDE4D regulates basal cardiac contractility. At 10 to 12 weeks of age, baseline cardiac contractility in PDE4D-deficient (PDE4D(-/-)) mice was elevated mice in vivo and in Langendorff perfused hearts, whereas isolated PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes showed increased whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+content but unchanged L-type calcium current, compared with littermate controls (WT). The protein kinase A inhibitor R(p)-adenosine-3',5' cyclic monophosphorothioate (R(p)-cAMP) lowered whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes to WT levels. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram had no effect on cardiac contractility, whole-cell Ca2+ transients, or SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D(-/-) preparations but increased these parameters in WT myocardium to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D(-/-). The functional changes in PDE4D(-/-) myocardium were associated with increased PLN phosphorylation but not cardiac ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Rolipram increased PLN phosphorylation in WT cardiomyocytes to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D(-/-) cardiomyocytes. In murine and failing human hearts, PDE4D coimmunoprecipitated with SERCA2a but not with cardiac ryanodine receptor. PDE4D regulates basal cAMP levels in SR microdomains containing SERCA2a-PLN, but not L-type Ca2+ channels or ryanodine receptor. Because whole-cell Ca2+ transient amplitudes are reduced in failing human myocardium, these observations may have therapeutic implications for patients with heart failure.

  9. Vanillin and vanillin analogs relax porcine coronary and basilar arteries by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Raffai, Gábor; Khang, Gilson; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin (VA) and vanillyl alcohol (VAA), components of natural vanilla, and ethyl vanillin (EtVA; synthetic analog) are used as flavoring agents and/or as additives by the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutic industries. VA, VAA, and EtVA possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but their vascular effects have not been determined. Therefore, we compared in isolated porcine coronary and basilar arteries the changes in isometric tension caused by VA, VAA, and EtVA. VA and its analogs caused concentration-dependent relaxations of both preparations during contractions from U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-11α,9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2α, a thromboxane A2 receptor agonist), and of coronary arteries contracted with KCl or endothelin-1. The order of potency was VAA < VA < EtVA. The relaxations were not inhibited by endothelium removal, by inhibitors of NO synthases (N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride), cyclooxygenases (indomethacin), soluble guanylyl cyclase (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one [ODQ]), KCa (1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole [TRAM-34], 6,12,19,20,25,26-hexahydro-5,27:13,18:21,24-trietheno-11,7-metheno-7H-dibenzo[b,n][1,5,12,16]tetraazacyclotricosine-5,13-diium ditrifluoroacetate hydrate [UCL-1684], or iberiotoxin), by KATP (glibenclamide), by Kir (BaCl2), by transient receptor potential receptor vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) channels (ruthenium red), or by antioxidants (catalase, apocynin, tempol, N-acetylcysteine, tiron). VA and its analogs inhibited contractions induced by Ca(2+) reintroduction in coronary arteries, and by an opener of L-type Ca(2+)-channels (methyl 2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate [Bay K8644]) in coronary and basilar arteries. They inhibited contractions of coronary rings induced by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate to the same extent as the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or incubation with nifedipine. Thus, in porcine arteries

  10. Potentiating effects of L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis are influenced by serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Cui, X-Y; Chu, Q-P; Chen, B-Q; Wang, X-M; Lin, Z-B; Li, X-J; Ku, B-S; Zhang, Y-H

    2006-10-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) behind the interactions between barbiturates and Ca(2+) antagonists, the effects of three structurally diverse types of Ca(2+) antagonists combined or not with 5-HT on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis in mice were investigated. The results showed that dihydropyridine derivative nifedipine (10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg, p.o.) and other types of Ca(2+) antagonist, verapamil (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, p.o.) and diltiazem (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, p.o.) increased both the sleeping time in hypnotic dosage of pentobarbital (45 mg/kg, i.p.) treated mice and the rate of sleep onset in the sub-hypnotic dosage of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.) treated mice in a dose-dependent manner, respectively, and these effects were significantly augmented by 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, s.c.), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and nifedipine (10.0 mg/kg, p.o.), verapamil (5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) and diltiazem (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) abolished this effect. From these results, it should be presumed that the augmentative effect of L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers on pentobarbital-induced sleep may be influenced by serotonergic system.

  11. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca [subscript V] 1.2 Mediates Fear Extinction and Modulates Synaptic Tone in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temme, Stephanie J.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in both the formation and the reduction of fear through Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. Despite the implication of LVGCCs in fear learning and extinction, studies of the individual LVGCC subtypes, Ca[subscript V]1.2 and Ca[subscript V] 1.3, using transgenic mice have…

  12. Modeling Effects of L-Type Ca2+ Current and Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger on Ca2+ Trigger Flux in Rabbit Myocytes with Realistic T-Tubule Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Kekenes-Huskey, Peter M.; Cheng, Yuhui; Hake, Johan E.; Sachse, Frank B.; Bridge, John H.; Holst, Michael J.; McCammon, J. Andrew; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Michailova, Anushka P.

    2012-01-01

    The transverse tubular system of rabbit ventricular myocytes consists of cell membrane invaginations (t-tubules) that are essential for efficient cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. In this study, we investigate how t-tubule micro-anatomy, L-type Ca2+ channel (LCC) clustering, and allosteric activation of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by L-type Ca2+ current affects intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. Our model includes a realistic 3D geometry of a single t-tubule and its surrounding half-sarcomeres for rabbit ventricular myocytes. The effects of spatially distributed membrane ion-transporters (LCC, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump, and sarcolemmal Ca2+ leak), and stationary and mobile Ca2+ buffers (troponin C, ATP, calmodulin, and Fluo-3) are also considered. We used a coupled reaction-diffusion system to describe the spatio-temporal concentration profiles of free and buffered intracellular Ca2+. We obtained parameters from voltage-clamp protocols of L-type Ca2+ current and line-scan recordings of Ca2+ concentration profiles in rabbit cells, in which the sarcoplasmic reticulum is disabled. Our model results agree with experimental measurements of global Ca2+ transient in myocytes loaded with 50 μM Fluo-3. We found that local Ca2+ concentrations within the cytosol and sub-sarcolemma, as well as the local trigger fluxes of Ca2+ crossing the cell membrane, are sensitive to details of t-tubule micro-structure and membrane Ca2+ flux distribution. The model additionally predicts that local Ca2+ trigger fluxes are at least threefold to eightfold higher than the whole-cell Ca2+ trigger flux. We found also that the activation of allosteric Ca2+-binding sites on the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger could provide a mechanism for regulating global and local Ca2+ trigger fluxes in vivo. Our studies indicate that improved structural and functional models could improve our understanding of the contributions of L-type and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger fluxes to intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:23060801

  13. Nitric Oxide Is Required for L-Type Ca(2+) Channel-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pigott, Beatrice M; Garthwaite, John

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has long been implicated in the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and other types of synaptic plasticity, a role for which the intimate coupling between NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) is likely to be instrumental in many instances. While several types of synaptic plasticity depend on NMDARs, others do not, an example of which is LTP triggered by opening of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (L-VGCCs) in postsynaptic neurons. In CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, NMDAR-dependent LTP (LTPNMDAR) appears to be primarily expressed postsynaptically whereas L-VGCC-dependent LTP (LTPL-VGCC), which often coexists with LTPNMDAR, appears mainly to reflect enhanced presynaptic transmitter release. Since NO is an excellent candidate as a retrograde messenger mediating post-to-presynaptic signaling, we sought to determine if NO functions in LTPL-VGCC in mouse CA3-CA1 synapses. When elicited by a burst type of stimulation with NMDARs and the associated NO release blocked, LTPL-VGCC was curtailed by inhibition of NO synthase or of the NO-receptor guanylyl cyclase to the same extent as occurred with inhibition of L-VGCCs. Unlike LTPNMDAR at these synapses, LTPL-VGCC was unaffected in mice lacking endothelial NO synthase, implying that the major source of the NO is neuronal. Transient delivery of exogenous NO paired with tetanic synaptic stimulation under conditions of NMDAR blockade resulted in a long-lasting potentiation that was sensitive to inhibition of NO-receptor guanylyl cyclase but was unaffected by inhibition of L-VGCCs. The results indicate that NO, acting through its second messenger cGMP, plays an unexpectedly important role in L-VGCC-dependent, NMDAR-independent LTP, possibly as a retrograde messenger generated in response to opening of postsynaptic L-VGCCs and/or as a signal acting postsynaptically, perhaps to facilitate changes in gene expression.

  14. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M; Pessah, Isaac N; Molinski, Tadeusz F; López, Jose R; Beam, Kurt G; Allen, Paul D

    2012-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and Ca(V)1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca(2+) entry. The Ca(V)1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all Ca(V) channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104-115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (Ca(V)1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in Ca(V)1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca(2+) release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in Ca(V)1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type Ca(V)1.1. Our results indicate that Ca(V)1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) leak from the SR, and that perturbation of Ca(V)1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers.

  15. Regulation of Ca2+ influx by a protein kinase C activator in chromaffin cells: differential role of P/Q- and L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Sena, C M; Santos, R M; Boarder, M R; Rosário, L M

    1999-02-05

    Phorbol esters reduce depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx in adrenal chromaffin cells, suggesting that voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs) are inhibited by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. We now address the possibility that L- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel subtypes might be differentially involved in phorbol ester action. In bovine chromaffin cells, short-term (10 min) incubations with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) inhibited early high K+-evoked rises in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the early component of the depolarization-evoked Mn2+ quenching of fura-2 fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 18 and 7 nM; maximal inhibitions: 45 and 48%, respectively). The protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) reverted the inhibitory action of PMA. PMA (0.1-1 microM) inhibited the early and late phases of the ionomycin (2 microM)-evoked [Ca2+]i transients by 14-23%. Omega-agatoxin IVA, a blocker of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, inhibited high K+-evoked [Ca2+]i rises in a dose-dependent fashion (IC50 = 50 nM). In contrast, 0.1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, a blocker of N-type channels, was without effect. A sizeable (< 45%) component of early Ca2+ influx persisted in the combined presence of omega-agatoxin IVA (100 nM) and nitrendipine (1 microM). Simultaneous exposure to omega-agatoxin IVA and PMA inhibited both the early [Ca2+]i transients and Mn2+ quenching to a much greater extent than each drug separately. Inhibition of the [Ca2+]i transients by nitrendipine and PMA did not significantly exceed that produced by PMA alone. It is concluded that phorbol ester-mediated activation of protein kinase C inhibits preferentially L-type VSCCs over P/Q type channels in adrenal chromaffin cells. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that dihydropyridine-resistant, non-P/Q type channels might also be negatively regulated by protein kinase C. This may represent an important pathway for the specific control of VSCCs by protein kinase C

  16. Levels of CaV1.2 L-Type Ca2+ Channels Peak in the First Two Weeks in Rat Hippocampus Whereas CaV1.3 Channels Steadily Increase through Development

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Audra A.; Ingraham, Nicholas E.; Sharpe, Emily J.; Mynlieff, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Influx of calcium through voltage-dependent channels regulates processes throughout the nervous system. Specifically, influx through L-type channels plays a variety of roles in early neuronal development and is commonly modulated by G-protein-coupled receptors such as GABAB receptors. Of the four isoforms of L-type channels, only CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 are predominately expressed in the nervous system. Both isoforms are inhibited by the same pharmacological agents, so it has been difficult to determine the role of specific isoforms in physiological processes. In the present study, Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy were utilized to study developmental expression levels and patterns of CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus. Steady-state expression of CaV1.2 predominated during the early neonatal period decreasing by day 12. Steady-state expression of CaV1.3 was low at birth and gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 15. In immunohistochemical studies, antibodies against CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 demonstrated the highest intensity of labeling in the proximal dendrites at all ages studied (P1–72). Immunohistochemical studies on one-week-old hippocampi demonstrated significantly more colocalization of GABAB receptors with CaV1.2 than with CaV1.3, suggesting that modulation of L-type calcium current in early development is mediated through CaV1.2 channels. PMID:23097697

  17. Ca²⁺ channel activators reveal differential L-type Ca²⁺ channel pharmacology between native and stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiesheng; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Ji, Junzhi; Lei, Qiubo; Rampe, David

    2012-05-01

    Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes provide new models for studying the ion channel pharmacology of human cardiac cells for both drug discovery and safety pharmacology purposes. However, detailed pharmacological characterization of ion channels in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes is lacking. Therefore, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology to perform a pharmacological survey of the L-type Ca²⁺ channel in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and compared the results with native guinea pig ventricular cells. Six structurally distinct antagonists [nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem, lidoflazine, bepridil, and 2-[(cis-2-phenylcyclopentyl)imino]-azacyclotridecane hydrochloride (MDL 12330)] and two structurally distinct activators [methyl 2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate (Bay K8644) and 2,5-dimethyl-4-[2-(phenylmethyl)benzoyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (FPL 64176)] were used. The IC₅₀ values for the six antagonists showed little variability between the three cell types. However, whereas Bay K8644 produced robust increases in Ca²⁺ channel current in guinea pig myocytes, it failed to enhance current in the two stem cell lines. Furthermore, Ca²⁺ channel current kinetics after addition of Bay K8644 differed in the stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes compared with native cells. FPL 64176 produced consistently large increases in Ca²⁺ channel current in guinea pig myocytes but had a variable effect on current amplitude in the stem cell-derived myocytes. The effects of FPL 64176 on current kinetics were similar in all three cell types. We conclude that, in the stem cell-derived myocytes tested, L-type Ca²⁺ channel antagonist pharmacology is preserved, but the pharmacology of activators is altered. The results highlight the need for extensive pharmacological characterization of ion channels in stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes because these complex proteins contain

  18. Knockout of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in smooth muscle attenuates vasoconstriction and L-type Ca2+ channel current and lowers blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Ren, Chongyu; Chen, Ling; Navedo, Manuel F; Antos, Laura K; Kinsey, Stephen P; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Philipson, Kenneth D; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Santana, Luis F; Wier, W Gil; Matteson, Donald R; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2010-05-01

    Mice with smooth muscle (SM)-specific knockout of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger type-1 (NCX1(SM-/-)) and the NCX inhibitor, SEA0400, were used to study the physiological role of NCX1 in mouse mesenteric arteries. NCX1 protein expression was greatly reduced in arteries from NCX1(SM-/-) mice generated with Cre recombinase. Mean blood pressure (BP) was 6-10 mmHg lower in NCX1(SM-/-) mice than in wild-type (WT) controls. Vasoconstriction was studied in isolated, pressurized mesenteric small arteries from WT and NCX1(SM-/-) mice and in heterozygotes with a global null mutation (NCX1(Fx/-)). Reduced NCX1 activity was manifested by a marked attenuation of responses to low extracellular Na(+) concentration, nanomolar ouabain, and SEA0400. Myogenic tone (MT, 70 mmHg) was reduced by approximately 15% in NCX1(SM-/-) arteries and, to a similar extent, by SEA0400 in WT arteries. MT was normal in arteries from NCX1(Fx/-) mice, which had normal BP. Vasoconstrictions to phenylephrine and elevated extracellular K(+) concentration were significantly reduced in NCX1(SM-/-) arteries. Because a high extracellular K(+) concentration-induced vasoconstriction involves the activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LVGCs), we measured LVGC-mediated currents and Ca(2+) sparklets in isolated mesenteric artery myocytes. Both the currents and the sparklets were significantly reduced in NCX1(SM-/-) (vs. WT or NCX1(Fx/-)) myocytes, but the voltage-dependent inactivation of LVGCs was not augmented. An acute application of SEA0400 in WT myocytes had no effect on LVGC current. The LVGC agonist, Bay K 8644, eliminated the differences in LVGC currents and Ca(2+) sparklets between NCX1(SM-/-) and control myocytes, suggesting that LVGC expression was normal in NCX1(SM-/-) myocytes. Bay K 8644 did not, however, eliminate the difference in myogenic constriction between WT and NCX1(SM-/-) arteries. We conclude that, under physiological conditions, NCX1-mediated Ca(2+) entry contributes significantly to

  19. Adenylyl Cyclase Subtype-Specific Compartmentalization: Differential Regulation of L-type Ca2+ Current in Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Timofeyev, Valeriy; Myers, Richard E.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Woltz, Ryan L.; Sirish, Padmini; Heiserman, James P.; Li, Ning; Singapuri, Anil; Tang, Tong; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.; Hammond, H. Kirk; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Adenylyl cyclase (AC) represents one of the principal molecules in the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling pathway, responsible for the conversion of ATP to the second messenger, cAMP. AC type 5 (ACV) and 6 (ACVI) are the two main isoforms in the heart. While highly homologous in sequence, these two proteins nevertheless play different roles during the development of heart failure. Caveolin-3 is a scaffolding protein, integrating many intracellular signaling molecules in specialized areas called caveolae. In cardiomyocytes, caveolin is predominantly located along invaginations of the cell membrane known as t-tubules. Objective We take advantage of ACV and ACVI knockout mouse models to test the hypothesis that there is distinct compartmentalization of these two isoforms in ventricular myocytes. Methods and Results We demonstrate that ACV and ACVI isoforms exhibit distinct subcellular localization. ACVI isoform is localized in the plasma membrane outside of the t-tubular region, and is responsible for β1AR signaling-mediated enhancement of the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) in ventricular myocytes. In contrast, ACV isoform is localized mainly in the t-tubular region where its influence on ICa,L is restricted by phosphodiesterase (PDE). We further demonstrate that the interaction between caveolin-3 with ACV and PDE is responsible for the compartmentalization of ACV signaling. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the compartmentalization of the two AC isoforms in the regulation of ICa,L in ventricular myocytes. Since caveolae are found in most mammalian cells, the mechanism of βAR and AC compartmentalization may also be important for βAR signaling in other cell types. PMID:23609114

  20. Long-term high-altitude hypoxia influences pulmonary arterial L-type calcium channel-mediated Ca2+ signals and contraction in fetal and adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Shen, Christine P; Romero, Monica; Brunelle, Alexander; Wolfe, Craig; Dobyns, Abigail; Francis, Michael; Taylor, Mark S; Puglisi, Jose L; Longo, Lawrence D; Zhang, Lubo; Wilson, Christopher G; Wilson, Sean M

    2018-03-01

    Long-term hypoxia (LTH) has a profound effect on pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction in the fetus and adult. Dysregulation in Ca 2+ signaling is important during the development of LTH-induced pulmonary hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-type Ca 2+ channels (Ca L ), which are voltage dependent and found in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle, are important in the adaptation of pulmonary arterial contractions in postnatal maturation and in response to LTH. Pulmonary arteries were isolated from fetal or adult sheep maintained at low or high altitude (3,801 m) for >100 days. The effects were measured using an L-type Ca 2+ channel opener FPL 64176 (FPL) in the presence or absence of an inhibitor, Nifedipine (NIF) on arterial contractions, intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations, and ryanodine receptor-driven Ca 2+ sparks. FPL induced pulmonary arterial contractions in all groups were sensitive to NIF. However, when compared with 125 mM K + , FPL contractions were greater in fetuses than in adults. FPL reduced Ca 2+ oscillations in myocytes of adult but not fetal arteries, independently of altitude. The FPL effects on Ca 2+ oscillations were reversed by NIF in myocytes of hypoxic but not normoxic adults. FPL failed to enhance Ca 2+ spark frequency and had little impact on spatiotemporal firing characteristics. These data suggest that Ca L -dependent contractions are largely uncoupled from intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations and the development of Ca 2+ sparks. This raises questions regarding the coupling of pulmonary arterial contractility to membrane depolarization, attendant Ca L facilitation, and the related associations with the activation of Ca 2+ oscillations and Ca 2+ sparks.

  1. Toosendanin, a triterpenoid derivative, acts as a novel agonist of L-type Ca2+ channels in neonatal rat ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu-Feng; Shi, Yu-Liang

    2004-10-06

    Toosendanin, a triterpenoid derivative extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, was demonstrated to be potentially useful in medical and scientific researches. Here, we investigated the effects of toosendanin on L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp method. Toosendanin irreversibly increased L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca(L))) in a concentration-dependent manner and shifted the maximum of the current/voltage relationship from 8.3+/-3.7 to 1.7+/-3.7 mV, without modifying the threshold potential of the current. Toosendanin shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation curves to the left. The deactivation kinetics of the I(Ca(L)) was significantly slowed by toosendanin while the activation kinetics was not affected. The cells pretreated with 100 nM 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid methyl ester (S(-)-BayK8644) still respond to further addition of 87 microM toosendanin, and vice versa. These results prove toosendanin to be a novel L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist, which possesses a distinct binding site from BayK8644.

  2. Hippocampal sharp waves and ripples: Effects of aging and modulation by NMDA receptors and L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Kouvaros, S; Kotzadimitriou, D; Papatheodoropoulos, C

    2015-07-09

    Aging is accompanied by a complicated pattern of changes in the brain organization and often by alterations in specific memory functions. One of the brain activities with important role in the process of memory consolidation is thought to be the hippocampus activity of sharp waves and ripple oscillation (SWRs). Using field recordings from the CA1 area of hippocampal slices we compared SWRs as well as single pyramidal cell activity between adult (3-6-month old) and old (24-34-month old) Wistar rats. The slices from old rats displayed ripple oscillation with a significantly less number of ripples and lower frequency compared with those from adult animals. However, the hippocampus from old rats had significantly higher propensity to organized SWRs in long sequences. Furthermore, the bursts recorded from complex spike cells in slices from old compared with adult rats displayed higher number of spikes and longer mean inter-spike interval. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors by 3-((R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) increased the amplitude of both sharp waves and ripples and increased the interval between events of SWRs in both age groups. On the contrary, CPP reduced the probability of occurrence of sequences of SWRs more strongly in slices from adult than old rats. Blockade of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels by nifedipine only enhanced the amplitude of sharp waves in slices from adult rats. CPP increased the postsynaptic excitability and the paired-pulse inhibition in slices from both adult and old rats similarly while nifedipine increased the postsynaptic excitability only in slices from adult rats. We propose that the tendency of the aged hippocampus to generate long sequences of SWR events might represent the consequence of homeostatic mechanisms that adaptively try to compensate the impairment in the ripple oscillation in order to maintain the behavioral outcome efficient in the old individuals. The age

  3. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A.; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Molinski, Tadeusz F.; López, Jose R.; Beam, Kurt G.; Allen, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation–contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca2+ entry. The CaV1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all CaV channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104–115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in CaV1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca2+ release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in CaV1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca2+ levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type CaV1.1. Our results indicate that CaV1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca2+ leak from the SR, and that perturbation of CaV1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers. PMID:22547813

  4. PA1b, a plant peptide, induces intracellular [Ca2+] increase via Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel and triggers secretion in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, ZhiTao; Dun, XinPeng; Zhang, Ming; Zhu, HongLiang; Xie, Li; Wu, ZhengXing; Chen, ZhengWang; Xu, Tao

    2007-06-01

    Using alginic acid to adsorb polypeptides at pH 2.7, we isolated a peptide pea albumin 1b (PA1b) from pea seeds. The PA1b is a single chain peptide consisting of 37 amino acid residues with 6 cysteines which constitutes the cystine-knot structure. Using microfluorometry and patch clamp techniques, we found that PA1b significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) and elicited membrane capacitance increase in the primary rat pancreatic beta cells. The PA1b effect on [Ca2+]i elevation was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nimodipine. Interestingly, we found that PA1b significantly depolarized membrane potential, which could lead to the opening of voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels and influx of extracellular Ca2+, and then evoke robust secretion. In this study we identified the plant peptide PA1b which is capable of affecting the excitability and function of mammalian pancreatic beta cell.

  5. Nanoparticle-mediated dual delivery of an antioxidant and a peptide against the L-Type Ca2+ channel enables simultaneous reduction of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Naviin; Viola, Helena M; Johnstone, Victoria P A; Clemons, Tristan D; Cserne Szappanos, Henrietta; Singh, Ruhani; Smith, Nicole M; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Hool, Livia C

    2015-01-27

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury are key mediators of cell death and the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The L-type Ca(2+) channel is the main route for calcium influx in cardiac myocytes. Activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel leads to a further increase in mitochondrial ROS production and metabolism. We have previously shown that the application of a peptide derived against the alpha-interacting domain of the L-type Ca(2+) channel (AID) decreases myocardial injury post reperfusion. Herein, we examine the efficacy of simultaneous delivery of the AID peptide in combination with the potent antioxidants curcumin or resveratrol using multifunctional poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles. We highlight that drug loading and dissolution are important parameters that have to be taken into account when designing novel combinatorial therapies following cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the case of resveratrol low loading capacity and fast release rates hinder its applicability as an effective candidate for simultaneous therapy. However, in the case of curcumin, high loading capacity and sustained release rates enable its effective simultaneous delivery in combination with the AID peptide. Simultaneous delivery of the AID peptide with curcumin allowed for effective attenuation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel-activated increases in superoxide (assessed as changes in DHE fluorescence; Empty NP = 53.1 ± 7.6%; NP-C-AID = 7.32 ± 3.57%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (assessed as changes in JC-1 fluorescence; Empty NP = 19.8 ± 2.8%; NP-C-AID=13.05 ± 1.78%). We demonstrate in isolated rat hearts exposed to ischemia followed by reperfusion, that curcumin and the AID peptide in combination effectively reduce muscle damage, decrease oxidative stress and superoxide production in cardiac myocytes.

  6. Pyruvate restores β-adrenergic sensitivity of L-type Ca(2+) channels in failing rat heart: role of protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Qi; Li, Xun; Tang, Kang; Sharma, Neeru M; Wyatt, Todd A; Patel, Kaushik P; Gao, Lie; Bidasee, Keshore R; Rozanski, George J

    2013-05-15

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of heart failure, where the contractile response to β-adrenergic stimulation is profoundly depressed. This condition involves L-type Ca(2+) channels, but the mechanisms underlying their impaired adrenergic regulation are unclear. Thus the present study explored the basis for impaired adrenergic control of Ca(2+) channels in a rat infarction model of heart failure. Patch-clamp recordings of L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) from ventricular myocytes isolated from infarcted hearts showed a blunted response to intracellular cAMP that was reversed by treatment with exogenous pyruvate. Biochemical studies showed that basal and cAMP-stimulated protein kinase A activities were similar in infarcted and sham-operated hearts, whereas molecular analysis also found that binding of protein kinase A to the α(1C) subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel isoform 1.2 was not different between groups. By contrast, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity and binding to α(1C) were significantly less in infarcted hearts. The PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid markedly increased I(Ca,L) in sham-operated myocytes, but this response was significantly less in myocytes from infarcted hearts. However, pyruvate normalized I(Ca,L) stimulation by okadaic acid, and this effect was blocked by inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase, implicating a functional role for the redox-active thioredoxin system. Our data suggest that blunted β-adrenergic stimulation of I(CaL) in failing hearts results from hyperphosphorylation of Ca(2+) channels secondary to oxidation-induced impairment of PP2A function. We propose that the redox state of Ca(2+) channels or PP2A is controlled by the thioredoxin system which plays a key role in Ca(2+) channel remodeling of the failing heart.

  7. Apo calmodulin binding to the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Ca{sub v}1.2 IQ peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Luyun; Myatt, Daniel; Kitmitto, Ashraf

    2007-02-16

    The influx of calcium through the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) is the trigger for the process of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic recticulum, an essential step for cardiac contraction. There are two feedback mechanisms that regulate LTCC activity: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF), both of which are mediated by calmodulin (CaM) binding. The IQ domain (aa 1645-1668) housed within the cytoplasmic domain of the LTCC Ca{sub v}1.2 subunit has been shown to bind both calcium-loaded (Ca{sup 2+}CaM ) and calcium-free CaM (apoCaM). Here, we provide new data for the structural basis for the interaction ofmore » apoCaM with the IQ peptide using NMR, revealing that the apoCaM C-lobe residues are most significantly perturbed upon complex formation. In addition, we have employed transmission electron microscopy of purified LTCC complexes which shows that both apoCaM and Ca{sup 2+}CaM can bind to the intact channel.« less

  8. Tachyphylaxis to the inhibitory effect of L-type channel blockers on ACh-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations in porcine tracheal myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Shuo; Farley, Jerry M

    2007-01-01

    Discrepancies about the role of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) have been seen in recent reports. We demonstrate here that ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in TMCS were reversibly inhibited by three VGCC blockers, nicardipine, nifedipine and verapamil. Prolonged (several minutes) application of VGCC blockers, led to tachyphylaxis; that is, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations resumed, but at a lower frequency. Brief (15-30 s) removal of VGCC blockers re-sensitized [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations to inhibition by the agents. Calcium oscillations tolerant to VGCC blockers were abolished by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). KB-R7943 alone also abolished ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Enhancement of the reverse mode of NCX via removing extracellular Na(+) reversed inhibition of ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations by VGCC blockers. Inhibition of non-selective cation channels using Gd(3+) slightly reduced the frequency of ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, but did not prevent the occurrence of tachyphylaxis. Altogether, these results suggest that VGCC and the reverse mode of NCX are two primary Ca(2+) entry pathways for maintaining ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in TSMCs. The two pathways complement each other, and may account for tachyphylaxis of ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations to VGCC blockers.

  9. Odorants suppress T- and L-type Ca2+ currents in olfactory receptor cells by shifting their inactivation curves to a negative voltage.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F

    1999-12-30

    Mechanisms underlying suppression of T- and L-type Ca2+ currents (I(Ca,T) and I(Ca,L)) by odorants were investigated in newt olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique. Under voltage clamp, odorants (amyl acetate, limonene and acetophenone) reversibly suppressed I(Ca,T) and I(Ca, L). These currents disappeared completely within 150 ms following amyl acetate puffs, and recovered in approximately 1 s after the washout. Hyperpolarization of the membrane greatly relieved the odorant block of I(Ca,T) and I(Ca,L). The activation curves of both currents were not changed significantly by odorants, while their inactivation curves were shifted to negative voltages. Half-inactivation voltages of I(Ca,T) were - 66 mV (control), - 102 mV (amyl acetate), - 101 mV (limonene) and - 105 mV (acetophenone) (all 0.3 mM); those of I(Ca,L) were -33 mV (control), - 61 mV (amyl acetate), - 59 mV (limonene), and - 63 mV (acetophenone) (all 0.3 mM). These phenomena are similar to the effects of local anesthetics on I(Ca) in various preparations and also similar to the effects of odorants on I(Na) in ORCs, suggesting that these types of suppression are caused by the same mechanism.

  10. Magnolol inhibits colonic motility through down-regulation of voltage-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels of colonic smooth muscle cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zang, Kai-Hong; Luo, Jia-Lie; Leung, Fung-Ping; Huang, Yu; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph Jao-yiu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-biphenyldiol) on contraction in distal colonic segments of rats and the underlying mechanisms. Colonic segments were mounted in organ baths for isometric force measurement. Whole-cell voltage-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) currents were recorded on isolated single colonic smooth muscle cells using patch-clamp technique. The spontaneous contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)- and Bay K 8644-induced contractions were inhibited by magnolol (3-100 μM). In the presence of Bay K8644 (100 nM), magnolol (10-100 μM) inhibited the contraction induced by 10 μM ACh. By contrast, tetrodotoxin (100 nM) and Nώ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 100 μM) did not change the inhibitory effect of magnolol (10 μM). In addition, magnolol (3-100 μM) inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) currents. The present results suggest that magnolol inhibits colonic smooth muscle contraction through downregulating L-type Ca(2+) channel activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Ion channel mechanisms of rat tail artery contraction-relaxation by menthol involving, respectively, TRPM8 activation and L-type Ca2+ channel inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Melanaphy, Donal; Kustov, Maxim V.; Watson, Conall A.; Borysova, Lyudmyla; Burdyga, Theodor V.; Zholos, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is the principal cold and menthol receptor channel. Characterized primarily for its cold-sensing role in sensory neurons, it is expressed and functional in several nonneuronal tissues, including vasculature. We previously demonstrated that menthol causes variable mechanical responses (vasoconstriction, vasodilatation, or biphasic reactions) in isolated arteries, depending on vascular tone. Here we aimed to dissect the specific ion channel mechanisms and corresponding Ca2+ signaling pathways underlying such complex responses to menthol and other TRPM8 ligands in rat tail artery myocytes using patch-clamp electrophysiology, confocal Ca2+ imaging, and ratiometric Ca2+ recording. Menthol (300 μM, a concentration typically used to induce TRPM8 currents) strongly inhibited L-type Ca2+ channel current (L-ICa) in isolated myocytes, especially its sustained component, most relevant for depolarization-induced vasoconstriction. In contraction studies, with nifedipine present (10 μM) to abolish L-ICa contribution to phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstrictions of vascular rings, a marked increase in tone was observed with menthol, similar to resting (i.e., without α-adrenoceptor stimulation by PE) conditions, when L-type channels were mostly deactivated. Menthol-induced increases in PE-induced vasoconstrictions could be inhibited both by the TRPM8 antagonist AMTB (thus confirming the specific role of TRPM8) and by cyclopiazonic acid treatment to deplete Ca2+ stores, pointing to a major contribution of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in these contractile responses. Immunocytochemical analysis has indeed revealed colocalization of TRPM8 and InsP3 receptors. Moreover, menthol Ca2+ responses, which were somewhat reduced under Ca2+-free conditions, were strongly reduced by cyclopiazonic acid treatment to deplete Ca2+ store, whereas caffeine-induced Ca2+ responses were blunted in the presence of menthol. Finally, two

  12. Channelopathies in Cav1.1, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4 voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Striessnig, Jörg; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Koschak, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels couple membrane depolarization to Ca2+-dependent intracellular signaling events. This is achieved by mediating Ca2+ ion influx or by direct conformational coupling to intracellular Ca2+ release channels. The family of Cav1 channels, also termed L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), is uniquely sensitive to organic Ca2+ channel blockers and expressed in many electrically excitable tissues. In this review, we summarize the role of LTCCs for human diseases caused by genetic Ca2+ channel defects (channelopathies). LTCC dysfunction can result from structural aberrations within their pore-forming alpha1 subunits causing hypokalemic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia sensitivity (Cav1.1 alpha1), incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2; Cav1.4 alpha1), and Timothy syndrome (Cav1.2 alpha1; reviewed separately in this issue). Cav1.3 alpha1 mutations have not been reported yet in humans, but channel loss of function would likely affect sinoatrial node function and hearing. Studies in mice revealed that LTCCs indirectly also contribute to neurological symptoms in Ca2+ channelopathies affecting non-LTCCs, such as Cav2.1 alpha1 in tottering mice. Ca2+ channelopathies provide exciting disease-related molecular detail that led to important novel insight not only into disease pathophysiology but also to mechanisms of channel function.

  13. Channelopathies in Cav1.1, Cav1.3, and Cav1.4 voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Koschak, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels couple membrane depolarization to Ca2+-dependent intracellular signaling events. This is achieved by mediating Ca2+ ion influx or by direct conformational coupling to intracellular Ca2+ release channels. The family of Cav1 channels, also termed L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), is uniquely sensitive to organic Ca2+ channel blockers and expressed in many electrically excitable tissues. In this review, we summarize the role of LTCCs for human diseases caused by genetic Ca2+ channel defects (channelopathies). LTCC dysfunction can result from structural aberrations within their pore-forming α1 subunits causing hypokalemic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia sensitivity (Cav1.1 α1), incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2; Cav1.4 α1), and Timothy syndrome (Cav1.2 α1; reviewed separately in this issue). Cav1.3 α1 mutations have not been reported yet in humans, but channel loss of function would likely affect sinoatrial node function and hearing. Studies in mice revealed that LTCCs indirectly also contribute to neurological symptoms in Ca2+ channelopathies affecting non-LTCCs, such as Cav2.1 α1 in tottering mice. Ca2+ channelopathies provide exciting disease-related molecular detail that led to important novel insight not only into disease pathophysiology but also to mechanisms of channel function. PMID:20213496

  14. Ethanol-mediated relaxation of guinea pig urinary bladder smooth muscle: involvement of BK and L-type Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Malysz, John; Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Provence, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying ethanol (EtOH)-induced detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) relaxation and increased urinary bladder capacity remain unknown. We investigated whether the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), major regulators of DSM excitability and contractility, are targets for EtOH by patch-clamp electrophysiology (conventional and perforated whole cell and excised patch single channel) and isometric tension recordings using guinea pig DSM cells and isolated tissue strips, respectively. EtOH at 0.3% vol/vol (∼50 mM) enhanced whole cell BK currents at +30 mV and above, determined by the selective BK channel blocker paxilline. In excised patches recorded at +40 mV and ∼300 nM intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]), EtOH (0.1–0.3%) affected single BK channels (mean conductance ∼210 pS and blocked by paxilline) by increasing the open channel probability, number of open channel events, and open dwell-time constants. The amplitude of single BK channel currents and unitary conductance were not altered by EtOH. Conversely, at ∼10 μM but not ∼2 μM intracellular [Ca2+], EtOH (0.3%) decreased the single BK channel activity. EtOH (0.3%) affected transient BK currents (TBKCs) by either increasing frequency or decreasing amplitude, depending on the basal level of TBKC frequency. In isolated DSM strips, EtOH (0.1–1%) reduced the amplitude and muscle force of spontaneous phasic contractions. The EtOH-induced DSM relaxation, except at 1%, was attenuated by paxilline. EtOH (1%) inhibited L-type VDCC currents in DSM cells. In summary, we reveal the involvement of BK channels and L-type VDCCs in mediating EtOH-induced urinary bladder relaxation accommodating alcohol-induced diuresis. PMID:24153429

  15. Vascular L-type Ca²⁺ channel blocking activity of sulfur-containing indole alkaloids from Glycosmis petelotii.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Khanh, Pham Ngoc; Huyen, Pham Thu; Duc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Ha, Vu Thi; Durante, Miriam; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Fusi, Fabio

    2014-07-25

    In the search for novel natural compounds endowed with potential antihypertensive activity, a new sulfur-containing indole alkaloid, N-demethylglypetelotine (2), and its known analogue glypetelotine (1), were isolated from the leaves of Glycosmis petelotii. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The two alkaloids were assessed for vasorelaxing activity on rat aorta rings and for L-type Ba(2+) current [I(Ba(L))] blocking activity on single myocytes isolated from rat tail artery. Both glypetelotine and N-demethylglypetelotine inhibited phenylephrine-induced contraction with IC50 values of 20 and 50 μM, respectively. The presence of endothelium did not modify their spasmolytic effect. Neither glypetelotine nor N-demethylglypetelotine affected Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by phenylephrine. The spasmolytic effect of glypetelotine increased with membrane depolarization. In the presence of 60 mM K(+), both compounds inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the contraction induced by cumulative addition of Ca(2+), this inhibition being inversely related to Ca(2+) concentration. Glypetelotine and, less efficiently N-demethylglypetelotine, inhibited I(Ba(L)), the former compound also affecting I(Ba(L)) kinetics. In conclusion, glypetelotine is a novel vasorelaxing agent which antagonizes L-type Ca(2+) channels.

  16. Cardiodepressive effect elicited by the essential oil of Alpinia speciosa is related to L-type Ca²+ current blockade.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A; Roman-Campos, D; Carvalho, M S; Miranda, F M F; Carneiro, D C; Cavalcante, P H; Cândido, E A F; Filho, L Xavier; Cruz, J S; Gondim, A N S

    2011-05-15

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of the essential oil from Alpinia speciosa (EOAs) on cardiac contractility and the underlying mechanisms. The essential oil was obtained from Alpinia speciosa leaves and flowers and the oil was analyzed by GC-MS method. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of at least 18 components. Terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole corresponded to 38% and 18% of the crude oil, respectively. The experiments were conducted on spontaneously-beating right atria and on electrically stimulated left atria isolated from adult rats. The effect of EOAs on the isometric contractions and cardiac frequency in vitro was examined. EOAs decreased rat left atrial force of contraction with an EC₅₀ of 292.2±75.7 μg/ml. Nifedipine, a well known L-type Ca²+ blocker, inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner left atrial force of contraction with an EC₅₀ of 12.1±3.5 μg/ml. Sinus rhythm was diminished by EOAs with an EC₅₀ of 595.4±56.2 μg/ml. Whole-cell L-type Ca²+ currents were recorded by using the patch-clamp technique. EOAs at 25 μg/ml decreased I(Ca,L) by 32.6±9.2% and at 250 μg/ml it decreased by 89.3±7.4%. Thus, inhibition of L-type Ca²+ channels is involved in the cardiodepressive effect elicited by the essential oil of Alpinia speciosa in rat heart. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Negatively charged residues in the first extracellular loop of the L-type CaV1.2 channel anchor the interaction with the CaVα2δ1 auxiliary subunit

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Benoîte; Briot, Julie; Tétreault, Marie-Philippe; Sauvé, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type CaV1.2 channels in cardiomyocytes exist as heteromeric complexes. Co-expression of CaVα2δ1 with CaVβ/CaVα1 proteins reconstitutes the functional properties of native L-type currents, but the interacting domains at the CaV1.2/CaVα2δ1 interface are unknown. Here, a homology-based model of CaV1.2 identified protein interfaces between the extracellular domain of CaVα2δ1 and the extracellular loops of the CaVα1 protein in repeats I (IS1S2 and IS5S6), II (IIS5S6), and III (IIIS5S6). Insertion of a 9-residue hemagglutinin epitope in IS1S2, but not in IS5S6 or in IIS5S6, prevented the co-immunoprecipitation of CaV1.2 with CaVα2δ1. IS1S2 contains a cluster of three conserved negatively charged residues Glu-179, Asp-180, and Asp-181 that could contribute to non-bonded interactions with CaVα2δ1. Substitutions of CaV1.2 Asp-181 impaired the co-immunoprecipitation of CaVβ/CaV1.2 with CaVα2δ1 and the CaVα2δ1-dependent shift in voltage-dependent activation gating. In contrast, single substitutions in CaV1.2 in neighboring positions in the same loop (179, 180, and 182–184) did not significantly alter the functional up-regulation of CaV1.2 whole-cell currents. However, a negatively charged residue at position 180 was necessary to convey the CaVα2δ1-mediated shift in the activation gating. We also found a more modest contribution from the positively charged Arg-1119 in the extracellular pore region in repeat III of CaV1.2. We conclude that CaV1.2 Asp-181 anchors the physical interaction that facilitates the CaVα2δ1-mediated functional modulation of CaV1.2 currents. By stabilizing the first extracellular loop of CaV1.2, CaVα2δ1 may up-regulate currents by promoting conformations of the voltage sensor that are associated with the channel's open state. PMID:28864774

  18. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits L-type Ca2+ Channels via Redox Modulation of Key Cysteine Residues by Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species*

    PubMed Central

    Scragg, Jason L.; Dallas, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Jenny A.; Varadi, Gyula; Peers, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Conditions of stress, such as myocardial infarction, stimulate up-regulation of heme oxygenase (HO-1) to provide cardioprotection. Here, we show that CO, a product of heme catabolism by HO-1, directly inhibits native rat cardiomyocyte L-type Ca2+ currents and the recombinant α1C subunit of the human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. CO (applied via a recognized CO donor molecule or as the dissolved gas) caused reversible, voltage-independent channel inhibition, which was dependent on the presence of a spliced insert in the cytoplasmic C-terminal region of the channel. Sequential molecular dissection and point mutagenesis identified three key cysteine residues within the proximal 31 amino acids of the splice insert required for CO sensitivity. CO-mediated inhibition was independent of nitric oxide and protein kinase G but was prevented by antioxidants and the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase did not affect the inhibitory actions of CO. Instead, inhibitors of complex III (but not complex I) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant (Mito Q) fully prevented the effects of CO. Our data indicate that the cardioprotective effects of HO-1 activity may be attributable to an inhibitory action of CO on cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels. Inhibition arises from the ability of CO to promote generation of reactive oxygen species from complex III of mitochondria. This in turn leads to redox modulation of any or all of three critical cysteine residues in the channel's cytoplasmic C-terminal tail, resulting in channel inhibition. PMID:18596041

  19. Voltage-dependent potentiation of L-type Ca2+ channels in skeletal muscle cells requires anchored cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B D; Scheuer, T; Catterall, W A

    1994-01-01

    Skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channels respond to trains of brief depolarizations with a strong shift of the voltage dependence of channel activation toward more negative membrane potentials and slowing of channel deactivation. Increased Ca2+ entry resulting from this potentiation of channel activity may increase contractile force in response to tetanic stimuli. This voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel potentiation requires phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at a rate that suggests that kinase and channel may be maintained in close proximity through kinase anchoring. A peptide derived from the conserved kinase-binding domain of a PKA-anchoring protein (AKAP) prevents potentiation by endogenous PKA as effectively as inhibition of PKA by a specific peptide inhibitor or by omission of ATP from the intracellular solution. In contrast, a proline-substituted mutant of AKAP peptide has no effect. Potentiation in the presence of 2 microM exogenous catalytic subunit of PKA is unaffected, indicating that kinase anchoring is specifically blocked by the AKAP peptide. No effects of these agents were observed on the level or voltage dependence of basal Ca2+ channel activity before potentiation, suggesting that close physical proximity between the skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel and PKA is critical for voltage-dependent potentiation of Ca2+ channel activity but not for basal activity. Images PMID:7972090

  20. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P 0 (TMV-P 0 ) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P 1,2,3 , Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P 0 Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  2. Deletion of the L-type Calcium Channel CaV1.3 but not CaV1.2 Results in a Diminished sAHP in Mouse CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gamelli, Amy E.; McKinney, Brandon C.; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2009-01-01

    Trains of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons are followed by a prolonged calcium-dependent post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that serves to limit further firing to a sustained depolarizing input. A reduction in the AHP accompanies acquisition of several types of learning and increases in the AHP are correlated with age-related cognitive impairment. The AHP develops primarily as the result of activation of outward calcium-activated potassium currents; however the precise source of calcium for activation of the AHP remains unclear. There is substantial experimental evidence suggesting that calcium influx via voltage-gated L-type calcium channels (L-VGCCs) contributes to the generation of the AHP. Two L-VGCC subtypes are predominately expressed in the hippocampus, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3, however it is not known which L-VGCC subtype is involved in generation of the AHP. This ambiguity is due in large part to the fact that at present there are no subunit-specific agonists or antagonists. Therefore, using mice in which the gene encoding CaV1.2 or CaV1.3 was deleted, we sought to determine the impact of alterations in levels of these two L-VCGG subtypes on neuronal excitability. No differences in any AHP measure were seen between neurons from CaV1.2 knockout mice and controls. However, the total area of the AHP was significantly smaller in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to neurons from wildtype controls. A significant reduction in the amplitude of the AHP was also seen at the 1 sec time point in neurons from CaV1.3 knockout mice as compared to those from controls. Reductions in both the area and 1 sec amplitude suggest the involvement of calcium influx via CaV1.3 in the slow AHP (sAHP). Thus, the results of our study demonstrate that deletion of CaV1.3, but not CaV1.2, significantly impacts the generation of the sAHP. PMID:20014384

  3. Involvement of L-type Ca²⁺ channel and toll-like receptor-4 in nickel-induced interleukin-8 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chung, Chih-Ang; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Ben-Kuen; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Klahan, Sukhontip; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The metal nickel (Ni(2+)) is found everywhere in our daily lives, including coins, costume jewelry, and even nuts and chocolates. Nickel poisoning can cause inflammatory reactions, respiratory diseases, and allergic contact dermatitis. To clarify the mechanism by which nickel induces mediators of inflammation, we used the human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line as a model. Interleukin (IL)-8 promoter activity as well as gene expression were tested by luciferase assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The underlying mechanisms of nickel-induced IL-8 were investigated. We found that nickel induced IL-8 gene expression via the L-type Ca(2+) channel, Toll-like receptor-4 (TRL-4) and nuclear factor NF-κB signal transduction pathways. Nickel activated NF-κB expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and then increased IL-8 expression. Thus, the L-type Ca(2+) channel and TRL-4 play important roles in nickel-induced inflammatory gene expressions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hallmarks of the channelopathies associated with L-type calcium channels: a focus on the Timothy mutations in Ca(v)1.2 channels.

    PubMed

    Bidaud, Isabelle; Lory, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Within the voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav channels) family, there are four genes coding for the L-type Cav channels (Cav1). The Cav1 channels underly many important physiological functions like excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, neuronal excitability and gene transcription. Mutations found in the genes encoding the Cav channels define a wide variety of diseases called calcium channelopathies and all four genes coding the Cav1 channels are carrying such mutations. L-type calcium channelopathies include muscular, neurological, cardiac and vision syndromes. Among them, the Timothy syndrome (TS) is linked to missense mutations in CACNA1C, the gene that encodes the Ca(v)1.2 subunit. Here we review the important features of the Cav1 channelopathies. We also report on the specific properties of TS-Ca(v)1.2 channels, which display non-inactivating calcium current as well as higher plasma membrane expression. Overall, we conclude that both electrophysiological and surface expression properties must be investigated to better account for the functional consequences of mutations linked to calcium channelopathies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of L-type Ca2+ channel antagonists on in vitro excystment of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae induced by sodium cholate.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Teruaki

    2006-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of L-type Ca2+ channel antagonists on Na cholate-induced in vitro excystment (CIIE) of Paragonimus ohirai metacercariae were studied. At concentrations of 10 microM, nicardipine and nimodipine inhibited CIIE completely and by approximately 92%, respectively. Nitrendipine and (+/-)-verapamil inhibited CIIE by about one half and one third, respectively. Nifedipine and diltiazem did not inhibit CIIE significantly. At higher concentrations, nitrendipine at 20 microM completely inhibited CIIE, and (+/-)-verapamil at 40 microM inhibited CIIE by 93%. Nifedipine and diltiazem inhibited CIIE only slightly and little, respectively, even at 40 microM. Complete inhibition by nicardipine at 10 microM required preincubation of metacercariae with the antagonist for 15 min. The inhibitory effects of nicardipine and nimodipine were reversible, and most of the nimodipine-treated metacercariae could excyst within 1 h after being washed, but the nicardipine-treated ones started to excyst 1 h after washing. Nicardipine suppressed the active movement of encysted juveniles evoked by Na cholate, whereas nimodipine did not suppress this significantly. These results suggested that L-type Ca2+ channels appeared to be involved in CIIE of P. ohirai metacercariae and that the inhibitory effect of the channels was due primarily to factors other than the inhibition of muscular activity, probably involving the secretion and release of enzymes lytic against the metacercarial cyst wall.

  6. Vasoconstriction triggered by hydrogen sulfide: Evidence for Na+,K+,2Cl-cotransport and L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Sergei N; Gusakova, Svetlana V; Smaglii, Liudmila V; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Sidorenko, Svetalana V

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na + /K + -pump and Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the 86 Rb influx, respectively. NaHS exhibited the bimodal action on contractions triggered by modest depolarization ([K + ] o =30 mM). At 10 -4 M, NaHS augmented contractions of intact and endothelium-denuded strips by ~ 15% and 25%, respectively, whereas at concentration of 10 -3  M it decreased contractile responses by more than two-fold. Contractions evoked by 10 -4  M NaHS were completely abolished by bumetanide, a potent inhibitor of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport, whereas the inhibition seen at 10 -3  M NaHS was suppressed in the presence of K + channel blocker TEA. In cultured SMC, 5×10 -5  M NaHS increased Na + ,K + ,2Cl - - cotransport without any effect on the activity of this carrier in endothelial cells. In depolarized SMC, 45 Ca influx was enhanced in the presence of 10 -4  M NaHS and suppressed under elevation of [NaHS] up to 10 -3  M. 45 Ca influx triggered by 10 -4  M NaHS was abolished by bumetanide and L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Our results strongly suggest that contractions of rat aortic rings triggered by low doses of NaHS are mediated by activation of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport and Ca 2+ influx via L-type channels.

  7. Single-channel L-type Ca2+ currents in chicken embryo semicircular canal type I and type II hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Valeria; Valli, Paolo; Zucca, Giampiero; Masetto, Sergio

    2006-08-01

    Few data are available concerning single Ca channel properties in inner ear hair cells and particularly none in vestibular type I hair cells. By using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique in combination with the semicircular canal crista slice preparation, we determined the elementary properties of voltage-dependent Ca channels in chicken embryo type I and type II hair cells. The pipette solutions included Bay K 8644. With 70 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, Ca channel activity appeared as very brief openings at -60 mV. Ca channel properties were found to be similar in type I and type II hair cells; therefore data were pooled. The mean inward current amplitude was -1.3 +/- 0.1 (SD) pA at - 30 mV (n = 16). The average slope conductance was 21 pS (n = 20). With 5 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, very brief openings were already detectable at -80 mV. The mean inward current amplitude was -0.7 +/- 0.2 pA at -40 mV (n = 9). The average slope conductance was 11 pS (n = 9). The mean open time and the open probability increased significantly with depolarization. Ca channel activity was still present and unaffected when omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (3.2 microM) were added to the pipette solution. Our results show that types I and II hair cells express L-type Ca channels with similar properties. Moreover, they suggest that in vivo Ca(2+) influx might occur at membrane voltages more negative than -60 mV.

  8. Modulation of Calcium-Dependent Inactivation of L-Type Ca2+ Channels via β-Adrenergic Signaling in Thalamocortical Relay Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rankovic, Vladan; Landgraf, Peter; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Ehling, Petra; Meuth, Sven G.; Kreutz, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels are rapidly inactivated by a mechanism that is termed Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI). In this study we have shown that β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation inhibits CDI in rat thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons. This effect can be blocked by inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with a cell-permeable inhibitor (myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor-(14–22)-amide) or A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP) St-Ht31 inhibitory peptide, suggesting a critical role of these molecules downstream of the receptor. Moreover, inhibition of protein phosphatases (PP) with okadaic acid revealed the involvement of phosphorylation events in modulation of CDI after βAR stimulation. Double fluorescence immunocytochemistry and pull down experiments further support the idea that modulation of CDI in TC neurons via βAR stimulation requires a protein complex consisting of CaV1.2, PKA and proteins from the AKAP family. All together our data suggest that AKAPs mediate targeting of PKA to L-type Ca2+ channels allowing their phosphorylation and thereby modulation of CDI. PMID:22164209

  9. Significance of KATP channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and CYP450-4A enzymes in oxygen sensing in mouse cremaster muscle arterioles In vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), NO, prostaglandins, 20-HETE and L-type Ca2+ channels have all been suggested to be involved in oxygen sensing in skeletal muscle arterioles, but the role of the individual mechanisms remain controversial. We aimed to establish the importance of these mechanisms for oxygen sensing in arterioles in an in vivo model of metabolically active skeletal muscle. For this purpose we utilized the exteriorized cremaster muscle of anesthetized mice, in which the cremaster muscle was exposed to controlled perturbation of tissue PO2. Results Change from “high” oxygen tension (PO2 = 153.4 ± 3.4 mmHg) to “low” oxygen tension (PO2 = 13.8 ± 1.3 mmHg) dilated cremaster muscle arterioles from 11.0 ± 0.4 μm to 32.9 ± 0.9 μm (n = 28, P < 0.05). Glibenclamide (KATP channel blocker) caused maximal vasoconstriction, and abolished the dilation to low oxygen, whereas the KATP channel opener cromakalim caused maximal dilation and prevented the constriction to high oxygen. When adding cromakalim on top of glibenclamide or vice versa, the reactivity to oxygen was gradually restored. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels using 3 μM nifedipine did not fully block basal tone in the arterioles, but rendered them unresponsive to changes in PO2. Inhibition of the CYP450-4A enzyme using DDMS blocked vasoconstriction to an increase in PO2, but had no effect on dilation to low PO2. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) L-type Ca2+ channels are central to oxygen sensing, 2) KATP channels are permissive for the arteriolar response to oxygen, but are not directly involved in the oxygen sensing mechanism and 3) CYP450-4A mediated 20-HETE production is involved in vasoconstriction to high PO2. PMID:23663730

  10. Calcium dynamics during NMDA-induced membrane potential oscillations in lamprey spinal neurons – contribution of L-type calcium channels (CaV1.3)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Grillner, Sten; Wallén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor-dependent, intrinsic membrane potential oscillations are an important element in the operation of the lamprey locomotor network. They involve a cyclic influx of calcium, leading to an activation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels that in turn contributes to the termination of the depolarized plateau and membrane repolarization. In this study, we have investigated the calcium dynamics in different regions of lamprey spinal neurons during membrane potential oscillations, using confocal calcium imaging in combination with intracellular recordings. Calcium fluctuations were observed in both soma and dendrites, timed to the oscillations. The calcium level increased sharply at the onset of membrane depolarization, to reach its maximum by the end of the plateau. The calcium peak in distal dendrites typically occurred earlier than in the soma during the oscillatory cycle. The L-type calcium channel blocker nimodipine increased the duration of the depolarized plateau phase in most cells tested, whereas the agonist Bay K 8644 decreased plateau duration. Bay K 8644 increased the amplitude of calcium fluctuations, particularly in distal dendrites, whereas nimodipine caused a decrease, suggesting that L-type low-voltage-activated calcium channels are mainly localized in these regions. Our results thus indicate that dendritic CaV1.3-like calcium channels are activated during NMDA-mediated membrane potential oscillations. This calcium influx activates KCa channels involved in plateau termination. PMID:23440960

  11. Bioactive Natural Product and Superacid Chemistry for Lead Compound Identification: A Case Study of Selective hCA III and L-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibitors for Hypotensive Agent Discovery.

    PubMed

    Carreyre, Hélène; Carré, Grégoire; Ouedraogo, Maurice; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Bescond, Jocelyn; Supuran, Claudiu T; Thibaudeau, Sébastien

    2017-05-31

    Dodoneine (Ddn) is one of the active compounds identified from Agelanthus dodoneifolius , which is a medicinal plant used in African pharmacopeia and traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. In the context of a scientific program aiming at discovering new hypotensive agents through the original combination of natural product discovery and superacid chemistry diversification, and after evidencing dodoneine's vasorelaxant effect on rat aorta, superacid modifications allowed us to generate original analogues which showed selective human carbonic anhydrase III (hCA III) and L-type Ca 2+ current inhibition. These derivatives can now be considered as new lead compounds for vasorelaxant therapeutics targeting these two proteins.

  12. Inhibition by simvastatin, but not pravastatin, of glucose-induced cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and insulin secretion due to blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels in rat islet β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Toshihiko; Nakata, Masanori; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Kakei, Masafumi

    1999-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia often occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes, who therefore encounter administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Alteration of pancreatic β-cell function leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to examine the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on β-cell function. Cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) plays a central role in the regulation of β-cell function. The present study examined the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on the glucose-induced [Ca2+]i signalling and insulin secretion in rat islet β-cells. Simvastatin, a lipophilic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, at 0.1–3 μg ml−1 concentration-dependently inhibited the first phase increase and oscillation of [Ca2+]i induced by 8.3 mM glucose in single β-cells. The less lipophilic inhibitor, simvastatin-acid, inhibited the first phase [Ca2+]i increase but was two orders of magnitude less potent. The hydrophilic inhibitor, pravastatin (100 μg ml−1), was without effect on [Ca2+]i. Simvastatin (0.3 μg ml−1), more potently than simvastatin-acid (30 μg ml−1), inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from islets, whereas pravastatin (100 μg ml−1) had no effect. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated a reversible inhibition of the β-cell L-type Ca2+ channels by simvastatin, but not by pravastatin. Simvastatin also inhibited the [Ca2+]i increases by L-arginine and KCl, agents that act via opening of L-type Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, lipophilic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors can inhibit glucose-induced [Ca2+]i signalling and insulin secretion by blocking L-type Ca2+ channels in β-cells, and their inhibitory potencies parallel their lipophilicities. Precaution should be paid to these findings when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are used clinically, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:10205010

  13. 20-HETE increases NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production and stimulates the L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong; Bao, Yuyan; Li, Wei; Li, Xingting; Shen, Xin; Wang, Xu; Yao, Fanrong; O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Sun, Chengwen

    2010-01-01

    The production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is increased during ischemia-reperfusion, and inhibition of 20-HETE production has been shown to reduce infarct size caused by ischemia. This study was aimed to discover the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 20-HETE in cardiac myocytes. The effect of 20-HETE on L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L) was examined in rat isolated cardiomyocytes by patch-clamp recording in the whole cell mode. Superfusion of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (10–100 nM) resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in ICa,L, and this action of 20-HETE was attenuated by a specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, gp91ds-tat (5 μM), or a superoxide scavenger, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (25 U/ml), suggesting that NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide is involved in the stimulatory action of 20-HETE on ICa,L. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with 20-HETE (100 nM) increased both NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide production by approximately twofold. To study the molecular mechanism mediating the 20-HETE-induced increase in NADPH oxidase activity, PKC activity was measured in cardiomyocytes. Incubation of the cells with 20-HETE (100 nM) significantly increased PKC activity, and pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with a selective PKC inhibitor, GF-109203 (1 μM), attenuated the 20-HETE-induced increases in ICa,L and in NADPH oxidase activity. In summary, 20-HETE stimulates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, which activates L-type Ca2+ channels via a PKC-dependent mechanism in cardiomyocytes. 20-HETE and 20-HETE-producing enzymes could be novel targets for the treatment of cardiac ischemic diseases. PMID:20675568

  14. Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) regulates baseline sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and cardiac contractility, independently of L-type Ca2+current

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jeremy A.; Zhao, Dongling; Farman, Gerrie P.; Jones, Peter; Tian, Xixi; Wilson, Lindsay S.; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Chen, S.R. Wayne; Movsesian, Matthew A.; Manganiello, Vincent; Maurice, Donald H.; Conti, Marco; Backx, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Baseline contractility of mouse hearts is modulated in a PI3Kγ-dependent manner by type 4 phosphodiesterases (PDE4), which regulate cAMP levels within microdomains containing the sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) calcium-ATPase (SERCA2a). Objective To determine whether PDE4D regulates basal cAMP levels, phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation and SERCA2a activity in SR microdomains. Methods & Results We assessed myocardial function in PDE4D-deficient (PDE4D−/−) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice at 10-12 weeks of age. Baseline cardiac contractility in PDE4D−/− mice was elevated in vivo and in Langendorff perfused hearts, while isolated PDE4D−/− cardiomyocytes showed increased Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+content, but unchanged ICa(L), compared to WT. The PKA inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS, lowered Ca2+ transient amplitudes and SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D−/− cardiomyocytes to WT levels. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram (ROL) had no effect on cardiac contractility, Ca2+ transients or SR Ca2+ content in PDE4D−/− preparations but increased these parameters in WT hearts to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D−/−. The functional changes in PDE4D−/− myocardium were associated with increased PLN phosphorylation (pPLN) but not RyR2 receptor phosphorylation. ROL increased pPLN in WT cardiomyocytes to levels indistinguishable from those in PDE4D−/− cardiomyocytes. In murine and failing human hearts, PDE4D co-immunoprecipitated with SERCA2a but not with RyR2. Conclusions PDE4D regulates basal cAMP levels in SR microdomains through its interactions with SERCA2a-PLN. Since Ca2+ transient amplitudes are reduced in failing human myocardium, these observations may have therapeutic implications for patients with heart failure. PMID:21903937

  15. Low-dose combination of Rho kinase and L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists for selective inhibition of depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Calderón-Sánchez, Eva; López-Barneo, José; Ureña, Juan

    2014-06-05

    L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) are involved in the maintenance of tonic arterial contractions and regulate the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) sensitization cascade. We have tested effects of individual and combined low concentrations of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors to produce arterial relaxation without the adverse side effects of LTCCs antagonists. We have also studied whether this pharmacological strategy alters Ca(2+)-dependent electrical properties of isolated arterial and cardiac myocytes as well as cardiac contractility. Rat basilar, human carotid and coronary arterial rings were mounted on a small-vessel myograph to measure isometric tension and cardiac contractility was measured in Langendorff-perfused rat heart. Simultaneous cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and arterial diameter were measured in intact pressurized arteries loaded with Fura-2. Patch-clamp techniques were used to measure electrical properties in isolated cardiac and arterial myocytes. Low concentrations of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors reduced the tonic component of moderate depolarization-evoked contraction, leaving the phasic component practically unaltered. This selective vasorelaxant effect was more marked when the LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors were applied together. In the concentration range used (nM), Ca(2+) currents in arterial myocytes, cardiac action potentials and heart contractility were unaffected by this pharmacological approach. In conclusion, low doses of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors could be used to selectively relax precontracted arteries in pathologic conditions such as hypertension, and cerebral or coronary spasms with minor side effects on physiological contractile properties of vascular and cardiac myocytes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Resveratrol-induced Relaxation of Cholecystokinin Octapeptide- or KCl-induced Tension in Male Guinea Pig Gallbladder Strips Is Mediated Through L-type Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Loren W; Karpinski, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic compound (stilbene) and a phytoalexin. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism which mediated the resveratrol-induced relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide- or KCl-induced tension in male guinea pig gallbladder strips. Methods Gallbladder strips were prepared and suspended in in vitro chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The strips were attached to force displacement transducers, and the changes in tension were recorded on a polygraph. All reagents were added directly into the chambers. Results To determine if intracellular Ca2+ release mediated the resveratrol-induced relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide-induced tension, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) was used. 2-APB significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the amount of RSVL-induced relaxation. To determine if protein kinase A (PKA) mediated the resveratrol-induced relaxation, PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated (PKA-IM) was used. PKA-IM had no effect on resveratrol-induced relaxation. Neither KT5823, NG-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nor fulvestrant had a significant effect on the amount of resveratrol-induced relaxation. Genistein, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly (P < 0.01) increased the RSVL-induced relaxation. To determine if protein kinase C mediated the RSVL-induced relaxation, the protein kinase C inhibitors bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl- were used together, and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in resveratrol-induced relaxation was observed. The pretreatment of the strips with resveratrol significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the amount of KCl- and cholecystokinin octapep-tide-induced tension. Conclusions Resveratrol-induced relaxation is mediated by its effects on L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release. PMID:25537678

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibits L-Type Ca2+ Channels in Sensitized Guinea Pig Airway Smooth Muscle through ERK 1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-García, Jorge; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Sommer, Bettina; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; García-Hernández, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma by inducing hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. TNF-α diminishes the L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channel (L-VDCC) current in cardiac myocytes, an observation that seems paradoxical. In guinea pig sensitized tracheas KCl responses were lower than in control tissues. Serum from sensitized animals (Ser-S) induced the same phenomenon. In tracheal myocytes from nonsensitized (NS) and sensitized (S) guinea pigs, an L-VDCC current (ICa) was observed and diminished by Ser-S. The same decrease was detected in NS myocytes incubated with TNF-α, pointing out that this cytokine might be present in Ser-S. We observed that a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-α (SMI-TNF) and a TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1) antagonist (WP9QY) reversed ICa decrease induced by Ser-S in NS myocytes, confirming the former hypothesis. U0126 (a blocker of ERK 1/2 kinase) also reverted the decrease in ICa. Neither cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) nor actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor) showed any effect on the TNF-α-induced ICa reduction. We found that CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 mRNA and proteins were expressed in tracheal myocytes and that sensitization did not modify them. In cardiac myocytes, ERK 1/2 phosphorylates two sites of the L-VDCC, augmenting or decreasing ICa; we postulate that, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, TNF-α diminishes ICa probably by phosphorylating the L-VDCC site that reduces its activity through the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:27445440

  18. A new phosphorylation site in cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels (Cav1.2) responsible for its cAMP-mediated modulation.

    PubMed

    Minobe, Etsuko; Maeda, Sachiko; Xu, Jianjun; Hao, Liying; Kameyama, Asako; Kameyama, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels are modulated by phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). To explore the PKA-targeted phosphorylation site(s), five potential phosphorylation sites in the carboxyl (COOH) terminal region of the α1C-subunit of the guinea pig Cav1.2 Ca(2+) channel were mutated by replacing serine (S) or threonine (T) residues with alanine (A): S1574A (C1 site), S1626A (C2), S1699A (C3), T1908A, (C4), S1927A (C5), and their various combinations. The wild-type Ca(2+) channel activity was enhanced three- to fourfold by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin (Fsk, 5 μM), and that of mutants at C3, C4, C5, and combination of these sites was also significantly increased by Fsk. However, Fsk did not modulate the activity of the C1 and C2 mutants and mutants of combined sites involving the C1 site. Three peptides of the COOH-terminal tail of α1C, termed CT1 [corresponding to amino acids (aa) 1509-1789, containing sites C1-3], CT2 (aa 1778-2003, containing sites C4 and C5), and CT3 (aa 1942-2169), were constructed, and their phosphorylation by PKA was examined. CT1 and CT2, but not CT3, were phosphorylated in vitro by PKA. Three CT1 mutants at two sites of C1-C3 were also phosphorylated by PKA, but the mutant at all three sites was not. The CT2 mutant at the C4 site was phosphorylated by PKA, but the mutant at C5 sites was not. These results suggest that Ser(1574) (C1 site) may be a potential site for the channel modulation mediated by PKA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Impaired Inactivation of L-Type Ca2+ Current as a Potential Mechanism for Variable Arrhythmogenic Liability of HERG K+ Channel Blocking Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Gon; Sung, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun-ji; Park, Sang Woong; Won, Kyung Jong; Kim, Bokyung; Shin, Ho Chul; Kim, Ki-Suk; Leem, Chae Hun; Zhang, Yin Hua; Cho, Hana; Bae, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    The proarrhythmic effects of new drugs have been assessed by measuring rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K+ current (IKr) antagonist potency. However, recent data suggest that even drugs thought to be highly specific IKr blockers can be arrhythmogenic via a separate, time-dependent pathway such as late Na+ current augmentation. Here, we report a mechanism for a quinolone antibiotic, sparfloxacin-induced action potential duration (APD) prolongation that involves increase in late L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) caused by a decrease in Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI). Acute exposure to sparfloxacin, an IKr blocker with prolongation of QT interval and torsades de pointes (TdP) produced a significant APD prolongation in rat ventricular myocytes, which lack IKr due to E4031 pretreatment. Sparfloxacin reduced peak ICaL but increased late ICaL by slowing its inactivation. In contrast, ketoconazole, an IKr blocker without prolongation of QT interval and TdP produced reduction of both peak and late ICaL, suggesting the role of increased late ICaL in arrhythmogenic effect. Further analysis showed that sparfloxacin reduced CDI. Consistently, replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Ba2+ abolished the sparfloxacin effects on ICaL. In addition, sparfloxacin modulated ICaL in a use-dependent manner. Cardiomyocytes from adult mouse, which is lack of native IKr, demonstrated similar increase in late ICaL and afterdepolarizations. The present findings show that sparfloxacin can prolong APD by augmenting late ICaL. Thus, drugs that cause delayed ICaL inactivation and IKr blockage may have more adverse effects than those that selectively block IKr. This mechanism may explain the reason for discrepancies between clinically reported proarrhythmic effects and IKr antagonist potencies.

  20. KATP channel gain-of-function leads to increased myocardial L-type Ca2+ current and contractility in Cantu syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Mark D.; Singh, Gautam K.; Zhang, Hai Xia; Uchida, Keita; Kozel, Beth A.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Kovacs, Atilla; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Catterall, William A.; Grange, Dorothy Katherine; Nichols, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    Cantu syndrome (CS) is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in genes encoding pore-forming (Kir6.1, KCNJ8) and accessory (SUR2, ABCC9) KATP channel subunits. We show that patients with CS, as well as mice with constitutive (cGOF) or tamoxifen-induced (icGOF) cardiac-specific Kir6.1 GOF subunit expression, have enlarged hearts, with increased ejection fraction and increased contractility. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from cGOF or icGOF ventricular myocytes (VM) show increased basal L-type Ca2+ current (LTCC), comparable to that seen in WT VM treated with isoproterenol. Mice with vascular-specific expression (vGOF) show left ventricular dilation as well as less-markedly increased LTCC. Increased LTCC in KATP GOF models is paralleled by changes in phosphorylation of the pore-forming α1 subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 at Ser1928, suggesting enhanced protein kinase activity as a potential link between increased KATP current and CS cardiac pathophysiology. PMID:27247394

  1. K(ATP) channel gain-of-function leads to increased myocardial L-type Ca(2+) current and contractility in Cantu syndrome.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mark D; Singh, Gautam K; Zhang, Hai Xia; Uchida, Keita; Kozel, Beth A; Stein, Phyllis K; Kovacs, Atilla; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Catterall, William A; Grange, Dorothy Katherine; Nichols, Colin G

    2016-06-14

    Cantu syndrome (CS) is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in genes encoding pore-forming (Kir6.1, KCNJ8) and accessory (SUR2, ABCC9) KATP channel subunits. We show that patients with CS, as well as mice with constitutive (cGOF) or tamoxifen-induced (icGOF) cardiac-specific Kir6.1 GOF subunit expression, have enlarged hearts, with increased ejection fraction and increased contractility. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from cGOF or icGOF ventricular myocytes (VM) show increased basal L-type Ca(2+) current (LTCC), comparable to that seen in WT VM treated with isoproterenol. Mice with vascular-specific expression (vGOF) show left ventricular dilation as well as less-markedly increased LTCC. Increased LTCC in KATP GOF models is paralleled by changes in phosphorylation of the pore-forming α1 subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.2 at Ser1928, suggesting enhanced protein kinase activity as a potential link between increased KATP current and CS cardiac pathophysiology.

  2. [The expression of genes encoding the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 myoblasts of mice].

    PubMed

    Krasnyi, A M; Ozerniuk, N D

    2011-01-01

    Votage-dependent L-type Ca+ channels of the C2C12 line myoblasts of mice have been studied at the stage of proliferation and 24 h after the beginning of differentiation. The expression of genes Cacna1s, Cacna1S, Cacna1d, and Cacna1f, which encode channel forming subunits alpha1S, alpha1C, alph1D, and alpha1F, respectively, has been assessed. The expression of genes Cacna2d and Cacn1g, which encode the alpha2, delta, and gamma regulatory subunits, has been studied as well. For the first time, the expression of Cacnald, which is typical for nerve cells, units, has been revealed in proliferating myoblasts, whereas in differentiating mononuclear myoblasts the expression of this gene was significantly decreased. On the contrary, the low level of expression of Cacnal IS, which encodes the specific alpha1S channel forming subunit of skeletal muscles, has been observed in proliferating myoblasts, whereas in differentiating mononuclear myoblasts it has been shown to increase multifold. No considerable changes in expression of Cacna2d and Cacn 1g have been revealed in proliferating and differentiating myoblasts. No traces of expression of Cacna1c and Cacna1f have been revealed in myoblasts.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 enhances cardiac L-type Ca2+ currents via activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone predominately synthesized and secreted by intestinal L-cells. GLP-1 modulates multiple cellular functions and its receptor agonists are now used clinically for diabetic treatment. Interestingly, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that GLP-1 agonists produce beneficial effects on dysfunctional hearts via acting on myocardial GLP-1 receptors. As the effects of GLP-1 on myocyte electrophysiology are largely unknown, this study was to assess if GLP-1 could affect the cardiac voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ current (ICa). Methods The whole-cell patch clamp method was used to record ICa and action potentials in enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes from adult canine left ventricles. Results Extracellular perfusion of GLP-1 (7-36 amide) at 5 nM increased ICa by 23 ± 8% (p < 0.05, n = 7). Simultaneous bath perfusion of 5 nM GLP-1 plus 100 nM Exendin (9-39), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, was unable to block the GLP-1-induced increase in ICa; however, the increase in ICa was abolished if Exendin (9-39) was pre-applied 5 min prior to GLP-1 administration. Intracellular dialysis with a protein kinase A inhibitor also blocked the GLP-1-enhanced ICa. In addition, GLP-1 at 5 nM prolonged the durations of the action potentials by 128 ± 36 ms (p < 0.01) and 199 ± 76 ms (p < 0.05) at 50% and 90% repolarization (n = 6), respectively. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that GLP-1 enhances ICa in canine cardiomyocytes. The enhancement of ICa is likely via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A mechanism and may contribute, at least partially, to the prolongation of the action potential duration. PMID:21251280

  4. Differential sensitivity to calciseptine of L-type Ca(2+) currents in a 'lower' vertebrate (Scyliorhinus canicula), a protochordate (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) and an invertebrate (Alloteuthis subulata).

    PubMed

    Rogers, C M; Brown, E R

    2001-11-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium currents in vertebrate (Scyliorhinus canicula), protochordate (Branchiostoma lanceolatum), and invertebrate (Alloteuthis subulata) skeletal and striated muscle were examined under whole-cell voltage clamp. Nifedipine (10 microM) suppressed and cobalt (5 mM) blocked striated/skeletal muscle calcium currents in all of the animals examined, confirming that they are of the L-type class. Calciseptine, a specific blocker of vertebrate cardiac muscle and neuronal L-type calcium currents, was applied (0.2 microM) under whole-cell voltage clamp. Protochordate and invertebrate striated muscle L-type calcium currents were suppressed while up to 4 microM calciseptine had no effect on dogfish skeletal muscle L-type calcium currents. Our results demonstrate the presence of at least two sub-types of L-type calcium current in these different animals, which may be distinguished by their calciseptine sensitivity. We conclude that the invertebrate and protochordate L-type current sub-type that we have examined has properties in common with vertebrate 'cardiac' and 'neuronal' current sub-types, but not the skeletal muscle sub-type of the L-type channel.

  5. Crystal structure of dimeric cardiac L-type calcium channel regulatory domains bridged by Ca[superscript 2+]·calmodulins

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, Jennifer L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Xiong, Liangwen

    2009-11-10

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(V)) open in response to changes in membrane potential, but their activity is modulated by Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM). Structural studies of this family of channels have focused on CaM bound to the IQ motif; however, the minimal differences between structures cannot adequately describe CaM's role in the regulation of these channels. We report a unique crystal structure of a 77-residue fragment of the Ca(V)1.2 alpha(1) subunit carboxyl terminus, which includes a tandem of the pre-IQ and IQ domains, in complex with Ca(2+).CaM in 2 distinct binding modes. The structure of the Ca(V)1.2 fragment is anmore » unusual dimer of 2 coiled-coiled pre-IQ regions bridged by 2 Ca(2+).CaMs interacting with the pre-IQ regions and a canonical Ca(V)1-IQ-Ca(2+).CaM complex. Native Ca(V)1.2 channels are shown to be a mixture of monomers/dimers and a point mutation in the pre-IQ region predicted to abolish the coiled-coil structure significantly reduces Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of heterologously expressed Ca(V)1.2 channels.« less

  6. Gentamicin blocks the ACh-induced BK current in guinea pig type II vestibular hair cells by competing with Ca²⁺ at the L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Guo, Chang-Kai; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Tao; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2014-04-22

    Type II vestibular hair cells (VHCs II) contain big-conductance Ca²⁺-dependent K⁺ channels (BK) and L-type calcium channels. Our previous studies in guinea pig VHCs II indicated that acetylcholine (ACh) evoked the BK current by triggering the influx of Ca²⁺ ions through L-type Ca²⁺ channels, which was mediated by M2 muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChRs). Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin (GM), are known to have vestibulotoxicity, including damaging effects on the efferent nerve endings on VHCs II. This study used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to determine whether GM affects the vestibular efferent system at postsynaptic M2-mAChRs or the membrane ion channels. We found that GM could block the ACh-induced BK current and that inhibition was reversible, voltage-independent, and dose-dependent with an IC₅₀ value of 36.3 ± 7.8 µM. Increasing the ACh concentration had little influence on GM blocking effect, but increasing the extracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]₀) could antagonize it. Moreover, 50 µM GM potently blocked Ca²⁺ currents activated by (-)-Bay-K8644, but did not block BK currents induced by NS1619. These observations indicate that GM most likely blocks the M2 mAChR-mediated response by competing with Ca²⁺ at the L-type calcium channel. These results provide insights into the vestibulotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics on mammalian VHCs II.

  7. The L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Ca[subscript v]1.3 Mediates Consolidation, but Not Extinction, of Contextually Conditioned Fear in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Using pharmacological techniques, it has been demonstrated that both consolidation and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning are dependent to some extent upon L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs). Although these studies have successfully implicated LVGCCs in Pavlovian fear conditioning, they do not provide information about the…

  8. Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II represses cardiac transcription of the L-type calcium channel alpha(1C)-subunit gene (Cacna1c) by DREAM translocation.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Jarkko J; Hänninen, Sandra L; Korhonen, Topi; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Skoumal, Reka; Rautio, Sini; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Tavi, Pasi

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the activity of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induce a unique cardiomyocyte phenotype through the regulation of specific genes involved in excitation-contraction (E-C)-coupling. To explain the transcriptional effects of CaMKII we identified a novel CaMKII-dependent pathway for controlling the expression of the pore-forming α-subunit (Cav1.2) of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) in cardiac myocytes. We show that overexpression of either cytosolic (δC) or nuclear (δB) CaMKII isoforms selectively downregulate the expression of the Cav1.2. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII activity induced measurable changes in LTCC current density and subsequent changes in cardiomyocyte calcium signalling in less than 24 h. The effect of CaMKII on the α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) promoter was abolished by deletion of the downstream regulatory element (DRE), which binds transcriptional repressor DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3. Imaging DREAM-GFP (green fluorescent protein)-expressing cardiomyocytes showed that CaMKII potentiates the calcium-induced nuclear translocation of DREAM. Thereby CaMKII increases DREAM binding to the DRE consensus sequence of the endogenous Cacna1c gene. By mathematical modelling we demonstrate that the LTCC downregulation through the Ca2+-CaMKII-DREAM cascade constitutes a physiological feedback mechanism enabling cardiomyocytes to adjust the calcium intrusion through LTCCs to the amount of intracellular calcium detected by CaMKII.

  9. Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II represses cardiac transcription of the L-type calcium channel α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) by DREAM translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ronkainen, Jarkko J; Hänninen, Sandra L; Korhonen, Topi; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Skoumal, Reka; Rautio, Sini; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Tavi, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the activity of calcium–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induce a unique cardiomyocyte phenotype through the regulation of specific genes involved in excitation–contraction (E–C)-coupling. To explain the transcriptional effects of CaMKII we identified a novel CaMKII-dependent pathway for controlling the expression of the pore-forming α-subunit (Cav1.2) of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) in cardiac myocytes. We show that overexpression of either cytosolic (δC) or nuclear (δB) CaMKII isoforms selectively downregulate the expression of the Cav1.2. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII activity induced measurable changes in LTCC current density and subsequent changes in cardiomyocyte calcium signalling in less than 24 h. The effect of CaMKII on the α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) promoter was abolished by deletion of the downstream regulatory element (DRE), which binds transcriptional repressor DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3. Imaging DREAM–GFP (green fluorescent protein)-expressing cardiomyocytes showed that CaMKII potentiates the calcium-induced nuclear translocation of DREAM. Thereby CaMKII increases DREAM binding to the DRE consensus sequence of the endogenous Cacna1c gene. By mathematical modelling we demonstrate that the LTCC downregulation through the Ca2+–CaMKII–DREAM cascade constitutes a physiological feedback mechanism enabling cardiomyocytes to adjust the calcium intrusion through LTCCs to the amount of intracellular calcium detected by CaMKII. PMID:21486818

  10. Single retinal ganglion cell evokes the activation of L-type Ca(2+)-mediated slow inward current in frog tectal pear-shaped neurons.

    PubMed

    Baginskas, Armantas; Kuras, Antanas

    2008-04-01

    The dendrites of neurons from many regions of the nervous system contain voltage-sensitive channels that generate persistent inward currents. We have recently suggested that a slow negative wave (sNW), extracellularly observed in the frog tectum during the burst discharge of a single retinal ganglion cell, can be generated as a result of the persistent inward current in dendrites of tectal pear-shaped neurons. The aim of this study is to substantiate this hypothesis by simulation using a quasi-reconstructed pear-shaped neuron with bistable dendrites and experimental investigation of the sNW. In the experiments, the discharge of a single retinal ganglion cell was elicited by an electrical stimulation of the retina. The evoked electrical activity of the tectum was recorded using a carbon-fiber microelectrode inserted into tectum layer F. We found the following: (1) Slow inward current or plateau potential in bistable dendrites is reflected in the extracellular space as a sNW. (2) The sNW evoked by the burst discharge of a single retinal ganglion cell projecting to frog tectum layer F is generated by the activation of L-type calcium channels in the dendrites of pear-shaped neurons. (3) A few pear-shaped neurons may be suprathresholdly excited during the development of the sNW.

  11. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase and ROS-mediated activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in NMDA-induced DPYSL3 degradation.

    PubMed

    Kowara, Renata; Moraleja, Kristoffer Laser; Chakravarthy, Balu

    2006-11-13

    Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), a member of TUC (TOAD-64/Ulip/CRMP), is believed to play a role in neuronal differentiation, axonal outgrowth and possibly in neuronal regeneration. Recently, we have shown that in primary cortical neurons (PCN) NMDA and oxidative stress (H(2)O(2)) caused a calpain-dependent cleavage of DPYSL3 (62 kDa) resulting in the appearance of a lower molecular weight form (60 kDa) of DPYSL3. Our preliminary results had shown that antioxidants significantly reduced NMDA-induced DPYSL3 degradation, indicating involvement of ROS in calpain activation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of NOS in NMDA-induced DPYSL3 degradation. We found that NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) significantly prevented NMDA-induced ROS formation, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) increase [Ca(2+)](i), DPYSL3 degradation and cell death. Further, exposure of PCN to NO donor (SNP) resulted in significant [Ca(2+)](i) increase, ROS generation and probable calpain-mediated DPYSL3 truncation. The NMDA- and oxidative stress (ROS)-induced DPYSL3 truncation was totally dependent on extracellular [Ca(2+)](i). While NMDA-induced DPYSL3 truncation was blocked by both NMDA receptor antagonist (MK801) [Kowara, R., Chen, Q., Milliken, M., Chakravarthy, B., 2005. Calpain-mediated degradation of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 protein (DPYSL3) in response to NMDA and H(2)O(2) toxicity. J. Neurochem. 95 (2), 466-474] and L-VGCC (nimodipine) inhibitors, H(2)O(2)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), ROS generation and DPYSL3 truncation was blocked only by nimodipine. These results indicate that changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis resulting from ROS-dependent activation of L-VGCC are sufficient to induce probable calpain-mediated DPYSL3 truncation and demonstrate for the first time the role of ROS in the mechanism leading to glutamate-induced calpain activation and DPYSL3 protein degradation. The probable calpain-mediated DPYSL3 truncation may have significant impact on its

  12. Effects of L-type Ca2+ channel antagonism on ventricular arrhythmogenesis in murine hearts containing a modification in the Scn5a gene modelling human long QT syndrome 3

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Glyn; Gurung, Iman S; Killeen, Matthew J; Hakim, Parvez; Goddard, Catharine A; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P; Colledge, William H; Grace, Andrew A; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2007-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmogenesis in long QT 3 syndrome (LQT3) involves both triggered activity and re-entrant excitation arising from delayed ventricular repolarization. Effects of specific L-type Ca2+ channel antagonism were explored in a gain-of-function murine LQT3 model produced by a ΔKPQ 1505–1507 deletion in the SCN5A gene. Monophasic action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from epicardial and endocardial surfaces of intact, Langendorff-perfused Scn5a+/Δ hearts. In untreated Scn5a+/Δ hearts, epicardial action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90) was 60.0 ± 0.9 ms compared with 46.9 ± 1.6 ms in untreated wild-type (WT) hearts (P < 0.05; n = 5). The corresponding endocardial APD90 values were 52.0 ± 0.7 ms and 53.7 ± 1.6 ms in Scn5a+/Δ and WT hearts, respectively (P > 0.05; n = 5). Epicardial early afterdepolarizations (EADs), often accompanied by spontaneous ventricular tachycardia (VT), occurred in 100% of MAPs from Scn5a+/Δ but not in any WT hearts (n = 10). However, EAD occurrence was reduced to 62 ± 7.1%, 44 ± 9.7%, 10 ± 10% and 0% of MAPs following perfusion with 10 nm, 100 nm, 300 nm and 1 μm nifedipine, respectively (P < 0.05; n = 5), giving an effective IC50 concentration of 79.3 nm. Programmed electrical stimulation (PES) induced VT in all five Scn5a+/Δ hearts (n = 5) but not in any WT hearts (n = 5). However, repeat PES induced VT in 3, 2, 2 and 0 out of 5 Scn5a+/Δ hearts following perfusion with 10 nm, 100 nm, 300 nm and 1 μm nifedipine, respectively. Patch clamp studies in isolated ventricular myocytes from Scn5a+/Δ and WT hearts confirmed that nifedipine (300 nm) completely suppressed the inward Ca2+ current but had no effect on inward Na+ currents. No significant effects were seen on epicardial APD90, endocardial APD90 or ventricular effective refractory period in Scn5a+/Δ and WT hearts following perfusion with nifedipine at 1 nm, 10 nm, 100 nm, 300 nm and 1 μm nifedipine concentrations. We conclude that L-type Ca2

  13. A novel antihypertension agent, sargachromenol D from marine brown algae, Sargassum siliquastrum, exerts dual action as an L-type Ca2+channel blocker and endothelin A/B2receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Park, Byong-Gon; Shin, Woon-Seob; Oh, Sangtae; Park, Gab-Man; Kim, Nam Ik; Lee, Seokjoon

    2017-09-01

    We isolated the novel vasoactive marine natural products, (5E,10E)-14-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-4-one (4) and sargachromenol D (5), from Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in South Korea by using activity-guided HPLC purification. The compounds effectively dilated depolarization (50mMK + )-induced basilar artery contraction with EC 50 values of 3.52±0.42 and 1.62±0.63μM, respectively, but only sargachromenol D (5) showed a vasodilatory effect on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction (EC 50 =9.8±0.6μM). These results indicated that sargachromenol D (5) could act as a dual antagonist of l-type Ca 2+ channel and endothelin A/B 2 receptors. Moreover, sargachromenol D (5) lowered blood pressure in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) 2h after oral treatment at a dose of 80mg/kg dose and the effect was maintained for 24h. Based on our ex vivo and in vivo experiments, we propose that sargachromenol D (5) is a strong candidate for the treatment of hypertension that is not controlled by conventional drugs, in particular, severe-, type II diabetes-, salt-sensitive, and metabolic disease-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Frequency Stimulation-Induced Synaptic Potentiation in Dorsal and Ventral CA1 Hippocampal Synapses: The Involvement of NMDA Receptors, mGluR5, and (L-Type) Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kouvaros, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the ventral hippocampus (VH) for long-lasting long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms underlying its lower ability for shortlasting LTP compared with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) are unknown. Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that…

  15. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits L-type calcium channels in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Collazo, Julio; Alonso-Carbajo, Lucía; López-Medina, Ana I; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Tajada, Sendoa; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; López-López, José Ramón; Talavera, Karel; Pérez-García, María Teresa; Alvarez, Julio L

    2014-11-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA), a major component of cinnamon, is known to have important actions in the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and decrease in blood pressure. Although CA-induced activation of the chemosensory cation channel TRPA1 seems to be involved in these phenomena, it has been shown that genetic ablation of Trpa1 is insufficient to abolish CA effects. Here, we confirm that CA relaxes rat aortic rings and report that it has negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on isolated mouse hearts. Considering the major role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in the control of the vascular tone and cardiac contraction, we used whole-cell patch-clamp to test whether CA affects L-type Ca(2+) currents in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM, with Ca(2+) as charge carrier) and in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (VSMC, with Ba(2+) as charge carrier). We found that CA inhibited L-type currents in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner, with little voltage-dependent effects. However, CA was more potent in VCM than in VSMC and caused opposite effects on the rate of inactivation. We found these divergences to be at least in part due to the use of different charge carriers. We conclude that CA inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channels and that this effect may contribute to its vasorelaxing action. Importantly, our results demonstrate that TRPA1 is not a specific target of CA and indicate that the inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels should be taken into account when using CA to probe the pathophysiological roles of TRPA1.

  16. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II.

  17. L-type calcium channels in the photoreceptor ribbon synapse: localization and role in plasticity.

    PubMed

    Nachman-Clewner, M; St Jules, R; Townes-Anderson, E

    1999-12-06

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+)channels stimulates a variety of neural activities, including process outgrowth, neurotransmission, and synaptic plasticity. In general, L-type channels control Ca(2+) influx into the soma and dendrites, whereas other Ca(2+) channel types control presynaptic activities. Neurons that make ribbon synapses, however, are among a select group of nerve cells whose presynaptic Ca(2+)-dependent secretion is linked to L-type channels. Recently, photoreceptor ribbon synapses have been shown to be capable of dramatic structural remodeling and neuritic outgrowth. Here, we have examined 1) the distribution of dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive (L-type) Ca(2+) channels in photoreceptor presynaptic structures and 2) the role of these channels in axonal plasticity and process outgrowth in culture. Using anti-alpha(1C) and the fluorescent dihydropyridine, (-)-DM-BODIPY DHP, L-type channels were localized in the outer plexiform layer of retinal sections and in presynaptic terminals of freshly isolated photoreceptors. In the rod terminal, dense patches of label were present; their distribution and number matched that of synaptic ribbons. After 1-7 days in vitro, punctate alpha(1C) staining occurred along newly formed neurites and presynaptic varicosities. Functional channels were present throughout the culture period, as determined by fura-2 imaging. Channel blockage by nicardipine, a DHP antagonist, inhibited axonal remodeling. Specifically, it prevented axon retraction and lamellipodium formation, reduced neurite growth, and produced long, thin processes on some, primarily cone, photoreceptors. L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, therefore, not only stimulates neurotransmission but contributes to presynaptic structural plasticity at the ribbon synapse. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. L-type calcium channels in adrenal chromaffin cells: role in pace-making and secretion.

    PubMed

    Marcantoni, A; Baldelli, P; Hernandez-Guijo, J M; Comunanza, V; Carabelli, V; Carbone, E

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type (Cav1.2 and Cav1.3) channels are widely expressed in cardiovascular tissues and represent the critical drug-target for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. The two isoforms are also abundantly expressed in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues. In the brain, Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels control synaptic plasticity, somatic activity, neuronal differentiation and brain aging. In neuroendocrine cells, they are involved in the genesis of action potential generation, bursting activity and hormone secretion. Recent studies have shown that Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 are also expressed in chromaffin cells but their functional role has not yet been identified despite that L-type channels possess interesting characteristics, which confer them an important role in the control of catecholamine secretion during action potentials stimulation. In intact rat adrenal glands L-type channels are responsible for adrenaline and noradrenaline release following splanchnic nerve stimulation or nicotinic receptor activation. L-type channels can be either up- or down-modulated by membrane autoreceptors following distinct second messenger pathways. L-type channels are tightly coupled to BK channels and activate at relatively low-voltages. In this way they contribute to the action potential hyperpolarization and to the pace-maker current controlling action potential firings. L-type channels are shown also to regulate the fast secretion of the immediate readily releasable pool of vesicles with the same Ca(2+)-efficiency of other voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In mouse adrenal slices, repeated action potential-like stimulations drive L-type channels to a state of enhanced stimulus-secretion efficiency regulated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Here we will review all these novel findings and discuss the possible implication for a specific role of L-type channels in the control of chromaffin cells activity.

  19. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels contribute to astrocyte activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cheli, VT; Santiago González, DA; Smith, J; Spreuer, V; Murphy, GG; Paez, PM

    2016-01-01

    We have found a significant upregulation of L-type voltage-operated Ca++ channels (VOCCs) in reactive astrocytes. To test if VOCCs are centrally involved in triggering astrocyte reactivity, we used in vitro models of astrocyte activation in combination with pharmacological inhibitors, siRNAs and the Cre/lox system to reduce the activity of L-type VOCCs in primary cortical astrocytes. The endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as high extracellular K+, glutamate and ATP promote astrogliosis in vitro. L-type VOCC inhibitors drastically reduce the number of reactive cells, astrocyte hypertrophy and cell proliferation after these treatments. Astrocytes transfected with siRNAs for the Cav1.2 subunit that conducts L-type Ca++ currents as well as Cav1.2 knockout astrocytes showed reduce Ca++ influx by ~80% after plasma membrane depolarization. Importantly, Cav1.2 knock-down/out prevents astrocyte activation and proliferation induced by LPS. Similar results were found using the scratch wound assay. After injuring the astrocyte monolayer, cells extend processes toward the cell-free scratch region and subsequently migrate and populate the scratch. We found a significant increase in the activity of L-type VOCCs in reactive astrocytes located in the growing line in comparison to quiescent astrocytes situated away from the scratch. Moreover, the migration of astrocytes from the scratching line as well as the number of proliferating astrocytes was reduced in Cav1.2 knock-down/out cultures. In summary, our results suggest that Cav1.2 L-type VOCCs play a fundamental role in the induction and/or proliferation of reactive astrocytes, and indicate that the inhibition of these Ca++ channels may be an effective way to prevent astrocyte activation. PMID:27247164

  20. Increased Expression of the Cardiac L-type Calcium Channel in Estrogen Receptor–deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barry D.; Zheng, Wei; Korach, Kenneth S.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Rubanyi, Gabor M.

    1997-01-01

    Steroid hormones control the expression of many cellular regulators, and a role for estrogen in cardiovascular function and disease has been well documented. To address whether the activity of the L-type Ca2+ channel, a critical element in cardiac excitability and contractility, is altered by estrogen and its nuclear receptor, we examined cardiac myocytes from male mice in which the estrogen receptor gene had been disrupted (ERKO mice). Binding of dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist isradipine (PN200-110) was increased 45.6% in cardiac membranes from the ERKO mice compared to controls, suggesting that a lack of estrogen receptors in the heart increased the number of Ca2+ channels. Whole-cell patch clamp of acutely dissociated adult cardiac ventricular myocytes indicated that Ca2+ channel current was increased by 49% and action potential duration was increased by 75%. Examination of electrocardiogram parameters in ERKO mice showed a 70% increase in the QT interval without significant changes in PQ or QRS intervals. These results show that the membrane density of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel is regulated by the estrogen receptor and suggest that decreased estrogen may lead to an increase in the number of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels, abnormalities in cardiac excitability, and increased risk of arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:9236206

  1. The cardiac L-type calcium channel distal carboxy terminus autoinhibition is regulated by calcium.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Andres, Douglas A; Sievert, Gail; Satin, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) provides trigger Ca(2+) for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release, and LTCC function is influenced by interacting proteins including the LTCC distal COOH terminus (DCT) and calmodulin. DCT is proteolytically cleaved and reassociates with the LTCC complex to regulate calcium channel function. DCT reduces LTCC barium current (I(Ba,L)) in reconstituted channel complexes, yet the contribution of DCT to LTCC Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in cardiomyocyte systems is unexplored. This study tests the hypothesis that DCT attenuates cardiomyocyte I(Ca,L). We measured LTCC current and Ca(2+) transients with DCT coexpressed in murine cardiomyocytes. We also heterologously coexpressed DCT and Ca(V)1.2 constructs with truncations corresponding to the predicted proteolytic cleavage site, Ca(V)1.2Δ1801, and a shorter deletion corresponding to well-studied construct, Ca(V)1.2Δ1733. DCT inhibited I(Ba,L) in cardiomyocytes, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing Ca(V)1.2Δ1801 and Ca(V)1.2Δ1733. Ca(2+)-CaM relieved DCT block in cardiomyocytes and HEK cells. The selective block of I(Ba,L) combined with Ca(2+)-CaM effects suggested that DCT-mediated blockade may be relieved under conditions of elevated Ca(2+). We therefore tested the hypothesis that DCT block is dynamic, increasing under relatively low Ca(2+), and show that DCT reduced diastolic Ca(2+) at low stimulation frequencies but spared high frequency Ca(2+) entry. DCT reduction of diastolic Ca(2+) and relief of block at high pacing frequencies and under conditions of supraphysiological bath Ca(2+) suggests that a physiological function of DCT is to increase the dynamic range of Ca(2+) transients in response to elevated pacing frequencies. Our data motivate the new hypothesis that DCT is a native reverse use-dependent inhibitor of LTCC current.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits L-Type Calcium Currents Depending upon the Protein Sulfhydryl State in Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Haojan; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gasotransmitter that inhibits L-type calcium currents (I Ca, L). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In particular, the targeting site in the L-type calcium channel where H2S functions remains unknown. The study was designed to investigate if the sulfhydryl group could be the possible targeting site in the L-type calcium channel in rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiac function was measured in isolated perfused rat hearts. The L-type calcium currents were recorded by using a whole cell voltage clamp technique on the isolated cardiomyocytes. The L-type calcium channel containing free sulfhydryl groups in H9C2 cells were measured by using Western blot. The results showed that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) produced a negative inotropic effect on cardiac function, which could be partly inhibited by the oxidant sulfhydryl modifier diamide (DM). H2S donor inhibited the peak amplitude of I Ca, L in a concentration-dependent manner. However, dithiothreitol (DTT), a reducing sulfhydryl modifier markedly reversed the H2S donor-induced inhibition of I Ca, L in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, in the presence of DM, H2S donor could not alter cardiac function and L type calcium currents. After the isolated rat heart or the cardiomyocytes were treated with DTT, NaHS could markedly alter cardiac function and L-type calcium currents in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, NaHS could decrease the functional free sulfhydryl group in the L-type Ca2+ channel, which could be reversed by thiol reductant, either DTT or reduced glutathione. Therefore, our results suggest that H2S might inhibit L-type calcium currents depending on the sulfhydryl group in rat cardiomyocytes. PMID:22590646

  3. Quercetin induces insulin secretion by direct activation of L-type calcium channels in pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, G; Virsolvy, A; Quignard, J F; Ravier, M A; Bertrand, G; Dalle, S; Cros, G; Magous, R; Richard, S; Oiry, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid that displays anti-diabetic properties in vivo. Its mechanism of action on insulin-secreting beta cells is poorly documented. In this work, we have analysed the effects of quercetin both on insulin secretion and on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in beta cells, in the absence of any co-stimulating factor. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed on both INS-1 cell line and rat isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin release was quantified by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Variations in [Ca2+]i were measured using the ratiometric fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. Ca2+ channel currents were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Quercetin concentration-dependently increased insulin secretion and elevated [Ca2+]i. These effects were not modified by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol·L−1), but were nearly abolished by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (1 μmol·L−1). Similar to the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644, quercetin enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current by shifting its voltage-dependent activation towards negative potentials, leading to the increase in [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion. The effects of quercetin were not inhibited in the presence of a maximally active concentration of Bay K 8644 (1 μmol·L−1), with the two drugs having cumulative effects on [Ca2+]i. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, our results show that quercetin stimulates insulin secretion by increasing Ca2+ influx through an interaction with L-type Ca2+ channels at a site different from that of Bay K 8644. These data contribute to a better understanding of quercetin's mechanism of action on insulin secretion. PMID:23530660

  4. Regulation of L-type calcium current by intracellular magnesium in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Tashiro, Michiko; Berlin, Joshua R

    2004-01-01

    The effects of changing cytosolic [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i) on l-type Ca2+ currents were investigated in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes voltage-clamped with patch pipettes containing salt solutions with defined [Mg2+] and [Ca2+]. To control [Mg2+]i and cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), the pipette solution included 30 mm citrate and 10 mm ATP along with 5 mm EGTA (slow Ca2+ buffer) or 15 mm EGTA plus 5 mm BAPTA (fast Ca2+ buffer). With pipette [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]p) set at 100 nm using a slow Ca2+ buffer and pipette [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]p) set at 0.2 mm, peak l-type Ca2+ current density (ICa) was 17.0 ± 2.2 pA pF−1. Under the same conditions, but with [Mg2+]p set to 1.8 mm, ICa was 5.6 ± 1.0 pA pF−1, a 64 ± 2.8% decrease in amplitude. This decrease in ICa was accompanied by an acceleration and a –8 mV shift in the voltage dependence of current inactivation. The [Mg2+]p-dependent decrease in ICa was not significantly different when myocytes were preincubated with 10 μm forskolin and 300 μm 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and voltage-clamped with pipettes containing 50 μm okadaic acid, to maximize Ca2+ channel phosphorylation. However, when myocytes were voltage-clamped with pipettes containing protein phosphatase 2A, to promote channel dephosphorylation, ICa decreased only 25 ± 3.4% on changing [Mg2+]p from 0.2 to 1.8 mm. In the presence of 0.2 mm[Mg2+]p, changing channel phosphorylation conditions altered ICa over a 4-fold range; however, with 1.8 mm[Mg2+]p, these same manoeuvres had a much smaller effect on ICa. These data suggest that [Mg2+]i can antagonize the effects of phosphorylation on channel gating kinetics. Setting [Ca2+]p to 1, 100 or 300 nm also showed that the [Mg2+]p-induced reduction of ICa was smaller at the lowest [Ca2+]p, irrespective of channel phosphorylation conditions. This interaction between [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i to modulate ICa was not significantly affected by ryanodine, fast Ca2+ buffers or inhibitors of calmodulin, calmodulin-dependent kinase and

  5. A novel dihydropyridine with 3-aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution blocks L-type calcium channels in rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Galvis-Pareja, David; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Hidalgo, Jorge; Ayala, Pedro; Pedrozo, Zully; Ibarra, Cristián; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo; Hall, Andrew R; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Nuñez-Vergara, Luis; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-08-15

    Dihydropyridines are widely used for the treatment of several cardiac diseases due to their blocking activity on L-type Ca(2+) channels and their renowned antioxidant properties. We synthesized six novel dihydropyridine molecules and performed docking studies on the binding site of the L-type Ca(2+) channel. We used biochemical techniques on isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes to assess the efficacy of these molecules on their Ca(2+) channel-blocking activity and antioxidant properties. The Ca(2+) channel-blocking activity was evaluated by confocal microscopy on fluo-3AM loaded cardiomyocytes, as well as using patch clamp experiments. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by flow cytometry using the ROS sensitive dye 1,2,3 DHR. Our docking studies show that a novel compound with 3-OH substitution inserts into the active binding site of the L-type Ca(2+) channel previously described for nitrendipine. In biochemical assays, the novel meta-OH group in the aryl in C4 showed a high blocking effect on L-type Ca(2+) channel as opposed to para-substituted compounds. In the tests we performed, none of the molecules showed antioxidant properties. Only substitutions in C2, C3 and C5 of the aryl ring render dihydropyridine compounds with the capacity of blocking LTCC. Based on our docking studies, we postulate that the antioxidant activity requires a larger group than the meta-OH substitution in C2, C3 or C5 of the dihydropyridine ring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel 1, 4-dihydropyridines for L-type calcium channel as antagonists for cadmium toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saddala, Madhu Sudhana; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Adi, Pradeepkiran Jangampalli; Bhashyam, Sainath Sri; Asupatri, Usha Rani

    2017-01-01

    The present study, we design and synthesize the novel dihydropyridine derivatives, i.e., 3 (a-e) and 5 (a-e) and evaluated, anticonvulsant activity. Initially due to the lacuna of LCC, we modeled the protein through modeller 9.15v and evaluated through servers. Docking studies were performed with the synthesized compounds and resulted two best compounds, i.e., 5a, 5e showed the best binding energies. The activity of intracellular Ca2+ measurements was performed on two cell lines: A7r5 (rat aortic smooth muscle cells) and SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cells). The 5a and 5e compounds was showing the more specific activity on L-type calcium channels, i.e. A7r5 (IC50 = 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.63 μg/ml, respectively) (containing only L-type channels) than SH-SY5Y (i.e. both L-type and T-type channels) (IC50 = 8 ± 0.23 and 10 ± 0.18 μg/ml, respectively) with intracellular calcium mobility similar to amlodipine. Finally, both in silico and in vitro results exploring two derivatives 5a and 5e succeeded to treat cadmium toxicity. PMID:28345598

  7. Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Splawski, Igor; Timothy, Katherine W; Decher, Niels; Kumar, Pradeep; Sachse, Frank B; Beggs, Alan H; Sanguinetti, Michael C; Keating, Mark T

    2005-06-07

    Timothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder that causes syncope and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Prominent features include congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities, and autism. All TS individuals have syndactyly (webbing of fingers and toes). We discovered that TS resulted from a recurrent, de novo cardiac L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2) mutation, G406R. G406 is located in alternatively spliced exon 8A, encoding transmembrane segment S6 of domain I. Here, we describe two individuals with a severe variant of TS (TS2). Neither child had syndactyly. Both individuals had extreme prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, with a QT interval corrected for heart rate ranging from 620 to 730 ms, causing multiple arrhythmias and sudden death. One individual had severe mental retardation and nemaline rod skeletal myopathy. We identified de novo missense mutations in exon 8 of CaV1.2 in both individuals. One was an analogous mutation to that found in exon 8A in classic TS, G406R. The other mutation was G402S. Exon 8 encodes the same region as exon 8A, and the two are mutually exclusive. The spliced form of CaV1.2 containing exon 8 is highly expressed in heart and brain, accounting for approximately 80% of CaV1.2 mRNAs. G406R and G402S cause reduced channel inactivation, resulting in maintained depolarizing L-type calcium currents. Computer modeling showed prolongation of cardiomyocyte action potentials and delayed afterdepolarizations, factors that increase risk of arrhythmia. These data indicate that gain-of-function mutations of CaV1.2 exons 8 and 8A cause distinct forms of TS.

  8. Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations

    PubMed Central

    Splawski, Igor; Timothy, Katherine W.; Decher, Niels; Kumar, Pradeep; Sachse, Frank B.; Beggs, Alan H.; Sanguinetti, Michael C.; Keating, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    Timothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder that causes syncope and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Prominent features include congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities, and autism. All TS individuals have syndactyly (webbing of fingers and toes). We discovered that TS resulted from a recurrent, de novo cardiac L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2) mutation, G406R. G406 is located in alternatively spliced exon 8A, encoding transmembrane segment S6 of domain I. Here, we describe two individuals with a severe variant of TS (TS2). Neither child had syndactyly. Both individuals had extreme prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram, with a QT interval corrected for heart rate ranging from 620 to 730 ms, causing multiple arrhythmias and sudden death. One individual had severe mental retardation and nemaline rod skeletal myopathy. We identified de novo missense mutations in exon 8 of CaV1.2 in both individuals. One was an analogous mutation to that found in exon 8A in classic TS, G406R. The other mutation was G402S. Exon 8 encodes the same region as exon 8A, and the two are mutually exclusive. The spliced form of CaV1.2 containing exon 8 is highly expressed in heart and brain, accounting for ≈80% of CaV1.2 mRNAs. G406R and G402S cause reduced channel inactivation, resulting in maintained depolarizing L-type calcium currents. Computer modeling showed prolongation of cardiomyocyte action potentials and delayed afterdepolarizations, factors that increase risk of arrhythmia. These data indicate that gain-of-function mutations of CaV1.2 exons 8 and 8A cause distinct forms of TS. PMID:15863612

  9. L-type calcium channel blockers enhance 5-HTP-induced antinociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian-hui; Li, Jun-xu; Wang, Xu-hua; Chen, Bi; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Pan; Han, Rong; Ye, Xiang-feng

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the involvement of L-type Ca(2+) channels in antinociceptive action induced by the 5-HT precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Female Kunming mice were treated with either 5-HTP (20-80 mg/kg, ip) alone, or the combination of 5-HTP and fluoxetine (2-8 mg/kg, ip), pargyline (15-60 mg/kg, ip), nimodipine (2.5-10 mg/kg, ip), nifedipine (2.5-10 mg/kg, ip), verapamil (2.5-10 mg/kg, ip), CaCl(2) (5-20 mmol/L, icv), or EGTA (0.5-3 mmol/L, icv) prior to the hot-plate test (55 degree, hind-paw licking latency). In addition, locomotor activity in mice treated with 5-HTP alone was measured using an ambulometer with five activity boxes. Ip injection of 5-HTP alone had no influence on the spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas dose-dependently increased the latency to licking hind-paw in the hot-plate test in mice. The inhibitory effects of 5-HTP on nociceptive response were significantly enhanced by fluoxetine in the mouse hot-plate test. At a sub-effective dose, pargyline could cause a leftward shift in the dose-response curve of 5-HTP-induced antinociception. Co-administration with 5-HTP and nimodipine, nifedipine, or verapamil obviously potentiated the antinociceptive effects elicited by 5-HTP. Interestingly, 5-HTP-induced antinociception was antagonized by CaCl(2) and enhanced by EGTA injected icv in the mouse hot-plate test. These findings suggest that systemic administration of 5-HTP may yield the antinociceptive effects, which are related to Ca(2+) influx from extracellular fluid through L-type Ca(2+) channels.

  10. Differential effects of lipid-soluble toxins on sodium channels and L-type calcium channels in frog ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Furue, T; Yakehiro, M; Seyama, I

    1997-03-01

    The effect of grayanotoxin I (GTX I), veratridine and aconitine with either an external or internal concentration of 100 microM on L-type calcium (Ca) channels was studied using the whole cell patch clamp and internal dialysis methods. The experimental conditions for the modification of sodium (Na) channels induced by the internal application of these toxins was determined by showing sustained inward currents with depolarizing repetitive pulses. These toxins failed to generate any change in Ca channels under the same experimental protocol as for Na channels. However, external application of these toxins caused a moderate block of the Ca channels without changing the kinetics.

  11. Triton X-100 inhibits L-type voltage-operated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Narang, Deepak; Kerr, Paul M; Baserman, Jason; Tam, Raymond; Yang, Wei; Searle, Gavin; Manning-Fox, Jocelyn E; Paulsen, Isabelle M; Kozuska, Janna L; MacDonald, Patrick E; Light, Peter E; Holt, Andrew; Plane, Frances

    2013-04-01

    Triton X-100 (TX-100) is a nonionic detergent frequently used at millimolar concentrations to disrupt cell membranes and solubilize proteins. At low micromolar concentrations, TX-100 has been reported to inhibit the function of potassium channels. Here, we have used electrophysiological and functional techniques to examine the effects of TX-100 on another class of ion channels, L-type voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs). TX-100 (30 nmol·L(-1) to 3 μmol·L(-1)) caused reversible concentration-dependent inhibition of recombinant L-type VOCC (CaV 1.2) currents and of native L-type VOCC currents recorded from rat vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes, and murine and human pancreatic β-cells. In functional studies, TX-100 (165 nmol·L(-1) to 3.4 μmol·L(-1)) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of rat isolated mesenteric resistance arteries prestimulated with phenylephrine or KCl. This effect was independent of the endothelium. TX-100 (1.6 μmol·L(-1)) inhibited depolarization-induced exocytosis in both murine and human isolated pancreatic β-cells. These data indicate that at concentrations within the nanomolar to low micromolar range, TX-100 significantly inhibits L-type VOCC activity in a number of cell types, an effect paralleled by inhibition of cell functions dependent upon activation of these channels. This inhibition occurs at concentrations below those used to solubilize proteins and may compromise the use of solutions containing TX-100 in bioassays.

  12. L-type calcium channels refine the neural population code of sound level

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, Calum Alex; Green, David Brian

    2016-01-01

    The coding of sound level by ensembles of neurons improves the accuracy with which listeners identify how loud a sound is. In the auditory system, the rate at which neurons fire in response to changes in sound level is shaped by local networks. Voltage-gated conductances alter local output by regulating neuronal firing, but their role in modulating responses to sound level is unclear. We tested the effects of L-type calcium channels (CaL: CaV1.1–1.4) on sound-level coding in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the auditory midbrain. We characterized the contribution of CaL to the total calcium current in brain slices and then examined its effects on rate-level functions (RLFs) in vivo using single-unit recordings in awake mice. CaL is a high-threshold current and comprises ∼50% of the total calcium current in ICC neurons. In vivo, CaL activates at sound levels that evoke high firing rates. In RLFs that increase monotonically with sound level, CaL boosts spike rates at high sound levels and increases the maximum firing rate achieved. In different populations of RLFs that change nonmonotonically with sound level, CaL either suppresses or enhances firing at sound levels that evoke maximum firing. CaL multiplies the gain of monotonic RLFs with dynamic range and divides the gain of nonmonotonic RLFs with the width of the RLF. These results suggest that a single broad class of calcium channels activates enhancing and suppressing local circuits to regulate the sensitivity of neuronal populations to sound level. PMID:27605536

  13. L-type calcium channels refine the neural population code of sound level.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Calum Alex; Green, David Brian; Sivaramakrishnan, Shobhana

    2016-12-01

    The coding of sound level by ensembles of neurons improves the accuracy with which listeners identify how loud a sound is. In the auditory system, the rate at which neurons fire in response to changes in sound level is shaped by local networks. Voltage-gated conductances alter local output by regulating neuronal firing, but their role in modulating responses to sound level is unclear. We tested the effects of L-type calcium channels (Ca L : Ca V 1.1-1.4) on sound-level coding in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the auditory midbrain. We characterized the contribution of Ca L to the total calcium current in brain slices and then examined its effects on rate-level functions (RLFs) in vivo using single-unit recordings in awake mice. Ca L is a high-threshold current and comprises ∼50% of the total calcium current in ICC neurons. In vivo, Ca L activates at sound levels that evoke high firing rates. In RLFs that increase monotonically with sound level, Ca L boosts spike rates at high sound levels and increases the maximum firing rate achieved. In different populations of RLFs that change nonmonotonically with sound level, Ca L either suppresses or enhances firing at sound levels that evoke maximum firing. Ca L multiplies the gain of monotonic RLFs with dynamic range and divides the gain of nonmonotonic RLFs with the width of the RLF. These results suggest that a single broad class of calcium channels activates enhancing and suppressing local circuits to regulate the sensitivity of neuronal populations to sound level. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. A novel dihydropyridine with 3-aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution blocks L-type calcium channels in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis-Pareja, David; Centro Estudios Moleculares de la Célula; Zapata-Torres, Gerald

    2014-08-15

    Rationale: Dihydropyridines are widely used for the treatment of several cardiac diseases due to their blocking activity on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels and their renowned antioxidant properties. Methods: We synthesized six novel dihydropyridine molecules and performed docking studies on the binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel. We used biochemical techniques on isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes to assess the efficacy of these molecules on their Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity and antioxidant properties. The Ca{sup 2+} channel-blocking activity was evaluated by confocal microscopy on fluo-3AM loaded cardiomyocytes, as well as using patch clamp experiments. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by flowmore » cytometry using the ROS sensitive dye 1,2,3 DHR. Results: Our docking studies show that a novel compound with 3-OH substitution inserts into the active binding site of the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel previously described for nitrendipine. In biochemical assays, the novel meta-OH group in the aryl in C4 showed a high blocking effect on L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel as opposed to para-substituted compounds. In the tests we performed, none of the molecules showed antioxidant properties. Conclusions: Only substitutions in C2, C3 and C5 of the aryl ring render dihydropyridine compounds with the capacity of blocking LTCC. Based on our docking studies, we postulate that the antioxidant activity requires a larger group than the meta-OH substitution in C2, C3 or C5 of the dihydropyridine ring. - Highlights: • Dihydropyridine (DHP) molecules are widely used in cardiovascular disease. • DHPs block Ca{sup 2+} entry through LTCC—some DHPs have antioxidant activity as well. • We synthesized 6 new DHPs and tested their Ca{sup 2+} blocking and antioxidant activities. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution strongly increases their Ca{sup 2+} blocking activity. • 3-Aryl meta-hydroxyl substitution did not affect the antioxidant properties.« less

  15. Fluoride affects calcium homeostasis and osteogenic transcription factor expressions through L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cell line.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Liu, Da-Wei; Li, Guang-Sheng; Jing, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Osteoblast L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) play important roles in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and influencing multiple cellular processes. In particular, they contribute to the activities and functions of osteoblasts (OBs). In order to study how L-type VDCC modulate calcium ion (Ca(2+)) homeostasis and the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in OBs exposed to fluoride, MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to a gradient of concentrations of fluoride (0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/L) in combination with 10 μM nifedipine, a specific inhibitor of VDCC, for 48 h. We examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of VDCC, and c-fos, c-jun, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (OSX), and intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with increase in concentration of fluoride. Meantime, results indicated that lower concentrations of fluoride (less than 5 mg/L, especially 2 mg/L) can lead to high expression of Cav1.2 and enhance osteogenic function, while high concentration of fluoride (10 mg/L) can induce decreased Cav1.2 and osteogenic transcriptional factors in MC3T3E1 cells exposed to fluoride. However, the levels of [Ca(2+)]i, Cav1.2, c-fos, c-jun, Runx2, and OSX induced by fluoride were significantly altered and even reversed in the presence of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and they affect the expression of osteogenic transcription factors in fluoride-treated osteoblasts.

  16. Differential Roles for L-Type Calcium Channel Subtypes in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig, Stefanie; Vandael, David; Marcantoni, Andrea; Dedic, Nina; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Vogt, Miriam A; Hirth, Natalie; Broccoli, Laura; Bernardi, Rick E; Schönig, Kai; Gass, Peter; Bartsch, Dusan; Spanagel, Rainer; Deussing, Jan M; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Carbone, Emilio; Hansson, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the inhibition of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) decreases alcohol consumption, although the contribution of the central LTCC subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 remains unknown. Here, we determined changes in Cav1.2 (Cacna1c) and Cav1.3 (Cacna1d) mRNA and protein expression in alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence and naive controls using in situ hybridization and western blot analysis. Functional validation was obtained by electrophysiological recordings of calcium currents in dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We then measured alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in dependent and nondependent rats after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the LTCC antagonist verapamil, as well as in mice with an inducible knockout (KO) of Cav1.2 in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-expressing neurons. Our results show that Cacna1c mRNA concentration was increased in the amygdala and hippocampus of alcohol-dependent rats after 21 days of abstinence, with no changes in Cacna1d mRNA. This was associated with increased Cav1.2 protein concentration and L-type calcium current amplitudes. Further analysis of Cacna1c mRNA in the CA1, basolateral amygdala (BLA), and central amygdala (CeA) revealed a dynamic regulation over time during the development of alcohol dependence. The inhibition of central LTCCs via i.c.v. administration of verapamil prevented cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent rats. Further studies in conditional Cav1.2-KO mice showed a lack of dependence-induced increase of alcohol-seeking behavior. Together, our data indicate that central Cav1.2 channels, rather than Cav1.3, mediate alcohol-seeking behavior. This finding may be of interest for the development of new antirelapse medications. PMID:27905406

  17. The Involvement of Ser1898 of the Human L-Type Calcium Channel in Evoked Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Bachnoff, Niv; Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Atlas, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    A PKA consensus phosphorylation site S1928 at the α 11.2 subunit of the rabbit cardiac L-type channel, CaV1.2, is involved in the regulation of CaV1.2 kinetics and affects catecholamine secretion. This mutation does not alter basal CaV1.2 current properties or regulation of CaV1.2 current by PKA and the beta-adrenergic receptor, but abolishes CaV1.2 phosphorylation by PKA. Here, we test the contribution of the corresponding PKA phosphorylation site of the human α 11.2 subunit S1898, to the regulation of catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells. Chromaffin cells were infected with a Semliki-Forest viral vector containing either the human wt or a mutated S1898A α 11.2 subunit. Both subunits harbor a T1036Y mutation conferring nifedipine insensitivity. Secretion evoked by depolarization in the presence of nifedipine was monitored by amperometry. Depolarization-triggered secretion in cells infected with either the wt α 11.2 or α 11.2/S1898A mutated subunit was elevated to a similar extent by forskolin. Forskolin, known to directly activate adenylyl-cyclase, increased the rate of secretion in a manner that is largely independent of the presence of S1898. Our results are consistent with the involvement of additional PKA regulatory site(s) at the C-tail of α 11.2, the pore forming subunit of CaV1.2. PMID:22216029

  18. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Rescuing cardiac automaticity in L-type Cav1.3 channelopathies and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mesirca, Pietro; Bidaud, Isabelle; Mangoni, Matteo E

    2016-10-15

    Pacemaker activity of the sino-atrial node generates the heart rate. Disease of the sinus node and impairment of atrioventricular conduction induce an excessively low ventricular rate (bradycardia), which cannot meet the needs of the organism. Bradycardia accounts for about half of the total workload of clinical cardiologists. The 'sick sinus' syndrome (SSS) is characterized by sinus bradycardia and periods of intermittent atrial fibrillation. Several genetic or acquired risk factors or pathologies can lead to SSS. Implantation of an electronic pacemaker constitutes the only available therapy for SSS. The incidence of SSS is forecast to double over the next 50 years, with ageing of the general population thus urging the development of complementary or alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent years an increasing number of mutations affecting ion channels involved in sino-atrial automaticity have been reported to underlie inheritable SSS. L-type Ca v 1.3 channels play a major role in the generation and regulation of sino-atrial pacemaker activity and atrioventricular conduction. Mutation in the CACNA1D gene encoding Ca v 1.3 channels induces loss-of-function in channel activity and underlies the sino-atrial node dysfunction and deafness syndrome (SANDD). Mice lacking Ca v 1.3 channels (Ca v 1.3 -/- ) fairly recapitulate SSS and constitute a precious model to test new therapeutic approaches to handle this disease. Work in our laboratory shows that targeting G protein-gated K + (I KACh ) channels effectively rescues SSS of Ca v 1.3 -/- mice. This new concept of 'compensatory' ion channel targeting shines new light on the principles underlying the pacemaker mechanism and may open the way to new therapies for SSS. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. Late Ca2+Sparks and Ripples During the Systolic Ca2+Transient in Heart Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Ewan D; Kong, Cherrie H T; Hancox, Jules C; Cannell, Mark B

    2018-02-02

    The development of a refractory period for Ca 2+ spark initiation after Ca 2+ release in cardiac myocytes should inhibit further Ca 2+ release during the action potential plateau. However, Ca 2+ release sites that did not initially activate or which have prematurely recovered from refractoriness might release Ca 2+ later during the action potential and alter the cell-wide Ca 2+ transient. To investigate the possibility of late Ca 2+ spark (LCS) activity in intact isolated cardiac myocytes using fast confocal line scanning with improved confocality and signal to noise. We recorded Ca 2+ transients from cardiac ventricular myocytes isolated from rabbit hearts. Action potentials were produced by electric stimulation, and rapid solution changes were used to modify the L-type Ca 2+ current. After the upstroke of the Ca 2+ transient, LCSs were detected which had increased amplitude compared with diastolic Ca 2+ sparks. LCS are triggered by both L-type Ca 2+ channel activity during the action potential plateau, as well as by the increase of cytosolic Ca 2+ associated with the Ca 2+ transient itself. Importantly, a mismatch between sarcoplasmic reticulum load and L-type Ca 2+ trigger can increase the number of LCS. The likelihood of triggering an LCS also depends on recovery from refractoriness that appears after prior activation. Consequences of LCS include a reduced rate of decline of the Ca 2+ transient and, if frequent, formation of microscopic propagating Ca 2+ release events (Ca 2+ ripples). Ca 2+ ripples resemble Ca 2+ waves in terms of local propagation velocity but spread for only a short distance because of limited regeneration. These new types of Ca 2+ signaling behavior extend our understanding of Ca 2+ -mediated signaling. LCS may provide an arrhythmogenic substrate by slowing the Ca 2+ transient decline, as well as by amplifying maintained Ca 2+ current effects on intracellular Ca 2+ and consequently Na + /Ca 2+ exchange current. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Mechanisms of NMDA Receptor- and Voltage-Gated L-Type Calcium Channel-Dependent Hippocampal LTP Critically Rely on Proteolysis That Is Mediated by Distinct Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Wiera, Grzegorz; Nowak, Daria; van Hove, Inge; Dziegiel, Piotr; Moons, Lieve; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2017-02-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on NMDA receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). LTP is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that MMP-3 inhibition or knock-out impaired late-phase LTP in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Interestingly, late-phase LTP was also decreased by MMP-9 blockade. When both MMP-3 and MMP-9 were inhibited, both early- and late-phase LTP was impaired. Using immunoblotting, in situ zymography, and immunofluorescence, we found that LTP induction was associated with an increase in MMP-3 expression and activity in CA1 stratum radiatum. MMP-3 inhibition and knock-out prevented the induction of vdccLTP, with no effect on nmdaLTP. L-type channel-dependent LTP is known to be impaired by hyaluronic acid digestion. We found that slice treatment with hyaluronidase occluded the effect of MMP-3 blockade on LTP, further confirming a critical role for MMP-3 in this form of LTP. In contrast to the CA3-CA1 pathway, LTP in the mossy fiber-CA3 projection did not depend on MMP-3, indicating the pathway specificity of the actions of MMPs. Overall, our study indicates that the activation of perisynaptic MMP-3 supports L-type channel-dependent LTP in the CA1 region, whereas nmdaLTP depends solely on MMP-9. Various types of long-term potentiation (LTP) are correlated with distinct phases of memory formation and retrieval, but the underlying molecular signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Extracellular proteases have emerged as key players in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present study found that L-type calcium channel-dependent LTP in the CA3-CA1 hippocampal projection is critically regulated by the activity

  2. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  3. The effects of vitamin D receptor silencing on the expression of LVSCC-A1C and LVSCC-A1D and the release of NGF in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Gezen-Ak, Duygu; Dursun, Erdinç; Yilmazer, Selma

    2011-03-03

    Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D can act on cells in the nervous system. Associations between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), age-dependent cognitive decline, and insufficient serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in Alzheimer's patients and elderly people with cognitive decline have been reported. We have previously shown that amyloid β (Aβ) treatment eliminates VDR protein in cortical neurons. These results suggest a potential role for vitamin D and vitamin D-mediated mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegeneration. Vitamin D has been shown to down-regulate the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, LVSCC-A1C and LVSCC-A1D, and up-regulate nerve growth factor (NGF). However, expression of these proteins when VDR is repressed is unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate LVSCC-A1C, LVSCC-A1D expression levels and NGF release in VDR-silenced primary cortical neurons prepared from Sprague-Dawley rat embryos. qRT-PCR and western blots were performed to determine VDR, LVSCC-A1C and -A1D expression levels. NGF and cytotoxicity levels were determined by ELISA. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL. Our findings illustrate that LVSCC-A1C mRNA and protein levels increased rapidly in cortical neurons when VDR is down-regulated, whereas, LVSCC-A1D mRNA and protein levels did not change and NGF release decreased in response to VDR down-regulation. Although vitamin D regulates LVSCC-A1C through VDR, it may not regulate LVSCC-A1D through VDR. Our results indicate that suppression of VDR disrupts LVSCC-A1C and NGF production. In addition, when VDR is suppressed, neurons could be vulnerable to aging and neurodegeneration, and when combined with Aβ toxicity, it is possible to explain some of the events that occur during neurodegeneration.

  4. Comparative analysis of Japanese and foreign L-type BSE prions.

    PubMed

    Masujin, Kentaro; Miwa, Ritsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an atypical form of BSE. To characterize the Japanese L-type BSE prion, we conducted a comparative study of the Japanese and foreign L-type BSE isolates. The L-type BSE isolates of Japan, Germany, France and Canada were intracerebrally inoculated into bovinized prion protein-overexpressing transgenic mice (TgBoPrP). All the examined L-type BSE isolates were transmitted to TgBoPrP mice, and no clear differences were observed in their biological and biochemical properties. Here, we present evidence that the Japanese and Canadian L-type BSE prions are identical to those from the European cases.

  5. Diffusive Public Goods and Coexistence of Cooperators and Cheaters on a 1D Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Scheuring, István

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of cells cooperate through the production of extracellular materials. These materials (enzymes, siderophores) spread by diffusion and can be applied by both the cooperator and cheater (non-producer) cells. In this paper the problem of coexistence of cooperator and cheater cells is studied on a 1D lattice where cooperator cells produce a diffusive material which is beneficial to the individuals according to the local concentration of this public good. The reproduction success of a cell increases linearly with the benefit in the first model version and increases non-linearly (saturates) in the second version. Two types of update rules are considered; either the cooperative cell stops producing material before death (death-production-birth, DpB) or it produces the common material before it is selected to die (production-death-birth, pDB). The empty space is occupied by its neighbors according to their replication rates. By using analytical and numerical methods I have shown that coexistence of the cooperator and cheater cells is possible although atypical in the linear version of this 1D model if either DpB or pDB update rule is assumed. While coexistence is impossible in the non-linear model with pDB update rule, it is one of the typical behaviors in case of the non-linear model with DpB update rule. PMID:25025985

  6. Sensitivity of transpiration to subsurface properties: Exploration with a 1-D model

    DOE PAGES

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2017-05-04

    The amount of moisture transpired by vegetation is critically tied to the moisture supply accessible to the root zone. In a Mediterranean climate, integrated evapotranspiration (ET) is typically greater in the dry summer when there is an uninterrupted period of high insolation. We present a 1-D model to explore the subsurface factors that may sustain ET through the dry season. The model includes a stochastic parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, root water uptake efficiency, and hydraulic redistribution by plant roots. Model experiments vary the precipitation, the magnitude and seasonality of ET demand, as well as rooting profiles and rooting depths ofmore » the vegetation. The results show that the amount of subsurface moisture remaining at the end of the wet winter is determined by the competition among abundant precipitation input, fast infiltration, and winter ET demand. The weathered bedrock retains math formula of the winter rain and provides a substantial moisture reservoir that may sustain ET of deep-rooted (>8 m) trees through the dry season. A small negative feedback exists in the root zone, where the depletion of moisture by ET decreases hydraulic conductivity and enhances the retention of moisture. Hence, hydraulic redistribution by plant roots is impactful in a dry season, or with a less conductive subsurface. Suggestions for implementing the model in the CESM are discussed.« less

  7. Quantum optics with giant artificial atoms in a 1D waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisk Kockum, Anton; Johansson, Göran; Nori, Franco

    In quantum optics experiments with both natural and artificial atoms, the atoms are usually small enough that they can be approximated as point-like compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation they interact with. However, a recent experiment coupling a superconducting transmon qubit to surface acoustic waves shows that a single artificial atom can be coupled to a bosonic field at several points which are wavelengths apart. This concept of a ``giant artificial atom'' could also be realized with a superconducting qubit coupled to a meandering microwave transmission line. In a previous theoretical study, we showed that interference effects due to the positions of the coupling points for a single giant artificial atom give rise to a frequency dependence in the atom's relaxation rate and Lamb shift. In the present work, we study two or more giant artificial atoms coupled to a 1D waveguide in various configurations. We investigate collective decay effects (super- and subradiance) and exchange interaction between the atoms, and find striking differences compared to the case of small atoms.

  8. Orexin-A potentiates L-type calcium/barium currents in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Weng, S-J; Yang, X-L; Zhong, Y-M

    2015-10-01

    Two neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B (also called hypocretin-1 and -2), have been implicated in sleep/wake regulation, feeding behaviors via the activation of two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R). While the expression of orexins and orexin receptors is immunohistochemically revealed in retinal neurons, the function of these peptides in the retina is largely unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in rat retinal slices, we demonstrated that orexin-A increased L-type-like barium currents (IBa,L) in ganglion cells (GCs), and the effect was blocked by the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867, but not by the OX2R antagonist TCS OX2 29. The orexin-A effect was abolished by intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S/GPAnt-2A, a Gq protein inhibitor, suggesting the mediation of Gq. Additionally, during internal dialysis of the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, orexin-A did not change the IBa,L of GCs, whereas the orexin-A effect persisted in the presence of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-PLC inhibitor D609. The orexin-A-induced potentiation was not seen with internal infusion of Ca(2+)-free solution or when inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was blocked by heparin/xestospongins-C. Moreover, the orexin-A effect was mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but was eliminated when PKC was inhibited by bisindolylmaleimide IV (Bis-IV)/Gö6976. Neither adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) nor guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling pathway was likely involved, as orexin-A persisted to potentiate the IBa,L of GCs no matter these two pathways were activated or inhibited. These results suggest that, by activating OX1R, orexin-A potentiates the IBa,L of rat GCs through a distinct Gq/PI-PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/PKC signaling pathway. Copyright

  9. Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    2014-01-01

    During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14–18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.

  10. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  11. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2014-08-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k + l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993 and two equation models: Generic Lengh Scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a one-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  12. Endothelin-1 Regulates Cardiac L-Type Calcium Channels via NAD(P)H Oxidase-Derived Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Zhou, Qingwei; Yao, Fanrong; O’Rourke, Stephen T.; Sun, Chengwen

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the intracellular signaling response to G-protein coupled receptor stimuli in vascular smooth muscle cells and in neurons. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS are involved endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced L-type calcium channel activation in isolated cardiac myocytes. ET-1 (10 nM) induced a 2-fold increase in L-type calcium channel open-state probability (NPo). This effect of ET-1 was abolished by the ETA receptor antagonist cyclo(D-Trp-D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu) [BQ-123 (1 μM)] but was not altered in the presence of an ETB receptor antagonist N-cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-b-tBu-Ala-D-Trp(1-methoxycarbonyl)-D-Nle-OH [BQ-788 (1 μM)]. Pre-treatment of cells with the ROS scavenger tempol (100 μM), polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (SOD, 25 U/ml), or the NAD(P)H-oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat ([H]RKKRRQRRR-CSTRIRRQL[NH3]) (5 μM) significantly attenuated ET-1-induced increases in calcium channel NPo. Tempol, SOD, and gp91ds-tat alone had no effect on basal calcium channel activity. In addition, ET-1 significantly increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and elevated intracellular superoxide levels in cultured cardiac myocytes. The superoxide generator, xanthine-xanthine oxidase (10 mM, 20 mU/ ml), also increased calcium channel NPo in cardiac myocytes, mimicking the effect of ET-1. These observations provide the first evidence that ET-1 induces the activation of L-type Ca2+ channels via stimulation of NAD(P)H-derived superoxide production in cardiac myocytes. PMID:18539650

  13. Localization and functional modification of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in equine spermatozoa from fresh and frozen semen.

    PubMed

    Albrizio, M; Moramarco, A M; Nicassio, M; Micera, E; Zarrilli, A; Lacalandra, G M

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that insemination of cryopreserved semen always results in lower fertility when compared with fresh semen, but there is an increased interest and demand for frozen equine semen by the major breeder associations because of the utility arising from semen already "on hand" at breeding time. In this article, we report that equine sperm cells express L-type voltage-gated calcium channels; their localization is restricted to sperm neck and to the principal piece of the tail in both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa. We also studied the causes of cryoinjury at the membrane level focusing on the function of L-type calcium channels. We report that in cryopreserved spermatozoa the mean basal value of [Ca(2+)]i is higher than that of spermatozoa from fresh semen (447.130 vs. 288.3 nM; P < 0.001) and L-type channels function differently in response to their agonist and antagonist in relation to semen condition (fresh or frozen-thawed). We found that on addition of agonist to the culture medium, the increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) was greater in frozen semen than in fresh semen (Δ[Ca(2+)]i = 124.59 vs. 16.04 nM; P < 0.001), whereas after the addition of antagonist the decrease in [Ca(2+)]i was lower in frozen semen than in fresh semen (Δ[Ca(2+)]i = 32.5 vs. 82.5 nM; P < 0.001). In this article, we also discuss the impact of cryopreservation on sperm physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Voltage-dependent modulation of L-type calcium currents by intracellular magnesium in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Berlin, Joshua R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of changing cytosolic free Mg2+ concentration on L-type Ca2+ (I ) and Ba2+Ca currents (IBa) were investigated in rat ventricular myocytes voltage-clamped with pipettes containing 0.2 mM or 1.8 mM [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]p) buffered with 30 mM citrate acid and 10 mM ATP. Increasing [Mg2+]p from 0.2 mM to 1.8 mM reduced current amplitude and accelerated its decay under a variety of experimental conditions. To investigate the mechanism for these effects, steady-state and instantaneous current-voltage relationships were studied with two-pulse and tail current (IT) protocols, respectively. Increasing [Mg2+]p shifted the VM for half inactivation by -20 mV but dramatically decreased ICa amplitude at all potentials tested, consistent with a change in gating kinetics that decreases channel availability. This conclusion was supported by analysis of IT amplitude, but these latter experiments also suggested that, in the millimolar concentration range, [Mg2+] might also inhibit permeation through open Ca2+p channels at positive VM. PMID:17125725

  15. A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 μm - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 μm CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere

  16. 76 FR 49300 - Corporate Reorganizations; Distributions Under Sections 368(a)(1)(D) and 354(b)(1)(B); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Corporate Reorganizations; Distributions Under Sections 368(a)(1)(D) and 354(b)(1)(B); Correction AGENCY... regulations provide guidance regarding the qualification of certain transactions as reorganizations described... guidance regarding the determination of the basis of stock or securities in a reorganization described in...

  17. [Alterations of cardiac hemodynamics, sodium current and L-type calcium current in rats with L-thyroxine-induced cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Lin, Mu-Sen; Zhai, Qing-Bo; Yu, Feng

    2010-08-25

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the alterations of cardiac hemodynamics, sodium current (I(Na)) and L-type calcium current (I(Ca-L)) in the cardiomyopathic model of rats. The model of cardiomyopathy was established by intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (0.5 mg/kg) for 10 d. The hemodynamics was measured with biological experimental system, and then I(Na) and I(Ca-L) were recorded by using whole cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), +/-dp/dt(max) in cardiomyopathic group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) in cardiomyopathic group was higher than that in the control group. Intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine significantly increased the current density of I(Na) [(-26.2+/-3.2) pA/pF vs (-21.1+/-6.3) pA/pF, P<0.01], shifted steady-state activation and inactivation curves negatively, and markedly prolonged the time constant of recovery from inactivation. On the other hand, the injection of L-thyroxine significantly increased the current density of I(Ca-L) [(-7.9+/-0.8) pA/pF vs (-5.4+/-0.6) pA/pF, P<0.01)], shifted steady-state activation and inactivation curves negatively, and obviously shortened the time constant of recovery from inactivation. In conclusion, the cardiac performance of cardiomyopathic rats is similar to that of rats with heart failure, in which the current density of I(Na) and especially the I(Ca-L) are enhanced, suggesting that calcium channel blockade and a decrease in Na(+) permeability of membrane may play an important role in the treatment of cardiomyopathy.

  18. GLP-2 potentiates L-type CA2+ channel activity associated with stimulated glucose uptake in hippocampal neurons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a neuropeptide secreted from endocrine cells in the gut and neurons in the brain. GLP-2 stimulates intestinal crypt cell proliferation and mucosal blood flow while decreasing gastric emptying and gut motility. However, a GLP-2-mediated signaling network has not bee...

  19. HsfA1d, a protein identified via FOX hunting using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs improves heat tolerance by regulating heat-stress-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yukari; Ohama, Naohiko; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Katori, Taku; Shimura, Ayaka; Kusakabe, Kazuya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Sakata, Yoichi; Hayashi, Takahisa; Taji, Teruaki

    2013-03-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea (formerly T. halophila), a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is tolerant not only to high salt levels, but also to chilling, freezing, and ozone. Here, we report that T. salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis. We identified T. salsuginea HsfA1d (TsHsfA1d) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis. TsHsfA1d was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T. salsuginea cDNAs. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfA1d showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature. In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, TsHsfA1d was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TsHsfA1d also interacted with AtHSP90, which negatively regulates AtHsfA1s by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm. It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfA1d induced the expression of the AtHsfA1d regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature. We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfA1d were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfA1d regulon, as was observed in TsHsfA1d-overexpressing plants. We propose that the products of both TsHsfA1d and AtHsfA1d function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants.

  20. β1-Adrenergic receptor activation induces mouse cardiac myocyte death through both L-type calcium channel-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Gao, Hui; Kubo, Hajime; Berretta, Remus M.; Chen, Xiongwen

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac diseases persistently increase the contractility demands of cardiac myocytes, which require activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent increases in myocyte Ca2+ transients. Persistent exposure to sympathetic and/or Ca2+ stress is associated with myocyte death. This study examined the respective roles of persistent β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonist exposure and high Ca2+ concentration in myocyte death. Ventricular myocytes (VMs) were isolated from transgenic (TG) mice with cardiac-specific and inducible expression of the β2a-subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). VMs were cultured, and the rate of myocyte death was measured in the presence of isoproterenol (ISO), other modulators of Ca2+ handling and the β-adrenergic system, and inhibitors of caspases and reactive oxygen species generation. The rate of myocyte death was greater in TG vs. wild-type myocytes and accelerated by ISO in both groups, although ISO did not increase LTCC current (ICa-L) in TG-VMs. Nifedipine, an LTCC antagonist, only partially prevented myocyte death. These results suggest both LTCC-dependent and -independent mechanisms in ISO induced myocyte death. ISO increased the contractility of wild type and TG-VMs by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticulum function and inhibiting sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, and CaMKII partially protected myocyte from death induced by both Ca2+ and ISO. Caspase and reactive oxygen species inhibitors did not, but β2-AR activation did, reduce myocyte death induced by enhanced ICa-L and ISO stimulation. Our results suggest that catecholamines induce myocyte necrosis primarily through β1-AR-mediated increases in ICa-L, but other mechanisms are also involved in rodents. PMID:20495143

  1. Calcium dysregulation via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and ryanodine receptors underlies memory deficits and synaptic dysfunction during chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Sarah C; D'Angelo, Heather M; Royer, Sarah E; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Crockett, Alexis M; Adzovic, Linda; Wenk, Gary L

    2015-03-25

    Chronic neuroinflammation and calcium (Ca(+2)) dysregulation are both components of Alzheimer's disease. Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca(+2) homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca(+2) channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Chronic neuroinflammation also leads to deficits in spatial memory, which may be related to Ca(+2) dysregulation. The studies herein use an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28 days. The rats were treated with the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. LPS-infused rats had significant memory deficits in the Morris water maze, and this deficit was ameliorated by treatment with nimodipine. Synaptosomes from LPS-infused rats had increased Ca(+2) uptake, which was reduced by a blockade of L-VDCCs either in vivo or ex vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that Ca(+2) dysregulation during chronic neuroinflammation is partially dependent on increases in L-VDCC function. However, blockade of the RyRs also slightly improved spatial memory of the LPS-infused rats, demonstrating that other Ca(+2) channels are dysregulated during chronic neuroinflammation. Ca(+2)-dependent immediate early gene expression was reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with dantrolene or nimodipine, indicating normalized synaptic function that may underlie improvements in spatial memory. Pro-inflammatory markers are also reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with either drug. Overall, these data suggest that Ca(+2) dysregulation via L-VDCCs and RyRs play a crucial role in memory deficits resulting from chronic neuroinflammation.

  2. Effect of Ca2+ efflux pathway distribution and exogenous Ca2+ buffers on intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in the rat ventricular myocyte: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Pásek, Michal; Simurda, Jiří; Orchard, Clive H

    2014-01-01

    We have used a previously published computer model of the rat cardiac ventricular myocyte to investigate the effect of changing the distribution of Ca(2+) efflux pathways (SERCA, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange, and sarcolemmal Ca(2+) ATPase) between the dyad and bulk cytoplasm and the effect of adding exogenous Ca(2+) buffers (BAPTA or EGTA), which are used experimentally to differentially buffer Ca(2+) in the dyad and bulk cytoplasm, on cellular Ca(2+) cycling. Increasing the dyadic fraction of a particular Ca(2+) efflux pathway increases the amount of Ca(2+) removed by that pathway, with corresponding changes in Ca(2+) efflux from the bulk cytoplasm. The magnitude of these effects varies with the proportion of the total Ca(2+) removed from the cytoplasm by that pathway. Differences in the response to EGTA and BAPTA, including changes in Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of the L-type Ca(2+) current, resulted from the buffers acting as slow and fast "shuttles," respectively, removing Ca(2+) from the dyadic space. The data suggest that complex changes in dyadic Ca(2+) and cellular Ca(2+) cycling occur as a result of changes in the location of Ca(2+) removal pathways or the presence of exogenous Ca(2+) buffers, although changing the distribution of Ca(2+) efflux pathways has relatively small effects on the systolic Ca(2+) transient.

  3. Effect of Ca2+ Efflux Pathway Distribution and Exogenous Ca2+ Buffers on Intracellular Ca2+ Dynamics in the Rat Ventricular Myocyte: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Šimurda, Jiří; Orchard, Clive H.

    2014-01-01

    We have used a previously published computer model of the rat cardiac ventricular myocyte to investigate the effect of changing the distribution of Ca2+ efflux pathways (SERCA, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and sarcolemmal Ca2+ ATPase) between the dyad and bulk cytoplasm and the effect of adding exogenous Ca2+ buffers (BAPTA or EGTA), which are used experimentally to differentially buffer Ca2+ in the dyad and bulk cytoplasm, on cellular Ca2+ cycling. Increasing the dyadic fraction of a particular Ca2+ efflux pathway increases the amount of Ca2+ removed by that pathway, with corresponding changes in Ca2+ efflux from the bulk cytoplasm. The magnitude of these effects varies with the proportion of the total Ca2+ removed from the cytoplasm by that pathway. Differences in the response to EGTA and BAPTA, including changes in Ca2+-dependent inactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, resulted from the buffers acting as slow and fast “shuttles,” respectively, removing Ca2+ from the dyadic space. The data suggest that complex changes in dyadic Ca2+ and cellular Ca2+ cycling occur as a result of changes in the location of Ca2+ removal pathways or the presence of exogenous Ca2+ buffers, although changing the distribution of Ca2+ efflux pathways has relatively small effects on the systolic Ca2+ transient. PMID:24971358

  4. Oral Transmission of L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent among Cattle.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Masujin, Kentaro; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    To determine oral transmissibility of the L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prion, we orally inoculated 16 calves with brain homogenates of the agent. Only 1 animal, given a high dose, showed signs and died at 88 months. These results suggest low risk for oral transmission of the L-BSE agent among cattle.

  5. L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Conditioned Fear: A Genetic and Pharmacological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Using pharmacological approaches, others have suggested that L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) mediate both consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear. In the absence of L-VGCC isoform-specific antagonists, we have begun to investigate the subtype-specific role of LVGCCs in consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear…

  6. The inotropic peptide βARKct improves βAR responsiveness in normal and failing cardiomyocytes through G(βγ)-mediated L-type calcium current disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Völkers, Mirko; Weidenhammer, Christian; Herzog, Nicole; Qiu, Gang; Spaich, Kristin; Wegner, Frederic V; Peppel, Karsten; Müller, Oliver J; Schinkel, Stefanie; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Hippe, Hans-Jorg; Brinks, Henriette; Katus, Hugo A; Koch, Walter J; Eckhart, Andrea D; Friedrich, Oliver; Most, Patrick

    2011-01-07

    The G(βγ)-sequestering peptide β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK)ct derived from the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 carboxyl terminus has emerged as a promising target for gene-based heart failure therapy. Enhanced downstream cAMP signaling has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for increased β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) responsiveness. However, molecular targets mediating improved cardiac contractile performance by βARKct and its impact on G(βγ)-mediated signaling have yet to be fully elucidated. We sought to identify G(βγ)-regulated targets and signaling mechanisms conveying βARKct-mediated enhanced βAR responsiveness in normal (NC) and failing (FC) adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Assessing viral-based βARKct gene delivery with electrophysiological techniques, analysis of contractile performance, subcellular Ca²(+) handling, and site-specific protein phosphorylation, we demonstrate that βARKct enhances the cardiac L-type Ca²(+) channel (LCC) current (I(Ca)) both in NCs and FCs on βAR stimulation. Mechanistically, βARKct augments I(Ca) by preventing enhanced inhibitory interaction between the α1-LCC subunit (Cav1.2α) and liberated G(βγ) subunits downstream of activated βARs. Despite improved βAR contractile responsiveness, βARKct neither increased nor restored cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and calmodulin-dependent kinase II signaling including unchanged protein kinase (PK)Cε, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Akt, ERK5, and p38 activation both in NCs and FCs. Accordingly, although βARKct significantly increases I(Ca) and Ca²(+) transients, being susceptible to suppression by recombinant G(βγ) protein and use-dependent LCC blocker, βARKct-expressing cardiomyocytes exhibit equal basal and βAR-stimulated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²(+) load, spontaneous diastolic Ca²(+) leakage, and survival rates and were less susceptible to field-stimulated Ca²(+) waves compared with controls. Our study

  7. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker

    PubMed Central

    El Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8±0.3 μM, maximum relaxation: 93±0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30±1.5%). In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8±2 and 40±6 μM at holding potentials of −50 and −100 mV, respectively). These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels. PMID:14597602

  8. Characterisation of marrubenol, a diterpene extracted from Marrubium vulgare, as an L-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    El-Bardai, Sanae; Wibo, Maurice; Hamaide, Marie-Christine; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Morel, Nicole

    2003-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the relaxant activity of marrubenol, a diterpenoid extracted from Marrubium vulgare. In rat aorta, marrubenol was a more potent inhibitor of the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl (IC50: 11.8+/-0.3 microM, maximum relaxation: 93+/-0.6%) than of the contraction evoked by noradrenaline (maximum relaxation: 30+/-1.5%). 2. In fura-2-loaded aorta, marrubenol simultaneously inhibited the Ca2+ signal and the contraction evoked by 100 mM KCl, and decreased the quenching rate of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+. 3. Patch-clamp data obtained in aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) indicated that marrubenol inhibited Ba2+ inward current in a voltage-dependent manner (KD: 8+/-2 and 40+/-6 microM at holding potentials of -50 and -100 mV, respectively). 4. These results showed that marrubenol inhibits smooth muscle contraction by blocking L-type calcium channels.

  9. Microdomain-Specific Modulation of L-Type Calcium Channels Leads to Triggered Ventricular Arrhythmia in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L.; Bhargava, Anamika; O’Hara, Thomas; Glukhov, Alexey V.; Schobesberger, Sophie; Bhogal, Navneet; Sikkel, Markus B.; Mansfield, Catherine; Korchev, Yuri E.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Punjabi, Prakash P.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Disruption in subcellular targeting of Ca2+ signaling complexes secondary to changes in cardiac myocyte structure may contribute to the pathophysiology of a variety of cardiac diseases, including heart failure (HF) and certain arrhythmias. Objective: To explore microdomain-targeted remodeling of ventricular L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) in HF. Methods and Results: Super-resolution scanning patch-clamp, confocal and fluorescence microscopy were used to explore the distribution of single LTCCs in different membrane microdomains of nonfailing and failing human and rat ventricular myocytes. Disruption of membrane structure in both species led to the redistribution of functional LTCCs from their canonical location in transversal tubules (T-tubules) to the non-native crest of the sarcolemma, where their open probability was dramatically increased (0.034±0.011 versus 0.154±0.027, P<0.001). High open probability was linked to enhance calcium–calmodulin kinase II–mediated phosphorylation in non-native microdomains and resulted in an elevated ICa,L window current, which contributed to the development of early afterdepolarizations. A novel model of LTCC function in HF was developed; after its validation with experimental data, the model was used to ascertain how HF-induced T-tubule loss led to altered LTCC function and early afterdepolarizations. The HF myocyte model was then implemented in a 3-dimensional left ventricle model, demonstrating that such early afterdepolarizations can propagate and initiate reentrant arrhythmias. Conclusions: Microdomain-targeted remodeling of LTCC properties is an important event in pathways that may contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis in the settings of HF-associated remodeling. This extends beyond the classical concept of electric remodeling in HF and adds a new dimension to cardiovascular disease. PMID:27572487

  10. Exercise training reverses myocardial dysfunction induced by CaMKIIδC overexpression by restoring Ca2+ homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Stølen, Tomas O.; Kettlewell, Sarah; Maier, Lars S.; Brown, Joan Heller; Sowa, Tomas; Catalucci, Daniele; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Kemi, Ole J.; Smith, Godfrey L.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Several conditions of heart disease, including heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy, are associated with upregulation of cytosolic Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIδC) activity. In the heart, CaMKIIδC isoform targets several proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We hypothesized that high-intensity endurance training activates mechanisms that enable a rescue of dysfunctional cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling and thereby ameliorate cardiac dysfunction despite continuous and chronic elevated levels of CaMKIIδC. CaMKIIδC transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice performed aerobic interval exercise training over 6 wk. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography in vivo, and cardiomyocyte shortening and intracellular Ca2+ handling were measured in vitro. TG mice had reduced global cardiac function, cardiomyocyte shortening (47% reduced compared with WT, P < 0.01), and impaired Ca2+ homeostasis. Despite no change in the chronic elevated levels of CaMKIIδC, exercise improved global cardiac function, restored cardiomyocyte shortening, and reestablished Ca2+ homeostasis to values not different from WT. The key features to explain restored Ca2+ homeostasis after exercise training were increased L-type Ca2+ current density and flux by 79 and 85%, respectively (P < 0.01), increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) function by 50% (P < 0.01), and reduced diastolic SR Ca2+ leak by 73% (P < 0.01), compared with sedentary TG mice. In conclusion, exercise training improves global cardiac function as well as cardiomyocyte function in the presence of a maintained high CaMKII activity. The main mechanisms of exercise-induced improvements in TG CaMKIIδC mice are mediated via increased L-type Ca2+ channel currents and improved SR Ca2+ handling by restoration of SERCA2a function in addition to reduced diastolic SR Ca2+ leak. PMID:27231311

  11. Exercise training reverses myocardial dysfunction induced by CaMKIIδC overexpression by restoring Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Høydal, Morten A; Stølen, Tomas O; Kettlewell, Sarah; Maier, Lars S; Brown, Joan Heller; Sowa, Tomas; Catalucci, Daniele; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Kemi, Ole J; Smith, Godfrey L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-07-01

    Several conditions of heart disease, including heart failure and diabetic cardiomyopathy, are associated with upregulation of cytosolic Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIδC) activity. In the heart, CaMKIIδC isoform targets several proteins involved in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We hypothesized that high-intensity endurance training activates mechanisms that enable a rescue of dysfunctional cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) handling and thereby ameliorate cardiac dysfunction despite continuous and chronic elevated levels of CaMKIIδC CaMKIIδC transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) mice performed aerobic interval exercise training over 6 wk. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography in vivo, and cardiomyocyte shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) handling were measured in vitro. TG mice had reduced global cardiac function, cardiomyocyte shortening (47% reduced compared with WT, P < 0.01), and impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis. Despite no change in the chronic elevated levels of CaMKIIδC, exercise improved global cardiac function, restored cardiomyocyte shortening, and reestablished Ca(2+) homeostasis to values not different from WT. The key features to explain restored Ca(2+) homeostasis after exercise training were increased L-type Ca(2+) current density and flux by 79 and 85%, respectively (P < 0.01), increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) function by 50% (P < 0.01), and reduced diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak by 73% (P < 0.01), compared with sedentary TG mice. In conclusion, exercise training improves global cardiac function as well as cardiomyocyte function in the presence of a maintained high CaMKII activity. The main mechanisms of exercise-induced improvements in TG CaMKIIδC mice are mediated via increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents and improved SR Ca(2+) handling by restoration of SERCA2a function in addition to reduced diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Gating of dopamine transmission by calcium and axonal N-, Q-, T- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels differs between striatal domains.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Katherine R; Gracie, Caitlin J; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-02-15

    The voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) that catalyse striatal dopamine transmission are critical to dopamine function and might prime subpopulations of neurons for parkinsonian degeneration. However, the VGCCs that operate on mesostriatal axons are incompletely defined; previous studies encompassed channels on striatal cholinergic interneurons that strongly influence dopamine transmission. We define that multiple types of axonal VGCCs operate that extend beyond classic presynaptic N/P/Q channels to include T- and L-types. We reveal differences in VGCC function between mouse axon types that in humans are vulnerable versus resistant to Parkinson's disease. We show for the first time that this is underpinned by different sensitivity of dopamine transmission to extracellular Ca(2+) and by different spatiotemporal intracellular Ca(2+) microdomains. These data define key principles of how Ca(2+) and VGCCs govern dopamine transmission in the healthy brain and reveal differences between neuron types that might contribute to vulnerability in disease. The axonal voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) that catalyse dopamine (DA) transmission are incompletely defined. Yet, they are critical to DA function and might prime subpopulations of DA neurons for parkinsonian degeneration. Previous studies of VGCCs will have encompassed those on striatal cholinergic interneurons, which strongly influence DA transmission. We identify which VGCCs on DA axons govern DA transmission, we determine their dynamic properties and reveal an underlying basis for differences between the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We detected DA release evoked electrically during nicotinic receptor blockade or optogenetically by light activation of channel rhodopsin-expressing DA axons in mouse striatal slices. Subtype-specific VGCC blockers indicated that N-, Q-, T- and L-VGCCs govern DA release in CPu, but in NAc, T and L-channels are relatively silent. The roles of the most dominant

  13. Chromatic aberration elimination for digital rear projection television L-type lens by genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Wu, Bo-Wen; Chou, Jyh-Horng; MacDonald, John

    2008-05-01

    Following the development of a digitalized image optics system, chromatic aberration has become increasingly important especially in lateral color aberration. For rear projection television L-type lens, chromatic aberration plays the significant role because it is easily seen when facing bright screen. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration for an optical lens depends on the choice of optical glass. DLS (damped least squares), a Ray-tracing-based method, is limited, owing to its inability to identify an enhanced optical system configuration. Genetic algorithms were applied to so-called global optimization but unfortunately so far the results show little success. Additionally, L-type optics with aspherical surface might complicate optimization due to being nonlinear response during optimization. As an alternative, this research proposes a new feasible chromatic aberration optimization process by using algorithms involving theories of geometric optics in a lens, real encoding, multiple dynamic crossover and random gene mutation techniques. In this research, rear projection television lens with aspherical surface and L-type lens are mainly discussed. Results and conclusions show that attempts to eliminate difficult axial and lateral color aberration are successful.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of evanescent waves in the mini stopband of a 1D phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Bavencoffe, Maxime; Morvan, Bruno; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Izbicki, Jean-Louis

    2013-02-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the guided evanescent waves in stopbands of a 1D phononic crystal (PC). A new numerical implementation is shown in order to get the complex values of the wavenumbers in a frequency range where a gap occurs. The considered phononic system is an aluminum plate with a one-dimensional sinusoidal grating. For this structure a mode-gap (mini stopband) occurs at low frequency: it involves the two fundamental Lamb modes A(0) and S(0). The numerical study is performed by using a finite element method (ATILA code). The experiments deal with a finite length grating and evanescent waves are characterized at the vicinity of the mini stopband. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quercetin Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Iron Uptake and Myocardial Injury by Regulating the Angiotensin II-L-Type Calcium Channel.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoping; Chen, Man; Zeng, Hongmei; Liu, Peiyi; Zhu, Xinghong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zhuangzhuang; Tang, Yuhan; Gao, Chao; Yao, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Increased iron deposition in the myocardium in alcoholics may lead to increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. Quercetin has been demonstrated to quench production of intracellular free iron-induced -OH, but the effect of quercetin in ethanol-induced cardiac damage remains unclear. This study aims to explore whether quercetin attenuates ethanol-induced iron uptake and myocardial injury by regulating angiotensin II-L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (Ang II-LTCC). Adult male C57BL/6J mice are isocalorically pair-fed either a regular or ethanol-containing Lieber De Carli liquid diets supplemented with either quercetin (100 mg kg -1  bw) or desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO, 100 mg kg -1 bw) for 15 weeks. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-induced histopathological changes, creatine kinase isoenzyme release, Ang II secretion, ROS generation, total cardiac iron, and labile iron level. Ethanol exposure or quercetin intervention fails to regulate traditional iron transporters except LTCC. LTCC is upregulated by ethanol and inhibited by quercetin. In H9C2 cell, LTCC is increased by ethanol (100 mm) and/or Ang II (1 μm) concomitant with iron disorders and oxidative stress. This effect is partially normalized by quercetin (50 μm), nifedipine (LTCC inhibitor, 15 μm), or losartan (Ang II receptor antagonist, 100 μm). Alcohol-induced cardiac injury is associated with excessive NTBI uptake mediated by Ang II-LTCC activation which may be mediated by quercetin against ethanol cardiotoxicity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Use of a 1-dB decrease in C/N\\0x2080AS the GPS interference protection criterion : global positioning systems directorate.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-30

    A 1 dB decrease in the carrier-to-noise (C/N) ratio is equivalent to a -6 dB interference-to-noise (I/N) ratio and a 1 dB increase in the noise floor ((I+N)/N). Regulations alternate between referencing the 1 dB decrease in C/N, -6 dB I/N ratio, and ...

  17. L-type amino acid transporter-1 expressed in human astrocytomas, U343MGa.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shinji; Kameyama, Megumi; Oura, Ayako; Morisato, Anna; Sakai, Hideki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Chairoungdua, Arthit; Endou, Hitoshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2007-03-01

    LAT1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1), one of the L-type amino acid transporters, transports the branched and aromatic amino acids. LAT1 requires the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (4F2hc) for the functional expression as an amino acid transporter. The expression of this transporter is up-regulated in tumor cells and rapidly-growing cells to support their proliferation. Here, we studied the expression of LAT1 and 4F2hc in human cultured cells by real-time PCR and Western blot, and found that human brain astrocytomas, U343MGa, highly expressed LAT1 and 4F2hc mRNAs and proteins. The uptake of [14C]leucine by U343MGa cells is Na+-independent and inhibited by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane carboxylic acid), and branched and aromatic amino acids, indicating that the LAT1 is expressed at the cell surface. Pulse chase labeling and surface labeling experiments of this cell line indicate that the protein synthesis of LAT1 and 4F2hc is slow, however, the heterodimeric complex assembled in the cells is very stable, and that the disulfide bond between the LAT1 and 4F2hc is not directly involved in the stability of the heterodimer.

  18. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present differentmore » challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris

  19. The activation ofN-methyl-d-aspartate receptors downregulates transient outward potassium and L-type calcium currents in rat models of depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shi, Shaobo; Yang, Hongjie; Qu, Chuan; Chen, Yuting; Liang, Jinjun; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Major depression is an important clinical factor in ventricular arrhythmia. Patients diagnosed with major depression overexpress N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Previous studies found that chronic NMDAR activation increases susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to explore the mechanisms by which NMDAR activation may increase susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Male rats were randomly assigned to either normal environments as control (CTL) group or 4 wk of chronic mild stress (CMS) to produce a major depression disorder (MDD) model group. After 4 wk of CMS, depression-like behaviors were measured in both groups. Varying doses (1-100 μM) of NMDA and 10 μM NMDA antagonist (MK-801) were perfused through ventricular myocytes isolated from MDD rats to measure the L-type calcium current ( I Ca-L ) and transient outward potassium current ( I to ). Structural remodeling was assessed using serial histopathology including Masson's trichrome dye. Electrophysiological characteristics were evaluated using Langendorff perfusion. Depression-like behaviors were observed in MDD rats. MDD rats showed longer action potential durations at 90% repolarization and higher susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias than CTL rats. MDD rats showed lower I Ca-L and I to current densities than CTL rats. Additionally, NMDA reduced both currents in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas there was no significant impact on the currents when perfused with MK-801. MDD rats exhibited significantly more fibrosis areas in heart tissue and reduced expression of Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Cav1.2. We observed that acute NMDAR activation led to downregulation of potassium and L-type calcium currents in a rat model of depression, which may be the mechanism underlying ventricular arrhythmia promotion by depression. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Ultracold collisions of Ca + Ca+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of our study of Ca + Ca+ collisions at ultracold temperatures in the presence of a magnetic field. We are primarily interested in characterizing magnetic Feshbach resonances and determine scattering properties of interest for sympathetic cooling of Ca+ ions. Our investigation is based on potential energy curves obtained by recent ab-initio electronic structure calculations that are expected be insufficiently accurate to agree with experiments. We account for this by exploring the dependence of positions and widths of Feshbach resonances on variation of potential energy curves in an effort to determine their shared properties that could be detected at certain magnetic field values. Our study is aimed at guiding future experiments with cold Ca + Ca+ mixtures. Partially supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by USRA and the MURI US Army Research Office Grant No.W911NF-14-1-0378 (MG), and by the PIF program of the National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-141556.

  1. Structural modeling and identification of imperatorin as novel L-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Fang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chen; Hu, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    L-type calcium channel (LTCC) blockers are used as cardiac antiarrhythmics or antihypertensives. In our previous research, we have reported a furanocoumarin, imperatorin, which exhibited potent vasodilatory effects. The possible mechanism might involve with inhibition against LTCC. In order to further investigate the pharmacologic mechanism of imperatorin for interaction with LTCC, the homology modeling of LTCC was performed using MODELLER 9.9 program with potassium channels as templates. The binding mode of imperatorin to LTCC was further investigated by molecular docking. Molecular docking results indicated that imperatorin occupied the same binding site as verapamil and hydrogen bond interaction played important role in blocker-channel binding. Docking studies provided useful information to understand the action mechanism of imperatorin. The results described here will be helpful in the development of novel potential LTCC blockers.

  2. Polarized distribution of L-type calcium channels in early sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Dale, B; Yazaki, I; Tosti, E

    1997-09-01

    Using the whole cell clamp technique, we have measured calcium-dependent currents and steady-state conductance in early sea urchin blastomeres. The calcium currents in M phase decreased from 8.5 microA/cm2 at the four-cell stage to 5.4 microA/cm2 at the eight-cell stage. In 16-cell stage embryos, calcium currents were 7.4 microA/cm2 in the mesomeres, 2.3 microA/cm2 in the macromeres, and were not detected in the micromeres. In contrast, the micromeres had a two- to threefold higher steady-state conductance than the mesomeres or macromeres, which may be due to potassium ion conductivity. Nifedipine, an L-type channel antagonist, delays cleavage division at a concentration of 0.05-0.1 mM and causes developmental defects, such as poor skeletal differentiation in later sea urchin embryos.

  3. Broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of the L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine and evidence for its additive antiemetic interaction with the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist palonosetron in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Vaezi, Mariam; Alkam, Tursun

    2014-01-05

    Cisplatin-like chemotherapeutics cause vomiting via release of multiple neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), or substance P (SP)) from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and/or the brainstem via a calcium dependent process. Diverse channels in the plasma membrane allow extracellular Ca(2+) entry into cells for the transmitter release process. Agonists of 5-HT3 receptors increase calcium influx through both 5-HT3 receptors and L-type Ca(2+) channels. We envisaged that L-type calcium agonists such as FPL 64176 should cause vomiting and corresponding antagonists such as nifedipine would behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics. Administration of FPL 64176 did cause vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent fashion. Nifedipine and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist palonosetron, potently suppressed FPL 64176-induced vomiting, while a combination of ineffective doses of these antagonists was more efficacious. Subsequently, we investigated the broad-spectrum antiemetic potential of nifedipine against diverse emetogens including agonists of serotonergic 5-HT3- (e.g. 5-HT or 2-Me-5-HT), SP tachykinin NK1- (GR73632), dopamine D2- (apomorphine or quinpirole), and cholinergic M1- (McN-A-343) receptors, as well as the non-specific emetogen, cisplatin. Nifedipine by itself suppressed vomiting in a potent and dose-dependent manner caused by the above emetogens except cisplatin. Moreover, low doses of nifedipine potentiated the antiemetic efficacy of non-effective or semi-effective doses of palonosetron against vomiting caused by either 2-Me-5-HT or cisplatin. Thus, our findings demonstrate that activation of L-type calcium channels causes vomiting, whereas blockade of these ion channels by nifedipine-like antagonists not only provides broad-spectrum antiemetic activity but can also potentiate the antiemetic efficacy of well-established antiemetics such as palonosetron. L-type calcium channel antagonists should also provide antiemetic activity against drug

  4. Complex influence of the L-type calcium-channel agonist BayK8644(+/-) on N-methyl-D-aspartate responses and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Barger, S W

    1999-03-01

    Past studies have implicated calcium influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate class of ionotropic glutamate receptors as a key factor in excitotoxicity. Here, primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were exposed to N-methyl-D-aspartate with or without the L-type calcium channel agonist BayK8644(+/-). Calcium influxes were monitored with Fura-2 microfluorescent imaging and 45Ca measurements, and survival was assayed through cell counts. While 100 microM BayK8644 alone evoked a moderate elevation of intraneuronal calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i), it dramatically attenuated the larger calcium influxes triggered by 500 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate. This attenuation was non-competitive and reversible; it was not inhibited by charybdotoxin or cyclosporin A. In spite of this attenuation of [Ca2+]i responses, 5-min exposures to BayK8644 produced much greater neurotoxicity 24 h later than did doses of N-methyl-D-aspartate evoking larger [Ca2+]i increases. This neurotoxicity was not observed with potassium-mediated depolarization or cobalt; indeed, both reversed the neurotoxicity of BayK8644. The relevant conclusions are two-fold: BayK8644 inhibits influx of calcium through a ligand-gated glutamate receptor, and BayK8644 exhibits considerable neurotoxicity. The former effect does not appear to depend upon the major metabolic pathways that modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate channels and thus may involve a direct allosteric interaction with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. The toxicity of BayK8644 depends, at least partially, upon its activation of voltage-gated (cobalt-sensitive) calcium channels. However, the reversal of this toxicity by depolarization suggests that depolarization can be beneficial to neuronal survival through mechanisms other than calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels.

  5. The effect of the oxidant hypochlorous acid on the L-type calcium current in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, S; Wahn, H

    1998-09-01

    Disturbances of cellular calcium homeostasis due to oxidative stress are involved in reperfusion associated phenomena like myocardial stunning and reperfusion induced arrhythmias. This study investigates the effect of the major neutrophil-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on the l-type calcium current (ICa,L) of hamster ventricular cardiomyocytes. Using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch-clamp technique, I Ca,L was recorded over 12.5 min (0.1 Hz). Application of HOCl or buffer (for control) via a second micropipette in close proximity to the cell was started at t=1 min. To study the influence of increased intracellular calcium buffer concentration and of ATP on HOCl-induced effects, internal solutions were composed as follows (EGTA/ATP in mmol/l): group I (standard) 0.5/0.0, group II 5.0/0.0, group III 0.5/1.0, and group IV 5.0/1.0. Application of 10, 20 and 40 micromol/l HOCl (under group I-conditions) caused a dose-dependent decrease in peak ICa,L to 82+/-3.2, 66+/-4.2 and 36+/-4.3% of baseline value (v 94+/-4.8% in controls, mean+/-s.e.m., P<0.05), and integrated ICa,L without affecting apparent reversal potential, activation and inactivation kinetics. HOCl-induced (40 micromol/l) decrease in ICa,L was partially inhibited in group II and III. Peak currents of these groups averaged 51+/-4.7 and 52+/-4.2% of baseline after 11.5 min administration of HOCl. Peak current in group IV cells decreased to 65+/-3.8% of baseline value (P<0.05 between group I-IV and v controls). Oxidative stress-induced decrease in ICa,L may be explained by energy depletion or calcium overload rather than by direct oxidative inactivation of channel proteins. A decrease in ICa, L may contribute to the shortening of action potential during reperfusion. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  6. L-type amino acid transporter-1 overexpression and melphalan sensitivity in Barrett's adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jules; Raoof, Duna A; Thomas, Dafydd G; Greenson, Joel K; Giordano, Thomas J; Robinson, Gregory S; Bourner, Maureen J; Bauer, Christopher T; Orringer, Mark B; Beer, David G

    2004-01-01

    The L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) has been associated with tumor growth. Using cDNA microarrays, overexpression of LAT-1 was found in 87.5% (7/8) of esophageal adenocarcinomas relative to 12 Barrett's samples (33% metaplasia and 66% dysplasia) and was confirmed in 100% (28/28) of Barrett's adenocarcinomas by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry revealed LAT-1 staining in 37.5% (24/64) of esophageal adenocarcinomas on tissue microarray. LAT-1 also transports the amino acid-related chemotherapeutic agent, melphalan. Two esophageal adenocarcinoma and one esophageal squamous cell line, expressing LAT-1 on Western blot analysis, were sensitive to therapeutic doses of melphalan (P <.001). Simultaneous treatment with the competitive inhibitor, BCH [2-aminobicyclo-(2,1,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid], decreased sensitivity to melphalan (P <.05). In addition, confluent esophageal squamous cultures were less sensitive to melphalan (P <.001) and had a decrease in LAT-1 protein expression. Tumors from two esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines grown in nude mice retained LAT-1 mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that LAT-1 is highly expressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinomas and that Barrett's adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing LAT-1 are sensitive to melphalan. LAT-1 expression is also retained in cell lines grown in nude mice providing a model to evaluate melphalan as a chemotherapeutic agent against esophageal adenocarcinomas expressing LAT-1.

  7. The role of solvation in the binding selectivity of the L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Boda, Dezső; Henderson, Douglas; Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-08-07

    We present grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation results for a reduced model of the L-type calcium channel. While charged residues of the protein amino acids in the selectivity filter are treated explicitly, most of the degrees of freedom (including the rest of the protein and the solvent) are represented by their dielectric response, i.e., dielectric continua. The new aspect of this paper is that the dielectric coefficient in the channel is different from that in the baths. The ions entering the channel, thus, cross a dielectric boundary at the entrance of the channel. Simulating this case has been made possible by our recent methodological development [D. Boda, D. Henderson, B. Eisenberg, and D. Gillespie, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064105 (2011)]. Our main focus is on the effect of solvation energy (represented by the Born energy) on monovalent vs. divalent ion selectivity in the channel. We find no significant change in selectivity by changing the dielectric coefficient in the channel because the larger solvation penalty is counterbalanced by the enhanced Coulomb attraction inside the channel as soon as we use the Born radii (fitted to experimental hydration energies) to compute the solvation penalty from the Born equation.

  8. Forskolin Regulates L-Type Calcium Channel through Interaction between Actinin 4 and β3 Subunit in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lin; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Peng, Wen; Cai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels that permit cellular calcium influx are essential in calcium-mediated modulation of cellular signaling. Although the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels is linked to many factors including cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the detailed mechanisms underlying the regulation in osteoblasts. Our present study investigated the modulation of L-type calcium channel activities through the effects of forskolin on actin reorganization and on its functional interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4. The results showed that forskolin did not significantly affect the trafficking of pore forming α1c subunit and its interaction with actin binding protein actinin 4, whereas it significantly increased the expression of β3 subunit and its interaction with actinin 4 in osteoblast cells as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, pull-down assay, and immunostaining. Further mapping showed that the ABD and EF domains of actinin 4 were interaction sites. This interaction is independent of PKA phosphorylation. Knockdown of actinin 4 significantly decreased the activities of L-type calcium channels. Our study revealed a new aspect of the mechanisms by which the forskolin activation of adenylyl cyclase - cAMP cascade regulates the L-type calcium channel in osteoblast cells, besides the PKA mediated phosphorylation of the channel subunits. These data provide insight into the important role of interconnection among adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, PKA, the actin cytoskeleton, and the channel proteins in the regulation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels in osteoblast cells. PMID:25902045

  9. Low sodium inotropy is accompanied by diastolic Ca2+ gain and systolic loss in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Même, William; O'Neill, S C; Eisner, D A

    2001-01-01

    We measured sarcolemmal Ca2+ fluxes responsible for the positive inotropic effects of solutions with reduced Na+ concentration in voltage-clamped guinea-pig ventricular myocytes; intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with Indo-1. Reduction of external Na+ concentration by 50 % (to 67 mM) produced an increase in systolic [Ca2+]i accompanied by a decrease in Ca2+ entry via the L-type Ca2+ current. With reduced Na+ concentration, there was an initial decrease in the Na+–Ca2+ exchange current on repolarization followed by an increase to greater than control. We attribute this initial decrease to a decrease in the Na+ gradient and the subsequent increase to a fall in intracellular Na+ concentration and increase in systolic [Ca2+]i. The decreased L-type Ca2+ current and increased Ca2+ efflux on Na+–Ca2+ exchange resulted in a calculated systolic loss of Ca2+. The calculated systolic loss of Ca2+ was accompanied by a measured increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content. Reduction of the external Na+ concentration also produced an outward shift of holding current which was blocked by Ni2+. This is taken to represent Ca2+ influx via Na+–Ca2+ exchange. When diastolic influx is taken into account, the observed gain in SR Ca2+ content can be predicted. The measurements show that, in reduced Na+, much of the entry of Ca2+ into the cell occurs during diastole (via Na+–Ca2+ exchange) rather than in systole (via the L-type Ca2+ current). PMID:11158278

  10. Transport of Iodothyronines by Human L-Type Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Zevenbergen, Chantal; Meima, Marcel E; Lima de Souza, Elaine C; Peeters, Robin P; Kinne, Anita; Krause, Gerd; Visser, W Edward; Visser, Theo J

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) transporters facilitate cellular TH influx and efflux, which is paramount for normal physiology. The L-type amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are known to facilitate TH transport. However, the role of LAT3, LAT4, and LAT5 is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further characterize TH transport by LAT1 and LAT2 and to explore possible TH transport by LAT3, LAT4, and LAT5. FLAG-LAT1-5 constructs were transiently expressed in COS1 cells. LAT1 and LAT2 were cotransfected with the CD98 heavy chain. Cellular transport was measured using 10 nM (125)I-labeled T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-T2, and 10 μM [(125)I]3'-iodotyrosine (MIT) as substrates. Intracellular metabolism of these substrates was determined in cells cotransfected with either of the LATs with type 1 or type 3 deiodinase. LAT1 facilitated cellular uptake of all substrates and LAT2 showed a net uptake of T3, 3,3'-T2, and MIT. Expression of LAT3 or LAT4 did not affect transport of T4 and T3 but resulted in the decreased cellular accumulation of 3,3'-T2 and MIT. LAT5 did not facilitate the transport of any substrate. Cotransfection with LAT3 or LAT4 strongly diminished the cellular accumulation of 3,3'-T2 and MIT by LAT1 and LAT2. These data were confirmed by metabolism studies. LAT1 and LAT2 show distinct preferences for the uptake of the different iodocompounds, whereas LAT3 and LAT4 specifically facilitate the 3,3'-T2 and MIT efflux. Together our findings suggest that different sets of transporters with specific influx or efflux capacities may cooperate to regulate the cellular thyroid state.

  11. Structural Insights Into Thyroid Hormone Transport Mechanisms of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 2

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Katrin M.; Meyer, Katja; Kinne, Anita; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are transported across cell membranes by different transmembrane transporter proteins. In previous studies, we showed marked 3,3′-diiodothyronine (3,3′-T2) but moderate T3 uptake by the L-type amino acid transporter 2 (Lat2). We have now studied the structure-function relationships of this transporter and TH-like molecules. Our Lat2 homology model is based on 2 crystal structures of the homologous 12-transmembrane helix transporters arginine/agmatine antiporter and amino acid/polyamine/organocation transporter. Model-driven mutagenesis of residues lining an extracellular recognition site and a TH-traversing channel identified 9 sensitive residues. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as expression system, we found that side chain shortening (N51S, N133S, N248S, and Y130A) expanded the channel and increased 3,3′-T2 transport. Side chain enlargements (T140F, Y130R, and I137M) decreased 3,3′-T2 uptake, indicating channel obstructions. The opposite results with mutations maintaining (F242W) or impairing (F242V) uptake suggest that F242 may have a gating function. Competitive inhibition studies of 14 TH-like compounds revealed that recognition by Lat2 requires amino and carboxylic acid groups. The size of the adjacent hydrophobic group is restricted. Bulky substituents in positions 3 and 5 of the tyrosine ring are allowed. The phenolic ring may be enlarged, provided that the whole molecule is flexible enough to fit into the distinctly shaped TH-traversing channel of Lat2. Taken together, the next Lat2 features were identified 1) TH recognition site; 2) TH-traversing channel in the center of Lat2; and 3) switch site that potentially facilitates intracellular substrate release. Together with identified substrate features, these data help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and role of Lat2 in T2 transport. PMID:25945809

  12. Verapamil - L type voltage gated calcium channel inhibitor diminishes aggressive behavior in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    Kania, B F; Dębski, B; Wrońska, D; Zawadzka, E

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is a L-type voltage gated calcium channels inhibitor (VGCCI), which is a highly prescribed drug used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia and cluster headaches. Its common use caused its appearance in water environment. VGCC inhibit epinephrine release and cause many neuro-hormonal changes influencing also fish behavior. Siamese fighting fish was chosen to study the influence of verapamil given to the water on the beginning of experiment in 3 different concentrations of 0 (control), 8 and 160 μg · L-1, on aggressive behavior in these fish. The experimental fish were placed in individual glass containers for 3 weeks and the mirror test was used. The highest concentration led to a significant modulation of fish behavior after 1 week and the lower dose caused statistically significant behavioral changes after 2 weeks of verapamil treatment. Siamese fighting fish males exposed to verapamil had longer latencies to the first chase - 12.6 s (8 μg · L-1 of verapamil) and 18.8 s (160 μg · L-1 of verapamil) compared to 5.6 s in the control group, decreased attack frequency and shorter duration of these attacks. The number of attacks within 10 min was decreased from 38.3 in the control group to 27.1 and 16.1, respectively. Also the total duration of these attacks decreased from 354.8 (control) to 326.4 (decrease statistically insignificant) and to 194.8 s in verapamil treated groups. It was shown, that even relatively low concentrations of verapamil in water may have adverse effects on fish and probably other living organisms.

  13. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca(2+) channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about 70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca(2+) action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at 20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca(2+) currents indicated that very few Ca(2+) channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca(2+) channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca(2+) channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres.

  14. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  15. Acute hypoxia activates store-operated Ca2+ entry and increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Gongyong; Lu, Wenju; Zhong, Nanshan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exposure to acute hypoxia causes vasoconstriction in both pulmonary arteries (PA) and pulmonary veins (PV). The mechanisms on the arterial side have been studied extensively. However, bare attention has been paid to the venous side. Objectives To investigate if acute hypoxia caused the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and Ca2+ influx through store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) in pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs). Methods Fluorescent microscopy and fura-2 were used to measure effects of 4% O2 on [Ca2+]i and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in isolated rat distal PVSMCs. Measurements and main results In PVSMCs perfused with Ca2+-free Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRBS) containing cyclopiazonic acid to deplete Ca2+ stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and nifedipine to prevent Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-depended Ca2+ channels (VDCC), hypoxia markedly enhanced both the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by restoration of extracellular [Ca2+] and the rate at which extracellular Mn2+ quenched fura-2 fluorescence. Moreover, the increased [Ca2+]i in PVSMCs perfused with normal salt solution was completely blocked by SOCC antagonists SKF-96365 and NiCl2 at concentrations that SOCE >85% was inhibited but [Ca2+]i responses to 60 mM KCl were not altered. On the contrary, L-type VDCC antagonist nifedipine inhibited increase in [Ca2+]i to hypoxia by only 50% at concentrations that completely blocked responses to KCl. The increased [Ca2+]i caused by hypoxia was completely abolished by perfusion with Ca2+-free KRBS. Conclusions These results suggest that acute hypoxia enhances SOCE via activating SOCCs, leading to increased [Ca2+]i in distal PVSMCs. PMID:24255773

  16. Retinoschisin, a New Binding Partner for L-type Voltage-gated Calcium Channels in the Retina*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liheng; Jian, Kuihuan; Ko, Michael L.; Trump, Dorothy; Ko, Gladys Y.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) are activated under high depolarization voltages. They are vital for diverse biological events, including cell excitability, differentiation, and synaptic transmission. In retinal photoreceptors, L-VGCCs are responsible for neurotransmitter release and are under circadian influences. However, the mechanism of L-VGCC regulation in photoreceptors is not fully understood. Here, we show that retinoschisin, a highly conserved extracellular protein, interacts with the L-VGCCα1D subunit and regulates its activities in a circadian manner. Mutations in the gene encoding retinoschisin (RS1) cause retinal disorganization that leads to early onset of macular degeneration. Since ion channel activities can be modulated through interactions with extracellular proteins, disruption of these interactions can alter physiology and be the root cause of disease states. Co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that retinoschisin and the N-terminal fragment of the L-VGCCα1 subunit physically interacted with one another. The expression and secretion of retinoschisin are under circadian regulation with a peak at night and nadir during the day. Inhibition of L-type VGCCs decreased membrane-bound retinoschisin at night. Overexpression of a missense RS1 mutant gene, R141G, into chicken cone photoreceptors caused a decrease of L-type VGCC currents at night. Our findings demonstrate a novel bidirectional relationship between an ion channel and an extracellular protein; L-type VGCCs regulate the circadian rhythm of retinoschisin secretion, whereas secreted retinoschisin feeds back to regulate L-type VGCCs. Therefore, physical interactions between L-VGCCα1 subunits and retinoschisin play an important role in the membrane retention of L-VGCCα1 subunits and photoreceptor-bipolar synaptic transmission. PMID:19074145

  17. Cholinergic modulation of the basal L-type calcium current in ferret right ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Glenna C L; Dai, Shuiping; Campbell, Donald L

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the cholinergic muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCh) on the basal L-type calcium current, ICa,L, in ferret right ventricular (RV) myocytes were studied using whole cell patch clamp. CCh produced two major effects: (i) in all myocytes, extracellular application of CCh inhibited ICa,L in a reversible concentration-dependent manner; and (ii) in many (but not all) myocytes, upon washout CCh produced a significant transient stimulation of ICa,L (‘rebound stimulation’). Inhibitory effects could be observed at 1 × 10−10m CCh. The mean steady-state inhibitory concentration-response relationship was shallow and could be described with a single Hill equation (maximum inhibition = 34.5 %, IC50 = 4 × 10−8m, Hill coefficient n = 0.60). Steady-state inhibition (1 or 10 μM CCh) had no significant effect on ICa,L selectivity or macroscopic (i) activation characteristics, (ii) inactivation kinetics, (iii) steady-state inactivation or (iv) kinetics of recovery from inactivation. Maximal inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity (preincubation of myocytes in 1 mm l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl-l-arginine) + 1 mm l-NNA (NG-nitro-l-arginine) for 2–3 h plus inclusion of 1 mm l-NMMA + 1 mm l-NNA in the patch pipette solution) produced no significant attenuation of the CCh-mediated inhibition of ICa,L. Protocols involving (i) the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; 200 μM), (ii) imposition of a ‘cGMP clamp’ (100 μM 8-Bromo-cGMP), and (iii) inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (ODQ (1H-[1,2,4,]oxadiazolo(4,3,-a)quinoxalin-1-one), 50 μM) all failed to attenuate CCh-mediated inhibition of Ica,L. While CCh consistently inhibited basal ICa,L in all RV myocytes studied, not all myocytes displayed rebound stimulation upon CCh washout. However, there was no difference between CCh-mediated inhibition of ICa,L between these two RV myocyte types, and in myocytes displaying rebound stimulation neither ODQ nor 8

  18. CaV1.2/CaV3.x channels mediate divergent vasomotor responses in human cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Harraz, Osama F.; Visser, Frank; Brett, Suzanne E.; Goldman, Daniel; Zechariah, Anil; Hashad, Ahmed M.; Menon, Bijoy K.; Watson, Tim; Starreveld, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of arterial tone is critical in the spatial and temporal control of cerebral blood flow. Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels are key regulators of excitation–contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle, and thereby of arterial tone. Although L- and T-type CaV channels have been identified in rodent smooth muscle, little is known about the expression and function of specific CaV subtypes in human arteries. Here, we determined which CaV subtypes are present in human cerebral arteries and defined their roles in determining arterial tone. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively, identified mRNA and protein for L- and T-type channels in smooth muscle of cerebral arteries harvested from patients undergoing resection surgery. Analogous to rodents, CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.2 (T-type) α1 subunits were expressed in human cerebral arterial smooth muscle; intriguingly, the CaV3.1 (T-type) subtype present in rodents was replaced with a different T-type isoform, CaV3.3, in humans. Using established pharmacological and electrophysiological tools, we separated and characterized the unique profiles of Ca2+ channel subtypes. Pressurized vessel myography identified a key role for CaV1.2 and CaV3.3 channels in mediating cerebral arterial constriction, with the former and latter predominating at higher and lower intraluminal pressures, respectively. In contrast, CaV3.2 antagonized arterial tone through downstream regulation of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. Computational analysis indicated that each Ca2+ channel subtype will uniquely contribute to the dynamic regulation of cerebral blood flow. In conclusion, this study documents the expression of three distinct Ca2+ channel subtypes in human cerebral arteries and further shows how they act together to orchestrate arterial tone. PMID:25918359

  19. L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Li; Wang, Yu; Wang, Huan

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detect the functional Ca{sup 2+} currents and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockage of VDCC{sub L} exert antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting VDCC{sub L} can suppress the ability of rMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}1C of VDCC{sub L} may be a primary functional subunit in VDCC{sub L}-regulating rMSCs. -- Abstract: L-type voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels (VDCC{sub L}) play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. They have been confirmed to contribute to the functional activities of osteoblasts. Recently, VDCC{sub L} expression wasmore » reported in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the role of VDCC{sub L} in MSCs is still undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether VDCC{sub L} may be regarded as a new regulator in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSC (rMSCs). In this study, we examined functional Ca{sup 2+} currents (I{sub Ca}) and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and then suppressed VDCC{sub L} using nifedipine (Nif), a VDCC{sub L} blocker, to investigate its role in rMSCs. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin Red S staining, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR assays. We found that Nif exerts antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. ALP activity and mineralized nodules were significantly decreased after Nif treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the osteogenic markers, osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were also down-regulated. In addition, we transfected {alpha}1C-siRNA into the cells to further confirm the role of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and a similar effect on osteogenesis was found

  20. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel is involved in the snake venom group IA secretory phospholipase A2-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Tatsurou; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kohma, Hiromi; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Takasu, Nobuo; Okamura, Noboru

    2013-03-01

    Snake venom group IA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IA) is known as a neurotoxin. Snake venom sPLA2s are neurotoxic in vivo and in vitro, causing synergistic neurotoxicity to cortical cultures when applied with toxic concentrations of glutamate. However, it has not yet been cleared sufficiently how sPLA2-IA exerts neurotoxicity. Here, we found sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. This death was a delayed response requiring a latent time for 6h. sPLA2-IA-induced neuronal cell death was accompanied with apoptotic blebbing, condensed chromatin, and fragmented DNA, exhibiting apoptotic features. NMDA receptor blockers suppressed the neurotoxicity of sPLA2-IA, but an AMPA receptor blocker did not. Interestingly, L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (L-VDCC) blocker significantly protected neurons from the sPLA2-IA-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, neither N-VDCC blockers nor P/Q-VDCC blocker did. In conclusion, we demonstrated that sPLA2-IA induced neuronal cell death via apoptosis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that not only NMDA receptor but also L-VDCC contributed to the neurotoxicity of snake venom sPLA2-IA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a new gastrointestinal smooth muscle L-type calcium channel inhibitor, which underlies the spasmolytic properties of Garcinia buchananii stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Balemba, Onesmo B.; Stark, Timo D.; Lösch, Sofie; Patterson, Savannah; McMillan, John S.; Mawe, Gary M.; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia buchananii Baker stem bark extract (GBB) is a traditional medication of diarrhea and dysentery in sub-Saharan Africa. It is believed that GBB causes gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine whether GBB has spasmolytic actions and identify compounds underlying these actions. Calcium (Ca2+) imaging was used to analyze the effect of GBB on Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves in guinea pig gallbladder and distal colon smooth muscle. Intracellular microelectrode recording was used to determine the effect of GBB, six fractions of GBB, M1–5 and M7, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone, a compound isolated from M3 on action potentials in gallbladder smooth muscle. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of GBB, M3, and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on action potentials in the circular muscle of mouse and guinea pig distal colons, and the effect of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone on slow waves in porcine ileum. GBB inhibited Ca2+ flashes and Ca2+ waves. GBB, M3 and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials. L-type Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 increased the discharge of action potentials in mouse colon but did not trigger or increase action potentials in the presence of GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone inhibited action potentials in the presence of Bay K 8644. GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone reduced the amplitude but did not alter the frequency of slow waves in the porcine ileum. In conclusion, GBB and (2R,3S,2”R,3”R)-manniflavanone relax smooth muscle by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels, thus have potential for use as therapies of gastrointestinal smooth muscle spasms, and arrhythmias. PMID:26081368

  2. A novel L-type lectin was required for the multiplication of WSSV in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clakii).

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunjia; Wang, Yuqing; Zhao, Lingling; Qin, Zhendong; Yuan, Junfa; Qin, Qiwei; Lin, Li; Lan, Jiangfeng

    2016-08-01

    L-type lectins are involved in glycoproteins secretory pathways and are associated with many immune responses. There is growing evidence that L-type lectins are also involved in viral replication. In this study, a novel L-type lectin (named as PcL-lectin) was identified from red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clakii). Gene sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the PcL-lectin was a kind of endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment-53 (ERGIC-53). The expression level of PcL-lectin was significantly down regulated in crayfish after challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Recombinant PcL-lectin protein facilitated the replication of WSSV in crayfish. In addition, WSSV replication was decreased when endogenous PcL-lectin was knocked down by RNA interference in crayfish. Furthermore, PcL-lectin may interact with VP24, an envelope protein of WSSV. Our results suggest that PcL-lectin may be required for the multiplication of WSSV, and will pave a new way for the developing of strategies against WSSV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental study on hydrodynamics of L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dagang; Guo, Chunyu; Su, Yumin; Dou, Pengfei; Jing, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions using an open-water measuring instrument developed by the authors for podded propulsors, a ship model towing tank, and under water particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement systems. Under the three types of conditions, the main parameters of an L-type podded propulsor were measured, including the propeller thrust and torque, as well as the thrust, side force, and moment of the whole pod unit. In addition, the flow field on the section between the propeller and the strut was analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the dynamic azimuthing rate and direction and the turning direction affect the forces on the propeller and the whole pod unit. Forces are asymmetrically distributed between the left and right azimuthing directions because of the effect of propeller rotation. The findings of this study provide a foundation for further research on L-type podded propulsors.

  4. Inactivation of single Ca2+ channels in rat sensory neurons by extracellular Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, A; Ferroni, A; Bertollini, L; Mazzanti, M

    1994-01-01

    1. Single Ca2+ channels conducting 20 mM Ba2+ from adult rat dorsal root ganglion cells were characterized using the two-electrode patch-clamp technique configuration. 2. Channels demonstrating specific characteristics of conductance, voltage dependence and dihydropyridine sensitivity were classified as high-threshold or L-type Ca2+ channels. 3. Mean single-channel current in 20 mM Ba2+ did not show inactivation, but inactivation occurred when using Ca2+ as a permeating ion. 4. Stimulus protocols were delivered alternately in the cell-attached and whole-cell electrode, while recording single-channel activity and total Ca2+ current simultaneously. 5. A mean single-channel Ba2+ current from a stimulated patch did not show inactivation. However, stimulation of a physiological whole-cell Ca2+ current induced a marked inactivation of mean single-channel Ba2+ current. 6. Complete Ca2+ current block by the addition of 200 microM Cd2+ in the external solution removed single-channel inactivation in patches stimulated through a whole-cell electrode. Images Figure 3 PMID:8071882

  5. Ion Fluxes through KCa2 (SK) and Cav1 (L-type) Channels Contribute to Chronoselectivity of Adenosine A1 Receptor-Mediated Actions in Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria

    PubMed Central

    Bragança, Bruno; Oliveira-Monteiro, Nádia; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Lima, Pedro A.; Faria, Miguel; Fontes-Sousa, Ana P.; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Impulse generation in supraventricular tissue is inhibited by adenosine and acetylcholine via the activation of A1 and M2 receptors coupled to inwardly rectifying GIRK/KIR3.1/3.4 channels, respectively. Unlike M2 receptors, bradycardia produced by A1 receptors activation predominates over negative inotropy. Such difference suggests that other ion currents may contribute to adenosine chronoselectivity. In isolated spontaneously beating rat atria, blockade of KCa2/SK channels with apamin and Cav1 (L-type) channels with nifedipine or verapamil, sensitized atria to the negative inotropic action of the A1 agonist, R-PIA, without affecting the nucleoside negative chronotropy. Patch-clamp experiments in the whole-cell configuration mode demonstrate that adenosine, via A1 receptors, activates the inwardly-rectifying GIRK/KIR3.1/KIR3.4 current resulting in hyperpolarization of atrial cardiomyocytes, which may slow down heart rate. Conversely, the nucleoside inactivates a small conductance Ca2+-activated KCa2/SK outward current, which eventually reduces the repolarizing force and thereby prolong action potentials duration and Ca2+ influx into cardiomyocytes. Immunolocalization studies showed that differences in A1 receptors distribution between the sinoatrial node and surrounding cardiomyocytes do not afford a rationale for adenosine chronoselectivity. Immunolabelling of KIR3.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3, and Cav1 was also observed throughout the right atrium. Functional data indicate that while both A1 and M2 receptors favor the opening of GIRK/KIR3.1/3.4 channels modulating atrial chronotropy, A1 receptors may additionally restrain KCa2/SK activation thereby compensating atrial inotropic depression by increasing the time available for Ca2+ influx through Cav1 (L-type) channels. PMID:27014060

  6. The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3−/− mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3−/− mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3−/− mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3−/− mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical

  7. Ca(2+) response to cADPr during maturation and fertilization of starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nusco, Gilda A; Lim, Dmitri; Sabala, Pawel; Santella, Luigia

    2002-01-25

    During the reinitiation of the meiotic cycle (maturation) induced by the hormone 1-methyladenine (1-MA), starfish oocytes undergo structural and biochemical changes in preparation for successful fertilization. Previous work has shown that the sensitivity of internal Ca(2+) stores to InsP(3) increases during maturation of the oocytes. Since Astropecten auranciacus oocytes also respond to cADPr, we have studied whether the response to cADPr also changes during maturation. We have found that the photoactivation of injected cADPr in immature oocytes immediately induces multiple patches of Ca(2+) release in the cortical region. The Ca(2+) signal then spreads from these initial points of increase to the entire cell. In mature oocytes, the uncaging of cADPr induces instead a single (or at most a dual) initial point of Ca(2+) release, which is immediately followed by the formation of a cortical Ca(2+) flash and then by the globalization of the wave and by the elevation of the fertilization envelope. External Ca(2+) plays a role in the Ca(2+) responses. Inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels does not affect the initial Ca(2+) release, but abolishes the cortical flash and impairs the elevation of the fertilization envelope. External Ca(2+) has other effects, as shown by the irregular appearance of the surface of oocytes incubated in Ca(2+)-free sea water. The sequence of Ca(2+) responses induced by cADPr in mature oocytes mimics those seen at fertilization, i.e., a first localized Ca(2+) increase followed by a cortical flash and by the globalization of the Ca(2+) signal. As in the case of maturation, L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers abolish the sperm induced cortical flash.

  8. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity.

  9. Targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 for anticancer therapy: clinical impact from diagnostics to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Eon; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2015-01-01

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is one of the amino acid transporters. It is overexpressed in various types of cancer cells, while it is produced restrictedly in normal tissues. We discuss its characteristics in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also mention the current applications to target LAT1 for anticancer therapy focusing on prognostic biomarkers, radio-labeled tumor imaging reagents, amino acid-stapled prodrugs, LAT1-mediated enhanced transport of anticancer drugs and LAT1 inhibitors. LAT1 can be a versatile target to promisingly develop transporter-based drugs with enhanced drug delivery potential for anticancer therapy.

  10. Cytosolic Ca2+ buffers.

    PubMed

    Schwaller, Beat

    2010-11-01

    "Ca(2+) buffers," a class of cytosolic Ca(2+)-binding proteins, act as modulators of short-lived intracellular Ca(2+) signals; they affect both the temporal and spatial aspects of these transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i). Examples of Ca(2+) buffers include parvalbumins (α and β isoforms), calbindin-D9k, calbindin-D28k, and calretinin. Besides their proven Ca(2+) buffer function, some might additionally have Ca(2+) sensor functions. Ca(2+) buffers have to be viewed as one of the components implicated in the precise regulation of Ca(2+) signaling and Ca(2+) homeostasis. Each cell is equipped with proteins, including Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and pumps that, together with the Ca(2+) buffers, shape the intracellular Ca(2+) signals. All of these molecules are not only functionally coupled, but their expression is likely to be regulated in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner to maintain normal Ca(2+) signaling, even in the absence or malfunctioning of one of the components.

  11. Cytosolic Ca2+ Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Schwaller, Beat

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ buffers,” a class of cytosolic Ca2+-binding proteins, act as modulators of short-lived intracellular Ca2+ signals; they affect both the temporal and spatial aspects of these transient increases in [Ca2+]i. Examples of Ca2+ buffers include parvalbumins (α and β isoforms), calbindin-D9k, calbindin-D28k, and calretinin. Besides their proven Ca2+ buffer function, some might additionally have Ca2+ sensor functions. Ca2+ buffers have to be viewed as one of the components implicated in the precise regulation of Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ homeostasis. Each cell is equipped with proteins, including Ca2+ channels, transporters, and pumps that, together with the Ca2+ buffers, shape the intracellular Ca2+ signals. All of these molecules are not only functionally coupled, but their expression is likely to be regulated in a Ca2+-dependent manner to maintain normal Ca2+ signaling, even in the absence or malfunctioning of one of the components. PMID:20943758

  12. Activation of CaMKII in single dendritic spines during long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Jin R; Escobedo-Lozoya, Yasmin; Szatmari, Erzsebet M; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2009-03-19

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) plays a central part in long-term potentiation (LTP), which underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we monitored the spatiotemporal dynamics of CaMKII activation in individual dendritic spines during LTP using two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, in combination with two-photon glutamate uncaging. Induction of LTP and associated spine enlargement in single spines triggered transient ( approximately 1 min) CaMKII activation restricted to the stimulated spines. CaMKII in spines was specifically activated by NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, presumably by nanodomain Ca(2+) near the channels, in response to glutamate uncaging and depolarization, respectively. The high degree of compartmentalization and channel specificity of CaMKII signalling allow stimuli-specific spatiotemporal patterns of CaMKII signalling and may be important for synapse-specificity of synaptic plasticity.

  13. L-Type Calcium Channels Play a Critical Role in Maintaining Lens Transparency by Regulating Phosphorylation of Aquaporin-0 and Myosin Light Chain and Expression of Connexins

    PubMed Central

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Nagendran, Tharkika; de Ridder, Gustaaf G.; Schey, Kevin L.; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Homeostasis of intracellular calcium is crucial for lens cytoarchitecture and transparency, however, the identity of specific channel proteins regulating calcium influx within the lens is not completely understood. Here we examined the expression and distribution profiles of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and explored their role in morphological integrity and transparency of the mouse lens, using cDNA microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, pharmacological inhibitors and immunofluorescence analyses. The results revealed that Ca (V) 1.2 and 1.3 channels are expressed and distributed in both the epithelium and cortical fiber cells in mouse lens. Inhibition of LTCCs with felodipine or nifedipine induces progressive cortical cataract formation with time, in association with decreased lens weight in ex-vivo mouse lenses. Histological analyses of felodipine treated lenses revealed extensive disorganization and swelling of cortical fiber cells resembling the phenotype reported for altered aquaporin-0 activity without detectable cytotoxic effects. Analysis of both soluble and membrane rich fractions from felodipine treated lenses by SDS-PAGE in conjunction with mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses revealed decreases in β-B1-crystallin, Hsp-90, spectrin and filensin. Significantly, loss of transparency in the felodipine treated lenses was preceded by an increase in aquaporin-0 serine-235 phosphorylation and levels of connexin-50, together with decreases in myosin light chain phosphorylation and the levels of 14-3-3ε, a phosphoprotein-binding regulatory protein. Felodipine treatment led to a significant increase in gene expression of connexin-50 and 46 in the mouse lens. Additionally, felodipine inhibition of LTCCs in primary cultures of mouse lens epithelial cells resulted in decreased intracellular calcium, and decreased actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation, without detectable cytotoxic response. Taken together, these observations reveal a crucial

  14. The dendritic location of the L-type current and its deactivation by the somatic AHP current both contribute to firing bistability in motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Marin; Zytnicki, Daniel; Meunier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons may display a variety of firing patterns including bistability between repetitive firing and quiescence and, more rarely, bistability between two firing states of different frequencies. It was suggested in the past that firing bistability required that the persistent L-type calcium current be segregated in distal dendrites, far away from the spike generating currents. However, this is not supported by more recent data. Using a two compartment model of motoneuron, we show that the different firing patterns may also result from the competition between the more proximal dendritic component of the dendritic L-type conductance and the calcium sensitive potassium conductance responsible for afterhypolarization (AHP). Further emphasizing this point, firing bistability may be also achieved when the L-type current is put in the somatic compartment. However, this requires that the calcium-sensitive potassium conductance be triggered solely by the high threshold calcium currents activated during spikes and not by calcium influx through the L-type current. This prediction was validated by dynamic clamp experiments in vivo in lumbar motoneurons of deeply anesthetized cats in which an artificial L-type current was added at the soma. Altogether, our results suggest that the dynamical interaction between the L-type and afterhyperpolarization currents is as fundamental as the segregation of the calcium L-type current in dendrites for controlling the discharge of motoneurons. PMID:24478687

  15. The dendritic location of the L-type current and its deactivation by the somatic AHP current both contribute to firing bistability in motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Marin; Zytnicki, Daniel; Meunier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Spinal motoneurons may display a variety of firing patterns including bistability between repetitive firing and quiescence and, more rarely, bistability between two firing states of different frequencies. It was suggested in the past that firing bistability required that the persistent L-type calcium current be segregated in distal dendrites, far away from the spike generating currents. However, this is not supported by more recent data. Using a two compartment model of motoneuron, we show that the different firing patterns may also result from the competition between the more proximal dendritic component of the dendritic L-type conductance and the calcium sensitive potassium conductance responsible for afterhypolarization (AHP). Further emphasizing this point, firing bistability may be also achieved when the L-type current is put in the somatic compartment. However, this requires that the calcium-sensitive potassium conductance be triggered solely by the high threshold calcium currents activated during spikes and not by calcium influx through the L-type current. This prediction was validated by dynamic clamp experiments in vivo in lumbar motoneurons of deeply anesthetized cats in which an artificial L-type current was added at the soma. Altogether, our results suggest that the dynamical interaction between the L-type and afterhyperpolarization currents is as fundamental as the segregation of the calcium L-type current in dendrites for controlling the discharge of motoneurons.

  16. A complex interplay of tandem- and whole-genome duplication drives expansion of the L-type lectin receptor kinase gene family in the brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Hofberger, Johannes A; Nsibo, David L; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Schranz, M Eric

    2015-01-28

    The comparative analysis of plant gene families in a phylogenetic framework has greatly accelerated due to advances in next generation sequencing. In this study, we provide an evolutionary analysis of the L-type lectin receptor kinase and L-type lectin domain proteins (L-type LecRKs and LLPs) that are considered as components in plant immunity, in the plant family Brassicaceae and related outgroups. We combine several lines of evidence provided by sequence homology, HMM-driven protein domain annotation, phylogenetic analysis, and gene synteny for large-scale identification of L-type LecRK and LLP genes within nine core-eudicot genomes. We show that both polyploidy and local duplication events (tandem duplication and gene transposition duplication) have played a major role in L-type LecRK and LLP gene family expansion in the Brassicaceae. We also find significant differences in rates of molecular evolution based on the mode of duplication. Additionally, we show that LLPs share a common evolutionary origin with L-type LecRKs and provide a consistent gene family nomenclature. Finally, we demonstrate that the largest and most diverse L-type LecRK clades are lineage-specific. Our evolutionary analyses of these plant immune components provide a framework to support future plant resistance breeding. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. A Complex Interplay of Tandem- and Whole-Genome Duplication Drives Expansion of the L-Type Lectin Receptor Kinase Gene Family in the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Schranz, M. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plant gene families in a phylogenetic framework has greatly accelerated due to advances in next generation sequencing. In this study, we provide an evolutionary analysis of the L-type lectin receptor kinase and L-type lectin domain proteins (L-type LecRKs and LLPs) that are considered as components in plant immunity, in the plant family Brassicaceae and related outgroups. We combine several lines of evidence provided by sequence homology, HMM-driven protein domain annotation, phylogenetic analysis, and gene synteny for large-scale identification of L-type LecRK and LLP genes within nine core-eudicot genomes. We show that both polyploidy and local duplication events (tandem duplication and gene transposition duplication) have played a major role in L-type LecRK and LLP gene family expansion in the Brassicaceae. We also find significant differences in rates of molecular evolution based on the mode of duplication. Additionally, we show that LLPs share a common evolutionary origin with L-type LecRKs and provide a consistent gene family nomenclature. Finally, we demonstrate that the largest and most diverse L-type LecRK clades are lineage-specific. Our evolutionary analyses of these plant immune components provide a framework to support future plant resistance breeding. PMID:25635042

  18. The intravenous anesthetic propofol inhibits human L-type calcium channels by enhancing voltage-dependent inactivation.

    PubMed

    Fassl, Jens; High, Kane M; Stephenson, Edward R; Yarotskyy, Viktor; Elmslie, Keith S

    2011-05-01

    Propofol is commonly used to induce anesthesia but has been associated with some negative cardiovascular side effects, including negative inotropy, hypotension, and bradycardia. This study investigated the effect of propofol on L-type calcium current in acutely isolated human atrial myocytes to better understand the mechanism of these side effects. After informed consent was obtained, the atrial appendage was obtained from patients undergoing open-heart surgery who required cardiopulmonary bypass. Atrial myocytes were isolated using enzymatic digestion, and L-type calcium currents were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol enhanced the magnitude and speed of voltage-dependent inactivation of L-current. As a result, the propofol-induced inhibition was increased by protocols that increased inactivation such as longer voltage step duration, holding potential depolarization, and increased pulsing frequency. The preferential enhancement of L-channel inactivation by propofol can explain the associated cardiovascular side effects. The depolarized resting potential of arterial smooth muscle may render the L-channels in these cells particularly sensitive to propofol-induced inhibition, which could explain the hypotension observed in some patients. The enhancement of both inactivation kinetics and steady-state inactivation by propofol can also explain the negative inotropic effect. However, the enhanced voltage-dependent inactivation and use dependence could have beneficial effects for patients prone to certain arrhythmias and tachycardia.

  19. Population Density and Moment-based Approaches to Modeling Domain Calcium-mediated Inactivation of L-type Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Hardcastle, Kiah; Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    We present a population density and moment-based description of the stochastic dynamics of domain [Formula: see text]-mediated inactivation of L-type [Formula: see text] channels. Our approach accounts for the effect of heterogeneity of local [Formula: see text] signals on whole cell [Formula: see text] currents; however, in contrast with prior work, e.g., Sherman et al. (Biophys J 58(4):985-995, 1990), we do not assume that [Formula: see text] domain formation and collapse are fast compared to channel gating. We demonstrate the population density and moment-based modeling approaches using a 12-state Markov chain model of an L-type [Formula: see text] channel introduced by Greenstein and Winslow (Biophys J 83(6):2918-2945, 2002). Simulated whole cell voltage clamp responses yield an inactivation function for the whole cell [Formula: see text] current that agrees with the traditional approach when domain dynamics are fast. We analyze the voltage-dependence of [Formula: see text] inactivation that may occur via slow heterogeneous domain [[Formula: see text

  20. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-amlodipine for L-type calcium channel imaging

    PubMed Central

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mahdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In order to develop a possible tracer for L-type calcium channel imaging, we here report the development of a Ga-68 amlodipine derivative for possible PET imaging. Materials and Methods: Amlodipine DOTA conjugate was synthesized, characterized and went through calcium channel blockade, toxicity, apoptosis/necrosis tests. [68Ga] DOTA AMLO was prepared at optimized conditions followed by stability tests, partition coefficient determination and biodistribution studies using tissue counting and co incidence imaging up to 2 h. Results: [68Ga] DOTA AMLO was prepared at pH 4–5 in 7–10 min at 95°C in high radiochemical purity (>99%, radio thin layer chromatography; specific activity: 1.9–2.1 GBq/mmol) and was stable up to 4 h with a log P of −0.94. Calcium channel rich tissues including myocardium, and tissues with smooth muscle cells such as colon, intestine, and lungs demonstrated significant uptake. Co incidence images supported the biodistribution data up to 2 h. Conclusions: The complex can be a candidate for further positron emission tomography imaging for L type calcium channels. PMID:27833311

  1. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne; Civitelli, Roberto; Sorensen, Ole Helmer; Steinberg, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx43 (UMR/Cx43) we confirmed that nifedipine sensitivity of ICW required Cx43 expression. In human osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW also required activation of L-type calcium channels and influx of extracellular calcium.

  2. A model of cardiac ryanodine receptor gating predicts experimental Ca2+-dynamics and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmia in the long QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dan; Ermentrout, Bard; Němec, Jan; Salama, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ handling is well-established as the trigger of cardiac arrhythmia in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and digoxin toxicity, but its role remains controversial in Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Recent experimental results show that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate TdP are caused by spontaneous (non-voltage-triggered) Ca2+ release from Ca2+-overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rather than the activation of the L-type Ca2+-channel window current. In bradycardia and long QT type 2 (LQT2), a second, non-voltage triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation increases gradually in amplitude, occurs before overt voltage instability, and then precedes the rise of EADs. Here, we used a modified Shannon-Puglisi-Bers model of rabbit ventricular myocytes to reproduce experimental Ca2+ dynamics in bradycardia and LQT2. Abnormal systolic Ca2+-oscillations and EADs caused by SR Ca2+-release are reproduced in a modified 0-dimensional model, where 3 gates in series control the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) conductance. Two gates control RyR2 activation and inactivation and sense cytosolic Ca2+ while a third gate senses luminal junctional SR Ca2+. The model predicts EADs in bradycardia and low extracellular [K+] and cessation of SR Ca2+-release terminate salvos of EADs. Ca2+-waves, systolic cell-synchronous Ca2+-release, and multifocal diastolic Ca2+ release seen in subcellular Ca2+-mapping experiments are observed in the 2-dimensional version of the model. These results support the role of SR Ca2+-overload, abnormal SR Ca2+-release, and the subsequent activation of the electrogenic Na+/Ca2+-exchanger as the mechanism of TdP. The model offers new insights into the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia and new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca2+ channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about −70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca2+ action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at −20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca2+ currents indicated that very few Ca2+ channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca2+ channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca2+ channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres. PMID:19917569

  4. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    PubMed Central

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  5. Identification of L- and T-type Ca2+ channels in rat cerebral arteries: role in myogenic tone development.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahman, Rasha R; Harraz, Osama F; Brett, Suzanne E; Anfinogenova, Yana; Mufti, Rania E; Goldman, Daniel; Welsh, Donald G

    2013-01-01

    L-type Ca(2+) channels are broadly expressed in arterial smooth muscle cells, and their voltage-dependent properties are important in tone development. Recent studies have noted that these Ca(2+) channels are not singularly expressed in vascular tissue and that other subtypes are likely present. In this study, we ascertained which voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels are expressed in rat cerebral arterial smooth muscle and determined their contribution to the myogenic response. mRNA analysis revealed that the α(1)-subunit of L-type (Ca(v)1.2) and T-type (Ca(v)3.1 and Ca(v)3.2) Ca(2+) channels are present in isolated smooth muscle cells. Western blot analysis subsequently confirmed protein expression in whole arteries. With the use of patch clamp electrophysiology, nifedipine-sensitive and -insensitive Ba(2+) currents were isolated and each were shown to retain electrical characteristics consistent with L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels. The nifedipine-insensitive Ba(2+) current was blocked by mibefradil, kurtoxin, and efonidpine, T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors. Pressure myography revealed that L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibition reduced tone at 20 and 80 mmHg, with the greatest effect at high pressure when the vessel is depolarized. In comparison, the effect of T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade on myogenic tone was more limited, with their greatest effect at low pressure where vessels are hyperpolarized. Blood flow modeling revealed that the vasomotor responses induced by T-type Ca(2+) blockade could alter arterial flow by ∼20-50%. Overall, our findings indicate that L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed in cerebral arterial smooth muscle and can be electrically isolated from one another. Both conductances contribute to myogenic tone, although their overall contribution is unequal.

  6. A 1D microphysical cloud model for Earth, and Earth-like exoplanets: Liquid water and water ice clouds in the convective troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsom, Andras; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Goldblatt, Colin

    2012-11-01

    One significant difference between the atmospheres of stars and exoplanets is the presence of condensed particles (clouds or hazes) in the atmosphere of the latter. In current 1D models clouds and hazes are treated in an approximate way by raising the surface albedo, or adopting measured Earth cloud properties. The former method introduces errors to the modeled spectra of the exoplanet, as clouds shield the lower atmosphere and thus modify the spectral features. The latter method works only for an exact Earth-analog, but it is challenging to extend to other planets. The main goal of this paper is to develop a self-consistent microphysical cloud model for 1D atmospheric codes, which can reproduce some observed properties of Earth, such as the average albedo, surface temperature, and global energy budget. The cloud model is designed to be computationally efficient, simple to implement, and applicable for a wide range of atmospheric parameters for planets in the habitable zone. We use a 1D, cloud-free, radiative-convective, and photochemical equilibrium code originally developed by Kasting, Pavlov, Segura, and collaborators as basis for our cloudy atmosphere model. The cloud model is based on models used by the meteorology community for Earth’s clouds. The free parameters of the model are the relative humidity and number density of condensation nuclei, and the precipitation efficiency. In a 1D model, the cloud coverage cannot be self-consistently determined, thus we treat it as a free parameter. We apply this model to Earth (aerosol number density 100 cm-3, relative humidity 77%, liquid cloud fraction 40%, and ice cloud fraction 25%) and find that a precipitation efficiency of 0.8 is needed to reproduce the albedo, average surface temperature and global energy budget of Earth. We perform simulations to determine how the albedo and the climate of a planet is influenced by the free parameters of the cloud model. We find that the planetary climate is most sensitive to

  7. Role of S4 segments and the leucine heptad motif in the activation of an L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed Central

    García, J; Nakai, J; Imoto, K; Beam, K G

    1997-01-01

    Basic residues in the S4 segments of voltage-dependent channels and leucines within the heptad repeat motif in the S4-S5 region of Shaker potassium channels have been shown to have important influences on activation. Here we have compared the relative importance for activation of S4 arginines (mutated to neutral or negative residues) in each of the four repeats of a chimeric L-type calcium channel. Significant effects on midpoint potential and time constant of activation were produced by mutations in repeats I and III but not in repeats II and IV. Leucine or isoleucine mutations in repeats I and III had the same effect on the voltage dependence of calcium channel activation as the mutations at equivalent positions in the Shaker channel, indicating that the heptad motif plays a fundamental role in channel activation. PMID:9168028

  8. The antifungal antibiotic clotrimazole potently inhibits L-type calcium current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G P; Karmazyn, M; Zygmunt, A C; Antzelevitch, C; Narayanan, N

    1999-04-01

    The antimycotic agent clotrimazole (CLT) is a promising potential therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases including cancer. Although it is known that CLT alters calcium homeostasis in many cell types, its cardiac effects are virtually unknown. We investigated the effects of CLT on L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and action potentials in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. CLT (5, 25 and 50 microM) inhibited basal ICa,L by 16, 59 and 93%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of CLT was rapid and the peak effect was attained within 3 min. At a concentration of 25 microM, the inhibitory effect of CLT was partially reversible whereas the response to 50 microM CLT persisted following drug withdrawal. CLT abbreviated action potential duration at 50 and 90% of repolarization and suppressed the plateau significantly. These results indicate that CLT may have important cardiac effects at concentrations used to induce the antiproliferative action of the drug.

  9. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  10. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  11. Aging decreases L-type calcium channel currents and pacemaker firing fidelity in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Branch, Sarah Y; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Beckstead, Michael J

    2014-07-09

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons are involved in behavioral processes that include cognition, reward learning, and voluntary movement. Selective deterioration of these neurons is responsible for the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aging is the leading risk factor for PD, suggesting that adaptations occurring in dopamine neurons during normal aging may predispose individuals to the development of PD. Previous studies suggest that the unique set of ion conductances that drive spontaneous, rhythmic firing of action potentials could predispose substantia nigra dopamine neurons to selective neurodegeneration. Here we show, using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, that substantia nigra dopamine neurons from mice 25-30 months of age (old) have comparable membrane capacitance and input resistance to neurons from mice 2-7 months of age (young). However, neurons from old mice exhibit slower firing rates, narrower spike widths, and more variable interspike intervals compared with neurons from young mice. Dopamine neurons from old mice also exhibit smaller L-type calcium channel currents, providing a plausible mechanism that likely contributes to the changes in impulse activity. Age-related decrements in the physiological function of dopamine neurons could contribute to the decrease in voluntary movement and other dopamine-mediated behaviors observed in aging populations. Furthermore, as pharmacological antagonism of L-type calcium channels has been proposed as a potential treatment for the early stages of PD, our results could point to a limited temporal window of opportunity for this therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349310-09$15.00/0.

  12. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and exocytosed protons inhibit L-type calcium currents in cones but not in rods.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Nobutake; Arai, Itaru; Tachibana, Masao

    2005-04-20

    Light responses of photoreceptors (rods and cones) are transmitted to the second-order neurons (bipolar cells and horizontal cells) via glutamatergic synapses located in the outer plexiform layer of the retina. Although it has been well established that postsynaptic group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) of ON bipolar cells contribute to generating the ON signal, presynaptic roles of group III mGluRs remain to be elucidated at this synaptic connection. We addressed this issue by applying the slice patch-clamp technique to the newt retina. OFF bipolar cells and horizontal cells generate a steady inward current in the dark and a transient inward current at light offset, both of which are mediated via postsynaptic non-NMDA receptors. A group III mGluR-specific agonist, L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP-4), inhibited both the steady and off-transient inward currents but did not affect the glutamate-induced current in these postsynaptic neurons. L-AP-4 inhibited the presynaptic L-type calcium current (ICa) in cones by shifting the voltage dependence of activation to more positive membrane potentials. The inhibition of ICa was most prominent around the physiological range of cone membrane potentials. In contrast, L-AP-4 did not affect L-type ICa in rods. Paired recordings from photoreceptors and the synaptically connected second-order neurons confirmed that L-AP-4 inhibited both ICa and glutamate release in cones but not in rods. Furthermore, we found that exocytosed protons also inhibited ICa in cones but not in rods. Selective modulation of ICa in cones may help broaden the dynamic range of synaptic transfer by controlling the amount of transmitter release from cones.

  13. Identification of Glycosylation Sites Essential for Surface Expression of the CaVα2δ1 Subunit and Modulation of the Cardiac CaV1.2 Channel Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Marie-Philippe; Bourdin, Benoîte; Briot, Julie; Segura, Emilie; Lesage, Sylvie; Fiset, Céline; Parent, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in the L-type current density is one aspect of the electrical remodeling observed in patients suffering from cardiac arrhythmias. Changes in channel function could result from variations in the protein biogenesis, stability, post-translational modification, and/or trafficking in any of the regulatory subunits forming cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel complexes. CaVα2δ1 is potentially the most heavily N-glycosylated subunit in the cardiac L-type CaV1.2 channel complex. Here, we show that enzymatic removal of N-glycans produced a 50-kDa shift in the mobility of cardiac and recombinant CaVα2δ1 proteins. This change was also observed upon simultaneous mutation of the 16 Asn sites. Nonetheless, the mutation of only 6/16 sites was sufficient to significantly 1) reduce the steady-state cell surface fluorescence of CaVα2δ1 as characterized by two-color flow cytometry assays and confocal imaging; 2) decrease protein stability estimated from cycloheximide chase assays; and 3) prevent the CaVα2δ1-mediated increase in the peak current density and voltage-dependent gating of CaV1.2. Reversing the N348Q and N812Q mutations in the non-operational sextuplet Asn mutant protein partially restored CaVα2δ1 function. Single mutation N663Q and double mutations N348Q/N468Q, N348Q/N812Q, and N468Q/N812Q decreased protein stability/synthesis and nearly abolished steady-state cell surface density of CaVα2δ1 as well as the CaVα2δ1-induced up-regulation of L-type currents. These results demonstrate that Asn-663 and to a lesser extent Asn-348, Asn-468, and Asn-812 contribute to protein stability/synthesis of CaVα2δ1, and furthermore that N-glycosylation of CaVα2δ1 is essential to produce functional L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:26742847

  14. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and biological evaluation of novel arylpiperzines as α1A/1D-AR subselective antagonists for BPH.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Chen, Hong; Xu, Jingyi; Liang, Xue; He, Xuelan; Shao, Binhao; Sun, Xianqiang; Li, Bing; Deng, Xiaoliang; Yuan, Mu

    2015-12-15

    A series of novel arylpiperazine derivatives as α1A/1D-adrenergic receptors (AR) subtype selective antagonists were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antagonistic activities towards α1-ARs (α1A, α1B, and α1D). Compounds 9, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25 and 26 exerted strong antagonistic effects on α1A and/or α1D subtypes over α1B in vitro. SAR analysis indicated that chloride at the ortho-phenyl position for compound 17 was beneficial for the highest α1A/D-AR sub-selectivity. Moreover, molecular docking study of compound 17 with the homology-modeled α1-ARs (α1A, α1B, and α1D) structures exhibited differences of key amino resides in the docking pocket which may influence the subtype selectivity. ILE 193 of α1A was validated as the key residues for binding ligand. This work provides useful information for finding more new potential drugs in clinic in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A model platform for rapid, robust, directed, and long-range vibrational energy transport: Insights from a mixed quantum-classical study of a 1D molecular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minghao; Freedman, Holly; Dell'Angelo, David; Hanna, Gabriel

    2017-11-01

    The design of devices that efficiently and robustly transport vibrational energy is of importance to applications in molecular electronics and quantum information processing. In this work, we study a 1D model of a molecular chain with repeating carbonyl-containing subunits that exhibits extremely rapid vibrational energy transport between its distal subunits. This model contains two key features: (i) the bare frequencies of the two distal carbonyl groups are equally shifted with respect to those of the remaining groups, and (ii) the carbonyl groups are coupled to a bath of coupled low-frequency harmonic oscillators. Using mixed quantum-classical dynamics, we investigate the effects of bath temperature and chain length on the energy transfer along the chain, following an excitation of a carbonyl mode at one end of the chain. At very low temperatures, we find that no substantial energy transfer takes place; however, over a wide range of higher temperatures, the excitation energy rapidly hops between the two terminal carbonyl groups regardless of the chain length. These findings suggest that such a model could be used as a platform for building devices that are capable of rapid, robust, directed, and long-range vibrational energy transport.

  16. Functional Characterization of CaVα2δ Mutations Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death*

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Benoîte; Shakeri, Behzad; Tétreault, Marie-Philippe; Sauvé, Rémy; Lesage, Sylvie; Parent, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    L-type Ca2+ channels play a critical role in cardiac rhythmicity. These ion channels are oligomeric complexes formed by the pore-forming CaVα1 with the auxiliary CaVβ and CaVα2δ subunits. CaVα2δ increases the peak current density and improves the voltage-dependent activation gating of CaV1.2 channels without increasing the surface expression of the CaVα1 subunit. The functional impact of genetic variants of CACNA2D1 (the gene encoding for CaVα2δ), associated with shorter repolarization QT intervals (the time interval between the Q and the T waves on the cardiac electrocardiogram), was investigated after recombinant expression of the full complement of L-type CaV1.2 subunits in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By performing side-by-side high resolution flow cytometry assays and whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we revealed that the surface density of the CaVα2δ wild-type protein correlates with the peak current density. Furthermore, the cell surface density of CaVα2δ mutants S755T, Q917H, and S956T was not significantly different from the cell surface density of the CaVα2δ wild-type protein expressed under the same conditions. In contrast, the cell surface expression of CaVα2δ D550Y, CaVα2δ S709N, and the double mutant D550Y/Q917H was reduced, respectively, by ≈30–33% for the single mutants and by 60% for the latter. The cell surface density of D550Y/Q917H was more significantly impaired than protein stability, suggesting that surface trafficking of CaVα2δ was disrupted by the double mutation. Co-expression with D550Y/Q917H significantly decreased CaV1.2 currents as compared with results obtained with CaVα2δ wild type. It is concluded that D550Y/Q917H reduced inward Ca2+ currents through a defect in the cell surface trafficking of CaVα2δ. Altogether, our results provide novel insight in the molecular mechanism underlying the modulation of CaV1.2 currents by CaVα2δ. PMID:25527503

  17. Coupling of excitation to Ca2+ release is modulated by dysferlin.

    PubMed

    Lukyanenko, Valeriy; Muriel, Joaquin M; Bloch, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Dysferlin, the protein missing in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, concentrates in transverse tubules of skeletal muscle, where it stabilizes voltage-induced Ca 2+ transients against loss after osmotic shock injury (OSI). Local expression of dysferlin in dysferlin-null myofibres increases transient amplitude to control levels and protects them from loss after OSI. Inhibitors of ryanodine receptors (RyR1) and L-type Ca 2+ channels protect voltage-induced Ca 2+ transients from loss; thus both proteins play a role in injury in dysferlin's absence. Effects of Ca 2+ -free medium and S107, which inhibits SR Ca 2+ leak, suggest the SR as the primary source of Ca 2+ responsible for the loss of the Ca 2+ transient upon injury. Ca 2+ waves were induced by OSI and suppressed by exogenous dysferlin. We conclude that dysferlin prevents injury-induced SR Ca 2+ leak. Dysferlin concentrates in the transverse tubules of skeletal muscle and stabilizes Ca 2+ transients when muscle fibres are subjected to osmotic shock injury (OSI). We show here that voltage-induced Ca 2+ transients elicited in dysferlin-null A/J myofibres were smaller than control A/WySnJ fibres. Regional expression of Venus-dysferlin chimeras in A/J fibres restored the full amplitude of the Ca 2+ transients and protected against OSI. We also show that drugs that target ryanodine receptors (RyR1: dantrolene, tetracaine, S107) and L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs: nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem) prevented the decrease in Ca 2+ transients in A/J fibres following OSI. Diltiazem specifically increased transients by ∼20% in uninjured A/J fibres, restoring them to control values. The fact that both RyR1s and LTCCs were involved in OSI-induced damage suggests that damage is mediated by increased Ca 2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through the RyR1. Congruent with this, injured A/J fibres produced Ca 2+ sparks and Ca 2+ waves. S107 (a stabilizer of RyR1-FK506 binding protein coupling that

  18. Intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by extracellular Ca(2+) entry plays an important role in acute heart dysfunction by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Beilei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2014-09-01

    The exact mechanism of acute heart dysfunction caused by jellyfish venom remains unclear for the moment. In the present study, we examined the problem caused by the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata at the levels of whole animal, isolated heart, primarily cultured cardiomyocytes, and intracellular Ca(2+). The heart indexes, including HR, APs, LVPs, and MMLs, were all decreased significantly by TE in both whole animal and Langendorff-perfused isolated heart model. Imbalance of cardiac oxygen supply and demand also took place. In both Ca(2+)-containing and Ca(2+)-free bathing solutions, TE could cause obvious cytoplasmic Ca(2+) overload in NRVMs, but the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) increased faster, Ca(2+) overload peaks arrived earlier, and the morphological changes were more severe under the extracellular Ca(2+)-containing condition. L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers, as well as the inhibitor of ryanodine receptor (ryanodine), could improve the viability of NRVMs. Moreover, diltiazem significantly inhibited the acute heart dysfunction caused by TE in both Langendorff isolated heart model and whole animal. These results suggested that intracellular Ca(2+) overload induced by extracellular Ca(2+) entry plays an important role in acute heart failure by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata. Inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) influx is a promising antagonistic alternative for heart damage by jellyfish venom.

  19. Increased Ca2+ signaling through CaV1.2 promotes bone formation and prevents estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chike; Ren, Yinshi; Barnett, Adam S; Mirando, Anthony J; Rouse, Douglas; Mun, Se Hwan; Park-Min, Kyung-Hyun; McNulty, Amy L; Guilak, Farshid; Karner, Courtney M; Hilton, Matthew J; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2017-11-16

    While the prevalence of osteoporosis is growing rapidly with population aging, therapeutic options remain limited. Here, we identify potentially novel roles for CaV1.2 L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in osteogenesis and exploit a transgenic gain-of-function mutant CaV1.2 to stem bone loss in ovariectomized female mice. We show that endogenous CaV1.2 is expressed in developing bone within proliferating chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Using primary BM stromal cell (BMSC) cultures, we found that Ca2+ influx through CaV1.2 activates osteogenic transcriptional programs and promotes mineralization. We used Prx1-, Col2a1-, or Col1a1-Cre drivers to express an inactivation-deficient CaV1.2 mutant in chondrogenic and/or osteogenic precursors in vivo and found that the resulting increased Ca2+ influx markedly thickened bone not only by promoting osteogenesis, but also by inhibiting osteoclast activity through increased osteoprotegerin secretion from osteoblasts. Activating the CaV1.2 mutant in osteoblasts at the time of ovariectomy stemmed bone loss. Together, these data highlight roles for CaV1.2 in bone and demonstrate the potential dual anabolic and anticatabolic therapeutic actions of tissue-specific CaV1.2 activation in osteoblasts.

  20. Hyporheic Exchange in a Stream Dammed by Beaver: A 1D Simulation with Spatial Energy Head Gradients and Heterogeneous Hydraulic Conductivity as Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairfax, E. J.; Small, E. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange, the exchange of water between streams and adjacent subsurface sediments, is an important process connecting groundwater and surface water. Knowing the location and magnitude of hyporheic exchange is useful in evaluating fish spawning habitats, biogeochemical processes, and capacity for aquifer recharge of a given stream. Hyporheic exchange through the streambed is driven by variations in longitudinal head gradient and spatial heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity. Beaver damming directly effects these two drivers. Beaver dams are efficient flow obstructions that cause significant upstream ponding. Both the flow obstruction itself (the beaver dam) and the pool of deeper water (the beaver pond) increase streambed pressure. Increased streambed pressure alters the energy head gradients within the stream and drives enhanced hyporheic exchange. Additionally, several studies in the literature have found increased sedimentation rates within beaver ponds, particularly of finer particles and organic material that otherwise might not settle out of a faster-moving, undammed stream. This means sediment aggradation along the longitudinal profile of a stream-dam-pond system varies in both volume and type. Nonuniform volume of aggraded sediment further changes streambed topography, and in turn energy head gradients. Nonuniform sediment type results in heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity - the other driver of enhanced hyporheic exchange. We use a 1D model of hyporheic exchange based on Laplace's Equation and Darcy's Equation for a system at steady-state. We utilize observed and theoretical streambed profiles in streams dammed by beaver to explore how the hyporheic exchange in a stream might change through time after a beaver dam is built. The model produces a series of steady-state snapshots of the stream-dam-pond system through time. The simulations demonstrate that on relatively short timescales (months-years) beaver damming can lead to more pronounced

  1. [Effects of microRNA-1 on negatively regulating L-type calcium channel beta2 subunit gene expression during cardiac hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Geng, Peng; Wang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Yan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the negative regulation of microRNA-1 (miR-1) on L-type calcium channel beta2 subunit (Cavbeta 2) during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and its mechanism. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The cell surface area was measured by image analysis system (HJ2000). The targets of miR-1 were predicted by online database microCosm. The 3' untranslated region sequence of Cavbeta 2 was cloned into luciferase reporter vector and then transiently transfected into HEK293 cells. The luciferase activities of samples were measured to verify the expression of luciferase reporter vector. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), miR-1 and the Cavbeta 2 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR. The protein expression of Cavbeta 2 was detected by Western blot. The level of miR-1 was up-regulated by miR-1 mimic transfection and the expression level of Cavbeta 2 was down-regulated by RNAi, then effects of which on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were investigated. (1) The expression of miR-1 was significantly reduced in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Upregulating the miR-1 level could suppress the increase of cell surface area, the expression of ANP and beta-MHC mRNA (P < 0.05). (2) Cavbeta 2 was the one of potential targets of miR-1 by prediction using online database microCosm. The luciferase activities of HEK293 cells with the plasmid containing miR-1 and wide type Cavbeta 3' UTR sequence was significantly decreased when compared with that of control group (P < 0.01). Up-regulation of the miR-1 level could suppress the protein expression of Cavbeta 2. (3) The expression of Cavbeta 2 was significantly increased in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by ISO. Downregulation of Cavbeta by RNAi could markedly inhibit the increase of cell surface area, the expression of ANP and beta-MHC mRNA. Cavbeta2 is one of potential targets of miR-1 by bioinformatics prediction. The experiment data confirms that Cavbeta2 is truly the target

  2. MO-FG-202-03: Efficient Data Collection of Continuous 2D and Discrete Relative Dosimetric Data for Annual LINAC QA Using TrueBeam Developer Mode and a 1D Scanning Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, N; Schmidt, M; University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method to exploit real-time dynamic machine and couch parameter control during linear accelerator (LINAC) beam delivery to facilitate efficient performance of TG-142 suggested, Annual LINAC QA tests. Methods: Varian’s TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) facilitates control of Varian’s TrueBeam LINAC via instructions provided in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. This allows machine and couch parameters to be varied dynamically, in real-time, during beam delivery. Custom XML files were created to allow for the collection of (1) continuous Tissue Maximum Ratios (TMRs), (2) beam profiles, and (3) continuous output factors using a 1D-scanningmore » tank. TMRs were acquired by orienting an ionization chamber (IC) at isocenter (depth=25cm) and synchronizing a depth scan towards the water surface while lowering the couch at 1mm/s. For beam profiles, the couch was driven laterally and longitudinally while logging IC electrometer readings. Output factors (OFs) where collected by continually varying field sizes (4×4 to 30×30-cm{sup 2}) at a constant speed of 6.66 mm/s. To validate measurements, comparisons were made to data collected using traditional methods (e.g. 1D or 3D tank). Results: All data collecting using the proposed methods agreed with traditionally collected data (TMRs within 1%, OFs within 0.5% and beam profile agreement within 1% / 1mm) while taking less time to collect (factor of approximately 1/10) and with a finer sample resolution. Conclusion: TrueBeam developer mode facilitates collection of continuous data with the same accuracy as traditionally collected data with a finer resolution in less time. Results demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in sampled resolution and an order of magnitude reduction in collection time compared to traditional acquisition methods (e.g. 3D scanning tank). We are currently extending this approach to perform other TG-142 tasks.« less

  3. Resveratrol protects rabbit ventricular myocytes against oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca2+ overload.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Yue-peng; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Peng-pai; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Quan-fu; Zhou, Zhi-wen; Guo, Kai; Chen, Ren-hua; Yang, Huang-tian; Li, Yi-gang

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether resveratrol suppressed oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca(2+) overload in ventricular myocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 200 μmol/L)) was used to induce oxidative stress in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Cell shortening and calcium transients were simultaneously recorded to detect arrhythmogenic activity and to measure intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i). Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII) activity was measured using a CaMKII kit or Western blotting analysis. Voltage-activated Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents were examined using whole-cell recording in myocytes. H2O2 markedly prolonged Ca(2+) transient duration (CaTD), and induced early afterdepolarization (EAD)-like and delayed afterdepolarization (DAD)-like arrhythmogenic activity in myocytes paced at 0.16 Hz or 0.5 Hz. Application of resveratrol (30 or 50 μmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed H2O2-induced EAD-like arrhythmogenic activity and attenuated CaTD prolongation. Co-treatment with resveratrol (50 μmol/L) effectively prevented both EAD-like and DAD-like arrhythmogenic activity induced by H2O2. In addition, resveratrol markedly blunted H2O2-induced diastolic [Ca(2+)]i accumulation and prevented the myocytes from developing hypercontracture. In whole-cell recording studies, H2O2 significantly enhanced the late Na(+) current (I(Na,L)) and L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in myocytes, which were dramatically suppressed or prevented by resveratrol. Furthermore, H2O2-induced ROS production and CaMKII activation were significantly prevented by resveratrol. Resveratrol protects ventricular myocytes against oxidative stress-induced arrhythmogenic activity and Ca(2+) overload through inhibition of I(Na,L)/I(Ca,L), reduction of ROS generation, and prevention of CaMKII activation.

  4. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): a new therapeutic target for canine mammary gland tumour.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Komatsu, Takahiro; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities, such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. LAT1 has recently received attention because of its preferential and upregulated expression in a variety of human tumours which is in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, the feasibility of using an LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent was explored for mammary gland tumours (MGT). [(3)H]l-leucine uptake by CHM, a cell line established from MGT, and effects on cell growth were analysed in the presence or absence of two LAT1 inhibitors, namely, BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acids) or melphalan (LPM). [(3)H]l-leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CHM were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both LAT1 inhibitors. The inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs used for MGT treatment, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly enhanced by combining use with BCH or LPM. The findings suggest that LAT1 could be a new therapeutic target for canine MGT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The antifungal antibiotic clotrimazole potently inhibits L-type calcium current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, George P; Karmazyn, Morris; Zygmunt, Andrew C; Antzelevitch, Charles; Narayanan, Njanoor

    1999-01-01

    The antimycotic agent clotrimazole (CLT) is a promising potential therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases including cancer. Although it is known that CLT alters calcium homeostasis in many cell types, its cardiac effects are virtually unknown. We investigated the effects of CLT on L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and action potentials in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. CLT (5, 25 and 50 μM) inhibited basal ICa,L by 16, 59 and 93%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of CLT was rapid and the peak effect was attained within 3 min. At a concentration of 25 μM, the inhibitory effect of CLT was partially reversible whereas the response to 50 μM CLT persisted following drug withdrawal. CLT abbreviated action potential duration at 50 and 90% of repolarization and suppressed the plateau significantly. These results indicate that CLT may have important cardiac effects at concentrations used to induce the antiproliferative action of the drug. PMID:10323582

  6. The effect of an L-type calcium channel blocker on the hemodynamics of orbital arteries in dogs.

    PubMed

    Källberg, Maria E; Brooks, Dennis E; Komaromy, Andras M; Miyabayashi, Takayoshi; Bradshaw, Patrick T

    2003-06-01

    (1) To determine the effect of the l-type calcium channel blocker amlodipine on color Doppler ultrasound-determined vascular resistance and blood flow velocities in the distal retrobulbar arteries of dogs; (2) to determine any effect of blood pressure and PCO2 rate on such color Doppler-determined circulatory measurements. Color Doppler imaging measurements of the short posterior ciliary artery, long posterior ciliary artery, and ophthalmic artery of normal eyes of 10 dogs were obtained under isofluorane anesthesia before and 1 week after oral amlodipine administration. Mean systemic arterial blood pressure and PCO2 were monitored. The mean resistive index decreased significantly in the short posterior ciliary artery (P = 0.0347), in the long posterior ciliary artery (P = 0.0092), and ophthalmic artery (P = 0.0004) following systemic amlodipine administration. The end diastolic velocity increased significantly in the long posterior ciliary artery (P = 0.0368) and ophthalmic artery (P < 0.0001). The peak systolic velocity increased significantly in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.0256). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure was significantly negatively associated with resistive index (P < 0.0001) and significantly associated with the log of the end diastolic velocity (P < 0.0001). Systemically administered amlodipine increases color Doppler imaging-determined blood flow velocity and decreases vascular resistive index in the ophthalmic artery, short posterior ciliary artery and long posterior ciliary artery of normal dogs. Changes in systemic arterial blood pressure can significantly affect the measurement of color Doppler imaging parameters.

  7. Diminished Vision in Healthy Aging Is Associated with Increased Retinal L-Type Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Ion Influx

    PubMed Central

    Bissig, David; Goebel, Dennis; Berkowitz, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence implicates an increase in hippocampal L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) expression, and ion influx through these channels, in age-related cognitive declines. Here, we ask if this “calcium hypothesis" applies to the neuroretina: Is increased influx via L-VGCCs related to the well-documented but poorly-understood vision declines in healthy aging? In Long-Evans rats we find a significant age-related increase in ion flux through retinal L-VGCCs in vivo (manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI)) that are longitudinally linked with progressive vision declines (optokinetic tracking). Importantly, the degree of retinal Mn2+ uptake early in adulthood significantly predicted later visual contrast sensitivity declines. Furthermore, as in the aging hippocampus, retinal expression of a drug-insensitive L-VGCC isoform (α1D) increased – a pattern confirmed in vivo by an age-related decline in sensitivity to L-VGCC blockade. These data highlight mechanistic similarities between retinal and hippocampal aging, and raise the possibility of new treatment targets for minimizing vision loss during healthy aging. PMID:23457553

  8. Interruption of ion acceleration by collisions with neutrals in a cometary coma: a 1D model applied to 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigren, Erik; Eriksson, Anders I.; Johansson, Fredrik L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a 1D model of a cometary ionosphere with the main purpose to investigate the ability of the neutrals to hamper ion acceleration along electric fields in the radial direction. Because ion-neutral reaction cross-sections are energy dependent, the distance from a cometary nucleus within which ions remain collisionally coupled to the neutrals is dictated not only by the comet's activity level but also by the electromagnetic fields in the coma. As electron cooling is inefficient due to low neutral gas density and density decays with cometocentric distance a significant ambipolar electric field may develop. In the model we treat charge transfer processes as replacing a fast ion and a slow neutral with a fast neutral and a slow ion. For a given neutral background and electric field profile, the model, which in essence is based on the multiplication principle of probabilities, calculates observables such as the total ion number density, the H3O+/H2O+ number density ratio, the mean ion drift speed and the ion energy distribution function, as a function of cometocentric distance. The model is applied to different conditions encountered by Rosetta during its mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Our findings include i) that the activity, even near perihelion, was probably not high enough for an efficient ion-neutral coupling all the way to the spacecraft location, and ii) that model runs using electric field profiles that give ion number densities and mean flow speeds within limits constrained by RPC observations tend to give H3O+/H2O+ number density ratios higher than typically observed by ROSINA/DFMS (e.g., [1]). We discuss also the influence on the results of including the ion motion in large-amplitude plasma waves into the model. Finally we highlight some reactions for which determinations of cross-sections at low collision energies would be valuable. [1] Fuselier, S.A., et al. 2016, MNRAS, 462, S312

  9. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is involved in the modulation of the Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Benders, A A; Groenen, P J; Oerlemans, F T; Veerkamp, J H; Wieringa, B

    1997-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), the most prevalent muscular disorder in adults, is caused by (CTG)n-repeat expansion in a gene encoding a protein kinase (DM protein kinase; DMPK) and involves changes in cytoarchitecture and ion homeostasis. To obtain clues to the normal biological role of DMPK in cellular ion homeostasis, we have compared the resting [Ca2+]i, the amplitude and shape of depolarization-induced Ca2+ transients, and the content of ATP-driven ion pumps in cultured skeletal muscle cells of wild-type and DMPK[-/-] knockout mice. In vitro-differentiated DMPK[-/-] myotubes exhibit a higher resting [Ca2+]i than do wild-type myotubes because of an altered open probability of voltage-dependent l-type Ca2+ and Na+ channels. The mutant myotubes exhibit smaller and slower Ca2+ responses upon triggering by acetylcholine or high external K+. In addition, we observed that these Ca2+ transients partially result from an influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the l-type Ca2+ channel. Neither the content nor the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase are affected by DMPK absence. In conclusion, our data suggest that DMPK is involved in modulating the initial events of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. PMID:9294109

  10. A L-type lectin gene is involved in the response to hormonal treatment and water deficit in Volkamer lemon.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Dayse Drielly Sousa Santana; Emiliani, Giovanni; Bartolini, Paola; Podda, Alessandra; Centritto, Mauro; Luro, François; Carratore, Renata Del; Morillon, Raphaël; Gesteira, Abelmon; Maserti, Biancaelena

    2017-11-01

    Combination of biotic and abiotic stress is a major challenge for crop and fruit production. Thus, identification of genes involved in cross-response to abiotic and biotic stress is of great importance for breeding superior genotypes. Lectins are glycan-binding proteins with a functions in the developmental processes as well as in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. In this work, a lectin like gene, namely ClLectin1, was characterized in Volkamer lemon and its expression was studied in plants exposed to either water stress, hormonal elicitors (JA, SA, ABA) or wounding to understand whether this gene may have a function in the response to multiple stress combination. Results showed that ClLectin1 has 100% homology with a L-type lectin gene from C. sinensis and the in silico study of the 5'UTR region showed the presence of cis-responsive elements to SA, DRE2 and ABA. ClLectin1 was rapidly induced by hormonal treatments and wounding, at local and systemic levels, suggesting an involvement in defence signalling pathways and a possible role as fast detection biomarker of biotic stress. On the other hand, the induction of ClLectin1 by water stress pointed out a role of the gene in the response to drought. The simultaneous response of ClLectin1 expression to water stress and SA treatment could be further investigated to assess whether a moderate drought stress may be useful to improve citrus performance by stimulating the SA-dependent response to biotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary alveolar epithelial uptake of S-nitrosothiols is regulated by L-type amino acid transporter

    PubMed Central

    Granillo, Olivia M.; Brahmajothi, Mulugu V.; Li, Sheng; Whorton, A. Richard; Mason, S. Nicholas; McMahon, Timothy J.; Auten, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) effects are often mediated via S-nitrosothiol (SNO) formation; SNO uptake has recently been shown to be mediated in some cell types via system L-type amino acid transporters (LAT-1, 2). Inhaled NO therapy may exert some biological effects via SNO formation. We therefore sought to determine if pulmonary epithelial SNO uptake depended on LAT or peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2). Both LAT-1 and PEPT2 proteins were detected by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry in L2 cells and rat lung. We tested SNO uptake through the transporters by exposing rat alveolar epithelial cells (L2 and type II) to RSNOs: S-nitrosoglutathione, S-nitrosocysteinylglycine (SNO-Cys-Gly), S-nitrosocysteine (CSNO), and to NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA-NONOate). SNO was detected in cell lysates by ozone chemiluminescence. NO uptake was detected by fluorescence in alveolar epithelial cells loaded with 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate cultured in submersion and exposed to RSNOs and DEA NONOate. Addition of l-Cys but not d-Cys to RSNOs or DEA NONOate increased SNO and DAF-FM signal that was inhibited by coincubation with LAT competitors. Incubation of cells with PEPT2 substrate SNO-Cys-Gly showed no increase in SNO or DAF-FM signal unless incubated with l-Cys. This was unaffected by PEPT2 inhibition. We conclude that RSNOs (thionitrites, S-nitrosothiols) and NO enter alveolar epithelial cells predominantly by S-nitrosation of l-Cys, which is then imported through LAT. PMID:18441097

  12. The roles of magmatic and external water in the March 8 tephra eruption at Mount St. Helens as assessed by a 1-D steady plume-height model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Sherrod, D. R.; Vallance, J. W.; Thornber, C. T.; Ewert, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens has occurred through glacial ice and snow that would be expected to substantially affect the character of the eruption. Nevertheless, the role of water in the eruption to date has not always been clear. For example, on March 8, 2005, a half-hour-long tephra blast sent a plume to a maximum of ~9 km above the vent (based on pilot reports); seismicity and plume heights were greatest during the first ~10 minutes, then persisted for another ~15 minutes at a lower level before the eruption stopped. Tephra volume within 5 km2 downwind of the vent was ~5x104 m3 DRE, but trace amounts were reported at least to Ellensburg, WA (150 km NE), suggesting a total areal coverage >5,000 km2 and total volume >1x105 m3. Assuming that most of this material was expelled in the first ten minutes and had a density of 2500 kg/m3, the mass flow rate (M) during the vigorous phase was >~4x105 kg/s. The tephra, composed primarily of non-pumiceous broken and decrepitated dome rock, could have been expelled either by groundwater and steam at relatively modest (boiling-point) temperatures, or by magmatic gas at much higher temperatures. The high plume, however, suggested significant buoyancy, perhaps driven by temperatures closer to magmatic. To assess the effect of magmatic heat on plume height, we employ a 1-D steady volcanic plume model that uses specified vent diameter, exit velocity, eruption temperature, mass fractions of gas and added external water, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity, to calculate plume height and plume properties as a function of elevation. The model considers the enthalpy of equilibrium water condensation and of ice formation. Model results show that, under atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles measured near Mount St. Helens on the afternoon of March 8, 2005, a plume height (h) of 7-9 km could have developed with eruption temperatures (T) as low as 100° C, provided the mass fraction of water vapor

  13. Flexural analysis of the Magallanes retroarc basin of southern South America: A 1-D elastic-plastic model for deflection of attenuated lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.; Graham, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of inelastic bending of attenuated lithosphere on foreland flexure and basin geometry in the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes Basin of southern South America. The lack of correlation between topographic load from the present-day Patagonian Andes and the distribution of total sediment thickness in the adjacent Magallanes Basin suggests that that foreland lithosphere has accumulated irrecoverable strain and thus, inelastic flexure should be considered. We present a 1-D numerical analysis using an elastic-plastic model for plate bending and explore the effects of yield stress, spatially-variable flexural rigidity, and size of the tapered topographic load. The Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroforeland basin formed during Andean orogenesis after closure of a Late Jurassic quasi-oceanic backarc basin. The unusually thick (>5 km) succession of Cenomanian-Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks were deposited in a deep-marine axial foredeep. Sediment thickness profiles across the Cenomanian-Turonian basin fill define a curve with high amplitude and long-wavelength deflection and a substantially suppressed forebulge. Secondly, observed thicknesses across the basin show a distinct inflection point, located ~200 km east of the palinspastically-restored thrust front, that separates a deep (>2.5 km thick) depocenter that thins abruptly toward the craton. Linear elastic models using a range of flexural rigidities (3.6 x 1022 to 2.8 x 1023 N-m) corresponding to elastic thicknesses of 20-40 km for both line loads and distributed loads do not fit observed sediment thicknesses. We explore the effects of obducted high-density oceanic blocks in the thrust belt, spatial variations in elastic thickness of attenuated lithosphere, and permanent strain on foreland flexure. In elastic-plastic models, the plate deforms elastically when the fiber stress is less than the maximum yield stress. When the bending stress in the plate reaches the yield stress, the outer

  14. Desulfurizing Ability of the CaOsatd.-CaCl2-CaF2 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao

    2017-04-01

    Desulfurizing ability of the CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags saturated with CaO has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and CaO solubility. The CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and CaS were inserted in a CaO crucible with metallic copper. The CaO crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of CaCl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the CaO crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as CaO solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of CaCl2/CaF2. The solubility of CaO increases by the replacement of CaF2 with CaCl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of CaS ( γ CaS) increases. This suggests that CaF2 has stronger interaction with CaS than CaCl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the CaO-CaCl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of CaF2 by CaCl2.

  15. Mechanical unloading reverses transverse tubule remodelling and normalizes local Ca2+-induced Ca2+release in a rodent model of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Michael; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Siedlecka, Urszula; Rao, Christopher; Dias, Priyanthi; Moshkov, Alexey V.; Gorelik, Julia; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Terracciano, Cesare M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) is critical for contraction in cardiomyocytes. The transverse (t)-tubule system guarantees the proximity of the triggers for Ca2+ release [L-type Ca2+ channel, dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs)] and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels [ryanodine receptors (RyRs)]. Transverse tubule disruption occurs early in heart failure (HF). Clinical studies of left ventricular assist devices in HF indicate that mechanical unloading induces reverse remodelling. We hypothesize that unloading of failing hearts normalizes t-tubule structure and improves CICR. Methods and results Heart failure was induced in Lewis rats by left coronary artery ligation for 12 weeks; sham-operated animals were used as controls. Failing hearts were mechanically unloaded for 4 weeks by heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation (HF-UN). HF reduced the t-tubule density measured by di-8-ANEPPS staining in isolated left ventricular myocytes, and this was reversed by unloading. The deterioration in the regularity of the t-tubule system in HF was also reversed in HF-UN. Scanning ion conductance microscopy showed the reappearance of normal surface striations in HF-UN. Electron microscopy revealed recovery of normal t-tubule microarchitecture in HF-UN. L-type Ca2+ current density, measured using whole-cell patch clamping, was reduced in HF but unaffected by unloading. The variance of the time-to-peak of the Ca2+ transient, an index of CICR dyssynchrony, was increased in HF and normalized by unloading. The increased Ca2+ spark frequency observed in HF was reduced in HF-UN. These results could be explained by the recoupling of orphaned RyRs in HF, as indicated by immunofluorescence. Conclusions Our data show that mechanical unloading of the failing heart reverses the pathological remodelling of the t-tubule system and improves CICR. PMID:22467752

  16. AH-1058: a novel cardioselective Ca2+ channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Takahara, A; Sugiyama, A; Yoshimoto, R; Hashimoto, K

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacologic profile of a cyproheptadine-related compound, 4-(5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-1-[(E)-3-(3-methoxy-2-nitro)phenyl-2-propenyl]piperidine hydrochloride (AH-1058), was assessed in various in vivo and in vitro models. In guinea pig cardiomyocytes, AH-1058 effectively suppressed L-type Ca2+ channel currents without affecting other ion channel or ion exchange currents. In rat cerebral cortical membranes AH-1058 appears to bind preferentially to L-type Ca2+ channels at phenylalkylamine- and benzothiazepine-binding sites. In canine isolated, blood-perfused heart preparations, AH-1058 exerted negative inotropic, dromotropic, and chronotropic and weak coronary vasodilator effects. In halothane-anesthetized dogs, AH-1058 suppressed ventricular contractility and decreased blood pressure and cardiac output. Total peripheral vascular resistance was hardly affected by the drug, suggesting that in vivo AH-1058 can selectively suppress cardiac, as compared to peripheral vascular, function. In conscious dogs, by intravenous administration AH-1058 reduced systolic blood pressure and maximal upstroke velocity of the left ventricular pressure, while it increased heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. The drug did not affect diastolic blood pressure, which is quite different from cardiovascular properties of well-known Ca2+ channel blockers, verapamil and diltiazem. This unique cardiovascular profile of AH-1058 is expected to be useful in the treatment of certain pathological processes such as the obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, vasovagal syncope, dissecting aortic aneurysm, and ventricular arrhythmias, in which selective inhibition of the ventricular Ca2+ channels is essential for drug therapy.

  17. Like Extinction, Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Fear in Mice Is Blocked by Systemic Inhibition of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Cain, Chris K.; Barad, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Having recently shown that extinction of conditioned fear depends on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs), we have been seeking other protocols that require this unusual induction mechanism. We tested latent inhibition (LI) of fear, because LI resembles extinction except that cue exposures precede, rather than follow, cue-shock pairing.…

  18. ß-Adrenoceptor Activation Enhances L-Type Calcium Channel Currents in Anterior Piriform Cortex Pyramidal Cells of Neonatal Mice: Implication for Odor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. ß-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether ß-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC…

  19. Carbachol-induced long-term synaptic depression is enhanced during senescence at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok

    2010-08-01

    Dysregulation of the cholinergic transmitter system is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and contributes to an age-associated decline in memory performance. The current study examined the influence of carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, on synaptic transmission over the course of aging. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices obtained from young adult (5-8 mo) and aged (22-24 mo) male Fischer 344 rats. Bath application of carbachol elicited a transient depression of synaptic transmission, which was followed by a long-lasting depression (CCh-LTD) observed 90 min after carbachol cessation in both age groups. However, the magnitude of CCh-LTD was significantly larger in senescent animals and was attenuated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in aged animals. Blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channels inhibited CCh-LTD to a greater extent in aged animals compared to young adults. Finally, the expression of CCh-LTD was dependent on protein synthesis. The results indicate that altered Ca(2+) homeostasis or muscarinic activation of Ca(2+) signaling contribute to the enhanced CCh-LTD during senescence.

  20. CA-125 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ... 125 usually does not mean ovarian cancer is present. Most healthy women with an elevated CA-125 ...

  1. CAED Document Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) documents to all CAED staff. The respository will also include supporting documents, images, etc.

  2. Parallel activation of Ca(2+)-induced survival and death pathways in cardiomyocytes by sorbitol-induced hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Chiong, M; Parra, V; Eisner, V; Ibarra, C; Maldonado, C; Criollo, A; Bravo, R; Quiroga, C; Contreras, A; Vicencio, J M; Cea, P; Bucarey, J L; Molgó, J; Jaimovich, E; Hidalgo, C; Kroemer, G; Lavandero, S

    2010-08-01

    Hyperosmotic stress promotes rapid and pronounced apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated if Ca(2+) signals contribute to this response. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to sorbitol [600 mosmol (kg water)(-1)] elicited large and oscillatory intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increases. These Ca(2+) signals were inhibited by nifedipine, Cd(2+), U73122, xestospongin C and ryanodine, suggesting contributions from both Ca(2+) influx through voltage dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels plus Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores mediated by IP(3) receptors and ryanodine receptors. Hyperosmotic stress also increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels, promoted mitochondrial depolarization, reduced intracellular ATP content, and activated the transcriptional factor cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), determined by increased CREB phosphorylation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Incubation with 1 mM EGTA to decrease extracellular [Ca(2+)] prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hyperosmotic stress, while overexpression of an adenoviral dominant negative form of CREB abolished the cardioprotection provided by 1 mM EGTA. These results suggest that hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol, by increasing Ca(2+) influx and raising intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, activates Ca(2+) release from stores and causes cell death through mitochondrial function collapse. In addition, the present results suggest that the Ca(2+) increase induced by hyperosmotic stress promotes cell survival by recruiting CREB-mediated signaling. Thus, the fate of cardiomyocytes under hyperosmotic stress will depend on the balance between Ca(2+)-induced survival and death pathways.

  3. Ryanodine receptors regulate arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+] in cerebral arteries of rat via Ca2+-dependent K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Knot, Harm J; Standen, Nicholas B; Nelson, Mark T

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inhibitors of ryanodine-sensitive calcium release (RyR) channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and Ca2+-dependent potassium (KCa) channels on the membrane potential, intracellular [Ca2+], and diameters of small pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries (100–200 μm) were studied using digital fluorescence video imaging of arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+], combined with microelectrode measurements of arterial membrane potential. Ryanodine (10 μm), an inhibitor of RyR channels, depolarized by 9 mV, increased intracellular [Ca2+] by 46 nm and constricted pressurized (to 60 mmHg) arteries with myogenic tone by 44 μm (∼22 %). Iberiotoxin (100 nm), a blocker of KCa channels, under the same conditions, depolarized the arteries by 10 mV, increased arterial wall calcium by 51 nm, and constricted by 37 μm (∼19 %). The effects of ryanodine and iberiotoxin were not additive and were blocked by inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Caffeine (10 mm), an activator of RyR channels, transiently increased arterial wall [Ca2+] by 136 ± 9 nm in control arteries and by 158 ± 12 nm in the presence of iberiotoxin. Caffeine was relatively ineffective in the presence of ryanodine, increasing [calcium] by 18 ± 5 nm. In the presence of blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (nimodipine, diltiazem), ryanodine and inhibitors of the SR calcium ATPase (thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid) were without effect on arterial wall [Ca2+] and diameter. These results suggest that local Ca2+ release originating from RyR channels (Ca2+ sparks) in the SR of arterial smooth muscle regulates myogenic tone in cerebral arteries solely through activation of KCa channels, which regulate membrane potential through tonic hyperpolarization, thus limiting Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. KCa channels therefore act as a negative feedback control element regulating arterial diameter through a reduction in global intracellular free [Ca2+]. PMID:9490841

  4. Ethanol Extract of Lycopus lucidus Elicits Positive Inotropic Effect Via Activation of Ca2+ Entry and Ca2+ Release in Beating Rabbit Atria

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hao Zhen; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Cho, Kyung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been widely used as a traditional Oriental medicine (TOM) in Korea and China and prescribed for the enhancement of heart function. However, the precise effects have yet to be defined. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to address whether the ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz (ELT) has a positive inotropic effect. ELT-induced changes in atrial mechanical dynamics (pulse pressure, dp/dt, and stroke volume), and cAMP efflux were measured in perfused beating rabbit atria. Three active components, rosmarinic acid, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid were identified in ELT by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. ELT increased atrial dynamics in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in atrial cAMP levels and cAMP efflux. The ELT-induced positive inotropic effect was blocked by inhibition of the L-type Ca2+ channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Inhibitors of β-adrenoceptors had no effect on the ELT-induced positive inotropic effect. The results suggest that ELT exerts a positive inotropic effect via activation of Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channel and Ca2+ release from the SR in beating rabbit atria. PMID:23875903

  5. Ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus elicits positive inotropic effect via activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release in beating rabbit atria.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao Zhen; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-07-01

    Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been widely used as a traditional Oriental medicine (TOM) in Korea and China and prescribed for the enhancement of heart function. However, the precise effects have yet to be defined. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to address whether the ethanol extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz (ELT) has a positive inotropic effect. ELT-induced changes in atrial mechanical dynamics (pulse pressure, dp/dt, and stroke volume), and cAMP efflux were measured in perfused beating rabbit atria. Three active components, rosmarinic acid, betulinic acid, and oleanolic acid were identified in ELT by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. ELT increased atrial dynamics in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in atrial cAMP levels and cAMP efflux. The ELT-induced positive inotropic effect was blocked by inhibition of the L-type Ca(2+) channels and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Inhibitors of β-adrenoceptors had no effect on the ELT-induced positive inotropic effect. The results suggest that ELT exerts a positive inotropic effect via activation of Ca(2+) entry through L-type Ca(2+) channel and Ca(2+) release from the SR in beating rabbit atria.

  6. Routes of Ca2+ Shuttling during Ca2+ Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-01-01

    In some cell types, Ca2+ oscillations are strictly dependent on Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of Ca2+ influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal Ca2+ influx played a pivotal role. However, when the Ca2+ transport across the plasma membrane by the “lanthanum insulation method” was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced Ca2+ oscillations, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal Ca2+ exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular Ca2+. However, in a physiological situation, the Ca2+-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for Ca2+ oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous Ca2+ changes were observed in the mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous Ca2+ signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a Ca2+-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of Ca2+ ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three Ca2+ shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during Ca2+ oscillations: Ca2+ shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers. PMID:26396196

  7. Neuronal processing of noxious thermal stimuli mediated by dendritic Ca2+ influx in Drosophila somatosensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Shin-Ichiro; Matsubara, Daisuke; Onodera, Koun; Matsuzaki, Masanori; Uemura, Tadashi; Usui, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Adequate responses to noxious stimuli causing tissue damages are essential for organismal survival. Class IV neurons in Drosophila larvae are polymodal nociceptors responsible for thermal, mechanical, and light sensation. Importantly, activation of Class IV provoked distinct avoidance behaviors, depending on the inputs. We found that noxious thermal stimuli, but not blue light stimulation, caused a unique pattern of Class IV, which were composed of pauses after high-frequency spike trains and a large Ca2+ rise in the dendrite (the Ca2+ transient). Both these responses depended on two TRPA channels and the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC), showing that the thermosensation provokes Ca2+ influx. The precipitous fluctuation of firing rate in Class IV neurons enhanced the robust heat avoidance. We hypothesize that the Ca2+ influx can be a key signal encoding a specific modality. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12959.001 PMID:26880554

  8. RIM - binding proteins (RBPs) couple Rab3 - interacting molecules (RIMs) to voltage - gated Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, H.; Pironkova, R.; Onwumere, O.; Vologodskaia, M.; Hudspeth, A. J.; Lesage, F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated channels initiates the exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane. Here we show that RIM-binding proteins (RBPs), which associate with Ca2+ channels in hair cells, photoreceptors, and neurons, interact with α1D (L-type) and α1B (N-type) Ca2+-channel subunits. RBPs contain three Src homology 3 domains that bind to proline-rich motifs in α1 subunits and Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs). Overexpression in PC12 cells of fusion proteins that suppress the interactions of RBPs with RIMs and α1 augments the exocytosis triggered by depolarization. RBPs may regulate the strength of synaptic transmission by creating a functional link between the synaptic-vesicle tethering apparatus, which includes RIMs and Rab3, and the fusion machinery, which includes Ca2+ channels and the SNARE complex. PMID:11988172

  9. Memory circuits: CA2.

    PubMed

    Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Chevaleyre, Vivien

    2018-04-26

    The hippocampus is a central region in the coding of spatial, temporal and episodic memory. Recent discoveries have revealed surprising and complex roles of the small area CA2 in hippocampal function. Lesion studies have revealed that this region is required for social memory formation. Area CA2 is targeted by extra-hippocampal paraventricular inputs that release vasopressin and can act to enhance social memory performance. In vivo recordings have revealed nonconventional activity by neurons in this region that act to both initiate hippocampal sharp-wave ripple events as well as encode spatial information during immobility. Silencing of CA2 pyramidal neurons has revealed that this area also acts to control hippocampal network excitability during encoding, and this balance of excitation and inhibition is disrupted in disease. This review summarizes recent findings and attempts to integrate these results into pre-existing models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel β1-subunit knockout mice are not hypertensive

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Hannah; Galligan, James J.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are composed of pore-forming α-subunits and accessory β1-subunits that modulate Ca2+ sensitivity. BK channels regulate arterial myogenic tone and renal Na+ clearance/K+ reabsorption. Previous studies using indirect or short-term blood pressure measurements found that BK channel β1-subunit knockout (BK β1-KO) mice were hypertensive. We evaluated 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in BK β1-KO mice using radiotelemetry. BK β1-KO mice did not have a higher 24-h average MAP when compared with wild-type (WT) mice, although MAP was ∼10 mmHg higher at night. The dose-dependent peak declines in MAP by nifedipine were only slightly larger in BK β1-KO mice. In BK β1-KO mice, giving 1% NaCl to mice to drink for 7 days caused a transient (5 days) elevation of MAP (∼5 mmHg); MAP returned to pre-saline levels by day 6. BK β1-KO mesenteric arteries in vitro demonstrated diminished contractile responses to paxilline, increased reactivity to Bay K 8644 and norepinephrine (NE), and maintained relaxation to isoproterenol. Paxilline and Bay K 8644 did not constrict WT or BK β1-KO mesenteric veins (MV). BK β1-subunits are not expressed in MV. The results indicate that BK β1-KO mice are not hypertensive on normal or high-salt intake. BK channel deficiency increases arterial reactivity to NE and L-type Ca2+ channel function in vitro, but the L-type Ca2+ channel modulation of MAP is not altered in BK β1-KO mice. BK and L-type Ca2+ channels do not modulate murine venous tone. It appears that selective loss of BK channel function in arteries only is not sufficient to cause sustained hypertension. PMID:21131476

  11. Parathyroid hormone enhances fluid shear-induced [Ca2+]i signaling in osteoblastic cells through activation of mechanosensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, K. D.; Duncan, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Osteoblasts respond to both fluid shear and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Because both stimuli modulate the kinetics of the mechanosensitive cation channel (MSCC), we postulated PTH would enhance the [Ca2+]i response to fluid shear by increasing the sensitivity of MSCCs. After a 3-minute preflow at 1 dyne/cm2, MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to various levels of shear and changes in [Ca2+]i were assessed using Fura-2. Pretreatment with 50 nM bovine PTH(1-34) [bPTH(1-34)] significantly enhanced the shear magnitude-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Gadolinium (Gd3+), an MSCC blocker, significantly inhibited the mean peak [Ca2+]i response to shear and shear + bPTH(1-34). Nifedipine (Nif), an L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) blocker, also significantly reduced the [Ca2+]i response to shear + bPTH(1-34), but not to shear alone, suggesting VSCC activation plays an interactive role in the action of these stimuli together. Activation of either the protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA) pathways with specific agonists indicated that PKC activation did not alter the Ca2+ response to shear, whereas PKA activation significantly increased the [Ca2+]i response to lower magnitudes of shear. bPTH(1-34), which activates both pathways, induced the greatest [Ca2+]i response at each level of shear, suggesting an interaction of these pathways in this response. These data indicate that PTH significantly enhances the [Ca2+]i response to shear primarily via PKA modulation of the MSCC and VSCC.

  12. Research for the Working Method of Live Replacing the L-type Insulator String on ±800kV DC Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinliang; Wang, Zhigang; Lei, Dongyun; Yang, Miao; Xia, Zengming; Xiang, Yun; Yan, Yu; Liu, Zhiguo

    2017-07-01

    It would be hard to be repaired in the case of a power outage if the ±800kV ultra high voltage DC (UHVDC) transmission line was put into operation, so live working is the guarantee for its security and stability. Insulator strings of duplex L-type are widely used in UHVDC small angle towers. In the meantime, the tower structure and the insulator strings’ arrangement type is different than the V-type. In order to ensure the security and stability of the transmission line, this paper presents a method of live replacing the duplex L-type insulators based on the actual parameter of the UHVDC L tower type and develops apparatus as a complementary supporting by mechanics analysis. In order to ensure the safety of working staff, the safe distance and combined gap of the hanging basket method are checked. Safety precautions are also proposed in the paper by the calculation of body surface field strength of the persons doing live working in the finite element method. It is shown by the field application that the live working task of replacing the L-type insulator strings can be accomplished successfully by the method put forward in this paper, which provides reference for the following live working on the UHV transmission line.

  13. Biochemical Characteristics and PrPSc Distribution Pattern in the Brains of Cattle Experimentally Challenged with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE

    PubMed Central

    Priemer, Grit; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Besides the classical form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) that has been known for almost three decades, two atypical forms designated H-type and L-type BSE have recently been described. While the main diagnostic feature of these forms is the altered biochemical profile of the accumulated PrPSc, it was also observed in the initial analysis that L-type BSE displays a distribution pattern of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc), which clearly differs from that observed in classical BSE (C-type). Most importantly, the obex region in the brainstem is not the region with the highest PrPSc concentrations, but PrPSc is spread more evenly throughout the entire brain. A similar distribution pattern has been revealed for H-type BSE by rapid test analysis. Based on these findings, we performed a more detailed Western blot study of the anatomical PrPSc distribution pattern and the biochemical characteristics (molecular mass, glycoprofile as well as PK sensitivity) in ten different anatomical locations of the brain from cattle experimentally challenged with H- or L-type BSE, as compared to cattle challenged with C-type BSE. Results of this study revealed distinct differences in the PrPSc deposition patterns between all three BSE forms, while the biochemical characteristics remained stable for each BSE type among all analysed brain areas. PMID:23805320

  14. Biochemical Characteristics and PrP(Sc) Distribution Pattern in the Brains of Cattle Experimentally Challenged with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE.

    PubMed

    Priemer, Grit; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Hills, Bob; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-01-01

    Besides the classical form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) that has been known for almost three decades, two atypical forms designated H-type and L-type BSE have recently been described. While the main diagnostic feature of these forms is the altered biochemical profile of the accumulated PrP(Sc), it was also observed in the initial analysis that L-type BSE displays a distribution pattern of the pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)), which clearly differs from that observed in classical BSE (C-type). Most importantly, the obex region in the brainstem is not the region with the highest PrP(Sc) concentrations, but PrP(Sc) is spread more evenly throughout the entire brain. A similar distribution pattern has been revealed for H-type BSE by rapid test analysis. Based on these findings, we performed a more detailed Western blot study of the anatomical PrP(Sc) distribution pattern and the biochemical characteristics (molecular mass, glycoprofile as well as PK sensitivity) in ten different anatomical locations of the brain from cattle experimentally challenged with H- or L-type BSE, as compared to cattle challenged with C-type BSE. Results of this study revealed distinct differences in the PrP(Sc) deposition patterns between all three BSE forms, while the biochemical characteristics remained stable for each BSE type among all analysed brain areas.

  15. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, A.; McCulloch, A.

    2001-01-01

    We extended the model of the ventricular myocyte by Winslow et al. (Circ. Res 1999, 84:571-586) by incorporating equations for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffering and transport by ATP and ADP and equations for MgATP regulation of ion transporters (Na(+)-K(+) pump, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps). The results indicate that, under normal conditions, Ca(2+) binding by low-affinity ATP and diffusion of CaATP may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model also suggests that a fall in ATP/ADP ratio significantly reduces sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) content, increases diastolic Ca(2+), lowers systolic Ca(2+), increases Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels, and decreases the efficiency of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in extruding Ca(2+) during periodic voltage-clamp stimulation. The analysis suggests that the most important reason for these changes during metabolic inhibition is the down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase pump by reduced diastolic MgATP levels. High Ca(2+) concentrations developed near the membrane might have a greater influence on Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP concentrations than that of the lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the bulk myoplasm. The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions.

  16. Distinct Components of Retrograde CaV1.1-RyR1 Coupling Revealed by a Lethal Mutation in RyR1

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Roger A.; Sheridan, David C.; Beam, Kurt G.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis for excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle is generally thought to involve conformational coupling between the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) and the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1). This coupling is bidirectional; in addition to the orthograde signal from CaV1.1 to RyR1 that triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, retrograde signaling from RyR1 to CaV1.1 results in increased amplitude and slowed activation kinetics of macroscopic L-type Ca2+ current. Orthograde coupling was previously shown to be ablated by a glycine for glutamate substitution at RyR1 position 4242. In this study, we investigated whether the RyR1-E4242G mutation affects retrograde coupling. L-type current in myotubes homozygous for RyR1-E4242G was substantially reduced in amplitude (∼80%) relative to that observed in myotubes from normal control (wild-type and/or heterozygous) myotubes. Analysis of intramembrane gating charge movements and ionic tail current amplitudes indicated that the reduction in current amplitude during step depolarizations was a consequence of both decreased CaV1.1 membrane expression (∼50%) and reduced channel Po (∼55%). In contrast, activation kinetics of the L-type current in RyR1-E4242G myotubes resembled those of normal myotubes, unlike dyspedic (RyR1 null) myotubes in which the L-type currents have markedly accelerated activation kinetics. Exogenous expression of wild-type RyR1 partially restored L-type current density. From these observations, we conclude that mutating residue E4242 affects RyR1 structures critical for retrograde communication with CaV1.1. Moreover, we propose that retrograde coupling has two distinct and separable components that are dependent on different structural elements of RyR1. PMID:26910427

  17. Ca²+ modulation in dorsal raphe plays an important role in NREM and REM sleep regulation during pentobarbital hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Su-Ying; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zi-Jun; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yong-He

    2011-07-27

    Our previous studies indicated that L-type calcium channel blocker diltiazem could potentiate pentobarbital-induced hypnosis through serotonergic system. In view of the important role of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) on the sleep regulation and the pharmacological actions of calcium channel blocker, we presumed that Ca(2+) in the DRN may play an important role in sleep regulation in pentobarbital treated rats. Therefore, we investigated whether the Ca(2+) modulation in DRN by the microinjection of L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist diltiazem, agonist BAY-K-8644, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaCl(2) would alter the sleep parameters in pentobarbital treated rats. Results showed that perfusion of the agents attenuating Ca(2+) function, such as diltiazem (5 or 20 nmol) or EGTA (3 or 6 pmol) into DRN significantly increased pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced total sleep (TS), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and the slow wave sleep (SWS) ratio in NREM sleep. On the contrary, the DRN injection of the agents improving Ca(2+) function, such as BAY-K-8644 (10 nmol) or CaCl(2) (50 or 100 nmol) significantly reduced pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced TS, NREM sleep, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and REM sleep ratio in TS without influence on SWS. These results suggested that the suppression of Ca(2+) function in DRN could increase NREM sleep including SWS, and the elevation of Ca(2+) function could reduce both NREM and REM sleep in pentobarbital treated rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ca2+ current versus Ca2+ channel cooperativity of exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Victor; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2009-09-30

    Recently there has been significant interest and progress in the study of spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca(2+) that triggers exocytosis at a fast chemical synapse, which requires understanding the contribution of individual calcium channels to the release of a single vesicle. Experimental protocols provide insight into this question by probing the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca(2+) influx. While varying extracellular or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration assesses the intrinsic biochemical Ca(2+) cooperativity of neurotransmitter release, varying the number of open Ca(2+) channels using pharmacological channel block or the tail current titration probes the cooperativity between individual Ca(2+) channels in triggering exocytosis. Despite the wide use of these Ca(2+) sensitivity measurements, their interpretation often relies on heuristic arguments. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the Ca(2+) sensitivity measures probed by these experimental protocols, present simple expressions for special cases, and demonstrate the distinction between the Ca(2+) current cooperativity, defined by the relationship between exocytosis rate and the whole-terminal Ca(2+) current magnitude, and the underlying Ca(2+) channel cooperativity, defined as the average number of channels involved in the release of a single vesicle. We find simple algebraic expressions that show that the two are different but linearly related. Further, we use three-dimensional computational modeling of buffered Ca(2+) diffusion to analyze these distinct Ca(2+) cooperativity measures, and demonstrate the role of endogenous Ca(2+) buffers on such measures. We show that buffers can either increase or decrease the Ca(2+) current cooperativity of exocytosis, depending on their concentration and the single-channel Ca(2+) current.

  19. Physiological and pharmacological modulation of the embryonic skeletal muscle calcium channel splice variant CaV1.1e.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Bruno; Tuluc, Petronel; Mastrolia, Vincenzo; Dlaska, Clemens; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-03-10

    CaV1.1e is the voltage-gated calcium channel splice variant of embryonic skeletal muscle. It differs from the adult CaV1.1a splice variant by the exclusion of exon 29 coding for 19 amino acids in the extracellular loop connecting transmembrane domains IVS3 and IVS4. Like the adult splice variant CaV1.1a, the embryonic CaV1.1e variant functions as voltage sensor in excitation-contraction coupling, but unlike CaV1.1a it also conducts sizable calcium currents. Consequently, physiological or pharmacological modulation of calcium currents may have a greater impact in CaV1.1e expressing muscle cells. Here, we analyzed the effects of L-type current modulators on whole-cell current properties in dysgenic (CaV1.1-null) myotubes reconstituted with either CaV1.1a or CaV1.1e. Furthermore, we examined the physiological current modulation by interactions with the ryanodine receptor using a chimeric CaV1.1e construct in which the cytoplasmic II-III loop, essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, has been replaced with the corresponding but nonfunctional loop from the Musca channel. Whereas the equivalent substitution in CaV1.1a had abolished the calcium currents, substitution of the II-III loop in CaV1.1e did not significantly reduce current amplitudes. This indicates that CaV1.1e is not subject to retrograde coupling with the ryanodine receptor and that the retrograde coupling mechanism in CaV1.1a operates by counteracting the limiting effects of exon 29 inclusion on the current amplitude. Pharmacologically, CaV1.1e behaves like other L-type calcium channels. Its currents are substantially increased by the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 and inhibited by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an IC50 of 0.37 μM for current inhibition by nifedipine, CaV1.1e is a potential drug target for the treatment of myotonic dystrophy. It might block the excessive calcium influx resulting from the aberrant expression of the embryonic

  20. [Co-location of ACh-sensitive BK channels and L-type calcium channels in type II vestibular hair cells of guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Kai; Li, Guan-Qiao; Kong, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Song; Wu, Ting-Ting; Li, Jia-Li; Li, Qing-Tian

    2008-03-01

    To explore the mechanisms of the influx of calcium ions during the activation of ACh-sensitive BK channel (big conductance, calcium-dependent potassium channel) in type II vestibular hair cells of guinea pigs. Type II vestibular hair cells were isolated by collagenase type IA. Under the whole-cell patch mode, the sensitivity of ACh-sensitive BK current to the calcium channels blockers was investigated, the pharmacological property of L-type calcium channel activator-sensitive current and ACh-sensitive BK current was compared. Following application of ACh, type II vestibular hair cells displayed a sustained outward potassium current, with a reversal potential of (-70.5 +/- 10.6) mV (x +/- s, n = 10). At the holding potential of -50 mV, the current amplitude of ACh-sensitive potassium current activated by 100 micromol/L ACh was (267 +/- 106) pA (n = 11). ACh-sensitive potassium current was potently sensitive to the BK current blocker, IBTX (iberiotoxin, 200 nmol/L). Apamin, the well-known small conductance, calcium-dependent potassium current blocker, failed to inhibit the amplitude of ACh-sensitive potassium current at a dose of 1 micromol/L. ACh-sensitive BK current was sensitive to NiCl2 and potently inhibited by CdCl2. NiCl2 and CdCl2 showed a dose-dependent blocking effect with a half inhibition-maximal response of (135.5 +/- 18.5) micromol/L (n = 7) and (23.4 +/- 2.6) micromol/L (n = 7). The L-type calcium channel activator, (-) -Bay-K 8644 (10 micromol /L), mimicked the role of ACh and activated the IBTX-sensitive outward current. ACh-sensitive BK and L-type calcium channels are co-located in type II vestibular hair cells of guinea pigs.

  1. Contrasting effects of hypoxia on cytosolic Ca2+ spikes in conduit and resistance myocytes of the rabbit pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Ureña, J; Franco-Obregón, A; López-Barneo, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of hypoxia on cytosolic Ca2+ ¿[Ca2+]i) and spontaneous cytosolic Ca2+ spikes were examined in fura 2-loaded myocytes isolated from conduit and resistance branches of the rabbit pulmonary artery. In all myocyte classes, generation of the Ca2+ spikes was modulated by basal [Ca2+]i which, in turn, was influenced by the influx of Ca2+ through L-type Ca2+ channels of the plasmalemma. 2. Conduit and resistance myocytes responded distinctly to hypoxia. In most conduit myocytes (approximately 82% of total; n = 23) exposure to hypoxia reduced basal [Ca2+]i. This effect was often associated with the abolition of the Ca2+ spikes. Hypoxia gave rise to two main responses in resistance myocytes. In a subset of resistance myocytes (41 % of total; n = 34) hypoxia incremented basal [Ca2+]i but reduced Ca2+ spike amplitude. This response mimicked the effect of membrane depolarization with K+ and was reverted by nifedipine or the removal of extracellular Ca2+. In a second subset of resistance myocytes (59% of total; n = 34) hypoxia decreased basal [Ca2+]i and, in most cases, increased spike amplitude; a response counteracted by depolarization with K+. 3. These results indicate that hypoxia can differentially modulate [Ca2+]i in smooth muscle cells from large and small diameter pulmonary vessels through a dual effect on transmembrane Ca2+ influx. Our observations further demonstrate the longitudinal heterogeneity of myocytes along the pulmonary arterial tree and help to explain the hypoxic vasomotor responses in the pulmonary circulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8910199

  2. Distinct Effects of Ca2+ Sparks on Cerebral Artery and Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Tone in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing-Yang; Peng, Yong-Bo; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Xi; Xu, Hao; Wei, Ming-Yu; Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Li, Wen-Er; Ma, Li-Qun; Xu, Jin-Chao; Liu, Xiao-Cao; Zang, Dun-An; She, Yu-San; Zhu, He; Shen, Jinhua; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Ping; Fu, Xiangning; Chen, Jingyu; Nie, Xiaowei; Shen, Chenyou; Chen, Shu; Chen, Shanshan; Chen, Jingcao; Hu, Sheng; Zou, Chunbin; Qin, Gangjian; Fang, Ying; Ding, Jiuping; Ji, Guangju; Zheng, Yun-Min; Song, Tengyao; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Ca2+ sparks on cerebral artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) tone, as well as the underlying mechanisms, are not clear. In this investigation, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms of the distinct effects of Ca2+ sparks on cerebral artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) tone. In CASMCs, owing to the functional loss of Ca2+-activated Cl- (Clca) channels, Ca2+ sparks activated large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKs), resulting in a decreases in tone against a spontaneous depolarization-caused high tone in the resting state. In ASMCs, Ca2+ sparks induced relaxation through BKs and contraction via Clca channels. However, the integrated result was contraction because Ca2+ sparks activated BKs prior to Clca channels and Clca channels-induced depolarization was larger than BKs-caused hyperpolarization. However, the effects of Ca2+ sparks on both cell types were determined by L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (LVDCCs). In addition, compared with ASMCs, CASMCs had great and higher amplitude Ca2+ sparks, a higher density of BKs, and higher Ca2+ and voltage sensitivity of BKs. These differences enhanced the ability of Ca2+ sparks to decrease CASMC and to increase ASMC tone. The higher Ca2+ and voltage sensitivity of BKs in CASMCs than ASMCs were determined by the β1 subunits. Moreover, Ca2+ sparks showed the similar effects on human CASMC and ASMC tone. In conclusions, Ca2+ sparks decrease CASMC tone and increase ASMC tone, mediated by BKs and Clca channels, respectively, and finally determined by LVDCCs. PMID:29104491

  3. Mitochondrial Ca2+uptake pathways.

    PubMed

    Elustondo, Pia A; Nichols, Matthew; Robertson, George S; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2017-02-01

    Calcium (Ca 2+ ) plays diverse roles in all living organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. It is a structural element for bones, an essential mediator of excitation-contraction coupling, and a universal second messenger in the regulation of ion channel, enzyme and gene expression activities. In mitochondria, Ca 2+ is crucial for the control of energy production and cellular responses to metabolic stress. Ca 2+ uptake by the mitochondria occurs by the uniporter mechanism. The Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU) protein has recently been identified as a core component responsible for mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake. MCU knockout (MCU KO) studies have identified a number of important roles played by this high capacity uptake pathway. Interestingly, this work has also shown that MCU-mediated Ca 2+ uptake is not essential for vital cell functions such as muscle contraction, energy metabolism and neurotransmission. Although mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake was markedly reduced, MCU KO mitochondria still contained low but detectable levels of Ca 2+ . In view of the fundamental importance of Ca 2+ for basic cell signalling, this finding suggests the existence of other currently unrecognized pathways for Ca 2+ entry. We review the experimental evidence for the existence of alternative Ca 2+ influx mechanisms and propose how these mechanisms may play an integral role in mitochondrial Ca 2+ signalling.

  4. Neural activity and CaMKII protect mitochondria from fragmentation in aging Caenorhabditis elegans neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao-Ching; Hsu, Jiun-Min; Yen, Chien-Ping; Chao, Chi-Chao; Chen, Ruey-Hwa; Pan, Chun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Decline in mitochondrial morphology and function is a hallmark of neuronal aging. Here we report that progressive mitochondrial fragmentation is a common manifestation of aging Caenorhabditis elegans neurons and body wall muscles. We show that sensory-evoked activity was essential for maintaining neuronal mitochondrial morphology, and this activity-dependent mechanism required the Degenerin/ENaC sodium channel MEC-4, the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel EGL-19, and the Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) UNC-43. Importantly, UNC-43 phosphorylated and inhibited the dynamin-related protein (DRP)-1, which was responsible for excessive mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons that lacked sensory-evoked activity. Moreover, enhanced activity in the aged neurons ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation. These findings provide a detailed description of mitochondrial behavior in aging neurons and identify activity-dependent DRP-1 phosphorylation by CaMKII as a key mechanism in neuronal mitochondrial maintenance. PMID:26124107

  5. Neural activity and CaMKII protect mitochondria from fragmentation in aging Caenorhabditis elegans neurons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao-Ching; Hsu, Jiun-Min; Yen, Chien-Ping; Chao, Chi-Chao; Chen, Ruey-Hwa; Pan, Chun-Liang

    2015-07-14

    Decline in mitochondrial morphology and function is a hallmark of neuronal aging. Here we report that progressive mitochondrial fragmentation is a common manifestation of aging Caenorhabditis elegans neurons and body wall muscles. We show that sensory-evoked activity was essential for maintaining neuronal mitochondrial morphology, and this activity-dependent mechanism required the Degenerin/ENaC sodium channel MEC-4, the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel EGL-19, and the Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) UNC-43. Importantly, UNC-43 phosphorylated and inhibited the dynamin-related protein (DRP)-1, which was responsible for excessive mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons that lacked sensory-evoked activity. Moreover, enhanced activity in the aged neurons ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation. These findings provide a detailed description of mitochondrial behavior in aging neurons and identify activity-dependent DRP-1 phosphorylation by CaMKII as a key mechanism in neuronal mitochondrial maintenance.

  6. cAMP-dependent Mobilization of Intracellular Ca2+ Stores by Activation of Ryanodine Receptors in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.; Leech, Colin A.; Heller, R. Scott; Castonguay, Maurice; Habener, Joel F.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinally derived insulinotropic hormone currently under investigation for use as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro studies of pancreatic islets of Langerhans demonstrated that GLP-1 interacts with specific β-cell G protein-coupled receptors, thereby facilitating insulin exocytosis by raising intracellular levels of cAMP and Ca2+. Here we report that the stimulatory influence of GLP-1 on Ca2+ signaling results, in part, from cAMP-dependent mobilization of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Studies of human, rat, and mouse β-cells demonstrate that the binding of a fluorescent derivative of ryanodine (BODIPY FL-X ryanodine) to its receptors is specific, reversible, and of high affinity. Rat islets and BTC3 insulinoma cells are shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses to express mRNA corresponding to the type 2 isoform of ryanodine receptor-intracellular Ca2+ release channel (RYR2). Single-cell measurements of [Ca2+]i using primary cultures of rat and human β-cells indicate that GLP-1 facilitates Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR), whereby mobilization of Ca2+ stores is triggered by influx of Ca2+ through L-type Ca2+ channels. In these cells, GLP-1 is shown to interact with metabolism of D-glucose to produce a fast transient increase of [Ca2+]i. This effect is reproduced by 8-Br-cAMP, but is blocked by a GLP-1 receptor antagonist (exendin-(9 –39)), a cAMP antagonist ((Rp)-cAMPS), an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist (nimodipine), an antagonist of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (thapsigargin), or by ryanodine. Characterization of the CICR mechanism by voltage clamp analysis also demonstrates a stimulation of Ca2+ release by caffeine. These findings provide new support for a model of β-cell signal transduction whereby GLP-1 promotes CICR by sensitizing intracellular Ca2+ release channels to the stimulatory influence of cytosolic Ca2+. PMID

  7. Ca(2+) Binding and Transport Studied with Ca(2+)/EGTA Buffers and (45)Ca(2+).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Pankaj; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The chapter describes procedures useful for determination of Ca(2+) binding by membranous Ca(2+)-ATPase based on the correction for the removal of Ca(2+) present in a non-bound state in the suspension medium. This is done by a filtration procedure that retains the membranous material on the Millipore filters. With suitable sucking devices it is possible to gently remove without dehydration nearly all medium from the Ca(2+) containing membranes, except that required for wetting of the filters on which they are deposited. Correction for this effect can be done with a double-filter where the radioactive content of the lower (protein-free) filter is subtracted from that present in the upper filter for calculation of Ca(2+) binding. This methodology can be used to study the effect of inhibitors on Ca(2+) binding and -transport, and with Ca(2+)/EGTA buffers to explore the Ca(2+) binding affinities and cooperative aspects of the two transport sites.

  8. Interaction of DHPG-LTD and synaptic-LTD at senescent CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Foster, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility, but not the magnitude, of long-term depression (LTD) induced by hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic activity (synaptic-LTD) increases with advanced age. In contrast, the magnitude of LTD induced by pharmacological activation of CA3-CA1 group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) increases during aging. The present study examined the signaling pathways involved in induction of LTD and the interaction between paired-pulse low frequency stimulation (PP-LFS)-induced synaptic-LTD and group I mGluR selective agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, 100 µM)-induced DHPG-LTD in hippocampal slices obtained from aged (22–24 mo) male Fischer 344 rats. Prior induction of synaptic-LTD did not affect induction of DHPG-LTD; however, prior induction of the DHPG-LTD occluded synaptic-LTD suggesting that expression of DHPG-LTD may incorporate synaptic-LTD mechanisms. Application of individual antagonist for the group I mGluR (AIDA), the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (AP-5), or L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) (nifedipine) failed to block synaptic-LTD and any two antagonists severely impaired synaptic-LTD induction, indicating that activation of any two mechanisms is sufficient to induce synaptic-LTD in aged animals. For DHPG-LTD, AIDA blocked DHPG-LTD and individually applied NMDAR or VDCC attenuated but did not block DHPG-LTD, indicating that the magnitude of DHPG-LTD depends on all three mechanisms. PMID:24390964

  9. Interaction of DHPG-LTD and synaptic-LTD at senescent CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Foster, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    The susceptibility, but not the magnitude, of long-term depression (LTD) induced by hippocampal CA3-CA1 synaptic activity (synaptic-LTD) increases with advanced age. In contrast, the magnitude of LTD induced by pharmacological activation of CA3-CA1 group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) increases during aging. This study examined the signaling pathways involved in induction of LTD and the interaction between paired-pulse low frequency stimulation-induced synaptic-LTD and group I mGluR selective agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG, 100 µM)-induced DHPG-LTD in hippocampal slices obtained from aged (22-24 months) male Fischer 344 rats. Prior induction of synaptic-LTD did not affect induction of DHPG-LTD; however, prior induction of the DHPG-LTD occluded synaptic-LTD suggesting that expression of DHPG-LTD may incorporate synaptic-LTD mechanisms. Application of individual antagonist for the group I mGluR (AIDA), the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (AP-5), or L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) (nifedipine) failed to block synaptic-LTD and any two antagonists severely impaired synaptic-LTD induction, indicating that activation of any two mechanisms is sufficient to induce synaptic-LTD in aged animals. For DHPG-LTD, AIDA blocked DHPG-LTD and individually applied NMDAR or VDCC attenuated but did not block DHPG-LTD, indicating that the magnitude of DHPG-LTD depends on all three mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Regulation of L-type inward calcium channel activity by captopril and angiotensin II via the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase pathway in cardiomyocytes from volume-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Alvin, Zikiar; Laurence, Graham G.; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E.

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure can be caused by pro-hypertrophic humoral factors such as angiotensin II (Ang II), which regulates protein kinase activities. The intermingled responses of these kinases lead to the early compensated cardiac hypertrophy, but later to the uncompensated phase of heart failure. We have shown that although beneficial, cardiac hypertrophy is associated with modifications in ion channels that are mainly mediated through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. This study evaluates the control of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) by the Ang II/PI3K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes from volume-overload rats using the perforated patch-clamp technique. To assess activation of the ICa,L in cardiomyocytes, voltages of 350 ms in 10 mV increments from a holding potential of −85 mV were applied to cardiocytes, with a pre-pulse to −45 mV for 300 ms. Volume overload-induced hypertrophy reduces ICa,L, whereas addition of Ang II alleviates the hypertrophic-induced decrease in a PI3K-dependent manner. Acute administration of Ang II (10−6 mol/L) to normal adult cardiomyocytes had no effect; however, captopril reduced their basal ICa,L. In parallel, captopril regressed the hypertrophy and inverted the Ang II effect on ICa,L seemingly through a PI3K upstream effector. Thus, it seems that regression of cardiac hypertrophy by captopril improved ICa,L partly through PI3K. PMID:21423294

  11. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ Channel Properties in Adult Inner Hair Cells Positioned in the Most Sensitive Region of the Gerbil Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L.; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C.; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca2+ inflow through CaV1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca2+ currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na+ based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca2+ current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (P o: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼−18 mV). The value of P o was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca2+ channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the P o and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca2+ channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds. PMID:25409445

  12. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel properties in adult inner hair cells positioned in the most sensitive region of the Gerbil Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca(2+) inflow through Ca(V)1.3 (L-type) Ca(2+) channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca(2+) currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼ 2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na(+) based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca(2+) current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼-18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca(2+) channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca(2+) channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds.

  13. Different CaV1.3 Channel Isoforms Control Distinct Components of the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle in Auditory Inner Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Philippe F Y; Bouleau, Yohan; Charpentier, Gilles; Emptoz, Alice; Safieddine, Saaid; Petit, Christine; Dulon, Didier

    2017-03-15

    The mechanisms orchestrating transient and sustained exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) remain largely unknown. These exocytotic responses are believed to mobilize sequentially a readily releasable pool of vesicles (RRP) underneath the synaptic ribbons and a slowly releasable pool of vesicles (SRP) at farther distance from them. They are both governed by Ca v 1.3 channels and require otoferlin as Ca 2+ sensor, but whether they use the same Ca v 1.3 isoforms is still unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in posthearing mice, we show that only a proportion (∼25%) of the total Ca 2+ current in IHCs displaying fast inactivation and resistance to 20 μm nifedipine, a l-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, is sufficient to trigger RRP but not SRP exocytosis. This Ca 2+ current is likely conducted by short C-terminal isoforms of Ca v 1.3 channels, notably Ca v 1.3 42A and Ca v 1.3 43S , because their mRNA is highly expressed in wild-type IHCs but poorly expressed in Otof -/- IHCs, the latter having Ca 2+ currents with considerably reduced inactivation. Nifedipine-resistant RRP exocytosis was poorly affected by 5 mm intracellular EGTA, suggesting that the Ca v 1.3 short isoforms are closely associated with the release site at the synaptic ribbons. Conversely, our results suggest that Ca v 1.3 long isoforms, which carry ∼75% of the total IHC Ca 2+ current with slow inactivation and confer high sensitivity to nifedipine and to internal EGTA, are essentially involved in recruiting SRP vesicles. Intracellular Ca 2+ imaging showed that Ca v 1.3 long isoforms support a deep intracellular diffusion of Ca 2+ SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) encode sounds into nerve impulses through fast and indefatigable Ca 2+ -dependent exocytosis at their ribbon synapses. We show that this synaptic process involves long and short C-terminal isoforms of the Ca v 1.3 Ca 2+ channel that differ in the kinetics of their Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation and their

  14. Detection and Discrimination of Classical and Atypical L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Christina D.; Favole, Alessandra; Corona, Cristiano; Mazza, Maria; Manca, Matteo; Groveman, Bradley R.; Hughson, Andrew G.; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Caramelli, Maria; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    Statutory surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) indicates that cattle are susceptible to both classical BSE (C-BSE) and atypical forms of BSE. Atypical forms of BSE appear to be sporadic and thus may never be eradicated. A major challenge for prion surveillance is the lack of sufficiently practical and sensitive tests for routine BSE detection and strain discrimination. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) test, which is based on prion-seeded fibrillization of recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen), is known to be highly specific and sensitive for the detection of multiple human and animal prion diseases but not BSE. Here, we tested brain tissue from cattle affected by C-BSE and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (L-type BSE or L-BSE) with the RT-QuIC assay and found that both BSE forms can be detected and distinguished using particular rPrPSen substrates. Specifically, L-BSE was detected using multiple rPrPSen substrates, while C-BSE was much more selective. This substrate-based approach suggests a diagnostic strategy for specific, sensitive, and rapid detection and discrimination of at least some BSE forms. PMID:25609728

  15. Divergence of Ca2+ selectivity and equilibrium Ca2+ blockade in a Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Prevailing models postulate that high Ca2+ selectivity of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels arises from tight Ca2+ binding to a high affinity site within the pore, thereby blocking monovalent ion flux. Here, we examined the contribution of high affinity Ca2+ binding for Ca2+ selectivity in recombinant Orai3 channels, which function as highly Ca2+-selective channels when gated by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor STIM1 or as poorly Ca2+-selective channels when activated by the small molecule 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Extracellular Ca2+ blocked Na+ currents in both gating modes with a similar inhibition constant (Ki; ∼25 µM). Thus, equilibrium binding as set by the Ki of Ca2+ blockade cannot explain the differing Ca2+ selectivity of the two gating modes. Unlike STIM1-gated channels, Ca2+ blockade in 2-APB–gated channels depended on the extracellular Na+ concentration and exhibited an anomalously steep voltage dependence, consistent with enhanced Na+ pore occupancy. Moreover, the second-order rate constants of Ca2+ blockade were eightfold faster in 2-APB–gated channels than in STIM1-gated channels. A four-barrier, three–binding site Eyring model indicated that lowering the entry and exit energy barriers for Ca2+ and Na+ to simulate the faster rate constants of 2-APB–gated channels qualitatively reproduces their low Ca2+ selectivity, suggesting that ion entry and exit rates strongly affect Ca2+ selectivity. Noise analysis indicated that the unitary Na+ conductance of 2-APB–gated channels is fourfold larger than that of STIM1-gated channels, but both modes of gating show a high open probability (Po; ∼0.7). The increase in current noise during channel activation was consistent with stepwise recruitment of closed channels to a high Po state in both cases, suggesting that the underlying gating mechanisms are operationally similar in the two gating modes. These results suggest that both high affinity Ca2+ binding and kinetic factors

  16. Beyond Donor-Acceptor (D-A) Approach: Structure-Optoelectronic Properties-Organic Photovoltaic Performance Correlation in New D-A1 -D-A2 Low-Bandgap Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chochos, Christos L; Drakopoulou, Sofia; Katsouras, Athanasios; Squeo, Benedetta M; Sprau, Christian; Colsmann, Alexander; Gregoriou, Vasilis G; Cando, Alex-Palma; Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ullrich; Gasparini, Nicola; Kazerouni, Negar; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2017-04-01

    Low-bandgap near-infrared polymers are usually synthesized using the common donor-acceptor (D-A) approach. However, recently polymer chemists are introducing more complex chemical concepts for better fine tuning of their optoelectronic properties. Usually these studies are limited to one or two polymer examples in each case study so far, though. In this study, the dependence of optoelectronic and macroscopic (device performance) properties in a series of six new D-A 1 -D-A 2 low bandgap semiconducting polymers is reported for the first time. Correlation between the chemical structure of single-component polymer films and their optoelectronic properties has been achieved in terms of absorption maxima, optical bandgap, ionization potential, and electron affinity. Preliminary organic photovoltaic results based on blends of the D-A 1 -D-A 2 polymers as the electron donor mixed with the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester demonstrate power conversion efficiencies close to 4% with short-circuit current densities (J sc ) of around 11 mA cm -2 , high fill factors up to 0.70, and high open-circuit voltages (V oc s) of 0.70 V. All the devices are fabricated in an inverted architecture with the photoactive layer processed in air with doctor blade technique, showing the compatibility with roll-to-roll large-scale manufacturing processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Coachella Valley, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    These band composites, acquired on June 4, 2000, cover a 11 by 13.5 km sub-scene in the Coachella Valley, CA. The area is shown by the yellow box on the full scene in the LOWER RIGHT corner, northwest of the Salton Sea. This is a major agricultural region of California, growing fruit and produce throughout the year. Different combinations of ASTER bands help identify the different crop types. UPPER LEFT: bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, and blue (RGB); UPPER RIGHT: bands 4, 2, 1 as RGB; LOWER LEFT: bands 4, 3, 2 as RGB. The image is centered at 33.6 degrees north latitude, 116.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11161

  19. RIM binding proteins (RBPs) couple Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs) to voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Hibino, H; Pironkova, R; Onwumere, O; Vologodskaia, M; Hudspeth, A J; Lesage, F

    2002-04-25

    Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated channels initiates the exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles to the plasma membrane. Here we show that RIM binding proteins (RBPs), which associate with Ca(2+) channels in hair cells, photoreceptors, and neurons, interact with alpha(1D) (L type) and alpha(1B) (N type) Ca(2+) channel subunits. RBPs contain three Src homology 3 domains that bind to proline-rich motifs in alpha(1) subunits and Rab3-interacting molecules (RIMs). Overexpression in PC12 cells of fusion proteins that suppress the interactions of RBPs with RIMs and alpha(1) augments the exocytosis triggered by depolarization. RBPs may regulate the strength of synaptic transmission by creating a functional link between the synaptic-vesicle tethering apparatus, which includes RIMs and Rab3, and the fusion machinery, which includes Ca(2+) channels and the SNARE complex.

  20. Chlorine adsorption on Mg, Ca, and MgCa surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Zhou, Chen; Gong, H R

    2013-10-01

    The surface energies and work functions of Mg, Ca, and MgCa surfaces are derived by means of first principles calculation, and it is found that the Ca-terminated B2 MgCa surfaces have much lower surface energies than corresponding Mg-terminated surfaces. Moreover, calculations reveal that the adsorption energy of Cl atom on Ca (111) surface is much lower than that on Mg (0001) surface due to a stronger CaCl bond than MgCl, and that for MgCa (110) surface, various possible adsorption of Cl atoms are investigated and the most energetically preferred site is found. In addition, the magnitude of adsorption energies suggest that the corrosion resistance of MgCa (110) surface against Cl atom would be located between those of Mg (0001) and Ca (111) surfaces. The relative stability of various adsorption sites is discussed by means of electronic structures, and the present calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ca2+ Binding/Permeation via Calcium Channel, CaV1.1, Regulates the Intracellular Distribution of the Fatty Acid Transport Protein, CD36, and Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Dimitra K; Dagnino-Acosta, Adan; Lee, Chang Seok; Griffin, Deric M; Wang, Hui; Lagor, William R; Pautler, Robia G; Dirksen, Robert T; Hamilton, Susan L

    2015-09-25

    Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) facilitates activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase type II (CaMKII) and Ca(2+) store refilling to reduce muscle fatigue and atrophy (Lee, C. S., Dagnino-Acosta, A., Yarotskyy, V., Hanna, A., Lyfenko, A., Knoblauch, M., Georgiou, D. K., Poché, R. A., Swank, M. W., Long, C., Ismailov, I. I., Lanner, J., Tran, T., Dong, K., Rodney, G. G., Dickinson, M. E., Beeton, C., Zhang, P., Dirksen, R. T., and Hamilton, S. L. (2015) Skelet. Muscle 5, 4). Mice with a mutation (E1014K) in the Cacna1s (α1 subunit of CaV1.1) gene that abolishes Ca(2+) binding within the CaV1.1 pore gain more body weight and fat on a chow diet than control mice, without changes in food intake or activity, suggesting that CaV1.1-mediated CaMKII activation impacts muscle energy expenditure. We delineate a pathway (Cav1.1→ CaMKII→ NOS) in normal skeletal muscle that regulates the intracellular distribution of the fatty acid transport protein, CD36, altering fatty acid metabolism. The consequences of blocking this pathway are decreased mitochondrial β-oxidation and decreased energy expenditure. This study delineates a previously uncharacterized CaV1.1-mediated pathway that regulates energy utilization in skeletal muscle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. STIM1 elevation in the heart results in aberrant Ca2+ handling and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Robert N.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; van Berlo, Jop H.; Burr, Adam R.; Accornero, Federica; Zhang, Hongyu; Makarewich, Catherine A.; York, Allen J.; Sargent, Michelle A.; Chen, Xiongwen; Houser, Steven R.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca2+ sensor that partners with Orai1 to elicit Ca2+ entry in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store depletion. While store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is important for maintaining ER Ca2+ homeostasis in non-excitable cells, it is unclear what role it plays in the heart, although STIM1 is expressed in the heart and upregulated during disease. Here we analyzed transgenic mice with STIM1 overexpression in the heart to model the known increase of this protein in response to disease. As expected, STIM1 transgenic myocytes showed enhanced Ca2+ entry following store depletion and partial co-localization with the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), as well as enrichment around the sarcolemma. STIM1 transgenic mice exhibited sudden cardiac death as early as 6 weeks of age, while mice surviving past 12 weeks of age developed heart failure with hypertrophy, induction of the fetal gene program, histopathology and mitochondrial structural alterations, loss of ventricular functional performance and pulmonary edema. Younger, pre-symptomatic STIM1 transgenic mice exhibited enhanced pathology following pressure overload stimulation or neurohumoral agonist infusion, compared to controls. Mechanistically, cardiac myocytes isolated from STIM1 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous Ca2+ transients that were prevented by the SOCE blocker SKF-96365, increased L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) current, and enhanced Ca2+ spark frequency. Moreover, adult cardiac myocytes from STIM1 transgenic mice showed both increased diastolic Ca2+ and maximal transient amplitude but no increase in total SR Ca2+ load. Associated with this enhanced Ca2+ profile was an increase in cardiac nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity. We conclude that STIM1 has an unexpected function in the heart where it alters communication between the sarcolemma and SR resulting in

  3. Thermodynamic Linkage Between Calmodulin Domains Binding Calcium and Contiguous Sites in the C-Terminal Tail of CaV1.2

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T. Idil Apak; Hell, Johannes; Shea, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the intracellular C-terminal tail (CTT) of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.2) regulates Ca2+ entry by recognizing sites that contribute to negative feedback mechanisms for channel closing. CaM associates with CaV1.2 under low resting [Ca2+], but is poised to change conformation and position when intracellular [Ca2+] rises. CaM binding Ca2+, and the domains of CaM binding the CTT are linked thermodynamic functions. To better understand regulation, we determined the energetics of CaM domains binding to peptides representing pre-IQ sites A1588, and C1614 and the IQ motif studied as overlapping peptides IQ1644 and IQ′1650 as well as their effect on calcium binding. (Ca2+)4-CaM bound to all four peptides very favorably (Kd ≤ 2 nM). Linkage analysis showed that IQ1644–1670 bound with a Kd ~1 pM. In the pre-IQ region, (Ca2+)2-N-domain bound preferentially to A1588, while (Ca2+)2-C-domain preferred C1614. When bound to C1614, calcium binding in the N-domain affected the tertiary conformation of the C-domain. Based on the thermodynamics, we propose a structural mechanism for calcium-dependent conformational change in which the linker between CTT sites A and C buckles to form an A-C hairpin that is bridged by calcium-saturated CaM. PMID:21757287

  4. The long-term effect of toosendanin on current through nifedipine-sensitive Ca2+ channels in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu-Feng; Shi, Yu-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Toosendanin is a triterpenoid derivative extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc. Previous studies demonstrated that toosendanin could block neurotransmission and stimulate PC12 cell into differentiation and apoptosis. These actions of toosendanin were suggested to result from a continuous increase in Ca2+ influx, which led to intracellular Ca2+ overload. Here, we observed the long-term effect of toosendanin on Ca2+ channels in NG108-15 cells by whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Obtained data showed that a prolonged exposure to toosendanin induced a continuous increase in the Ca2+ influx in a concentration and time-dependent manner while a brief treatment induced an irreversible increase in Ca2+ influx in differentiated NG108-15 cells. The nifedipine-sensitive L-type currents were significantly increased after exposure to TSN while the nifedipine-resistant or omega-conotoxin MVIIC-sensitive currents were not affected.

  5. Endogenous and exogenous Ca2+ buffers differentially modulate Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca(v)2.1 Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Lisa; Lee, Amy

    2006-02-24

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels undergo a negative feedback regulation by Ca2+ ions, Ca2+-dependent inactivation, which is important for restricting Ca2+ signals in nerve and muscle. Although the molecular details underlying Ca2+-dependent inactivation have been characterized, little is known about how this process might be modulated in excitable cells. Based on previous findings that Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca(v)2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels is suppressed by strong cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffering, we investigated how factors that regulate cellular Ca2+ levels affect inactivation of Ca(v)2.1 Ca2+ currents in transfected 293T cells. We found that inactivation of Ca(v)2.1 Ca2+ currents increased exponentially with current amplitude with low intracellular concentrations of the slow buffer EGTA (0.5 mm), but not with high concentrations of the fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA (10 mm). However, when the concentration of BAPTA was reduced to 0.5 mm, inactivation of Ca2+ currents was significantly greater than with an equivalent concentration of EGTA, indicating the importance of buffer kinetics in modulating Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca(v)2.1. Cotransfection of Ca(v)2.1 with the EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, significantly altered the relationship between Ca2+ current amplitude and inactivation in ways that were unexpected from behavior as passive Ca2+ buffers. We conclude that Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca(v)2.1 depends on a subplasmalemmal Ca2+ microdomain that is affected by the amplitude of the Ca2+ current and differentially modulated by distinct Ca2+ buffers.

  6. cDNA cloning, molecular modeling and docking calculations of L-type lectins from Swartzia simplex var. grandiflora (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae), a member of the tribe Swartzieae.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Paulo A C; Teixeira, Claudener S; Sousa, Bruno L; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Monteiro-Júnior, José E; Fernandes, Andreia V; Ramos, Marcio V; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Gonçalves, José F C; Rocha, Bruno A M; Freire, Valder N; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2017-07-01

    The genus Swartzia is a member of the tribe Swartzieae, whose genera constitute the living descendants of one of the early branches of the papilionoid legumes. Legume lectins comprise one of the main families of structurally and evolutionarily related carbohydrate-binding proteins of plant origin. However, these proteins have been poorly investigated in Swartzia and to date, only the lectin from S. laevicarpa seeds (SLL) has been purified. Moreover, no sequence information is known from lectins of any member of the tribe Swartzieae. In the present study, partial cDNA sequences encoding L-type lectins were obtained from developing seeds of S. simplex var. grandiflora. The amino acid sequences of the S. simplex grandiflora lectins (SSGLs) were only averagely related to the known primary structures of legume lectins, with sequence identities not greater than 50-52%. The SSGL sequences were more related to amino acid sequences of papilionoid lectins from members of the tribes Sophoreae and Dalbergieae and from the Cladratis and Vataireoid clades, which constitute with other taxa, the first branching lineages of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The three-dimensional structures of 2 representative SSGLs (SSGL-A and SSGL-E) were predicted by homology modeling using templates that exhibit the characteristic β-sandwich fold of the L-type lectins. Molecular docking calculations predicted that SSGL-A is able to interact with D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and α-lactose, whereas SSGL-E is probably a non-functional lectin due to 2 mutations in the carbohydrate-binding site. Using molecular dynamics simulations followed by density functional theory calculations, the binding free energies of the interaction of SSGL-A with GalNAc and α-lactose were estimated as -31.7 and -47.5 kcal/mol, respectively. These findings gave insights about the carbohydrate-binding specificity of SLL, which binds to immobilized lactose but is not retained in a matrix containing D-GalNAc as

  7. Paraoxon attenuates vascular smooth muscle contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbit thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shouhong; Liu, Liying; Yang, Xuhong; Wu, Shujin; Chen, Gengrong

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of paraoxon on vascular contractility using organ baths in thoracic aortic rings of rabbits and examined the effect of paraoxon on calcium homeostasis using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. The findings show that administration of paraoxon (30 microM) attenuated thoracic aorta contraction induced by phenylephrine (1 microM) and/or a high K+ environment (80 mM) in both the presence and absence of thoracic aortic endothelium. This inhibitory effect of paraoxon on vasoconstrictor-induced contraction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, or in the presence of the Ca2+ channel inhibitor, verapamil. But atropine had little effect on the inhibitory effect of paraoxon on phenylephrine-induced contraction. Paraoxon also attenuated vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by the cumulative addition of CaCl2 and attenuated an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by K+ in vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, paraoxon (30 microM) inhibited significantly L-type calcium current in isolated aortic smooth muscle cells of rabbits. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that paraoxon attenuates vasoconstrictor-induced contraction through inhibiting Ca2+ influx in the rabbits thoracic aorta.

  8. Glucose Decouples Intracellular Ca2+ Activity from Glucagon Secretion in Mouse Pancreatic Islet Alpha-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Le Marchand, Sylvain J.; Piston, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of glucagon secretion and its suppression by glucose are presently unknown. This study investigates the relationship between intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) and hormone secretion under low and high glucose conditions. We examined the effects of modulating ion channel activities on [Ca2+]i and hormone secretion from ex vivo mouse pancreatic islets. Glucagon-secreting α-cells were unambiguously identified by cell specific expression of fluorescent proteins. We found that activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels is critical for α-cell calcium oscillations and glucagon secretion at low glucose levels. Calcium channel activation depends on KATP channel activity but not on tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels. The use of glucagon secretagogues reveals a positive correlation between α-cell [Ca2+]i and secretion at low glucose levels. Glucose elevation suppresses glucagon secretion even after treatment with secretagogues. Importantly, this inhibition is not mediated by KATP channel activity or reduction in α-cell [Ca2+]i. Our results demonstrate that glucose uncouples the positive relationship between [Ca2+]i and secretory activity. We conclude that glucose suppression of glucagon secretion is not mediated by inactivation of calcium channels, but instead, it requires a calcium-independent inhibitory pathway. PMID:23077547

  9. Regulation of arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+] in cerebral arteries of rat by membrane potential and intravascular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Knot, Harm J; Nelson, Mark T

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of intracellular [Ca2+] in the smooth muscle cells in the wall of small pressurized cerebral arteries (100–200 μm) of rat was studied using simultaneous digital fluorescence video imaging of arterial diameter and wall [Ca2+], combined with microelectrode measurements of arterial membrane potential.Elevation of intravascular pressure (from 10 to 100 mmHg) caused a membrane depolarization from -63 ± 1 to -36 ± 2 mV, increased arterial wall [Ca2+] from 119 ± 10 to 245 ± 9 nm, and constricted the arteries from 208 ± 10 μm (fully dilated, Ca2+ free) to 116 ± 7 μm or by 45 % (‘myogenic tone’).Pressure-induced increases in arterial wall [Ca2+] and vasoconstriction were blocked by inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (diltiazem and nisoldipine) or to the same extent by removal of external Ca2+.At a steady pressure (i.e. under isobaric conditions at 60 mmHg), the membrane potential was stable at -45 ± 1 mV, intracellular [Ca2+] was 190 ± 10 nm, and arteries were constricted by 41 % (to 115 ± 7 μm from 196 ± 8 μm fully dilated). Under this condition of -45 ± 5 mV at 60 mmHg, the voltage sensitivity of wall [Ca2+] and diameter were 7.5 nm mV−1 and 7.5 μm mV−1, respectively, resulting in a Ca2+ sensitivity of diameter of 1 μm nm−1.Membrane potential depolarization from -58 to −23 mV caused pressurized arteries (to 60 mmHg) to constrict over their entire working range, i.e. from maximally dilated to constricted. This depolarization was associated with an elevation of arterial wall [Ca2+] from 124 ± 7 to 347 ± 12 nm. These increases in arterial wall [Ca2+] and vasoconstriction were blocked by L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel inhibitors.The relationship between arterial wall [Ca2+] and membrane potential was not significantly different under isobaric (60 mmHg) and non-isobaric conditions (10–100 mmHg), suggesting that intravascular pressure regulates arterial wall [Ca2+] through changes in membrane potential

  10. Comparison of Ca2+ transients and [Ca2+]i in the dendrites and boutons of non-fast-spiking GABAergic hippocampal interneurons using two-photon laser microscopy and high- and low-affinity dyes

    PubMed Central

    Kisfali, Máté; Lőrincz, Tibor; Vizi, E Sylvester

    2013-01-01

    Using two-photon laser microscopy, high- and low-affinity dyes and patch clamp electrophysiology, we successfully measured somatic stimulation-evoked Ca2+ transients simultaneously in the dendrites and axonal boutons of the same non-fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in acute slice preparations obtained from hippocampal area CA1. The advantage of the acute preparation is that both neuronal connections and anatomy are maintained. Calculated as unperturbed values, the amplitudes of Ca2+ transients and changes in [Ca2+]i in response to somatic single or burst stimulation were much higher in boutons (428 nm/AP) than in dendrites (49 nm/AP), leading to the conclusion that the much greater influx of Ca2+ observed in terminals might be due to a higher density of N-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels compared to the L-type channels present in dendrites. Whereas the decay of Ca2+ transients recorded in dendrites was primarily mono-exponential, the decay in boutons was bi-exponential, as indicated by an initial fast phase, followed by a much slower reduction in fluorescence intensity. The extrusion of Ca2+ was much faster in boutons than in dendrites. To avoid saturation effects and the flawed conversion of fluorescence measures of [Ca2+]i, we assessed the limits of [Ca2+] measurements (which ranged between 6 and 82% of the applied dye saturation) when high- and low-affinity dyes were applied at different concentrations. When two APs were delivered at a high frequency (>3 Hz) of stimulation, the low-affinity indicators OGB-6F (KD= 3.0 μm) and OGB-5N (KD= 20 μm) were able to accurately reflect the changes in ΔF/F produced by the consecutive APs. There was no difference in the endogenous buffer capacity (κE), which can shape Ca2+ signals, calculated in dendrites (κE= 354) or boutons (κE= 458). PMID:23981718

  11. Comparison of Ca2+ transients and [Ca2+]i in the dendrites and boutons of non-fast-spiking GABAergic hippocampal interneurons using two-photon laser microscopy and high- and low-affinity dyes.

    PubMed

    Kisfali, Máté; Lrincz, Tibor; Vizi, E Sylvester

    2013-11-15

    Using two-photon laser microscopy, high- and low-affinity dyes and patch clamp electrophysiology, we successfully measured somatic stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) transients simultaneously in the dendrites and axonal boutons of the same non-fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in acute slice preparations obtained from hippocampal area CA1. The advantage of the acute preparation is that both neuronal connections and anatomy are maintained. Calculated as unperturbed values, the amplitudes of Ca(2+) transients and changes in [Ca(2+)]i in response to somatic single or burst stimulation were much higher in boutons (428 nM/AP) than in dendrites (49 nM/AP), leading to the conclusion that the much greater influx of Ca(2+) observed in terminals might be due to a higher density of N-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels compared to the L-type channels present in dendrites. Whereas the decay of Ca(2+) transients recorded in dendrites was primarily mono-exponential, the decay in boutons was bi-exponential, as indicated by an initial fast phase, followed by a much slower reduction in fluorescence intensity. The extrusion of Ca(2+) was much faster in boutons than in dendrites. To avoid saturation effects and the flawed conversion of fluorescence measures of [Ca(2+)]i, we assessed the limits of [Ca(2+)] measurements (which ranged between 6 and 82% of the applied dye saturation) when high- and low-affinity dyes were applied at different concentrations. When two APs were delivered at a high frequency (>3 Hz) of stimulation, the low-affinity indicators OGB-6F (KD = 3.0 μM) and OGB-5N (KD = 20 μM) were able to accurately reflect the changes in ΔF/F produced by the consecutive APs. There was no difference in the endogenous buffer capacity (κE), which can shape Ca(2+) signals, calculated in dendrites (κE = 354) or boutons (κE = 458).

  12. Effects of clenbuterol on contractility and Ca2+ homeostasis of isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecka, U.; Arora, M.; Kolettis, T.; Soppa, G. K. R.; Lee, J.; Stagg, M. A.; Harding, S. E.; Yacoub, M. H.; Terracciano, C. M. N.

    2008-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a compound classified as a β2-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist, has been employed in combination with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) to treat patients with severe heart failure. Previous studies have shown that chronic administration of clenbuterol affects cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. However, the acute effects of clenbuterol and the signaling pathway involved remain undefined. We investigated the acute effects of clenbuterol on isolated ventricular myocyte sarcomere shortening, Ca2+ transients, and L-type Ca2+ current and compared these effects to two other clinically used β2-AR agonists: fenoterol and salbutamol. Clenbuterol (30 μM) produced a negative inotropic response, whereas fenoterol showed a positive inotropic response. Salbutamol had no significant effects. Clenbuterol reduced Ca2+ transient amplitude and L-type Ca2+ current. Selective β1-AR blockade did not affect the action of clenbuterol on sarcomere shortening but significantly reduced contractility in the presence of fenoterol and salbutamol (P < 0.05). Incubation with 2 μg/ml pertussis toxin significantly reduced the negative inotropic effects of 30 μM clenbuterol. In addition, overexpression of inhibitory G protein (Gi) by adenoviral transfection induced a stronger clenbuterol-mediated negative inotropic effect, suggesting the involvement of the Gi protein. We conclude that clenbuterol does not increase and, at high concentrations, significantly depresses contractility of isolated ventricular myocytes, an effect not seen with fenoterol or salbutamol. In its negative inotropism, clenbuterol predominantly acts through Gi, and the consequent downstream signaling pathways activation may explain the beneficial effects observed during chronic administration of clenbuterol in patients treated with LVADs. PMID:18775853

  13. Dynamic modulation of Ca2+ sparks by mitochondrial oscillations in isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes under oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Aon, Miguel A; Liu, Ting; O’Rourke, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Local control of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) depends on the spatial organization of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors (RyR) in the dyad. Analogously, Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria is facilitated by their close proximity to the Ca2+ release sites, a process required for stimulating oxidative phosphorylation during changes in work. Mitochondrial feedback on CICR is less well understood. Since mitochondria are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they could potentially influence the cytosolic redox state, in turn altering RyR open probability. We have shown that self-sustained oscillations in mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm), NADH, ROS, and reduced glutathione (GSH) can be triggered by a laser flash in cardiomyocytes. Here, we employ this method to directly examine how acute changes in energy state dynamically influence resting Ca2+ spark occurrence and properties. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to monitor cytosolic Ca2+ (or ROS), ΔΨm, and NADH (or GSH) simultaneously in isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes. Resting Ca2+ spark frequency increased with each Δψm depolarization and decreased with ΔΨm repolarization without affecting Ca2+ spark amplitude or time-to-peak. Stabilization of mitochondrial energetics by pretreatment with the superoxide scavenger TMPyP, or by acute addition of 4´-chlorodiazepam, a mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that blocks the inner membrane anion channel, prevented or reversed, respectively, the increased spark frequency. Cyclosporine A did not block the ΔΨm oscillations or prevent Ca2+ spark modulation by ΔΨm. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondria exert an influential role on the redox environment of the Ca2+ handling subsystem, with mechanistic implications for the pathophysiology of cardiac disease. PMID:21645518

  14. Molecular features of the L-type amino acid transporter 2 determine different import and export profiles for thyroid hormones and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katrin M; Neef, Dominik; Rutz, Claudia; Furkert, Jens; Köhrle, Josef; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2017-03-05

    The L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2) imports amino acids (AA) and also certain thyroid hormones (TH), e.g. 3,3'-T 2 and T 3 , but not rT 3 and T 4 . We utilized LAT2 mutations (Y130A, N133S, F242W) that increase 3,3'-T 2 import and focus here on import and export capacity for AA, T 4 , T 3 , BCH and derivatives thereof to delineate molecular features. Transport studies and analysis of competitive inhibition of import by radiolabelled TH and AA were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Only Y130A, a pocket widening mutation, enabled import for T 4 and increased it for T 3 . Mutant F242W showed increased 3,3'-T 2 import but no import rates for other TH derivatives. No export was detected for any TH by LAT2-wild type (WT). Mutations Y130A and N133S enabled only the export of 3,3'-T 2 , while N133S also increased AA export. Thus, distinct molecular LAT2-features determine bidirectional AA transport but only an unidirectional 3,3'-T 2 and T 3 import. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetically heterogeneous mice show age-related vision deficits not related to increased rod cell L-type calcium channel function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Miller, Richard A; Roberts, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Visual performance declines over time in humans and 2-18 months outbred Long-Evans (LE) rats; vision is maintained in inbred 2-18 months C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Increased rod L-type calcium channel (LTCC) function predicts visual decline in LE rats but does not occur in B6 mice. Genetic diversity may contribute to rod LTCC function escalation time. To test this hypothesis, 4 and 18 months genetically heterogeneous UM-HET3 mice were studied. Rod LTCC function (manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and ocular anatomy (MRI, optical coherence tomography) were measured in vivo. Light-evoked subretinal space and choroid thickness changes were measured (diffusion-weighted MRI). Visual performance declined over time in the absence of (1) increased rod LTCC function; (2) changes in light-dependent expansion of the subretinal space and choroidal thickness; and (3) retinal thinning. Aging changed anterior and vitreous chambers' axial length and decreased light-stimulated choroidal expansion. Species differences appear to contribute to the LTCC function differences. Aging-related declines in vision in the UM-HET3 mice deserve more attention than they have received so far. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The cardiovascular functions of salusin-β mediated by muscarinic receptors, glutamate receptors or L-type calcium channels within the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fu-Jia; Chai, Chen; Zhu, Ping; Li, Bin; Cai, Hong-Yan; Lu, Yan; Cao, Nong

    2017-07-01

    Salusin-α and salusin-β are newly identified bioactive peptides of 28 and 20 amino acids, respectively, that were initially predicted using in silico analyses and are widely distributed in the endocrine system, hematopoietic system, and central nervous system. The goal of our study was to investigate the cardiovascular effect of salusin-β microinjections into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in anesthetized rats and study their mechanism of action. Microinjection of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the RVLM did not affect the blood pressure (BP) or heart rate (HR) in anesthetized rats. Topical application of salusin-β into the RVLM produced a dose-dependently increase of BP in anesthetized rats. Microinjection of higher dose salusin-β produced significant tachycardia. Prior application of the L-NAME into the RVLM of rats did not alter the hypertension and tachycardia induced by intra-RVLM salusin-β. Notable, the cardiovascular functions elicited by intra-RVLM salusin-β were significantly decreased by pretreatment with Nic, KYN and atropine. In conclusion, the present study shows that the hypertension and tachycardia induced by intra-RVLM salusin-β might be partly mediated, at least in our opinion, by muscarinic receptors, glutamate receptors or L-type calcium channels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis L-type lectin receptor kinase genes LecRK-I.9 and LecRK-IX.1 in Nicotiana benthamiana confers Phytophthora resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Nsibo, David L; Juhar, Hagos M; Govers, Francine; Bouwmeester, Klaas

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana lines with constitutive expression of an Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase gene (LecRK - I.9 or LecRK - IX.1) show enhanced resistance to Phytophthora pathogens, demonstrating conserved gene functionality after interfamily transfer. In plants, cell surface receptors mediate the first layer of innate immunity against pathogenic microbes. In Arabidopsis several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) were previously found to function as Phytophthora resistance components. In this study, we determined the functionality of Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or LecRK-IX.1 in Phytophthora resistance when transferred into the Solanaceous plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Multiple transgenic lines were generated for each LecRK gene and molecular analyses revealed variation in transgene copy number, transgene expression levels and LecRK protein accumulation. Infection assays showed that transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing either Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 or LecRK-IX.1 are more resistant to Phytophthora capsici and to Phytophthora infestans. These results demonstrate that Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 and LecRK-IX.1 retained their Phytophthora resistance function when transferred into N. benthamiana. Therefore, these LecRKs have the potential to function as a complementary Phytophthora resistance resource in distantly related plant species next to the canonical Phytophthora resistance genes encoding nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins.

  18. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Rotational Spectral Modulations in a Low-mass, L-type Brown Dwarf Companion to a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, Elena; Apai, Dániel; Zhou, Yifan; Karalidi, Theodora; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Cowan, Nicolas; Metchev, Stan; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Bedin, Luigi R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of rotational modulations of brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets allow the characterization of condensate cloud properties. As of now, rotational spectral modulations have only been seen in three L-type brown dwarfs. We report here the discovery of rotational spectral modulations in LP261-75B, an L6-type intermediate surface gravity companion to an M4.5 star. As a part of the Cloud Atlas Treasury program, we acquired time-resolved Wide Field Camera 3 grism spectroscopy (1.1–1.69 μm) of LP261-75B. We find gray spectral variations with the relative amplitude displaying only a weak wavelength dependence and no evidence for lower-amplitude modulations in the 1.4 μm water band than in the adjacent continuum. The likely rotational modulation period is 4.78 ± 0.95 hr, although the rotational phase is not well sampled. The minimum relative amplitude in the white light curve measured over the whole wavelength range is 2.41% ± 0.14%. We report an unusual light curve, which seems to have three peaks approximately evenly distributed in rotational phase. The spectral modulations suggests that the upper atmosphere cloud properties in LP261-75B are similar to two other mid-L dwarfs of typical infrared colors, but differ from that of the extremely red L-dwarf WISE0047.

  19. Overexpression of L-type lectin-like protein kinase 1 confers pathogen resistance and regulates salinity response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Ju, Hyun-Woo; Min, Ji-Hee; Zhang, Xia; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Kim, Cheol Soo

    2013-04-01

    Plant receptor-like protein kinases are thought to be involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. There are about 45 lectin receptor kinases in Arabidopsis, but only a few have been studied. Here, we investigated the effect of the disruption and overexpression of a plasma membrane-localized L-type lectin-like protein kinase 1, AtLPK1 (At4g02410), on plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress. Expression of AtLPK1 was strongly induced by abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and stress treatments. Overexpression of AtLPK1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced seed germination and cotyledon greening under high salinity condition, while antisense transgenic lines were more sensitive to salt stress. Activity of three abiotic stress responsive genes, RD29A, RD29B and COR15A, was elevated in AtLPK1-overexpressing plants than that in wild type (WT) plants with salt treatment, whereas the transcript level of these genes in antisense plants decreased compared with WT. Furthermore, AtLPK1-overexpressing plants displayed increased resistance to infection by Botrytis cinerea and exhibited stronger expression of a group of defense-related genes than did WT. The data implicates AtLPK1 plays essential roles at both abiotic and biotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The alpha(1S) subunit of the L-type calcium channel is not a predisposition gene for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nelson L S; Chow, C C; Ko, Gary T C; Tai, Morris H L; Kwok, Rachel; Yao, X Q; Cockram, Clive S

    2007-02-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TTP) has been associated with genetic variations in the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type calcium channel (CACNA1S). Mutations in CACNA1S are known to account for the majority of cases of familial hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP). In this study we have examined 48 genetic polymorphisms in the CACNA1S gene and genotyped a tagging set of representative polymorphisms to determine the role of this gene in TPP. A genetic association study was carried out with 98 TPP patients and 162 male thyrotoxic controls. Among 47 polymorphisms evaluated for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the spectrum of haplotypes in the Chinese population, 31 were selected as tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genotyping the whole sample. A new genotyping protocol was used to analyse an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism. We studied the LD among 47 polymorphisms in the CACNA1S gene, which comprised a set of high-density markers with an average of one SNP every 2 kb. Subsequently, 31 tagSNPs were genotyped for all the samples. The gene is composed of three LD blocks. With this block structure, we were confident that variations of the gene were comprehensively covered by the tagSNPs. No significant association was found between the polymorphisms and TPP. We established the LD structure of this calcium channel subunit gene (CACNA1S) for the first time. However, its genetic variations are not associated with TPP in Chinese patients.

  1. CaPTC Biennial Meetings

    Cancer.gov

    CaPTC hosts the 'Biennial Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men' conference to address the growing global public health problem of prostate cancer among Black men in industrialized and developing countries.

  2. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang

    2013-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  3. RIM proteins tether Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kaeser, Pascal S.; Deng, Lunbin; Wang, Yun; Dulubova, Irina; Liu, Xinran; Rizo, Josep; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY At a synapse, fast synchronous neurotransmitter release requires localization of Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones. How Ca2+-channels are recruited to active zones, however, remains unknown. Using unbiased yeast two-hybrid screens, we here identify a direct interaction of the central PDZ-domain of the active-zone protein RIM with the C-termini of presynaptic N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels, but not L-type Ca2+-channels. To test the physiological significance of this interaction, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking all presynaptic RIM isoforms. Deletion of all RIMs ablated most neurotransmitter release by simultaneously impairing the priming of synaptic vesicles and by decreasing the presynaptic localization of Ca2+-channels. Strikingly, rescue of the decreased Ca2+-channel localization required the RIM PDZ-domain, whereas rescue of vesicle priming required the RIM N-terminus. We propose that RIMs tether N- and P/Q-type Ca2+-channels to presynaptic active zones via a direct PDZ-domain mediated interaction, thereby enabling fast, synchronous triggering of neurotransmitter release at a synapse. PMID:21241895

  4. Modulation of subthalamic T-type Ca2+ channels remedies locomotor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chun-Hwei; Yang, Ya-Chin; Pan, Ming-Kai; Huang, Chen-Syuan; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2011-01-01

    An increase in neuronal burst activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-documented electrophysiological feature of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the causal relationship between subthalamic bursts and PD symptoms and the ionic mechanisms underlying the bursts remain to be established. Here, we have shown that T-type Ca2+ channels are necessary for subthalamic burst firing and that pharmacological blockade of T-type Ca2+ channels reduces motor deficits in a rat model of PD. Ni2+, mibefradil, NNC 55-0396, and efonidipine, which inhibited T-type Ca2+ currents in acutely dissociated STN neurons, but not Cd2+ and nifedipine, which preferentially inhibited L-type or the other non–T-type Ca2+ currents, effectively diminished burst activity in STN slices. Topical administration of inhibitors of T-type Ca2+ channels decreased in vivo STN burst activity and dramatically reduced the locomotor deficits in a rat model of PD. Cd2+ and nifedipine showed no such electrophysiological and behavioral effects. While low-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been considered ineffective in PD, we found that lengthening the duration of the low-frequency depolarizing pulse effectively improved behavioral measures of locomotion in the rat model of PD, presumably by decreasing the availability of T-type Ca2+ channels. We therefore conclude that modulation of subthalamic T-type Ca2+ currents and consequent burst discharges may provide new strategies for the treatment of PD. PMID:21737877

  5. Properties of spontaneous Ca2+ transients recorded from interstitial cells of Cajal-like cells of the rabbit urethra in situ

    PubMed Central

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal-like cells (ICC-LCs) in the urethra may act as electrical pacemakers of spontaneous contractions. However, their properties in situ and their interaction with neighbouring urethral smooth muscle cells (USMCs) remain to be elucidated. To further explore the physiological role of ICC-LCs, spontaneous changes in [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ transients) were visualized in fluo-4 loaded preparations of rabbit urethral smooth muscle. ICC-LCs were sparsely distributed, rather than forming an extensive network. Ca2+ transients in ICC-LCs had a lower frequency and a longer half-width than those of USMCs. ICC-LCs often exhibited Ca2+ transients synchronously with each other, but did not often show a close temporal relationship with Ca2+ transients in USMCs. Nicardipine (1 μm) suppressed Ca2+ transients in USMCs but not in ICC-LCs. Ca2+ transients in ICC-LCs were abolished by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μm), ryanodine (50 μm) and caffeine (10 mm) or by removing extracellular Ca2+, and inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (50 μm) and 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1; 10 μm), but facilitated by increasing extracellular Ca2+ or phenylephrine (1–10 μm). These results indicated that Ca2+ transients in urethral ICC-LCs in situ rely on both Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ influx through non-L-type Ca2+ channel pathways. ICC-LCs may not act as a coordinated pacemaker electrical network as do ICC in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Rather they may randomly increase excitability of USMCs to maintain the tone of urethral smooth muscles. PMID:17615099

  6. T-Type Ca2+ Channel Regulation by CO: A Mechanism for Control of Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Duckles, Hayley; Al-Owais, Moza M; Elies, Jacobo; Johnson, Emily; Boycott, Hannah E; Dallas, Mark L; Porter, Karen E; Boyle, John P; Scragg, Jason L; Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    T-type Ca(2+) channels regulate proliferation in a number of tissue types, including vascular smooth muscle and various cancers. In such tissues, up-regulation of the inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often observed, and hypoxia is a key factor in its induction. HO-1 degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO) along with Fe(2+) and biliverdin. Since CO is increasingly recognized as a regulator of ion channels (Peers et al. 2015), we have explored the possibility that it may regulate proliferation via modulation of T-type Ca(2+) channels.Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that CO (applied as the dissolved gas or via CORM donors) inhibited all 3 isoforms of T-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav3.1-3.3) when expressed in HEK293 cells with similar IC(50) values, and induction of HO-1 expression also suppressed T-type currents (Boycott et al. 2013). CO/HO-1 induction also suppressed the elevated basal [Ca(2+) ](i) in cells expressing these channels and reduced their proliferative rate to levels seen in non-transfected control cells (Duckles et al. 2015).Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (both A7r5 and human saphenous vein cells) was also suppressed either by T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (mibefradil and NNC 55-0396), HO-1 induction or application of CO. Effects of these blockers and CO were non additive. Although L-type Ca(2+) channels were also sensitive to CO (Scragg et al. 2008), they did not influence proliferation. Our data suggest that HO-1 acts to control proliferation via CO modulation of T-type Ca(2+) channels.

  7. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): a pilot study in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2013-09-13

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P<0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [(3)H]l-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM. These findings suggest that LAT1 could be a new therapeutic target for MM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter Lat2 in the Transport of 3,3′-Diiodothyronine across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Anita; Wittner, Melanie; Wirth, Eva K.; Hinz, Katrin M.; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transported across cell membranes by transmembrane transporter proteins, for example by members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) families. LATs consist of a light chain (e.g. LAT2) and a heavy chain (CD98), which is essential for their cell surface expression and functionality. The specificity of Lat2 for thyroid hormones and their metabolites and its role in their transport was not fully clear. This fact motivated us to establish a cell system to elucidate the uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites by mouse Lat2. The coinjection of cRNA coding for Lat2 and CD98 into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a markedly increased level of 3,3′-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3′-T2) and to some extent also enhanced T3 transport. To gain insight into properties of thyroid hormones and their metabolites transported by Lat2, we inhibited 3,3′-T2 uptake by various iodothyronine derivatives. T1 and T2 derivatives as well as 2-aminobicyclo-[2, 2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid strongly competed with 3,3′-T2 uptake. In addition, we performed T2 uptake measurements with the thyroid hormone-specific transporter MCT8. For both Lat2 and MCT8, Km values in a low micromolar range were calculated. We demonstrated that oocytes are a suitable system for thyroid hormone transport studies mediated by Lat2. Our data indicates that Lat2 compared to other thyroid hormone transporters prefers 3,3′-T2 as the substrate. Thus, Lat2 might contribute to the availability of thyroid hormone by importing and/or exporting 3,3′-T2, which is generated either by T3 inactivation or by rapid deiodinase 1-mediated rT3 degradation. PMID:26601072

  9. Production and characterization of highly tumor-specific rat monoclonal antibodies recognizing the extracellular domain of human L-type amino-acid transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiya; Suda, Kentaro; Masuko, Kazue; Yagi, Hideki; Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki; Masuko, Takashi

    2008-05-01

    L-type large amino acid transporter (LAT) 1, the first light chain (lc) of cluster of differentiation 98 (CD98) to be identified, is associated with the heavy chain (hc) of CD98 and expressed on the surface of various tumor cells irrespective of their origin. Because LAT1 is a 12-pass membrane protein and its possible immunogenic extracellular region is very small, specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) had not been developed. We report the successful preparation and characterization of mAb recognizing the extracellular domain of human LAT1 protein. Two mAb were selected from hybridoma clones established by fusing mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells from rats immunized against RH7777 rat hepatoma cells expressing recombinant green fluorescent protein fused to human LAT1 protein. Designated SOL22 and SOL69, these mAb specifically reacted with the extracellular domain of LAT1 on cells transfected with cDNA of LAT1, but not with cells transfected with cDNA of other CD98 lc, namely, LAT2, y(+)LAT1, y(+)LAT2, and xCT amino acid transporters. These mAb immunoprecipitated 35- and 90-kDa proteins under reducing conditions in extracts prepared from human HeLa tumor cells, indicating the existence of intermolecular disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in the 90-kDa hc and 35-kDa lc (LAT1). SOL22 and SOL69 mAb reacted with a wide variety of living unfixed human tumor cell lines, but were only weakly reactive with HEK293F human embryonic kidney cells and human peripheral blood cells. Comparative immunohistochemical analyses of normal human tissues with anti-CD98 hc and anti-LAT1 revealed LAT1 to be an excellent molecular target for antibody therapy, possibly even superior to CD98 hc.

  10. Increase in L-type amino acid transporter 1 expression during cholangiocarcinogenesis caused by liver fluke infection and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Yothaisong, Supak; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Khuntikeo, Narong; Puapairoj, Anucha; Jutabha, Promsuk; Anzai, Naohiko; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra; Tangsucharit, Panot; Loilome, Watcharin

    2017-08-01

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in various human cancers, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the most common cancer in Northeast Thailand. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infection has been recognized as the major cause of CCA in this area. We show here that an increased expression of LAT1 and its co-functional protein CD98 are found during carcinogenesis induced by Ov in hamster CCA tissues. We also demonstrate that oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 is time-dependent and dramatically activates LAT1 and CD98 expression in immortal cholangiocytes (MMNK1). In addition, H 2 O 2 treatment increased LAT1 and CD98 expression, as well as an activated form of AKT and mTOR in MMNK1 and CCA cell lines (KKU-M055 and KKU-M213). We also show that suppression of PI3K/AKT pathway activity with a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, BEZ235, causes a reduction in LAT1 and CD98 expression in KKU-M055 and KKU-M213 in parallel with a reduction of activated AKT and mTOR. Interestingly, high expression of LAT1 in human CCA tissues is a significant prognostic factor for shorter survival. Taken together, our data show that LAT1 expression is significantly associated with CCA progression and cholangiocarcinogenesis induced by oxidative stress. Moreover, the expression of LAT1 and CD98 in CCA is possibly regulated by the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quinoxaline-Containing Nonfullerene Small-Molecule Acceptors with a Linear A2-A1-D-A1-A2 Skeleton for Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Tang, Ailing; Yang, Jing; Mahmood, Asif; Sun, Xiangnan; Zhou, Erjun

    2018-03-28

    We used the quinoxaline (Qx) unit to design and synthesize two nonfullerene small-molecule acceptors of Qx1 and Qx1b with an A 2 -A 1 -D-A 1 -A 2 skeleton, where indacenodithiophene (IDT), Qx, and rhodanine (R) were adopted as the central donor (D), bridge acceptors (A 1 ), and terminal acceptors (A 2 ), respectively. Qx1 and Qx1b contain different side chains of 4-hexylphenyl and octyl in the central IDT segment to modulate the properties of final small molecules. Both small molecules show good thermal stability, high solubility, and strong and broad absorption spectra with optical band gaps of 1.74 and 1.68 eV, respectively. Qx1 and Qx1b exhibit the complementary absorption spectra with the classic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the high-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels of -3.60 and -3.66 eV, respectively. Polymer solar cells based on P3HT:Qx1 showed a high open-circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 1.00 V and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.03%, whereas P3HT:Qx1b achieved a V oc of 0.95 V and a PCE of 4.81%. These results demonstrate that the Qx unit is also an effective building block to construct promising n-type nonfullerene small molecules to realize a relatively high V oc and PCE for P3HT-based solar cells.

  12. The Influence of Ca2+ Buffers on Free [Ca2+] Fluctuations and the Effective Volume of Ca2+ Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Seth H.; Smith, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. Ca2+ binding proteins (Ca2+ buffers) play an important role in regulating Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Buffers typically slow [Ca2+] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of Ca2+ domains. Because fluctuations in [Ca2+] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain’s physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [Ca2+] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning Ca2+ signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free Ca2+ influx with passive exchange of both Ca2+ and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of Ca2+ and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [Ca2+] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of Ca2+ signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [Ca2+] fluctuations during periods of Ca2+ influx, whereas stationary (immobile) Ca2+ buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of Ca2+ influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [Ca2+] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid Ca2+ buffers on [Ca2+] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ buffers alter the dynamics of [Ca2+] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that Ca2+ buffers do not suppress intrinsic domain [Ca2

  13. Voltage-clamp analysis of the potentiation of the slow Ca2+-activated K+ current in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Borde, M; Bonansco, C; Fernández de Sevilla, D; Le Ray, D; Buño, W

    2000-01-01

    Exploring the principles that govern activity-dependent changes in excitability is an essential step to understand the function of the nervous system, because they act as a general postsynaptic control mechanism that modulates the flow of synaptic signals. We show an activity-dependent potentiation of the slow Ca2+-activated K+ current (sl(AHP)) which induces sustained decreases in the excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We analyzed the sl(AHP) using the slice technique and voltage-clamp recordings with sharp or patch-electrodes. Using sharp electrodes-repeated activation with depolarizing pulses evoked a prolonged (8-min) potentiation of the amplitude (171%) and duration (208%) of the sl(AHP). Using patch electrodes, early after entering the whole-cell configuration (<20 min), responses were as those reported above. However, although the sl(AHP) remained unchanged, its potentiation was markedly reduced in later recordings, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms were rapidly eliminated by intracellular dialysis. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ current by nifedipine (20 microM) markedly reduced the sl(AHP) (79%) and its potentiation (55%). Ryanodine (20 microM) that blocks the release of intracellular Ca2+ also reduced sl(AHP) (29%) and its potentiation (25%). The potentiation of the sl(AHP) induced a marked and prolonged (>50%; approximately equals 8 min) decrease in excitability. The results suggest that sl(AHP) is potentiated as a result of an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) following activation of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels, aided by the subsequent release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Another possibility is that repeated activation increases the Ca2+-binding capacity of the channels mediating the sl(AHP). This potentiation of the sl(AHP) could be relevant in hippocampal physiology, because the changes in excitability it causes may regulate the induction threshold of the long-term potentiation of synaptic efficacy. Moreover, the

  14. The inhibitor of connexin Cx36 channels, mefloquine, inhibits voltage-dependent Ca2+channels and insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Nele; Welling, Andrea; Rustenbeck, Ingo

    2017-12-05

    The antimalarial agent, mefloquine, inhibits the function of connexin Cx36 gap junctions and hemichannels and has thus become a tool to investigate their physiological relevance in pancreatic islets. In view of earlier reports on a K ATP channel-block by mefloquine, the specificity of mefloquine as a pharmacological tool was investigated. Mouse pancreatic islets and single beta cells were used to measure membrane potential, whole cell currents, Ca 2+ channel activity, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and insulin secretion. Mefloquine was tested in the concentration range of 5-50 μM 25 μM mefloquine was as effective as 500 μM tolbutamide to depolarize the plasma membrane of beta cells, but did not induce action potentials. Rather, it abolished tolbutamide-induced action potentials and the associated increase of [Ca 2+ ] i . In the range of 5-50 μM mefloquine inhibited voltage-dependent Ca 2+ currents in primary beta cells as effectively as 1 μM nisoldipine, a specific blocker of L-type Ca 2+ channels. The Ca 2+ channel opening effect of Bay K8644 was completely antagonized by mefloquine. Likewise, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i and of insulin secretion stimulated by 40 mM KCl, but not that by 30 mM glucose was antagonized by 50 μM mefloquine. Neither at 5 μM nor at 50 μM did mefloquin stimulate insulin secretion at basal glucose. In conclusion, mefloquine blocks K ATP channels and L-type Ca 2+ channels in pancreatic beta cells in the range from 5 to 50 μM. Thus it inhibits depolarization-induced insulin secretion, but in the presence of a stimulatory glucose concentration additional effects of mefloquine, possibly on intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization, and the metabolic amplification by glucose permit a sustained rate of secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. (-)-Terpinen-4-ol changes intracellular Ca2+ handling and induces pacing disturbance in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Antonio Nei Santana; Lara, Aline; Santos-Miranda, Artur; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Menezes-Filho, José Evaldo Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Carla Maria Lins; Conde-Garcia, Eduardo Antonio; Guatimosim, Silvia; Cruz, Jader S

    2017-07-15

    (-)-Terpinen-4-ol is a naturally occurring plant monoterpene and has been shown to have a plethora of biological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on the rat heart, a key player in the control and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. The effects of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on the rat heart were investigated using isolated left atrium isometric force measurements, in vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings, patch clamp technique, and confocal microscopy. It was observed that (-)-terpinen-4-ol reduced contraction force in an isolated left atrium at millimolar concentrations. Conversely, it induced a positive inotropic effect and extrasystoles at micromolar concentrations, suggesting that (-)-terpinen-4-ol may have arrhythmogenic activity on cardiac tissue. In anaesthetized animals, (-)-terpinen-4-ol also elicited rhythm disturbance, such as supraventricular tachycardia and atrioventricular block. To investigate the cellular mechanism underlying the dual effect of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on heart muscle, experiments were performed on isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes to determine the effect of (-)-terpinen-4-ol on L-type Ca 2+ currents, Ca 2+ sparks, and Ca 2+ transients. The arrhythmogenic activity of (-)-terpinen-4-ol in vitro and in vivo may be explained by its effect on intracellular Ca 2+ handling. Taken together, our data suggest that (-)-terpinen-4-ol has cardiac arrhythmogenic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Routes of Ca2+ Shuttling during Ca2+ Oscillations: FOCUS ON THE ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIAL Ca2+ HANDLING AND CYTOSOLIC Ca2+ BUFFERS.

    PubMed

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-11-20

    In some cell types, Ca(2+) oscillations are strictly dependent on Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of Ca(2+) influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) influx played a pivotal role. However, when the Ca(2+) transport across the plasma membrane by the "lanthanum insulation method" was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal Ca(2+) exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular Ca(2+). However, in a physiological situation, the Ca(2+)-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for Ca(2+) oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous Ca(2+) changes were observed in the mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous Ca(2+) signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a Ca(2+)-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of Ca(2+) ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three Ca(2+) shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during Ca(2+) oscillations: Ca(2+) shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) buffers. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. L-type amino acid transporter 1 utilizing prodrugs: How to achieve effective brain delivery and low systemic exposure of drugs.

    PubMed

    Puris, Elena; Gynther, Mikko; Huttunen, Johanna; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2017-09-10

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is selectively expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchyma. This transporter can facilitate brain delivery of neuroprotective agents and additionally give opportunity to minimize systemic exposure. Here, we investigated structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of five newly synthesized LAT1-utilizing prodrugs of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ketoprofen, in order to identify beneficial structural features of prodrugs to achieve both targeted brain delivery and low peripheral distribution of the parent drug. Besides, we studied whether pharmacokinetics and bioconversion of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs in vivo can be predicted in early stage experiments. To achieve these goals, we compared the in vitro brain uptake mechanism of prodrugs, rate of BBB permeation of compounds using in situ perfusion technique, their systemic pharmacokinetics and release of parent drug in brain, plasma and liver of mice. The results revealed that both excellent LAT1-binding ability and transporter utilization in vitro can be achieved by conjugating the parent drug to aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine in comparison to prodrugs with an aliphatic promoiety. The presence of an aromatic promoiety directly conjugated in meta- or para-position to ketoprofen led to LAT1-utilizing prodrugs capable of delivering the parent drug into the brain with higher unbound brain to plasma ratio and reduced liver exposure than with ketoprofen itself. In contrast, the prodrugs with aliphatic promoieties and with an additional carbon attached between the parent drug and phenylalanine aromatic ring did not enhance brain delivery of ketoprofen. Furthermore, we have devised a screening strategy to pinpoint successful candidates at an early stage of development of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs. The screening approach demonstrated that early stage experiments could not replace pharmacokinetic studies in vivo due to the lack of prediction of the intra

  18. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transportermore » recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or

  19. Angular dependence in proton-proton correlation functions in central 40Ca + 40Ca and 48Ca + 48Ca reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Kilburn, M. A.; Chajęcki, Z.; Henzlova, D.; Lynch, W. G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Danielewicz, P.; Desouza, R. T.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, Jenny; Lukyanov, S.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Vander Molen, A.; Verde, G.; Wallace, M. S.; Youngs, M.

    2012-01-01

    The angular dependence of proton-proton correlation functions is studied in central 40Ca+40Ca and 48Ca+48Ca nuclear reactions at E/A=80 MeV. Measurements were performed with the High Resolution Array (HiRA) complemented by the 4π Array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. A striking angular dependence in the laboratory frame is found within proton-proton correlation functions for both systems that greatly exceeds the measured and expected isospin dependent difference between the neutron-rich and neutron-deficient systems. Sources measured at backward angles reflect the participant zone of the reaction, while much larger sources observed at forward angles reflect the expanding, fragmenting, and evaporating projectile remnants. The decrease of the size of the source with increasing momentum is observed at backward angles while a weaker trend in the opposite direction is observed at forward angles. The results are compared to the theoretical calculations using the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model.

  20. Regulation of Blood Pressure by Targeting CaV1.2-Galectin-1 Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenyu; Li, Guang; Wang, Jiong-Wei; Chong, Suet Yen; Yu, Dejie; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Soon, Jia Lin; Liang, Mui Cheng; Wong, Yuk Peng; Huang, Na; Colecraft, Henry M; Liao, Ping; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2018-04-12

    Background -L-type Ca V 1.2 channels play crucial roles in regulation of blood pressure. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), has been reported to bind to the I-II loop of Ca V 1.2 channels to reduce their current density. However, the mechanistic understanding for the down-regulation of Ca V 1.2 channels by Gal-1, and whether Gal-1 plays a direct role in blood pressure regulation remain unclear. Methods - In vitro experiments involving co-IP, western blot, patch-clamp recordings, immunohistochemistry and pressure myography were used to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which Gal-1 down-regulates Ca V 1.2 channel in transfected HEK 293 cells, smooth muscle cells, arteries from Lgasl1 -/- mice, rat and human patients. In vivo experiments involving delivery of Tat-e9c peptide and AAV5-Gal-1 into rats were performed to investigate the effect of targeting Ca V 1.2-Gal-1 interaction on blood pressure monitored by tail cuff or telemetry methods. Results -Our study reveals that Gal-1 is a key regulator for proteasomal degradation of Ca V 1.2 channels. Gal-1 competed allosterically with Ca V β subunit for binding to the I-II loop of Ca V 1.2 channel. This competitive disruption of Ca V β binding led to Ca V 1.2 degradation by exposing the channels to poly-ubiquitination. Notably, we demonstrated that the inverse relationship of reduced Gal-1 and increased Ca V 1.2 protein levels in arteries was associated with hypertension in hypertensive rats and patients, and Gal-1 deficiency induces higher blood pressure in mice due to up-regulated Ca V 1.2 protein level in arteries. To directly regulate blood pressure by targeting the Ca V 1.2-Gal-1 interaction, we administered Tat-e9c, a peptide that competed for binding of Gal-1, by a mini-osmotic pump and this specific disruption of Ca V 1.2-Gal-1 coupling increased smooth muscle Ca V 1.2 currents, induced larger arterial contraction and caused hypertension in rats. In contrasting experiments, over-expression of Gal-1 in smooth muscle by a

  1. Isosteviol prevents the prolongation of action potential in hypertrophied cardiomyoctyes by regulating transient outward potassium and L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhuo; Lv, Nanying; Luo, Xiao; Tan, Wen

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a thickening of the heart muscle that is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. It occurs initially as an adaptive process against increased workloads and often leads to sudden arrhythmic deaths. Studies suggest that the lethal arrhythmia is attributed to hypertrophy-induced destabilization of cardiac electrical activity, especially the prolongation of the action potential. The reduced activity of I to is demonstrated to be responsible for the ionic mechanism of prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogeneity. Isosteviol (STV), a derivative of stevioside, plays a protective role in a variety of stress-induced cardiac diseases. Here we report effects of STV on rat ISO-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. STV alleviated ISO-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes by decreasing cell area of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. STV application prevented the prolongation of action potential which was prominent in hypertrophied cells. The decrease and increase of current densities for I to and I CaL observed in hypertrophied myocytes were both prevented by STV application. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR suggested that the changes of electrophysiological activity of I to and I CaL are correlated to the alterations of the mRNA transcription level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Integrative proteomic and cytological analysis of the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) influx on Pinus bungeana pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Tong; Zheng, Maozhong; Chen, Yanmei; Teng, Nianjun; Samaj, Jozef; Baluska, Frantisek; Lin, Jinxing

    2008-10-01

    Ca (2+) is an essential ion in the control of pollen germination and tube growth. However, the control of pollen tube development by Ca (2+) signaling and its interactions with cytoskeletal components, energy-providing pathways, and cell-expansion machinery remain elusive. Here, we used nifedipine (Nif) to study Ca (2+) functions in differential protein expression and other cellular processes in Pinus bungeana pollen tube growth. Proteomics analysis indicated that 50 proteins showed differential expression with varying doses of Nif. Thirty-four of these were homologous to previously reported proteins and were classified into different functional categories closely related to tip-growth machinery. Blocking the L-type Ca (2+) channel with Nif in the pollen tube membrane induced several early alterations within a short time, including a reduction of extracellular Ca (2+) influx and a subsequently dramatic decrease in cytosolic free Ca (2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)] c), concomitant with ultrastructural abnormalities and changes in the abundance of proteins involved in energy production and signaling. Secondary alterations included actin filament depolymerization, disrupted patterns of endocytosis/exocytosis, and cell wall remodeling, along with changes in the proteins involved in these processes. These results suggested that extracellular Ca (2+) influx was necessary for the maintenance of the typical tip-focused [Ca (2+)] c gradient in the P. bungeana pollen tube, and that reduced adenosine triphosphate production (ATP), depolymerization of the cytoskeleton, and abnormal endocytosis/exocytosis, together with enhanced rigidity of cell walls, were responsible for the growth arrest observed in pollen tubes treated with Nif.

  3. Nitric Oxide Induces Ca2+-independent Activity of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII)*

    PubMed Central

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Bayer, K. Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Both signaling by nitric oxide (NO) and by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II α isoform (CaMKIIα) are implicated in two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory, as well as in excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal cell death. For CaMKIIα, these functions specifically involve also Ca2+-independent autonomous activity, traditionally generated by Thr-286 autophosphorylation. Here, we demonstrate that NO-induced S-nitrosylation of CaMKIIα also directly generated autonomous activity, and that CaMKII inhibition protected from NO-induced neuronal cell death. NO induced S-nitrosylation at Cys-280/289, and mutation of either site abolished autonomy, indicating that simultaneous nitrosylation at both sites was required. Additionally, autonomy was generated only when Ca2+/CaM was present during NO exposure. Thus, generation of this form of CaMKIIα autonomy requires simultaneous signaling by NO and Ca2+. Nitrosylation also significantly reduced subsequent CaMKIIα autophosphorylation specifically at Thr-286, but not at Thr-305. A previously described reduction of CaMKII activity by S-nitrosylation at Cys-6 was also observed here, but only after prolonged (>5 min) exposure to NO donors. These results demonstrate a novel regulation of CaMKII by another second messenger system and indicate its involvement in excitotoxic neuronal cell death. PMID:24855644

  4. Ca isotopic fractionation patterns in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are an emerging tracer of the biogeochemical cycle of Ca that are just beginning to see significant application to forest ecosystems. The primary source of isotopic fractionation in these systems is discrimination against light Ca during uptake by plant roots. Cycling of vegetation-fractionated Ca establishes isotopically distinct Ca pools within a forest ecosystem. In some systems, the shallow soil exchangeable Ca pool is isotopically heavy relative to Ca inputs. This has been explained by preferential removal of light Ca from the soil. In other systems, the soil exchange pool is isotopically light relative to inputs, which is explained by recycling of plant-fractionated light Ca back into soil. Thus vegetation uptake of light Ca has been called on to account for both isotopically heavy and light Ca in the shallow soil exchange pools. We interpret patterns in ecosystem δ44Ca with the aid of a simple box model of the forest Ca cycle. We suggest that the δ44Ca of exchangeable Ca in the shallow soil pool primarily reflects the relative magnitude of three key fluxes in a forest Ca cycle, 1) the flux of external Ca into the system via weathering or atmospheric deposition, 2) the uptake flux of Ca from soils into the vegetation pool, and 3) the return flux of Ca to shallow soils via remineralization of leaf litter. Two observations that emerge from our model may aid in the application of Ca isotopes to provide insight into the forest Ca cycle. First, regardless of the magnitude of both vegetation Ca uptake and isotopic fractionation, the δ44Ca of the soil exchange pool will equal the input δ44Ca unless the plant uptake and remineralization fluxes are out of balance. A second observation is that the degree to which the shallow soil exchange pool δ44Ca can differ from the input ratio is controlled by the relative rates of biological uptake and external Ca input. Significant differences between soil exchange and input δ44Ca are seen only

  5. Ca(2+) regulates fluid shear-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, N. X.; Ryder, K. D.; Pavalko, F. M.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoblasts subjected to fluid shear increase the expression of the early response gene, c-fos, and the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, COX-2, two proteins linked to the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimulation, in vivo. These increases in gene expression are dependent on shear-induced actin stress fiber formation. Here, we demonstrate that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells respond to shear with a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) that we postulate is important to subsequent cellular responses to shear. To test this hypothesis, MC3T3-E1 cells were grown on glass slides coated with fibronectin and subjected to laminar fluid flow (12 dyn/cm(2)). Before application of shear, cells were treated with two Ca(2+) channel inhibitors or various blockers of intracellular Ca(2+) release for 0. 5-1 h. Although gadolinium, a mechanosensitive channel blocker, significantly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) response, neither gadolinium nor nifedipine, an L-type channel Ca(2+) channel blocker, were able to block shear-induced stress fiber formation and increase in c-fos and COX-2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, or thapsigargin, which empties intracellular Ca(2+) stores, completely inhibited stress fiber formation and c-fos/COX-2 production in sheared osteoblasts. Neomycin or U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C, which mediates D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release, also completely suppressed actin reorganization and c-fos/COX-2 production. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with U-73343, the inactive isoform of U-73122, did not inhibit these shear-induced responses. These results suggest that IP(3)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release is required for modulating flow-induced responses in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  6. CaMKII inactivation by extracellular Ca2+ depletion in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan E.; Fields, R. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism by which Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) is autophosphorylated by changes in extracellular calcium in the absence of detectable changes in cytoplasmic [Ca2+] has been identified. We find that when the external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]O) is lowered, Ca2+ is released from intracellular stores to maintain a constant cytoplasmic Ca2+ level, gradually depleting the endoplasmic Ca2+ stores. Accompanying the store-depletion is a rapid decrease in CaMKII activity. Approximately 25% of the measured CaMKII autophosphorylation in DRG neurons in culture can be regulated by Ca2+ flux from intracellular stores caused by manipulating [Ca2+]O, as shown by blocking refilling of store-operated Ca2+-channels with SK&F 96365, Ruthenium Red, and a partial block with Ni2+. Blocking voltage-gated Ca2+-channels with either isradipine or SR 33805, had no effect on CaMKII autophosphorylation induced by restoring Ca2+O to normal after depleting the intracellular Ca2+ stores. These results show that removal of Ca2+O has profound effects on intracellular Ca2+ signaling and CaMKII autophosphorylation, in the absence of measurable changes in intracellular Ca2+. These findings have wide-ranging significance, because [Ca2+]O is manipulated in many experimental studies. Moreover, this explanation for the paradoxical changes in CaMKII phosphorylation in response to manipulating [Ca2+]O provides a possible mechanism linking activity-dependent depletion of Ca2+ from the synaptic cleft to a protein kinase regulating many neuronal properties. PMID:16519936

  7. Regulation of RhoA/ROCK and sustained arterial contraction by low cytosolic Ca2+ levels during prolonged depolarization of arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Castellano, Antonio; Ureña, Juan

    2017-08-01

    The role of L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) on depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction lasting several minutes is already known. However, in vivo, vascular smooth muscle cells can be depolarized for longer periods, inducing substantial inactivation of LTCCs and markedly reducing Ca 2+ influx into the myocytes. We have examined, in femoral arterial rings, the role of LTCCs and RhoA/ROCK during long-lasting depolarization. Our results reveal a new vasoreactive response after 20-30min of depolarization in 2.5mM external Ca 2+ that has not been identified previously with shorter stimuli. Prolonged depolarization-induced arterial contraction was permanently abolished when arterial rings were treated with 100nM external Ca 2+ or 20nM nifedipine. However, when Ca 2+ influx was restricted, applying ~7μM external Ca 2+ solution or 3nM nifedipine, vasorelaxation was transient, and isometric force slowly increased after 30min and maintained its level until the end of the stimulus. Under these conditions, arterial contraction showed the same temporal course of RhoA activity and was sensitive to fasudil, nifedipine and cyclopiazonic acid. Ca 2+ -response curve in β-escin permeabilized arteries was also sensitive to ROCK inhibitors. Thus, although long-lasting depolarization inactivates LTCCs, the reduced Ca 2+ entry can induce a detectable arterial contraction via RhoA/ROCK activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Kinase activity is not required for alphaCaMKII-dependent presynaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Hojjati, Mohammad Reza; van Woerden, Geeske M; Tyler, William J; Giese, Karl Peter; Silva, Alcino J; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Elgersma, Ype

    2007-09-01

    Using targeted mouse mutants and pharmacologic inhibition of alphaCaMKII, we demonstrate that the alphaCaMKII protein, but not its activation, autophosphorylation or its ability to phosphorylate synapsin I, is required for normal short-term presynaptic plasticity. Furthermore, alphaCaMKII regulates the number of docked vesicles independent of its ability to be activated. These results indicate that alphaCaMKII has a nonenzymatic role in short-term presynaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

  9. Decoding Ca2+ signals in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Different input signals create their own characteristic Ca2+ fingerprints. These fingerprints are distinguished by frequency, amplitude, duration, and number of Ca2+ oscillations. Ca(2+)-binding proteins and protein kinases decode these complex Ca2+ fingerprints through conformational coupling and covalent modifications of proteins. This decoding of signals can lead to a physiological response with or without changes in gene expression. In plants, Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases are involved in decoding Ca2+ signals into phosphorylation signals. This review summarizes the elements of conformational coupling and molecular mechanisms of regulation of the two groups of protein kinases by Ca2+ and Ca2+/calmodulin in plants.

  10. Epac and Phospholipase Cε Regulate Ca2+ Release in the Heart by Activation of Protein Kinase Cε and Calcium-Calmodulin Kinase II*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Oestreich, Emily A.; Malik, Sundeep; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; Blaxall, Burns C.; Kelley, Grant G.; Dirksen, Robert T.; Smrcka, Alan V.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel signaling pathway involving Epac, Rap, and phospholipase C (PLC)ε that plays a critical role in maximal β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in cardiac myocytes. Here we demonstrate that PLCε phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolytic activity and PLCε-stimulated Rap1 GEF activity are both required for PLCε-mediated enhancement of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release and that PLCε significantly enhances Rap activation in response to βAR stimulation in the heart. Downstream of PLCε hydrolytic activity, pharmacological inhibition of PKC significantly inhibited both βAR- and Epac-stimulated increases in CICR in PLCε+/+ myocytes but had no effect in PLCε–/– myocytes. βAR and Epac activation caused membrane translocation of PKCε in PLCε+/+ but not PLCε–/– myocytes and small interfering RNA-mediated PKCε knockdown significantly inhibited both βAR and Epac-mediated CICR enhancement. Further downstream, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII) inhibitor, KN93, inhibited βAR- and Epac-mediated CICR in PLCε+/+ but not PLCε–/– myocytes. Epac activation increased CamKII Thr286 phosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation at CamKII phosphorylation sites on the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) (Ser2815) and phospholamban (Thr17) in a PKC-dependent manner. Perforated patch clamp experiments revealed that basal and βAR-stimulated peak L-type current density are similar in PLCε+/+ and PLCε–/– myocytes suggesting that control of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, rather than Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels, is the target of regulation of a novel signal transduction pathway involving sequential activation of Epac, PLCε, PKCε, and CamKII downstream of βAR activation. PMID:18957419

  11. CaFe interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Kozak, M.; Gnaciński, P.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Krełowski, J.

    2007-07-01

    A new kind of interstellar cloud is proposed. These are rare (just a few examples among ~300 lines of sight) objects with the CaI 4227-Å, FeI 3720-Å and 3860-Å lines stronger than those of KI (near 7699 Å) and NaI (near 3302 Å). We propose the name `CaFe' for these clouds. Apparently they occupy different volumes from the well-known interstellar HI clouds where the KI and ultraviolet NaI lines are dominant features. In the CaFe clouds we have not found either detectable molecular features (CH, CN) or diffuse interstellar bands which, as commonly believed, are carried by some complex, organic molecules. We have found the CaFe clouds only along sightlines toward hot, luminous (and thus distant) objects with high rates of mass loss. In principle, the observed gas-phase interstellar abundances reflect the combined effects of the nucleosynthetic history of the material, the depletion of heavy elements into dust grains and the ionization state of these elements which may depend on irradiation by neighbouring stars. Based on data collected using the Maestro spectrograph at the Terskol 2-m telescope, Russia; and on data collected using the ESO Feros spectrograph; and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility acquired with the UVES spectrograph, Chile. E-mail: `arctur'@rambler.ru (AB); marizak@astri.uni.torun.pl (MK); pg@iftia.univ.gda.pl (PG); gala@boao.re.kr (GAG); ybialets@eso.org (YB); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)

  12. Elevated local [Ca2+] and CaMKII promote spontaneous Ca2+ release in ankyrin-B-deficient hearts

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Iuliana; Galice, Samuel; Mohler, Peter J.; Despa, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    Aims Loss-of-function mutations in the cytoskeletal protein ankyrin-B (AnkB) cause ventricular tachyarrhythmias in humans. Previously, we found that a larger fraction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak occurs through Ca2+ sparks in AnkB-deficient (AnkB+/−) mice, which may contribute to arrhythmogenicity via Ca2+ waves. Here, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for increased Ca2+ spark frequency in AnkB+/− hearts. Methods and results Using immunoblots and phospho-specific antibodies, we found that phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by CaMKII is enhanced in AnkB+/− hearts. In contrast, the PKA-mediated RyR phosphorylation was comparable in AnkB+/− and wild-type (WT) mice. CaMKII inhibition greatly reduced Ca2+ spark frequency in myocytes from AnkB+/− mice but had little effect in the WT. Global activities of the major phosphatases PP1 and PP2A were similar in AnkB+/− and WT hearts, while CaMKII autophosphorylation, a marker of CaMKII activation, was increased in AnkB+/− hearts. Thus, CaMKII-dependent RyR hyperphosphorylation in AnkB+/− hearts is caused by augmented CaMKII activity. Intriguingly, CaMKII activation is limited to the sarcolemma–SR junctions since non-junctional CaMKII targets (phospholamban, HDAC4) are not hyperphosphorylated in AnkB+/− myocytes. This local CaMKII activation may be the consequence of elevated [Ca2+] in the junctional cleft caused by reduced Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity. Indeed, using the RyR-targeted Ca2+ sensor GCaMP2.2-FBKP12.6, we found that local junctional [Ca2+] is significantly elevated in AnkB+/− myocytes. Conclusions The increased incidence of pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ sparks and waves in AnkB+/− hearts is due to enhanced CaMKII-mediated RyR phosphorylation, which is caused by higher junctional [Ca2+] and consequent local CaMKII activation. PMID:27131508

  13. Activity Dynamics and Behavioral Correlates of CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mizuseki, Kenji; Royer, Sebastien; Diba, Kamran; Buzsáki, György

    2013-01-01

    The CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons are the major principal cell types of the hippocampus proper. The strongly recurrent collateral system of CA3 cells and the largely parallel-organized CA1 neurons suggest that these regions perform distinct computations. However, a comprehensive comparison between CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells in terms of firing properties, network dynamics, and behavioral correlations is sparse in the intact animal. We performed large-scale recordings in the dorsal hippocampus of rats to quantify the similarities and differences between CA1 (n > 3,600) and CA3 (n > 2,200) pyramidal cells during sleep and exploration in multiple environments. CA1 and CA3 neurons differed significantly in firing rates, spike burst propensity, spike entrainment by the theta rhythm, and other aspects of spiking dynamics in a brain state-dependent manner. A smaller proportion of CA3 than CA1 cells displayed prominent place fields, but place fields of CA3 neurons were more compact, more stable, and carried more spatial information per spike than those of CA1 pyramidal cells. Several other features of the two cell types were specific to the testing environment. CA3 neurons showed less pronounced phase precession and a weaker position versus spike-phase relationship than CA1 cells. Our findings suggest that these distinct activity dynamics of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells support their distinct computational roles. PMID:22367959

  14. Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Stimulates Dopamine Release from PC12 Cells via Ca2+-Independent Phospholipase A₂ Pathways.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jihui; Maeng, Jeehye; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-10-24

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), initially identified as a tumor- and growth-related protein, is also known as a histamine-releasing factor (HRF). TCTP is widely distributed in the neuronal systems, but its function is largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a novel function of TCTP in the neurotransmitter release from a neurosecretory, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with recombinant TCTP (rTCTP) enhanced both basal and depolarization (50 mM KCl)-evoked [³H]dopamine release in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Interestingly, even though rTCTP induced the increase in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ), the rTCTP-driven effect on dopamine release was mediated by a Ca 2+ -independent pathway, as evidenced by the fact that Ca 2+ -modulating agents such as Ca 2+ chelators and a voltage-gated L-type Ca 2+ -channel blocker did not produce any changes in rTCTP-evoked dopamine release. In a study to investigate the involvement of phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) in rTCTP-induced dopamine release, the inhibitor for Ca 2+ -independent PLA₂ (iPLA₂) produced a significant inhibitory effect on rTCTP-induced dopamine release, whereas this release was not significantly inhibited by Ca 2+ -dependent cytosolic PLA₂ (cPLA₂) and secretory PLA₂ (sPLA₂) inhibitors. We found that rTCTP-induced dopamine release from neuronal PC12 cells was modulated by a Ca 2+ -independent mechanism that involved PLA₂ in the process, suggesting the regulatory role of TCTP in the neuronal functions.

  15. Altered network timing in the CA3-CA1 circuit of hippocampal slices from aged mice.

    PubMed

    Kanak, Daniel J; Rose, Gregory M; Zaveri, Hitten P; Patrylo, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude) and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope). However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.

  16. Altered Network Timing in the CA3-CA1 Circuit of Hippocampal Slices from Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Rose, Gregory M.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3–CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3–CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3–CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude) and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope). However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3–CA1 circuit. PMID:23593474

  17. Inhibition of dendritic Ca2+ spikes by GABAB receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons is mediated by a direct Gi/o-β-subunit interaction with Cav1 channels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garci, Enrique; Larkum, Matthew E; Nevian, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) serve a wide range of physiological functions and their activity is modulated by different neurotransmitter systems. GABAergic inhibition of VDCCs in neurons has an important impact in controlling transmitter release, neuronal plasticity, gene expression and neuronal excitability. We investigated the molecular signalling mechanisms by which GABA(B) receptors inhibit calcium-mediated electrogenesis (Ca(2+) spikes) in the distal apical dendrite of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. Ca(2+) spikes are the basis of coincidence detection and signal amplification of distal tuft synaptic inputs characteristic for the computational function of cortical pyramidal neurons. By combining dendritic whole-cell recordings with two-photon fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging we found that all subtypes of VDCCs were present in the Ca(2+) spike initiation zone, but that they contribute differently to the initiation and sustaining of dendritic Ca(2+) spikes. Particularly, Ca(v)1 VDCCs are the most abundant VDCC present in this dendritic compartment and they generated the sustained plateau potential characteristic for the Ca(2+) spike. Activation of GABA(B) receptors specifically inhibited Ca(v)1 channels. This inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) currents was transiently relieved by strong depolarization but did not depend on protein kinase activity. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel membrane-delimited interaction of the G(i/o)-βγ-subunit with Ca(v)1 channels identifying this mechanism as the general pathway of GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition of VDCCs. Furthermore, the characterization of the contribution of the different VDCCs to the generation of the Ca(2+) spike provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of dendritic computation.

  18. A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions.

    PubMed

    Bers, D M

    1982-05-01

    A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-buffered Ca solutions is described. This method is useful for calibration of Ca macro- and microelectrodes to low free [Ca] and should improve the reliability of calculated free [Ca] in more complex solutions. Briefly, free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions is measured with a Ca electrode, bound Ca is calculated, and Scatchard and double-reciprocal plots are resolved for the total [EGTA] and the apparent Ca-EGTA association constant (K'Ca) in the solutions used. The free [Ca] is then recalculated using the determined parameters, giving a more accurate knowledge of the free [Ca] in these solutions and providing an accurate calibration curve for the Ca electrode. These solutions can then be used to calibrate other Ca electrodes (e.g., Ca microelectrodes) or the calibrated Ca electrode can be used to measure free [Ca] in solutions containing multiple metal ligands. This method allows determination of free [Ca], K'Ca, and total [EGTA] in the actual solutions used regardless of pH, temperature, or ionic strength. It does not require accurate knowledge of K'Ca or EGTA purity and circumvents many potential errors due to assumption of binding parameters. K'Ca was found to be 2.45 +/- 0.04 X 10(6) M-1 in 100 mM KCl, 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, and 1 mM EGTA at pH 7.00 and 23 degrees C. Total [EGTA] varied with supplier but was always less than quoted.

  19. Dopamine Release Suppression Dependent on an Increase of Intracellular Ca2+ Contributed to Rotenone-induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Yan; Chen, Junfeng; Ye, Feng; Zhao, Yuanpeng; Zou, Zhongmin; Cao, Jia; Dong, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    Rotenone is an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I that produces a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which neurons undergo dopamine release dysfunction and other features. In neurons, exocytosis is one of the processes associated with dopamine release and is dependent on Ca2+ dynamic changes of the cell. In the present study, we have investigated the exocytosis of dopamine and the involvement of Ca2+ in dopamine release in PC12 cells administrated with rotenone. Results demonstrated that rotenone led to an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ through Ca2+ influx by opening of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel and influenced the soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins expression (including syntaxin, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) and synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25)); pretreatment with a blocker of L-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (nifedipine) decreased the intracellular dopamine levels and ROS formation, increased the cell viability and enhanced the neurite outgrowth and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. These results indicated that the involvement of intracellular Ca2+ was one of the factors resulting in suppression of dopamine release suppression in PC12 cells intoxicated with rotenone, which was associated with the rotenone-induced dopamine neurotoxicity. PMID:23914057

  20. Taurine indirectly increases [Ca]i by inducing Ca2+ influx through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bkaily, G; Jaalouk, D; Sader, S; Shbaklo, H; Pothier, P; Jacques, D; D'Orléans-Juste, P; Cragoe, E J; Bose, R

    1998-11-01

    Recent studies in heart cells have shown taurine to induce a sustained increase of both intracellular Ca2+ and Na+. These results led us to believe that the increase in Na+ by taurine could be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+ cotransporter which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-alanine, a blocker of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter and low concentrations of CBDMB (a pyrazine derivative, 5-(N-4chlorobenzyl)-2',4'-dimethylbenzamil), a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blocker on taurine-induced [Ca]i increase in embryonic chick heart cells. Using Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging and Fluo-3Ca2+ confocal microscopy techniques, taurine (20 mM) as expected, induced a sustained increase in [Ca]i at both the cytosolic and the nuclear levels. Preexposure to 500 microM of the blocker of the taurine-Na+ cotransporter, beta-alanine, prevented the amino acid-induced increase of total [Ca]i. On the other hand, application of beta-alanine did not reverse the action of taurine on total [Ca]i. However, low concentrations of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger blocker, CBDMB, reversed the taurine-induced sustained increase of cytosolic and nuclear free calcium (in presence or absence of beta-alanine). Thus, the effect of taurine on [Ca]i in heart cells appears to be due to Na+ entry through the taurine-Na+ cotransporter which in turn favours transarcolemmal Ca2+ influx through the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger.

  1. Heterogeneity of L-type calcium channel alpha 1 subunits: stereoselective discrimination of different populations by the novel 1,4-dihydropyridine B 874-67.

    PubMed

    Lakitsch, M; Knaus, H G; Topar, G; Romanin, C; Boer, R; Flockerzi, D; Striessnig, J; Schindler, H; Hoeltje, H D; Glossmann, H

    1993-02-01

    The basic (pKa = 8.49) 1,4-dihydropyridine B 874-67 [[3-(C1R,2S)- 2-methylamino-1-phenylpropyl]-5-methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-(4R)-4-( 3-nitrophenyl)pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate hydrochloride] has unique properties; it can discriminate two populations of alpha 1 subunits in 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels labeled with the neutral 1,4-dihydropyridine (+)-[3H]PN 200-110. The two populations, which occur in proportions of approximately 2:1 in rabbit skeletal muscle membranes and highly purified calcium channel preparations, differ approximately 20-fold in their affinity. The corresponding diastereomer, B 874-66, and other 1,4-dihydropyridines (neutral, basic, or permanently charged) do not share this property. The two populations were observed at 2 degrees, 22 degrees, and 37 degrees in similar proportions. Heterogeneity was also observed for guinea pig heart membrane calcium channels labeled with (+)-[3H]PN 200-110. Heterotropic allosteric regulators, Ca2+, and Mg2+, but not Ba2+ and Ni2+, abolished the discriminatory activity of B 874-67 at 2 degrees and 22 degrees, regardless of whether binding of the neutral 1,4-dihydropyridine was stimulated or inhibited. It is proposed that the two alpha 1 subunit populations differ with respect to their 1,4-dihydropyridine binding domain. The structural basis for the two populations is unclear but may relate to the functional heterogeneity of membrane-bound and highly purified calcium channel preparations previously observed by others.

  2. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  3. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  4. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  5. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  6. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  7. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  8. Direct mobilisation of lysosomal Ca2+ triggers complex Ca2+ signals.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Eden, Emily R; Schapira, Anthony H; Futter, Clare E; Patel, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates acidic organelles of the endolysosomal system as mobilisable stores of Ca(2+) but their relationship to the better-characterised endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store remains unclear. Here we show that rapid osmotic permeabilisation of lysosomes evokes prolonged, spatiotemporally complex Ca(2+) signals in primary cultured human fibroblasts. These Ca(2+) signals comprised an initial response that correlated with lysosomal disruption and secondary long-lasting spatially heterogeneous Ca(2+) oscillations that required ER-localised inositol trisphosphate receptors. Electron microscopy identified extensive membrane contact sites between lysosomes and the ER. Mobilisation of lysosomal Ca(2+) stores is thus sufficient to evoke ER-dependent Ca(2+) release probably through lysosome-ER membrane contact sites, and akin to the proposed mechanism of action of the Ca(2+) mobilising messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). Our data identify functional and physical association of discrete Ca(2+) stores important for the genesis of Ca(2+) signal complexity.

  9. Levels of CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Mei, Yu; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Guixi; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between breast cancer and benign breast diseases with nipple discharge remains an important diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to predict the potential usefulness of tumor markers in nipple discharge and to investigate the relationship of tumor markers and clinical characteristics with breast cancer.One hundred and eleven patients with nipple discharge received breast surgery from November 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated levels of five tumor markers (CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP) prior to treatment. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pathological results: 30 cases in breast cancer group and 81 cases in benign group. The relationships of clinical characteristics with breast cancer were investigated by multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model.It showed significant differences in levels of nipple discharge CEA (P < 0.001) and CA153 (P = 0.014), but not CA199 (P = 0.856), CA724 (P = 0.171), AFP (P = 0.834) among two groups. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated complaint, age, menopause, abnormal palpable mass, CEA and CA153 were associated with breast cancer. In summary, measurements of CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge are not of great clinical value. Detecting CEA and CA153 in nipple dischargecould potentially be used for the early detection of breast cancer with in high-risk populations. PMID:26885008

  10. Levels of CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Mei, Yu; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Jiang; Zheng, Guixi; Ma, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between breast cancer and benign breast diseases with nipple discharge remains an important diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to predict the potential usefulness of tumor markers in nipple discharge and to investigate the relationship of tumor markers and clinical characteristics with breast cancer.One hundred and eleven patients with nipple discharge received breast surgery from November 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. We evaluated levels of five tumor markers (CEA, CA153, CA199, CA724 and AFP) prior to treatment. Patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pathological results: 30 cases in breast cancer group and 81 cases in benign group. The relationships of clinical characteristics with breast cancer were investigated by multivariate analysis with a logistic regression model.It showed significant differences in levels of nipple discharge CEA (P < 0.001) and CA153 (P = 0.014), but not CA199 (P = 0.856), CA724 (P = 0.171), AFP (P = 0.834) among two groups. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated complaint, age, menopause, abnormal palpable mass, CEA and CA153 were associated with breast cancer. In summary, measurements of CA199, CA724 and AFP in nipple discharge are not of great clinical value. Detecting CEA and CA153 in nipple dischargecould potentially be used for the early detection of breast cancer with in high-risk populations.

  11. Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, David; Sichen, Du

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 °C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaO particles, and 2.4 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO·SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO·SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  12. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail functional

  13. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  14. IL-1β augments H2S-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+through polysulfides generated from H2S/NO interaction.

    PubMed

    Ujike, Ayako; Kuraishi, Tomoki; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Eguchi, Ryota; Kitano, Taisuke; Kamise, Jumpei; Ito, Shigeo; Otsuguro, Ken-Ichi

    2018-02-15

    H 2 S has excitatory and inhibitory effects on Ca 2+ signals via transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and ATP-sensitive K + channels, respectively. H 2 S converts intracellularly to polysulfides, which are more potent agonists for TRPA1 than H 2 S. Under inflammatory conditions, changes in the expression and activity of these H 2 S target channels and/or the conversion of H 2 S to polysulfides may modulate H 2 S effects. Effects of proinflammatory cytokines on H 2 S-induced Ca 2+ signals and polysulfide production in RIN14B cells were examined using fluorescence imaging with fura-2 and SSP4, respectively. Na 2 S, a H 2 S donor, induced 1) the inhibition of spontaneous Ca 2+ signals, 2) inhibition followed by [Ca 2+ ] i increase, and 3) rapid [Ca 2+ ] i increase without inhibition in 50% (23/46), 22% (10/46), and 17% (8/46) of cells tested, respectively. IL-1β augmented H 2 S-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases, which were inhibited by TRPA1 and voltage-dependent L-type Ca 2+ channel blockers. However, IL-1β treatment did not affect [Ca 2+ ] i increases evoked by a TRPA1 agonist or high concentration of KCl. Na 2 S increased intracellular polysulfide levels, which were enhanced by IL-1β treatment. A NOS inhibitor suppressed the increased polysulfide production and [Ca 2+ ] i increase in IL-1β-treated cells. These results suggest that IL-1β augments H 2 S-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases via the conversion of H 2 S to polysulfides through NO synthesis, but not via changes in the activity and expression of target channels. Polysulfides may play an important role in the effects of H 2 S during inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnenolone sulfate activates basic region leucine zipper transcription factors in insulinoma cells: role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and transient receptor potential melastatin 3 channels.

    PubMed

    Müller, Isabelle; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2011-12-01

    The neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate activates a signaling cascade in insulinoma cells involving activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and enhanced expression of the transcription factor Egr-1. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate stimulation leads to a significant elevation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in insulinoma cells. Expression of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos is up-regulated in insulinoma cells and pancreatic β-cells in primary culture after pregnenolone sulfate stimulation. Up-regulation of a chromatin-embedded c-Jun promoter/luciferase reporter gene transcription in pregnenolone sulfate-stimulated insulinoma cells was impaired when the AP-1 binding sites were mutated, indicating that these motifs function as pregnenolone sulfate response elements. In addition, phosphorylation of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein is induced and transcription of a CRE-controlled reporter gene is stimulated after pregnenolone sulfate treatment, indicating that the CRE functions as a pregnenolone sulfate response element as well. Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that both L-type Ca(2+) channels and transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) channels are essential for connecting pregnenolone sulfate stimulation with enhanced AP-1 activity and bZIP-mediated transcription in insulinoma cells. In contrast, pregnenolone sulfate stimulation did not enhance AP-1 activity or c-Jun and c-Fos expression in pituitary corticotrophs that express functional L-type Ca(2+) channels but only trace amounts of TRPM3. We conclude that expression of L-type Ca(2+) channels is not sufficient to activate bZIP-mediated gene transcription by pregnenolone sulfate. Rather, additional expression of TRPM3 or depolarization of the cells is required to connect pregnenolone sulfate stimulation with enhanced gene transcription.

  16. In situ Ca2+ titration in the fluorometric study of intracellular Ca2+ binding.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Shane M; Jackson, Meyer B

    2014-12-01

    Imaging with Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye has provided a wealth of insight into the dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) signaling. The spatiotemporal evolution of intracellular free Ca(2+) observed in imaging experiments is shaped by binding and unbinding to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) buffers, as well as the fluorescent indicator used for imaging. These factors must be taken into account in the interpretation of Ca(2+) imaging data, and can be exploited to investigate endogenous Ca(2+) buffer properties. Here we extended the use of Ca(2+) fluorometry in the characterization of Ca(2+) binding molecules within cells, building on a method of titration of intracellular Ca(2+) binding sites in situ with measured amounts of Ca(2+) entering through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. We developed a systematic procedure for fitting fluorescence data acquired during a series of voltage steps to models with multiple Ca(2+) binding sites. The method was tested on simulated data, and then applied to 2-photon fluorescence imaging data from rat posterior pituitary nerve terminals patch clamp-loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-8. Focusing on data sets well described by a single endogenous Ca(2+) buffer and dye, this method yielded estimates of the endogenous buffer concentration and Kd, the dye Kd, and the fraction of Ca(2+) inaccessible cellular volume. The in situ Kd of fluo-8 thus obtained was indistinguishable from that measured in vitro. This method of calibrating Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes in situ has significant advantages over previous methods. Our analysis of Ca(2+) titration fluorometric data makes more effective use of the experimental data, and provides a rigorous treatment of multivariate errors and multiple Ca(2+) binding species. This method offers a versatile approach to the study of endogenous Ca(2+) binding molecules in their physiological milieu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bax regulates neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    D'Orsi, Beatrice; Kilbride, Seán M; Chen, Gang; Perez Alvarez, Sergio; Bonner, Helena P; Pfeiffer, Shona; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Engel, Tobias; Henshall, David C; Düssmann, Heiko; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2015-01-28

    Excessive Ca(2+) entry during glutamate receptor overactivation ("excitotoxicity") induces acute or delayed neuronal death. We report here that deficiency in bax exerted broad neuroprotection against excitotoxic injury and oxygen/glucose deprivation in mouse neocortical neuron cultures and reduced infarct size, necrotic injury, and cerebral edema formation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Neuronal Ca(2+) and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) analysis during excitotoxic injury revealed that bax-deficient neurons showed significantly reduced Ca(2+) transients during the NMDA excitation period and did not exhibit the deregulation of Δψm that was observed in their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Reintroduction of bax or a bax mutant incapable of proapoptotic oligomerization equally restored neuronal Ca(2+) dynamics during NMDA excitation, suggesting that Bax controlled Ca(2+) signaling independently of its role in apoptosis execution. Quantitative confocal imaging of intracellular ATP or mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels using FRET-based sensors indicated that the effects of bax deficiency on Ca(2+) handling were not due to enhanced cellular bioenergetics or increased Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria. We also observed that mitochondria isolated from WT or bax-deficient cells similarly underwent Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition. However, when Ca(2+) uptake into the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum was blocked with the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, bax-deficient neurons showed strongly elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels during NMDA excitation, suggesting that the ability of Bax to support dynamic ER Ca(2+) handling is critical for cell death signaling during periods of neuronal overexcitation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351706-17$15.00/0.

  18. Fast Ca2+ signals at mouse inner hair cell synapse: a role for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Helen J; Meech, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Inner hair cells of the mammalian cochlea translate acoustic stimuli into ‘phase-locked’ nerve impulses with frequencies of up to at least 1 kHz. Little is known about the intracellular Ca2+ signal that links transduction to the release of neurotransmitter at the afferent synapse. Here, we use confocal microscopy to provide evidence that Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) may contribute to the mechanism. Line scan images (2 ms repetition rate) of neonatal mouse inner hair cells filled with the fluorescent indicator FLUO-3, revealed a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) during brief (5–50 ms) depolarizing commands under voltage clamp. The amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient depended upon the Ca2+ concentration in the bathing medium in the range 0–1.3 mm. [Ca2+]i transients were confined to a region near the plasma membrane at the base of the cell in the vicinity of the afferent synapses. The change in [Ca2+]i appeared uniform throughout the entire basal sub-membrane space and we were unable to observe hotspots of activity. Both the amplitude and the rate of rise of the [Ca2+]i transient was reduced by external ryanodine (20 μm), an agent that blocks Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular Cs+, commonly used to record at presynaptic sites, produced a similar effect. We conclude that both ryanodine and intracellular Cs+ block CICR in inner hair cells. We discuss the contribution of CICR to the measured [Ca2+]i transient, the implications for synaptic transmission at the afferent synapse and the significance of its sensitivity to intracellular Cs+. PMID:11850498

  19. Cardiac Ca(2+) channel-blocking effects of the cyproheptadine derivative AH-1058 in isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Dohmoto, Hideki; Takahara, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Yoshimoto, Ryota

    2003-02-01

    The Ca(2+) channel-blocking efficacy of the cyproheptadine derivative AH-1058 (4-(5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-1-[(E)-3-(3-methoxy-2-nitro)phenyl-2-propenyl]piperidine hydrochloride) was quantitatively assessed using isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes. AH-1058 (0.001 - 10 microM) and its mother compound cyproheptadine (1 - 100 microM) reduced the Ca(2+) currents elicited from the holding potential of -80 or -40 mV. The IC(50) values for cyproheptadine at holding potentials of -80 and -40 mV were 42.44 and 7.75 microM, respectively, whereas those for AH-1058 were 4.91 and 0.32 microM, respectively, whose potency was equivalent to those of the typical Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. These results suggest that the introduction of the cinnamil structure to cyproheptadine can generate a potent L-type Ca(2+) channel-blocking compound as potent as verapamil.

  20. Ca(2+) currents and voltage responses in Type I and Type II hair cells of the chick embryo semicircular canal.

    PubMed

    Masetto, Sergio; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Giampiero; Valli, Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Type I and Type II hair cells, and Type II hair cells located in different zones of the semicircular canal crista, express different patterns of voltage-dependent K channels, each one specifically shaping the hair cell receptor potential. We report here that, close to hatching, chicken embryo semicircular canal Type I and Type II hair cells express a similar voltage-dependent L-type calcium current (I(Ca)), whose main features are: activation above -60 mV, fast activation kinetics, and scarce inactivation. I(Ca) should be already active at rest in Zone 1 Type II hair cells, whose resting membrane potential was on average slightly less negative than -60 mV. Conversely, I(Ca) would not be active at rest in Type II hair cells from Zone 2 and 3, nor in Type I hair cells, since their resting membrane potential was significantly more negative than -60 mV. However, even small depolarising currents would activate I(Ca) steadily in Zone 2 and 3 Type II hair cells, but not in Type I hair cells because of the robust repolarising action of their specific array of K(+) currents. The implications of the present findings in the afferent discharge are discussed.

  1. Activity and Ca2+ regulate the mobility of TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane of sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Senning, Eric N; Gordon, Sharona E

    2015-01-01

    TRPV1 channels are gated by a variety of thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. We used optical recording of Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 to measure activity and mobility of single TRPV1 molecules in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons and cell lines. The opening of single TRPV1 channels produced sparklets, representing localized regions of elevated Ca2+. Unlike sparklets reported for L-type Ca2+ channels, TRPV4 channels, and AchR channels, TRPV1 channels diffused laterally in the plasma membrane as they gated. Mobility was highly variable from channel-to-channel and, to a smaller extent, from cell to cell. Most surprisingly, we found that mobility decreased upon channel activation by capsaicin, but only in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. We propose that decreased mobility of open TRPV1 could act as a diffusion trap to concentrate channels in cell regions with high activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03819.001 PMID:25569155

  2. Convergent regulation of skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels by dystrophin, the actin cytoskeleton, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Barry D.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2005-03-01

    The skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1), which is responsible for initiating muscle contraction, is regulated by phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a voltage-dependent manner that requires direct physical association between the channel and the kinase mediated through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The role of the actin cytoskeleton in channel regulation was investigated in skeletal myocytes cultured from wild-type mice, mdx mice that lack the cytoskeletal linkage protein dystrophin, and a skeletal muscle cell line, 129 CB3. Voltage dependence of channel activation was shifted positively, and potentiation was greatly diminished in mdx myocytes and in 129 CB3 cells treated with the microfilament stabilizer phalloidin. Voltage-dependent potentiation by strong depolarizing prepulses was reduced in mdx myocytes but could be restored by positively shifting the stimulus potentials to compensate for the positive shift in the voltage dependence of gating. Inclusion of PKA in the pipette caused a negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation and restored voltage-dependent potentiation in mdx myocytes. These results show that skeletal muscle Ca2+ channel activity and voltage-dependent potentiation are controlled by PKA and microfilaments in a convergent manner. Regulation of Ca2+ channel activity by hormones and neurotransmitters that use the PKA signal transduction pathway may interact in a critical way with the cytoskeleton and may be impaired by deletion of dystrophin, contributing to abnormal regulation of intracellular calcium concentrations in dystrophic muscle.

  3. Dietary calcium deficiency increases Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in chick enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Viviana A; Díaz de Barboza, Gabriela E; Marchionatti, Ana M; Alisio, Arturo E; Dallorso, Maria E; Nasif, Renée; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori G

    2004-10-01

    Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms were studied in enterocytes with different degree of differentiation from chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet as compared to animals fed a normal diet. Chicks adapted to a low Ca2+ diet presented hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca2+ absorption. Low Ca2+ diet increased the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, independently of the cellular maturation, but it did not alter gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity. Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca2+ exchanger activities and expressions were increased by the mineral-deficient diet either in mature or immature enterocytes. Western blots analysis shows that vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression was much higher in crypt cells than in mature cells. Low Ca2+ diet decreased the number of vitamin D receptor units in both kinds of cells. In conclusion, changes in Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms in the enterocytes by a low Ca2+ diet appear to be a result of enhanced serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, which would promote cellular differentiation producing cells more efficient to express vitamin D dependent genes required for Ca2+ absorption.

  4. Ca isotope fractionation on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, W. A.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Tombrello, T. A.; Epstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Ca has been measured in a lunar soil in order to establish the presence of isotopically mass-fractionated components. Ca was extracted by a series of water leaches after the soils were 'activated' by brief exposures to fluorine gas. The O2 obtained by this fluorination is found to have delta (O-18) of +21 per mil and to be, therefore, significantly mass-fractionated. Ca obtained in the leaches was analyzed using the double-spike technique. Very small Ca isotope fractionation is found in the leaches of this soil of up to 1 per mil per mass unit difference. The small Ca effects are in marked contrast to the measured delta (O-18) for the same sample and to large effects observed in many soils for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and potassium. The data on Ca provide stringent constraints on models which attempt to explain the isotope mass-fractionation effects in lunar soils.

  5. Ablation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 4 prevents development of hypertrophy in a model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Lasko, Valerie M; Nieman, Michelle L; Jiang, Min; Gao, Xu; Rubinstein, Jack; Wieczorek, David F; Shull, Gary E

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms linking the expression of sarcomeric mutant proteins to the development of pathological hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase PMCA4 in the HCM phenotype using a transgenic model that expresses mutant (Glu180Gly) α-tropomyosin (Tm180) in heart. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cardiac PMCA4 expression was upregulated early in Tm180 disease pathogenesis. This was accompanied by an increase in levels of the L-type Ca(2+)-channel, which is implicated in pathological hypertrophy. When Tm180 mice were crossed with a PMCA4-null line, loss of PMCA4 caused the abrogation of hypertrophy in Tm180/PMCA4-null double mutant mice. RT-PCR analysis of Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts revealed blunting of the fetal program and reversion of pro-fibrotic Col1a1 and Col3a1 gene expression to wild-type levels. This was accompanied by evidence of reduced L-type Ca(2+)-channel expression, and diminished calcineurin activity. Expression of the metabolic substrate transporters glucose transporter 4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b was preserved and Tm180-related changes in mRNA levels of various contractile stress-related proteins including the cardiac ankyrin protein CARP and the N2B isoform of titin were reversed in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. cGMP levels were increased and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein was elevated in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts. These changes were associated with a sharp reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in Tm180/PMCA4-null hearts, which occurred despite persistence of Tm180-related impairment of relaxation dynamics. These results reveal a novel and specific role for PMCA4 in the Tm180 hypertrophic phenotype, with the "protective" effects of PMCA4 deficiency encompassing multiple determinants of HCM-related hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct roles of L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in regulation of lymphatic vessel contractile activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stewart; Roizes, Simon; von der Weid, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Lymph drainage maintains tissue fluid homeostasis and facilitates immune response. It is promoted by phasic contractions of collecting lymphatic vessels through which lymph is propelled back into the blood circulation. This rhythmic contractile activity (i.e. lymphatic pumping) increases in rate with increase in luminal pressure and relies on activation of nifedipine-sensitive voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs). Despite their importance, these channels have not been characterized in lymphatic vessels. We used pressure- and wire-myography as well as intracellular microelectrode electrophysiology to characterize the pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of L-type and T-type VDCCs in rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels and evaluated their particular role in the regulation of lymphatic pumping by stretch. We complemented our study with PCR and confocal immunofluorescence imaging to investigate the expression and localization of these channels in lymphatic vessels. Our data suggest a delineating role of VDCCs in stretch-induced lymphatic vessel contractions, as the stretch-induced increase in force of lymphatic vessel contractions was significantly attenuated in the presence of L-type VDCC blockers nifedipine and diltiazem, while the stretch-induced increase in contraction frequency was significantly decreased by the T-type VDCC blockers mibefradil and nickel. The latter effect was correlated with a hyperpolarization. We propose that activation of T-type VDCCs depolarizes membrane potential, regulating the frequency of lymphatic contractions via opening of L-type VDCCs, which drive the strength of contractions. PMID:25326448

  7. Genetically Encoded Green Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicators with Improved Detectability for Neuronal Ca2+ Signals

    PubMed Central

    Sadakari, Junko; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Kagawa-Nagamura, Yuko; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the activities of individual neurons with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) is a promising method for understanding neuronal network functions. Here, we report GECIs with improved neuronal Ca2+ signal detectability, termed G-CaMP6 and G-CaMP8. Compared to a series of existing G-CaMPs, G-CaMP6 showed fairly high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, both of which are suitable properties for detecting subtle and fast neuronal activities. G-CaMP8 showed a greater signal (F max/F min = 38) than G-CaMP6 and demonstrated kinetics similar to those of G-CaMP6. Both GECIs could detect individual spikes from pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices or acute cortical slices with 100% detection rates, demonstrating their superior performance to existing GECIs. Because G-CaMP6 showed a higher sensitivity and brighter baseline fluorescence than G-CaMP8 in a cellular environment, we applied G-CaMP6 for Ca2+ imaging of dendritic spines, the putative postsynaptic sites. By expressing a G-CaMP6-actin fusion protein for the spines in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and electrically stimulating the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, which innervate CA3 pyramidal neurons, we found that sub-threshold stimulation triggered small Ca2+ responses in a limited number of spines with a low response rate in active spines, whereas supra-threshold stimulation triggered large fluorescence responses in virtually all of the spines with a 100% activity rate. PMID:23240011

  8. Genetically encoded green fluorescent Ca2+ indicators with improved detectability for neuronal Ca2+ signals.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Masamichi; Sasaki, Takuya; Sadakari, Junko; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Kagawa-Nagamura, Yuko; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ikegaya, Yuji; Nakai, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the activities of individual neurons with genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs) is a promising method for understanding neuronal network functions. Here, we report GECIs with improved neuronal Ca(2+) signal detectability, termed G-CaMP6 and G-CaMP8. Compared to a series of existing G-CaMPs, G-CaMP6 showed fairly high sensitivity and rapid kinetics, both of which are suitable properties for detecting subtle and fast neuronal activities. G-CaMP8 showed a greater signal (F(max)/F(min) = 38) than G-CaMP6 and demonstrated kinetics similar to those of G-CaMP6. Both GECIs could detect individual spikes from pyramidal neurons of cultured hippocampal slices or acute cortical slices with 100% detection rates, demonstrating their superior performance to existing GECIs. Because G-CaMP6 showed a higher sensitivity and brighter baseline fluorescence than G-CaMP8 in a cellular environment, we applied G-CaMP6 for Ca(2+) imaging of dendritic spines, the putative postsynaptic sites. By expressing a G-CaMP6-actin fusion protein for the spines in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and electrically stimulating the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, which innervate CA3 pyramidal neurons, we found that sub-threshold stimulation triggered small Ca(2+) responses in a limited number of spines with a low response rate in active spines, whereas supra-threshold stimulation triggered large fluorescence responses in virtually all of the spines with a 100% activity rate.

  9. Neural Signals Related to Outcome Evaluation Are Stronger in CA1 than CA3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Hyun; Huh, Namjung; Lee, Jong Won; Ghim, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Inah; Jung, Min W.

    2017-01-01

    We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses. Neural signals for chosen value and reward converged in both CA3 and CA1 when a trial outcome was revealed. However, these neural signals were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Consequently, neural signals for reward prediction error and updated chosen value were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Together with our previous finding that CA1 conveys stronger value signals than the subiculum, our results raise the possibility that CA1 might play a particularly important role among hippocampal subregions in evaluating experienced events. PMID:28638322

  10. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  11. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the absence of pretone: essential role for intracellular Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Michelle J; Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Becker, Silke; Ward, Jeremy P T; Aaronson, Philip I

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) maintains blood oxygenation during acute hypoxia but contributes to pulmonary hypertension during chronic hypoxia. The mechanisms of HPV remain controversial, in part because HPV is usually studied in the presence of agonist-induced preconstriction (‘pretone’). This potentiates HPV but may obscure and distort its underlying mechanisms. We therefore carried out an extensive assessment of proposed mechanisms contributing to HPV in isolated intrapulmonary arteries (IPAs) in the absence of pretone by using a conventional small vessel myograph. Hypoxia elicited a biphasic constriction consisting of a small transient (phase 1) superimposed upon a sustained (phase 2) component. Neither phase was affected by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonists diltiazem (10 and 30 μm) or nifedipine (3 μm). Application of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) blockers BTP2 (10 μm) or SKF96365 (50 μm) attenuated phase 2 but not phase 1, whereas a lengthy (30 min) incubation in Ca2+-free physiological saline solution similarly reduced phase 2 but abolished phase 1. No further effect of inhibition of HPV was observed if the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (30 μm) was also applied during the 30 min incubation in Ca2+-free physiological saline solution. Pretreatment with 10 μm ryanodine and 15 mm caffeine abolished both phases, whereas treatment with 100 μm ryanodine attenuated both phases. The two-pore channel blocker NED-19 (1 μm) and the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) antagonist BZ194 (200 μm) had no effect on either phase of HPV. The lysosomal Ca2+-depleting agent concanamycin (1 μm) enhanced HPV if applied during hypoxia, but had no effect on HPV during a subsequent hypoxic challenge. The cyclic ADP ribose antagonist 8-bromo-cyclic ADP ribose (30 μm) had no effect on either phase of HPV. Neither the Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) blocker NPS2390 (0.1 and 10 μm) nor FK506 (10

  12. Differential sensitivity of N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel currents to a mu opioid in isolectin B4-positive and -negative dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Zhen; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2004-12-01

    Opioids have a selective effect on nociception with little effect on other sensory modalities. However, the cellular mechanisms for this preferential effect are not fully known. Two broad classes of nociceptors can be distinguished based on their growth factor requirements and binding to isolectin B4(IB4). In this study, we determined the difference in the modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents by [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO, a specific mu opioid agonist) between IB4-positive and -negative small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were performed in acutely isolated DRG neurons in adult rats. Both 1-10 microM DAMGO and 1 to 10 microM morphine had a greater effect on high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents in IB4-negative than IB4-positive cells. However, DAMGO had no significant effect on T-type Ca2+ currents in both groups. The N-type Ca2+ current was the major subtype of Ca2+ currents inhibited by DAMGO in both IB4-positive and -negative neurons. Although DAMGO had no effect on L-type and R-type Ca2+ currents in both groups, it produced a larger inhibition on N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents in IB4-negative than IB4-positive neurons. Furthermore, double labeling revealed that there was a significantly higher mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in IB4-negative than IB4-positive cells. Thus, these data suggest that N-and P/Q-type Ca2+ currents are more sensitive to inhibition by the mu opioids in IB4-negative than IB4-positive DRG neurons. The differential sensitivity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to the mu opioids in subsets of DRG neurons may constitute an important analgesic mechanism of mu opioids.

  13. Xenoestrogens at Picomolar to Nanomolar Concentrations Trigger Membrane Estrogen Receptor-α–Mediated Ca2+ Fluxes and Prolactin Release in GH3/B6 Pituitary Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Ann L.; Bulayeva, Nataliya N.; Watson, Cheryl S.

    2005-01-01

    Xenoestrogens (XEs) are widespread in our environment and are known to have deleterious effects in animal (and perhaps human) populations. Acting as inappropriate estrogens, XEs are thought to interfere with endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) to disrupt normal estrogenic signaling. We investigated the effects of E2 versus several XEs representing organochlorine pesticides (dieldrin, endosulfan, o′p′-dichlorodiphenylethylene), plastics manufacturing by-products/detergents (nonylphenol, bisphenol A), a phytoestrogen (coumestrol), and a synthetic estrogen (diethylstilbestrol) on the pituitary tumor cell subline GH3/B6/F10, previously selected for expression of high levels of membrane estrogen receptor-α. Picomolar to nanomolar concentrations of both E2 and XEs caused intracellular Ca2+ changes within 30 sec of administration. Each XE produced a unique temporal pattern of Ca2+ elevation. Removing Ca2+ from the extracellular solution abolished both spontaneous and XE-induced intracellular Ca2+ changes, as did 10 μM nifedipine. This suggests that XEs mediate their actions via voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane. None of the Ca2+ fluxes came from intracellular Ca2+ stores. E2 and each XE also caused unique time- and concentration-dependent patterns of prolactin (PRL) secretion that were largely complete within 3 min of administration. PRL secretion was also blocked by nifedipine, demonstrating a correlation between Ca2+ influx and PRL secretion. These data indicate that at very low concentrations, XEs mediate membrane-initiated intracellular Ca2+ increases resulting in PRL secretion via a mechanism similar to that for E2, but with distinct patterns and potencies that could explain their abilities to disrupt endocrine functions. PMID:15811834

  14. Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Joint EPA and Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board NPDES Permit and Waiver from Secondary Treatment for the West Basin Municipal Water District Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

  15. Mechanisms of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release induced by P2X receptor activation in mesenteric artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, Khrystyna Yu; Thugorka, Oleksandr M; Bouryi, Vitali A; Harhun, Maksym I; Gordienko, Dmitri V

    2014-06-01

    ATP is one of the principal sympathetic neurotransmitters which contracts vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors (P2XRs). We have recently demonstrated that contraction of the guinea pig small mesenteric arteries evoked by stimulation of P2XRs is sensitive to inhibitors of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs). Here we analyzed contribution of IP3Rs and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) to [Ca(2+)]i transients induced by P2XR agonist αβ-meATP (10 μM) in single SMCs from these vessels. The effects of inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs), RyRs and IP3Rs (5 μM nicardipine, 100 μM tetracaine and 30 μM 2-APB, respectively) on αβ-meATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were analyzed using fast x-y confocal Ca(2+) imaging. The effect of IP3R inhibition on the [Ca(2+)]i transient was significantly stronger (67 ± 7%) than that of RyR inhibition (40 ± 5%) and was attenuated by block of VGCCs. The latter indicates that activation of VGCCs is linked to IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. Immunostaining of RyRs and IP3Rs revealed that RyRs are located mainly in deeper sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) while sub-plasma membrane (PM) SR elements are enriched with type 1 IP3Rs. This structural peculiarity makes IP3Rs more accessible to Ca(2+) entering the cell via VGCCs. Thus, IP3Rs may serve as an "intermediate amplifier" between voltage-gated Ca(2+) entry and RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release. P2X receptor activation in mesenteric artery SMCs recruits IP3Rs-mediated Ca(2+) release from sub-PM SR, which is facilitated by activation of VGCCs. Sensitivity of IP3R-mediated release to VGCC antagonists in vascular SMCs makes this mechanism of special therapeutic significance. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the immunosuppressant FK506 on intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ accumulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bultynck, G; De Smet, P; Weidema, A F; Ver Heyen, M; Maes, K; Callewaert, G; Missiaen, L; Parys, J B; De Smedt, H

    2000-06-15

    The immunophilin FKBP12 associates with intracellular Ca2+ channels and this interaction can be disrupted by the immunosuppressant FK506. We have investigated the effect of FK506 on Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake in permeabilized cell types. Changes in medium free [Ca2+] were detected by the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 in digitonin-permeabilized SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, DT40 and R23-11 (i.e. triple inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor knockout cells) chicken B lymphocytes and differentiated and undifferentiated BC3H1 skeletal muscle cells. 45Ca2+ fluxes were studied in saponin-permeabilized A7r5 rat smooth muscle cells. Addition of FK506 to permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells led to a sustained elevation of the medium [Ca2+] corresponding to approximately 30 % of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187-induced [Ca2+] rise. This rise in [Ca2+] was not dependent on mitochondrial activity. This FK506-induced [Ca2+] rise was related to the inhibition of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase (SERCA) Ca2+ pump. Oxalate-facilitated 45Ca2+ uptake in SH-SY5Y microsomes was inhibited by FK506 with an IC50 of 19 microM. The inhibition of the SERCA Ca2+ pump was not specific since several macrocyclic lactone compounds (ivermectin > FK506, ascomycin and rapamycin) were able to inhibit Ca2+ uptake activity. FK506 (10 microM) did not affect IP3-induced Ca2+ release in permeabilized SH-SY5Y and A7r5 cells, but enhanced caffeine-induced Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) in differentiated BC3H1 cells. In conclusion, FK506 inhibited active Ca2+ uptake by the SERCA Ca2+ pump; in addition, FK506 enhanced intracellular Ca2+ release through the RyR, but it had no direct effect on IP3-induced Ca2+ release.

  17. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    PubMed

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  18. Structures of Ca(V) Ca**2+/CaM-IQ Domain Complexes Reveal Binding Modes That Underlie Calcium-Dependent Inactivation And Facilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Rumpf, C.H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2009-05-20

    Calcium influx drives two opposing voltage-activated calcium channel (Ca{sub V}) self-modulatory processes: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Specific Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin (Ca{sup 2+}/CaM) lobes produce CDI and CDF through interactions with the Ca{sub V}{alpha}{sub 1} subunit IQ domain. Curiously, Ca{sup 2+}/CaM lobe modulation polarity appears inverted between Ca{sub V}1s and Ca{sub V}2s. Here, we present crystal structures of Ca{sub V}2.1, Ca{sub V}2.2, and Ca{sub V}2.3 Ca{sup 2+}/CaM-IQ domain complexes. All display binding orientations opposite to Ca{sub V}1.2 with a physical reversal of the CaM lobe positions relative to the IQ {alpha}-helix. Titration calorimetry reveals lobe competition for a high-affinitymore » site common to Ca{sub V}1 and Ca{sub V}2 IQ domains that is occupied by the CDI lobe in the structures. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that the N-terminal Ca{sub V}2 Ca{sup 2+}/C-lobe anchors affect CDF. Together, the data unveil the remarkable structural plasticity at the heart of Ca{sub V} feedback modulation and indicate that Ca{sub V}1 and Ca{sub V}2 IQ domains bear a dedicated CDF site that exchanges Ca{sup 2+}/CaM lobe occupants.« less

  19. Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2011-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; ...

    2017-10-26

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anodemore » and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Finally, additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.« less

  1. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; Jing, Yan; Dong, Hui; Rao, Karun K; Chi, Xiaowei; Fang, Fang; Yao, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anode and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.

  2. Interplay of the Ca2+-binding protein DREAM with presenilin in neuronal Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Laura; Lim, Dmitry; Carafoli, Ernesto; Brini, Marisa

    2008-10-10

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein DREAM regulates gene transcription and Kv potassium channels in neurons but has also been claimed to interact with presenilins, which are involved in the generation of beta-amyloid and in the regulation of the Ca(2+) content in the endoplasmic reticulum. The role of DREAM in Ca(2+) homeostasis was thus explored in SH-SY5Y cells stably or transiently overexpressing DREAM or a Ca(2+)-insensitive mutant of it. The overexpression of DREAM had transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) and capacitative Ca(2+) influx were reduced in stably expressing cells. The previously shown down-regulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 3 expression was confirmed; it could cause a local increase of subplasma membrane Ca(2+) and thus inhibit capacitative Ca(2+) influx. DREAM up-regulated the expression of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and could thus increase the unstimulated release of Ca(2+) through it. The transient coexpression of DREAM and presenilin potentiated the decrease of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) observed in presenilin-overexpressing cells. This could be due to a direct effect of DREAM on presenilin as the two proteins interacted in a Ca(2+)-independent fashion.

  3. CA-MRSA. The new sports pathogen.

    PubMed

    Kurkowski, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Skin infections in athletes caused by community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have been observed within many cities throughout the United States and within many countries throughout the world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2003). As the incidence rises in the athletic population, clinicians must learn to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA, diagnosis and treat infections with judicious use of antimicrobial agents and facilitate strategies to limit transmission. Recently, a new consensus guideline for handling CA-MRSA outbreaks in sports has been released by the CDC (Gorwitz et al., 2006). This article includes a review of the evolution of MRSA; distinguishes between healthcare associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and CA-MRSA; and reviews the diagnosis, management, and prevention strategies to limit transmission of CA-MRSA.

  4. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin

    PubMed Central

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  5. Orai1 and TRPC1 Proteins Co-localize with CaV1.2 Channels to Form a Signal Complex in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Medina, Javier; Calderón-Sánchez, Eva; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Monje-Quiroga, Francisco; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Castellano, Antonio; Ordóñez, Antonio; Smani, Tarik

    2016-09-30

    Voltage-dependent Ca V 1.2 L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCC) are the main route for calcium entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Several studies have also determined the relevant role of store-operated Ca 2+ channels (SOCC) in vascular tone regulation. Nevertheless, the role of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC in vascular tone regulation and their possible interaction with Ca V 1.2 are still unknown. The current study sought to characterize the co-activation of SOCC and LTCC upon stimulation by agonists, and to determine the possible crosstalk between Orai1, TRPC1, and Ca V 1.2. Aorta rings and isolated VSMC obtained from wild type or smooth muscle-selective conditional Ca V 1.2 knock-out (Ca V 1.2 KO ) mice were used to study vascular contractility, intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization, and distribution of ion channels. We found that serotonin (5-HT) or store depletion with thapsigargin (TG) enhanced intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and stimulated aorta contraction. These responses were sensitive to LTCC and SOCC inhibitors. Also, 5-HT- and TG-induced responses were significantly attenuated in Ca V 1.2 KO mice. Furthermore, hyperpolarization induced with cromakalim or valinomycin significantly reduced both 5-HT and TG responses, whereas these responses were enhanced with LTCC agonist Bay-K-8644. Interestingly, in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that Ca V 1.2 interacts with Orai1 and TRPC1 in untreated VSMC. These interactions enhanced significantly after stimulation of cells with 5-HT and TG. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time a functional interaction between Orai1, TRPC1, and Ca V 1.2 channels in VSMC, confirming that upon agonist stimulation, vessel contraction involves Ca 2+ entry due to co-activation of Orai1- and TRPC1-dependent SOCC and LTCC. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  7. Isospin effects in 40,48Ca+40,48Ca collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Verde, G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D.; Elson, J.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.; Rogers, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L.; de Souza, R. T.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, B.; Wallace, M.; Xu, K.; Youngs, M.

    2010-03-01

    The isospin dependence of two proton correlations is studied in 40Ca+40Ca and 48Ca+48Ca collisions at E/A=80MeV. Measurements were performed with the HiRA detector array complemented by the 4π Ball at NSCL. We observe a strong isospin dependence of the pp-correlation functions; however the emitting source radius extracted using the imaging technique yields no sensitivity to the isospin of the reaction system. We interpret this result as a consequence of smaller fraction of fast proton emission in the neutron rich 48Ca system.

  8. Evidence that Ca(2+) cycling by the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase increases the 'excitability' of the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    De Luisi, Annunziata; Hofer, Aldebaran M

    2003-04-15

    The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) is a widely expressed G-protein-coupled receptor that translates information about [Ca(2+)] in the extracellular milieu to the interior of the cell, usually via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Using fura-2 imaging of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], we observed that HEK293 cells expressing CaR oscillated readily under conditions permissive for CaR activation. Spiking was also triggered in the absence of external Ca(2+) by the CaR agonist spermine (1 mM). Oscillating cells were typically located in clusters of closely apposed cells, but Ca(2+) spiking was insensitive to the gap junction inhibitor 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. We hypothesized that Ca(2+) signals might be amplified, in part, through a positive feedback loop in which Ca(2+) extrusion via the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activates CaRs on the same cell or adjacent cells through local increases in [Ca(2+)](out). In support of this idea, addition of exogenous Ca(2+) buffers (keeping free [Ca(2+)](out) constant) attenuated or eliminated Ca(2+) signals (manifested as oscillations), as did PMCA inhibitors (HgCl(2), orthovanadate and Caloxin 2A1). Measurement of extracellular [Ca(2+)] using the near membrane probe fura-C(18) revealed that external [Ca(2+)] rose following receptor activation, sometimes displaying an oscillatory pattern. Our data suggest that PMCA-mediated cycling of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane leads to localized increases in [Ca(2+)](out) that increase the excitability of CaR.

  9. Ca2+ removal by the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase influences the contribution of mitochondria to activity-dependent Ca2+ dynamics in Aplysia neuroendocrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Groten, Christopher J.; Rebane, Jonathan T.; Hodgson, Heather M.; Chauhan, Alamjeet K.; Blohm, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    After Ca2+ influx, mitochondria can sequester Ca2+ and subsequently release it back into the cytosol. This form of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) prolongs Ca2+ signaling and can potentially mediate activity-dependent plasticity. As Ca2+ is required for its subsequent release, Ca2+ removal systems, like the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), could impact CICR. Here we examine such a role for the PMCA in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica. CICR is triggered in these neurons during an afterdischarge and is implicated in sustaining membrane excitability and peptide secretion. Somatic Ca2+ was measured from fura-PE3-loaded cultured bag cell neurons recorded under whole cell voltage clamp. Voltage-gated Ca2+ influx was elicited with a 5-Hz, 1-min train, which mimics the fast phase of the afterdischarge. PMCA inhibition with carboxyeosin or extracellular alkalization augmented the effectiveness of Ca2+ influx in eliciting mitochondrial CICR. A Ca2+ compartment model recapitulated these findings and indicated that disrupting PMCA-dependent Ca2+ removal increases CICR by enhancing mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Indeed, carboxyeosin augmented train-evoked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Consistent with their role on Ca2+ dynamics, cell labeling revealed that the PMCA and mitochondria overlap with Ca2+ entry sites. Finally, PMCA-dependent Ca2+ extrusion did not impact endoplasmic reticulum-dependent Ca2+ removal or release, despite the organelle residing near Ca2+ entry sites. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ removal by the PMCA influences the propensity for stimulus-evoked CICR by adjusting the amount of Ca2+ available for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This study highlights a mechanism by which the PMCA could impact activity-dependent plasticity in the bag cell neurons. PMID:26864756

  10. Emergence of sequence sensitivity in a hippocampal CA3-CA1 model.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Motoharu; Hayashi, Hatsuo

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampal CA1 region fire in a sequence sensitive manner. In this study we tested if hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions can give rise to the sequence sensitivity. We used a two-layer CA3-CA1 hippocampal model that consisted of Hodgkin-Huxley style neuron models. Sequential input signals that mimicked signals projected from the entorhinal cortex gradually modified the synaptic conductances between CA3 pyramidal cells through spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and produced propagations of neuronal activity in the radial direction from stimulated pyramidal cells. This sequence dependent spatio-temporal activity was picked up by specific CA1 pyramidal cells through modification of Schaffer collateral synapses with STDP. After learning, these CA1 pyramidal cells responded with the highest probability to the learned sequence, while responding with a lower probability to different sequences. These results demonstrate that sequence sensitivity of CA1 place cells would emerge through computation in the CA3 and CA1 regions.

  11. Interactions of physiological ligands with the Ca pump and Na/Ca exchange in squid axons

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the interaction of physiological ligands other than Nai and Cai with the Ca pump and Na/Ca exchange in internally dialyzed squid axons. The results show the following. (a) Internal Mg2+ is an inhibitor of the Nao-dependent Ca efflux. At physiological Mg2+i (4 mM), the inhibition amounts to approximately 50%. The inhibition is partial and noncompetitive with Cai, and is not affected by Nai or ATP. The ATP-dependent uncoupled efflux is unaffected by Mgi up to 20 mM. Both components of the Ca efflux require Mg2+i for their activation by ATP. (b) At constant membrane potential, Ki is an important cofactor for the uncoupled Ca efflux. (c) Orthophosphate (Pi) activates the Nao- dependent Ca efflux without affecting the uncoupled component. Activation by Pi occurs only in the presence of Mg-ATP or hydrolyzable ATP analogues. Pi under physiological conditions has no effect on the uncoupled component; nevertheless, at alkaline pH, it inhibits the Ca pump, probably by product inhibition. (d) ADP is a potent inhibitor of the uncoupled Ca efflux. The Nao-dependent component is inhibited by ADP only at much higher ADP concentrations. These results indicate that (a) depending on the concentration of Ca2+i, Na+i Mg2+i, and Pi, the Na/Ca carrier can operate under a low- or high-rate regime; (b) the interactions of Mg2+i, Pi, Na+i, and ATP with the carrier are not interdependent; (c) the effect of Pi on the carrier-mediated Ca efflux resembles the stimulation of the Nao-dependent Ca efflux by internal vanadate; (d) the ligand effects on the uncoupled Ca efflux are of the type seen in the Ca pump in red cells and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:6097638

  12. H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx and its inhibition by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid in the β-cells: involvement of TRPM2 channels

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Muhammad R; Akbar, Sanian; Eweida, Mohamed; Kühn, Frank JP; Gustafsson, Amanda Jabin; Lückhoff, Andreas; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 melastatin-related transient receptor potential channel (TRPM2), a member of the melastatin-related TRP (transient receptor potential) subfamily is a Ca2+-permeable channel activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We have investigated the role of TRPM2 channels in mediating the H2O2-induced increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in insulin-secreting cells. In fura-2 loaded INS-1E cells, a widely used model of β-cells, and in human β-cells, H2O2 increased [Ca2+]i, in the presence of 3 mM glucose, by inducing Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx was not blocked by nimodipine, a blocker of the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels nor by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of several TRP channels and store-operated channels, but it was completely blocked by N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), a potent inhibitor of TRPM2. Adenosine diphosphate phosphate ribose, a specific activator of TRPM2 channel and H2O2, induced inward cation currents that were blocked by ACA. Western blot using antibodies directed to the epitopes on the N-terminal and on the C-terminal parts of TRPM2 identified the full length TRPM2 (TRPM2-L), and the C-terminally truncated TRPM2 (TRPM2-S) in human islets. We conclude that functional TRPM2 channels mediate H2O2-induced Ca2+ entry in β-cells, a process potently inhibited by ACA. PMID:19382906

  13. Glutamate excitotoxicity and Ca2+-regulation of respiration: Role of the Ca2+ activated mitochondrial transporters (CaMCs).

    PubMed

    Rueda, Carlos B; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Traba, Javier; Amigo, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Paloma; Contreras, Laura; Juaristi, Inés; Martinez-Valero, Paula; Pardo, Beatriz; Del Arco, Araceli; Satrustegui, Jorgina

    2016-08-01

    Glutamate elicits Ca(2+) signals and workloads that regulate neuronal fate both in physiological and pathological circumstances. Oxidative phosphorylation is required in order to respond to the metabolic challenge caused by glutamate. In response to physiological glutamate signals, cytosolic Ca(2+) activates respiration by stimulation of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle through Ca(2+)-binding to the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12), and by stimulation of adenine nucleotide uptake through Ca(2+) binding to the mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier (SCaMC-3/Slc25a23). In addition, after Ca(2+) entry into the matrix through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), it activates mitochondrial dehydrogenases. In response to pathological glutamate stimulation during excitotoxicity, Ca(2+) overload, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and delayed Ca(2+) deregulation (DCD) lead to neuronal death. Glutamate-induced respiratory stimulation is rapidly inactivated through a mechanism involving Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, consumption of cytosolic NAD(+), a decrease in matrix ATP and restricted substrate supply. Glutamate-induced Ca(2+)-activation of SCaMC-3 imports adenine nucleotides into mitochondria, counteracting the depletion of matrix ATP and the impaired respiration, while Aralar-dependent lactate metabolism prevents substrate exhaustion. A second mechanism induced by excitotoxic glutamate is permeability transition pore (PTP) opening, which critically depends on ROS production and matrix Ca(2+) entry through the MCU. By increasing matrix content of adenine nucleotides, SCaMC-3 activity protects against glutamate-induced PTP opening and lowers matrix free Ca(2+), resulting in protracted appearance of DCD and protection against excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, while the lack of lactate protection during in vivo excitotoxicity explains increased vulnerability to kainite-induced toxicity in Aralar

  14. Enhanced Late Na and Ca Currents as Effective Antiarrhythmic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Pezhouman, Arash; Angelini, Marina; Olcese, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    While recent advances clarified the molecular and cellular modes of action of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs), their link to suppression of dynamical arrhythmia mechanisms remains only partially understood. The current classifications of AADs (Classes I, III, and IV) rely on blocking peak Na, K and L-type calcium currents (ICa,L), with Class II with dominant beta receptor blocking activity and Class V including drugs with diverse classes of actions. The discovery that the calcium and redox sensor, cardiac Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enhances both the late Na (INa-L) and the late ICa,L in patients at high risk of VT/VF provided a new and a rational AAD target. Pathological rise of either or both of INa-L and late ICa,L are demonstrated to promote cellular early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and EAD-mediated triggered activity that can initiate VT/VF in remodeled hearts. Selective inhibition of the INa-L without affecting their peak transients with the highly specific prototype drug, GS-967 suppresses these EAD-mediated VT/VFs. As in the case of INa-L, selective inhibition of the late ICa,L without affecting its peak with the prototype drug, roscovitine suppressed oxidative EAD-mediated VT/VF. These findings indicate that specific blockers of the late inward currents without affecting their peaks (gating modifiers), offer a new and effective AAD class action i.e., “Class VI.” The development of safe drugs with selective Class VI actions provides a rational and effective approach to treat VT/VF particularly in cardiac conditions associated with enhanced CaMKII activity such as heart failure. PMID:28220073

  15. L-type voltage-operated calcium channels, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase form a calcium/redox nano-transducer within lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Marques-da-Silva, D; Gutierrez-Merino, C

    2012-04-06

    Cytosolic calcium plays a leading role in the control of neuronal excitability, plasticity and survival. This work aims to experimentally assess the possibility that lipid rafts of the plasma membrane can provide a structural platform for a faster and tighter functional coupling between calcium and nitric-oxide signaling in neurons. Using primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) in culture this hypothesis has been experimentally assessed with fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, preparations of lipid rafts-enriched membrane fragments and western blotting. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that major calcium entry systems of the plasma membrane of CGN (L-type calcium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) and nitric-oxide synthase are separated by less than 80 nm from each other within lipid rafts-associated sub-microdomains, suggesting a new role of lipid rafts as neuronal calcium/redox nano-transducers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  17. Berberine alleviates ischemic arrhythmias via recovering depressed I(to) and I(Ca) currents in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Li, Xue-Lian; Li, Qiang; Fu, Ying; Yu, Hai-Jing; Sun, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Li; Shan, Hong-Li

    2012-02-15

    The present study was designed to elucidate the potential mechanism underlying that berberine suppressed ischemic arrhythmias in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were subjected to ischemia by the occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Berberine was orally administered for 7 days before ischemic injury in diabetic rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp was performed to measure the transient outward K⁺ current (I(to)) and L-type Ca²⁺ current (I(Ca)). Results showed that oral administration of berberine (100 mg/kg) attenuated ischemia-induced arrhythmias in diabetic rats. Berberine significantly shortened the prolonged QTc interval from 214 ± 6ms to 189 ± 5ms in ischemic diabetic rats, and also restored the diminished I(to) and I(Ca) current densities in the same animal model rats. In conclusion, the ability of berberine to protect diabetic rats against cardiac arrhythmias makes it possible to be a prospective therapeutic agent in clinical management of cardiac disease secondary to diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Rattling and freezing in a 1D transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Young, Lai-Sang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a heat conduction model introduced by Collet and Eckmann (2009 Commun. Math. Phys. 287 1015-38). This is an open system in which particles exchange momentum with a row of (fixed) scatterers. We assume simplified bath conditions throughout, and give a qualitative description of the dynamics extrapolating from the case of a single particle for which we have a fairly clear understanding. The main phenomenon discussed is freezing, or the slowing down of particles with time. As particle number is conserved, this means fewer collisions per unit time, and less contact with the baths; in other words, the conductor becomes less effective. Careful numerical documentation of freezing is provided, and a theoretical explanation is proposed. Freezing being an extremely slow process; however, the system behaves as though it is in a steady state for long durations. Quantities such as energy and fluxes are studied, and are found to have curious relationships with particle density.

  19. Proton computed tomography using a 1D silicon diode array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Cammin, Jochen; Bisello, Francesca; Solberg, Timothy D; McDonough, James E; Zhu, Timothy C; Menichelli, David; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Proton radiography (PR) and proton computed tomography (PCT) can be used to measure proton stopping power directly. However, practical and cost effective proton imaging detectors are not widely available. In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of proton imaging using a silicon diode array. A one-dimensional silicon diode detector array (1DSDA) was aligned with the central axis (CAX) of the proton beam. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs were used to find the correspondence between the water equivalent thickness (WET) and 1DSDA channel number. Two-dimensional proton radiographs were obtained by translation and rotation of a phantom relative to CAX while the proton nozzle and 1DSDA were kept stationary. A PCT image of one slice of the phantom was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. PR and PCT images of the PMMA cube were successfully acquired using the 1DSDA. The WET of the phantom was measured using PR data. The resolution and maximum error in WET measurement are 2.0 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Structures down to 2.0 mm in size could be resolved completely. Reconstruction of a PCT image showed very good agreement with simulation. Limitations in spatial resolution are attributed to limited spatial sampling, beam collimation, and proton scatter. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using silicon diode arrays for proton imaging. Such a device can potentially offer fast image acquisition and high spatial and energy resolution for PR and PCT.

  20. Effects of rapid buffers on Ca2+ diffusion and Ca2+ oscillations.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J; Keizer, J

    1994-01-01

    Based on realistic mechanisms of Ca2+ buffering that include both stationary and mobile buffers, we derive and investigate models of Ca2+ diffusion in the presence of rapid buffers. We obtain a single transport equation for Ca2+ that contains the effects caused by both stationary and mobile buffers. For stationary buffers alone, we obtain an expression for the effective diffusion constant of Ca2+ that depends on local Ca2+ concentrations. Mobile buffers, such as fura-2, BAPTA, or small endogenous proteins, give rise to a transport equation that is no longer strictly diffusive. Calculations are presented to show that these effects can modify greatly the manner and rate at which Ca2+ diffuses in cells, and we compare these results with recent measurements by Allbritton et al. (1992). As a prelude to work on Ca2+ waves, we use a simplified version of our model of the activation and inhibition of the IP3 receptor Ca2+ channel in the ER membrane to illustrate the way in which Ca2+ buffering can affect both the amplitude and existence of Ca2+ oscillations. PMID:7919018

  1. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    PubMed

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  2. A Model-Independent Algorithm to Derive Ca2+ Fluxes Underlying Local Cytosolic Ca2+ Transients

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alejandra C.; Bruno, Luciana; Demuro, Angelo; Parker, Ian; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    Local intracellular Ca2+ signals result from Ca2+ flux into the cytosol through individual channels or clusters of channels. To gain a mechanistic understanding of these events we need to know the magnitude and spatial distribution of the underlying Ca2+ flux. However, this is difficult to infer from fluorescence Ca2+ images because the distribution of Ca2+-bound dye is affected by poorly characterized processes including diffusion of Ca2+ ions, their binding to mobile and immobile buffers, and sequestration by Ca2+ pumps. Several methods have previously been proposed to derive Ca2+ flux from fluorescence images, but all require explicit knowledge or assumptions regarding these processes. We now present a novel algorithm that requires few assumptions and is largely model-independent. By testing the algorithm with both numerically generated image data and experimental images of sparklets resulting from Ca2+ flux through individual voltage-gated channels, we show that it satisfactorily reconstructs the magnitude and time course of the underlying Ca2+ currents. PMID:15681645

  3. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca2+ signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca2+ buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca2+ signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca2+ imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca2+-binding ratio (∼15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca2+ from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca2+ signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca2+ buffering enables fast active zone Ca2+ signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca2+ buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission. PMID:26015575

  4. High CA-125 and CA19-9 levels in spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinyue; Jin, Chu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaojian; Zhu, Fangfang; Lin, Feng

    2015-10-23

    To evaluate the clinical significance of serum CA-125 and CA19-9 in women with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. From January 2006 to April 2015, a total of 1653 women were diagnosed with ovarian endometriomas, and 43 women were diagnosed with the spontaneous rupture of their ovarian endometrioma. In addition, 70 women diagnosed with unruptured ovarian endometriomas were chosen to serve as control subjects. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 levels, together with the clinical materials, were collected. Serum CA-125, CA19-9, and the combined biomarkers were shown to be obviously elevated in the spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometrioma group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The AUC value for the combined biomarkers was 0.992 (95% CI, 0.981-1.000), with a high sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100% and 93.6%, respectively. Moreover, the maximum diameter of the mass was significantly (p=0.001) increased in the ruptured group. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 were significantly increased in patients with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. Moreover, the combined biomarkers were better than either CA-125 or CA19-9 alone in the diagnosis of a spontaneous rupture of the ovarian endometrioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P < 0.01). In Cox regression analysis, tumor size (P < 0.001, P = 0.005), pTNM stage (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) and CA125 (P = 0.026, P = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors both in two cohorts. Nomograms of these two cohorts based on the number of positive serum tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  6. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    PubMed

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  7. CaP CURE Initiatives and Projects

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Howard R

    2003-01-01

    CaP CURE was founded in 1993 to help find better treatments and a cure for prostate cancer. By reducing the time and complexity required to apply for funding, and by funding many first-time applicants, CaP CURE has attracted a large number of high-level investigators to the field of prostate cancer research. The organization’s Therapy Consortium meets regularly to address major issues that impede progress in clinical development of new treatments for prostate cancer. CaP CURE has also sponsored an initiative to standardize clinical trial design scenarios for the clinical state of rising prostate-specific antigen and intends to present them to the Food and Drug Administration in partnership with the National Dialogue on Cancer. Finally, CaP CURE’s efforts have resulted in a significant increase in federal funding of prostate cancer research programs. PMID:16986049

  8. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  9. Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines δ 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 ° C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as δ 44Ca values relative to seawater (δ 44Ca = 0 ‰ ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show δ 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 ‰ to -1.3 ‰ with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show δ 44Ca values between -0.1 ‰ and -2.5 ‰ , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and

  10. Pericellular Ca2+ recycling potentiates thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Stewart O; Pugh, Nicholas; Farndale, Richard W; Harper, Alan G S

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) potentiate Ca2+ signaling evoked by thapsigargin in human platelets, via their ability to modulate the secretion of autocoids from dense granules. This link was confirmed in platelets stimulated with the physiological agonist, thrombin, and experiments were performed to examine how Ca2+ removal by the NCX modulates platelet dense granule secretion. In cells loaded with the near-membrane indicator FFP-18, thrombin stimulation was observed to elicit an NCX-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ in a pericellular region around the platelets. To test whether this pericellular Ca2+ accumulation might be responsible for the influence of NCXs over platelet function, platelets were exposed to fast Ca2+ chelators or had their glycocalyx removed. Both manipulations of the pericellular Ca2+ rise reduced thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals and dense granule secretion. Blocking Ca2+-permeable ion channels had a similar effect, suggesting that Ca2+ exported into the pericellular region is able to recycle back into the platelet cytosol. Single cell imaging with extracellular Fluo-4 indicated that thrombin-evoked rises in extracellular [Ca2+] occurred within the boundary described by the cell surface, suggesting their presence within the open canalicular system (OCS). FFP-18 fluorescence was similarly distributed. These data suggest that upon thrombin stimulation, NCX activity creates a rise in [Ca2+] within the pericellular region of the platelet from where it recycles back into the platelet cytosol, acting to both accelerate dense granule secretion and maintain the initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+]. PMID:24303163

  11. [Association of ovarian tumors with CA-125].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Acosta, Judith Elena; Olguín-Cruces, Víctor Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is the most widely used serum marker for ovarian cancer screening. The aim of this paper was to establish the association between histopathologic result of ovarian tumors with serologic CA-125 and utility for the diagnosis of ovarian tumors at a Ginecoobstetric hospital. An observational, retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study, from September 1st 2010 to February 28 2013. All patients with histopathologic report ovarian tumor and CA-125 was selected to analyze the association of ovarian tumors with their histological type, biological behavior, range positivity of CA-125 and its relationship to the pre and postmenopausal state. Of 1213 patients, 334 were included. Utility of CA-125 in postmenopausal reported positive predictive value of 67.5%, with sensitivity (72%), specificity (82.6%) and negative predictive value (86.1%), both with p = 0.001, mainly in the epithelial origin. In premenopausal a low positive predictive value was reported. The CA-125 is useful for screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women, mainly for epithelial origin.

  12. Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (∼50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.

  13. The influence of Ca²⁺ buffers on free [Ca²⁺] fluctuations and the effective volume of Ca²⁺ microdomains.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. Ca(2+) binding proteins (Ca(2+) buffers) play an important role in regulating Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]). Buffers typically slow [Ca(2+)] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of Ca(2+) domains. Because fluctuations in [Ca(2+)] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain's physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [Ca(2+)] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning Ca(2+) signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free Ca(2+) influx with passive exchange of both Ca(2+) and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of Ca(2+) and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of Ca(2+) signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [Ca(2+)] fluctuations during periods of Ca(2+) influx, whereas stationary (immobile) Ca(2+) buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of Ca(2+) influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid Ca(2+) buffers on [Ca(2+)] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that Ca(2+) buffers alter the dynamics of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that Ca(2

  14. Study on the isospin equilibration phenomenon in nuclear reactions 40Ca + 40Ca , 40Ca + 46Ti , 40Ca + 48Ca , 48Ca + 48Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon by using the CHIMERA multidetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, N. S.; Auditore, L.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; Chatterjee, M. B.; De Luca, S.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Gnoffo, B.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the results obtained by studying nuclear reactions between isotopes of Ca and Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon. We used the multidetector CHIMERA to detect charged reaction products. In particular, we studied two main effects: the isospin diffusion and the isospin drift. In order to study these processes we performed a moving-source analysis on kinetic energy spectra of the isobar nuclei ^{3H} and ^{3He} . This method allows to isolate the emission from the typical sources produced in reactions at Fermi energy: projectile like fragment (PLF), target like fragment (TLF), and mid-velocity (MV) emission. The obtained results are compared to previous experimental investigations and to simulations obtained with CoMD-II model.

  15. Luminal glucose does not enhance active intestinal calcium absorption in mice: evidence against a role for Ca(v)1.3 as a mediator of calcium uptake during absorption.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Fernandez, Perla C; Fleet, James C

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal Ca absorption occurs through a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-regulated transcellular pathway, especially when habitual dietary Ca intake is low. Recently the L-type voltage-gated Ca channel, Cav1.3, was proposed to mediate active, transcellular Ca absorption in response to membrane depolarization caused by elevated luminal glucose levels after a meal. We tested the hypothesis that high luminal glucose could reveal a role for Cav1.3 in active intestinal Ca absorption in mice. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were fed AIN93G diets containing either low (0.125%) or high (1%) Ca for 1 week, and Ca absorption was examined by an oral gavage method using a 45Ca-transport buffer containing 25 mmol/L of glucose or fructose. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), calbindin D9k (CaBPD9k), and Cav1.3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. TRPV6 and CaBPD9k expressions were highest in the duodenum, where active, 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated Ca absorption occurs, whereas Cav1.3 mRNA levels were similar across the intestinal segments. As expected, the low-Ca<