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Sample records for a2 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase

  1. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention. PMID:27566583

  2. Ethanol disrupts chondrification of the neurocranial cartilages in medaka embryos without affecting aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2) promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuhui; Willett, Kristine L.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Dasmahapatra, Asok K.

    2009-01-01

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos at different developmental stages were exposed to ethanol for 48 h, then allowed to hatch. Teratogenic effects were evaluated in hatchlings after examining chondrocranial cartilage deformities. Ethanol disrupted cartilage development in medaka in a dose and developmental stage-specific manner. Compared to controls, the linear length of the neurocranium and other cartilages were reduced in ethanol-treated groups. Moreover, the chondrification in cartilages, specifically trabeculae and polar cartilages, were inhibited by ethanol. To understand the mechanism of ethanol teratogenesis, NAD+: NADH status during embryogenesis and the methylation pattern of Aldh1A2 promoter in whole embryos and adult tissues (brain, eye, heart and liver) were analyzed. Embryos 6 dpf had higher NAD+ than embryos 0 or 2 dpf. Ethanol (200 or 400 mM) was able to reduce NAD+ content in 2 and 6 dpf embryos. However, in both cases reductions were not significantly different from the controls. Moreover, no significant difference in either NADH content or in NAD+: NADH status of the ethanol-treated embryos, with regard to controls, was observed. The promoter of Aldh1A2 contains 31 CpG dinucleotides (-705 to +154, ATG = +1); none of which were methylated. Compared to controls, embryonic ethanol exposure (100 and 400 mM) was unable to alter Aldh1A2 promoter methylation in embryos or in the tissues of adults (breeding) developmentally exposed to ethanol (300 mM, 48 hpf). From these data we conclude that ethanol teratogenesis in medaka does not induce alteration in the methylation pattern of Aldh1A2 promoter, but does change cartilage development. PMID:19651241

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-01-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.35, b = 128.73, c = 131.03 Å. PMID:24100567

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Bacillus coagulans 2-6.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiangzhi; Huang, Xianhui; Zhang, Guofang; Zhao, Xiufang; Zhu, Xianming; Dong, Hui

    2013-10-01

    (2R,3R)-2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (R,R-BDH) from Bacillus coagulans 2-6 is a zinc-dependent medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase. Recombinant R,R-BDH with a His6 tag at the C-terminus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified by Ni2+-chelating affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystallization condition consisted of 8%(v/v) Tacsimate pH 4.6, 18%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=88.35, b=128.73, c=131.03 Å.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps ...

  6. DB Dehydrogenase: an online integrated structural database on enzyme dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Suman Kumar; Bhuyan, Rajabrata; Seal, Alpana

    2012-01-01

    Dehydrogenase enzymes are almost inevitable for metabolic processes. Shortage or malfunctioning of dehydrogenases often leads to several acute diseases like cancers, retinal diseases, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer, hepatitis B & C etc. With advancement in modern-day research, huge amount of sequential, structural and functional data are generated everyday and widens the gap between structural attributes and its functional understanding. DB Dehydrogenase is an effort to relate the functionalities of dehydrogenase with its structures. It is a completely web-based structural database, covering almost all dehydrogenases [~150 enzyme classes, ~1200 entries from ~160 organisms] whose structures are known. It is created by extracting and integrating various online resources to provide the true and reliable data and implemented by MySQL relational database through user friendly web interfaces using CGI Perl. Flexible search options are there for data extraction and exploration. To summarize, sequence, structure, function of all dehydrogenases in one place along with the necessary option of cross-referencing; this database will be utile for researchers to carry out further work in this field. The database is available for free at http://www.bifku.in/DBD/

  7. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  8. Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in the longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, R M; Merritt, R B

    1980-08-01

    The interspecies homology of dace supernatant (A2,AB,B2) and mitochondrial (C2) malate dehydrogenase isozymes has been established through cell fractionation and tissue distribution studies. Isolated supernatant malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) isozymes show significant differences in Michaelis constants for oxaloacetate and in pH optima. Shifts in s-MDH isozyme pH optima with temperature may result in immediate compensation for increase in ectotherm body pH with decrease in temperature, but duplicate s-MDH isozymes are probably maintained through selection for tissue specific regulation of metabolism.

  9. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  10. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Chitra; Rupar, Tony; Prasad, Asuri N

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is a mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex that provides the link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. PDHc deficiency is one of the commoner metabolic disorders of lactic acidosis presenting with neurological phenotypes that vary with age and gender. In this mini-review, we postulate mechanisms of epilepsy in the setting of PDHc deficiency using two illustrative cases (one with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-alpha polypeptide (PDHA1) deficiency and the second one with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-beta subunit (PDHB) deficiency (a rare subtype of PDHc deficiency)) and a selected review of published case series. PDHc plays a critical role in the pathway of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. In severe deficiency states the resulting energy deficit impacts on brain development in utero resulting in structural brain anomalies and epilepsy. Milder deficiency states present with variable manifestations that include cognitive delay, ataxia, and seizures. Epileptogenesis in PDHc deficiency is linked to energy failure, development of structural brain anomalies and abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism. The use of the ketogenic diet bypasses the metabolic block, by providing a direct source of acetyl-CoA, leading to amelioration of some symptoms. Genetic counseling is essential as PDHA1 deficiency (commonest defect) is X-linked although females can be affected due to unfavorable lyonization, while PDHB and PDH phosphatase (PDP) deficiencies (much rarer defects) are of autosomal recessive inheritance. Research is in progress for looking into animal models to better understand pathogenesis and management of this challenging disorder. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Bacillus subtilis malate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S; De Jesús-Berríos, M; Sonenshein, A L

    1996-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis gene for malate dehydrogenase (citH) was found downstream of genes for citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Disruption of citH caused partial auxotrophy for aspartate and a requirement for aspartate during sporulation. In the absence of aspartate, citH mutant cells were blocked at a late stage of spore formation. PMID:8550482

  12. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  13. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glutamate Dehydrogenase from Apodachlya (Oomycetes) 1

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jeffrey S.; Gleason, Frank H.

    1972-01-01

    A glutamate dehydrogenase specific for nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide has been purified 50-fold from Apodachlya brachynema (Leptomitales). Certain physical, chemical, and kinetic properties of this enzyme have been studied, particularly specificity for coenzymes and substrates. With glucose as the sole carbon source, the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase was repressed, whereas glutamate, proline, alanine, or ornithine plus aspartate as sole carbon sources induced synthesis of the enzyme. These data indicate that the function of this enzyme is primarily degradative, although there is no evidence for a nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-specific biosynthetic glutamate dehydrogenase in Apodachlya. PMID:16657902

  15. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salomons GS, Maropoulos GD, Jakobs C, Grompe M, Gibson KM. Mutational spectrum of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase ( ... Dec;22(6):442-50. Citation on PubMed Gibson KM, Gupta M, Pearl PL, Tuchman M, Vezina ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... form that cells can use. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex converts a molecule called pyruvate, which is formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates, into another molecule called acetyl-CoA. This conversion ...

  18. Formate Dehydrogenase from Clostridium acidiurici

    PubMed Central

    Kearny, James J.; Sagers, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Partial purification of formate dehydrogenase from Clostridium acidiurici has been accomplished, and some properties of the enzyme have been determined. The molecular weight of the protein is at least 200,000 daltons. The enzyme showed marked instability to freezing and thawing and was inhibited strongly by oxygen and by light. Such inhibition was not reversed by incubation in the presence of thiol compounds. Cyanide inhibited the enzyme 90% at 0.1 mm concentrations, but ethylenediaminetetraacetate produced only slight inhibition at concentrations as high as 50 mm. The purified enzyme showed no ferredoxin activity in the Clostridium pasteurianum clastic system during pyruvate oxidation. Crude preparations of the enzyme could be coupled through ferredoxin to the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide during formate oxidation, but the purified enzyme could not catalyze the reduction of pyridine nucleotides by formate in the presence of ferredoxin. Formate oxidation with the purified enzyme was readily coupled to benzyl viologen reduction, in which case ferredoxin was not required. An exchange between formate and bicarbonate was catalyzed by both crude and purified preparations of the enzyme, but the net synthesis of formate from CO2 was not accomplished. PMID:4333376

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Fiorelli, G

    2008-01-05

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide. The global distribution of this disorder is remarkably similar to that of malaria, lending support to the so-called malaria protection hypothesis. G6PD deficiency is an X-linked, hereditary genetic defect due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause functional variants with many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. About 140 mutations have been described: most are single base changes, leading to aminoacid substitutions. The most frequent clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice, and acute haemolytic anaemia, which is usually triggered by an exogenous agent. Some G6PD variants cause chronic haemolysis, leading to congenital non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia. The most effective management of G6PD deficiency is to prevent haemolysis by avoiding oxidative stress. Screening programmes for the disorder are undertaken, depending on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a particular community.

  20. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  1. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs.

  2. Digitalis metabolism and human liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, W A; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol: NAD" oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) catalyzes the oxidation of the 3 beta-OH group of digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, and gitoxigenin to their 3-keto derivatives, which have been characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These studies have identified human liver alcohol dehydrogenase as the unknown NAD(H)-dependent liver enzyme specific for the free hydroxyl group at C3 of the cardiac genins; this hydroxyl is the critical site of the genins' enzymatic oxidation and concomitant pharmacological inactivation in humans. Several kinetic approaches have demonstrated that ethanol and the pharmacologically active components of the digitalis glycosides are oxidized with closely similar kcat/Km values at the same site on human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, for which they compete. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase thereby becomes an important biochemical link in the metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicology of ethanol and these glycosides, structurally unrelated agents that are both used widely. Both the competition of ethanol with these cardiac sterols and the narrow margin of safety in the therapeutic use of digitalis derivatives would seem to place at increased risk those individuals who receive digitalis and simultaneously consume large amounts of ethanol or whose alcohol dehydrogenase function is impaired. PMID:6987673

  3. Activation of liver alcohol dehydrogenase by glycosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C S; White, J H

    1983-01-01

    D-Fructose and D-glucose activate alcohol dehydrogenase from horse liver to oxidize ethanol. One mol of D-[U-14C]fructose or D-[U-14C]glucose is covalently incorporated per mol of the maximally activated enzyme. Amino acid and N-terminal analyses of the 14C-labelled glycopeptide isolated from a proteolytic digest of the [14C]glycosylated enzyme implicate lysine-315 as the site of the glycosylation. 13C-n.m.r.-spectroscopic studies indicate that D-[13C]glucose is covalently linked in N-glucosidic and Amadori-rearranged structures in the [13C]glucosylated alcohol dehydrogenase. Experimental results are consistent with the formation of the N-glycosylic linkage between glycose and lysine-315 of liver alcohol dehydrogenase in the initial step that results in an enhanced catalytic efficiency to oxidize ethanol. PMID:6342612

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of lactate...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase deficiency Orphanet: Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic ...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. (a) Identification. A lactic dehydrogenase... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum... cirrhosis or acute hepatitis. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1440 Lactate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Lactate... hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1420 Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. An isocitric dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme isocitric dehydrogenase in serum... disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary disease...

  11. Bifunctional isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase: a missing link in the evolution of beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2005-05-27

    Beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenases comprise 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. They share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and occupy equivalent positions in the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for leucine, glutamate, and lysine, respectively. Therefore, not only the enzymes but also the whole pathways should have evolved from a common ancestral pathway. In Pyrococcus horikoshii, only one pathway of the three has been identified in the genomic sequence, and PH1722 is the sole beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase gene. The organism does not require leucine, glutamate, or lysine for growth; the single pathway might play multiple (i.e., ancestral) roles in amino acid biosynthesis. The PH1722 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the substrate specificity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated. It exhibited activities on isocitrate and homoisocitrate at near equal efficiency, but not on 3-isopropylmalate. PH1722 is thus a novel, bifunctional beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase, which likely plays a dual role in glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in vivo.

  12. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, L J; Pettit, F H; Eley, M H; Hamilton, L; Collins, J H; Oliver, R M

    1975-01-01

    The binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (flavoprotein) to dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, the core enzyme of the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex [EC 1.2.4.1:pyruvate:lipoate oxidoreductase (decaryboxylating and acceptor-acetylating)], has been studied using sedimentation equilibrium analysis and radioactive enzymes in conjunction with gel filtration chromatography. The results show that the transacetylase, which consists of 24 apparently identical polypeptide chains organized into a cube-like structure, has the potential to bind 24 pyruvate dehydrogenase dimers in the absence of flavoprotein and 24 flavoprotein dimers in the absence of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The results of reconstitution experiments, utilizing binding and activity measurements, indicate that the transacetylase can accommodate a total of only about 12 pyruvate dehydrogenase dimers and six flavoprotein dimers and that this stoichiometry, which is the same as that of the native pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, produces maximum activity. It appears that steric hindrance between the relatively bulky pyruvate dehydrogenase and flavoprotein molecules prevents the transacetylase from binding 24 molecules of each ligand. A structural model for the native and reconstituted pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes is proposed in which the 12 pyruvate dehydrogenase dimers are distributed symmetrically on the 12 edges of the transacetylase cube and the six flavoprotein dimers are distributed in the six faces of the cube. Images PMID:1103138

  13. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Benjamin R; Voss, Jesse S; Kerr, Sarah E; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Graham, Rondell P; Zhang, Lizhi; Highsmith, W Edward; Zhang, Jun; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Halling, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are common in gliomas and help stratify patients with brain cancer into histologic and molecular subtypes. However, these mutations are considered rare in other solid tumors. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma and to assess histopathologic differences between specimens with and without an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. We sequenced 94 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cholangiocarcinoma (67 intrahepatic and 27 extrahepatic) assessing for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (codon 132) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (codons 140 and 172) mutations. Multiple histopathologic characteristics were also evaluated and compared with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutation status. Of the 94 evaluated specimens, 21 (22%) had a mutation including 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (28% versus 7%, respectively; P = .030). The 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations were R132C (n = 9), R132S (n = 2), R132G (n = 2), and R132L (n = 1). The 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations were R172K (n = 5), R172M (n = 1), and R172G (n = 1). Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in tumors with clear cell change (P < .001) and poorly differentiated histology (P = .012). The results of this study show for the first time that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are mutated in cholangiocarcinoma. The results of this study are encouraging because it identifies a new potential target for genotype-directed therapeutic trials and may represent a potential biomarker for earlier detection of cholangiocarcinoma in a subset of cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nickel containing CO dehydrogenases and hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, S W

    2000-01-01

    The two redox catalysts described here can generate very low potential electrons in one direction and perform chemically difficult reductions in the other. The chemical transformations occur at unusual metal clusters. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and kinetic analyses are converging on answers to how the metals in these clusters are arranged and how they are involved in the chemical and redox steps. The first structure of CO dehydrogenase, which will appear in the next year, will help define a firm chemical basis for future mechanistic studies. In the immediate future, we hope to learn whether the hydride intermediate in hydrogenase or the carbonyl intermediate in CO dehydrogenase bind to the Ni or Fe subsites in these heterometallic clusters. Or perhaps could they be bridged to two metals? Inter- and intramolecular wires have been proposed that connect the catalytic redox machine to proximal redox centers leading eventually to the ultimate redox partners. Elucidating the pathways of electron flow is a priority for the future. There is evidence for molecular channels delivering substrates to the active sites of these enzymes. In the next few years, these channels will be better defined. The products of CO2 and proton reduction are passed to the active sites of other enzymes and, in the case of H2, even passed from one organism to another. In the future, the mechanism of gas transfer will be uncovered. General principles of how these redox reactions are catalyzed are becoming lucid as the reactions are modeled theoretically and experimentally. Proton and CO2 reduction and the generation of C-C bonds from simple precursors are important reactions in industry. H2 could be the clean fuel of the future. Hopefully, the knowledge gained from studies of hydrogenase, CO dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA synthase can be used to improve life on earth.

  15. Substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lindstad, R I; Köll, P; McKinley-McKee, J S

    1998-01-01

    The substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase has been studied by steady-state kinetics over the range pH 7-10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase stereo-selectively catalyses the reversible NAD-linked oxidation of various polyols and other secondary alcohols into their corresponding ketones. The kinetic constants are given for various novel polyol substrates, including L-glucitol, L-mannitol, L-altritol, D-altritol, D-iditol and eight heptitols, as well as for many aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. The maximum velocities (kcat) and the substrate specificity-constants (kcat/Km) are positively correlated with increasing pH. The enzyme-catalysed reactions occur by a compulsory ordered kinetic mechanism with the coenzyme as the first, or leading, substrate. With many substrates, the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction is the enzyme-NADH product dissociation. However, with several substrates there is a transition to a mechanism with partial rate-limitation at the ternary complex level, especially at low pH. The kinetic data enable the elucidation of new empirical rules for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The specificity-constants for polyol oxidation vary as a function of substrate configuration with D-xylo> D-ribo > L-xylo > D-lyxo approximately L-arabino > D-arabino > L-lyxo. Catalytic activity with a polyol or an aromatic substrate and various 1-deoxy derivatives thereof varies with -CH2OH > -CH2NH2 > -CH2OCH3 approximately -CH3. The presence of a hydroxyl group at each of the remaining chiral centres of a polyol, apart from the reactive C2, is also nonessential for productive ternary complex formation and catalysis. A predominantly nonpolar enzymic epitope appears to constitute an important structural determinant for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The existence of two distinct substrate binding regions in the enzyme active site, along with that of the catalytic zinc, is suggested to account for the lack of

  16. Properties of a Purified Halophilic Malic Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, P. K.; Halvorson, H. Orin

    1965-01-01

    Holmes, P. K. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and H. Orin Halvorson. Properties of a purified halophilic malic dehydrogenase. J. Bacteriol. 90:316–326. 1965.—The malic dehydrogenase (MDH) from Halobacterium salinarium required high concentrations of monovalent ions for stability and activity. Studies of inactivation rates at different salt concentrations suggested that approximately 25% NaCl (w/v) is required to stabilize MDH. From 50 to 100% reactivation, depending on the salt concentration present during inactivation, could occur in 2.5 to 5 m NaCl or KCl. The optimal salt concentration for activity of MDH was a function of the pH, and ranged from 1 to 3 m NaCl or KCl. The effect of salt concentration on the pH-activity curves occurred chiefly below pH 7.0. Inactivation of MDH with heat or thiol reagents showed that the enzyme was more labile in the state induced by absence of salt. The activation of MDH by salts was attributed to a decreased rate of dissociation of MDH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2). The inactivation of the enzyme in the absence of salt could be largely prevented by the presence of NADH2. The S20.w of MDH decreased threefold at low salt concentrations. The enzyme was assumed to be in its native compact configuration only in the presence of a high concentration of salt. PMID:14329442

  17. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  18. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1565 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme 6... are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (such as hepatitis) and anemias. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1565 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme 6... are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (such as hepatitis) and anemias. (b...

  1. Adrenal 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Matković, Laura; Damasco, María C

    2004-06-01

    This work studied the effect of stresses produced by simulated gavage or gavage with 200 mmol/L HCl two hours before adrenal extraction, on the activities of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 isoforms present in the rat adrenal gland. These activities were determined on immediately prepared adrenal microsomes following incubations with 3H-corticosterone and NAD+ or NADP+. 11-dehydrocorticosterone was measured as an end-product by TLC, and controls were adrenal microsomes from rats kept under basal (unstressed) conditions. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity, but not 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity, was increased under both stress-conditions. Homeostatically, the stimulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity would increase the supply of glucocorticoids. These, in turn, would activate the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase, thereby improving the synthesis of epinephrine as part of the stress-response.

  2. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  3. [Genetic control of the isocitrate dehydrogenase and shikimate dehydrogenase isoenzyme systems in Sesame (Sesamun indicum L.)].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Antonio J; Layrisse, Alfredo J

    2002-01-01

    Taking into consideration that the ideal manipulation of isozymic markers needs knowledge of their genetic control, the aim of this study was to establish the inheritance and linkage degree of loci that control the expression of two sesame isozyme systems: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKD). The F2 electrophoretic behaviour of IDH and SKD from cultivars Turen x Arawaca cross was evaluated. The results suggest that IDH is controlled by two loci, Idh1 and Idh2 meanwhile SKD by only one, Skd1. The loci Idh1 and Skd1 showed three distinguishable patterns, corresponding to the homocygote genotypes and the heterocygote one, adjusted to a one-character common mendelian segregation 1:2:1. Cosegregation between Idh1 and Skd1 was independent.

  4. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

  5. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase.

    PubMed

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Sonavane, Manoj N; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-08-12

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  6. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A., E-mail: a.stadler@fz-juelich.de; Biehl, R.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in themore » fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.« less

  7. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase inmore » salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.« less

  8. Reaction mechanism of molybdoenzyme formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Leopoldini, Monica; Chiodo, Sandro G; Toscano, Marirosa; Russo, Nino

    2008-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenase is a molybdoenzyme of the anaerobic formate hydrogen lyase complex of the Escherichia coli microorganism that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide. The two proposed mechanisms of reaction, which differ in the occurrence of a direct coordination or not of a SeCys residue to the molybdenum metal during catalysis were analyzed at the density functional level in both vacuum and protein environments. Some DF functionals, in addition to the very popular B3LYP one, were employed to compute barrier heights. Results revealed the role played by the SeCys residue in performing the abstraction of the proton from the formate substrate. The computation of the energetic profiles for both mechanisms indicated that the reaction barriers are higher when the selenium is directly coordinated to the metal, whereas less energy is required when SeCys is not a ligand at the molybdenum site.

  9. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  10. Variants of glycerol dehydrogenase having D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    The present invention provides methods of designing and generating glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) variants that have altered function as compared to a parent polypeptide. The present invention further provides nucleic acids encoding GlyDH polypeptide variants having altered function as compared to the parent polypeptide. Host cells comprising polynucleotides encoding GlyDH variants and methods of producing lactic acids are also provided in various aspects of the invention.

  11. Guinea-pig liver testosterone 17 beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) and aldehyde reductase exhibit benzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, A; Hayashibara, M; Nakayama, T; Hasebe, K; Usui, S; Sawada, H

    1985-01-01

    We have kinetically and immunologically demonstrated that testosterone 17 beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) isoenzymes (EC 1.1.1.64) and aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2) from guinea-pig liver catalyse the oxidation of benzene dihydrodiol (trans-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene) to catechol. One isoenzyme of testosterone 17 beta-dehydrogenase, which has specificity for 5 beta-androstanes, oxidized benzene dihydrodiol at a 3-fold higher rate than 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone, and showed a more than 4-fold higher affinity for benzene dihydrodiol and Vmax. value than did another isoenzyme, which exhibits specificity for 5 alpha-androstanes, and aldehyde reductase. Immunoprecipitation of guinea-pig liver cytosol with antisera against the testosterone 17 beta-dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde reductase indicated that most of the benzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity in the tissue is due to testosterone 17 beta-dehydrogenase. PMID:2983661

  12. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  13. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  14. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diaphorase Coupling Protocols for Red-Shifting Dehydrogenase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mindy I.; Shen, Min; Simeonov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dehydrogenases are an important target for the development of cancer therapeutics. Dehydrogenases either produce or consume NAD(P)H, which is fluorescent but at a wavelength where many compounds found in chemical libraries are also fluorescent. By coupling dehydrogenases to diaphorase, which utilizes NAD(P)H to produce the fluorescent molecule resorufin from resazurin, the assay can be red-shifted into a spectral region that reduces interference from compound libraries. Dehydrogenases that produce NAD(P)H, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), can be read in kinetic mode. Dehydrogenases that consume NAD(P)H, such as mutant IDH1 R132H, can be read in endpoint mode. Here, we report protocols for robust and miniaturized 1,536-well assays for WT IDH1 and IDH1 R132H coupled to diaphorase, and the counterassays used to further detect compound interference with the coupling reagents. This coupling technique is applicable to dehydrogenases that either produce or consume NAD(P)H, and the examples provided here can act as guidelines for the development of high-throughput screens against this enzyme class. PMID:27078681

  16. Role of quinate dehydrogenase in quinic acid metabolism in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-08-10

    Quinate dehydrogenase was isolated from young needles of the Siberian larch and partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation. It was found that in conifers, in contrast to other plants, quinate dehydrogenase is active both with NAD and with NADP. The values of K/sub m/ for quinate and NADP were 1.8 and 0.18 mM. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 9.0. It was assumed that NADP-dependent quinate dehydrogenase is responsible for quinic acid synthesis. The special features of the organization and regulation of the initial stages of the shikimate pathway in conifers are discussed.

  17. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    PubMed

    De Rose, Aldo Franco; Mantica, Guglielmo; Tosi, Mattia; Bovio, Giulio; Terrone, Carlo

    2016-10-05

    Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  18. Mannitol and Mannitol Dehydrogenases in Conidia of Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Koki; Iida, Shigeji; Ikeda, Yonosuke

    1965-01-01

    Horikoshi, Koki (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo, Japan), Shigeji Iida, and Yonosuke Ikeda. Mannitol and mannitol dehydrogenases in conidia of Aspergillus oryzae. J. Bacteriol. 89:326–330. 1965.—A sugar alcohol was isolated from the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae and identified as d-mannitol. Two types of d-mannitol dehydrogenases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked, were found in the conidia. Substrate specificities, pH optima, Michaelis-Menton constants, and the effects of inhibitors were studied. d-Mannitol was converted to fructose by the dehydrogenases. Synthesis of d-mannitol dehydrogenases was not observed during germination; the content of d-mannitol decreased at an early stage of germination. It was assumed, therefore, that d-mannitol might be used as the source of endogenous respiration and provide energy for the germination. PMID:14255698

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic: Adrenal Gland Disorders Health Topic: Assisted Reproductive Technology Health Topic: Infertility Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Congenital Adrenal ...

  20. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  1. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the bone...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating fava beans or inhaling pollen from fava plants (a reaction called favism). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency An estimated 400 million ...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... short chain 3-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics (STAR-G) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) FOD (Fatty ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... some affected individuals may also experience breast enlargement (gynecomastia). Despite having testes, people with this disorder are ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase deficiency pseudohermaphroditism, male, with gynecomastia testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase deficiency Related Information How ...

  9. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  10. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  11. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the kidney.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Netanya Y; Stanton, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase. Decreased G6PD activity and, as a result, decreased NADPH level have been associated with diabetic kidney disease, altered nitric oxide production, aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysfunction, and dialysis-associated anemia. Increased G6PD activity is associated with all cancers including kidney cancer. Inherited G6PD deficiency is the most common mutation in the world that is thought to be a relatively mild disorder primarily associated with anemia. Yet, intriguing studies have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in G6PD-deficient people. It is not known if G6PD-deficient people are at more risk for other diseases. Much more research needs to be done to determine the role of altered G6PD activity (inherited or acquired) in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

  12. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    PubMed Central

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  14. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in children: a case report].

    PubMed

    Verdugo L, Patricia; Calvanese T, Marlene; Rodríguez V, Diego; Cárcamo C, Cassandra

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) is the most common red blood cell (RBC) enzyme disorder. The decrease as well as the absence of the enzyme increase RBC vulnerability to oxidative stress caused by exposure to certain medications or intake of fava beans. Among the most common clinical manifestations of this condition, acute hemolysis, chronic hemolysis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and an asymptomatic form are observed. To analyze the case of a child who presented hemolytic crisis due to favism. A 2 year and 7 month old boy with a history of hyperbilirubinemia during the newborn period with no apparent cause, no family history of hemolytic anemia or parental consanguinity. He presented a prolonged neonatal jaundice and severe anemia requiring RBC transfusion. An intake of fava beans 48 h prior to onset of symptoms was reported. G6PD qualitative determination was compatible with this enzyme deficiency. G6PD deficiency can be highly variable in its clinical presentation, so it is necessary to keep it in mind during the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia at any age.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  16. Ebselen Reversibly Inhibits Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase at the Catalytic Site.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yanhong; Li, Di; Lu, Shiying; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zhao; Hou, Wei; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays an important role in neurological diseases, tumor metabolism, and hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS). However, there are very few inhibitors known for human GDH. Recently, Ebselen was reported to crosslink with Escherichia coli GDH at the active site cysteine residue (Cys321), but the sequence alignment showed that the corresponding residue is Ala329 in human GDH. To investigate whether Ebselen could be an inhibitor for human GDH, we cloned and expressed an N-terminal His-tagged human GDH in E. coli. The recombinant human GDH enzyme showed expected properties such as adenosine diphosphate activation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dual recognition. Further, we developed a 2-(3-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-3-ium-5-yl) benzenesulfonate sodium salt (EZMTT)-based assay for human GDH, which was highly sensitive and is suitable for high-throughput screening for potent GDH inhibitors. In addition, ForteBio binding assays demonstrated that Ebselen is a reversible active site inhibitor for human GDH. Since Ebselen is a multifunctional organoselenium compound in Phase III clinical trials for inflammation, an Ebselen-based GDH inhibitor might be valuable for future drug discovery for HHS patients.

  17. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase are targets for therapy of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; De Cegli, Rossella; Carissimo, Annamaria; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2018-03-24

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate to the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-antibody, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by gene ontology enrichment analysis. Cell viability was evaluated in cell lines knocked-down for PDHA1 or LDH-A and in cells incubated with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin after treatment with CD95-antibody. We evaluated whether the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol or galloflavin could reduce liver damage in mice with acute liver failure. Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to damage response. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus, leading to increased nuclear concentrations of

  18. [Distribution of genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in Japanese twin children].

    PubMed

    Qu, W; Yamagata, Z; Wu, D; Zhang, B; Zhang, Y

    1999-03-01

    In order to prevent alcohol related deseases, this study investigated the distribution of the genes controlling alcohol metabolism in Japan's twin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used to measure the control gene of alcohol metabolized enzymes and the genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which were distributed in Japan's twins. At the same time, according to the difference in genotypes, the sensitive individuals were screened from the study subjects. The distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes were consistent with the Hardy-weinberg equation. The three genotypes of ADH2 gene were ADH2(1)/ADH2(1) (1.1%), ADH2(1)/ADH2(2) (44.6%) and ADH2(2)/ADH2(2) (54.3%). And those of ALDH2 gene were ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) (41.3%), ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(2) (39.1%) and ALDH2(2)/ALDH2(2) (19.6%). The frequency of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes was 0.255, 0.745 and 0.609, 0.391 respectively. Not only the distribution of genotypes of ADH2 and ALDH2 is known, but also the sensitive individuals are found, which can help prevent alcohol related disease.

  19. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the nativemore » enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the

  20. Structural Studies of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of Mg(2+) and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) followed by the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The three-dimensional structure of human E1 is elucidated using the methods of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. The structure is an alpha, alpha', beta and beta' tetramer with the protein units being in the tetrahedral arrangement. Each 361-residue alpha-subunit and 329-residue beta-subunit is composed of a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helical domains. Each subunit is in extensive contact with all the three subunits involving TPP and magnesium cofactors, and potassium ions. The two binding sites for TPP are at the alpha-beta' and alpha'-beta interfaces, each involving a magnesium ion and Phe6l, His63, Tyr89, and Met200 from the alpha-subunit (or alpha'-subunit), and Met81 Phe85, His128 from the beta-subunit (or beta'-subunit). K+ ions are nestled between two beta-sheets and the end of an alpha-helix in each beta-subunit, where they are coordinated by four carbonyl oxygen groups from Ile12, Ala160, Asp163, and Asnl65, and a water molecule. The catalytic C2 carbon of thiazolium ring in this structure forms a 3.2 A contact with a water molecule involved in a series of H-bonds with other water molecules, and indirectly with amino acids including those involved in the catalysis and regulation of the enzyme.

  1. Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Van Noorden, C J

    1984-01-01

    Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has found many applications in biomedical research. However, up to several years ago, the methods used often appeared to be unreliable because many artefacts occurred during processing and staining of tissue sections or cells. The development of histochemical methods preventing loss or redistribution of the enzyme by using either polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizer or a semipermeable membrane interposed between tissue section and incubation medium, has lead to progress in the topochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Optimization of incubation conditions has further increased the precision of histochemical methods. Precise cytochemical methods have been developed either by the use of a polyacrylamide carrier in which individual cells have been incorporated before staining or by including polyvinyl alcohol in the incubation medium. In the present text, these methods for the histochemical and cytochemical localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase for light microscopical and electron microscopical purposes are extensively discussed along with immunocytochemical techniques. Moreover, the validity of the staining methods is considered both for the localization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in cells and tissues and for cytophotometric analysis. Finally, many applications of the methods are reviewed in the fields of functional heterogeneity of tissues, early diagnosis of carcinoma, effects of xenobiotics on cellular metabolism, diagnosis of inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, analysis of steroid-production in reproductive organs, and quality control of oocytes of mammals. It is concluded that the use of histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is of highly significant value in the study of diseased tissues. In many cases, the first pathological change is an increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

  2. Enzymatic characterization of a novel bovine liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase--reaction mechanism and bile acid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, H; Adachi, H; Morihana, S; Mizoguchi, T; Nishihara, T; Terada, T

    1995-05-11

    Bovine liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD3) has been characterized by its unique dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activity for trans-benzenedihydrodiol (trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol) with the highest affinity and the greatest velocity among three multiple forms of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1-DD3). It is the first time that DD3 has shown a significant dehydrogenase activity for (S)-(+)-1-indanol with low Km value (0.33 +/- 0.022 mM) and high K(cat) value (25 +/- 0.79 min-1). The investigation of the product inhibition of (S)-(+)-1-indanol with NADP+ versus 1-indanone and NADPH clearly showed that the enzymatic reaction of DD3 may follow a typical ordered Bi Bi mechanism similar to many aldo/keto reductases. Additionally, DD3 was shown to catalyze the dehydrogenation of bile acids (lithocholic acid, taurolithocholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid) having no 12-hydroxy groups with low Km values (17 +/- 0.65, 33 +/- 1.9 and 890 +/- 73 microM, respectively). In contrast, DD1, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, shows a broad substrate specificity for many bile acids with higher affinity than those of DD3. Competitive inhibition of DD3 with androsterone against dehydrogenase activity for (S)-(+)-1-indanol, trans-benzenedihydrodiol or lithocholic acid suggests that these three substrates bind to the same substrate binding site of DD3, different from the case of human liver bile acid binder/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (Takikawa, H., Stolz, A., Sugiyama, Y., Yoshida, H., Yamamoto, M. and Kaplowitz, N. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 2132-2136). Considering the reaction mechanism, DD3 may also play an important role in bile acids metabolism as well as the detoxication of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  3. Role of malate dehydrogenase in facilitating lactate dehydrogenase to support the glycolysis pathway in tumors.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Siavash; Shahriari, Ali; Kalantar, Hadi; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh; Haghi Karamallah, Mojtaba

    2017-04-01

    High aerobic glycolysis, as one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) as a vital co-factor, to guarantee the flow of glycolysis. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), as an important enzyme in cancer metabolism, is a source of NAD + additional to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The current study aimed to elucidate the kinetic parameters of MDH in human breast cancer and evaluate its supportive role in the glycolysis pathway. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) and maximum velocity (V max ) of MDH were determined in the crude extracts of human breast tumors and healthy tissue samples, which were obtained directly from the operating theatre. To assess the potential role of MDH in supporting glycolysis, the MDH activity was measured when the LDH activity was inhibited by different concentrations of oxamate, an inhibitor of LDH in breast cancer cell lines. The K m of cancerous MDH (C-MDH) was the same as the healthy MDH, although the V max of C-MDH was higher relative to the healthy MDH. Notably, the MDH activity was increased in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, which was treated with the LDH inhibitor (oxamate), but not in the MCF-7 cell line (P<0.05). The higher tendency of C-MDH for NAD + and malate generation in cancer cells is an effective approach for supporting glycolysis. Increasing MDH activity in the absence of LDH demonstrates the supportive role of MDH in glycolysis. Therefore, decreasing MDH activity and expression in a forward reaction may present as a valid molecular target to abolish its potential effect on tumor metabolism.

  4. Demonstration of 3 alpha(17 beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase distinct from 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in hamster liver.

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, M; Hara, A; Nakagawa, M; Sawada, H

    1990-01-01

    NAD(+)-linked and NADP(+)-linked 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were purified to homogeneity from hamster liver cytosol. The two monomeric enzymes, although having similar molecular masses of 38,000, differed from each other in pI values, activation energy and heat stability. The two proteins also gave different fragmentation patterns by gel electrophoresis after digestion with protease. The NADP(+)-linked enzyme catalysed the oxidoreduction of various 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids, whereas the NAD(+)-linked enzyme oxidized the 3 alpha-hydroxy group of pregnanes and some bile acids, and the 17 beta-hydroxy group of testosterone and androstanes. The thermal stabilities of the 3 alpha- and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of the NAD(+)-linked enzyme were identical, and the two enzyme activities were inhibited by mixing 17 beta- and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid substrates, respectively. Medroxyprogesterone acetate, hexoestrol and 3 beta-hydroxysteroids competitively inhibited 3 alpha- and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of the enzyme. These results show that hamster liver contains a 3 alpha(17 beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase structurally and functionally distinct from 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2317205

  5. Catalytic properties of thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase and halophilic malate dehydrogenase at high temperature and low water activity.

    PubMed

    Hecht, K; Wrba, A; Jaenicke, R

    1989-07-15

    Thermophilic lactate dehydrogenases from Thermotoga maritima and Bacillus stearothermophilus are stable up to temperature limits close to the optimum growth temperature of their parent organisms. Their catalytic properties are anomalous in that Km shows a drastic increase with increasing temperature. At low temperatures, the effect levels off. Extreme halophilic malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui exhibits a similar anomaly. Increasing salt concentration (NaCl) leads to an optimum curve for Km, oxaloacctate while Km, NADH remains constant. Previous claims that the activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase shows a maximum at 1.25 M NaCl are caused by limiting substrate concentration; at substrate saturation, specific activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase reaches a constant value at ionic strengths I greater than or equal to 1 M. Non-halophilic (mitochondrial) malate dehydrogenase shows Km characteristics similar to those observed for the halophilic enzyme. The drastic decrease in specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme at elevated salt concentrations is caused by the salt-induced increase in rigidity of the enzyme, rather than gross structural changes.

  6. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases thatmore » includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal

  7. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kreß, Oliver; Gnida, Manuel; Pelzmann, Astrid M.

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceedsmore » at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for bile acid 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, S F; Franklund, C V; Hylemon, P B

    1991-01-01

    Southern blot analysis indicated that the gene encoding the constitutive, NADP-linked bile acid 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 was located on a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment of the chromosomal DNA. This fragment was cloned into bacteriophage lambda gt11, and a 2.9-kb piece of this insert was subcloned into pUC19, yielding the recombinant plasmid pBH51. DNA sequence analysis of the 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene in pBH51 revealed a 798-bp open reading frame, coding for a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 28,500. A putative promoter sequence and ribosome binding site were identified. The 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA transcript in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 was about 0.94 kb in length, suggesting that it is monocistronic. An Escherichia coli DH5 alpha transformant harboring pBH51 had approximately 30-fold greater levels of 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA, immunoreactive protein, and specific activity than Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. The 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase purified from the pBH51 transformant was similar in subunit molecular weight, specific activity, and kinetic properties to that from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, and it reached with antiserum raised against the authentic enzyme on Western immunoblots. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of the 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with those of 10 other pyridine nucleotide-linked alcohol/polyol dehydrogenases revealed six conserved amino acid residues in the N-terminal regions thought to function in coenzyme binding. Images PMID:1856160

  9. The Activity of Class I-IV Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Bladder Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) in normal and cancerous bladder cells. Class III, IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method and class I, II ADH and ALDH activity by the fluorometric method. Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer, in comparison to healthy tissues. The increased activity of total ADH in bladder cancer cells may be the cause of metabolic disorders in cancer cells, which may intensify carcinogenesis.

  10. The investigation of plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phoshogluconate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase in premenauposal patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Ozcicek, Fatih; Aktas, Mehmet; Türkmen, Kultigin; Coban, T Abdulkadir; Cankaya, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Iron is an essential element that is necessary for all cells in the body. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in both developed and developing countries. The glutathione pathway is paramount to antioxidant defense and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient cells do not cope well with oxidative damage. The goal of this study was to check the activities of G6PD, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase in patients with IDA. We analyzed the plasma samples of 102 premenopausal women with IDA and 88 healthy control subjects. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity as compared to the reduction of NADP +, glutathione reductase activity was performed based on the oxidation of NADPH. 2 ml of plasma were used in all analyzes. SPSS program was used for all of the statistical analysis. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in patients belonging to the analysis of blood were ferritin 3.60 ± 2.7 ng / mL, hemoglobin 9.4 ± 1.5 mg / dl and hematocrit 30.7 ± 4.1% ratio; in healthy subjects ferritin 53.5 ± 41.7 ng/ml, hemoglobin level 13.9 ± 1.3 mg / dl and hematocrit ratio 42 ± 3.53%. When compared to healthy subjects the glutathione reductase level (P<0.001) was found to be significantly higher in patients with IDA. IDA patients with moderate and severe anemia had lower GR activity when compared to IDA patients with mild anemia. But the plasma levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P<0,600) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (P<0,671) did not show any differences between healthy subjects and in patients with IDA. It was shown that Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase have no effect on iron-deficiency anemia in patients. The plasma GR levels of premenopausal women with IDA were found to be higher compared to healthy subjects, which could be secondary to erythrocyte protection against oxidative stress being commonly seen in IDA.

  11. Novel guanidine-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Gu, Henry H; Mitt, Toomas; Leftheris, Katerina; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel guanidine-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  12. Distribution of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The somewhat surprising report that storage proteins and oil are non-uniformly distributed in the cotyledons of developing soybeans prompted us to determine the spatial distribution of the mitochondrial and plastidial forms of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). It has been proposed that pla...

  13. Interaction of cytoplasmic dehydrogenases: quantitation of pathways of ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vind, C; Grunnet, N

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between xylitol, alcohol and lactate dehydrogenase has been studied in hepatocytes from rats by applying specifically tritiated substrates. A simple model, describing the metabolic fate of tritium from [2-3H] xylitol and (1R) [1-3H]ethanol is presented. The model allows calculation of the specific radioactivity of free, cytosolic NADH, based on transfer of tritium to lactate, glucose and water. From the initial labelling rate of lactate and the specific radioactivity of cytosolic NADH, we have determined the reversible flow through the lactate dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction to 1-5 mumol/min . g wet wt. The results suggest that xylitol, alcohol and lactate dehydrogenase share the same pool of NAD(H) in the cytoplasma. This finding allows estimation of the ethanol oxidation rate by the non-alcohol dehydrogenase pathways from the relative yield of tritium in water and glucose. The calculations are based on a comparison of the fate of the 1-pro-R hydrogen of ethanol and the hydrogen bound to carbon 2 of xylitol or carbon 2 of lactate under identical conditions.

  14. [Congenital hemolytic anemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Mura, M; Saidi, R; Wolf, A; Moalic, J L; Oliver, M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme defect with a wide range of clinical manifestations that can be severe. A variety of factors including many medications can induce hemolytic episodes. Screening for G6PD deficiency is required before use of some drugs especially primaquine or dapsone.

  15. Human placental indanol dehydrogenase: some properties of the microsomal enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A P; Strohm, B H; Houser, W H

    1985-06-01

    Indanol dehydrogenase activity of human placenta was examined in vitro. The enzyme, primarily localized in the particulate fractions of placenta, catalysed conversion of 1-indanol to 1-indanone in the presence of oxidized pyridine nucleotides. Both NAD+ and NADP+ supported the reaction with nearly equal efficiency.

  16. Fulminant hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Moiz, Bushra; Ali, Sidra Asad

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder affecting some 400 million people worldwide. Though clinically silent, it may result in hemolysis on oxidative stress induced by drugs or infections. Viral hepatitis A with coexisting G6PD deficiency can be devastating associated with severe hemolysis, anemia, renal failure, and hepatic encephalopathy.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862.1445 Section 862.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1380 Section 862.1380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section 862.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1565 Section 862.1565 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1420 Section 862.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  3. Inactivation of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases Modifies the Cellulose Degradation Mechanism of Podospora anserina

    PubMed Central

    Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Navarro, David; Garajova, Sona; Chevret, Didier; Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Gautier, Valérie; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conversion of biomass into high-value products, including biofuels, is of great interest to developing sustainable biorefineries. Fungi are an inexhaustible source of enzymes to degrade plant biomass. Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) play an important role in the breakdown through synergistic action with fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The three CDH genes of the model fungus Podospora anserina were inactivated, resulting in single and multiple CDH mutants. We detected almost no difference in growth and fertility of the mutants on various lignocellulose sources, except on crystalline cellulose, on which a 2-fold decrease in fertility of the mutants lacking P. anserina CDH1 (PaCDH1) and PaCDH2 was observed. A striking difference between wild-type and mutant secretomes was observed. The secretome of the mutant lacking all CDHs contained five beta-glucosidases, whereas the wild type had only one. P. anserina seems to compensate for the lack of CDH with secretion of beta-glucosidases. The addition of P. anserina LPMO to either the wild-type or mutant secretome resulted in improvement of cellulose degradation in both cases, suggesting that other redox partners present in the mutant secretome provided electrons to LPMOs. Overall, the data showed that oxidative degradation of cellulosic biomass relies on different types of mechanisms in fungi. IMPORTANCE Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a complex process involving dozens of enzymes. The roles of each enzyme or enzyme class are not fully understood, and utilization of a model amenable to genetic analysis should increase the comprehension of how fungi cope with highly recalcitrant biomass. Here, we report that the cellobiose dehydrogenases of the model fungus Podospora anserina enable it to consume crystalline cellulose yet seem to play a minor role on actual substrates, such as wood shavings or miscanthus. Analysis of secreted proteins suggests that Podospora anserina compensates for the

  4. Catalytic Mechanism of Short Ethoxy Chain Nonylphenol Dehydrogenase Belonging to a Polyethylene Glycol Dehydrogenase Group in the GMC Oxidoreductase Family

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Kawai, Fusako

    2013-01-01

    Ethoxy (EO) chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that differences in the size, secondary structure and hydropathy in the active site caused differences in their substrate specificities toward EO chain alkylphenols and free PEGs. Based on 3D molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to introduce mutations into potential catalytic residues of NPEO-DH. From steady state and rapid kinetic characterization of wild type and mutant NPEO-DHs, we can conclude that His465 and Asn507 are directly involved in the catalysis. Asn507 mediates the transfer of proton from a substrate to FAD and His465 transfers the same proton from the reduced flavin to an electron acceptor. PMID:23306149

  5. Catalytic mechanism of short ethoxy chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase belonging to a polyethylene glycol dehydrogenase group in the GMC oxidoreductase family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Kawai, Fusako

    2013-01-10

    Ethoxy (EO) chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that differences in the size, secondary structure and hydropathy in the active site caused differences in their substrate specificities toward EO chain alkylphenols and free PEGs. Based on 3D molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to introduce mutations into potential catalytic residues of NPEO-DH. From steady state and rapid kinetic characterization of wild type and mutant NPEO-DHs, we can conclude that His465 and Asn507 are directly involved in the catalysis. Asn507 mediates the transfer of proton from a substrate to FAD and His465 transfers the same proton from the reduced flavin to an electron acceptor.

  6. Structural and functional comparison of two human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases associated with 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Deyashiki, Y; Taniguchi, H; Amano, T; Nakayama, T; Hara, A; Sawada, H

    1992-01-01

    Two monomeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenases with pI values of 5.4 and 7.6 were co-purified with androsterone dehydrogenase activity to homogeneity from human liver. The two enzymes differed from each other on peptide mapping and in their heat-stabilities; with respect to the latter the dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities of the respective enzymes were similarly inactivated. The pI 5.4 enzyme was equally active towards trans- and cis-benzene dihydrodiols, and towards (S)- and (R)-forms of indan-1-ol and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1-ol and oxidized the 3 alpha-hydroxy group of C19-, C21- and C24-steroids, whereas the pI 7.6 enzyme showed high specificity for trans-benzene dihydrodiol, (S)-forms of the alicyclic alcohols and C19- and C21-steroids. Although the two enzymes reduced various xenobiotic carbonyl compounds and the 3-oxo group of C19- and C21-steroids, and were A-specific in the hydrogen transfer from NADPH, only the pI 5.4 enzyme showed reductase activity towards 7 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-3-one and dehydrolithocholic acid. The affinity of the two enzymes for the steroidal substrates was higher than that for the xenobiotic substrates. The two enzymes also showed different susceptibilities to the inhibition by anti-inflammatory drugs and bile acids. Whereas the pI-5.4 enzyme was highly sensitive to anti-inflammatory steroids, showing mixed-type inhibitions with respect to indan-1-ol and androsterone, the pI 7.6 enzyme was inhibited more potently by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bile acids than by the steroidal drugs, and the inhibitions were all competitive. These structural and functional differences suggest that the two enzymes are 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzymes. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1554355

  7. Investigation of the Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 vanillin dehydrogenase and its impact on the biotechnical production of vanillin.

    PubMed

    Fleige, Christian; Hansen, Gunda; Kroll, Jens; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is capable of synthesizing large amounts of vanillin from ferulic acid, which is a natural cell wall component of higher plants. The desired intermediate vanillin is subject to undesired catabolism caused by the metabolic activity of a hitherto unknown vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH(ATCC 39116)). In order to prevent the oxidation of vanillin to vanillic acid and thereby to obtain higher yields and concentrations of vanillin, the responsible vanillin dehydrogenase in Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was investigated for the first time by using data from our genome sequence analysis and further bioinformatic approaches. The vdh gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded vanillin dehydrogenase was characterized in detail. VDH(ATCC 39116) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and exhibited NAD(+)-dependent activity toward vanillin, coniferylaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. The enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 44°C. In a next step, a precise vdh deletion mutant of Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 was generated. The mutant lost its ability to grow on vanillin and did not show vanillin dehydrogenase activity. A 2.3-times-higher vanillin concentration and a substantially reduced amount of vanillic acid occurred with the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant when ferulic acid was provided for biotransformation in a cultivation experiment on a 2-liter-bioreactor scale. Based on these results and taking further metabolic engineering into account, the Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 Δvdh::Km(r) mutant represents an optimized and industrially applicable platform for the biotechnological production of natural vanillin.

  8. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutation analysis in canine phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Holt, D E; Henthorn, P; Howell, V M; Robinson, B G; Benn, D E

    2014-07-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PCs) are tumours of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Paragangliomas (PGLs) arise in sympathetic ganglia (previously called extra-adrenal PCs) or in non-chromaffin parasympathetic ganglia cells that are usually non-secretory. Parenchymal cells from these tumours have a common embryological origin from neural crest ectoderm. Several case series of canine PCs and PGLs have been published and a link between the increased incidence of chemoreceptor neoplasia in brachycephalic dog breeds and chronic hypoxia has been postulated. A similar link to hypoxia in man led to the identification of germline heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and subsequently SDHA, SDHB and SDHC in similar tumours. We investigated canine PCs (n = 6) and PGLs (n = 2) for SDHD and SDHB mutations and in one PGL found a somatic SDHD mutation c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) in exon 4, which was not present in normal tissue from this brachycephalic dog. Two PCs were heterozygous for both c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) mutation and an exon 3 silent variant c.291G>A. We also identified the heterozygous SDHB exon 2 mutation c.113G>A (p.Arg38Gln) in a PC. These results illustrate that genetic mutations may underlie tumourigenesis in canine PCs and PGLs. The spontaneous nature of these canine diseases and possible association of PGLs with hypoxia in brachycephalic breeds may make them an attractive model for studying the corresponding human tumours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytochemical Localization of Glycolate Dehydrogenase in Mitochondria of Chlamydomonas1

    PubMed Central

    Beezley, Belinda B.; Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen

    1976-01-01

    Mildly disrupted cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardi Dangeard were incubated in a reaction medium containing glycolate, ferricyanide, and cupric ions, and then processed for electron microscopy. As a result of the cytochemical treatment, an electron opaque product was deposited specifically in the outer compartment of mitochondria; other cellular components, including microbodies, did not accumulate stain. Incubation with d-lactate yielded similar results, while treatment with l-lactate produced only a weak reaction. Oxamate, which inhibits glycolate dehydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts, also inhibited the cytochemical reaction. These findings demonstrate in situ that glycolate dehydrogenase is localized in mitochondria, and thus corroborate similar conclusions reached on the basis of enzymic studies of isolated algal organelles. Images PMID:16659670

  10. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B. Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-07-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization.

  11. Oxidation of Two Hydroxylated Ochratoxin A Metabolites by Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Christian; Størmer, Fredrik C.

    1983-01-01

    (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A, (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A, and 10-hydroxyochratoxin A, all formed from ochratoxin A, were incubated with alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of NAD. Only (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and 10-hydroxyochratoxin A acted as substrates for the enzyme. Km and turnover number for 10-hydroxyochratoxin A were 110 μM and 0.1 s−1, respectively. PMID:6347065

  12. Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Ethanol in the Stems of Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Stringer, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation in plants is usually thought to be a transient phenomenon, brought about by environmental limitations to oxygen availability, or by structural constraints to oxygen transport. The vascular cambium of trees is separated from the air by the outer bark and secondary phloem, and we hypothesized that the cambium may experience sufficient hypoxia to induce anaerobic fermentation. We found high alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the cambium of several tree species. Mean activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in Populus deltoides was 165 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was also present in the cambium of P. deltoides, with mean activity of 26 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was not present in any tree species we examined. Contrary to our expectation, alcohol dehydrogenase activity was inversely related to bark thickness in Acer saccharum and unrelated to bark thickness in two Populus species. Bark thickness may be less important in limiting oxygen availability to the cambium than is oxygen consumption by rapidly respiring phloem and cambium in actively growing trees. Ethanol was present in the vascular cambium of all species examined, with mean concentrations of 35 to 143 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, depending on species. Ethanol was also present in xylem sap and may have been released from the cambium into the transpiration stream. The presence in the cambium of the enzymes necessary for fermentation as well as the products of fermentation is evidence that respiration in the vascular cambium of trees may be oxygen-limited, but other biosynthetic origins of ethanol have not been ruled out. PMID:16666209

  13. Recent advances in biotechnological applications of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Yin, Huan-Huan; Yu, Dao-Fu; Chen, Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), which belong to the oxidoreductase superfamily, catalyze the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with high stereoselectivity under mild conditions. ADHs are widely employed as biocatalysts for the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic substrates and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure chemicals. This review provides an overview of biotechnological applications for ADHs in the production of chiral pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.

  14. Role of mannitol dehydrogenases in osmoprotection of Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Nageena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans is able to incompletely oxidize various sugars and polyols for the production of biotechnologically important compound. Recently, we have shown that the organism produces and accumulates mannitol as compatible solute under osmotic stress conditions. The present study describes the role of two cytoplasmic mannitol dehydrogenases for osmotolerance of G. oxydans. It was shown that Gox1432 is a NADP + -dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.138), while Gox0849 uses NAD + as cofactor (EC 1.1.1.67). The corresponding genes were deleted and the mutants were analyzed for growth under osmotic stress and non-stress conditions. A severe growth defect was detected for Δgox1432 when grown in high osmotic media, while the deletion of gox0849 had no effect when cells were exposed to 450 mM sucrose in the medium. Furthermore, the intracellular mannitol content was reduced in the mutant lacking the NADP + -dependent enzyme Gox1432 in comparison to the parental strain and the Δgox0849 mutant under stress conditions. In addition, transcriptional analysis revealed that Gox1432 is more important for mannitol production in G. oxydans than Gox0849 as the transcript abundance of gene gox1432 was 30-fold higher than of gox0849. In accordance, the activity of the NADH-dependent enzyme Gox0849 in the cell cytoplasm was 10-fold lower in comparison to the NADPH-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase Gox1432. Overexpression of gox1432 in the corresponding deletion mutant restored growth of the cells under osmotic stress, further strengthening the importance of the NADP + -dependent mannitol dehydrogenase for osmotolerance in G. oxydans. These findings provide detailed insights into the molecular mechanism of mannitol-mediated osmoprotection in G. oxydans and are helpful engineering strains with improved osmotolerance for biotechnological applications.

  15. Novel Xylose Dehydrogenase in the Halophilic Archaeon Haloarcula marismortui†

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Ulrike; Schönheit, Peter

    2004-01-01

    During growth of the halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui on d-xylose, a specific d-xylose dehydrogenase was induced. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity. It constitutes a homotetramer of about 175 kDa and catalyzed the oxidation of xylose with both NADP+ and NAD+ as cosubstrates with 10-fold higher affinity for NADP+. In addition to d-xylose, d-ribose was oxidized at similar kinetic constants, whereas d-glucose was used with about 70-fold lower catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km). With the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the subunit, an open reading frame (ORF)—coding for a 39.9-kDA protein—was identified in the partially sequenced genome of H. marismortui. The function of the ORF as the gene designated xdh and coding for xylose dehydrogenase was proven by its functional overexpression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was reactivated from inclusion bodies following solubilization in urea and refolding in the presence of salts, reduced and oxidized glutathione, and substrates. Xylose dehydrogenase showed the highest sequence similarity to glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis and other putative bacterial and archaeal oxidoreductases. Activities of xylose isomerase and xylulose kinase, the initial reactions of xylose catabolism of most bacteria, could not be detected in xylose-grown cells of H. marismortui, and the genes that encode them, xylA and xylB, were not found in the genome of H. marismortui. Thus, we propose that this first characterized archaeal xylose dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial step in xylose degradation by H. marismortui. PMID:15342590

  16. Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Bryan; Sharma, Aman; Shaikh, Saad

    2017-07-23

    We report a case of new onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a 63-year-old African-American male who presented with worsening night vision over a period of five years. The pathogenesis of G6PD-mediated oxidative biological damage is reviewed and a mechanism for the onset of retinal disease proposed.

  17. An efficient ribitol-specific dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjitha; Singh, Raushan; Kim, In-Won; Sigdel, Sujan; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-05-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 (EaRDH) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The complete 729-bp gene was amplified, cloned, expressed, and subsequently purified in an active soluble form using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme had an optimal pH and temperature of 11.0 and 45°C, respectively. Among various polyols, EaRDH exhibited activity only toward ribitol, with Km, Vmax, and kcat/Km values of 10.3mM, 185Umg(-1), and 30.9s(-1)mM(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed strong preference for NAD(+) and displayed no detectable activity with NADP(+). Homology modeling and sequence analysis of EaRDH, along with its biochemical properties, confirmed that EaRDH belongs to the family of NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenases, a member of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SCOR) family. EaRDH showed the highest activity and unique substrate specificity among all known RDHs. Homology modeling and docking analysis shed light on the molecular basis of its unusually high activity and substrate specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amy R.; Craciunescu, Corneliu N.; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh−/− mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh−/− males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh+/+ and Chdh−/− mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh−/− males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh−/− sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh−/− animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility.—Johnson, A. R., Craciunescu, C. N., Guo, Z., Teng, Y.-W., Thresher, R. J., Blusztajn, J. K., Zeisel, S. H. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility. PMID:20371614

  19. Differential regulation of oligodendrocyte markers by glucocorticoids: Post-transcriptional regulation of both proteolipid protein and myelin basic protein and transcriptional regulation of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Cole, R.; Chiappelli, F.

    During neonatal development glucocorticoids potentiate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelinogenesis by regulating the expression of myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The actual locus at which hydrocortisone exerts its developmental influence on glial physiology is, however, not well understood. Gycerol phosphate dehydrogenase is glucocorticoid-inducible in oligodendrocytes at all stages of development both in vivo and in vitro. In newborn rat cerebral cultures, between 9 and 15 days in vitro, a 2- to 3-fold increase in myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein mRNA levels occurs in oligodendrocytes within 12 hr of hydrocortisone treatment. Immunostaining demonstrates that this increase inmore » mRNAs is followed by a 2- to 3-fold increase in the protein levels within 24 hr. In vitro transcription assays performed with oligodendrocyte nuclei show an 11-fold increase in the transcriptional activity of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in response to hydrocortisone but no increase in transcription of myelin basic protein or proteolipid protein. These results indicate that during early myelinogeneis, glucocorticoids influence the expression of key oligodendroglial markers by different processes: The expression of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase is regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas the expression of myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein is modulated via a different, yet uncharacterized, mechanism involving post-transcriptional regulation.« less

  20. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11 is a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-03-25

    We report characterization of a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily encoded in a human gene, DHRS11. The recombinant protein (DHRS11) efficiently catalyzed the conversion of the 17-keto group of estrone, 4- and 5-androstenes and 5α-androstanes into their 17β-hydroxyl metabolites with NADPH as a coenzyme. In contrast, it exhibited reductive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity toward 5β-androstanes, 5β-pregnanes, 4-pregnenes and bile acids. Additionally, DHRS11 reduced α-dicarbonyls (such as diacetyl and methylglyoxal) and alicyclic ketones (such as 1-indanone and loxoprofen). The enzyme activity was inhibited in a mixed-type manner by flavonoids, and competitively by carbenoxolone, glycyrrhetinic acid, zearalenone, curcumin and flufenamic acid. The expression of DHRS11 mRNA was observed widely in human tissues, most abundantly in testis, small intestine, colon, kidney and cancer cell lines. Thus, DHRS11 represents a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of 3 alpha, 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Streptomyces hydrogenans.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, P M; Duax, W L; Punzi, J S; Orr, J C

    1984-05-15

    3 alpha, 20 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase isolated from Streptomyces hydrogenans , is a tetramer containing four subunits each of Mr 25,000. The enzyme has been crystallized by the vapor diffusion technique using either phosphate or borate buffered ammonium sulfate (pH between 6.0 and 8.7) as the precipitant. The crystals are hexagonal bipyramids ; they have the symmetry of space group P6(4)22 (or P6(2)22), with unit cell dimensions a = 127.3 A, c = 112.2 A. Volume and density considerations imply that the crystallographic asymmetric unit contains two monomers, and therefore that the tetramer possesses a 2-fold axis of symmetry that is coincident with a crystallographic 2-fold symmetry element.

  2. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  3. Central carbon metabolism in marine bacteria examined with a simplified assay for dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Wen, Weiwei; Wang, Shizhen; Zhou, Xiaofen; Fang, Baishan

    2013-06-01

    A simplified assay platform was developed to measure the activities of the key oxidoreductases in central carbon metabolism of various marine bacteria. Based on microplate assay, the platform was low-cost and simplified by unifying the reaction conditions of enzymes including temperature, buffers, and ionic strength. The central carbon metabolism of 16 marine bacteria, involving Pseudomonas, Exiguobacterium, Marinobacter, Citreicella, and Novosphingobium were studied. Six key oxidoreductases of central carbon metabolism, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and isocitrate dehydrogenase were investigated by testing their activities in the pathway. High activity of malate dehydrogenase was found in Citreicella marina, and the specific activity achieved 22 U/mg in cell crude extract. The results also suggested that there was a considerable variability on key enzymes' activities of central carbon metabolism in some strains which have close evolutionary relationship while they adapted to the requirements of the niche they (try to) occupy.

  4. Molecular structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Vogel, O; Hoehn, B; Henning, U

    1972-06-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase core complex from E. coli K-12, defined as the multienzyme complex that can be obtained with a unique polypeptide chain composition, has a molecular weight of 3.75 x 10(6). All results obtained agree with the following numerology. The core complex consists of 48 polypeptide chains. There are 16 chains (molecular weight = 100,000) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component, 16 chains (molecular weight = 80,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component, and 16 chains (molecular weight = 56,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component. Usually, but not always, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is produced in vivo containing at least 2-3 mol more of dimers of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component than the stoichiometric ratio with respect to the core complex. This "excess" component is bound differently than are the eight dimers in the core complex.

  5. Molecular Structure of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Otto; Hoehn, Barbara; Henning, Ulf

    1972-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase core complex from E. coli K-12, defined as the multienzyme complex that can be obtained with a unique polypeptide chain composition, has a molecular weight of 3.75 × 106. All results obtained agree with the following numerology. The core complex consists of 48 polypeptide chains. There are 16 chains (molecular weight = 100,000) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component, 16 chains (molecular weight = 80,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component, and 16 chains (molecular weight = 56,000) of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component. Usually, but not always, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is produced in vivo containing at least 2-3 mol more of dimers of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component than the stoichiometric ratio with respect to the core complex. This “excess” component is bound differently than are the eight dimers in the core complex. Images PMID:4556465

  6. Isolation, sequence, and characterization of the Cercospora nicotianae phytoene dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenshaft, M; Daub, M E

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the Cercospora nicotianae gene for the carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme phytoene dehydrogenase. Analysis of the derived amino acid sequence revealed it has greater than 50% identity with its counterpart in Neurospora crassa and approximately 30% identity with prokaryotic phytoene dehydrogenases and is related, but more distantly, to phytoene dehydrogenases from plants and cyanobacteria. Our analysis confirms that phytoene dehydrogenase proteins fall into two groups: those from plants and cyanobacteria and those from eukaryotic and noncyanobacter prokaryotic microbes. Southern analysis indicated that the C. nicotianae phytoene dehydrogenase gene is present in a single copy. Extraction of beta-carotene, the sole carotenoid accumulated by C. nicotianae, showed that both light- and dark-grown cultures synthesize carotenoids, but higher levels accumulate in the light. Northern (RNA) analysis of poly(A)+ RNA, however, showed no differential accumulation of phytoene dehydrogenase mRNA between light- and dark-grown fungal cultures. Images PMID:8085820

  7. 9-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in the adult rat kidney. Regional distribution and sub-fractionation.

    PubMed

    Asciak, C P; Domazet, Z

    1975-02-20

    1. Catabolism of prostaglandin F2alpha in the adult rat kidney takes place by the following sequence of enzymatic steps: (1) 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; (2) prostaglandin delta13-reductase; and (3) 9-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. 2. 9-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was highest in the cortex with lesser amounts in the medulla and negligible activity detected in the papilla. A similar distribution was observed for 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and prostaglandin delta13-reductase. 3. Most of the 9-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in the homogenate was found in the high-speed supernatant as also observed for 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and prostaglandin delta13-reductase. 4. These observations indicate that the rat kidney contains an abundance of prostaglandin-catabolising enzymes which favour formation of metabolites of the E-type.

  8. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-01-01

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling. Images Figure 1 PMID:8068002

  9. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of nonspherocytic congenital hemolytic anemia or drug-induced hemolytic anemia associated with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. This generic device...

  14. Characteristics of butanol metabolism in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deermice.

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, J A; Kato, S; Lieber, C S

    1989-01-01

    Deermice lacking the low-Km alcohol dehydrogenase eliminated butan-1-ol, a substrate for microsomal oxidation but not for catalase, at 117 mumol/min per kg body wt. Microsomal fractions and hepatocytes metabolized butan-1-ol also (Vmax. = 6.7 nmol/min per nmol of cytochrome P-450, Km = 0.85 mM; Vmax. = 5.3 nmol/min per 10(6) cells, Km = 0.71 mM respectively). These results are consistent with alcohol oxidation by the microsomal system in these deermice. PMID:2930472

  15. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Garassini, M E; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1994-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme related to the metabolism of glutation, an antioxidant agent. Its deficiency causes hemolisis, generally well tolerated. However there are some factors including, exercise, infections and oxidants drugs that stimulate the hemolisis of the older red blood cells. We report two patients with G6PD deficiency, that were initially diagnosed as acute viral hepatitis. Although this pathology is not frequent it should be recognized, for the implication of giving profilactic antimalaric drugs in endemic areas. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with unconjugated jaundice, always investigating the previous ingestion of oxidants drugs.

  16. [Effect of univalent cations on the glutamate dehydrogenase of chlorella].

    PubMed

    Shatilov, V R; Kasparova, M A; Kretovich, V L

    1976-09-01

    Effect of univalent cations (Li+, K+, Na+ and Cs+) on the activity and some kinetic properties of the constitutive and the inducible glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Pringsheim 82T has been studied. All the cations used activate the inducible GDH and produced no such effect on the constitutive GDH. From the analysis of the kinetic behaviour in the presence of K+ the conclusion was made that K+ promotes and stabilyzes a catalitically advantagenous conformation of the inducible GDH. This phenomenon appears to have a physiological meaning, because of a higher K+ concentration in Chlorella cells (about 0.1 M) and its important role in metabolism.

  17. Inactivation of Cellobiose Dehydrogenases Modifies the Cellulose Degradation Mechanism of Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Navarro, David; Garajova, Sona; Chevret, Didier; Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Gautier, Valérie; Hyde, Kevin D; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2017-01-15

    Conversion of biomass into high-value products, including biofuels, is of great interest to developing sustainable biorefineries. Fungi are an inexhaustible source of enzymes to degrade plant biomass. Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) play an important role in the breakdown through synergistic action with fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The three CDH genes of the model fungus Podospora anserina were inactivated, resulting in single and multiple CDH mutants. We detected almost no difference in growth and fertility of the mutants on various lignocellulose sources, except on crystalline cellulose, on which a 2-fold decrease in fertility of the mutants lacking P. anserina CDH1 (PaCDH1) and PaCDH2 was observed. A striking difference between wild-type and mutant secretomes was observed. The secretome of the mutant lacking all CDHs contained five beta-glucosidases, whereas the wild type had only one. P. anserina seems to compensate for the lack of CDH with secretion of beta-glucosidases. The addition of P. anserina LPMO to either the wild-type or mutant secretome resulted in improvement of cellulose degradation in both cases, suggesting that other redox partners present in the mutant secretome provided electrons to LPMOs. Overall, the data showed that oxidative degradation of cellulosic biomass relies on different types of mechanisms in fungi. Plant biomass degradation by fungi is a complex process involving dozens of enzymes. The roles of each enzyme or enzyme class are not fully understood, and utilization of a model amenable to genetic analysis should increase the comprehension of how fungi cope with highly recalcitrant biomass. Here, we report that the cellobiose dehydrogenases of the model fungus Podospora anserina enable it to consume crystalline cellulose yet seem to play a minor role on actual substrates, such as wood shavings or miscanthus. Analysis of secreted proteins suggests that Podospora anserina compensates for the lack of cellobiose

  18. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  19. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(−)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L-1 of optically pure D(−)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min-1 (mg protein)-1. By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(−) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  20. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  1. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus*

    PubMed Central

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. Objective This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Method Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. Results The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. Limitations of the study This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. Conclusions The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further

  2. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  3. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.

    2016-05-23

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P) +as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD +versusNADP +, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies,more » as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP +cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.« less

  4. The crystallogenesis of a human estradiol dehydrogenase-substrate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dao-Wei; Azzi, Arezki; Rehse, Peter; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    1996-10-01

    Human 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is an important steroidogenic enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of the most active estrogen: estradiol. The enzyme is formed by two identical subunits (34.5 kDa). In this paper, we report the preparation of a stoichiometric 17β-HSD1-estradiol complex sample at a much higher concentration than the solubility of the free substrate, using a gradual concentration of the enzyme-substrate mixture starting at low concentration. The complex is successfully crystallized by vapor diffusion at pH 7.5 with polyethyleneglycol 4000 as the precipitating agent. The space group is C2 with a = 123.56 Å, b = 45.21 Å, c = 61.30 Å and β = 99.06°. There is one monomer in the asymmetric unit and two molecules of the enzyme in a unit cell. A diffraction data set to 2.5 Å has been collected to 86% completeness on native crystals. The high quality of the electronic density map of estradiol supports the full occupancy of the binding site, thus confirming the efficiency of the complex preparation. This method will also be useful in crystallizing other steroid-dehydrogenase complexes.

  5. Signatures of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in poplar lignins.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Pollet, Brigitte; Mila, Isabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Jouanin, Lise; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John

    2004-02-01

    A series of transgenic poplars down-regulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) was analyzed by thioacidolysis. Among the lignin-derived monomers, the indene compounds that were recently shown to originate from sinapaldehyde incorporated into lignins through 8-O-4-cross-coupling, were found to increase as a function of CAD deficiency level. While these syringyl markers were recovered in substantial amounts in the most severely depressed lines, the markers for coniferaldehyde incorporation were recovered in only low amounts. In conjunction with these additional sinapaldehyde units and relative to the control samples, lignins in CAD-deficient poplar lines had less conventional syringyl-units and beta-O-4-bonds and more free phenolic groups. We found that almost half of the polymers in the most deficient lines could be solubilized in alkali and at room temperature. This unusual behavior suggests that lignins in CAD-deficient poplars occur as small, alkali-leachable lignin domains. That mainly sinapaldehyde incorporates into the lignins of CAD-deficient poplars suggests that the recently identified sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is structurally distinct from the CAD enzyme targeted herein, does not play any substantial role in constitutive lignification in poplar.

  6. Development of Novel Therapeutics Targeting Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Horrick

    2018-05-17

    Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG). IDH 1 and IDH2 regulate several cellular processes, including oxidative respiration, glutamine metabolism, lipogenesis, and cellular defense against oxidative damage. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been observed in multiple tumor types, including gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chondrosarcoma. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations involve a gain in neomorphic activity that catalyze αKG conversion to (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG). IDH mutation-mediated accumulation of (R)-2HG result in epigenetic dysregulation, altered gene expression, and a block in cellular differentiation. Targeting mutant IDH by development of small molecule inhibitors is a rapidly emerging therapeutic approach as evidenced by the recent approval of the first selective mutant IDH2 inhibitor AG-221 (Enasidenib) for the treatment of IDH2-mutated AML. This review will focus on mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase as a therapeutic drug target and provides an update on selective and pan-mutant IDH 1/2 inhibitors in clinical trials and other mutant IDH inhibitors that are under development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management. PMID:26311535

  8. Engineering of Pyranose Dehydrogenase for Increased Oxygen Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Krondorfer, Iris; Lipp, Katharina; Brugger, Dagmar; Staudigl, Petra; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K.

    2014-01-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH), a member of the GMC family of flavoproteins, shows a very broad sugar substrate specificity but is limited to a narrow range of electron acceptors and reacts extremely slowly with dioxygen as acceptor. The use of substituted quinones or (organo)metals as electron acceptors is undesirable for many production processes, especially of food ingredients. To improve the oxygen reactivity, site-saturation mutagenesis libraries of twelve amino acids around the active site of Agaricus meleagris PDH were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We established high-throughput screening assays for oxygen reactivity and standard dehydrogenase activity using an indirect Amplex Red/horseradish peroxidase and a DCIP/D-glucose based approach. The low number of active clones confirmed the catalytic role of H512 and H556. Only one position was found to display increased oxygen reactivity. Histidine 103, carrying the covalently linked FAD cofactor in the wild-type, was substituted by tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. Variant H103Y was produced in Pichia pastoris and characterized and revealed a five-fold increase of the oxygen reactivity. PMID:24614932

  9. Modulation of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in aging.

    PubMed

    Kil, In Sup; Lee, Young Sup; Bae, Young Seuk; Huh, Tae Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2004-01-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases (ICDHs). Here, we investigated age-related changes in ICDH activity and protein expression in IMR-90 human diploid fibroblast cells and tissues from Fischer 344 rats. We found that in IMR-90 cells the activity of cytosolic ICDH (IDPc) gradually increased with age up to the 46-48 population doubling level (PDL) and then gradually decreased at later PDL. 2',7'-Dichloro-fluorescein fluorescence which reflects intracellular ROS generation was increased with aging in IMR-90 cells. In ad libitum-fed rats, we noted age-related, tissue-specific modulations of IDPc and mitochondrial ICDH (IDPm) activities and protein expression in the liver, kidney and testes. In contrast, ICDH activities and protein expression were not significantly modulated in diet-restricted rats. These data suggest that modulation of ICDH is an age-dependent and a tissue-specific phenomenon.

  10. Amine oxidation by d-arginine dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Daniel; Ball, Jacob; Iyer, Archana; Reis, Renata A G; Vodovoz, Maria; Gadda, Giovanni

    2017-10-15

    d-Arginine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaDADH) is a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase, which is part of a novel two-enzyme racemization system that functions to convert d-arginine to l-arginine. PaDADH contains a noncovalently linked FAD that shows the highest activity with d-arginine. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity towards d-amino acids, particularly with cationic and hydrophobic d-amino acids. Biochemical studies have established the structure and the mechanistic properties of the enzyme. The enzyme is a true dehydrogenase because it displays no reactivity towards molecular oxygen. As established through solvent and multiple kinetic isotope studies, PaDADH catalyzes an asynchronous CH and NH bond cleavage via a hydride transfer mechanism. Steady-state kinetic studies with d-arginine and d-histidine are consistent with the enzyme following a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism. As shown by a combination of crystallography, kinetic and computational data, the shape and flexibility of loop L1 in the active site of PaDADH are important for substrate capture and broad substrate specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasmodium glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: A potential malaria diagnostic target.

    PubMed

    Krause, Robert G E; Hurdayal, Ramona; Choveaux, David; Przyborski, Jude M; Coetzer, Theresa H T; Goldring, J P Dean

    2017-08-01

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are immunochromatographic tests detecting Plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aldolase. HRP2 is only expressed by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the protein is not expressed in several geographic isolates. LDH-based tests lack sensitivity compared to HRP2 tests. This study explored the potential of the Plasmodial glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a new malaria diagnostic biomarker. The P. falciparum and P. yoelii proteins were recombinantly expressed in BL21(DE3) Escherischia coli host cells and affinity purified. Two epitopes (CADGFLLIGEKKVSVFA and CAEKDPSQIPWGKCQV) specific to P. falciparum GAPDH and one common to all mammalian malaria species (CKDDTPIYVMGINH) were identified. Antibodies were raised in chickens against the two recombinant proteins and the three epitopes and affinity purified. The antibodies detected the native protein in parasite lysates as a 38 kDa protein and immunofluorescence verified a parasite cytosolic localization for the native protein. The antibodies suggested a 4-6 fold higher concentration of native PfGAPDH compared to PfLDH in immunoprecipitation and ELISA formats, consistent with published proteomic data. PfGAPDH shows interesting potential as a malaria diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms in Chinese and Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Leslie; Leong, Jern-Yi; Lim, Jing-Yan; Lee, Arthur; Yang, Jun; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Winslow, Munidasa

    2010-01-01

    The association between two functional polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2/ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes and alcohol dependence was examined in 182 Chinese and Indian patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence and 184 screened control subjects from Singapore. All subjects were screened by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients were also administered the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and selected genotypes confirmed by DNA sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results showed that frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were higher in controls compared to alcohol-dependent subjects for both Chinese and Indians. Frequencies of these two alleles were also higher in the 104 Chinese controls compared to the 80 Indian controls. None of the eight Chinese who were homozygous for both protective alleles was alcohol dependent. The higher frequencies of the protective alleles could explain the lower rate of alcohol dependence in Chinese.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: disadvantages and possible benefits.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Genesia; Masullo, Ugo; Passarelli, Stefania; Filosa, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    We review here some recent data about Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the housekeeping X-linked gene encoding the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a NADPH-producing dehydrogenase. This enzyme has been popular among clinicians, biochemists, geneticists and molecular biologists because it is the most common form of red blood cell enzymopathy. G6PD deficient erythrocytes do not generate NADPH in any other way than through the PPP and for this reason they are more susceptible than any other cells to oxidative damage. Moreover, this enzyme has also been of crucial importance in many significant discoveries; indeed, G6PD polymorphisms have been instrumental in studying X-inactivation in the human species, as well as in establishing the clonal nature of certain tumors. G6PD deficiency, generally considered as a mild and benign condition, is significantly disadvantageous in certain environmental conditions like in presence of certain drugs. Nevertheless, G6PD deficiency has been positively selected by malaria, and recent knowledge seems to show that it also confers an advantage against the development of cancer, reduces the risk of coronary diseases and has a beneficial effect in terms of longevity.

  14. Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by translational readthrough in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Schueren, Fabian; Lingner, Thomas; George, Rosemol; Hofhuis, Julia; Dickel, Corinna; Gärtner, Jutta; Thoms, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Translational readthrough gives rise to low abundance proteins with C-terminal extensions beyond the stop codon. To identify functional translational readthrough, we estimated the readthrough propensity (RTP) of all stop codon contexts of the human genome by a new regression model in silico, identified a nucleotide consensus motif for high RTP by using this model, and analyzed all readthrough extensions in silico with a new predictor for peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) showed the highest combined RTP and PTS1 probability. Experimentally we show that at least 1.6% of the total cellular LDHB is targeted to the peroxisome by a conserved hidden PTS1. The readthrough-extended lactate dehydrogenase subunit LDHBx can also co-import LDHA, the other LDH subunit, into peroxisomes. Peroxisomal LDH is conserved in mammals and likely contributes to redox equivalent regeneration in peroxisomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03640.001 PMID:25247702

  15. Cofactor-Dependent Aldose Dehydrogenase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    PubMed Central

    Niederpruem, Donald J.; Doudoroff, Michael

    1965-01-01

    Niederpruem, Donald J. (University of California, Berkeley), and Michael Doudoroff. Cofactor-dependent aldose dehydrogenase of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. J. Bacteriol. 89:697–705. 1965.—Particulate enzyme preparations of cell extracts of Rhodopseudomonas spheroides possess constitutive dehydrogenase and oxidase activities for aldose sugars, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2), and succinate. The dehydrogenation of aldoses requires an unidentified cofactor which is not required for the oxidation of succinate nor of NADH2. The cofactor is present in the particulate fraction of aerobic cells, but is unavailable to the enzyme system. It can be liberated by boiling or by treatment with salts at high concentration. The cofactor also appears in the soluble fraction of aerobic cells, but only after exponential growth has ceased. Extracts of cells grown anaerobically in the light possess the apoenzyme, but not the cofactor, for aldose oxidation. Cofactor activity was found in extracts of Bacterium anitratum (= Moraxella sp.) but not in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, yeast, or mouse liver. In 0.075 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-phosphoric acid buffer (pH 7.3), the oxidation of NADH2 was stimulated and succinoxidase was inhibited by high salt concentrations. PMID:14273648

  16. CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF TWO GLYCOLYTIC DEHYDROGENASES IN WHITE SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, H. Dariush; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    1966-01-01

    The cytochemical localization, by conventional methods, of lactate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases is limited, firstly, by the solubility of these enzymes in aqueous media and, secondly, by the dependence of the final electron flow from reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to the tetrazolium on tissue diaphorase activity: localization is therefore that of the diaphorase, which in rabbit adductor magnus is mitochondrial. NADH has been found to have great affinity to bind in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and, therefore, if it is generated freely in the incubation media containing 2,2',5,5'-tetra-p-nitrophenyl-3,3'-(3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-phenylene)-ditetrazolium chloride (TNBT) and N-methyl phenazonium methyl sulfate (PMS), it can bind there and cause a false staining. Since such a production of NADH can readily occur in the incubation media for glycolytic dehydrogenases due to diffusion of these soluble enzymes from tissue sections, the prevention of enzyme solubilization is extremely important. Fixation in formaldehyde prevented such enzyme diffusion, while at the same time sufficient activity persisted to allow for adequate staining. The incubation media contained PMS, so that the staining system was largely independent of tissue diaphorase activity. Application of these methods to adductor magnus of rabbit revealed by light microscopy, for both enzymes, a fine network which was shown by electron microscopy to represent staining of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria also reacted. These findings add further support for the notion that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is probably involved in glycolytic activity. PMID:4288329

  17. Deletion of murine choline dehydrogenase results in diminished sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy R; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Guo, Zhong; Teng, Ya-Wen; Thresher, Randy J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-08-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) catalyzes the conversion of choline to betaine, an important methyl donor and organic osmolyte. We have previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human CHDH gene that, when present, seem to alter the activity of the CHDH enzyme. These SNPs occur frequently in humans. We created a Chdh(-/-) mouse to determine the functional effects of mutations that result in decreased CHDH activity. Chdh deletion did not affect fetal viability or alter growth or survival of these mice. Only one of eleven Chdh(-/-) males was able to reproduce. Loss of CHDH activity resulted in decreased testicular betaine and increased choline and PCho concentrations. Chdh(+/+) and Chdh(-/-) mice produced comparable amounts of sperm; the impaired fertility was due to diminished sperm motility in the Chdh(-/-) males. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology in Chdh(-/-) sperm. ATP content, total mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and inner mitochondrial membrane polarization were all significantly reduced in sperm from Chdh(-/-) animals. Mitochondrial changes were also detected in liver, kidney, heart, and testis tissues. We suggest that men who have SNPs in CHDH that decrease the activity of the CHDH enzyme could have decreased sperm motility and fertility.

  18. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD.

  19. Cloning and mRNA Expression of NADH Dehydrogenase during Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Development and Pesticide Response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NADH dehydrogenase, the largest of the respiratory complexes, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have cloned and sequenced cDNA of NADH dehydrogenase gene from Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) adult (GeneBank Accession number: FJ458415). The ...

  20. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic Targeting of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex/Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDC/PDK) Axis in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stacpoole, Peter W

    2017-11-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A, thereby linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and defining a critical step in cellular bioenergetics. Inhibition of PDC activity by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-mediated phosphorylation has been associated with the pathobiology of many disorders of metabolic integration, including cancer. Consequently, the PDC/PDK axis has long been a therapeutic target. The most common underlying mechanism accounting for PDC inhibition in these conditions is post-transcriptional upregulation of one or more PDK isoforms, leading to phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of PDC. Such perturbations of the PDC/PDK axis induce a "glycolytic shift," whereby affected cells favor adenosine triphosphate production by glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular proliferation over cellular quiescence. Dichloroacetate is the prototypic xenobiotic inhibitor of PDK, thereby maintaining PDC in its unphosphorylated, catalytically active form. However, recent interest in the therapeutic targeting of the PDC/PDK axis for the treatment of cancer has yielded a new generation of small molecule PDK inhibitors. Ongoing investigations of the central role of PDC in cellular energy metabolism and its regulation by pharmacological effectors of PDKs promise to open multiple exciting vistas into the biochemical understanding and treatment of cancer and other diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  3. Xylitol dehydrogenase from Candida tropicalis: molecular cloning of the gene and structural analysis of the protein.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luanne Helena Augusto; Pinheiro, Cristiano Guimarães do Amaral; de Moraes, Lídia Maria Pepe; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2006-12-01

    Yeasts can metabolize xylose by the action of two key enzymes: xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase. In this work, we present data concerning the cloning of the XYL2 gene encoding xylitol dehydrogenase from the yeast Candida tropicalis. The gene is present as a single copy in the genome and is controlled at the transcriptional level by the presence of the inducer xylose. XYL2 was functionally tested by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to develop a yeast strain capable of producing ethanol from xylose. Structural analysis of C. tropicalis xylitol dehydrogenase, Xyl2, suggests that it is a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase (MDR) family. This is supported by the presence of the amino acid signature [GHE]xx[G]xxxxx[G]xx[V] in its primary sequence and a typical alcohol dehydrogenase Rossmann fold pattern composed by NAD(+) and zinc ion binding domains.

  4. Direct Electron Transfer of Dehydrogenases for Development of 3rd Generation Biosensors and Enzymatic Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Bollella, Paolo; Gorton, Lo; Antiochia, Riccarda

    2018-04-24

    Dehydrogenase based bioelectrocatalysis has been increasingly exploited in recent years in order to develop new bioelectrochemical devices, such as biosensors and biofuel cells, with improved performances. In some cases, dehydrogeases are able to directly exchange electrons with an appropriately designed electrode surface, without the need for an added redox mediator, allowing bioelectrocatalysis based on a direct electron transfer process. In this review we briefly describe the electron transfer mechanism of dehydrogenase enzymes and some of the characteristics required for bioelectrocatalysis reactions via a direct electron transfer mechanism. Special attention is given to cellobiose dehydrogenase and fructose dehydrogenase, which showed efficient direct electron transfer reactions. An overview of the most recent biosensors and biofuel cells based on the two dehydrogenases will be presented. The various strategies to prepare modified electrodes in order to improve the electron transfer properties of the device will be carefully investigated and all analytical parameters will be presented, discussed and compared.

  5. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results aremore » consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.« less

  6. Tricarboxylic acid cycle without malate dehydrogenase in Streptomyces coelicolor M-145.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Íñiguez, Tóshiko; Barrios-Hernández, Joana; Rodríguez-Maldonado, Marion; Flores, María Elena

    2018-06-23

    The oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate is catalysed only by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent malate dehydrogenase encoded by SCO4827 in Streptomyces coelicolor. A mutant lacking the malate dehydrogenase gene was isolated and no enzymatic activity was detected. As expected, the ∆mdh mutant was unable to grow on malate as the sole carbon source. However, the mutant grew less in minimal medium with glucose and there was a delay of 36 h. The same behaviour was observed when the mutant was grown on minimal medium with casamino acids or glycerol. For unknown reasons, the mutant was not able to grow in YEME medium with glucose. The deficiency of malate dehydrogenase affected the expression of the isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase genes, decreasing the expression of both genes by approximately two- to threefold.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase activity drives hair follicle stem cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Aimee, Flores; John, Schell; Abby, Krall; David, Jelinek; Matilde, Miranda; Melina, Grigorian; Daniel, Braas; White Andrew, C; Jessica, Zhou; Nick, Graham; Thomas, Graeber; Pankaj, Seth; Denis, Evseenko; Hilary, Coller; Jared, Rutter; Heather, Christofk; Lowry William, E

    2017-01-01

    Summary While normally dormant, Hair Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation. Conversely, genetically promoting lactate production in HFSCs through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (Mpc1) deletion accelerated their activation and the hair cycle. Finally, we identify small molecules that increase lactate production by stimulating Myc levels or inhibiting Mpc1 carrier activity and can topically induce the hair cycle. These data suggest that HFSCs maintain a metabolic state that allow them to remain dormant and yet quickly respond to appropriate proliferative stimuli. PMID:28812580

  8. Biofuel cell anode: NAD +/glucose dehydrogenase-coimmobilized ketjenblack electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, T.; Oike, M.; Yoshino, S.; Yatagawa, Y.; Haneda, K.; Kaji, H.; Nishizawa, M.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the coimmobilization of glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and its cofactor, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +), on a ketjenblack (KB) electrode as a step toward a biofuel cell anode that works without mediators. A KB electrode was first treated with a sulfuric acid/nitric acid/water mixture to lower the overvoltage for NADH oxidation, and was next chemically modified with NAD + and GDH. The improved GDH/NAD +/KB electrode is found to oxidize glucose around 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. A biofuel cell constructed with a bilirubin oxidase-immobilized KB cathode showed a maximum power density of 52 μW/cm 2 at 0.3 V.

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) export from the mitochondrial matrix.

    PubMed

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-01-01

    Studies on mitochondria protein import had revealed in detail molecular mechanisms of how peptides and proteins could be selectively targeted and translocated across membrane bound organelles. The opposite process of mitochondrial export, while known to occur in various aspects of cellular physiology and pathology, is less well understood. Two very recent reports have indicated that a large mitochondrial matrix protein complex, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) (or its component subunits), could be exported to the lysosomes and the nucleus, respectively. In the case of the latter, evidence was presented to suggest that the entire complex of 8-10 MDa could translocate in its entirety from the mitochondrial matrix to the nucleus upon mitogenic or stress stimuli. We discuss these findings in perspective to what is currently known about the processes of transport in and out of the mitochondrion.

  10. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase laboratory assay: How, when, and why?

    PubMed

    Minucci, Angelo; Giardina, Bruno; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common defect of red blood cells. Although some different laboratory techniques or methods are employed for the biochemical screening, a strict relationship between biochemists, clinicians, and molecular biologists is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. This article represents an overview on the current laboratory tests finalized to the screening or to the definitive diagnosis of G6PD-deficiency, underlying the problems regarding the biochemical and molecular identification of heterozygote females other than those regarding the standardization of the clinical and laboratory diagnostic procedures. Finally, this review is aimed to give a flow-chart for the complete diagnostic approach of G6PD-deficiency.

  12. Red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase phenotypes in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, F A; Al-Allawi, N A; Rassam, M; Al-Shamma, G; Al-Hashimi, A

    2002-01-01

    We attempted to characterize biochemically glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants in Iraqi individuals. Thus 758 healthy Iraqi males aged 18-60 years were randomly selected and 46 (6.1%) were G6PD deficient. Although the predominant non-deficient G6PD phenotype was G6PD B (92.6%), G6PD A+ was found in polymorphic frequency (1.3%). In the deficient group, 31 cases were fully characterized, including 17 cases with features consistent with G6PD Mediterranean variant, while 12 had other biochemical features and were labelled as non-Mediterranean variant. The remaining two deficient cases were characterized as G6PD A- variant. The presence of a significant number of non-Mediterranean variant was unexpected and may be related to the more heterogeneous background of the Iraqi people.

  13. IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additionalmore » conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.« less

  14. Alcohol Dehydrogenase of Bacillus strain for Measuring Alcohol Electrochemically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswantini, D.; Nurhidayat, N.; Ferit, H.

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was applied to produce alcohol biosensor. The enzyme was collected from cultured Bacillus sp. in solid media. From 6 tested isolates, bacteria from fermented rice grain (TST.A) showed the highest oxidation current which was further applied as the bioreceptor. Various ethanol concentrations was measured based on the increase of maximum oxidation current value. However, a reduction value was happened when the ethanol concentration was higher than 5%. Comparing the result of spectrophotometry measurement, R2 value obtained from the biosensor measurement method was higher. The new proposed method resulted a wider detection range, from 0.1-5% of ethanol concentration. The result showed that biosensor method has big potency to be used as alcohol detector in foods or bevearages.

  15. Method To Identify Specific Inhibiutors Of Imp Dehydrogenase

    DOEpatents

    Collart, Frank R.; Huberman, Eliezer

    2000-11-28

    This invention relates to methods to identify specific inhibitors of the purine nucleotide synthesis enzyme, IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). IMPDH is an essential enzyme found in all free-living organisms from humans to bacteria and is an important therapeutic target. The invention allows the identification of specific inhibitors of any IMPDH enzyme which can be expressed in a functional form in a recombinant host cell. A variety of eukaryotic or prokaryotic host systems commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins are suitable for the practice of the invention. The methods are amenable to high throughput systems for the screening of inhibitors generated by combinatorial chemistry or other methods such as antisense molecule production. Utilization of exogenous guanosine as a control component of the methods allows for the identification of inhibitors specific for IMPDH rather than other causes of decreased cell proliferation.

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Ernest; Duparc, Stephan

    2007-10-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is relatively common in populations exposed to malaria. This deficiency appears to provide some protection from this infection, but it can also cause hemolysis after administration of some antimalarial drugs, especially primaquine. The risk of drug-induced G6PD deficiency-related hemolysis depends on a number of factors including the G6PD variant, the drug and drug dosage schedule, patient status, and disease factors. Although a great deal is known about the molecular biology of G6PD, determining the potential for drug-induced hemolysis in the clinical setting is still challenging. This report discusses the potential strategies for assessing drug-induced G6PD deficiency-related hemolytic risk preclinically and in early clinical trials. Additionally, the issues important for conducting larger clinical trials in populations in which G6PD deficiency is prevalent are examined, with a particular focus on antimalarial drug development.

  17. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Spring, Rachel; Schlaack, Hanna; Rice, Marilyn; Staat, Mary A; Quinn, Charles T

    2018-05-01

    There are conflicting guidelines about screening of internationally adopted children for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a common genetic disorder. In a multi-ethnic population of 2,169 internationally adopted children, we found that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 1.6% overall and 2.2% in males. Prevalence differed by country or region of origin, ranging from 0 to 13% overall and 0 to 22% in males. The prevalence in females was 1%. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency informs the treatment of malaria and enables education and counseling to prevent morbidity and mortality from G6PD deficiency. Screening for G6PD deficiency should be strongly considered for internationally adopted children. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanqing; Liu, Quan; Leng, Jiyan; Zheng, Yang; Li, Ji

    2015-01-15

    The regulation of mammalian myocardial carbohydrate metabolism is complex; many factors such as arterial substrate and hormone levels, coronary flow, inotropic state and the nutritional status of the tissue play a role in regulating mammalian myocardial carbohydrate metabolism. The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDHc), a mitochondrial matrix multienzyme complex, plays an important role in energy homeostasis in the heart by providing the link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In TCA cycle, PDHc catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. This review determines that there is altered cardiac glucose in various pathophysiological states consequently causing PDC to be altered. This review further summarizes evidence for the metabolism mechanism of the heart under normal and pathological conditions including ischemia, diabetes, hypertrophy and heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  20. The diagnostic significance of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in urinary cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, A.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Fujihiro, S.; Mori, H.

    1991-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme distribution was examined in 106 urine samples being tested cytologically for evidence of bladder cancer; the samples were selected to have less than 20 leucocytes and erythrocytes per high power field and the LDH pattern determined by electrophoresis. The Papanicolaou stained-smears showed 68 negative, 17 suspicious and 21 positive. The LDH M-fraction of the urinary supernatant in cytologically positive cases was significantly greater than in negative cases, although the latter included a few false negative samples. Some of the false negatives gave positive results for the LDH M-fraction; these results suggest that the determination of LDH isoenzymes in the urine is useful in diagnosing urinary tract cancers, including early stage, and for follow-up of patients with bladder cancers after surgical resection. PMID:2039708

  1. OCT Angiographic Findings in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shangjun; Choudhry, Netan

    2017-08-01

    Fovea plana (FP) describes the abnormal absence of the foveal pit in the retina. It is a sign that is associated with prematurity, albinism, and other ophthalmic disorders. The authors present the optical coherence tomography angiographic findings in a case of a 19-year-old male with FP and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD deficiency is a very common condition that typically presents with hemolytic anemia and jaundice. G6PD deficiency is also known to affect vision, but these pathologies have been less well-characterized. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of G6PD deficiency in FP. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:664-667.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibition: exploring possible applications beyond cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Fiume, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition is considered a worthwhile attempt in the development of innovative anticancer strategies. Unfortunately, in spite of the involvement of several research institutions and pharma-companies, the discovery of LDH inhibitors with drug-like properties seems a hardly resolvable challenge. While awaiting new advancements, in the present review we will examine other pathologic conditions characterized by increased glycolysis and LDH activity, which could potentially benefit from LDH inhibition. The rationale for targeting LDH activity in these contexts is the same justifying the LDH-based approach in anticancer therapy: because of the enzyme position at the end of glycolytic pathway, LDH inhibitors are not expected to hinder glucose metabolism of normal cells. Moreover, we will summarize the latest contributions in the discovery of enzyme inhibitors and try to glance over the reasons underlying the complexity of this research.

  3. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme as a Potential Marker of Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Piechota, Joanna; Orywal, Karolina; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Human pancreas parenchyma contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and also possesses aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. The altered activities of ADH and ALDH in damaged pancreatic tissue in the course of pancreatitis are reflected in the human serum. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for acute (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Serum samples were collected for routine biochemical investigations from 75 patients suffering from acute pancreatitis and 70 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Fluorometric methods were used to measure the activity of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by a photometric method. There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH III isoenzyme (15.06 mU/l and 14.62 mU/l vs. 11.82 mU/l; p<0.001) and total ADH activity (764 mU/l and 735 mU/l vs. 568 mU/l) in the sera of patients with acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH III was about 84%, specificity was 92 %, positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 87% respectively in acute pancreatitis. Area under the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) curve for ADH III in AP and CP was 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. ADH III has a potential role as a marker of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Yali; Wang, Xia; Li, Yingying; Jiang, Dongmei; Dai, Wei; Jiang, Yongmei

    2018-03-01

    Our goals were to screen newborns and characterize the occurrence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in southwestern China. Meanwhile, we would like to analyze the factors that might affect the results of neonatal dried blood spots for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase screening test, to improve the clinical quality control level, effectively reduce the external factors in the process of detection. This study involved an evaluation of G6PD data for 20,644 newborns from a universal newborn screening program. Heel prick blood specimens were collected around 72 hours after birth and were dried on filter papers. For G6PD deficiency the fluorescent spot test was employed. We studied the association between incidence of G6PD deficiency and influence factors. This study involved an evaluation of G6PD data for 20,644 neonatal heel prick blood samples from 10,984 males and 9,660 females. There were 503 positive results for G6PD deficiency (299 males and 204 females), and the G6PD deficiency-positive rate was estimated to be around 2.4%. The gender-specific prevalence for males was 2.7%, and for females 2.1%. Multiple factors may influence the result of the G6PD test, such as season, temperature, and specimen of indwelling time. This study analyzed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Sichuan, China. Accelerating the speed of sample delivery and ensuring availability of screening results can aid the screening and diagnosis.

  5. Dissimilar Deficiency of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) among the AFARS and the Somalis of Djibouti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    DEFICIENCY OF GLUCOSE - 6 - PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (G- 6 ...the prevalence of deficient activity of the enzyme glucose - 6 - phosphate dehydrogenase (G- 6 -PD) among - Ces difficiences enzymatiques sant plus particu...Screening for glucose - 6 - 3 - CaosBy W.H. - Hematologic diseases. In : I lunter’s Tropical phosphate dehydrogenase (G- 6 -PD) deficiency by a simple

  6. Molecular cloning of a novel widely expressed human 80 kDa 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase IV.

    PubMed Central

    Adamski, J; Normand, T; Leenders, F; Monté, D; Begue, A; Stéhelin, D; Jungblut, P W; de Launoit, Y

    1995-01-01

    Reactions of oestrogens and androgens at position C-17 are catalysed by 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17 beta-HSDs). Cloning of the cDNA of a novel human 17 beta-HSD IV and expression of its mRNA are described. A probe derived from the recently discovered porcine 17 beta-oestradiol dehydrogenase (17 beta-EDH) was used to isolate a 2.6 kb human cDNA encoding a continuous protein of 736 amino acids of high (84%) similarity to the porcine 17 beta-EDH. The calculated molecular mass of the human enzyme is 79,595 Da. Other sequence similarities shared by the two enzymes are: an N-terminal sequence which is similar to that of members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family; amino acids 343-607 which are similar to the C-terminal domains of a trifunctional Candida tropicalis enzyme and the FOX2 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; amino acids 596-736 which are similar to human sterol carrier protein 2. The previously cloned human 17 beta-HSD I, II and III are less than 25% identical with 17 beta-HSD IV. mRNA for HSD IV is a single species of 3.0 kb, present in many tissues with highest concentrations in liver, heart, prostate and testes. When over-expressed in mammalian cells, the human 17 beta-HSD IV enzyme displays a specific unidirectional oxidative 17 beta-HSD activity. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7487879

  7. Malate dehydrogenase of the cytosol. A kinetic investigation of the reaction mechanism and a comparison with lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lodola, A; Shore, J D; Parker, D M; Holbrook, J

    1978-01-01

    1. The mechanisms of the reduction of oxaloacetate and of 3-fluoro-oxaloacetate by NADH catalysed by cytoplasmic pig heart malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were investigated. 2. One mol of dimeric enzyme produces 1.7+/-0.4 mol of enzyme-bound NADH when mixed with saturating NAD+ and L-malate at a rate much higher than the subsequent turnover at pH 7.5. 3. Transient measurements of protein and nucleotide fluorescence show that the steady-state complex in the forward direction is MDH-NADH and in the reverse direction MDH-NADH-oxaloacetate. 4. The rate of dissociation of MDH-NADH was measured and is the same as Vmax. in the forward direction at pH 7.5. Both NADH-binding sites are kinetically equivalent. The rate of dissociation varies with pH, as does the equilibrium binding constant for NADH. 5. 3-Fluoro-oxaloacetate is composed of three forms (F1, F2 and S) of which F1 and F2 are immediately substrates for the enzyme. The third form, S, is not a substrate, but when the F forms are used up form S slowly and non-enzymically equilibrates to yield the active substrate forms. S is 2,2-dihydroxy-3-fluorosuccinate. 6. The steady-state compound during the reduction of form F1 is an enzyme form that does not contain NADH, probably MDH-NAD+-fluoromalate. The steady-state compound for form F2 is an enzyme form containing NADH, probably MDH-NADH-fluoro-oxaloacetate. 7. The rate-limiting reaction in the reduction of form F2 shows a deuterium isotope rate ratio of 4 when NADH is replaced by its deuterium analogue, and the rate-limiting reaction is concluded to be hydride transfer. 8. A novel titration was used to show that dimeric cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase contains two sites that can rapidly reduce the F1 form of 3-fluoro-oxaloacetate. The enzyme shows 'all-of-the-sites' behaviour. 9. Partial mechanisms are proposed to explain the enzyme-catalysed transformations of the natural and the fluoro substrates. These mechanisms are similar to the mechanism of pig heart lactate

  8. Anemia in patients with coinherited thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Phanthong, Siratcha

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency are genetic disorders that cause hemolytic anemia. In areas with high frequencies of both hematological disorders, coinheritance of G-6-PD deficiency with thalassemia can be found. Whether G-6-PD deficiency, coinherited with thalassemia, enhances severe anemia is still unclear. Hematological parameters between thalassemia carriers with G-6-PD deficiency and those without G-6-PD deficiency were compared. The G-6-PD deficiency was diagnosed in 410 blood samples from thalassemia patients using a fluorescent spot test. The levels of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and Hb A2/Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys; HBB: c.79G>A] were measured using an automated blood counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The G-6-PD deficiency was found in 37 samples (9.02%). Mean levels of Hb, PCV, MCV and Hb A2/E were similar between the two groups. Thus, G-6-PD deficiency did not enhance red blood cell pathology or induce more anemic severity in thalassemia patients.

  9. Coupling between d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase drives bacterial l-serine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Manman; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yipeng; Ge, Yongsheng; Guo, Shiting; Guo, Xiaoting; Zhou, Zikang; Liu, Qiuyuan; Zhang, Yingxin; Ma, Cuiqing; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    l-Serine biosynthesis, a crucial metabolic process in most domains of life, is initiated by d-3-phosphoglycerate (d-3-PG) dehydrogenation, a thermodynamically unfavorable reaction catalyzed by d-3-PG dehydrogenase (SerA). d-2-Hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG) is traditionally viewed as an abnormal metabolite associated with cancer and neurometabolic disorders. Here, we reveal that bacterial anabolism and catabolism of d-2-HG are involved in l-serine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. SerA catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) to d-2-HG, responsible for the major production of d-2-HG in vivo. SerA combines the energetically favorable reaction of d-2-HG production to overcome the thermodynamic barrier of d-3-PG dehydrogenation. We identified a bacterial d-2-HG dehydrogenase (D2HGDH), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme, that converts d-2-HG back to 2-KG. Electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) and ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) are also essential in d-2-HG metabolism through their capacity to transfer electrons from D2HGDH. Furthermore, while the mutant with D2HGDH deletion displayed decreased growth, the defect was rescued by adding l-serine, suggesting that the D2HGDH is functionally tied to l-serine synthesis. Substantial flux flows through d-2-HG, being produced by SerA and removed by D2HGDH, ETF, and ETFQO, maintaining d-2-HG homeostasis. Overall, our results uncover that d-2-HG–mediated coupling between SerA and D2HGDH drives bacterial l-serine synthesis. PMID:28827360

  10. The importance of alcohol dehydrogenase in regulation of ethanol metabolism in rat liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Page, R A; Kitson, K E; Hardman, M J

    1991-01-01

    We used titration with the inhibitors tetramethylene sulphoxide and isobutyramide to assess quantitatively the importance of alcohol dehydrogenase in regulation of ethanol oxidation in rat hepatocytes. In hepatocytes isolated from starved rats the apparent Flux Control Coefficient (calculated assuming a single-substrate irreversible reaction with non-competitive inhibition) of alcohol dehydrogenase is 0.3-0.5. Adjustment of this coefficient to allow for alcohol dehydrogenase being a two-substrate reversible enzyme increases the value by 1.3-1.4-fold. The final value of the Flux Control Coefficient of 0.5-0.7 indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase is a major rate-determining enzyme, but that other factors also have a regulatory role. In hepatocytes from fed rats the Flux Control Coefficient for alcohol dehydrogenase decreases with increasing acetaldehyde concentration. This suggests that, as acetaldehyde concentrations rise, control of the pathway shifts from alcohol dehydrogenase to other enzymes, particularly aldehyde dehydrogenase. There is not a single rate-determining step for the ethanol metabolism pathway and control is shared among several steps. PMID:1898355

  11. Kinetic mechanism of Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase and its inhibition by glyoxylate and oxaloacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo, H G

    1986-01-01

    The inhibition of Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase by glyoxylate and oxaloacetate was examined. The shapes of the progress curves in the presence of the inhibitors depended on the order of addition of the assay components. When isocitrate dehydrogenase or NADP+ was added last, the rate slowly decreased until a new, inhibited, steady state was obtained. When isocitrate was added last, the initial rate was almost zero, but the rate increased slowly until the same steady-state value was obtained. Glyoxylate and oxaloacetate gave competitive inhibition against isocitrate and uncompetitive inhibition against NADP+. Product-inhibition studies showed that isocitrate dehydrogenase obeys a compulsory-order mechanism, with coenzyme binding first. Glyoxylate and oxaloacetate bind to and dissociate from isocitrate dehydrogenase slowly. These observations can account for the shapes of the progress curves observed in the presence of the inhibitors. Condensation of glyoxylate and oxaloacetate produced an extremely potent inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase. Analysis of the reaction by h.p.l.c. showed that this correlated with the formation of oxalomalate. This compound decomposed spontaneously in assay mixtures, giving 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate, which was a much less potent inhibitor of the enzyme. Oxalomalate inhibited isocitrate dehydrogenase competitively with respect to isocitrate and was a very poor substrate for the enzyme. The data suggest that the inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase by glyoxylate and oxaloacetate is not physiologically significant. PMID:3521584

  12. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Begüm; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-12-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA-GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA-GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30-50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA-GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0M NaCI at pH8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The 17 beta-oestradiol dehydrogenase of pig endometrial cells is localized in specialized vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Adamski, J; Husen, B; Marks, F; Jungblut, P W

    1993-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies against the 17 beta-oestradiol dehydrogenase of pig endometrial cells have been used in localization studies with immunogold electron microscopy. The antibodies attach both to a fraction of dehydrogenase-rich cytoplasmic vesicles isolated from homogenates and to vesicles of similar appearance in cells. The vesicles are filled with electron-dense material. Their tagging intensity indicates a high degree of specialization. Endometrial cells from mature animals contain a host of dehydrogenase vesicles, and cells from prepubertal animals only a few. Functional aspects of the novel organelle are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8457206

  14. LIPT1 deficiency presenting as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, Leigh disease, and secondary pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Robert C; Sun, Qin; Elsea, Sarah H; Scaglia, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. Lipoyltransferase 1 catalyzes the covalent attachment of lipoate to these enzyme systems. Pathogenic variants in LIPT1 gene have recently been described in four patients from three families, commonly presenting with severe lactic acidosis resulting in neonatal death and/or poor neurocognitive outcomes. We report a 2-month-old male with severe lactic acidosis, refractory status epilepticus, and brain imaging suggestive of Leigh disease. Exome sequencing implicated compound heterozygous LIPT1 pathogenic variants. We describe the fifth case of LIPT1 deficiency, whose phenotype progressed to that of an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, which is novel compared to previously described patients whom we will review. Due to the significant biochemical and phenotypic overlap that LIPT1 deficiency and mitochondrial energy cofactor disorders have with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and/or nonketotic hyperglycinemia, they are and have been presumptively under-diagnosed without exome sequencing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities of Wine Yeasts in Relation to Higher Alcohol Formation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Kunkee, Ralph E.

    1976-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activities were examined in cell-free extracts of 10 representative wine yeast strains having various productivities of higher alcohols (fusel oil). The amount of fusel alcohols (n-propanol, isobutanol, active pentanol, and isopentanol) produced by the different yeasts and the specific alcohol dehydrogenase activities with the corresponding alcohols as substrates were found to be significantly related. No such relationship was found for ethanol. The amounts of higher alcohols formed during vinification could be predicted from the specific activities of the alcohol dehydrogenases with high accuracy. The results suggest a close relationship between the control of the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and the formation of fusel oil alcohols. Also, new procedures for the prediction of higher alcohol formation during alcoholic beverage fermentation are suggested. PMID:16345179

  16. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  18. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF) Orphanet: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) Organic Acidemia ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) Children's Mitochondrial Disease Network (UK) FOD (Fatty Oxidation Disorders) ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Orphanet: Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (5 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Disease (CLIMB) Children's Mitochondrial ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Screening, Technology, and Research in Genetics Virginia Department of Health (PDF) Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) Children's Mitochondrial ...

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Avci, Fatma; Guzelay, Nihal

    2014-01-29

    Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  5. Glycosomal and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenases in epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cannata, J J; Cazzulo, J J

    1984-04-01

    The degradation of glucose by Trypanosoma cruzi leads to the excretion of succinate. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) participates in this process by reducing to malate the oxaloacetate synthesized by the glycosomal enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The best coupling for these two sequential reactions would be attained if both enzymes were placed in the same subcellular compartment. The intracellular distribution of the MDH activity in epimastigotes of T. cruzi was studied by two methods. Selective disruption of cellular membranes with increasing concentrations of digitonin, indicated that trypanosomal MDH is particulate. Isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose gradient of a large granule fraction, obtained by grinding the cells with silicon carbide, showed the presence of two MDH activities: one banding together with the glycosomal marker phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the other with the mitochondrial marker citrate synthase. Isoelectrofocusing of cell-free extracts led to the separation of two enzyme forms, with pI values of about 3.5 (MDHa) and 9.4 (MDHb). These forms had similar molecular weights (approx. 60 000) and apparent Km values, but showed a small but consistent difference in their pH optima (9.23 for MDHa and 9.05 for MDHb), and in their activation by inorganic phosphate (apparent Ka values of 33 mM and 87 mM, for MDHa and MDHb, respectively). Determination of the pH optima of the enzyme forms separated by isopycnic centrifugation suggests that the glycosomal enzyme form is MDHa, and the mitochondrial one is MDHb.

  6. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma: Evolving clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Miller, Julie J; Shih, Helen A; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Cahill, Daniel P

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are commonly mutated in low-grade glioma and in a subset of glioblastoma. These mutations co-occur with other recurrent molecular alterations, including 1p/19q codeletions and tumor suppressor protein 53 (TP53) and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation (ATRX) mutations, which together help to define a molecular signature that aids in the classification of gliomas and helps to better predict clinical behavior. A confluence of research suggests that glioma development in IDH-mutant and IDH wild-type tumors is driven by different oncogenic processes and responds differently to current treatment paradigms. Herein, the authors discuss the discovery of IDH mutations and associated molecular alterations in glioma, review clinical features common to patients with IDH-mutant glioma, and highlight current understanding of IDH mutation-driven gliomagenesis with implications for emerging treatment strategies. Cancer 2017;123:4535-4546. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Characterizing Lysine Acetylation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Sumana; Chen, Hao; Stahman, Alleigh; Hudson, Denver; McGuire, Paige; Gan, Qinglei; Fan, Chenguang

    2018-06-22

    The Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) is one of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, playing key roles in energy production and carbon flux regulation. E. coli ICDH was the first bacterial enzyme shown to be regulated by reversible phosphorylation. However, the effect of lysine acetylation on E. coli ICDH, which has no sequence similarity with its counterparts in eukaryotes, is still unclear. Based on previous studies of E. coli acetylome and ICDH crystal structures, eight lysine residues were selected for mutational and kinetic analyses. They were replaced with acetyllysine by the genetic code expansion strategy or substituted with glutamine as a classic approach. Although acetylation decreased the overall ICDH activity, its effects were different site by site. Deacetylation tests demonstrated that the CobB deacetylase could deacetylate ICDH both in vivo and in vitro, but CobB was only specific for lysine residues at the protein surface. On the other hand, ICDH could be acetylated by acetyl-phosphate chemically in vitro. And in vivo acetylation tests indicated that the acetylation level of ICDH was correlated with the amounts of intracellular acetyl-phosphate. This study nicely complements previous proteomic studies to provide direct biochemical evidence for ICDH acetylation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADPH, and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Robert C

    2012-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. Many scientists think that the roles and regulation of G6PD in physiology and pathophysiology have been well established as the enzyme was first identified 80 years ago. And that G6PD has been extensively studied especially with respect to G6PD deficiency and its association with hemolysis, and with respect to the role G6PD plays in lipid metabolism. But there has been a growing understanding of the central importance of G6PD to cellular physiology as it is a major source of NADPH that is required by many essential cellular systems including the antioxidant pathways, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, cytochrome p450 system, and others. Indeed G6PD is essential for cell survival. It has also become evident that G6PD is highly regulated by many signals that affect transcription, post-translation, intracellular location, and interactions with other protein. Pathophysiologic roles for G6PD have also been identified in such disease processes as diabetes, aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, cancer, and others. It is now clear that G6PD is under complex regulatory control and of central importance to many cellular processes. In this review the biochemistry, regulatory signals, physiologic roles, and pathophysiologic roles for G6PD that have been elucidated over the past 20 years are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Leukocyte glutamate dehydrogenase activity in patients with degenerative neurological disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Aubby, D; Saggu, H K; Jenner, P; Quinn, N P; Harding, A E; Marsden, C D

    1988-01-01

    Leukocyte glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was measured in 39 normal subjects, 32 neurological controls, 66 patients with progressive ataxic disorders, 32 with multiple system atrophy, 40 with Parkinson's disease, eight with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, eight with juvenile Parkinsonism and four with the dystonia-Parkinsonism syndrome. GDH activity was reproducible to within 10% in leukocyte pellets stored at -70 degrees C for up to 9 months, and did not vary with sex or age in control subjects. There was marked variation in the relative proportions of heat stable and heat labile forms of GDH between control subjects and on repeated assay in the same subject. Total leukocyte GDH activity was similar in normal subjects and neurological controls. Mean total GDH activity was reduced in all patient groups by between 15 to 29% compared with controls. Fourteen patients had total GDH activity below 50% of the control mean, but low values were not specific for any one disease (five had ataxic disorders, four Parkinson's disease, three multiple system atrophy, one juvenile Parkinsonism, and one dystonia-Parkinsonism). The heat labile fraction of GDH represented about 20% of total activity in control subjects, and 27% in the patients with reduced total GDH activity. Thus low GDH activity was not disease-specific in this study, and the heat-labile GDH fraction was not selectively affected. "Reduced" leucocyte GDH activity in some patients may represent no more than the lower end of a normal distribution. PMID:3204397

  11. Glutathionylation regulates cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Oh, Chang Joo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) is susceptible to inactivation by numerous thiol-modifying reagents. This study now reports that Cys269 of IDPc is a target for S-glutathionylation and that this modification is reversed by dithiothreitol as well as enzymatically by cytosolic glutaredoxin in the presence of GSH. Glutathionylated IDPc was significantly less susceptible than native protein to peptide fragmentation by reactive oxygen species and proteolytic digestion. Glutathionylation may play a protective role in the degradation of protein through the structural alterations of IDPc. HEK293 cells treated with diamide displayed decreased IDPc activity and accumulated glutathionylated enzyme. Using immunoprecipitation with an anti-IDPc IgG and immunoblotting with an anti-GSH IgG, we purified and positively identified glutathionylated IDPc from the kidneys of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury and from the livers of ethanol-administered rats. These results suggest that IDPc activity is modulated through enzymatic glutathionylation and deglutathionylation during oxidative stress.

  12. Regulation of replicative senescence by NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kil, In Sup; Huh, Tae Lin; Lee, Young Sup; Lee, You Mie; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2006-01-01

    The free radical hypothesis of aging postulates that senescence is due to an accumulation of cellular oxidative damage, caused largely by reactive oxygen species that are produced as by-products of normal metabolic processes. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic (IDPc) and mitochondrial NADP+ -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc or IDPm activity in IMR-90 cells regulates cellular redox status and replicative senescence. When we examined the regulatory role of IDPc and IDPm against the aging process with IMR-90 cells transfected with cDNA for IDPc or IDPm in sense and antisense orientations, a clear inverse relationship was observed between the amount of IDPc or IDPm expressed in target cells and their susceptibility to senescence, which was reflected by changes in replicative potential, cell cycle, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, expression of p21 and p53, and morphology of cells. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher and cellular redox status shifted to a prooxidant condition in the cell lines expressing the lower level of IDPc or IDPm. The results suggest that IDPc and IDPm play an important regulatory role in cellular defense against oxidative stress and in the senescence of IMR-90 cells.

  13. Detailed kinetics and regulation of mammalian 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), a key regulatory point of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays vital roles in multiple pathways of energy metabolism and biosynthesis. The catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of this large enzyme complex are not fully understood. Here computer simulation is used to test possible catalytic mechanisms and mechanisms of allosteric regulation of the enzyme by nucleotides (ATP, ADP), pH, and metal ion cofactors (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Results A model was developed based on an ordered ter-ter enzyme kinetic mechanism combined with con-formational changes that involve rotation of one lipoic acid between three catalytic sites inside the enzyme complex. The model was parameterized using a large number of kinetic data sets on the activity of OGDHC, and validated by comparison of model predictions to independent data. Conclusions The developed model suggests a hybrid rapid-equilibrium ping-pong random mechanism for the kinetics of OGDHC, consistent with previously reported mechanisms, and accurately describes the experimentally observed regulatory effects of cofactors on the OGDHC activity. This analysis provides a single consistent theoretical explanation for a number of apparently contradictory results on the roles of phosphorylation potential, NAD (H) oxidation-reduction state ratio, as well as the regulatory effects of metal ions on ODGHC function. PMID:21943256

  14. Crystallographic and spectroscopic snapshots reveal a dehydrogenase in action

    DOE PAGES

    Huo, Lu; Davis, Ian; Liu, Fange; ...

    2015-01-07

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous intermediates in metabolic pathways and their innate reactivity can often make them quite unstable. There are several aldehydic intermediates in the metabolic pathway for tryptophan degradation that can decay into neuroactive compounds that have been associated with numerous neurological diseases. An enzyme of this pathway, 2-aminomuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, is responsible for ‘disarming’ the final aldehydic intermediate. Here we show the crystal structures of a bacterial analogue enzyme in five catalytically relevant forms: resting state, one binary and two ternary complexes, and a covalent, thioacyl intermediate. We also report the crystal structures of a tetrahedral, thiohemiacetal intermediate, a thioacylmore » intermediate and an NAD +-bound complex from an active site mutant. These covalent intermediates are characterized by single-crystal and solution-state electronic absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structures reveal that the substrate undergoes an E/Z isomerization at the enzyme active site before an sp 3-to-sp 2 transition during enzyme-mediated oxidation.« less

  15. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Memeo, Riccardo; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Giampieri, Riccardo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Del Prete, Michela; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80-90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease.

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition as a pathogenic mechanism in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Arthur G.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Lulla, Aaron; Murphy, Niall P.; Lam, Hoa A.; O’Donnell, Kelley C.; Barnhill, Lisa; Casida, John E.; Cockburn, Myles; Sagasti, Alvaro; Stahl, Mark C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Ritz, Beate; Bronstein, Jeff M.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder particularly characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Pesticide exposure has been associated with PD occurrence, and we previously reported that the fungicide benomyl interferes with several cellular processes potentially relevant to PD pathogenesis. Here we propose that benomyl, via its bioactivated thiocarbamate sulfoxide metabolite, inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), leading to accumulation of the reactive dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), preferential degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, and development of PD. This hypothesis is supported by multiple lines of evidence. (i) We previously showed in mice the metabolism of benomyl to S-methyl N-butylthiocarbamate sulfoxide, which inhibits ALDH at nanomolar levels. We report here that benomyl exposure in primary mesencephalic neurons (ii) inhibits ALDH and (iii) alters dopamine homeostasis. It induces selective dopaminergic neuronal damage (iv) in vitro in primary mesencephalic cultures and (v) in vivo in a zebrafish system. (vi) In vitro cell loss was attenuated by reducing DOPAL formation. (vii) In our epidemiology study, higher exposure to benomyl was associated with increased PD risk. This ALDH model for PD etiology may help explain the selective vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in PD and provide a potential mechanism through which environmental toxicants contribute to PD pathogenesis. PMID:23267077

  17. Nitrated carbon nanoblisters for high-performance glucose dehydrogenase bioanodes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, João C P; Iost, Rodrigo M; Crespilho, Frank N

    2016-03-15

    Recently, many strategies are being explored for efficiently wiring glucose dehydrogenase (GDh) enzymes capable of glucose (fuel) oxidation. For instance, the use of GDh NAD(+)-dependent for glucose oxidation is of great interest in biofuel cell technology because the enzyme are unaffected by the presence of molecular oxygen commonly present in electrolyte. Here we present the fabrication of flexible carbon fibers modified with nitrated carbon nanoblisters and their application as high-performance GDh bioanodes. These bioelectrodes could electro-oxidize glucose at -360 mV (vs. Ag/AgClsat) in the presence of a molecular oxygen saturated electrolyte with current densities higher than 1.0 mAcm(-2) at 0.0 V. It is corroborated by open circuit potential, where a potential stabilization occurs at -150 mV in a long term stability current-transient experiment. This value is in agreement with the quasi-steady current obtained at very low scan rate (0.1 mVs(-1)), where the onset potential for glucose oxidation is -180 mV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nitrated blisters and edge-like carbon structures, enabling highly efficient enzyme immobilization and low overpotential for electron transfer, allowing for glucose oxidation with potential values close to the thermodynamic cofactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase induction in arsenic-exposed rat bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. Many human cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC), show a dose-dependent relationship with arsenic exposure in the south-west coast of Taiwan (also known as the blackfoot disease (BFD) areas). However, the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-mediated UC carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. In vivo study, the rat bladder epithelium were exposed with arsenic for 48 h. The proteins were extracted from untreated and arsenic-treated rat bladder cells and utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Selected peptides were extracted from the gel and identified by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) Ultima-Micromass spectra. The significantly difference expression of proteins in arsenic-treated groups as compared with untreated groups was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. We found that thirteen proteins were down-regulated and nine proteins were up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder cells when compared with untreated groups. The IHC and western blotting results confirmed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein was up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder epithelium. Expression of ALDH protein was significantly higher in UC patients from BFD areas than those from non-BFD areas using IHC (p=0.018). In conclusion, the ALDH protein expression could be used as molecular markers for arsenic-induced transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})more » in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.« less

  20. Cloning and polymorphisms of yak lactate dehydrogenase B gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guosheng; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhong, Juming; Cao, Meng; He, Qinghua; Liu, Zhengxin; Lin, Yaqiu; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai

    2013-06-05

    The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1) gene in yak (Bos grunniens). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit) in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S) of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak.

  1. Cloning and Polymorphisms of Yak Lactate Dehydrogenase b Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guosheng; Zhao, Xingbo; Zhong, Juming; Cao, Meng; He, Qinghua; Liu, Zhengxin; Lin, Yaqiu; Xu, Yaou; Zheng, Yucai

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1) gene in yak (Bos grunniens). Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit) in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S) of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak. PMID:23739677

  2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation as a therapeutic target in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Han, Catherine H; Batchelor, Tracy T

    2017-06-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) are important enzymes that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), producing NADPH in the process. More than 80% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma (GBM) harbor an IDH mutation. IDH mutations involve the catalytic pocket of the enzyme and lead to a neomorphic ability to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) while oxidizing NADPH to NADP+. 2HG is considered as an 'oncometabolite' which is thought to be responsible for many, if not all, biologic effects of IDH mutations. 2HG accumulation competitively inhibits α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone lysine demethylases and DNA demethylases, resulting in a hypermethylation phenotype with alterations in cellular epigenetic status as well as a block in cellular differentiation. IDH mutations have been suggested as an important early event in tumorigenesis, however it remains unclear whether IDH mutation by itself causes cancer or if it requires other oncogenic events to initiate tumorigenesis. Significant efforts have been made to better understand the mechanisms of IDH mutations in tumor initiation and progression, and to develop targeted therapies for IDH-mutated tumors. This review provides an overview of the function of mutant IDH, and the current understanding of the role IDH mutations play in gliomagenesis. In addition, several potential therapeutic strategies for IDH-mutant gliomas, including mutant IDH inhibitors which have entered clinical evaluation in glioma patients, will be discussed.

  3. Properties of lactate dehydrogenase from the isopod, Saduria entomon.

    PubMed

    Mulkiewicz, E; Zietara, M S; Stachowiak, K; Skorkowski, E F

    2000-07-01

    Saduria entomon lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A4*) from thorax muscle was purified about 89 fold to specific activity 510 micromol NADH/min/mg using Cibacron Blue 3GA Agarose and Oxamate-Agarose chromatographies. The enzyme is a tetramer, with molecular weight of 140 kDa for the native enzyme and 36 kDa for the subunit. The isoelectric point was at pH 5.7. The enzyme possesses high heat stability (T50 = 71.5 degrees C). The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction reaction was 6.5, while for lactate oxidation one, the maximum activity was at pH 9.1. The Km for pyruvate was minimal at 5 degrees C, the average environmental temperature of the isopod. The Km values determined at 30 degrees C and optimal pH for pyruvate reduction and lactate oxidation were 0.18 and 90.04 mM, respectively. Amino acid compositional analyses showed the strongest resemblance of the isopod isoenzyme to cod (Gadus morhua) LDH-C4.

  4. Enzyme dynamics and hydrogen tunnelling in a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, Amnon; Cannio, Raffaele; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Klinman, Judith P.; Klinman, Judith P.

    1999-06-01

    Biological catalysts (enzymes) speed up reactions by many orders of magnitude using fundamental physical processes to increase chemical reactivity. Hydrogen tunnelling has increasingly been found to contribute to enzyme reactions at room temperature. Tunnelling is the phenomenon by which a particle transfers through a reaction barrier as a result of its wave-like property. In reactions involving small molecules, the relative importance of tunnelling increases as the temperature is reduced. We have now investigated whether hydrogen tunnelling occurs at elevated temperatures in a biological system that functions physiologically under such conditions. Using a thermophilic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), we find that hydrogen tunnelling makes a significant contribution at 65°C this is analogous to previous findings with mesophilic ADH at 25°C ( ref. 5). Contrary to predictions for tunnelling through a rigid barrier, the tunnelling with the thermophilic ADH decreases at and below room temperature. These findings provide experimental evidence for a role of thermally excited enzyme fluctuations in modulating enzyme-catalysed bond cleavage.

  5. Neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pao, Mritunjay; Kulkarni, Anjali; Gupta, Vidya; Kaul, Sushma; Balan, Saroja

    2005-10-01

    This study was carried out to detect the incidence of erythrocytic Glucose-6 -Phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, to compare the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in G-6-PD deficient neonates as compared to G-6-PD normal neonates and to asses the usefulness of neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency. In a retrospective hospital based study 2,479 male and female neonates consecutively born at Indraprastha Apollo hospital between July 1998 to June 2003 who were screened for G-6-PD levels were evaluated for the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency. Incidence of G-6-PD deficiency was found to be 2.0%. Incidence in males was 283% and female was 1.05%. The incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was found to be 32% in G-6-PD deficient neonates which was significantly higher than the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with normal G-6-PD, which was 12.3% (P< 0.001). Our data suggests that neonatal screening for G-6-PD deficiency is a useful test for preventing and early treatment of complications associated with it.

  6. Robust regulation of hepatic pericentral amination by glutamate dehydrogenase kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bera, Soumen; Lamba, Sanjay; Rashid, Mubasher; Sharma, Anuj K; Medvinsky, Alexander B; Acquisti, Claudia; Chakraborty, Amit; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-11-07

    Impaired glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) sensitivity to its inhibitors causes excessive insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells and defective ammonia metabolism in the liver. These symptoms are commonly associated with hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA), which causes recurrent hypoglycaemia in early infancy. Hepatic localization of GDH amination and deamination activities linked with the urea cycle is known to be involved in ammonia metabolism and detoxification. Although deamination activities of hepatic GDH in the periportal zones of liver lobules and its connection to the urea cycle have been exhaustively investigated, physiological roles of GDH amination activity observed at pericentral zones have often been overlooked. Using kinetic modelling approaches, here we report a new role for hepatic GDH amination kinetics in maintaining ammonia homeostasis under an excess intrahepatocyte input of ammonium. We have shown that α-ketoglutarate substrate inhibition kinetics of GDH, which include both random and obligatory ordered association/dissociation reactions, robustly control the ratio between glutamate and ammonium under a wide range of intracellular substrate variation. Dysregulation of this activity under pericentral nitrogen insufficiency contributes to the breaking down of ammonia homeostasis and thereby can significantly affect HI/HA syndrome.

  7. Polysomnographic Abnormalities in Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (SSADH) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Shamim, Sadat; Theodore, William H.; Gibson, K. Michael; Forester, Katherine; Combs, Susan E.; Lewin, Daniel; Dustin, Irene; Reeves-Tyer, Patricia; Jakobs, Cornelis; Sato, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with SSADH deficiency, a disorder of chronically elevated endogenous GABA and GHB, were studied for sleep symptoms and polysomnography. We hypothesized that patients would have excessive daytime somnolence and decreased REM sleep. Design: Polysomnography and MSLT were performed on patients enrolled for comprehensive clinical studies of SSADH deficiency. Setting: Sleep studies were obtained in the sleep laboratories at CNMC and NIH. Patients: Sleep recordings were obtained in 10 patients with confirmed SSADH deficiency. Interventions: Thirteen overnight polysomnograms were obtained in 10 patients (7 male, 3 female, ages 11-27 y). Eleven MSLT studies were completed in 8 patients. Measurements and Results: Polysomnograms showed prolongation of REM stage latency (mean 272 ± 89 min) and decreased percent stage REM (mean 8.9%, range 0.3% to 13.8%). Decreased mean sleep latency was present in 6 of 11 MSLTs. Conclusions: SSADH deficiency is associated with prolonged latency to stage REM and decreased percent stage REM. This disorder represents a model of chronic GABA and GHB accumulation associated with suppression of REM sleep. Citation: Pearl PL; Shamim S; Theodore WH; Gibson M; Forester K; Combs SE; Lewin D; Dustin I; Reeves P; Jakobs C; Sato S. Polysomnographic abnormalities in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1645-1648. PMID:20041601

  8. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Eimeria tenella malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Bing; Zhao, Qiping; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Zongping; Lv, Ling; Yan, Ming; Han, Hongyu

    2018-05-08

    Eimeria tenella is a serious intracellular parasite that actively invades cecal epithelial cells of chickens. The widespread use of drugs causes severe resistance to Eimeria tenella. We detected that malate dehydrogenase (MDH), one of the differentially expressed genes, was upregulated in diclazuril-resistant and maduramicin-resistant strains through transcriptome sequencing. In this study, we cloned and expressed MDH of E. tenella (EtMDH). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and Western blots were used to analyze the expression of EtMDH in resistant and sensitive strains, indicating EtMDH was upregulated in two resistant strains at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Enzyme activity was tested through absorbance measurement and the EtMDH activity increased in two resistant strains. Expression levels of EtMDH in four developmental stages of E. tenella were tested through qPCR and Western blot. Invasion inhibition assays explored if EtMDH was involved in invasion of DF-1 cells by E. tenella sporozoites. Indirect immunofluorescence assays investigated EtMDH distribution during parasite development in DF-1 cells invaded by E. tenella sporozoites. Experimental results showed that EtMDH may be related to drug resistance of E. tenella during its development and invasion. EtMDH may be an effective molecular marker for detection of E. tenella drug resistance.

  9. Dehydrogenation of indanol by rabbit liver 3-hydroxyhexobarbital dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Takenoshita, R; Toki, S

    1977-06-01

    1. Among the several enzyme activities in rabbit liver cytosol able to dehydrogenate 1-indanol, only the main activity was not separable from 3-hydroxyhexobarbital dehydrogenase during purification including polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. 2. Results of mixed substrate method indicated that the same enzyme catalyses the dehydrogenation of 1-indanol and 3-hydroxyhexobarbital. The ratio between the two dehydrogenation activities was almost constant as the enzyme underwent thermal inactivation. The Ki values of p-chloromercuribenzoate, the Km values for NAD+, and the Km values for NADP+ were very similar for the two dehydrogenations. These results lead to the conclusion that the same enzyme catalyses the dehydrogenation of 3-hydroxyhexobarbital and 1-indanol. 3. 1-Tetralol, 1-acenaphthenol, 9-fluorenol, thiochroman-4-ol and 4-chromanol also served as substrate of the enzyme, but 2-indanol, 2-tetralol, and trans- and cis-indan-1,2-diol were not oxidized. 4. Reversibility of the reaction was also confirmed using 1-indanone as substrate.

  10. The interaction of trimethylamine dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiwei; Mersfelder, John; Hille, Russ

    2005-05-27

    The interaction between the physiological electron transfer partners trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) and electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) from Methylophilus methylotrophus has been examined with particular regard to the proposal that the former protein "imprints" a conformational change on the latter. The results indicate that the absorbance change previously attributed to changes in the environment of the FAD of ETF upon binding to TMADH is instead caused by electron transfer from partially reduced, as-isolated TMADH to ETF. Prior treatment of the as-isolated enzyme with the oxidant ferricenium essentially abolishes the observed spectral change. Further, when the semiquinone form of ETF is used instead of the oxidized form, the mirror image of the spectral change seen with as-isolated TMADH and oxidized ETF is observed. This is attributable to a small amount of electron transfer in the reverse of the physiological direction. Kinetic determination of the dissociation constant and limiting rate constant for electron transfer within the complex of (reduced) TMADH with (oxidized) ETF is reconfirmed and discussed in the context of a recently proposed model for the interaction between the two proteins that involves "structural imprinting" of ETF.

  11. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Mimicking Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Patrick R; Johnson, Sally; Brocklebank, Vicky; Salvatore, Jacobo; Christian, Martin; Kavanagh, David

    2018-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with nonimmune hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Investigations for an underlying cause failed to identify a definitive cause and a putative diagnosis of complement-mediated atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) was made. The patient was started initially on plasma exchange and subsequently eculizumab therapy, after which his kidney function rapidly improved. While on eculizumab therapy, despite adequate complement blockade, he presented 2 more times with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, but without renal involvement. Genetic analysis did not uncover a mutation in any known aHUS gene (CFH, CFI, CFB, C3, CD46, THBD, INF2, and DGKE) and anti-factor H antibodies were undetectable. Whole-exome sequencing was undertaken to identify a cause for the eculizumab resistance. This revealed a pathogenic variant in G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), which was confirmed by functional analysis demonstrating decreased erythrocyte G6PD activity. Eculizumab therapy was withdrawn. Complement-mediated aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion and this case highlights the diagnostic difficulty that remains without an immediately available biomarker for confirmation. This case of G6PD deficiency presented with a phenotype clinically indistinguishable from complement-mediated aHUS. We recommend that G6PD deficiency be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with aHUS and suggest measuring erythrocyte G6PD concentrations in these patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chemically engineered papain as artificial formate dehydrogenase for NAD(P)H regeneration.

    PubMed

    Haquette, Pierre; Talbi, Barisa; Barilleau, Laure; Madern, Nathalie; Fosse, Céline; Salmain, Michèle

    2011-08-21

    Organometallic complexes of the general formula [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N⁁N)Cl](+) and [(η(5)-Cp*)Rh(N⁁N)Cl](+) where N⁁N is a 2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA) derivative carrying a thiol-targeted maleimide group, 2,2'-bispyridyl (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or ethylenediamine (en) and arene is benzene, 2-chloro-N-[2-(phenyl)ethyl]acetamide or p-cymene were identified as catalysts for the stereoselective reduction of the enzyme cofactors NAD(P)(+) into NAD(P)H with formate as a hydride donor. A thorough comparison of their effectiveness towards NAD(+) (expressed as TOF) revealed that the Rh(III) complexes were much more potent catalysts than the Ru(II) complexes. Within the Ru(II) complex series, both the N⁁N and arene ligands forming the coordination sphere had a noticeable influence on the activity of the complexes. Covalent anchoring of the maleimide-functionalized Ru(II) and Rh(III) complexes to the cysteine endoproteinase papain yielded hybrid metalloproteins, some of them displaying formate dehydrogenase activity with potentially interesting kinetic parameters.

  13. Highly sensitive and stable electrochemical sulfite biosensor incorporating a bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Tkac, Jan; Kappler, Ulrike; Davis, Jason J; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a highly sensitive electrochemical (voltammetric) determination of sulfite using a combination of Starkeya novella sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), horse heart cytochrome c (cyt c), and a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanol (MU) cast on a gold electrode. The biosensor was optimized in terms of pH and the ratio of cyt c/SDH. The electrocatalytic oxidation current of sulfite increased linearly from 1 to 6 microM at the enzyme-modified electrode with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 and an apparent Michaelis constant (K(M,app)) of 43 microM. Using an amperometric method, the low detection limit for sulfite at the enzyme-modified electrode was 44 pM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). The modified electrode retained a stable response for 3 days while losing only ca. 4% of its initial sensitivity during a 2 week storage period in 50 mM Tris buffer solution at 4 degrees C. The enzyme electrode was successfully used for the determination of sulfite in beer and white wine samples. The results of these electrochemical analyses agreed well with an independent spectrophotometric method using Ellman's reagent, but the detection limit was far superior using the electrochemical method.

  14. Purification and characterization of an oxygen-labile, NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas.

    PubMed Central

    Hensgens, C M; Vonck, J; Van Beeumen, J; van Bruggen, E F; Hansen, T A

    1993-01-01

    A NAD-dependent, oxygen-labile alcohol dehydrogenase was purified from Desulfovibrio gigas. It was decameric, with subunits of M(r) 43,000. The best substrates were ethanol (Km, 0.15 mM) and 1-propanol (Km, 0.28 mM). N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the enzyme belongs to the same family of alcohol dehydrogenases as Zymomonas mobilis ADH2 and Bacillus methanolicus MDH. Images PMID:8491707

  15. Partial purification and properties of tropine dehydrogenase from root cultures of Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Koelen, K J; Gross, G G

    1982-04-01

    From sterile root cultures of Datura stramonium, an NADP(H)-specific tropine dehydrogenase has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible and stereospecific oxidation of tropine and related tropane-3 alpha-ols to the corresponding ketone. Isomeric pseudotropine (tropane-3 beta-ol) is neither accepted as substrate nor produced in the reverse reaction. It is assumed that this dehydrogenase is involved in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids.

  16. Inhibiting Sperm Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and Its E3 Subunit, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Affects Fertilization in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Sailasree, Purnima; Singh, Durgesh K.; Kameshwari, Duvurri B.; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF) via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. Methodology and Principal Findings Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid). Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT) [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. Conclusions This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In addition, the

  17. Geraniol and Geranial Dehydrogenases Induced in Anaerobic Monoterpene Degradation by Castellaniella defragrans

    PubMed Central

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Wülfing, Annika; Timke, Markus; Germer, Frauke; Weber, Johanna; Dikfidan, Aytac; Rahnfeld, Tobias; Linder, Dietmar; Meyerdierks, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Castellaniella defragrans is a Betaproteobacterium capable of coupling the oxidation of monoterpenes with denitrification. Geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH) activity was induced during growth with limonene in comparison to growth with acetate. The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme directed the cloning of the corresponding open reading frame (ORF), the first bacterial gene for a GeDH (geoA, for geraniol oxidation pathway). The C. defragrans geraniol dehydrogenase is a homodimeric enzyme that affiliates with the zinc-containing benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the superfamily of medium-chain-length dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR). The purified enzyme most efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of perillyl alcohol (kcat/Km = 2.02 × 106 M−1 s−1), followed by geraniol (kcat/Km = 1.57 × 106 M−1 s−1). Apparent Km values of <10 μM are consistent with an in vivo toxicity of geraniol above 5 μM. In the genetic vicinity of geoA is a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase that was named geoB and identified as a highly abundant protein during growth with phellandrene. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing geoB demonstrated in vitro a geranial dehydrogenase (GaDH) activity. GaDH activity was independent of coenzyme A. The irreversible formation of geranic acid allows for a metabolic flux from β-myrcene via linalool, geraniol, and geranial to geranic acid. PMID:22286981

  18. Geraniol and geranial dehydrogenases induced in anaerobic monoterpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans.

    PubMed

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Wülfing, Annika; Timke, Markus; Germer, Frauke; Weber, Johanna; Dikfidan, Aytac; Rahnfeld, Tobias; Linder, Dietmar; Meyerdierks, Anke; Harder, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Castellaniella defragrans is a Betaproteobacterium capable of coupling the oxidation of monoterpenes with denitrification. Geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH) activity was induced during growth with limonene in comparison to growth with acetate. The N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme directed the cloning of the corresponding open reading frame (ORF), the first bacterial gene for a GeDH (geoA, for geraniol oxidation pathway). The C. defragrans geraniol dehydrogenase is a homodimeric enzyme that affiliates with the zinc-containing benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the superfamily of medium-chain-length dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR). The purified enzyme most efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of perillyl alcohol (k(cat)/K(m) = 2.02 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), followed by geraniol (k(cat)/K(m) = 1.57 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Apparent K(m) values of <10 μM are consistent with an in vivo toxicity of geraniol above 5 μM. In the genetic vicinity of geoA is a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase that was named geoB and identified as a highly abundant protein during growth with phellandrene. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing geoB demonstrated in vitro a geranial dehydrogenase (GaDH) activity. GaDH activity was independent of coenzyme A. The irreversible formation of geranic acid allows for a metabolic flux from β-myrcene via linalool, geraniol, and geranial to geranic acid.

  19. Structural Basis for "Flip-Flop" Action of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a component enzyme of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex that plays a major role in directing energy metabolism in the cell. This cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. In alpha(sub 2)beta(sub 2)-tetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, there are two cofactor binding sites, each of them being a center of independently conducted, although highly coordinated enzymatic reactions. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites can now be understood based on the recently determined crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95A resolution. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase was determined using a combination of MAD phasing and molecular replacement followed by rounds of torsion-angles molecular-dynamics simulated-annealing refinement. The final pyruvate dehydrogenase structure included coordinates for all protein amino acids two cofactor molecules, two magnesium and two potassium ions, and 742 water molecules. The structure was refined to R = 0.202 and R(sub free) = 0.244. Our structural analysis of the enzyme folding and domain assembly identified a simple mechanism of this protein motion required for the conduct of catalytic action.

  20. Purification and Characterization of Two Distinct NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases from Onion (Allium cepa L.) Root Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, A.; Cordoba, F.; Gonzalez-Reyes, J. A.; Navas, P.; Villalba, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified plasma membrane fractions were obtained from onion (Allium cepa L.) roots and used as a source for purification of redox proteins. Plasma membranes solubilized with Triton X-100 contained two distinct polypeptides showing NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenase activities. Dehydrogenase I was purified by gel filtration in Sephacryl S-300 HR, ion-exchange chromatography in DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and dye-ligand affinity chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B after biospecific elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase I consisted of a single polypeptide of about 27 kD and an isoelectric point of about 6. Dehydrogenase II was purified from the DEAE-unbound fraction by chromatography in Blue-Sepharose CL-6B and affinity elution with NADH. Dehydrogenase II consisted of a single polypeptide of about 31 kD and an isoelectric point of about 8. Purified dehydrogenase I oxidized both NADPH and NADH, although higher rates of electron transfer were obtained with NADPH. Maximal activity was achieved with NADPH as donor and juglone or coenzyme Q as acceptor. Dehydrogenase II was specific for NADH and exhibited maximal activity with ferricyanide. Optimal pH for both dehydrogenases was about 6. Dehydrogenase I was moderately inhibited by dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent N-ethyl-maleimide. A strong inhibition of dehydrogenase II was obtained with dicumarol, thenoyltrifluoroacetone, and the thiol reagent p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. PMID:12232306

  1. Ethanol Disrupts Chondrification of the Neurocranial Cartilages in Medaka Embryos without Affecting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2) Promoter Methylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos at different developmental stages were exposed to ethanol for 48 h, then allowed to hatch. Teratogenic effects were evaluated in hatchlings after examining chondrocranial cartilage deformities. Ethanol disrupted cartilage development in medaka in a dose and developme...

  2. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of frozen rat liver were found to catalyse the formation of 3H2O from DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate. Three peaks of enzyme activities were observed on separation by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The first and second peaks corresponded to an enzyme acting on L-2-hydroxyglutarate and the third peak corresponded to an enzyme acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate, as indicated by competitive inhibition of the detritiation of the racemic radioactive compound by the unlabelled L- and D-isomers respectively. The enzyme acting on the D-form was further characterized. It was independent of NAD or NADP and it converted D-2-hydroxyglutarate into α-ketoglutarate, transferring electrons to artificial electron acceptors. It also oxidized D-lactate, D-malate and meso-tartrate and was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, but not by Mg2+ or Ca2+. Subcellular fractionation indicated that it was present in the mitochondrial fraction. The enzyme was further purified by chromatography on Blue Trisacryl and phenyl-Sepharose, up to a stage where only a few bands were still visible by SDS/ PAGE. Among the four candidate polypeptides that were identified by MS, one corresponded to a predicted mitochondrial protein homologous with FAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase. The corresponding human protein was expressed in HEK-293 cells and it was shown to catalyse the detritiation of DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate with similar properties as the purified rat enzyme. PMID:15070399

  3. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Achouri, Younes; Noël, Gaëtane; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H; Veiga-Da-Cunha, Maria; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2004-07-01

    Extracts of frozen rat liver were found to catalyse the formation of 3H2O from DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate. Three peaks of enzyme activities were observed on separation by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. The first and second peaks corresponded to an enzyme acting on L-2-hydroxyglutarate and the third peak corresponded to an enzyme acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate, as indicated by competitive inhibition of the detritiation of the racemic radioactive compound by the unlabelled L- and D-isomers respectively. The enzyme acting on the D-form was further characterized. It was independent of NAD or NADP and it converted D-2-hydroxyglutarate into a-ketoglutarate, transferring electrons to artificial electron acceptors. It also oxidized D-lactate, D-malate and meso-tartrate and was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, but not by Mg2+ or Ca2+. Subcellular fractionation indicated that it was present in the mitochondrial fraction. The enzyme was further purified by chromatography on Blue Trisacryl and phenyl-Sepharose, up to a stage where only a few bands were still visible by SDS/PAGE. Among the four candidate polypeptides that were identified by MS, one corresponded to a predicted mitochondrial protein homologous with FAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase. The corresponding human protein was expressed in HEK-293 cells and it was shown to catalyse the detritiation of DL-2-hydroxy[2-3H]glutarate with similar properties as the purified rat enzyme.

  4. Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. Results A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. Conclusions The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. PMID:21663662

  5. Testis-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuravsky, Mikhail L; Aleshin, Vladimir V; Frishman, Dmitrij; Muronetz, Vladimir I

    2011-06-10

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) catalyses one of the glycolytic reactions and is also involved in a number of non-glycolytic processes, such as endocytosis, DNA excision repair, and induction of apoptosis. Mammals are known to possess two homologous GAPD isoenzymes: GAPD-1, a well-studied protein found in all somatic cells, and GAPD-2, which is expressed solely in testis. GAPD-2 supplies energy required for the movement of spermatozoa and is tightly bound to the sperm tail cytoskeleton by the additional N-terminal proline-rich domain absent in GAPD-1. In this study we investigate the evolutionary history of GAPD and gain some insights into specialization of GAPD-2 as a testis-specific protein. A dataset of GAPD sequences was assembled from public databases and used for phylogeny reconstruction by means of the Bayesian method. Since resolution in some clades of the obtained tree was too low, syntenic analysis was carried out to define the evolutionary history of GAPD more precisely. The performed selection tests showed that selective pressure varies across lineages and isoenzymes, as well as across different regions of the same sequences. The obtained results suggest that GAPD-1 and GAPD-2 emerged after duplication during the early evolution of chordates. GAPD-2 was subsequently lost by most lineages except lizards, mammals, as well as cartilaginous and bony fishes. In reptilians and mammals, GAPD-2 specialized to a testis-specific protein and acquired the novel N-terminal proline-rich domain anchoring the protein in the sperm tail cytoskeleton. This domain is likely to have originated by exonization of a microsatellite genomic region. Recognition of the proline-rich domain by cytoskeletal proteins seems to be unspecific. Besides testis, GAPD-2 of lizards was also found in some regenerating tissues, but it lacks the proline-rich domain due to tissue-specific alternative splicing.

  6. Nitrofen induces apoptosis independently of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kling, David E; Cavicchio, Amanda J; Sollinger, Christina A; Schnitzer, Jay J; Kinane, T Bernard; Newburg, David S

    2010-06-01

    Nitrofen is a diphenyl ether that induces congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in rodents. Its mechanism of action has been hypothesized as inhibition of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes with consequent reduced retinoic acid signaling. To determine if nitrofen inhibits RALDH enzymes, a reporter gene construct containing a retinoic acid response-element (RARE) was transfected into HEK-293 cells and treated with varying concentrations of nitrofen in the presence of retinaldehyde (retinal). Cell death was characterized by caspace-cleavage microplate assays and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assays. Ex vivo analyses of cell viability were characterized in fetal rat lung explants using Live/Dead staining. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using fluorescent immunohistochemistry with phosphorylated histone and activated caspase antibodies on explant tissues. Nile red staining was used to identify intracellular lipid droplets. Nitrofen-induced dose-dependent declines in RARE-reporter gene expression. However, similar reductions were observed in control-reporter constructs suggesting that nitrofen compromised cell viability. These observed declines in cell viability resulted from increased cell death and were confirmed using two independent assays. Ex vivo analyses showed that mesenchymal cells were particularly susceptible to nitrofen-induced apoptosis while epithelial cell proliferation was dramatically reduced in fetal rat lung explants. Nitrofen treatment of these explants also showed profound lipid redistribution, primarily to phagocytes. The observed declines in nitrofen-associated retinoic acid signaling appear to be independent of RALDH inhibition and likely result from nitrofen induced cell death/apoptosis. These results support a cellular apoptotic mechanism of CDH development, independent of RALDH inhibition.

  7. Blending foundry sands with soil: Effect on dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Kukier, Urzsula; Lee, Brad

    2006-03-15

    Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impact the soil microbial community. In this study, the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soil amended with molding sand (clay-coated sand known as "green sand") or core sands at 10%, 30%, and 50% (dry wt.) was determined. The green sands were obtained from iron, aluminum, and brass foundries; the core sands were made with phenol-formaldehyde or furfuryl alcohol based resins. Overall, incremental additions of these sands resulted in a decrease in the DHA which lasted throughout the 12-week experimental period. A brass green sand, which contained high concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, severely impacted the DHA. By week 12 no DHA was detected in the 30% and 50% treatments. In contrast, the DHA in soil amended with an aluminum green sand was 2.1 times higher (all blending ratios), on average, at week 4 and 1.4 times greater (30% and 50% treatments only) than the controls by week 12. In core sand-amended soil, the DHA results were similar to soils amended with aluminum and iron green sands. Increased activity in some treatments may be a result of the soil microorganisms utilizing the core resins as a carbon source. The DHA assay is a sensitive indicator of environmental stress caused by foundry sand constituents and may be useful to assess which foundry sands are suitable for beneficial use in the environment.

  8. Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Nisler, Jaroslav; Kopečný, David; Končitíková, Radka; Zatloukal, Marek; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, Karel; Zalabák, David; Briozzo, Pierre; Strnad, Miroslav; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2016-09-01

    Two new TDZ derivatives (HETDZ and 3FMTDZ) are very potent inhibitors of CKX and are promising candidates for in vivo studies. Cytokinin hormones regulate a wide range of essential processes in plants. Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea, TDZ), formerly registered as a cotton defoliant, is a well known inhibitor of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), an enzyme catalyzing the degradation of cytokinins. TDZ thus increases the lifetime of cytokinins and their effects in plants. We used in silico modeling to design, synthesize and characterize twenty new TDZ derivatives with improved inhibitory properties. Two compounds, namely 1-[1,2,3]thiadiazol-5-yl-3-(3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)urea (3FMTDZ) and 1-[2-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl]-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea (HETDZ), displayed up to 15-fold lower IC 50 values compared with TDZ for AtCKX2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX4a from Zea mays. Binding modes of 3FMTDZ and HETDZ were analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Crystal structure complexes, solved at 2.0 Å resolution, revealed that HETDZ and 3FMTDZ bound differently in the active site of ZmCKX4a: the thiadiazolyl ring of 3FMTDZ was positioned over the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, whereas that of HETDZ had the opposite orientation, pointing toward the entrance of the active site. The compounds were further tested for cytokinin activity in several cytokinin bioassays. We suggest that the combination of simple synthesis, lowered cytokinin activity, and enhanced inhibitory effects on CKX isoforms, makes 3FMTDZ and HETDZ suitable candidates for in vivo studies.

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  10. THE HEME BINDING PROPERTIES OF GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Collins, Daniel; Brassard, Julie; Chakravarti, Ritu; Vempati, Rajesh; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Dawson, John H.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that also functions in transcriptional regulation, oxidative stress, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. Because GAPDH is required for cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase (Chakravarti et al, PNAS 2010, 107(42):18004-9), we extensively characterized the heme binding properties of GAPDH. Substoichiometric amounts of ferric heme bound to GAPDH (1 heme per GAPDH tetramer) to form a low-spin complex with UV-visible maxima at 362, 418 and 537 nm, and when reduced to ferrous gave maxima at 424, 527 and 559 nm. Ferric heme association and dissociation rate constants at 10 °C were kon =17,800 M−1s−1 and koff1 = 7.0 × 10−3 s−1; koff2 = 3.3 × 10−4 s−1 respectively, giving approximate affinities of 19–390 nM. Ferrous heme bound more poorly to GAPDH and dissociated with a koff = 4.2 × 10−3 s−1. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), resonance Raman (rR) and EPR spectroscopic data on the ferric, ferrous, and ferrous-CO complexes of GAPDH showed that the heme is bis-ligated with His as the proximal ligand. The distal ligand in ferric complex was not displaced by CN− or N3− but in ferrous complex was displaceable by CO at a rate of 1.75 s−1 (for [CO]>0.2 mM). Studies with heme analogs revealed selectivity toward the coordinating metal and porphyrin ring structure. GAPDH-heme was isolated from bacteria induced to express rabbit GAPDH in the presence of δ-amino levulinic acid. Our finding of heme binding to GAPDH expands the protein’s potential roles. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH is consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells. PMID:22957700

  11. Detergent-dependent kinetics of truncated Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, Nicholas A; Baldwin, Jeffrey; Phillips, Margaret A

    2007-04-27

    The survival of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dependent upon the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. P. falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) catalyzes the fourth step in this pathway in an FMN-dependent reaction. The full-length enzyme is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, where ubiquinone (CoQ) serves as the terminal electron acceptor. The lipophilic nature of the co-substrate suggests that electron transfer to CoQ occurs at the two-dimensional lipid-solution interface. Here we show that PfDHODH associates with liposomes even in the absence of the N-terminal transmembrane-spanning domain. The association of a series of ubiquinone substrates with detergent micelles was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, and the data reveal that CoQ analogs with long decyl (CoQ(D)) or geranyl (CoQ(2)) tails partition into detergent micelles, whereas that with a short prenyl tail (CoQ(1)) remains in solution. PfDHODH-catalyzed reduction of CoQ(D) and CoQ(2), but not CoQ(1), is stimulated as detergent concentrations (Tween 80 or Triton X-100) are increased up to their critical micelle concentrations, beyond which activity declines. Steady-state kinetic data acquired for the reaction with CoQ(D) and CoQ(2) in substrate-detergent mixed micelles fit well to a surface dilution kinetic model. In contrast, the data for CoQ(1) as a substrate were well described by solution steady-state kinetics. Our results suggest that the partitioning of lipophilic ubiquinone analogues into detergent micelles needs to be an important consideration in the kinetic analysis of enzymes that utilize these substrates.

  12. Differential signatures of bacterial and mammalian IMP dehydrogenase enzymes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Evans, G.; Rotella, F.

    1999-06-01

    IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential enzyme of de novo guanine nucleotide synthesis. IMPDH inhibitors have clinical utility as antiviral, anticancer or immunosuppressive agents. The essential nature of this enzyme suggests its therapeutic applications may be extended to the development of antimicrobial agents. Bacterial IMPDH enzymes show bio- chemical and kinetic characteristics that are different than the mammalian IMPDH enzymes, suggesting IMPDH may be an attractive target for the development of antimicrobial agents. We suggest that the biochemical and kinetic differences between bacterial and mammalian enzymes are a consequence of the variance of specific, identifiable amino acid residues. Identification ofmore » these residues or combination of residues that impart this mammalian or bacterial enzyme signature is a prerequisite for the rational identification of agents that specifically target the bacterial enzyme. We used sequence alignments of IMPDH proteins to identify sequence signatures associated with bacterial or eukaryotic IMPDH enzymes. These selections were further refined to discern those likely to have a role in catalysis using information derived from the bacterial and mammalian IMPDH crystal structures and site-specific mutagenesis. Candidate bacterial sequence signatures identified by this process include regions involved in subunit interactions, the active site flap and the NAD binding region. Analysis of sequence alignments in these regions indicates a pattern of catalytic residues conserved in all enzymes and a secondary pattern of amino acid conservation associated with the major phylogenetic groups. Elucidation of the basis for this mammalian/bacterial IMPDH signature will provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the foundation for the development of highly specific inhibitors.« less

  13. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentatemore » chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.« less

  14. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Jordanians.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweedan, Suleimman A; Awwad, Nor

    2012-01-01

    In Jordan, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a significant health problem, and the incidence was reported to be about 3.6%. The aims of this study are to investigate the most common molecular mutations of the G6PD gene among Jordanians in northern Jordan and to examine the correlation between the genotype and phenotype of this enzyme deficiency. Seventy-five blood samples were collected from patients attending King Abdullah University Hospital and Princess Rahma Teaching Hospital. The G6PD gene was scanned for mutations using a DNA sequencing technique. Our results showed 11 variations (7 exonic and 4 intronic) as follows: c.202 G>A (rs1050828), c.376 A>G (rs1050829), c.404 A>C (CM962574 single-nucleotide polymorphism), c.542 A>T (rs5030872), c.563 C>T (rs5030868), c.1003 G>A (rs5030869), c.1311 C>T (rs2230037), c.486-90 C>T, c.486-60 C>G (rs2515904), c.770+175 C>T (rs2515905) and c.1311 C>T (rs2230037). Among these, G6PD Mediterranean (c.563 C>T) was the most common in our patients, with a frequency of 76.2%, followed by G6PD A- (c.202 G>A + c.376 A>G) with 19%, and an equal frequency of 1.6% was found for G6PD Chatham (c.1003 G>A), G6PD Santamaria (c.542 A>T + c.376 A>G) and G6PD Cairo (c.404 A>C). This is the first report of G6PD Santamaria and Cairo among our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ebselen: Mechanisms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Glutaminase Enzyme Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Yanhong; Zhou, Jie; Ruan, Haoqiang; Zhao, Han; Lu, Shiying; Zhang, Yue; Li, Di; Ji, Xiaoyun; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    2017-12-15

    Ebselen modulates target proteins through redox reactions with selenocysteine/cysteine residues, or through binding to the zinc finger domains. However, a recent contradiction in ebselen inhibition of kidney type glutaminase (KGA) stimulated our interest in investigating its inhibition mechanism with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), KGA, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and glutathione S-transferase. Fluorescein- or biotin-labeled ebselen derivatives were synthesized for mechanistic analyses. Biomolecular interaction analyses showed that only GDH, KGA, and TrxR proteins can bind to the ebselen derivative, and the binding to GDH and KGA could be competed off by glutamine or glutamate. From the gel shift assays, the fluorescein-labeled ebselen derivative could co-migrate with hexameric GDH and monomeric/dimeric TrxR in a dose-dependent manner; it also co-migrated with KGA but disrupted the tetrameric form of the KGA enzyme at a high compound concentration. Further proteomic analysis demonstrated that the ebselen derivative could cross-link with proteins through a specific cysteine at the active site of GDH and TrxR proteins, but for KGA protein, the binding site is at the N-terminal appendix domain outside of the catalytic domain, which might explain why ebselen is not a potent KGA enzyme inhibitor in functional assays. In conclusion, ebselen could inhibit enzyme activity by binding to the catalytic domain or disruption of the protein complex. In addition, ebselen is a relatively potent selective GDH inhibitor that might provide potential therapeutic opportunities for hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome patients who have the mutational loss of GTP inhibition.

  16. Genetic determinants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and clinical phenomena such as primaquine-sensitivity and protection from severe malaria remains poorly defined, with past association studies yielding inconsistent and conflicting results. One possibility is that examination of a single genetic variant might underestimate the presence of true effects in the presence of unrecognized functional allelic diversity. Methods We systematically examined this possibility in Kenya, conducting a fine-mapping association study of erythrocyte G6PD activity in 1828 Kenyan children across 30 polymorphisms at or around the G6PD locus. Results We demonstrate a strong functional role for c.202G>A (rs1050828), which accounts for the majority of variance in enzyme activity observed (P=1.5×10−200, additive model). Additionally, we identify other common variants that exert smaller, intercorrelated effects independent of c.202G>A, and haplotype analyses suggest that each variant tags one of two haplotype motifs that are opposite in sequence identity and effect direction. We posit that these effects are of biological and possible clinical significance, specifically noting that c.376A>G (rs1050829) augments 202AG heterozygote risk for deficiency trait by two-fold (OR = 2.11 [1.12 - 3.84], P=0.014). Conclusions Our results suggest that c.202G>A is responsible for the majority of the observed prevalence of G6PD deficiency trait in Kenya, but also identify a novel role for c.376A>G as a genetic modifier which marks a common haplotype that augments the risk conferred to 202AG heterozygotes, suggesting that variation at both loci merits consideration in genetic association studies probing G6PD deficiency-associated clinical phenotypes. PMID:25201310

  17. Genetic determinants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivang S; Macharia, Alex; Makale, Johnstone; Uyoga, Sophie; Kivinen, Katja; Craik, Rachel; Hubbart, Christina; Wellems, Thomas E; Rockett, Kirk A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Williams, Thomas N

    2014-09-09

    The relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and clinical phenomena such as primaquine-sensitivity and protection from severe malaria remains poorly defined, with past association studies yielding inconsistent and conflicting results. One possibility is that examination of a single genetic variant might underestimate the presence of true effects in the presence of unrecognized functional allelic diversity. We systematically examined this possibility in Kenya, conducting a fine-mapping association study of erythrocyte G6PD activity in 1828 Kenyan children across 30 polymorphisms at or around the G6PD locus. We demonstrate a strong functional role for c.202G>A (rs1050828), which accounts for the majority of variance in enzyme activity observed (P=1.5×10⁻²⁰⁰, additive model). Additionally, we identify other common variants that exert smaller, intercorrelated effects independent of c.202G>A, and haplotype analyses suggest that each variant tags one of two haplotype motifs that are opposite in sequence identity and effect direction. We posit that these effects are of biological and possible clinical significance, specifically noting that c.376A>G (rs1050829) augments 202AG heterozygote risk for deficiency trait by two-fold (OR = 2.11 [1.12 - 3.84], P=0.014). Our results suggest that c.202G>A is responsible for the majority of the observed prevalence of G6PD deficiency trait in Kenya, but also identify a novel role for c.376A>G as a genetic modifier which marks a common haplotype that augments the risk conferred to 202AG heterozygotes, suggesting that variation at both loci merits consideration in genetic association studies probing G6PD deficiency-associated clinical phenotypes.

  18. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Barretto, O C de O; Oshiro, M; Oliveira, R A G; Fedullo, J D L; Nonoyama, K

    2006-05-01

    In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 +/- 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 +/- 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH) in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa). The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 microM) for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 microM) were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively). A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  19. Origin and dispersal of atypical aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2487Lys.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huai-Rong; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Pakstis, Andrew J; Tong, Li; Oota, Hiroki; Kidd, Kenneth K; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2009-04-15

    The East Asian respond with a marked facial flushing and mild to moderate symptoms of intoxication after drinking the amounts of alcohol that has no detectable effect on European. The alcohol sensitivity in Orientals is due to a delayed oxidation of acetaldehyde by an atypical aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2487Lys, which is resulted from a structural mutation in gene ALDH2. The atypical ALDH2487Lys allele has been associated with various phenotypic statuses, such as protective against alcohol dependence and the risk of alcohol-related digestive tract cancers. Here, we have examined this SNP, adjacent four non-coding SNPs, and one downstream STRP on ALDH2 gene, in total of 1072 unrelated healthy individuals from 14 Chinese populations and 130 Indian individuals. Five major haplotypes based on five SNPs across the ALDH2 gene 40 kb were found in all East Asian populations. The frequencies of the ancestral haplotype GCCTG and the East Asian special haplotype GCCTA containing the atypical ALDH2487Lys allele were 44.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The frequency of the atypical ALDH2487Lys allele or the East Asian specific haplotype GCCTA is high in Yunnan, South coastal, east coastal of China, and decreased gradually toward inland China, West, Northwest and North China. Combined with demographic history in East Asian, our results showed that the presence of ALDH2487Lys allele in peripheral regions of China might be the results of historical migration events from China to these regions. The origin of ALDH2487Lys could be possibly traced back to ancient Pai-Yuei tribe in South China.

  20. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2′-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ∼1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water. PMID:28640600

  1. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software. In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed. Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM. PMID:27893660

  2. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Malicka, Barbara; Skoskiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases resulting from impaired insulin secretion and/or action. DM is characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to the dysfunction or damage of organs, including the salivary glands.The aim of this study was to compare the levels of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diabetic patients.The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The study comprised 90 adults of both sexes, aged 21 to 57 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: type 1 diabetics (D1), type 2 diabetics (D2), and a healthy control group (C). Each group consisted of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects. Total protein (P, by Lowry method), LDH, AST, ALT (with Alpha Diagnostics kits), and salivary flow rate were measured in unstimulated mixed saliva. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured with DCA 2000 Reagent Kit. The obtained data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman rank at a significance level of P < 0.05 with the use of STATISTICA 9.0 software.In comparison with C, D1 presented a significantly higher activity of LDH (P < 0.001), AST (P < 0.001), and ALT (P < 0.01), whereas D2 indicated higher levels of LDH (P < 0.001) and ALT (P < 0.05) compared with C. Comparing D1 to D2, approximately 3-fold higher activity of AST (P < 0.01) and approximately 4.5-fold higher activity of ALT (P < 0.01) was observed.Higher levels of salivary LDH, AST, and ALT in D1 compared with D2 and C confirm that salivary glands of D1 might be attributed to autoimmunological damage associated with the pathomechanism of DM.

  3. Neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Isa, Hasan M; Mohamed, Masooma S; Mohamed, Afaf M; Abdulla, Adel; Abdulla, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among infants with neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia (NIH); compare G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal patients regarding hyperbilirubinemia and need for exchange transfusions (ET); and assess risk factors for ET and kernicterus. This is a case-control retrospective study. Medical records of NIH patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed. Data on sex, age at presentation, hospitalization duration, need for ET, hemoglobin (Hb) level, reticulocyte count, direct Coombs test, serum total and indirect bilirubin levels, thyroid function, blood and urine cultures, G6PD status, and blood groups were collected and compared between the G6PD-deficent and G6PD-normal patients. Of 1,159 NIH patients admitted, 1,129 were included, of whom 646 (57%) were male. Among 1,046 patients tested, 442 (42%) were G6PD deficient, 49 (4%) needed ET, and 11 (1%) had suspected Kernicterus. The G6PD-deficient patients were mainly male ( P <0.0001), and had lower Hb levels ( P <0.0001) and higher maximum bilirubin levels ( P =0.001). More G6PD-deficient patients needed ET ( P <0.0001). G6PD deficiency ( P =0.006), lower Hb level ( P =0.002), lower hematocrit count ( P =0.02), higher bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), higher maximal bilirubin level ( P <0.0001), and positive blood culture result ( P <0.0001) were significant risk factors for ET. Maximal bilirubin level was a significant risk factor for kernicterus ( P =0.021) and independently related to ET ( P =0.03). G6PD deficiency is an important risk factor for severe NIH. In G6PD-deficent neonates, management of NIH should be hastened to avoid irreversible neurological complications.

  4. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: a Potential Approach for Cell labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L.; Storms, Robert W.; Zalutksy, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative, and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods We developed schemes for the synthesis of two 3radioiodinated aldehdyes—N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)—at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis [125I]FMIC and [125I]DEIBA were 70 ± 5% and 47 ± 14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells. PMID:19875048

  5. Inhibition of Mutated Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fangrui; Cheng, Gang; Yao, Yuan; Kogiso, Mari; Jiang, Hong; Li, Xiao-Nan; Song, Yongcheng

    2018-05-23

    R132H mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are found in ~75% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas as well as in several other types of cancer. More chemotypes of inhibitors of IDH1(R132H) are therefore needed. To develop a new class of IDH1(R132H) inhibitors as potent antitumor agents. A biochemical assay was developed to find inhibitors of IDH1(R132H) mutant enzyme. Chemical synthesis and structure activity relationship studies were used to find compounds with improved potency. Antitumor activities of selected compounds were evaluated. A series of aromatic sulfonamide compounds were found to be novel, potent inhibitors of IDH1(R132H) with Ki values as low as 0.6 µM. Structure activity relationships of these compounds are discussed. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that one compound is a competitive inhibitor against the substrate α-KG and a non-competitive inhibitor against the cofactor NADPH. Several inhibitors were found to have no activity against wild-type IDH1, showing a high selectivity. Two potent inhibitors exhibited strong activity against proliferation of BT142 glioma cells with IDH1 R132H mutation, while these compounds did not significantly affect growth of glioma cells without IDH1 mutation. This novel series of IDH1(R132H) inhibitors have potential to be further developed for the treatment of glioma with IDH1 mutation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Characterization of human DHRS6, an orphan short chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme: a novel, cytosolic type 2 R-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunde; Lukacik, Petra; Papagrigoriou, Evangelos; Meier, Marc; Lee, Wen Hwa; Adamski, Jerzy; Oppermann, Udo

    2006-04-14

    Human DHRS6 is a previously uncharacterized member of the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and displays significant homologies to bacterial hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenases. Substrate screening reveals sole NAD(+)-dependent conversion of (R)-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate with K(m) values of about 10 mm, consistent with plasma levels of circulating ketone bodies in situations of starvation or ketoacidosis. The structure of human DHRS6 was determined at a resolution of 1.8 A in complex with NAD(H) and reveals a tetrameric organization with a short chain dehydrogenases/reductase-typical folding pattern. A highly conserved triad of Arg residues ("triple R" motif consisting of Arg(144), Arg(188), and Arg(205)) was found to bind a sulfate molecule at the active site. Docking analysis of R-beta-hydroxybutyrate into the active site reveals an experimentally consistent model of substrate carboxylate binding and catalytically competent orientation. GFP reporter gene analysis reveals a cytosolic localization upon transfection into mammalian cells. These data establish DHRS6 as a novel, cytosolic type 2 (R)-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, distinct from its well characterized mitochondrial type 1 counterpart. The properties determined for DHRS6 suggest a possible physiological role in cytosolic ketone body utilization, either as a secondary system for energy supply in starvation or to generate precursors for lipid and sterol synthesis.

  7. Retinoic acid biosynthesis catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenases relies on a rate-limiting conformational transition associated with substrate recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bchini, Raphaël; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Branlant, Guy; Talfournier, François; Rahuel-Clermont, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, exerts pleiotropic effects throughout life in vertebrate organisms. Thus, RA action must be tightly regulated through the coordinated action of biosynthetic and degradating enzymes. The last step of retinoic acid biosynthesis is irreversibly catalyzed by the NAD-dependent retinal dehydrogenases (RALDH), which are members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Low intracellular retinal concentrations imply efficient substrate molecular recognition to ensure high affinity and specificity of RALDHs for retinal. This study addresses the molecular basis of retinal recognition in human ALDH1A1 (or RALDH1) and rat ALDH1A2 (or RALDH2), through the comparison of the catalytic behavior of retinal analogs and use of the fluorescence properties of retinol. We show that, in contrast to long chain unsaturated substrates, the rate-limiting step of retinal oxidation by RALDHs is associated with acylation. Use of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon retinol interaction with RALDHs provides evidence that retinal recognition occurs in two steps: binding into the substrate access channel, and a slower structural reorganization with a rate constant of the same magnitude as the kcat for retinal oxidation: 0.18 vs. 0.07 s−1 and 0.25 vs. 0.1 s−1 for ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2, respectively. This suggests that the conformational transition of the RALDH-retinal complex significantly contributes to the rate-limiting step that controls the kinetics of retinal oxidation, as a prerequisite for the formation of a catalytically competent Michaelis complex. This conclusion is consistent with the general notion that structural flexibility within the active site of ALDH enzymes has been shown to be an integral component of catalysis. PMID:23220587

  8. Alteration in substrate specificity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by an acyclic nicotinamide analog of NAD(+).

    PubMed

    Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J

    2014-11-01

    A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase by Ca2+ ions within toluene-permeabilized rat heart mitochondria. Interactions with regulation by adenine nucleotides and NADH/NAD+ ratios.

    PubMed Central

    Rutter, G A; Denton, R M

    1988-01-01

    1. Toluene-permeabilized rat heart mitochondria have been used to study the regulation of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase by Ca2+, adenine and nicotinamide nucleotides, and to compare the properties of the enzymes in situ, with those in mitochondrial extracts. 2. Although K0.5 values (concn. giving half-maximal effect) for Ca2+ of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were around 1 microM under all conditions, corresponding values for NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase were in the range 5-43 microM. 3. For both enzymes, K0.5 values for Ca2+ observed in the presence of ATP were 3-10-fold higher than those in the presence of ADP, with values increasing over the ADP/ATP range 0.0-1.0. 4. 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase was less sensitive to inhibition by NADH when assayed in permeabilized mitochondria than in mitochondrial extracts. Similarly, the Km of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase for threo-Ds-isocitrate was lower in permeabilized mitochondria than in extracts under all the conditions investigated. 5. It is concluded that in the intact heart Ca2+ activation of NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase may not necessarily occur in parallel with that of the other mitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive enzymes, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase system. PMID:3421900

  10. Structural analyses to identify selective inhibitors of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S, a sperm-specific glycolytic enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Danshina, Polina V.; Qu, Weidong; Temple, Brenda R.; Rojas, Rafael J.; Miley, Michael J.; Machius, Mischa; Betts, Laurie; O'Brien, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS Detailed structural comparisons of sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic (GAPDHS) and the somatic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) isozyme should facilitate the identification of selective GAPDHS inhibitors for contraceptive development. STUDY FINDING This study identified a small-molecule GAPDHS inhibitor with micromolar potency and >10-fold selectivity that exerts the expected inhibitory effects on sperm glycolysis and motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Glycolytic ATP production is required for sperm motility and male fertility in many mammalian species. Selective inhibition of GAPDHS, one of the glycolytic isozymes with restricted expression during spermatogenesis, is a potential strategy for the development of a non-hormonal contraceptive that directly blocks sperm function. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS Homology modeling and x-ray crystallography were used to identify structural features that are conserved in GAPDHS orthologs in mouse and human sperm, but distinct from the GAPDH orthologs present in somatic tissues. We identified three binding pockets surrounding the substrate and cofactor in these isozymes and conducted a virtual screen to identify small-molecule compounds predicted to bind more tightly to GAPDHS than to GAPDH. Following the production of recombinant human and mouse GAPDHS, candidate compounds were tested in dose–response enzyme assays to identify inhibitors that blocked the activity of GAPDHS more effectively than GAPDH. The effects of a selective inhibitor on the motility of mouse and human sperm were monitored by computer-assisted sperm analysis, and sperm lactate production was measured to assess inhibition of glycolysis in the target cell. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Our studies produced the first apoenzyme crystal structures for human and mouse GAPDHS and a 1.73 Å crystal structure for NAD+-bound human GAPDHS, facilitating the identification of unique

  11. Cellular distribution, purification and electrophoretic properties of malate dehydrogenase in Trichuris ovis and inhibition by benzimidazoles and pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Ortega, J E; Valero, A

    1989-12-01

    High levels of malate dehydrogenase were found in Trichuris ovis. Two molecular forms of the enzyme, of different cellular location and electrophoretic pattern, were isolated and purified. The activity of soluble malate dehydrogenase was greater than that of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. Both forms also displayed different electrophoretic profiles in comparison with purified extracts from goat (Capra hircus) liver. Substrate concentration directly affected enzyme activity. Host and parasite malate dehydrogenase activity were both inhibited by a series of benzimidazoles and pyrimidine-derived compounds, some of which markedly reduced parasite enzyme activity, but not host enzyme activity. Percentage inhibition by some pyrimidine derivatives was greater than that produced by benzimidazoles.

  12. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  14. Analysis of nucleotide diphosphate sugar dehydrogenases reveals family and group-specific relationships.

    PubMed

    Freas, Nicholas; Newton, Peter; Perozich, John

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), UDP-N-acetyl-mannosamine dehydrogenase (UDPNAMDH) and GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GDPMDH) belong to a family of NAD (+)-linked 4-electron-transfering oxidoreductases called nucleotide diphosphate sugar dehydrogenases (NDP-SDHs). UDPGDH is an enzyme responsible for converting UDP-d-glucose to UDP-d-glucuronic acid, a product that has different roles depending on the organism in which it is found. UDPNAMDH and GDPMDH convert UDP-N-acetyl-mannosamine to UDP-N-acetyl-mannosaminuronic acid and GDP-mannose to GDP-mannuronic acid, respectively, by a similar mechanism to UDPGDH. Their products are used as essential building blocks for the exopolysaccharides found in organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Few studies have investigated the relationships between these enzymes. This study reveals the relationships between the three enzymes by analysing 229 amino acid sequences. Eighteen invariant and several other highly conserved residues were identified, each serving critical roles in maintaining enzyme structure, coenzyme binding or catalytic function. Also, 10 conserved motifs that included most of the conserved residues were identified and their roles proposed. A phylogenetic tree demonstrated relationships between each group and verified group assignment. Finally, group entropy analysis identified novel conservations unique to each NDP-SDH group, including residue positions critical to NDP-sugar substrate interaction, enzyme structure and intersubunit contact. These positions may serve as targets for future research. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH, EC 1.1.1.22).

  15. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Horaguchi, Yohei; Saito, Shoko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs) were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe) and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3). We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor. PMID:23203056

  16. Structural and Kinetic Basis for Substrate Selectivity in Populus tremuloides Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bomati, Erin K.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the three-dimensional structure of sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) from Populus tremuloides (aspen), a member of the NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase family that catalyzes the last reductive step in the formation of monolignols. The active site topology revealed by the crystal structure substantiates kinetic results indicating that SAD maintains highest specificity for the substrate sinapaldehyde. We also report substantial substrate inhibition kinetics for the SAD-catalyzed reduction of hydroxycinnamaldehydes. Although SAD and classical cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) catalyze the same reaction and share some sequence identity, the active site topology of SAD is strikingly different from that predicted for classical CADs. Kinetic analyses of wild-type SAD and several active site mutants demonstrate the complexity of defining determinants of substrate specificity in these enzymes. These results, along with a phylogenetic analysis, support the inclusion of SAD in a plant alcohol dehydrogenase subfamily that includes cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde dehydrogenases. We used the SAD three-dimensional structure to model several of these SAD-like enzymes, and although their active site topologies largely mirror that of SAD, we describe a correlation between substrate specificity and amino acid substitution patterns in their active sites. The SAD structure thus provides a framework for understanding substrate specificity in this family of enzymes and for engineering new enzyme specificities. PMID:15829607

  17. Structural and kinetic basis for substrate selectivity in Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bomati, Erin K; Noel, Joseph P

    2005-05-01

    We describe the three-dimensional structure of sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) from Populus tremuloides (aspen), a member of the NADP(H)-dependent dehydrogenase family that catalyzes the last reductive step in the formation of monolignols. The active site topology revealed by the crystal structure substantiates kinetic results indicating that SAD maintains highest specificity for the substrate sinapaldehyde. We also report substantial substrate inhibition kinetics for the SAD-catalyzed reduction of hydroxycinnamaldehydes. Although SAD and classical cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) catalyze the same reaction and share some sequence identity, the active site topology of SAD is strikingly different from that predicted for classical CADs. Kinetic analyses of wild-type SAD and several active site mutants demonstrate the complexity of defining determinants of substrate specificity in these enzymes. These results, along with a phylogenetic analysis, support the inclusion of SAD in a plant alcohol dehydrogenase subfamily that includes cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde dehydrogenases. We used the SAD three-dimensional structure to model several of these SAD-like enzymes, and although their active site topologies largely mirror that of SAD, we describe a correlation between substrate specificity and amino acid substitution patterns in their active sites. The SAD structure thus provides a framework for understanding substrate specificity in this family of enzymes and for engineering new enzyme specificities.

  18. Catalysis of nitrite generation from nitroglycerin by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Seabra, Amedea B; Ouellet, Marc; Antonic, Marija; Chrétien, Michelle N; English, Ann M

    2013-11-30

    Vascular relaxation to nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN) requires its bioactivation by mechanisms that remain controversial. We report here that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the release of nitrite from GTN. In assays containing dithiothreitol (DTT) and NAD(+), the GTN reductase activity of purified GAPDH produces nitrite and 1,2-GDN as the major products. A vmax of 2.6nmolmin(-)(1)mg(-)(1) was measured for nitrite production by GAPDH from rabbit muscle and a GTN KM of 1.2mM. Reductive denitration of GTN in the absence of DTT results in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity. Disulfiram, a thiol-modifying drug, inhibits both the dehydrogenase and GTN reductase activity of GAPDH, while DTT or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine reverse the GTN-induced inhibition. Incubation of intact human erythrocytes or hemolysates with 2mM GTN for 60min results in 50% inhibition of GAPDH's dehydrogenase activity, indicating that GTN is taken up by these cells and that the dehydrogenase is a target of GTN. Thus, erythrocyte GAPDH may contribute to GTN bioactivation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloning and characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tasuke; Sugawara, Yoko; Nishio, Ryohei; Murakami, Miho; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus bovis, an etiologic agent of rumen acidosis in cattle, is a rumen bacterium that can grow in a chemically defined medium containing ammonia as a sole source of nitrogen. To understand its ability to assimilate inorganic ammonia, we focused on the function of glutamate dehydrogenase. In order to identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we first amplified an internal region of the gene by using degenerate primers corresponding to hexameric family I and NAD(P) + binding motifs. Subsequently, inverse PCR was used to identify the whole gene, comprising an open reading frame of 1350 bp that encodes 449 amino acid residues that appear to have the substrate binding site of glutamate dehydrogenase observed in other organisms. Upon introduction of a recombinant plasmid harboring the gene into an Escherichia coli glutamate auxotroph lacking glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase, the transformants gained the ability to grow on minimal medium without glutamate supplementation. When cell extracts of the transformant were resolved by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining, a single protein band appeared that corresponded to the size of S. bovis glutamate dehydrogenase. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene obtained encodes glutamate dehydrogenase in S. bovis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. A high effective NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase coupled with laccase for NAD(+) regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizhong; Yang, Chengli; Chen, Xing; Bao, Bingxin; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Dali; Du, Xingfan; Shi, Ruofu; Yang, Junfang; Zhu, Ronghui

    2016-08-01

    To find an efficient and cheap system for NAD(+) regeneration A NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase was obtained from an isolate of Escherichia coli. Optimal activity of the NADH dehydrogenase was at 45 °C and pH 7.5, with a K m value for NADH of 10 μM. By combining the NADH dehydrogenase, potassium ferricyanide and laccase, a bi-enzyme system for NAD(+) regeneration was established. The system is attractive in that the O2 consumed by laccase is from air and the sole byproduct of the reaction is water. During the reaction process, 10 mM NAD(+) was transformed from NADH in less than 2 h under the condition of 0.5 U NADH dehydrogenase, 0.5 U laccase, 0.1 mM potassium ferricyanide at pH 5.6, 30 °C CONCLUSION: The bi-enzyme system employed the NADH-ferricyanide dehydrogenase and laccase as catalysts, and potassium ferricyanide as redox mediator, is a promising alternative for NAD(+) regeneration.

  1. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  2. Anemone rivularis inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Eun-Yeong; Han, Jung Ho; Jang, Se Bok; Lee, Syng-Ook; Lee, Sang Woo; Hang, Jin; Yi, Li Wan; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2017-05-05

    Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. (Ranunculaceae) have been used as a traditional remedy for treatment of inflammation and cancer. However, there is no report demonstrating experimental evidence on anti-tumor action of A. rivularis. The Warburg's effect, preference of aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) even in oxygen rich condition, is focused as one of major characteristics of malignant tumor. Thus, we investigated the effect of A. rivularis on the Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDHKs), a major molecular targets for reducing aerobic glycolysis. The ethanol extract of whole plant of A. rivularis (ARE), fingerprinted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was applied to in vitro and cell-based PDHK activity assays. The effect of ARE on cell viabilities of several tumor cells was estimated by MTT assay. The expression of phosphor-PDH, PDH and PDHK1 were measured by Western blot analysis. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, using 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-H2DCFDA) and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively. Mitochondrial membrane potential was examined by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) staining. In vivo anti-tumor efficacy of ARE was estimated by means of tumor volume and weight using allograft injection of murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells to dorsa of C57BL/6 mice. ARE inhibited the viabilities of several cancer cells, including MDA-MB321, K562, HT29, Hep3B, DLD-1, and LLC. ARE suppressed PDHK activity in in vitro kinase assay, and also inhibited aerobic glycolysis by reducing phosphorylation of PDHA in human DLD-1 colon cancer and murine LLC cells. The expression of PDHK1, a major isoform of PDHKs in cancer, was not affected by ARE treatment. Moreover, ARE increased the both ROS production and mitochondrial damage. In addition, ARE suppressed the in vitro

  3. Heme binding properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; Collins, Daniel; Brassard, Julie; Chakravarti, Ritu; Vempati, Rajesh; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Dawson, John H; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2012-10-30

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that also functions in transcriptional regulation, oxidative stress, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. Because GAPDH is required for the insertion of cellular heme into inducible nitric oxide synthase [Chakravarti, R., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 18004-18009], we extensively characterized the heme binding properties of GAPDH. Substoichiometric amounts of ferric heme bound to GAPDH (one heme per GAPDH tetramer) to form a low-spin complex with UV-visible maxima at 362, 418, and 537 nm and when reduced to ferrous gave maxima at 424, 527, and 559 nm. Ferric heme association and dissociation rate constants at 10 °C were as follows: k(on) = 17800 M(-1) s(-1), k(off1) = 7.0 × 10(-3) s(-1), and k(off2) = 3.3 × 10(-4) s(-1) (giving approximate affinities of 19-390 nM). Ferrous heme bound more poorly to GAPDH and dissociated with a k(off) of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). Magnetic circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic data on the ferric, ferrous, and ferrous-CO complexes of GAPDH showed that the heme is bis-ligated with His as the proximal ligand. The distal ligand in the ferric complex was not displaced by CN(-) or N(3)(-) but in the ferrous complex could be displaced by CO at a rate of 1.75 s(-1) (for >0.2 mM CO). Studies with heme analogues revealed selectivity toward the coordinating metal and porphyrin ring structure. The GAPDH-heme complex was isolated from bacteria induced to express rabbit GAPDH in the presence of δ-aminolevulinic acid. Our finding of heme binding to GAPDH expands the protein's potential roles. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH are consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells.

  4. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4±3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p = 0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p = 0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p = 0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection. PMID:23874768

  5. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Olatundun; Gbadero, Daniel; Edowhorhu, Grace; Brearley, Ann; Slusher, Tina; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females) aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5%) followed by those Igbo descent (10.6%) and those of Igede (10.2%) and Tiv (1.8%) ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females). Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9%) than Igede (10.5%), Igbo (10.1%) and Tiv (5.0%) children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500). The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively). Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351). In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  7. Structural and biochemical insights into 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase stereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Savino, Simone; Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Forneris, Federico; Rovida, Stefano; Riva, Sergio; Monti, Daniela; Mattevi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are of great interest as biocatalysts for transformations involving steroid substrates. They feature a high degree of stereo- and regio-selectivity, acting on a defined atom with a specific configuration of the steroid nucleus. The crystal structure of 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Collinsella aerofaciens reveals a loop gating active-site accessibility, the bases of the specificity for NADP(+) , and the general architecture of the steroid binding site. Comparison with 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase provides a rationale for the opposite stereoselectivity. The presence of a C-terminal extension reshapes the substrate site of the β-selective enzyme, possibly leading to an inverted orientation of the bound substrate. Proteins 2016; 84:859-865. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A family of highly conserved glycosomal 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases from Phytomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Uttaro, A D; Altabe, S G; Rider, M H; Michels, P A; Opperdoes, F R

    2000-10-13

    Phytomonas sp. contains two malate dehydrogenase isoforms, a mitochondrial isoenzyme with a high specificity for oxaloacetate and a glycosomal isozyme that acts on a broad range of substrates (Uttaro, A. D., and Opperdoes, F.R. (1997) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 89, 51-59). Here, we show that the low specificity of the latter isoenzyme is the result of a number of recent gene duplications that gave rise to a family of glycosomal 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase genes. Two of these genes were cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Although both gene products have 322 amino acids, share 90.4% identical residues, and have a similar hydrophobicity profile and net charge, their kinetic properties were strikingly different. One isoform behaved as a real malate dehydrogenase with a high specificity for oxaloacetate, whereas the other showed no activity with oxaloacetate but was able to reduce other oxoacids, such as phenyl pyruvate, 2-oxoisocaproate, 2-oxovalerate, 2-oxobutyrate, 2-oxo-4-methiolbutyrate, and pyruvate.

  9. Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the Bacillus methanolicus C1 methanol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, G E; Arfman, N; Terpstra, P; Dijkhuizen, L

    1992-01-01

    The gene (mdh) coding for methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) of thermotolerant, methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus C1 has been cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mdh gene exhibited similarity to those of five other alcohol dehydrogenase (type III) enzymes, which are distinct from the long-chain zinc-containing (type I) or short-chain zinc-lacking (type II) enzymes. Highly efficient expression of the mdh gene in Escherichia coli was probably driven from its own promoter sequence. After purification of MDH from E. coli, the kinetic and biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated. The physiological effect of MDH synthesis in E. coli and the role of conserved sequence patterns in type III alcohol dehydrogenases have been analyzed and are discussed. Images PMID:1644761

  10. [Association of methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients treated with primaquine].

    PubMed

    Santana, Marli Stela; da Rocha, Marcos Antonio Ferreira; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Sardinha, José Felipe Jardim; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa

    2007-01-01

    This study had the aim of investigating occurrences of methemoglobinemia among individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency during treatment for malaria infection using primaquine. Patients with a diagnosis of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or the V+F mixture (Plasmodium vivax + Plasmodium falciparum) were selected. Group 1 consisted of 74 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of methemoglobinemia and Group 2 consisted of 161 individuals without a clinical diagnosis of methemoglobinemia. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency rates (numbers of enzymopenic individuals) in Groups 1 and 2 were 51.3% (38) and 8.7% (14) respectively. These data demonstrated a statistically significant association with methemoglobinemia only among the individuals in Group 1 (p<0.05). Investigation of the relationship between methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency showed that there was a possible association such that enzymopenic individuals may develop methemoglobinemia more frequently.

  11. Relayed 13C magnetization transfer: Detection of malate dehydrogenase reaction in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes rapid interconversion between dilute metabolites oxaloacetate and malate. Both oxaloacetate and malate are below the detection threshold of in vivo MRS. Oxaloacetate is also in rapid exchange with aspartate catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase, the latter metabolite is observable in vivo using 13C MRS. We hypothesized that the rapid turnover of oxaloacetate can effectively relay perturbation of magnetization between malate and aspartate. Here, we report indirect observation of the malate dehydrogenase reaction by saturating malate C2 resonance at 71.2 ppm and detecting a reduced aspartate C2 signal at 53.2 ppm due to relayed magnetization transfer via oxaloacetate C2 at 201.3 ppm. Using this strategy the rate of the cerebral malate dehydrogenase reaction was determined to be 9 ± 2 μmol/g wet weight/min (means ± SD, n = 5) at 11.7 Tesla in anesthetized adult rats infused with [1,6- 13C 2]glucose.

  12. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling in orthologous and chimeric aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Perrin; Hillis, Colleen; Carere, Jason; Seah, Stephen Y K

    2012-03-06

    Bacterial aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes catalyze the last steps in the meta cleavage pathway of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The aldolase (TTHB246) and dehydrogenase (TTHB247) from Thermus thermophilus were separately expressed and purified from recombinant Escherichia coli. The aldolase forms a dimer, while the dehydrogenase is a monomer; these enzymes can form a stable tetrameric complex in vitro, consisting of two aldolase and two dehydrogenase subunits. Upon complex formation, the K(m) value of 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate, the substrate of TTHB246, is decreased 4-fold while the K(m) of acetaldehyde, the substrate of TTHB247, is increased 3-fold. The k(cat) values of each enzyme were reduced by ~2-fold when they were in a complex. The half-life of TTHB247 at 50 °C increased by ~4-fold when it was in a complex with TTHB246. The acetaldehyde product from TTHB246 could be efficiently channelled directly to TTHB247, but the channeling efficiency for the larger propionaldehyde was ~40% lower. A single A324G substitution in TTHB246 increased the channeling efficiency of propionaldehyde to a value comparable to that of acetaldehyde. Stable and catalytically competent chimeric complexes could be formed between the T. thermophilus enzymes and the orthologous aldolase (BphI) and dehydrogenase (BphJ) from the biphenyl degradation pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. However, channeling efficiencies for acetaldehyde in these chimeric complexes were ~10%. Structural and sequence analysis suggests that interacting residues in the interface of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex are highly conserved among homologues, but coevolution of partner enzymes is required to fine-tune this interaction to allow for efficient substrate channeling.

  14. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Regulates Glucocorticoid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stuart A.; Sherlock, Mark; Gathercole, Laura L.; Lavery, Gareth G.; Lenaghan, Carol; Bujalska, Iwona J.; Laber, David; Yu, Alice; Convey, Gemma; Mayers, Rachel; Hegyi, Krisztina; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Stewart, Paul M.; Smith, David M.; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11β-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rodent and human cell cultures, whole-tissue explants, and animal models were used to determine the impact of glucocorticoids and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition upon insulin signaling and action. RESULTS Dexamethasone decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, decreased IRS1 mRNA and protein expression, and increased inactivating pSer307 insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1. 11β-HSD1 activity and expression were observed in human and rodent myotubes and muscle explants. Activity was predominantly oxo-reductase, generating active glucocorticoid. A1 (selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor) abolished enzyme activity and blocked the increase in pSer307 IRS1 and reduction in total IRS1 protein after treatment with 11DHC but not corticosterone. In C57Bl6/J mice, the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, A2, decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity. In KK mice treated with A2, skeletal muscle pSer307 IRS1 decreased and pThr308 Akt/PKB increased. In addition, A2 decreased both lipogenic and lipolytic gene expression. CONCLUSIONS Prereceptor facilitation of glucocorticoid action via 11β-HSD1 increases pSer307 IRS1 and may be crucial in mediating insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition decreases pSer307 IRS1, increases pThr308 Akt/PKB, and decreases lipogenic and lipolytic gene expression that may represent an important mechanism underpinning their insulin-sensitizing action. PMID

  15. Improved synthesis of chiral alcohols with Escherichia coli cells co-expressing pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase, NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Weckbecker, Andrea; Hummel, Werner

    2004-11-01

    Recombinant pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase (PNT) from Escherichia coli has been used to regenerate NAD+ and NADPH. The pnta and pntb genes encoding for the alpha- and beta-subunits were cloned and co-expressed with NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Lactobacillus kefir and NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii. Using this whole-cell biocatalyst, efficient conversion of prochiral ketones to chiral alcohols was achieved: 66% acetophenone was reduced to (R)-phenylethanol over 12 h, whereas only 19% (R)-phenylethanol was formed under the same conditions with cells containing ADH and FDH genes but without PNT genes. Cells that were permeabilized with toluene showed ketone reduction only if both cofactors were present.

  16. Role of Microsomal Retinol/Sterol Dehydrogenase-Like Short-Chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases in the Oxidation and Epimerization of 3α-Hydroxysteroids in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Olga V.; Chetyrkin, Sergei V.; Clark, Amy L.; Kostereva, Natalia V.; SantaCruz, Karen S.; Chronwall, Bibie M.; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2008-01-01

    Allopregnanolone (ALLO) and androsterone (ADT) are naturally occurring 3α-hydroxysteroids that act as positive allosteric regulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. In addition, ADT activates nuclear farnesoid X receptor and ALLO activates pregnane X receptor. At least with respect to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, the biological activity of ALLO and ADT depends on the 3α-hydroxyl group and is lost upon its conversion to either 3-ketosteroid or 3β-hydroxyl epimer. Such strict structure-activity relationships suggest that the oxidation or epimerization of 3α-hydroxysteroids may serve as physiologically relevant mechanisms for the control of the local concentrations of bioactive 3α-hydroxysteroids. The exact enzymes responsible for the oxidation and epimerization of 3α-hydroxysteroids in vivo have not yet been identified, but our previous studies showed that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) with dual retinol/sterol dehydrogenase substrate specificity (RoDH-like group of SDRs) can oxidize and epimerize 3α-hydroxysteroids in vitro. Here, we present the first evidence that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities are widely distributed in human tissues with the highest activity levels found in liver and testis and lower levels in lung, spleen, brain, kidney, and ovary. We demonstrate that RoDH-like SDRs contribute to the oxidation and epimerization of ALLO and ADT in living cells, and show that RoDH enzymes are expressed in tissues that have microsomal 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities. Together, these results provide further support for the role of RoDH-like SDRs in human metabolism of 3α-hydroxysteroids and offer a new insight into the enzymology of ALLO and ADT inactivation. PMID:17289849

  17. Role of microsomal retinol/sterol dehydrogenase-like short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in the oxidation and epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Olga V; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Clark, Amy L; Kostereva, Natalia V; SantaCruz, Karen S; Chronwall, Bibie M; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2007-05-01

    Allopregnanolone (ALLO) and androsterone (ADT) are naturally occurring 3alpha-hydroxysteroids that act as positive allosteric regulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. In addition, ADT activates nuclear farnesoid X receptor and ALLO activates pregnane X receptor. At least with respect to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, the biological activity of ALLO and ADT depends on the 3alpha-hydroxyl group and is lost upon its conversion to either 3-ketosteroid or 3beta-hydroxyl epimer. Such strict structure-activity relationships suggest that the oxidation or epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids may serve as physiologically relevant mechanisms for the control of the local concentrations of bioactive 3alpha-hydroxysteroids. The exact enzymes responsible for the oxidation and epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in vivo have not yet been identified, but our previous studies showed that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) with dual retinol/sterol dehydrogenase substrate specificity (RoDH-like group of SDRs) can oxidize and epimerize 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in vitro. Here, we present the first evidence that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities are widely distributed in human tissues with the highest activity levels found in liver and testis and lower levels in lung, spleen, brain, kidney, and ovary. We demonstrate that RoDH-like SDRs contribute to the oxidation and epimerization of ALLO and ADT in living cells, and show that RoDH enzymes are expressed in tissues that have microsomal 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities. Together, these results provide further support for the role of RoDH-like SDRs in human metabolism of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids and offer a new insight into the enzymology of ALLO and ADT inactivation.

  18. Three-dimensional structure of holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a member of a short-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D; Weeks, C M; Grochulski, P; Duax, W L; Erman, M; Rimsay, R L; Orr, J C

    1991-01-01

    The x-ray structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase, the bacterial holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.53), is described at 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme is active as a tetramer and crystallizes with four identical subunits in the asymmetric unit. It has the alpha/beta fold characteristic of the dinucleotide binding region. The fold of the rest of the subunit, the quaternary structure, and the nature of the cofactor-enzyme interactions are, however, significantly different from those observed in the long-chain dehydrogenases. The architecture of the postulated active site is consistent with the observed stereospecificity of the enzyme and the fact that the tetramer is the active form. There is only one cofactor and one substrate-binding site per subunit; the specificity for both 3 alpha- and 20 beta-ends of the steroid results from the binding of the steroid in two orientations near the same cofactor at the same catalytic site. Images PMID:1946424

  19. Discovery of an acidic, thermostable and highly NADP+ dependent formate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: To identify a robust NADP+ dependent formate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus buchneri NRRL B-30929 (LbFDH) with unique biochemical properties. Results: A new NADP+ dependent formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh) was cloned from genomic DNA of L. buchneri NRRL B-30929. The recombinant constru...

  20. Structure and Function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: Role of Critical Amino Acids in C-substrate Binding Procket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our lab have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal g...

  1. Formate Dehydrogenase of Clostridium thermoaceticum: Incorporation of Selenium-75, and the Effects of Selenite, Molybdate, and Tungstate on the Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Andreesen, Jan R.; Ljungdahl, Lars G.

    1973-01-01

    The formation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent formate dehydrogenase in Clostridium thermoaceticum is stimulated by the presence of molybdate and selenite in the growth medium. The highest formate dehydrogenase activity was obtained with 2.5 × 10−4 M Na2MoO4 and 5 × 10−5 Na2SeO3. Tungstate but not vanadate could replace molybdate and stimulate the formation of formate dehydrogenase. Tungstate stimulated activity more than molybdate, and in combination with molybdate the stimulation of formation of formate dehydrogenase was additive. Formate dehydrogenase was isolated from cells grown in the presence of Na275SeO2, and a correlation was observed between bound 75Se and enzyme activity. PMID:4147651

  2. Modulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol metabolism by sex hormones in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Effect of chronic ethanol administration

    PubMed Central

    Rachamin, Gloria; Macdonald, J. Alain; Wahid, Samina; Clapp, Jeremy J.; Khanna, Jatinder M.; Israel, Yedy

    1980-01-01

    In young (4-week-old) male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats, ethanol metabolic rate in vivo and hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in vitro are high and not different in the two sexes. In males, ethanol metabolic rate falls markedly between 4 and 10 weeks of age, which coincides with the time of development of sexual maturity in the rat. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity is also markedly diminished in the male SH rat and correlates well with the changes in ethanol metabolism. There is virtually no influence of age on ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the female SH rat. Castration of male SH rats prevents the marked decrease in ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, whereas ovariectomy has no effect on these parameters in female SH rats. Chronic administration of testosterone to castrated male SH rats and to female SH rats decreases ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity to values similar to those found in mature males. Chronic administration of oestradiol-17β to male SH rats results in marked stimulation of ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity to values similar to those found in female SH rats. Chronic administration of ethanol to male SH rats from 4 to 11 weeks of age prevents the marked age-dependent decreases in ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, but has virtually no effect in castrated rats. In the intoxicated chronically ethanol-fed male SH rats, serum testosterone concentrations are significantly depressed. In vitro, testosterone has no effect on hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity of young male and female SH rats. In conclusion, in the male SH rat, ethanol metabolic rate appears to be limited by alcohol dehydrogenase activity and is modulated by testosterone. Testosterone has an inhibitory effect and oestradiol has a testosterone-dependent stimulatory effect on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol metabolic rate in these

  3. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: Biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in meristems isolated from field-g...

  4. Biochemical characterization of uronate dehydrogenases from three Pseudomonads, Chromohalobacter salixigens, and Polaromonas naphthalenivorans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzyme catalysts will be vital in the development of synthetic biology approaches for converting pectinic monosaccharides from citrus and beet processing waste streams to value-added materials. We describe here the biophysical and mechanistic characterization of uronate dehydrogenases from a wide va...

  5. Subcellular Localization and Biochemical Comparison of Cytosolic and Secreted Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Enzymes from Maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX, EC 1.5.99.12) degrades cytokinin hormones in plants. There are several differently targeted isoforms of CKX in cells of each plant. While most CKX enzymes appear to be localized in the apoplast or vacuoles, there is generally only one CKX per plant genome that lacks a t...

  6. 3-cyanoindole-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: synthesis and initial structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Chen, Ping; Norris, Derek; Watterson, Scott H; Ballentine, Shelley K; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Barrish, Joel C; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-10-20

    A series of novel small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), based upon a 3-cyanoindole core, were explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  7. A survey of cyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dhar, T G Murali; Liu, Chunjian; Pitts, William J; Guo, Junquing; Watterson, Scott H; Gu, Henry; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-04

    A series of heterocyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of 1, a potent small molecule inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were explored The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for these new series of inhibitors is given.

  8. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Kinetics Laboratory: Enhanced Data Analysis and Student-Designed Mini-Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2016-01-01

    A highly instructive, wide-ranging laboratory project in which students study the effects of various parameters on the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase has been adapted for the upper-division biochemistry and physical biochemistry laboratory. Our two main goals were to provide enhanced data analysis, featuring nonlinear regression, and…

  9. Cloning and expression studies of the Dunaliella salina UDP-glucose dehydrogenase cDNA.

    PubMed

    Qinghua, He; Dairong, Qiao; Qinglian, Zhang; Shunji, He; Yin, Li; Linhan, Bai; Zhirong, Yang; Yi, Cao

    2005-06-01

    The enzyme UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.22) converts UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronate. Plant UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) is an important enzyme in the formation of hemicellulose and pectin, the components of primary cell walls. A cDNA, named DsUGDH, (GeneBank accession number: AY795899) corresponding to UGDH was cloned by RT-PCR approach from Dunaliella salina. The cDNA is 1941-bp long and has an open reading frame encoded a protein of 483 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 53 kDa. The derived amino acids sequence shows high homology with reported plants UGDHs, and has highly conserved amino acids motifs believed to be NAD binding site and catalytic site. Although UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is a comparatively well characterized enzyme, the cloning and characterization of the green alga Dunaliella salina UDP-glucose dehydrogenase gene is very important to understand the salt tolerance mechanism of Dunaliella salina. Northern analyses indicate that NaCl can induce the expression the DsUGDH.

  10. Mannitol oxidase and polyol dehydrogenases in the digestive gland of gastropods: Correlations with phylogeny and diet

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-de-Carvalho, Diogo; Oliveira, Elsa; Alves, Ângela; Costa, Vítor; Calado, Gonçalo

    2018-01-01

    Mannitol oxidase and polyol dehydrogenases are enzymes that convert polyalcohols into sugars. Mannitol oxidase was previously investigated in terrestrial snails and slugs, being also present in a few aquatic gastropods. However, the overall distribution of this enzyme in the Gastropoda was not known. Polyol dehydrogenases are also poorly studied in gastropods and other mollusks. In this study, polyalcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase activities were assayed in the digestive gland of 26 species of gastropods, representing the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia. Marine, freshwater and terrestrial species, including herbivores and carnivores were analyzed. Ultrastructural observations were undertake in species possessing mannitol oxidase, in order to investigate the correlation between this enzyme and the presence of tubular structures known to be associated with it. Mannitol oxidase activity was detected in the digestive gland of herbivores from the clades Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, but not in any carnivores or in herbivores from the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda. In most of the species used in this study, dehydrogenase activities were detected using both D-mannitol and D-sorbitol as substrates. Nevertheless, in some carnivores these activities were not detected with both polyalcohols. Ultrastructural observations revealed tubular structures in digestive gland cells of some species having mannitol oxidase activity, but they were not observed in others. Based on our results, we suggest that mannitol oxidase first occurred in a herbivorous or omnivorous ancestor of Apogastropoda, the clade formed by caenogastropods and heterobranchs, being subsequently lost in those species that shifted towards a carnivorous diet. PMID:29529078

  11. Effects of a 3β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Inhibitor, Trilostane, on the Fathead Minnow Reproductive Axis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of environmental contaminants and plant flavonoid compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (3β-HSD). Because 3β-HSD plays a critical role in steroid hormone synthesis, inhibition of 3β-HSD represents a potentia...

  12. Plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: purification and identification of catalytic components in potato.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A H; Knorpp, C; Leaver, C J; Hill, S A

    1998-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mPDC) from potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Romano) tuber mitochondria was purified 40-fold to a specific activity of 5.60 micromol/min per mg of protein. The activity of the complex depended on pyruvate, divalent cations, NAD+ and CoA and was competitively inhibited by both NADH and acetyl-CoA. SDS/PAGE revealed the complex consisted of seven polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 78, 60, 58, 55, 43, 41 and 37 kDa. N-terminal sequencing revealed that the 78 kDa protein was dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2), the 58 kDa protein was dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), the 43 and 41 kDa proteins were alpha subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and the 37 kDa protein was the beta subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. N-terminal sequencing of the 55 kDa protein band yielded two protein sequences: one was another E3; the other was similar to the sequence of E2 from plant and yeast sources but was distinctly different from the sequence of the 78 kDa protein. Incubation of the mPDC with [2-14C]pyruvate resulted in the acetylation of both the 78 and 55 kDa proteins. PMID:9729464

  13. Threonine-Insensitive Homoserine Dehydrogenase From Soybean: Genomic Organization, Kinetic Mechanism, and In vivo Activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aspartate kinase (AK) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSD) functions as key regulatory enzymes at branch points in the aspartate amino acid pathway and are feedback inhibited by threonine. In plants, the biochemical properties of AK and bifunctional AK-HSD enzymes have been characterized, but the mol...

  14. Often Ignored Facts about the Control of the 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumilo, Slawomir

    2005-01-01

    Information about the control of the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), a key enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is not well covered in the biochemical education literature, especially as it concerns the allosteric regulation of OGDHC by adenine nucleotide and ortophosphate. From experimental work published during the last…

  15. Determination of the Subunit Molecular Mass and Composition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by SDS-PAGE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2007-01-01

    SDS-PAGE is a simple, rapid technique that has many uses in biochemistry and is readily adaptable to the undergraduate laboratory. It is, however, a technique prone to several types of procedural pitfalls. This article describes the use of SDS-PAGE to determine the subunit molecular mass and composition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase employing…

  16. AROMATIC METABOLISM IN PLANTS. I. A STUDY OF THE PREPHENATE DEHYDROGENASE FROM BEAN PLANTS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    achieved in the pH range from 7 to 8. The enzyme is inhibited by sulphydryl complexing compounds. Addition of phenylalanine, tyrosine, or cinnamate ...mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.). A study was made of the variation in the amount of prephenate dehydrogenase and aromatic amino acid transaminase in

  17. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  18. Complementary DNA cloning and molecular evolution of opine dehydrogenases in some marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyasu; Sato, Minoru; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Yokoyama, Takehiko; Kan-No, Nobuhiro; Nagahisa, Eizou; Janssen, Frank; Grieshaber, Manfred K

    2004-01-01

    The complete complementary DNA sequences of genes presumably coding for opine dehydrogenases from Arabella iricolor (sandworm), Haliotis discus hannai (abalone), and Patinopecten yessoensis (scallop) were determined, and partial cDNA sequences were derived for Meretrix lusoria (Japanese hard clam) and Spisula sachalinensis (Sakhalin surf clam). The primers ODH-9F and ODH-11R proved useful for amplifying the sequences for opine dehydrogenases from the 4 mollusk species investigated in this study. The sequence of the sandworm was obtained using primers constructed from the amino acid sequence of tauropine dehydrogenase, the main opine dehydrogenase in A. iricolor. The complete cDNA sequence of A. iricolor, H. discus hannai, and P. yessoensis encode 397, 400, and 405 amino acids, respectively. All sequences were aligned and compared with published databank sequences of Loligo opalescens, Loligo vulgaris (squid), Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish), and Pecten maximus (scallop). As expected, a high level of homology was observed for the cDNA from closely related species, such as for cephalopods or scallops, whereas cDNA from the other species showed lower-level homologies. A similar trend was observed when the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. Furthermore, alignment of these sequences revealed some structural motifs that are possibly related to the binding sites of the substrates. The phylogenetic trees derived from the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were consistent with the classification of species resulting from classical taxonomic analyses.

  19. High-throughput screening for cellobiose dehydrogenases by Prussian Blue in situ formation.

    PubMed

    Vasilchenko, Liliya G; Ludwig, Roland; Yershevich, Olga P; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rabinovich, Mikhail L

    2012-07-01

    Extracellular fungal flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a promising enzyme for both bioelectronics and lignocellulose bioconversion. A selective high-throughput screening assay for CDH in the presence of various fungal oxidoreductases was developed. It is based on Prussian Blue (PB) in situ formation in the presence of cellobiose (<0.25 mM), ferric acetate, and ferricyanide. CDH induces PB formation via both reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide reacting with an excess of Fe³⁺ (pathway 1) and reduction of ferric ions to Fe²⁺ reacting with the excess of ferricyanide (pathway 2). Basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDH formed PB optimally at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. In contrast to the holoenzyme CDH, its FAD-containing dehydrogenase domain lacking the cytochrome domain formed PB only via pathway 1 and was less active than the parent enzyme. The assay can be applied on active growing cultures on agar plates or on fungal culture supernatants in 96-well plates under aerobic conditions. Neither other carbohydrate oxidoreductases (pyranose dehydrogenase, FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, glucose oxidase) nor laccase interfered with CDH activity in this assay. Applicability of the developed assay for the selection of new ascomycetous CDH producers as well as possibility of the controlled synthesis of new PB nanocomposites by CDH are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ultrastructural localization of succinate dehydrogenase in some bacteria, after treatment with Lubrol W1.

    PubMed

    Cherepova, N; Spasova, D; Radoevska, S

    2001-01-01

    The localization of succinate dehydrogenase in some gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes) treated with the surface membrane active agent, Lubrol W1, was studied by a cytochemical method combined with electron microscopy.

  1. Increasing the Heme-Dependent Respiratory Efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by Inhibition of Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Daniele; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Pedersen, Martin B.; Pedersen, Per Dedenroth; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of heme-induced respiration in Lactococcus lactis has radically improved the industrial processes used for the biomass production of this species. Here, we show that inhibition of the lactate dehydrogenase activity of L. lactis during growth under respiration-permissive conditions can stimulate aerobic respiration, thereby increasing not only growth efficiency but also the robustness of this organism. PMID:23064338

  2. Fecal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, control subjects, and bowel cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, I A; Webb, G R; Mahony, D E

    1978-10-01

    Cell-free extracts were prepared from mixed fecal anaerobic bacteria grown from stools of 14 vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, 16 omnivorous control subjects, and eight patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the large bowel. Preparations were assayed for NAD- and NADP-dependent 3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with bile salts and androsterone as substrates (eight substrate-cofactor combinations were tested). A significant intergroup difference was observed in the amounts of NAD- and NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase produced: bowel cancer patients exceeded controls, and controls exceeded Seventh-Day Adventists. Other enzyme activity comparisons were not significant. The pH values of the stools were significantly higher in cancer patients compared to Seventh-Day Adventists; values were 7.03 +/- 0.60 and 6.46 +/- 0.58 respectively. The pH value for controls was 6.66 +/- 0.62. A plot of pH value versus NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase tended to separate the cancer patients from the other groups. Comparative data suggest that much of the 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase active against bile salt is also active against androsterone.

  3. Direct Electrochemical Addressing of Immobilized Alcohol Dehydrogenase for the Heterogeneous Bioelectrocatalytic Reduction of Butyraldehyde to Butanol.

    PubMed

    Schlager, S; Neugebauer, H; Haberbauer, M; Hinterberger, G; Sariciftci, N S

    2015-03-01

    Modified electrodes using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes for the efficient electroreduction of butyraldehyde to butanol are presented as an important step for the utilization of CO 2 -reduction products. Alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized, embedded in an alginate-silicate hybrid gel, on a carbon felt (CF) electrode. The application of this enzyme to the reduction of an aldehyde to an alcohol with the aid of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), in analogy to the final step in the natural reduction cascade of CO 2 to alcohol, has been already reported. However, the use of such enzymatic reductions is limited because of the necessity of providing expensive NADH as a sacrificial electron and proton donor. Immobilization of such dehydrogenase enzymes on electrodes and direct pumping of electrons into the biocatalysts offers an easy and efficient way for the biochemical recycling of CO 2 to valuable chemicals or alternative synthetic fuels. We report the direct electrochemical addressing of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase for the reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol without consumption of NADH. The selective reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol occurs at room temperature, ambient pressure and neutral pH. Production of butanol was detected by using liquid-injection gas chromatography and was estimated to occur with Faradaic efficiencies of around 40 %.

  4. Molecular characterization of the Hansenula polymorpha FLD1 gene encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Baerends; Grietje J. Sulter; Thomas W. Jeffries; James M. Cregg; Marten Veenhuis

    2002-01-01

    Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD) is a key enzyme required for the catabolism of methanol as a carbon source and certain primary amines, such as methylamine as nitrogen sources in methylotrophic yeasts. Here we describe the molecular characterization of the FLD1 gene from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Unlike the recently described Pichia pastoris...

  5. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Inhibits the Outer Membrane NADH Dehydrogenase of Plant Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Carmen A.; Bonner, Walter D.

    1978-01-01

    The NADH dehydrogenase of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) outer mitochondrial membranes is specifically inhibited by both 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acids but not by the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:16660539

  6. Some Lactobacillus l-Lactate Dehydrogenases Exhibit Comparable Catalytic Activities for Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Kazuhito; Kamata, Takeo; Uchikoba, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya; Matsuzawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hayao

    2001-01-01

    The nonallosteric and allosteric l-lactate dehydrogenases of Lactobacillus pentosus and L. casei, respectively, exhibited broad substrate specificities, giving virtually the same maximal reaction velocity and substrate Km values for pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Replacement of Pro101 with Asn reduced the activity of the L. pentosus enzyme toward these alternative substrates to a greater extent than the activity toward pyruvate. PMID:11114942

  7. Isolation and characterization of two cDNA clones encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed

    Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    1999-03-01

    We have isolated two full length cDNA clones encoding Nicotiana plumbaginifolia NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase. Both clones share amino acid boxes of homology corresponding to conserved GDH catalytic domains and putative mitochondrial targeting sequence. One clone shows a putative EF-hand loop. The level of the two transcripts is affected differently by carbon source.

  8. Structural Insights into l-Tryptophan Dehydrogenase from a Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium, Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Megumi; Hakumai, Yuichi; Fukui, Kenji; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2017-01-15

    l-Tryptophan dehydrogenase from Nostoc punctiforme NIES-2108 (NpTrpDH), despite exhibiting high amino acid sequence identity (>30%)/homology (>50%) with NAD(P) + -dependent l-Glu/l-Leu/l-Phe/l-Val dehydrogenases, exclusively catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of l-Trp to 3-indolepyruvate in the presence of NAD + Here, we determined the crystal structure of the apo form of NpTrpDH. The structure of the NpTrpDH monomer, which exhibited high similarity to that of l-Glu/l-Leu/l-Phe dehydrogenases, consisted of a substrate-binding domain (domain I, residues 3 to 133 and 328 to 343) and an NAD + /NADH-binding domain (domain II, residues 142 to 327) separated by a deep cleft. The apo-NpTrpDH existed in an open conformation, where domains I and II were apart from each other. The subunits dimerized themselves mainly through interactions between amino acid residues around the β-1 strand of each subunit, as was observed in the case of l-Phe dehydrogenase. The binding site for the substrate l-Trp was predicted by a molecular docking simulation and validated by site-directed mutagenesis. Several hydrophobic residues, which were located in the active site of NpTrpDH and possibly interacted with the side chain of the substrate l-Trp, were arranged similarly to that found in l-Leu/l-Phe dehydrogenases but fairly different from that of an l-Glu dehydrogenase. Our crystal structure revealed that Met-40, Ala-69, Ile-74, Ile-110, Leu-288, Ile-289, and Tyr-292 formed a hydrophobic cluster around the active site. The results of the site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggested that the hydrophobic cluster plays critical roles in protein folding, l-Trp recognition, and catalysis. Our results provide critical information for further characterization and engineering of this enzyme. In this study, we determined the three-dimensional structure of l-Trp dehydrogenase, analyzed its various site-directed substitution mutants at residues located in the active site, and obtained the

  9. Ionization of isocitrate bound to pig hear NADP/sup +/-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase: /sup 13/C NMR study of substrate binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.S.; Colman, R.F.

    1987-06-16

    Isocitrate and ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate have been synthesized with carbon-13 enrichment at specific positions. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra of these derivatives were measured as a function of pH. The magnitudes of the changes in chemical shifts with pH for free isocitrate and the magnesium-isocitrate complex suggest that the primary site of ionization at the ..beta..-carboxyl. In the presence of the enzyme NADP/sup +/-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and the activating metal magnesium, the carbon-13 resonances of all three carboxyls remain constant from pH 5.5 to pH 7.5. Thus, the carboxyls remain in the ionized form in the enzyme-isocitrate complex. The ..cap alpha..-hydroxylmore » carbon resonance could not be located in the enzyme-isocitrate complex, suggesting immobilization of this group. Magnesium produces a 2 ppm downfield shift of the ..beta..-carboxyl but does not change the resonances of the ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-carboxyls. This result is consistent with metal activation of both the dehydrogenation and decarboxylation reactions. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate remains unchanged in the presence of isocitrate dehydrogenase, implying the absence of alterations in geometry in the enzyme-bound form. Formation of the quaternary complex with Mg/sup 2 +/ and NADPH leads to loss of the ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate resonances and the appearance of new resonances characteristic of ..cap alpha..-hydroxyglutarate. In addition, a broad peak ascribed to the enol form of ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate is observed. The substantial change in the shift of the ..beta..-carboxyl of isocitrate and the lack of significant shifts in the other carboxyls of isocitrate or ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate suggest that interaction of the ..beta..-carboxyl with the enzyme contributes to the tighter binding of isocitrate and may be significant for the oxidative decarboxylation function of isocitrate dehydrogenase.« less

  10. Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei D-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase in cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Jeffery R; Gummalla, Sanjay; Hughes, Joanne E; Johnson, Mark E; Rankin, Scott A; Drake, Mary Anne

    2004-08-01

    Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that alpha-keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by aminotransferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor compounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable alpha-keto acids to more-stable alpha-hydroxy acids via the action of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases such as d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase. To further characterize the role of this enzyme in cheese flavor, the Lactobacillus casei d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase gene was cloned into the high-copy-number vector pTRKH2 and transformed into L. casei ATCC 334. Enzyme assays confirmed that alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in pTRKH2:dhic transformants than in wild-type cells. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were made with Lactococcus lactis starter only, starter plus L. casei ATCC 334, and starter plus L. casei ATCC 334 transformed with pTRKH2:dhic. After 3 months of aging, the cheese chemistry and flavor attributes were evaluated instrumentally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by descriptive sensory analysis. The culture system used significantly affected the concentrations of various ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters and one sulfur compound in cheese. Results further indicated that enhanced expression of d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase suppressed spontaneous degradation of alpha-keto acids, but sensory work indicated that this effect retarded cheese flavor development.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA species for mammalian dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Arimitsu, E; Aoki, S; Ishikura, S; Nakanishi, K; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1999-01-01

    Cynomolgus and Japanese monkey kidneys, dog and pig livers and rabbit lens contain dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.20) associated with high carbonyl reductase activity. Here we have isolated cDNA species for the dimeric enzymes by reverse transcriptase-PCR from human intestine in addition to the above five animal tissues. The amino acid sequences deduced from the monkey, pig and dog cDNA species perfectly matched the partial sequences of peptides digested from the respective enzymes of these animal tissues, and active recombinant proteins were expressed in a bacterial system from the monkey and human cDNA species. Northern blot analysis revealed the existence of a single 1.3 kb mRNA species for the enzyme in these animal tissues. The human enzyme shared 94%, 85%, 84% and 82% amino acid identity with the enzymes of the two monkey strains (their sequences were identical), the dog, the pig and the rabbit respectively. The sequences of the primate enzymes consisted of 335 amino acid residues and lacked one amino acid compared with the other animal enzymes. In contrast with previous reports that other types of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, carbonyl reductases and enzymes with either activity belong to the aldo-keto reductase family or the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase showed no sequence similarity with the members of the two protein families. The dimeric enzyme aligned with low degrees of identity (14-25%) with several prokaryotic proteins, in which 47 residues are strictly or highly conserved. Thus dimeric dihydrodiol dehydrogenase has a primary structure distinct from the previously known mammalian enzymes and is suggested to constitute a novel protein family with the prokaryotic proteins. PMID:10477285

  12. Hormonal regulation of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Rashed, H M; Waller, F M; Patel, T B

    1988-04-25

    The metabolic flux through the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction in perfused livers was monitored by measuring the rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate. The rates of 14CO2 production and glucose production from [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate were increased with increasing perfusate alpha-ketoglutarate concentrations. Vasopressin, angiotensin II, and the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine stimulated transiently by 2.5-fold the metabolic flux through the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction in the presence and absence of Ca2+ in the perfusion medium. High concentrations of glucagon (1 x 10(-8) M) and 8-p-chlorophenylthio-cAMP (100 microM) (data not shown) also stimulated transiently the metabolic flux through the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction. However, lower glucagon concentrations (1 x 10(-9) M) stimulated the rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate only under conditions optimized to fix the cellular oxidation-reduction state at an intermediate level, when glucagon (1 x 10(-9) M)-mediated elevation of cAMP content was greater than that observed under highly oxidizing and reducing conditions. These data indicate that agonists which increase cytosolic free Ca2+ levels stimulate the metabolic flux through the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Furthermore, the data presented here demonstrate for the first time that physiological glucagon concentrations stimulate the metabolic flux through the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase reaction only under conditions known to be optimal for glucagon-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in the isolated perfused rat liver.

  13. Identification of a Dehydrogenase Required for Lactose Metabolism in Caulobacter crescentus▿ †‡

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Benjamin H.; Ortiz, Janett D.; Manzano, Janet; Chen, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus, which thrives in freshwater environments with low nutrient levels, serves as a model system for studying bacterial cell cycle regulation and organelle development. We examined its ability to utilize lactose (i) to gain insight into the metabolic capacities of oligotrophic bacteria and (ii) to obtain an additional genetic tool for studying this model organism, aiming to eliminate the basal enzymatic activity that hydrolyzes the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Using a previously isolated transposon mutant, we identified a gene, lacA, that is required for growth on lactose as the sole carbon source and for turning colonies blue in the presence of X-gal. LacA, which contains a glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase domain, has homology to the flavin subunit of Pectobacterium cypripedii's gluconate dehydrogenase. Sequence comparisons indicated that two genes near lacA, lacB and lacC, encode the other subunits of the membrane-bound dehydrogenase. In addition to lactose, all three lac genes are involved in the catabolism of three other β-galactosides (lactulose, lactitol, and methyl-β-d-galactoside) and two glucosides (salicin and trehalose). Dehydrogenase assays confirmed that the lac gene products oxidize lactose, salicin, and trehalose. This enzymatic activity is inducible, and increased lac expression in the presence of lactose and salicin likely contributes to the induction. Expression of lacA also depends on the presence of the lac genes, implying that the dehydrogenase participates in induction. The involvement of a dehydrogenase suggests that degradation of lactose and other sugars in C. crescentus may resemble a proposed pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PMID:20190087

  14. The metabolism of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Heinstra, P W; Geer, B W; Seykens, D; Langevin, M

    1989-01-01

    Both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, EC 1.2.1.3) and the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) were found to coexist in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The enzymes, however, showed different inhibition patterns with respect to pyrazole, cyanamide and disulphiram. ALDH-1 and ALDH-2 isoenzymes were detected in larvae by electrophoretic methods. Nonetheless, in tracer studies in vivo, more than 75% of the acetaldehyde converted to acetate by the ADH ethanol-degrading pathway appeared to be also catalysed by the ADH enzyme. The larval fat body probably was the major site of this pathway. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2499314

  15. [Cloning and sequence analysis of full-length cDNA of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase of Dysosma versipellis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Zhou, Yun-Kai; Tao, Xue-Fen

    2009-06-01

    To obtain the full-length cDNA sequence of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase gene from Dysosma versipellis by RACE PCR,then investigate the character of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase gene. The full-length cDNA sequence of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase gene was obtained by 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE from Dysosma versipellis. We first reported the full cDNA sequences of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase in Dysosma versipellis. The acquired gene was 991bp in full length, including 5' untranslated region of 42bp, 3' untranslated region of 112bp with Poly (A). The open reading frame (ORF) encoding 278 amino acid with molecular weight 29253.3 Daltons and isolectric point 6.328. The gene accession nucleotide sequence number in GeneBank was EU573789. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase gene was highly expressed in stem. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase indicated there may be some significant amino acid sequence difference among different species. Obtain the full-length cDNA sequence of Secoisolariciresinol Dehydrogenase gene from Dysosma versipellis.

  16. Marked differences in drug-induced methemoglobinemia in sheep are not due to RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, or methemoglobin reductase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.G.; Guertler, A.T.; Lagutchik, M.S.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine is a commonly used topical anesthetic that is structurally similar to current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis. Benzocaine induces profound methemoglobinemia in some sheep but not others. After topical benzocaine administration certain sheep respond to form MHb (elevated MHb 16-50% after a 56-280 mg dose, a 2-10 second spray with benzocine), while other phenotypically similar sheep fail to significantly form MHb (less than a 2% increase from baseline). Deficiencies in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and MHb reductase increase the susceptibility to methemoglobinemia in man and animals. Sheep are used as a model for G-6-PD deficiency in man, andmore » differences in this enzyme level could cause the variable response seen in these sheep. Similarly, differences in GSH and MHb reductase could be responsible for the observed differences in MHb formation.« less

  17. Binding, hydration, and decarboxylation of the reaction intermediate glutaconyl-coenzyme A by human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Westover, J B; Goodman, S I; Frerman, F E

    2001-11-20

    Glutaconyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is the presumed enzyme-bound intermediate in the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA that is catalyzed by glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. We demonstrated glutaconyl-CoA bound to glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase after anaerobic reduction of the dehydrogenase with glutaryl-CoA. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase also has intrinsic enoyl-CoA hydratase activity, a property of other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. The enzyme rapidly hydrates glutaconyl-CoA at pH 7.6 with a k(cat) of 2.7 s(-1). The k(cat) in the overall oxidation-decarboxylation reaction at pH 7.6 is about 9 s(-1). The binding of glutaconyl-CoA was quantitatively assessed from the K(m) in the hydratase reaction, 3 microM, and the K(i), 1.0 microM, as a competitive inhibitor of the dehydrogenase. These values compare with K(m) and K(i) of 4.0 and 12.9 microM, respectively, for crotonyl-CoA. Glu370 is the general base catalyst in the dehydrogenase that abstracts an alpha-proton of the substrate to initiate the catalytic pathway. The mutant dehydrogenase, Glu370Gln, is inactive in the dehydrogenation and the hydratase reactions. However, this mutant dehydrogenase decarboxylates glutaconyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA without oxidation-reduction reactions of the dehydrogenase flavin. Addition of glutaconyl-CoA to this mutant dehydrogenase results in a rapid, transient increase in long-wavelength absorbance (lambda(max) approximately 725 nm), and crotonyl-CoA is found as the sole product. We propose that this 725 nm-absorbing species is the delocalized crotonyl-CoA anion that follows decarboxylation and that the decay is the result of slow protonation of the anion in the absence of the general acid catalyst, Glu370(H(+)). In the absence of detectable oxidation-reduction, the data indicate that oxidation-reduction of the dehydrogenase flavin is not essential for decarboxylation of glutaconyl-CoA.

  18. Purification and Characterization of a Novel NAD(P)+-Farnesol Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Seman-Kamarulzaman, Ahmad-Faris; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones have attracted attention as safe and selective targets for the design and development of environmentally friendly and biorational insecticides. In the juvenile hormone III biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme farnesol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of farnesol to farnesal. In this study, farnesol dehydrogenase was extracted from Polygonum minus leaves and purified 204-fold to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Toyopearl, SP-Toyopearl, and Super-Q Toyopearl, followed by three successive purifications by gel filtration chromatography on a TSK-gel GS3000SW. The enzyme is a heterodimer comprised of subunits with molecular masses of 65 kDa and 70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and pH 9.5, respectively. Activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, metal-chelating agents and heavy metal ions. The enzyme utilized both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes with K m values of 0.74 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Trans, trans-farnesol was the preferred substrate for the P. minus farnesol dehydrogenase. Geometrical isomers of trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol were also oxidized by the enzyme with lower activity. The K m values for trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol appeared to be 0.17 mM, 0.33 mM and 0.42 mM, respectively. The amino acid sequences of 4 tryptic peptides of the enzyme were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectrometry, and showed no significant similarity to those of previously reported farnesol dehydrogenases. These results suggest that the purified enzyme is a novel NAD(P)+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase. The purification and characterization established in the current study will serve as a basis to provide new information for recombinant production of the enzyme. Therefore, recombinant farnesol dehydrogenase may provide a useful molecular tool in manipulating juvenile hormone biosynthesis to generate transgenic plants for pest control. PMID:26600471

  19. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensively studied. In our previous work, an evolved vanillin-resistant strain showed an increased vanillin reduction capacity compared with its parent strain. The transcriptome analysis suggested the reductases and dehydrogenases of this vanillin resistant strain were up-regulated. Using this as a starting point, 11 significantly regulated reductases and dehydrogenases were selected in the present work for further study. The roles of these reductases and dehydrogenases in the vanillin tolerance and detoxification abilities of S. cerevisiae are described. Among the candidate genes, the overexpression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase gene ZWF1, NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene YNL134C, and aldo-keto reductase gene YJR096W increased 177, 25, 6, 15, and 18 % of the strain μmax in the medium containing 1 g L(-1) vanillin. The in vitro detected vanillin reductase activities of strain overexpressing ADH6, YNL134C and YJR096W were notably higher than control. The vanillin specific reduction rate increased by 8 times in ADH6 overexpressed strain but not in YNL134C and YJR096W overexpressed strain. This suggested that the enzymes encoded by YNL134C and YJR096W might prefer other substrate and/or could not show their effects on vanillin on the high background of Adh6p in vivo. Overexpressing ALD6 and ZWF1 mainly increased the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] and [GSH]/[GSSG] ratios but not the vanillin reductase activities. Their

  20. Purification and Characterization of a Novel NAD(P)+-Farnesol Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ahmad-Sohdi, Nor-Ain-Shahajar; Seman-Kamarulzaman, Ahmad-Faris; Mohamed-Hussein, Zeti-Azura; Hassan, Maizom

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones have attracted attention as safe and selective targets for the design and development of environmentally friendly and biorational insecticides. In the juvenile hormone III biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme farnesol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of farnesol to farnesal. In this study, farnesol dehydrogenase was extracted from Polygonum minus leaves and purified 204-fold to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Toyopearl, SP-Toyopearl, and Super-Q Toyopearl, followed by three successive purifications by gel filtration chromatography on a TSK-gel GS3000SW. The enzyme is a heterodimer comprised of subunits with molecular masses of 65 kDa and 70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and pH 9.5, respectively. Activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, metal-chelating agents and heavy metal ions. The enzyme utilized both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes with Km values of 0.74 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Trans, trans-farnesol was the preferred substrate for the P. minus farnesol dehydrogenase. Geometrical isomers of trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol were also oxidized by the enzyme with lower activity. The Km values for trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol appeared to be 0.17 mM, 0.33 mM and 0.42 mM, respectively. The amino acid sequences of 4 tryptic peptides of the enzyme were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectrometry, and showed no significant similarity to those of previously reported farnesol dehydrogenases. These results suggest that the purified enzyme is a novel NAD(P)+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase. The purification and characterization established in the current study will serve as a basis to provide new information for recombinant production of the enzyme. Therefore, recombinant farnesol dehydrogenase may provide a useful molecular tool in manipulating juvenile hormone biosynthesis to generate transgenic plants for pest control.

  1. Coupled Ferredoxin and Crotonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Reduction with NADH Catalyzed by the Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/Etf Complex from Clostridium kluyveri▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2008-01-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0′ = −410 mV) with NADH (E0′ = −320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0′ = −10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper. PMID:17993531

  2. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2008-02-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0' = -410 mV) with NADH (E0' = -320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0' = -10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper.

  3. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  4. Characterization of human DHRS4: an inducible short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Endo, Satoshi; Maeda, Satoshi; Ishikura, Shuhei; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Nobutada; Nakamura, Kazuo T; Imamura, Yorishige; Hara, Akira

    2008-09-15

    Human DHRS4 is a peroxisomal member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, but its enzymatic properties, except for displaying NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase/reductase activity, are unknown. We show that the human enzyme, a tetramer composed of 27kDa subunits, is inactivated at low temperature without dissociation into subunits. The cold inactivation was prevented by a mutation of Thr177 with the corresponding residue, Asn, in cold-stable pig DHRS4, where this residue is hydrogen-bonded to Asn165 in a substrate-binding loop of other subunit. Human DHRS4 reduced various aromatic ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds including cytotoxic 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. The overexpression of the peroxisomal enzyme in cultured cells did not increase the cytotoxicity of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. While its activity towards all-trans-retinal was low, human DHRS4 efficiently reduced 3-keto-C(19)/C(21)-steroids into 3beta-hydroxysteroids. The stereospecific conversion to 3beta-hydroxysteroids was observed in endothelial cells transfected with vectors expressing the enzyme. The mRNA for the enzyme was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and several cancer cells, and the enzyme in HepG2 cells was induced by peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligands. The results suggest a novel mechanism of cold inactivation and role of the inducible human DHRS4 in 3beta-hydroxysteroid synthesis and xenobiotic carbonyl metabolism.

  5. Response surface methodology to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductase enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and d-galactose dehydrogenase in aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Shahbaz Mohammadi, Hamid; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Bozorgian, Sajad; Pooraskari, Maryam; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-04-01

    Oxidoreductases are an important family of enzymes that are used in many biotechnological processes. An experimental design was applied to optimize partition and purification of two recombinant oxidoreductases, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis and d-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) from Pseudomonas fluorescens AK92 in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was performed to optimize critical factors like polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration, concentration of salt and pH value. The best partitioning conditions was achieved in an ATPS composed of 12% PEG-6000, 15% K2HPO4 with pH 7.5 at 25°C, which ensured partition coefficient (KE) of 66.6 and 45.7 for GDH and GalDH, respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the activity of GDH and GalDH was 569.5U/ml and 673.7U/ml, respectively. It was found that these enzymes preferentially partitioned into the top PEG-rich phase and appeared as single bands on SDS-PAGE gel. Meanwhile the validity of the response model was confirmed by a good agreement between predicted and experimental results. Collectively, according to the obtained data it can be inferred that the ATPS optimization using RSM approach can be applied for recovery and purification of any enzyme from oxidoreductase family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase is present in Trypanosoma cruzi glycosomes.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, J L; Acosta, H; Quiñones, W; Dubourdieu, M

    2001-07-01

    alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH-EC.1.1.1.8) has been considered absent in Trypanosoma cruzi in contradiction with all other studied trypanosomatids. After observing that the sole malate dehydrogenase can not maintain the intraglycosomal redox balance, GPDH activity was looked for and found, although in very variable levels, in epimastigotes extracts. GPDH was shown to be exclusively located in the glycosome of T. cruzi by digitonin treatment and isopycnic centrifugation. Antibody against T. brucei GPDH showed that this enzyme seemed to be present in an essentially inactive form at the beginning of the epimastigotes growth. GPDH is apparently linked to a salicylhydroxmic-sensitive glycerophosphate reoxidizing system and plays an essential role in the glycosome redox balance.

  7. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepe, Jan, E-mail: jschoepe@smail.uni-koeln.de; Niefind, Karsten; Chatterjee, Shivani

    2006-07-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a shikimate dehydrogenase from C. glutamicum is presented. The shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum has been cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, overexpressed and purified. Native crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the centred monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 118.77, b = 63.17, c = 35.67 Å, β = 92.26° (at 100 K), and diffract to 1.64 Å on a synchrotron X-ray source. The asymmetric unit is likely to contain one molecule, corresponding to a packing density ofmore » 2.08 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of about 41%.« less

  8. Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase from Perilla can form citral and perillaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Ito, Michiho

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the biosynthesis of oil compounds in Perilla will help in understanding regulatory systems of secondary metabolites and in elucidating reaction mechanisms for natural product synthesis. In this study, two types of alcohol dehydrogenases, an aldo-keto reductase (AKR) and a geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH), which are thought to participate in the biosynthesis of perilla essential oil components, such as citral and perillaldehyde, were isolated from three pure lines of perilla. These enzymes shared high amino acid sequence identity within the genus Perilla, and were expressed regardless of oil type. The overall reaction from geranyl diphosphate to citral was performed in vitro using geraniol synthase and GeDH to form a large proportion of citral and relatively little geraniol as reaction products. The biosynthetic pathway from geranyl diphosphate to citral, the main compound of citral-type perilla essential oil, was established in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Nitrogen Metabolism of Maize Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel; de Jimenez, Estela Sanchez

    1984-01-01

    Both calli and plantlets of maize (Zea mays L. var Tuxpeño 1) were exposed to specific nitrogen sources, and the aminative (NADH) and deaminative (NAD+) glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured at various periods of time in homogenates of calli, roots, and leaves. A differential effect of the nitrogen sources on the tissues tested was observed. In callus tissue, glutamate, ammonium, and urea inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. The amination and deamination reactions also showed different ratios of activity under different nitrogen sources. In roots, ammonium and glutamine produced an increase in GDH-NADH activity whereas the same metabolites were inhibitory of this activity in leaves. These data suggest the presence of isoenzymes or conformers of GDH, specific for each tissue, whose activities vary depending on the nutritional requirements of the tissue and the state of differentiation. PMID:16663876

  10. A Novel 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase That Regulates Reproductive Development and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Joshua; Magner, Daniel B.; Magomedova, Lilia; Rass, Elisabeth; Shen, Yidong; Rottiers, Veerle; Habermann, Bianca; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Antebi, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous small molecule metabolites that regulate animal longevity are emerging as a novel means to influence health and life span. In C. elegans, bile acid-like steroids called the dafachronic acids (DAs) regulate developmental timing and longevity through the conserved nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12, a homolog of mammalian sterol-regulated receptors LXR and FXR. Using metabolic genetics, mass spectrometry, and biochemical approaches, we identify new activities in DA biosynthesis and characterize an evolutionarily conserved short chain dehydrogenase, DHS-16, as a novel 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Through regulation of DA production, DHS-16 controls DAF-12 activity governing longevity in response to signals from the gonad. Our elucidation of C. elegans bile acid biosynthetic pathways reveals the possibility of novel ligands as well as striking biochemical conservation to other animals, which could illuminate new targets for manipulating longevity in metazoans. PMID:22505847

  11. Human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and pre-receptor regulation: Insights into inhibitor design and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Trevor M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) represent a major class of NAD(P)(H) dependent steroid hormone oxidoreductases involved in the pre-receptor regulation of hormone action. This is achieved by HSDs working in pairs so that they can interconvert ketosteroids with hydroxysteroids resulting in a change in ligand potency for nuclear receptors. HSDs belong to two protein superfamilies the aldo-keto reductases and the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases. In humans, many of the important enzymes have been thoroughly characterized including the elucidation of their three-dimensional structures. Because these enzymes play fundamental roles in steroid hormone action they can be considered to be drug targets for a variety of steroid driven diseases: e.g. metabolic syndrome and obesity, inflammation, and hormone dependent malignancies of the endometrium, prostate and breast. This article will review how fundamental knowledge of these enzymes can be exploited in the development of isoform specific HSD inhibitors from both protein superfamilies. PMID:21272640

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of a recombinant plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Tylichová, Martina; Briozzo, Pierre; Kopečný, David; Ferrero, Julien; Moréra, Solange; Joly, Nathalie; Snégaroff, Jacques; Šebela, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Aminoaldehydes are products of polyamine degradation and are known to be reactive metabolites that are toxic to living cells at high concentrations. These compounds are catabolized by aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases, which are enzymes that contain a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide coenzyme. Amino­aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop method. A complete data set was collected to 2.8 Å resolution at 100 K. Crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 216.6, c = 205.4 Å, β = 98.1°. Molecular replacement was performed and led to the identification of six dimers per asymmetric unit. PMID:18259056

  13. Neurospora crassa alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: description, resolution of components and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Bessam, H; Mareck, A M; Foucher, B

    1989-01-27

    A method is proposed for the purification of the Neurospora crassa alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and the main points for preserving its activity, which seems to be particularly fragile in fungus, are discussed. Resolution of the constitutive enzymes was attempted and permitted the identification of the three protein bands resolved on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as E3, E1 and E2 with respective Mr values of 54,000, 53,000 and 49,000. Catalytic properties of the purified complex were established showing the importance of divalent cations in regulating the activity level. The role of Ca2+ in particular was investigated. It was shown that Ca2+ diminishes the Km value of the N. crassa alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex for alpha-ketoglutarate in the physiological concentration range, as previously observed for the mammalian complexes.

  14. Structure of Escherichia coli AdhP (ethanol-inducible dehydrogenase) with bound NAD.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Leonard M; Harper, Angelica R; Miner, Whitney A; Ajufo, Helen O; Branscum, Katie M; Kao, Lydia; Sims, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    The crystal structure of AdhP, a recombinantly expressed alcohol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12 (substrain MG1655), was determined to 2.01 Å resolution. The structure, which was solved using molecular replacement, also included the structural and catalytic zinc ions and the cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.18, b = 118.92, c = 97.87 Å, β = 106.41°. The final R factor and Rfree were 0.138 and 0.184, respectively. The structure of the active site of AdhP suggested a number of residues that may participate in a proton relay, and the overall structure of AdhP, including the coordination to structural and active-site zinc ions, is similar to those of other tetrameric alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes.

  15. Optical characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers chemisorbed on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Blasi, L.; Longo, L.; Cingolani, R.; Ciccarella, G.; Vasapollo, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Rizzello, A.; Storelli, C.; Maffia, M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the formation of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers on silicon dioxide, and their characterization by means of physical techniques, i.e., fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Detailed investigations of the intrinsic stability of native proteins in solution were carried out to elucidate the occurrence of conformational changes induced by the immobilization procedure. The enzyme monolayers were deposited on SiO2 after preexposing silicon surfaces to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and reacting the silylated surfaces with glutaric dialdehyde. The optical characterization demonstrates that the immobilization does not interfere with the fold pattern of the native enzyme. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, and quenching studies performed on the enzyme in solution well describe the folding and unfolding properties of glutamate dehydrogenase. The photophysical studies reported here are relevant for nanobioelectronics applications requiring protein immobilization on a chip.

  16. Promysalin Elicits Species-Selective Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Targeting Succinate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Colleen E; Steele, Andrew D; Fetzer, Christian; Khowsathit, Jittasak; Van Tyne, Daria; Moynié, Lucile; Gilmore, Michael S; Karanicolas, John; Sieber, Stephan A; Wuest, William M

    2018-02-07

    Natural products have served as an inspiration to scientists both for their complex three-dimensional architecture and exquisite biological activity. Promysalin is one such Pseudomonad secondary metabolite that exhibits narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity, originally isolated from the rhizosphere. We herein utilize affinity-based protein profiling (AfBPP) to identify succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) as the biological target of the natural product. The target was further validated in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and through the selection, and sequencing, of a resistant mutant. Succinate dehydrogenase plays an essential role in primary metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the only enzyme that is involved both in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and in respiration via the electron transport chain. These findings add credence to other studies that suggest that the TCA cycle is an understudied target in the development of novel therapeutics to combat P. aeruginosa, a significant pathogen in clinical settings.

  17. [Polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH1B in eastern Slavic and Iranian-speaking populations].

    PubMed

    2005-11-01

    Frequencies of alleles and genotypes for alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH1B (arg47his polymorphism), associated with alcohol tolerance/sensitivity, were determined. It was demonstrated that the frequency of allele ADH1B*47his, corresponding to atypical alcohol dehydrogenase variant in Russians, Ukrainians, Iranians, and mountain-dwellers of the Pamirs constituted 3, 7, 24, and 22%, respectively. The frequencies established were consistent with the allele frequency distribution pattern among the populations of Eurasia. Russians and Ukrainians were indistinguishable from other European populations relative to the frequency of allele ADH1B*47his, and consequently, relative to specific features of ethanol metabolic pathways. The data obtained provide refinement of the geographic pattern of ADH1B*47his frequency distribution in Eurasia.

  18. Characterization of the Membrane-Bound Succinic Dehydrogenase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Jerry J.; Linder, Regina; Salton, Milton R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence of succinic dehydrogenase [succinic:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.1] in membrane fractions of Micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated. The enzyme could be purified 10-fold, by deoxycholate treatment. Butanol extraction of membranes yielded an active fraction, nonsedimentable at 130,000 × g for 2 hr and altered in its phospholipid content relative to membranes. The activity of the enzyme in particulate preparations was decreased in the presence of competitive inhibitors and by compounds known to react with iron, sulfhydryl groups, and flavine. In this respect, the bacterial succinic dehydrogenase is similar to the enzyme derived from yeast and mammalian sources. In certain membrane fractions, Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited inhibitory effects whereas Triton X-100 caused activation. The enzyme could also be activated by substrate. In the phenazine reductase assay, incomplete reduction of electron acceptor was observed upon addition of divalent cations and iron binding agents. Images PMID:4327510

  19. Characterization of the membrane-bound succinic dehydrogenase of Micrococcus lysodeikticus.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J J; Linder, R; Salton, M R

    1971-07-01

    The occurrence of succinic dehydrogenase [succinic:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, EC 1.3.99.1] in membrane fractions of Micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated. The enzyme could be purified 10-fold, by deoxycholate treatment. Butanol extraction of membranes yielded an active fraction, nonsedimentable at 130,000 x g for 2 hr and altered in its phospholipid content relative to membranes. The activity of the enzyme in particulate preparations was decreased in the presence of competitive inhibitors and by compounds known to react with iron, sulfhydryl groups, and flavine. In this respect, the bacterial succinic dehydrogenase is similar to the enzyme derived from yeast and mammalian sources. In certain membrane fractions, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) exhibited inhibitory effects whereas Triton X-100 caused activation. The enzyme could also be activated by substrate. In the phenazine reductase assay, incomplete reduction of electron acceptor was observed upon addition of divalent cations and iron binding agents.

  20. Cofactor specificity switch in Shikimate dehydrogenase by rational design and consensus engineering.

    PubMed

    García-Guevara, Fernando; Bravo, Iris; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Segovia, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    Consensus engineering has been used to design more stable variants using the most frequent amino acid at each site of a multiple sequence alignment; sometimes consensus engineering modifies function, but efforts have mainly been focused on studying stability. Here we constructed a consensus Rossmann domain for the Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme; separately we decided to switch the cofactor specificity through rational design in the Escherichia coli Shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme and then analyzed the effect of consensus mutations on top of our design. We found that consensus mutations closest to the 2' adenine moiety increased the activity in our design. Consensus engineering has been shown to result in more stable proteins and our findings suggest it could also be used as a complementary tool for increasing or modifying enzyme activity during design. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Leigh syndrome and leukodystrophy due to partial succinate dehydrogenase deficiency: regression with riboflavin].

    PubMed

    Pinard, J M; Marsac, C; Barkaoui, E; Desguerre, I; Birch-Machin, M; Reinert, P; Ponsot, G

    1999-04-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency is rare. Clinical manifestations can appear in infancy with a marked impairment of psychomotor development with pyramidal signs and extrapyramidal rigidity. A 10-month-old boy developed severe neurological features, evoking a Leigh syndrome; magnetic resonance imaging showed features of leukodystrophy. A deficiency in the complex II respiratory chain (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH]) was shown. The course was remarkable by the regression of neurological impairment under treatment by riboflavin. The delay of psychomotor development, mainly involving language, was moderate at the age of 5 years. The relatively good prognosis of this patient, despite severe initial neurological impairment, may be due to the partial enzyme deficiency and/or riboflavin administration.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Collart, F R; Osipiuk, J; Trent, J; Olsen, G J; Huberman, E

    1996-10-03

    We have cloned and characterized the gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Arabidopsis thaliana (At). The transcription unit of the At gene spans approximately 1900 bp and specifies a protein of 503 amino acids with a calculated relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 54,190. The gene is comprised of a minimum of four introns and five exons with all donor and acceptor splice sequences conforming to previously proposed consensus sequences. The deduced IMPDH amino-acid sequence from At shows a remarkable similarity to other eukaryotic IMPDH sequences, with a 48% identity to human Type II enzyme. Allowing for conservative substitutions, the enzyme is 69% similar to human Type II IMPDH. The putative active-site sequence of At IMPDH conforms to the IMP dehydrogenase/guanosine monophosphate reductase motif and contains an essential active-site cysteine residue.

  3. Purification and characterization of the amine dehydrogenase from a facultative methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J P; Perry, J J

    1984-01-01

    Strain RA-6 is a pink-pigmented organism which can grow on a variety of substrates including methylamine. It can utilize methylamine as sole source of carbon via an isocitrate lyase negative serine pathway. Methylamine grown cells contain an inducible primary amine dehydrogenase [primary amine: (acceptor) oxidoreductase (deaminating)] which is not present in succinate grown cells. The amine dehydrogenase was purified to over 90% homogeneity. It is an acidic protein (isoelectric point of 5.37) with a molecular weight of 118,000 containing subunits with approximate molecular weights of 16,500 and 46,000. It is active on an array of primary terminal amines and is strongly inhibited by carbonyl reagents. Cytochrome c or artificial electron acceptors are required for activity; neither NAD nor NADP can serve as primary electron acceptor.

  4. Disrupting androgen production of Leydig cells by resveratrol via direct inhibition of human and rat 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Chen, Xiaomin; Zhu, Qiqi; Chen, Dongxin; Guo, Jingjing; Yao, Wenwen; Dong, Yaoyao; Wei, Jia; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan; Yuan, Bo

    2014-04-07

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by several plants. It has been demonstrated that it has anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and anti-diabetic effects in animal models. However, its side effects are generally unclear. In the present study, we reported that resveratrol inhibited luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen production in rat immature Leydig cells. Further analysis demonstrated that it was a competitive inhibitor of rat and human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with IC₆₀ values of 3.87 ± 0.06 and 8.48 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. The inhibition on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was specific since it did not inhibit another hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 at the highest concentration (100 μM) tested. In conclusion, resveratrol potentially interferes with androgen biosynthesis of rat Leydig cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of motoneurons innervating different portions of the rat tibialis anterior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, A.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution, soma size and oxidative enzyme activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating muscle fibres in the deep (away from the surface of the muscle) and superficial (close to the surface of the muscle) portions of the tibialis anterior in normal rats were determined. The deep portion had a higher percentage of high oxidative fibres than the superficial portion of the muscle. Motoneurons were labelled by retrograde neuronal transport of fluorescent tracers: Fast Blue and Nuclear Yellow were injected into the deep portion and Nuclear Yellow into the superficial portion of the muscle. Therefore, motoneurons innervating the deep portion were identified by both a blue fluorescent cytoplasm and a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus, while motoneurons innervating the superficial portion were identified by only a golden-yellow fluorescent nucleus. After staining for succinate dehydrogenase activity on the same section used for the identification of the motoneurons, soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the motoneurons were measured. The gamma and alpha motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions were located primarily at L4 and were intermingled within the same region of the dorsolateral portion of the ventral horn in the spinal cord. Mean soma size was similar for either gamma or alpha motoneurons in the two portions of the muscle. The alpha motoneurons innervating the superficial portion had a lower mean succinate dehydrogenase activity than those innervating the deep portion of the muscle. An inverse relationship between soma size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of alpha, but not gamma, motoneurons innervating both the deep and superficial portions was observed. Based on three-dimensional reconstructions within the spinal cord, there were no apparent differences in the spatial distribution of the motoneurons, either gamma or alpha, associated with the deep and superficial compartments of the muscle. The data

  6. [Alanine dehydrogenase of the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum in the early period of cyanophage LPP-3 development].

    PubMed

    Perepelitsa, S I; Koltukova, N V; Mendzhul, M I

    1995-01-01

    It has been studied how reproduction of LPP-3 in Plectonema boryanum cells influences the alanine dehydrogenase activity. It has been found that immediately after the virus adsorption the enzyme activity falls by 50% and the anabolic reaction is blocked. Physicochemical properties of the enzyme vary as well. An infected cell has one isoenzyme-octamer with pl 9.1-9.2, pH-optimum by action 9-10, molecular weight about 27 kDa.

  7. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate Halophile Halomonas elongata

    PubMed Central

    Gadda, Giovanni; McAllister-Wilkins, Elien Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine-betaine via a betaine-aldehyde intermediate. Such a reaction is of considerable interest for biotechnological applications in that transgenic plants engineered with bacterial glycine-betaine-synthesizing enzymes have been shown to have enhanced tolerance towards various environmental stresses, such as hypersalinity, freezing, and high temperatures. To date, choline dehydrogenase has been poorly characterized in its biochemical and kinetic properties, mainly because its purification has been hampered by instability of the enzyme in vitro. In the present report, we cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the betA gene from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata which codes for a hypothetical choline dehydrogenase. The recombinant enzyme was purified to more than 70% homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by treatment with 30 to 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate followed by column chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose. The purified enzyme showed similar substrate specificities with either choline or betaine-aldehyde as the substrate, as indicated by the apparent V/K values (where V is the maximal velocity and K is the Michaelis constant) of 0.9 and 0.6 μmol of O2 min−1 mg−1 mM−1 at pH 7 and 25°C, respectively. With 1 mM phenazine methosulfate as the primary electron acceptor, the apparent Vmax values for choline and betaine-aldehyde were 10.9 and 5.7 μmol of O2 min−1 mg−1, respectively. These Vmax values decreased four- to sevenfold when molecular oxygen was used as the electron acceptor. Altogether, the kinetic data are consistent with the conclusion that H. elongata betA codes for a choline dehydrogenase that can also act as an oxidase when electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen are not available. PMID:12676692

  8. Marked and variable inhibition by chemical fixation of cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in single motoneurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of tissue fixation on succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activity in single motoneurons of the rat was demonstrated using a computer image processing system. Inhibition of enzyme activity by chemical fixation was variable, with some motoneurons being affected more than others. It was concluded that quantification of enzymatic activity in chemically fixed tissue provides an imprecise estimate of enzyme activities found in fresh-frozen tissues.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of succinate dehydrogenase-related infantile leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Helman, Guy; Caldovic, Ljubica; Whitehead, Matthew T; Simons, Cas; Brockmann, Knut; Edvardson, Simon; Bai, Renkui; Moroni, Isabella; Taylor, J Michael; Van Haren, Keith; Taft, Ryan J; Vanderver, Adeline; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient leukoencephalopathy is a complex II-related mitochondrial disorder for which the clinical phenotype, neuroimaging pattern, and genetic findings have not been comprehensively reviewed. Nineteen individuals with succinate dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukoencephalopathy were reviewed for neuroradiological, clinical, and genetic findings as part of institutional review board-approved studies at Children's National Health System (Washington, DC) and VU University Medical Center (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). All individuals had signal abnormalities in the central corticospinal tracts and spinal cord where imaging was available. Other typical findings were involvement of the cerebral hemispheric white matter with sparing of the U fibers, the corpus callosum with sparing of the outer blades, the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellar white matter, and elevated succinate on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The thalamus was involved in most studies, with a predilection for the anterior nucleus, pulvinar, and geniculate bodies. Clinically, infantile onset neurological regression with partial recovery and subsequent stabilization was typical. All individuals had mutations in SDHA, SDHB, or SDHAF1, or proven biochemical defect. Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare leukoencephalopathy, for which improved recognition by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with advanced sequencing technologies allows noninvasive diagnostic confirmation. The MRI pattern is characterized by cerebral hemispheric white matter abnormalities with sparing of the U fibers, corpus callosum involvement with sparing of the outer blades, and involvement of corticospinal tracts, thalami, and spinal cord. In individuals with infantile regression and this pattern of MRI abnormalities, the differential diagnosis should include succinate dehydrogenase deficiency, in particular if MRS shows elevated succinate. © 2016 American

  10. Distribution of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Inagaki, F

    2017-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of CO is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic CO dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment-core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308 and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively. Our results show the occurrence of diverse cooS genes from the seafloor down to about 390 m below the seafloor, suggesting that microbial communities have metabolic functions to utilize CO in anoxic microbial ecosystems beneath the ocean floor, and that the microbial community potentially responsible for anaerobic CO oxidation differs in accordance with possible energy-yielding metabolic reactions in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. Little is known about the microbial community associated with carbon monoxide (CO) in the deep subseafloor. This study is the first survey of a functional gene encoding anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). The widespread occurrence of previously undiscovered CO dehydrogenase genes (cooS) suggests that diverse micro-organisms are capable of anaerobic oxidation of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  12. Co-localization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with ferredoxin-NADP reductase in pea leaf chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Surendra S.; Carol, Andrew A.; Pandya, Shivangi; Braun, Werner; Anderson, Louise E.

    2008-01-01

    In immunogold double-labeling of pea leaf thin sections with antibodies raised against ferredoxin-NADP reductase (EC 1.18.1.2, FNR) and antibodies directed against the A or B subunits of the NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPD) (EC 1.2.1.13), many small and large gold particles were found together over the chloroplasts. Nearest neighbor analysis of the distribution of the gold particles indicates that FNR and the NADP-linked GAPD are co-localized, in situ. This suggests that FNR might carry FADH2 or NADPH from the thylakoid membrane to GAPD, or that ferredoxin might carry electrons to FNR co-localized with GAPD in the stroma. Crystal structures of the spinach enzymes are available. When they are docked computationally, the proteins appear, as modeled, to be able to form at least two different complexes. One involves a single GAPD monomer and an FNR monomer (or dimer). The amino acid residues located at the putative interface are highly conserved on the chloroplastic forms of both enzymes. The other potential complex involves the GAPD A2B2 tetramer and an FNR monomer (or dimer). The interface residues are conserved in this model as well. Ferredoxin is able to interact with FNR in either complex. PMID:17945509

  13. Genetic polymorphism and isoenzyme patterns of lactate dehydrogenase in tench (Tinca tinca), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Valenta, M; Slechta, V; Slechtová, V; Kálal, L

    1977-01-01

    Isoenzyme patterns and the polymorphism of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated in 3 fish species of family Cyprinidae, i.e. tench (Tinca tinca), crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and carp (Cyprinus carpio). The isoenzyme patterns were tissue and species specific. In crucian carp subunits with different electrophoretic mobility are present, which are genetically controlled from the B1, B2, A1, A2 and C loci, while the set of loci in carp is B1, B2, A, C1 and C2 and in tench B, A, C. The locus B of LDH in tench, the locus B2 in crucian carp, and the loci B1, C1 and C2 in carp are polymorphic and have two different alleles in each case. The polymorphism did not affect the total LDH activity in the tissues. All the populations investigated were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic control of the polymorphism in B1 and C1 loci in carp was proved by test matings. The polymorphism in B loci tested in erythrocytes may be utilized as genetic markers in the fish breeding.

  14. Thermodynamic and electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of flavin in succinate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; King, T E; Salerno, J C; Blum, H; Bowyer, J R; Maida, T

    1981-06-10

    Thermodynamic parameters of succinate dehydrogenase flavin were determined potentiometrically from the analysis of free radical signal levels as a function of the oxidation-reduction potential. Midpoint redox potentials of consecutive 1-electron transfer steps are -127 and -31 mV at pH 7.0. This corresponds to a stability constant of intermediate stability, 2.5 x 10(-2), which suggests flavin itself may be a converter from n = 2 to n = 1 electron transfer steps. The pK values of the free radical (FlH . in equilibrium Fl . -) and the fully reduced form (FlH2 in equilibrium FlH-) were estimated as 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.2, respectively. Succinate dehydrogenase flavosemiquinone elicits an EPR spectrum at g = 2.00 with a peak to peak width of 1.2 mT even in the protonated form, suggesting the delocalization in the unpaired electron density. A close proximity of succinate dehydrogenase flavin and iron-sulfur cluster S-1 was demonstrated based on the enhancement of flavin spin relaxation by Center S-1.

  15. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  16. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  17. A novel type of pathogen defense-related cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Logemann, E; Reinold, S; Somssich, I E; Hahlbrock, K

    1997-08-01

    We describe an aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase with properties indicating a novel type of function in the defense response of plants to pathogens. To obtain the enzyme free of contamination with possible isoforms, a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) cDNA comprising the entire coding region of the elicitor-responsive gene, ELI3, was expressed in Escherichia coli. In accord with large amino acid sequence similarities with established cinnamyl and benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases from other plants, the enzyme efficiently reduced various cinnamyl and benzyl aldehydes using NADPH as a co-substrate. Highest substrate affinities were observed for cinnamaldehyde, 4-coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde, whereas sinapaldehyde, one of the most efficient substrates of several previously analyzed cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and a characteristic precursor molecule of angiosperm lignin, was not converted. A single form of ELI3 mRNA was strongly and rapidly induced in fungal elicitor-treated parsley cells. These results, together with earlier findings that the ELI3 gene is strongly activated both in elicitor-treated parsley cells and at fungal infection sites in parsley leaves, but not in lignifying tissue, suggest a specific role of this enzyme in pathogen defense-related phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  18. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  19. A novel cofactor-binding mode in bacterial IMP dehydrogenases explains inhibitor selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; ...

    2015-01-09

    The steadily rising frequency of emerging diseases and antibiotic resistance creates an urgent need for new drugs and targets. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMP dehydrogenase or IMPDH) is a promising target for the development of new antimicrobial agents. IMPDH catalyzes the oxidation of IMP to XMP with the concomitant reduction of NAD +, which is the pivotal step in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Potent inhibitors of bacterial IMPDHs have been identified that bind in a structurally distinct pocket that is absent in eukaryotic IMPDHs. The physiological role of this pocket was not understood. Here, we report the structures of complexesmore » with different classes of inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens IMPDHs. These structures in combination with inhibition studies provide important insights into the interactions that modulate selectivity and potency. We also present two structures of the Vibrio cholerae IMPDH in complex with IMP/NAD + and XMP/NAD +. In both structures, the cofactor assumes a dramatically different conformation than reported previously for eukaryotic IMPDHs and other dehydrogenases, with the major change observed for the position of the NAD+ adenosine moiety. More importantly, this new NAD +-binding site involves the same pocket that is utilized by the inhibitors. Thus, the bacterial IMPDH-specific NAD +-binding mode helps to rationalize the conformation adopted by several classes of prokaryotic IMPDH inhibitors. As a result, these findings offer a potential strategy for further ligand optimization.« less

  20. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effectsmore » described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.« less

  1. Glutamate Dehydrogenase Affects Resistance to Cell Wall Antibiotics in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Heon; Kingston, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase RocG of Bacillus subtilis is a bifunctional protein with both enzymatic and regulatory functions. Here we show that the rocG null mutant is sensitive to β-lactams, including cefuroxime (CEF), and to fosfomycin but that resistant mutants arise due to gain-of-function mutations in gudB, which encodes an otherwise inactive glutamate dehydrogenase. In the presence of CEF, ΔrocG ΔgudB mutant cells exhibit growth arrest when they reach mid-exponential phase. Using microarray-based transcriptional profiling, we found that the σW regulon was downregulated in the ΔrocG ΔgudB null mutant. A survey of σW-controlled genes for effects on CEF resistance identified both the NfeD protein YuaF and the flotillin homologue YuaG (FloT). Notably, overexpression of yuaFG in the rocG null mutant prevents the growth arrest induced by CEF. The YuaG flotillin has been shown previously to localize to defined lipid microdomains, and we show here that the yuaFGI operon contributes to a σW-dependent decrease in membrane fluidity. We conclude that glutamate dehydrogenase activity affects the expression of the σW regulon, by pathways that are yet unclear, and thereby influences resistance to CEF and other antibiotics. PMID:22178969

  2. Glutamate dehydrogenase affects resistance to cell wall antibiotics in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Heon; Kingston, Anthony W; Helmann, John D

    2012-03-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase RocG of Bacillus subtilis is a bifunctional protein with both enzymatic and regulatory functions. Here we show that the rocG null mutant is sensitive to β-lactams, including cefuroxime (CEF), and to fosfomycin but that resistant mutants arise due to gain-of-function mutations in gudB, which encodes an otherwise inactive glutamate dehydrogenase. In the presence of CEF, ΔrocG ΔgudB mutant cells exhibit growth arrest when they reach mid-exponential phase. Using microarray-based transcriptional profiling, we found that the σ(W) regulon was downregulated in the ΔrocG ΔgudB null mutant. A survey of σ(W)-controlled genes for effects on CEF resistance identified both the NfeD protein YuaF and the flotillin homologue YuaG (FloT). Notably, overexpression of yuaFG in the rocG null mutant prevents the growth arrest induced by CEF. The YuaG flotillin has been shown previously to localize to defined lipid microdomains, and we show here that the yuaFGI operon contributes to a σ(W)-dependent decrease in membrane fluidity. We conclude that glutamate dehydrogenase activity affects the expression of the σ(W) regulon, by pathways that are yet unclear, and thereby influences resistance to CEF and other antibiotics.

  3. Improved performance of Pseudomonas putida in a bioelectrochemical system through overexpression of periplasmic glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiqin; Lai, Bin; Plan, Manuel R; Hodson, Mark P; Lestari, Endah A; Song, Hao; Krömer, Jens O

    2018-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that a bioelectrochemical system (BES) with a redox mediator allowed Pseudomonas putida to perform anoxic metabolism, converting sugar to sugar acids with high yield. However, the low productivity currently limits the application of this technology. To improve productivity, the strain was optimized through improved expression of glucose dehydrogenase (GCD) and gluconate dehydrogenase (GAD). In addition, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed the intrinsic self-regulation of GCD and GAD. Utilizing this self-regulation system, the single overexpression strain (GCD) gave an outstanding performance in the electron transfer rate and 2-ketogluconic acid (2KGA) productivity. The peak anodic current density, specific glucose uptake rate and 2KGA producing rate were 0.12 mA/cm 2 , 0.27 ± 0.02 mmol/g CDW /hr and 0.25 ± 0.02 mmol/g CDW /hr, which were 327%, 477%, and 644% of the values of wild-type P. putida KT2440, respectively. This work demonstrates that expression of periplasmic dehydrogenases involved in electron transfer can significantly improve productivity in the BES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Halavaty, Andrei S; Rich, Rebecca L; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R; Myszka, David G; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2015-05-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD(+), NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.

  5. Prospects for robust biocatalysis: engineering of novel specificity in a halophilic amino acid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Nayla; Engel, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Heat- and solvent-tolerant enzymes from halophiles, potentially important industrially, offer a robust framework for protein engineering, but few solved halophilic structures exist to guide this. Homology modelling has guided mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Halobacterium salinarum to emulate conversion of a mesophilic GDH to a methionine dehydrogenase. Replacement of K89, A163 and S367 by leucine, glycine and alanine converted halophilic GDH into a dehydrogenase accepting L-methionine, L-norleucine and L-norvaline as substrates. Over-expression in the halophilic expression host Haloferax volcanii and three-step purification gave ~98 % pure protein exhibiting maximum activity at pH 10. This enzyme also showed enhanced thermostability and organic solvent tolerance even at 70 °C, offering a biocatalyst resistant to harsh industrial environments. To our knowledge, this is the first reported amino acid specificity change engineered in a halophilic enzyme, encouraging use of mesophilic models to guide engineering of novel halophilic biocatalysts for industrial application. Calibrated gel filtration experiments show that both the mutant and the wild-type enzyme are stable hexamers.

  6. Amine dehydrogenases: efficient biocatalysts for the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Francesco G.

    2017-01-01

    Amines constitute the major targets for the production of a plethora of chemical compounds that have applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and bulk chemical industries. However, the asymmetric synthesis of α-chiral amines with elevated catalytic efficiency and atom economy is still a very challenging synthetic problem. Here, we investigated the biocatalytic reductive amination of carbonyl compounds employing a rising class of enzymes for amine synthesis: amine dehydrogenases (AmDHs). The three AmDHs from this study – operating in tandem with a formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (Cb-FDH) for the recycling of the nicotinamide coenzyme – performed the efficient amination of a range of diverse aromatic and aliphatic ketones and aldehydes with up to quantitative conversion and elevated turnover numbers (TONs). Moreover, the reductive amination of prochiral ketones proceeded with perfect stereoselectivity, always affording the (R)-configured amines with more than 99% enantiomeric excess. The most suitable amine dehydrogenase, the optimised catalyst loading and the required reaction time were determined for each substrate. The biocatalytic reductive amination with this dual-enzyme system (AmDH–Cb-FDH) possesses elevated atom efficiency as it utilizes the ammonium formate buffer as the source of both nitrogen and reducing equivalents. Inorganic carbonate is the sole by-product. PMID:28663713

  7. Amine dehydrogenases: efficient biocatalysts for the reductive amination of carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tanja; Böhmer, Wesley; Mutti, Francesco G

    2017-01-21

    Amines constitute the major targets for the production of a plethora of chemical compounds that have applications in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and bulk chemical industries. However, the asymmetric synthesis of α-chiral amines with elevated catalytic efficiency and atom economy is still a very challenging synthetic problem. Here, we investigated the biocatalytic reductive amination of carbonyl compounds employing a rising class of enzymes for amine synthesis: amine dehydrogenases (AmDHs). The three AmDHs from this study - operating in tandem with a formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (Cb-FDH) for the recycling of the nicotinamide coenzyme - performed the efficient amination of a range of diverse aromatic and aliphatic ketones and aldehydes with up to quantitative conversion and elevated turnover numbers (TONs). Moreover, the reductive amination of prochiral ketones proceeded with perfect stereoselectivity, always affording the ( R )-configured amines with more than 99% enantiomeric excess. The most suitable amine dehydrogenase, the optimised catalyst loading and the required reaction time were determined for each substrate. The biocatalytic reductive amination with this dual-enzyme system (AmDH-Cb-FDH) possesses elevated atom efficiency as it utilizes the ammonium formate buffer as the source of both nitrogen and reducing equivalents. Inorganic carbonate is the sole by-product.

  8. Structural characterization of the thermostable Bradyrhizobium japonicumD-sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fredslund, Folmer; Otten, Harm; Gemperlein, Sabrina; Poulsen, Jens Christian N; Carius, Yvonne; Kohring, Gert Wieland; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2016-11-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum sorbitol dehydrogenase is NADH-dependent and is active at elevated temperatures. The best substrate is D-glucitol (a synonym for D-sorbitol), although L-glucitol is also accepted, giving it particular potential in industrial applications. Crystallization led to a hexagonal crystal form, with crystals diffracting to 2.9 Å resolution. In attempts to phase the data, a molecular-replacement solution based upon PDB entry 4nbu (33% identical in sequence to the target) was found. The solution contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit, but a tetramer similar to that found in other short-chain dehydrogenases, including the search model, could be reconstructed by applying crystallographic symmetry operations. The active site contains electron density consistent with D-glucitol and phosphate, but there was not clear evidence for the binding of NADH. In a search for the features that determine the thermostability of the enzyme, the T m for the orthologue from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, for which the structure was already known, was also determined, and this enzyme proved to be considerably less thermostable. A continuous β-sheet is formed between two monomers in the tetramer of the B. japonicum enzyme, a feature not generally shared by short-chain dehydrogenases, and which may contribute to thermostability, as may an increased Pro/Gly ratio.

  9. Androgen-estrogen synergy in rat levator ani muscle Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of castration and hormone administration on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat levator ani muscle were studied. Castration caused a decrease in enzyme activity and in wet weight of the levator ani muscle. Chronic administration of testosterone propionate increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle of castrated rats; the magnitude of the recovery of enzyme activity was related to the length of time of exposure to testosterone propionate after castration as well as to the length of time the animals were castrated. The longer the period of castration before exposure to testosterone propionate, the greater the effect. This result may be related to previously reported castration-mediated increases in androgen receptor binding in muscle. Dihydrotestosterone was less effective than testosterone propionate in enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle from castrated rats; estradiol-17-beta alone was ineffective. Combined treatment with estradiol-17-beta and dihydrotestosterone, however, was as effective as testosterone alone. Thus, androgens and estrogens may exert synergistic effects on levator ani muscle.

  10. XoxF Is Required for Expression of Methanol Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Palmer, Alexander D.; Rountree, Austin M.; Good, Nathan M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative methylotrophic bacteria, the first step in methylotrophic growth is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in the periplasm by methanol dehydrogenase. In most organisms studied to date, this enzyme consists of the MxaF and MxaI proteins, which make up the large and small subunits of this heterotetrameric enzyme. The Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 genome contains two homologs of MxaF, XoxF1 and XoxF2, which are ∼50% identical to MxaF and ∼90% identical to each other. It was previously reported that xoxF is not required for methanol growth in M. extorquens AM1, but here we show that when both xoxF homologs are absent, strains are unable to grow in methanol medium and lack methanol dehydrogenase activity. We demonstrate that these defects result from the loss of gene expression from the mxa promoter and suggest that XoxF is part of a complex regulatory cascade involving the 2-component systems MxcQE and MxbDM, which are required for the expression of the methanol dehydrogenase genes. PMID:21873495

  11. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL ( SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADmore » +) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD +, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Finally, five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.« less

  12. Function and Regulation of the Formate Dehydrogenase Genes of the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Haydock, Andrew K.; Leigh, John A.

    2003-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a mesophilic species of Archaea capable of producing methane from two substrates: hydrogen plus carbon dioxide and formate. To study the latter, we identified the formate dehydrogenase genes of M. maripaludis and found that the genome contains two gene clusters important for formate utilization. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the two formate dehydrogenase gene sets arose from duplication events within the methanococcal lineage. The first gene cluster encodes homologs of formate dehydrogenase α (FdhA) and β (FdhB) subunits and a putative formate transporter (FdhC) as well as a carbonic anhydrase analog. The second gene cluster encodes only FdhA and FdhB homologs. Mutants lacking either fdhA gene exhibited a partial growth defect on formate, whereas a double mutant was completely unable to grow on formate as a sole methanogenic substrate. Investigation of fdh gene expression revealed that transcription of both gene clusters is controlled by the presence of H2 and not by the presence of formate. PMID:12670979

  13. Tungsten and Molybdenum Regulation of Formate Dehydrogenase Expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough ▿

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sofia M.; Pimentel, Catarina; Valente, Filipa M. A.; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pereira, Inês A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Formate is an important energy substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in natural environments, and both molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases have been reported in these organisms. In this work, we studied the effect of both metals on the levels of the three formate dehydrogenases encoded in the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, with lactate, formate, or hydrogen as electron donors. Using Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, activity-stained gels, and protein purification, we show that a metal-dependent regulatory mechanism is present, resulting in the dimeric FdhAB protein being the main enzyme present in cells grown in the presence of tungsten and the trimeric FdhABC3 protein being the main enzyme in cells grown in the presence of molybdenum. The putatively membrane-associated formate dehydrogenase is detected only at low levels after growth with tungsten. Purification of the three enzymes and metal analysis shows that FdhABC3 specifically incorporates Mo, whereas FdhAB can incorporate both metals. The FdhAB enzyme has a much higher catalytic efficiency than the other two. Since sulfate reducers are likely to experience high sulfide concentrations that may result in low Mo bioavailability, the ability to use W is likely to constitute a selective advantage. PMID:21498650

  14. A bacterial aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase critical for the efficient catabolism of syringaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Naofumi; Goto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Kasai, Daisuke; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

    2017-03-15

    Vanillin and syringaldehyde obtained from lignin are essential intermediates for the production of basic chemicals using microbial cell factories. However, in contrast to vanillin, the microbial conversion of syringaldehyde is poorly understood. Here, we identified an aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene responsible for syringaldehyde catabolism from 20 putative ALDH genes of Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6. All these genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and nine gene products, including previously characterized BzaA, BzaB, and vanillin dehydrogenase (LigV), exhibited oxidation activities for syringaldehyde to produce syringate. Among these genes, SLG_28320 (desV) and ligV were most highly and constitutively transcribed in the SYK-6 cells. Disruption of desV in SYK-6 resulted in a significant reduction in growth on syringaldehyde and in syringaldehyde oxidation activity. Furthermore, a desV ligV double mutant almost completely lost its ability to grow on syringaldehyde. Purified DesV showed similar k cat /K m values for syringaldehyde (2100 s -1 ·mM -1 ) and vanillin (1700 s -1 ·mM -1 ), whereas LigV substantially preferred vanillin (8800 s -1 ·mM -1 ) over syringaldehyde (1.4 s -1 ·mM -1 ). These results clearly demonstrate that desV plays a major role in syringaldehyde catabolism. Phylogenetic analyses showed that DesV-like ALDHs formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster separated from the vanillin dehydrogenase cluster.

  15. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    DOE PAGES

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; ...

    2015-04-25

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL ( SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADmore » +) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD +, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Finally, five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.« less

  16. The functional readthrough extension of malate dehydrogenase reveals a modification of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Hofhuis, Julia; Schueren, Fabian; Nötzel, Christopher; Lingner, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta; Jahn, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Translational readthrough gives rise to C-terminally extended proteins, thereby providing the cell with new protein isoforms. These may have different properties from the parental proteins if the extensions contain functional domains. While for most genes amino acid incorporation at the stop codon is far lower than 0.1%, about 4% of malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) is physiologically extended by translational readthrough and the actual ratio of MDH1x (extended protein) to ‘normal' MDH1 is dependent on the cell type. In human cells, arginine and tryptophan are co-encoded by the MDH1x UGA stop codon. Readthrough is controlled by the 7-nucleotide high-readthrough stop codon context without contribution of the subsequent 50 nucleotides encoding the extension. All vertebrate MDH1x is directed to peroxisomes via a hidden peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) in the readthrough extension, which is more highly conserved than the extension of lactate dehydrogenase B. The hidden PTS of non-mammalian MDH1x evolved to be more efficient than the PTS of mammalian MDH1x. These results provide insight into the genetic and functional co-evolution of these dually localized dehydrogenases. PMID:27881739

  17. A Novel Cofactor-binding Mode in Bacterial IMP Dehydrogenases Explains Inhibitor Selectivity*

    PubMed Central

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Gu, Minyi; Zhang, Minjia; Mandapati, Kavitha; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The steadily rising frequency of emerging diseases and antibiotic resistance creates an urgent need for new drugs and targets. Inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMP dehydrogenase or IMPDH) is a promising target for the development of new antimicrobial agents. IMPDH catalyzes the oxidation of IMP to XMP with the concomitant reduction of NAD+, which is the pivotal step in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Potent inhibitors of bacterial IMPDHs have been identified that bind in a structurally distinct pocket that is absent in eukaryotic IMPDHs. The physiological role of this pocket was not understood. Here, we report the structures of complexes with different classes of inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens IMPDHs. These structures in combination with inhibition studies provide important insights into the interactions that modulate selectivity and potency. We also present two structures of the Vibrio cholerae IMPDH in complex with IMP/NAD+ and XMP/NAD+. In both structures, the cofactor assumes a dramatically different conformation than reported previously for eukaryotic IMPDHs and other dehydrogenases, with the major change observed for the position of the NAD+ adenosine moiety. More importantly, this new NAD+-binding site involves the same pocket that is utilized by the inhibitors. Thus, the bacterial IMPDH-specific NAD+-binding mode helps to rationalize the conformation adopted by several classes of prokaryotic IMPDH inhibitors. These findings offer a potential strategy for further ligand optimization. PMID:25572472

  18. A novel cofactor-binding mode in bacterial IMP dehydrogenases explains inhibitor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Maltseva, Natalia; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Gu, Minyi; Zhang, Minjia; Mandapati, Kavitha; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-02-27

    The steadily rising frequency of emerging diseases and antibiotic resistance creates an urgent need for new drugs and targets. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMP dehydrogenase or IMPDH) is a promising target for the development of new antimicrobial agents. IMPDH catalyzes the oxidation of IMP to XMP with the concomitant reduction of NAD(+), which is the pivotal step in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Potent inhibitors of bacterial IMPDHs have been identified that bind in a structurally distinct pocket that is absent in eukaryotic IMPDHs. The physiological role of this pocket was not understood. Here, we report the structures of complexes with different classes of inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens IMPDHs. These structures in combination with inhibition studies provide important insights into the interactions that modulate selectivity and potency. We also present two structures of the Vibrio cholerae IMPDH in complex with IMP/NAD(+) and XMP/NAD(+). In both structures, the cofactor assumes a dramatically different conformation than reported previously for eukaryotic IMPDHs and other dehydrogenases, with the major change observed for the position of the NAD(+) adenosine moiety. More importantly, this new NAD(+)-binding site involves the same pocket that is utilized by the inhibitors. Thus, the bacterial IMPDH-specific NAD(+)-binding mode helps to rationalize the conformation adopted by several classes of prokaryotic IMPDH inhibitors. These findings offer a potential strategy for further ligand optimization. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Ischaemic Priapism and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Mechanism of Increased Oxidative Stress?

    PubMed

    Morrison, B F; Thompson, E B; Shah, S D; Wharfe, G H

    2014-07-03

    Ischaemic priapism is a devastating urological condition that has the potential to cause permanent erectile dysfunction. The disorder has been associated with numerous medical conditions and the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents. The aetiology is idiopathic in a number of cases. There are two prior case reports of the association of ischaemic priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We report on a third case of priapism associated with G6PD deficiency and review recently described molecular mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of ischaemic priapism. The case report of a 32-year old Afro-Caribbean male with his first episode of major ischaemic priapism is described. Screening for common causes of ischaemic priapism, including sickle cell disease was negative. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was discovered on evaluation for priapism. Penile aspiration was performed and erectile function was good post treatment.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is a cause for ischaemic priapism and should be a part of the screening process in idiopathic causes of the disorder. Increased oxidative stress occurs in G6PD deficiency and may lead to priapism.

  20. Physiological Regulation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and the Role of 2-Oxoglutarate in Prochlorococcus sp. Strain PCC 9511

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Jesús; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol Alberto; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, to produce 2-oxoglutarate. The incompleteness of the tricarboxylic acids cycle in marine cyanobacteria confers a special importance to isocitrate dehydrogenase in the C/N balance, since 2-oxoglutarate can only be metabolized through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. The physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase was studied in cultures of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511, by measuring enzyme activity and concentration using the NADPH production assay and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme activity showed little changes under nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, or upon addition of the inhibitors DCMU, DBMIB and MSX. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, induced clear increases in the isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and icd gene expression after 24 h, and also in the 2-oxoglutarate concentration. Iron starvation had the most significant effect, inducing a complete loss of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, possibly mediated by a process of oxidative inactivation, while its concentration was unaffected. Our results suggest that isocitrate dehydrogenase responds to changes in the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate and to the redox status of the cells in Prochlorococcus. PMID:25061751

  1. Expression and kinetic properties of a recombinant 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzyme of human liver.

    PubMed

    Deyashiki, Y; Tamada, Y; Miyabe, Y; Nakanishi, M; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1995-08-01

    Human liver cytosol contains multiple forms of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and multiple cDNAs for the enzymes have been cloned from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand the relationship of the multiple enzyme froms to the genes, a cDNA, which has been reported to code for an isoenzyme of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme showed structural and functional properties almost identical to those of the isoenzyme purified from human liver. In addition, the recombinant isoenzyme efficiently reduced 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5 beta-dihydrocortisone, the known substrates of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and chlordecone reductase previously purified, which suggests that these human liver enzymes are identical. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic data for NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation by the recombinant isoenzyme were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first. Phenolphthalein inhibited this isoenzyme much more potently than it did the other human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, and was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 20 nM) that bound to the enzyme-NADP+ complex.

  2. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Pseudomonas testosteroni gene encoding 3-oxosteroid delta 1-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Plesiat, P; Grandguillot, M; Harayama, S; Vragar, S; Michel-Briand, Y

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas testosteroni ATCC 17410 is able to grow on testosterone. This strain was mutagenized by Tn5, and 41 mutants defective in the utilization of testosterone were isolated. One of them, called mutant 06, expressed 3-oxosteroid delta 1- and 3-oxosteroid delta 4-5 alpha-dehydrogenases only at low levels. The DNA region around the Tn5 insertion in mutant 06 was cloned into pUC19, and the 1-kbp EcoRI-BamHI segment neighbor to the Tn5 insertion was used to probe DNA from the wild-type strain. The probe hybridized to a 7.8-kbp SalI fragment. Plasmid pTES5, which is a pUC19 derivative containing this 7.8-kbp SalI fragment, was isolated after the screening by the 1-kbp EcoRI-BamHI probe. This plasmid expressed delta 1-dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli cells. The 2.2-kbp KpnI-KpnI segment of pTES5 was subcloned into pUC18, and pTEK21 was constructed. In E. coli containing the lacIq plasmid pRG1 and pTEK21, the expression of delta 1-dehydrogenase was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The induced level was about 40 times higher than the induced level in P. testosteroni. Delta 1-Dehydrogenase synthesized in E. coli was localized in the inner membrane fraction. The minicell experiments showed that a 59-kDa polypeptide was synthesized from pTEK21, and this polypeptide was located in the inner membrane fraction. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 2.2-kbp KpnI-KpnI segment of pTEK21 was determined. An open reading frame which encodes a 62.4-kDa polypeptide and which is preceded by a Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence was identified. The first 44 amino acids of the putative product exhibited significant sequence similarity to the N-terminal sequences of lipoamide dehydrogenases. Images FIG. 4 PMID:1657885

  3. Structure and regulation of KGD1, the structural gene for yeast alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Repetto, B; Tzagoloff, A

    1989-06-01

    Nuclear respiratory-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been screened for lesions in the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Strains assigned to complementation group G70 were ascertained to be deficient in enzyme activity due to mutations in the KGD1 gene coding for the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase component of the complex. The KGD1 gene has been cloned by transformation of a representative kgd1 mutant, C225/U1, with a recombinant plasmid library of wild-type yeast nuclear DNA. Transformants containing the gene on a multicopy plasmid had three- to four-times-higher alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity than did wild-type S. cerevisiae. Substitution of the chromosomal copy of KGD1 with a disrupted allele (kgd1::URA3) induced a deficiency in alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The sequence of the cloned region of DNA which complements kgd1 mutants was found to have an open reading frame of 3,042 nucleotides capable of coding for a protein of Mw 114,470. The encoded protein had 38% identical residues with the reported sequence of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Two lines of evidence indicated that transcription of KGD1 is catabolite repressed. Higher steady-state levels of KGD1 mRNA were detected in wild-type yeast grown on the nonrepressible sugar galactose than in yeast grown on high glucose. Regulation of KGD1 was also studied by fusing different 5'-flanking regions of KGD1 to the lacZ gene of E. coli and measuring the expression of beta-galactosidase in yeast. Transformants harboring a fusion of 693 nucleotides of the 5'-flanking sequence expressed 10 times more beta-galactosidase activity when grown under derepressed conditions. The response to the carbon source was reduced dramatically when the same lacZ fusion was present in a hap2 or hap3 mutant. The promoter element(s) responsible for the regulated expression of KGD1 has been mapped to the -354 to -143 region. This region contained several

  4. Identification of the 2-hydroxyglutarate and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenases as alternative electron donors linking lysine catabolism to the electron transport chain of Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wagner L; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Larson, Tony R; Tohge, Takayuki; Krahnert, Ina; Witt, Sandra; Obata, Toshihiro; Schauer, Nicolas; Graham, Ian A; Leaver, Christopher J; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2010-05-01

    The process of dark-induced senescence in plants is relatively poorly understood, but a functional electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex, which supports respiration during carbon starvation, has recently been identified. Here, we studied the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in the expression of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase to extended darkness and other environmental stresses. Evaluations of the mutant phenotypes following carbon starvation induced by extended darkness identify similarities to those exhibited by mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex. Metabolic profiling and isotope tracer experimentation revealed that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in degradation of the branched-chain amino acids, phytol, and Lys, while 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is involved exclusively in Lys degradation. These results suggest that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the more critical for alternative respiration and that a series of enzymes, including 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, plays a role in Lys degradation. Both physiological and metabolic phenotypes of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase mutants were not as severe as those observed for mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex, indicating some functional redundancy of the enzymes within the process. Our results aid in the elucidation of the pathway of plant Lys catabolism and demonstrate that both isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase act as electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via an ETF/ETFQO-mediated route.

  5. Comparative evolutionary genomics of the HADH2 gene encoding Aβ-binding alcohol dehydrogenase/17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (ABAD/HSD10)

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Alexandra T; Antunes, Agostinho; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2006-01-01

    Background The Aβ-binding alcohol dehydrogenase/17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (ABAD/HSD10) is an enzyme involved in pivotal metabolic processes and in the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in the Alzheimer's disease. Here we use comparative genomic analyses to study the evolution of the HADH2 gene encoding ABAD/HSD10 across several eukaryotic species. Results Both vertebrate and nematode HADH2 genes showed a six-exon/five-intron organization while those of the insects had a reduced and varied number of exons (two to three). Eutherian mammal HADH2 genes revealed some highly conserved noncoding regions, which may indicate the presence of functional elements, namely in the upstream region about 1 kb of the transcription start site and in the first part of intron 1. These regions were also conserved between Tetraodon and Fugu fishes. We identified a conserved alternative splicing event between human and dog, which have a nine amino acid deletion, causing the removal of the strand βF. This strand is one of the seven strands that compose the core β-sheet of the Rossman fold dinucleotide-binding motif characteristic of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family members. However, the fact that the substrate binding cleft residues are retained and the existence of a shared variant between human and dog suggest that it might be functional. Molecular adaptation analyses across eutherian mammal orthologues revealed the existence of sites under positive selection, some of which being localized in the substrate-binding cleft and in the insertion 1 region on loop D (an important region for the Aβ-binding to the enzyme). Interestingly, a higher than expected number of nonsynonymous substitutions were observed between human/chimpanzee and orangutan, with six out of the seven amino acid replacements being under molecular adaptation (including three in loop D and one in the substrate binding loop). Conclusion Our study revealed that HADH2 genes maintained a

  6. Estrogen and androgen-converting enzymes 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and their involvement in cancer: with a special focus on 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 2, and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Erik; Stål, Olle; Jansson, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones such as estrogens and androgens are involved in the development and differentiation of the breast tissue. The activity and concentration of sex steroids is determined by the availability from the circulation, and on local conversion. This conversion is primarily mediated by aromatase, steroid sulfatase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. In postmenopausal women, this is the primary source of estrogens in the breast. Up to 70-80% of all breast cancers express the estrogen receptor-α, responsible for promoting the growth of the tissue. Further, 60-80% express the androgen receptor, which has been shown to have tissue protective effects in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, and a more ambiguous response in estrogen receptor negative breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the function and clinical relevance in cancer for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1, which facilitates the reduction of estrone to estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstendiol and dihydrotestosterone to 3α- and 3β-diol as well as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 2 which mediates the oxidation of estradiol to estrone, testosterone to androstenedione and androstendiol to dehydroepiandrosterone. The expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 and 2 alone and in combination has been shown to predict patient outcome, and inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 has been proposed to be a prime candidate for inhibition in patients who develop aromatase inhibitor resistance or in combination with aromatase inhibitors as a first line treatment. Here we review the status of inhibitors against 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1. In addition, we review the involvement of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 4, 5, 7, and 14 in breast cancer. PMID:28430630

  7. Estrogen and androgen-converting enzymes 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and their involvement in cancer: with a special focus on 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 2, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hilborn, Erik; Stål, Olle; Jansson, Agneta

    2017-05-02

    Sex steroid hormones such as estrogens and androgens are involved in the development and differentiation of the breast tissue. The activity and concentration of sex steroids is determined by the availability from the circulation, and on local conversion. This conversion is primarily mediated by aromatase, steroid sulfatase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. In postmenopausal women, this is the primary source of estrogens in the breast. Up to 70-80% of all breast cancers express the estrogen receptor-α, responsible for promoting the growth of the tissue. Further, 60-80% express the androgen receptor, which has been shown to have tissue protective effects in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, and a more ambiguous response in estrogen receptor negative breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the function and clinical relevance in cancer for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1, which facilitates the reduction of estrone to estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone to androstendiol and dihydrotestosterone to 3α- and 3β-diol as well as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 2 which mediates the oxidation of estradiol to estrone, testosterone to androstenedione and androstendiol to dehydroepiandrosterone. The expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 and 2 alone and in combination has been shown to predict patient outcome, and inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1 has been proposed to be a prime candidate for inhibition in patients who develop aromatase inhibitor resistance or in combination with aromatase inhibitors as a first line treatment. Here we review the status of inhibitors against 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 1. In addition, we review the involvement of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 4, 5, 7, and 14 in breast cancer.

  8. A novel alcohol dehydrogenase biosensor based on solid-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence by assembling dehydrogenase to Ru(bpy)(3)2+-Au nanoparticles aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; Xu, Zhiai; Sun, Xuping; Dong, Shaojun

    2007-01-15

    Based on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), a novel method for fabrication of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) biosensor by self-assembling ADH to Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-AuNPs aggregates (Ru-AuNPs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface has been developed. Positively charged Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) could be immobilized stably on the electrode surface with negatively charged AuNPs in the form of aggregate via electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, AuNPs are favourable candidates for the immobilization of enzymes because amine groups and cysteine residues in the enzymes are known to bind strongly with AuNPs. Moreover, AuNPs can act as tiny conduction centers to facilitate the transfer of electrons. Such biosensor combined enzymatic selectivity with the sensitivity of ECL detection for quantification of enzyme substrate, and it displayed wide linear range, high sensitivity and good stability.

  9. 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase is a more significant source of O2(·-)/H2O2 than pyruvate dehydrogenase in cardiac and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Gardiner, Danielle; O'Brien, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh) are vital for Krebs cycle metabolism and sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). O2(·-)/H2O2 formation by Pdh and Ogdh from porcine heart were compared when operating under forward or reverse electron transfer conditions. Comparisons were also conducted with liver and cardiac mitochondria. During reverse electron transfer (RET) from NADH, purified Ogdh generated ~3-3.5× more O2(·-)/H2O2 in comparison to Pdh when metabolizing 0.5-10µM NADH. Under forward electron transfer (FET) conditions Ogdh generated ~2-4× more O2(·-)/H2O2 than Pdh. In both liver and cardiac mitochondria, Ogdh displayed significantly higher rates of ROS formation when compared to Pdh. Ogdh was also a significant source of ROS in liver mitochondria metabolizing 50µM and 500µM pyruvate or succinate. Finally, we also observed that DTT directly stimulated O2(·-)/H2O2 formation by purified Pdh and Ogdh and in cardiac or liver mitochondria in the absence of substrates and cofactors. Taken together, Ogdh is a more potent source of ROS than Pdh in liver and cardiac tissue. Ogdh is also an important ROS generator regardless of whether pyruvate or succinate serve as the sole source of carbon. Our observations provide insight into the ROS generating capacity of either complex in cardiac and liver tissue. The evidence presented herein also indicates DTT, a reductant that is routinely added to biological samples, should be avoided when assessing mitochondrial O2(·-)/H2O2 production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Pyruvate and α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complexes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catalyze Pyocyanin and Phenazine-1-carboxylic Acid Reduction via the Subunit Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Nathaniel R.; Wang, Benjamin X.; Hoy, Julie A.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. Although prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P. aeruginosa contains multiple enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the endogenous phenazines pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. We used chemical inhibitors to target general enzyme classes and found that an inhibitor of flavoproteins and heme-containing proteins, diphenyleneiodonium, effectively inhibited phenazine reduction in vitro, suggesting that most phenazine reduction derives from these enzymes. Using natively purified proteins, we demonstrate that the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes directly catalyze phenazine reduction with pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate as electron donors. Both complexes transfer electrons to phenazines through the common subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein encoded by the gene lpdG. Although we were unable to co-crystallize LpdG with an endogenous phenazine, we report its X-ray crystal structure in the apo-form (refined to 1.35 Å), bound to NAD+ (1.45 Å), and bound to NADH (1.79 Å). In contrast to the notion that phenazines support intracellular redox homeostasis by oxidizing NADH, our work suggests that phenazines may substitute for NAD+ in LpdG and other enzymes, achieving the same end by a different mechanism. PMID:28174304

  11. Novel characteristics of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activities in maize: non-involvement of alcohol dehydrogenases in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kärkönen, Anna; Fry, Stephen C

    2006-03-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UDPGDH) activity was detected in extracts of maize cell-cultures and developing leaves. The reaction product was confirmed as UDP-glucuronate. Leaf extracts from null mutants defective in one or both of the ethanol dehydrogenase genes, ADH1 and ADH2, had similar UDPGDH activities to wild-type, showing that UDPGDH activity is not primarily due to ADH proteins. The mutants showed no defect in their wall matrix pentose:galactose ratios, or matrix:cellulose ratio, showing that ADHs were not required for normal wall biosynthesis. The majority of maize leaf UDPGDH activity had K (m) (for UDP-glucose) 0.5-1.0 mM; there was also a minor activity with an unusually high K (m) of >50 mM. In extracts of cultured cells, kinetic data indicated at least three UDPGDHs, with K (m) values (for UDP-glucose) of roughly 0.027, 2.8 and >50 mM (designated enzymes E(L), E(M) and E(H) respectively). E(M) was the single major contributor to extractable UDPGDH activity when assayed at 0.6-9.0 mM UDP-Glc. Most studies, in other plant species, had reported only E(L)-like isoforms. Ethanol (100 mM) partially inhibited UDPGDH activity assayed at low, but not high, UDP-glucose concentrations, supporting the conclusion that at least E(H) activity is not due to ADH. At 30 microM UDP-glucose, 20-150 microM UDP-xylose inhibited UDPGDH activity, whereas 5-15 microM UDP-xylose promoted it. In conclusion, several very different UDPGDH isoenzymes contribute to UDP-glucuronate and hence wall matrix biosynthesis in maize, but ADHs are not responsible for these activities.

  12. Expression of catalase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase in rot grains upon fungicide use on maize hybrids grown at different spacings.

    PubMed

    Kluge, E R; Mendes, M C; Faria, M V; Santos, H O; Santos, L A; Sandini, I E

    2017-04-20

    In this study, we evaluated the fungicide effect on the incidence of rot grains and expression of catalase (CAT), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzymes in commercial maize hybrids grown with conventional and reduced spacing in Guarapuava, PR, Brazil. The experiment was designed in random blocks with a 3 × 8-factorial scheme, totaling 24 treatments. The first factor constituted three levels, the first with foliar fungicide application [150.0 g/L trifloxystrobin (15.0%, w/v) + 175.0 g/L prothioconazole (17.5%, w/v)] at a dose of 0.4 L/ha at V8-stage eight expanded leaves and the second with an application of 0.5 L/ha at VT-tasseling and check (no fungicide application) stage. The second factor comprised eight maize hybrids that were divided into two groups, complex (AG 9045PRO, AG 8041PRO, DKB245PRO2, and 2B707PW) and susceptible (P 32R48H, DKB390PRO, P 30F53H, and P 30R50H), according to their reaction to the causative fungus, totaling 72 plots at each site in the crop of 2013/2014. The percentage of rot grains and the expression of CAT, ADH, and MDH were evaluated for each hybrid. The percentage of rot grains was influenced by the hybrid and fungicide used. The (trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole) reduced the incidence of rot grains, with relatively higher reduction in the hybrids considered susceptible. The higher expression of CAT enzyme was related to the higher incidence of rot grains because of grain deterioration, depending on the hybrids evaluated. A higher expression of ADH and MDH enzymes was observed in the maize hybrids belonging to the group considered tolerant.

  13. The Pyruvate and α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complexes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catalyze Pyocyanin and Phenazine-1-carboxylic Acid Reduction via the Subunit Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Nathaniel R; Wang, Benjamin X; Hoy, Julie A; Newman, Dianne K

    2017-03-31

    Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. Although prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P. aeruginosa contains multiple enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the endogenous phenazines pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. We used chemical inhibitors to target general enzyme classes and found that an inhibitor of flavoproteins and heme-containing proteins, diphenyleneiodonium, effectively inhibited phenazine reduction in vitro , suggesting that most phenazine reduction derives from these enzymes. Using natively purified proteins, we demonstrate that the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes directly catalyze phenazine reduction with pyruvate or α-ketoglutarate as electron donors. Both complexes transfer electrons to phenazines through the common subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein encoded by the gene lpdG Although we were unable to co-crystallize LpdG with an endogenous phenazine, we report its X-ray crystal structure in the apo-form (refined to 1.35 Å), bound to NAD + (1.45 Å), and bound to NADH (1.79 Å). In contrast to the notion that phenazines support intracellular redox homeostasis by oxidizing NADH, our work suggests that phenazines may substitute for NAD + in LpdG and other enzymes, achieving the same end by a different mechanism. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in branched-chain membrane fatty acid levels and associated functions in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineet K; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Ring, Robert P; Singh, Saumya; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2018-04-01

    Membrane fluidity to a large extent is governed by the presence of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs). Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BKD) is the key enzyme in BCFA synthesis. A Staphylococcus aureus BKD-deficient strain still produced substantial levels of BCFAs. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) with structural similarity to BKD has been speculated to contribute to BCFAs in S. aureus. This study was carried out using BKD-, PDH- and BKD : PDH-deficient derivatives of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain JE2. Differences in growth kinetics were evaluated spectrophotometrically, membrane BCFAs using gas chromatography and membrane fluidity by fluorescence polarization. Carotenoid levels were estimated by measuring A465 of methanol extracts from 48 h cultures. MIC values were determined by broth microdilution.Results/Key findings. BCFAs made up 50 % of membrane fatty acids in wild-type but only 31 % in the BKD-deficient mutant. BCFA level was ~80 % in the PDH-deficient strain and 38 % in the BKD : PDH-deficient strain. BKD-deficient mutant showed decreased membrane fluidity, the PDH-deficient mutant showed increased membrane fluidity. The BKD- and PDH-deficient strains grew slower and the BKD : PDH-deficient strain grew slowest at 37 °C. However at 20 °C, the BKD- and BKD : PDH-deficient strains grew only a little followed by autolysis of these cells. The BKD-deficient strain produced higher levels of staphyloxanthin. The PDH-deficient and BKD : PDH-deficient strains produced very little staphyloxanthin. The BKD-deficient strain showed increased susceptibility to daptomycin. The BCFA composition of the cell membrane in S. aureus seems to significantly impact cell growth, membrane fluidity and resistance to daptomycin.

  15. Mycophenolic acid exposure and complement fraction C3 influence inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mino, Yasuaki; Naito, Takafumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-07-01

    Background Mycophenolate mofetil has recently been reported to be effective against systemic lupus erythematosus. The influence of the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid, the active form of mycophenolate mofetil and the major inactive mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide on the activity of the target enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, is expected to be revealed. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Methods Fifty systemic lupus erythematosus patients in remission maintenance phase (29 received mycophenolate mofetil [MMF+] and 21 did not [MMF-]) were enrolled. Median and interquartile range of dose of mycophenolate mofetil were 1500 and 1000-1500 mg/day, respectively. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the dependence between inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity and 25 predictor values including predose plasma concentrations of free mycophenolic acid and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide. Results Median and interquartile range of predose total plasma concentrations of mycophenolic acid and mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide were 2.73 and 1.43-5.73 and 25.5 and 13.1-54.7  µg/mL, respectively. Predose inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in MMF+ than MMF- patients (median 38.3 and 20.6 nmoL xanthosine 5'-monophosphate/g haemoglobin/h, P<0.01). The plasma concentration of free mycophenolic acid phenolic glucuronide, complement fraction C3 and body weight were significant predictors accounting for interindividual variability in the inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity (adjusted R 2  = 0.52, P < 0.01) in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions Predose inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase

  16. Comparison of the effects of Ca2+, adenine nucleotides and pH on the kinetic properties of mitochondrial NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, B J; Rigoulet, M; Denton, R M

    1994-01-01

    The regulatory properties of NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in extracts of yeast and rat heart mitochondria were studied under identical conditions. Yeast NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase exhibits a low K0.5 for isocitrate and is activated by AMP and ADP, but is insensitive to ATP and Ca2+. In contrast, the rat heart NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase was insensitive to AMP, but was activated by ADP and by Ca2+ in the presence of ADP or ATP. Both yeast and rat heart oxoglutarate dehydrogenase were stimulated by ADP, but only the heart enzyme was activated by Ca2+. All the enzymes studied were activated by decreases in pH, but to differing extents. The effects of Ca2+, adenine nucleotides and pH were through K0.5 for isocitrate or 2-oxoglutarate. These observations are discussed with reference to the deduced amino acid sequences of the constituent subunits of the enzymes, where they are available. PMID:7980405

  17. Biochemical characterization of an L-tryptophan dehydrogenase from the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Ryutaro; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2014-06-10

    An NAD(+)-dependent l-tryptophan dehydrogenase from Nostoc punctiforme NIES-2108 (NpTrpDH) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant NpTrpDH with a C-terminal His6-tag was purified to homogeneity using a Ni-NTA agarose column, and was found to be a homodimer with a molecular mass of 76.1kDa. The enzyme required NAD(+) and NADH as cofactors for oxidative deamination and reductive amination, respectively, but not NADP(+) or NADPH. l-Trp was the preferred substrate for deamination, though l-Phe was deaminated at a much lower rate. The enzyme exclusively aminated 3-indolepyruvate; phenylpyruvate was inert. The pH optima for the deamination of l-Trp and amination of 3-indolpyruvate were 11.0 and 7.5, respectively. For deamination of l-Trp, maximum enzymatic activity was observed at 45°C. NpTrpDH retained more than 80% of its activity after incubation for 30min at pHs ranging from 5.0 to 11.5 or incubation for 10min at temperatures up to 40°C. Unlike l-Trp dehydrogenases from higher plants, NpTrpDH activity was not activated by metal ions. Typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed for NAD(+) and l-Trp for oxidative deamination, but with reductive amination there was marked substrate inhibition by 3-indolepyruvate. NMR analysis of the hydrogen transfer from the C4 position of the nicotinamide moiety of NADH showed that NpTrpDH has a pro-S (B-type) stereospecificity similar to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenase family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification, properties and immunological relationship of L (+)-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Gordon, G L; Doelle, H W

    1976-08-16

    The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-activated L-lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 has been purified to homogenity by including affinity chromatography (cibacronblue-Sephadex-G-200) and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into the purification procedures. The enzyme has an Mr of 132000-135000 with a subunit Mr of 34000. The pH optimum was found to be 5.4 insodium acetate buffer. Tris/maleate and citrate/phosphate buffers inhibited enzyme activity at this pH. The enzyme was completely inactivated by a temperature increase from 60 degrees C to 70 degrees C. Pyruvate saturation curves were sigmoidal in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. In the presence of 20 muM fructose 1,6-bisphosphate a Km of 1.0 mM for pyruvate was obtained, whereas fructose 1,6-bisphosphate had no effect on the Km of 0.01 mM for NADH. The use of pyruvate analogues revealed two types of pyruvate binding sites, a catalytic and an effector site. The enzyme from L. casei appears to be subject to strict metabolic control, since ADP, ATP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate are strong inhibitors. Immunodiffusion experiments with a rabbit antiserum to L. casei lactate dehydrogenase revealed that L. casei ATCC 393 L (+)-lactate dehydrogenase is probably not immunologically related to group D and group N streptococci. Of 24 lactic acid bacterial strains tested only 5 strains did cross-react: L. casei ATCC 393 = L. casei var. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 - L. casei var. alactosus NCDO 680 greater than L. casei UQM 95 greater than L. plantarum ATCC 14917.

  19. UVB induces epidermal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tiganescu, Ana; Hupe, Melanie; Jiang, Yan J; Celli, Anna; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Mauro, Theodora M; Bikle, Daniel D; Elias, Peter M; Holleran, Walter M

    2015-05-01

    Detrimental consequences of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in skin include photoageing, immunosuppression and photocarcinogenesis, processes also significantly regulated by local glucocorticoid (GC) availability. In man, the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) generates the active GC cortisol from cortisone (or corticosterone from 11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents). 11β-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity requires the cofactor NADPH, generated by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. We previously demonstrated increased 11β-HSD1 levels in skin obtained from photoexposed versus photoprotected anatomical regions. However, the direct effect of UVR on 11β-HSD1 expression remains to be elucidated. To investigate the cutaneous regulation of 11β-HSD1 following UVR in vivo, the dorsal skin of female SKH1 mice was irradiated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mJ/cm(2) UVB. Measurement of transepidermal water loss, 11β-HSD1 activity, mRNA/protein expression and histological studies was taken at 1, 3 and 7 days postexposure. 11β-HSD1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression peaked 1 day postexposure to 400 mJ/cm(2) UVB before subsequently declining (days 3 and 7). Corresponding increases in 11β-HSD1 protein and enzyme activity were observed 3 days postexposure coinciding with reduced GC receptor mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence studies revealed 11β-HSD1 localization to hyperproliferative epidermal keratinocytes in UVB-exposed skin. 11β-HSD1 expression and activity were also induced by 200 and 100 (but not 50) mJ/cm(2) UVB and correlated with increased transepidermal water loss (indicative of barrier disruption). UVB-induced 11β-HSD1 activation represents a novel mechanism that may contribute to the regulation of cutaneous responses to UVR exposure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Haloacetic Acid Water Disinfection Byproducts Affect Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity and Disrupt Cellular Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2018-02-06

    The disinfection of drinking water has been a major public health achievement. However, haloacetic acids (HAAs), generated as byproducts of water disinfection, are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. Previous studies of monoHAA-induced genotoxicity and cell stress demonstrated that the toxicity was due to inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), leading to disruption of cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. DiHAAs and triHAAs are also produced during water disinfection, and whether they share mechanisms of action with monoHAAs is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of mono-, di-, and tri-HAAs on cellular GAPDH enzyme kinetics, cellular ATP levels, and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity. Here, treatments conducted in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed differences among mono-, di-, and triHAAs in their molecular targets. The monoHAAs, iodoacetic acid and bromoacetic acid, were the strongest inhibitors of GAPDH and greatly reduced cellular ATP levels. Chloroacetic acid, diHAAs, and triHAAs were weaker inhibitors of GAPDH and some increased the levels of cellular ATP. HAAs also affected PDC activity, with most HAAs activating PDC. The primary finding of this work is that mono- versus multi-HAAs address different molecular targets, and the results are generally consistent with a model in which monoHAAs activate the PDC through GAPDH inhibition-mediated disruption in cellular metabolites, including altering ATP-to-ADP and NADH-to-NAD ratios. The monoHAA-mediated reduction in cellular metabolites results in accelerated PDC activity by way of metabolite-ratio-dependent PDC regulation. DiHAAs and triHAAs are weaker inhibitors of GAPDH, but many also increase cellular ATP levels, and we suggest that they increase PDC activity by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

  1. Methionine-141 directly influences the binding of 4-methylpyrazole in human sigma sigma alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, P. T.; Hurley, T. D.

    1999-01-01

    Pyrazole and its 4-alkyl substituted derivatives are potent inhibitors for many alcohol dehydrogenases. However, the human sigma sigma isoenzyme exhibits a 580-fold lower affinity for 4-methylpyrazole than does the human beta1beta1 isoenzyme, with which it shares 69% sequence identity. In this study, structural and kinetic studies were utilized in an effort to identify key structural features that affect the binding of 4-methylpyrazole in human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes. We have extended the resolution of the human sigma sigma alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzyme to 2.5 A resolution. Comparison of this structure to the human beta1beta1 isoenzyme structure indicated that the side-chain position for Met141 in sigma sigma ADH might interfere with 4-methylpyrazole binding. Mutation of Met141 in sigma sigma ADH to Leu (sigma141L) lowers the Ki for 4-methylpyrazole from 350 to 10 microM, while having a much smaller effect on the Ki for pyrazole. Thus, the mutagenesis results show that the residue at position 141, which lines the substrate-binding pocket at a position close to the methyl group of 4-methylpyrazole, directly affects the binding of the inhibitor. To rule out nonspecific structural changes due to the mutation, the X-ray structure of the sigma141L mutant enzyme was determined to 2.4 A resolution. The three-dimensional structure of the mutant enzyme is identical to the wild-type enzyme, with the exception of the residue at position 141. Thus, the differences in 4-methylpyrazole binding between the mutant and wild-type sigma sigma ADH isoenzymes can be completely ascribed to the local changes in the topology of the substrate binding site, and provides an explanation for the class-specific differences in 4-methylpyrazole binding to the human ADH isoenzymes. PMID:10631979

  2. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20–48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ∼30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/− or DLD+/− littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on “in-house” mitochondrial ATP reserves.—Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID:23475850

  3. Isolation and characterization of full-length putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Nur Athirah Abd; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2013-11-01

    Polygonum minus, locally named as Kesum is an aromatic herb which is high in secondary metabolite content. Alcohol dehydrogenase is an important enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohol and aldehyde with the presence of NAD(P)(H) as co-factor. The main focus of this research is to identify the gene of ADH. The total RNA was extracted from leaves of P. minus which was treated with 150 μM Jasmonic acid. Full-length cDNA sequence of ADH was isolated via rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE). Subsequently, in silico analysis was conducted on the full-length cDNA sequence and PCR was done on genomic DNA to determine the exon and intron organization. Two sequences of ADH, designated as PmADH1 and PmADH2 were successfully isolated. Both sequences have ORF of 801 bp which encode 266 aa residues. Nucleotide sequence comparison of PmADH1 and PmADH2 indicated that both sequences are highly similar at the ORF region but divergent in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR). The amino acid is differ at the 107 residue; PmADH1 contains Gly (G) residue while PmADH2 contains Cys (C) residue. The intron-exon organization pattern of both sequences are also same, with 3 introns and 4 exons. Based on in silico analysis, both sequences contain "classical" short chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases ((c) SDRs) conserved domain. The results suggest that both sequences are the members of short chain alcohol dehydrogenase family.

  4. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production.

  6. A bacterial aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase critical for the efficient catabolism of syringaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Naofumi; Goto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Kasai, Daisuke; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Vanillin and syringaldehyde obtained from lignin are essential intermediates for the production of basic chemicals using microbial cell factories. However, in contrast to vanillin, the microbial conversion of syringaldehyde is poorly understood. Here, we identified an aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene responsible for syringaldehyde catabolism from 20 putative ALDH genes of Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6. All these genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and nine gene products, including previously characterized BzaA, BzaB, and vanillin dehydrogenase (LigV), exhibited oxidation activities for syringaldehyde to produce syringate. Among these genes, SLG_28320 (desV) and ligV were most highly and constitutively transcribed in the SYK-6 cells. Disruption of desV in SYK-6 resulted in a significant reduction in growth on syringaldehyde and in syringaldehyde oxidation activity. Furthermore, a desV ligV double mutant almost completely lost its ability to grow on syringaldehyde. Purified DesV showed similar kcat/Km values for syringaldehyde (2100 s−1·mM−1) and vanillin (1700 s−1·mM−1), whereas LigV substantially preferred vanillin (8800 s−1·mM−1) over syringaldehyde (1.4 s−1·mM−1). These results clearly demonstrate that desV plays a major role in syringaldehyde catabolism. Phylogenetic analyses showed that DesV-like ALDHs formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster separated from the vanillin dehydrogenase cluster. PMID:28294121

  7. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  8. [Cloning,expression and functional identification of secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase gene from Dysosma versipellis callus].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Chen, Ri-Dao; Xie, Ke-Bo; Zou, Jian-Hua; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2016-12-01

    Secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SDH) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of podophyllotoxin.In this study, two SDH candidate genes,SO282 and SO1223, were cloned from callus of Dysosma versipellis by homology-based PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE).The SDH candidate genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the subsequent enzyme assay in vitro showed that recombinant SO282 had the SDH activity. These results pave the way to the follow-up investigation of the biosynthetic of podophyllotoxin. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2016-01-01

    Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4), Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4), and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km) of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki) of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L), LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L), and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L). These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4. PMID:26751442

  10. CO2 Photoreduction by Formate Dehydrogenase and a Ru-Complex in a Nanoporous Glass Reactor.

    PubMed

    Noji, Tomoyasu; Jin, Tetsuro; Nango, Mamoru; Kamiya, Nobuo; Amao, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the conversion of CO 2 to formic acid under ambient conditions in a photoreduction nanoporous reactor using a photosensitizer, methyl viologen (MV 2+ ), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH). The overall efficiency of this reactor was 14 times higher than that of the equivalent solution. The accumulation rate of formic acid in the nanopores of 50 nm is 83 times faster than that in the equivalent solution. Thus, this CO 2 photoreduction nanoporous glass reactor will be useful as an artificial photosynthesis system that converts CO 2 to fuel.

  11. Studies of a Halophilic NADH Dehydrogenase. 1: Purification and Properties of the Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1973-01-01

    An NADH dehydrogenase obtained from an extremely halophilic bacterium was purified 570-fold by a combination of gel filtration, chromatography on hydroxyapatite, and ion-exchange chromatography on QAE-Sephadex. The purified enzyme appeared to be FAD-linked and bad an apparent molecular weight of 64000. Even though enzyme activity was stimulated by NaCl, considerable activity (430 % of the maximum activity observed in the presence of 2.5 M NaCl) was observed in the absence of added NaCl. The enzyme was unstable when incubated in solutions of low ionic strength. The presence of NADH enhanced the stability of the enzyme.

  12. Structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Wojciechowska, Kamila; Zheng, Heping; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Cooper, David R.; Cymborowski, Marcin; Skarina, Tatiana; Gordon, Elena; Luo, Haibin; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Bacillus anthracis strain ‘Ames Ancestor’ complexed with NADP has been determined and refined to 1.87 Å resolution. The structure of the enzyme consists of a Rossmann fold composed of seven parallel β-strands sandwiched by three α-­helices on each side. An NADP molecule from an endogenous source is bound in the conserved binding pocket in the syn conformation. The loop region responsible for binding another substrate forms two perpendicular short helices connected by a sharp turn. PMID:22684058

  13. Mono-carbonyl curcumin analogues as 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han; Hu, Guo-Xin; Guo, Jingjing; Ge, Yufei; Liang, Guang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Chu, Yanhui; Yuan, Xiaohuan; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2013-08-01

    A series of structurally novel mono-carbonyl curcumin analogues have been synthesized and biologically evaluated to test their inhibitory potencies and the structure-activity relationship (SAR) on human and rat 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoform (11β-HSD1) activities. 11β-HSD1 selective inhibitors have been discovered and compound A10 is discovered as a very potent with an IC50 value of 97 nM without inhibiting 11β-HSD2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PIK3CA mutant tumors depend on oxoglutarate dehydrogenase | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH).

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase a novel hope on a blood-based diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Evlice, Ahmet; Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder that numerous factors have key properties in the development of this proteopathy. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the most common form of enzymopathy. We have examined G6PD enzyme activity levels in the serum of newly diagnosed AD patients compared with control subjects without dementia from the both sexes. Serum G6PD levels were found to be significantly higher (approximately two times) in AD patients compared to control geriatric subjects in both sexes. We have concluded that G6PD seems to play an integral role in the progress and/or prevention of AD.

  16. Heat-stable, FE-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for aldehyde detoxification

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, James G.; Clarkson, Sonya

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to microorganisms and polypeptides for detoxifying aldehydes associated with industrial fermentations. In particular, a heat-stable, NADPH- and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E and displayed activity against a number of aldehydes including inhibitory compounds that are produced during the dilute-acid pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass before fermentation to biofuels. Methods to use the microorganisms and polypeptides of the invention for improved conversion of bio mass to biofuel are provided as well as use of the enzyme in metabolic engineering strategies for producing longer-chain alcohols from sugars using thermophilic, fermentative microorganisms.

  17. Immobilization Increases the Stability and Reusability of Pigeon Pea NADP+ Linked Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddhartha; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, M Chandrakumar; Pandey, Pramod Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of enzymes is valuably important as it improves the stability and hence increases the reusability of enzymes. The present investigation is an attempt for immobilization of purified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from pigeon pea on different matrix. Maximum immobilization was achieved when alginate was used as immobilization matrix. As compared to soluble enzyme the alginate immobilized enzyme exhibited enhanced optimum pH and temperature. The alginate immobilized enzyme displayed more than 80% activity up to 7 continuous reactions and more than 50% activity up to 11 continuous reactions.

  18. Resting oxygen consumption varies among lactate dehydrogenase genotypes in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber

    PubMed Central

    Mitton, J. B.; Carter, P. A.; DiGiacomo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory studies of respiration in the sow bug, Porcellio scaber, reveal that respiration rates are related to genetic variation at the lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) locus. In population samples taken from Burlington, North Carolina and Pacific Grove, California, respiration rates differed among Ldh genotypes, but not among genotypes at the other enzyme polymorphisms. In both population samples, the respiration rate of the common Ldh homozygote exceeded the respiration rate of the heterozygote by more than 50 per cent. The differences in respiration rates are consistent with previously reported viability differentials at the Ldh polymorphism.

  19. Evidence of lactate dehydrogenase-B allozyme effects in the teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    DiMichele, L; Paynter, K T; Powers, D A

    1991-08-23

    The evolutionary significance of protein polymorphisms has long been debated. Exponents of the balanced theory advocate that selection operates to maintain polymorphisms, whereas the neoclassical school argues that most genetic variation is neutral. Some studies have suggested that protein polymorphisms are not neutral, but their significance has been questioned because one cannot eliminate the possibility that linked loci were responsible for the observed differences. Evidence is presented that an enzymatic phenotype can affect carbon flow through a metabolic pathway. Glucose flux differences between lactate dehydrogenase-B phenotypes of Fundulus heteroclitus were reversed by substituting the Ldh-B gene product of one homozygous genotype with that of another.

  20. The Structural Basis of Cryptosporidium-Specific IMP Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, Iain S.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar

    2010-03-29

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a potential biowarfare agent, an important AIDS pathogen, and a major cause of diarrhea and malnutrition. No vaccines or effective drug treatment exist to combat Cryptosporidium infection. This parasite relies on inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) to obtain guanine nucleotides, and inhibition of this enzyme blocks parasite proliferation. Here, we report the first crystal structures of CpIMPDH. These structures reveal the structural basis of inhibitor selectivity and suggest a strategy for further optimization. Using this information, we have synthesized low-nanomolar inhibitors that display 10{sup 3} selectivity for the parasite enzyme over human IMPDH2.

  1. Hypoglycemia due to 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type II Deficiency in a Newborn.

    PubMed

    Konar, M C; Goswami, S; Babu, B G; Mallick, A K

    2015-11-01

    3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency results in decreased production of all three groups of adrenal steroids. Recurrent hypoglycemia as a presenting feature of this disorder has not been reported earlier. A genotypically and phenotypically normal female newborn delivered by in-vitro fertilization presenting with recurrent hypoglycemia. Primary adrenal insufficiency with insignificant mineralocorticoid deficiency and slightly elevated levels of 17-hydro-xyprogesterone, dehydroepian-drosterone sulphate and testosterone. Successfully managed only with corticosteroid replacement. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can rarely cause recurrent hypoglycemia in newborns.

  2. The unique kinetic behavior of the very large NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Janthinobacterium lividum.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ryushi; Oyama, Masaki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of a very large NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Janthinobacterium lividum showed positive cooperativity toward alpha-ketoglutarate and NADH, and the Michaelis-Menten type toward ammonium chloride in the absence of the catalytic activator, L-aspartate. An increase in the maximum activity accompanied the decrease in the S(0.5) values for alpha-ketoglutarate and NADH with the addition of L-aspartate, and the kinetic response for alpha-ketoglutarate changed completely to a typical Michaelis-Menten type in the presence of 10 mM L-aspartate.

  3. How We Manage Invasive Fungal Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Glucose 6 Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents a common human enzyme defect, particularly prevalent in the Mediterranean, African e Asian area, where malaria was or is still endemic. Recently, we identified G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and particularly Candida Sepsis in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that there is an urgent need for strategies to properly manage this kind of patients at high risk of invasive mycoses. Here we propose our algorithm for correct identification, prophylaxis, and treatment of IFD in patients with G6PD deficiency undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML. PMID:28894556

  4. How We Manage Invasive Fungal Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Glucose 6 Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents a common human enzyme defect, particularly prevalent in the Mediterranean, African e Asian area, where malaria was or is still endemic. Recently, we identified G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and particularly Candida Sepsis in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that there is an urgent need for strategies to properly manage this kind of patients at high risk of invasive mycoses. Here we propose our algorithm for correct identification, prophylaxis, and treatment of IFD in patients with G6PD deficiency undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML.

  5. Rasburicase-induced Hemolytic Anemia in an Adolescent With Unknown Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Akande, Manzilat; Audino, Anthony N; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Rasburicase, used in the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), may cause hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Although routine screening for G6PD deficiency has been recommended, given the turnaround time for test results and the urgency to treat TLS, such screening may not be feasible. We report a case of rasburicase-induced hemolytic anemia without methemoglobinemia in an adolescent with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, TLS, and previously unrecognized G6PD deficiency. Previous reports of hemolytic anemia with rasburicase are reviewed, mechanisms discussed, and preventative strategies presented.

  6. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elella, Soheir Abo; Tawfik, Mahaa; Barseem, Naglaa; Moustafa, Wafaa

    2017-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder which causes neonatal jaundice in most cases, and under certain conditions, can cause a spectrum of hemolytic manifestations. To determine the local prevalence of G6PD deficiency in newborns. Cross-sectional. University hospital. Infants born during 2015 were prospectively screened for G6PD deficiency. Dried blood spot samples on filter paper were collected in collaboration with the central laboratories of the Ministry of Health. Quantitative measurement of G6PD enzyme activity was measured from the blood samples using fluorometric analysis. A value.

  7. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios and succinate dehydrogenase activities in adult rat slow and fast muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, B. S.; Kasper, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between myonuclear number, cellular size, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and myosin type was examined in single fiber segments (n = 54; 9 +/- 3 mm long) mechanically dissected from soleus and plantaris muscles of adult rats. One end of each fiber segment was stained for DNA before quantitative photometric analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity; the other end was double immunolabeled with fast and slow myosin heavy chain monoclonal antibodies. Mean +/- S.D. cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus ratio was higher in fast and slow plantaris fibers (112 +/- 69 vs. 34 +/- 21 x 10(3) microns3) than fast and slow soleus fibers (40 +/- 20 vs. 30 +/- 14 x 10(3) microns3), respectively. Slow fibers always had small volumes/myonucleus, regardless of fiber diameter, succinate dehydrogenase activity, or muscle of origin. In contrast, smaller diameter (< 70 microns) fast soleus and plantaris fibers with high succinate dehydrogenase activity appeared to have low volumes/myonucleus while larger diameter (> 70 microns) fast fibers with low succinate dehydrogenase activity always had large volume/myonucleus. Slow soleus fibers had significantly greater numbers of myonuclei/mm than did either fast soleus or fast plantaris fibers (116 +/- 51 vs. 55 +/- 22 and 44 +/- 23), respectively. These data suggest that the myonuclear domain is more limited in slow than fast fibers and in the fibers with a high, compared to a low, oxidative metabolic capability.

  8. Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Haider, Shozeb; Khattab, Ahmed; Ling, Chen; Mathew, Mehr; Zaidi, Samir; Bloch, Madison; Patel, Monica; Ewert, Sinead; Abdullah, Wafa; Toygar, Aysenur; Mudryi, Vitalii; Al Badi, Maryam; Alzubdi, Mouch; Wilson, Robert C; Al Azkawi, Hanan Said; Ozdemir, Hatice Nur; Abu-Amer, Wahid; Hertecant, Jozef; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Funder, John W; Al Senani, Aisha; Sun, Li; Kim, Se-Min; Yuen, Tony; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2017-12-26

    Mutations in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene ( HSD11B2 ) cause an extraordinarily rare autosomal recessive disorder, apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). AME is a form of low renin hypertension that is potentially fatal if untreated. Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene result either in severe AME or a milder phenotype (type 2 AME). To date, ∼40 causative mutations have been identified. As part of the International Consortium for Rare Steroid Disorders, we have diagnosed and followed the largest single worldwide cohort of 36 AME patients. Here, we present the genotype and clinical phenotype of these patients, prominently from consanguineous marriages in the Middle East, who display profound hypertension and hypokalemic alkalosis. To correlate mutations with phenotypic severity, we constructed a computational model of the HSD11B2 protein. Having used a similar strategy for the in silico evaluation of 150 mutations of CYP21A2 , the disease-causing gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we now provide a full structural explanation for the clinical severity of AME resulting from each known HSD11B2 missense mutation. We find that mutations that allow the formation of an inactive dimer, alter substrate/coenzyme binding, or impair structural stability of HSD11B2 yield severe AME. In contrast, mutations that cause an indirect disruption of substrate binding or mildly alter intramolecular interactions result in type 2 AME. A simple in silico evaluation of novel missense mutations could help predict the often-diverse phenotypes of an extremely rare monogenic disorder.

  9. Structural Basis for Flip-Flop Action of Thiamin Pyrophosphate-dependent Enzymes Revealed by Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa M.; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Sidhu, Sukdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate, is a cofactor of enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production. In alpha (sub 2) beta (sub 2)-heterotetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, this cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha) -C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites has not yet been understood. To understand the mechanism of action of this enzyme, we determined the crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95-Angstrom resolution. We propose a model for the flip-flop action of this enzyme through a concerted approximately 2-Angstrom shuttle-like motion of its heterodimers. Similarity of thiamin pyrophosphate binding in human pyruvate dehydrogenase with functionally related enzymes suggests that this newly defined shuttle-like motion of domains is common to the family of thiamin pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes.

  10. [Effects of Light Near-Infrared Radiation on Rats Assessed by Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in Lymphocytes on Blood Smears].

    PubMed

    Khunderyakova, N V; Zakharchenko, A V; Zakharchenko, M V; Muller, H; Fedotcheva, I; Kondrashova, M N

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of light near infrared radiation (850 nm), with modulation acoustic frequency of 101 Hz, was studied. The study was conducted on rats, the effect was recorded by succinate dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes on the blood smear after administration of the activating dose of adrenaline, which simulates the state of the organism in the early stages of the pathogenic effects (stress). A pronounced regulating effect of infrared radiation on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in animals activated by adrenaline was shown. Infrared radiation has a normalizing effect reducing the degree of inhibition or activation of the enzyme induced by adrenaline and had no effect on the control animals. Thus, by modulating the activity of succinate dehydrogenase infrared radiation regulates energy production in the mitochondria supported by the most powerful oxidation substrate--succinic acid, which is especially pronounced under stress.

  11. Sequence of the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and phylogenetic origin of the gene family.

    PubMed

    Habenicht, A; Quesada, A; Cerff, R

    1997-10-01

    A cDNA-library has been constructed from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia seedlings, and the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN, EC 1.2.1.9) was isolated by plaque hybridization using the cDNA from pea as a heterologous probe. The cDNA comprises the entire GapN coding region. A putative polyadenylation signal is identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the GapN gene family represents a separate ancient branch within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. It can be shown that the GapN gene family and other distinct branches of the superfamily have its phylogenetic origin before the separation of primary life-forms. This further demonstrates that already very early in evolution, a broad diversification of the aldehyde dehydrogenases led to the formation of the superfamily.

  12. Detection of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation R132H in myelodysplastic syndrome by mutation-specific antibody and direct sequencing.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Capper, David; Luft, Thomas; Hartmann, Christian; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; von Deimling, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Sequencing of the acute myeloid leukemia genome revealed somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1. Acute myeloid leukemia frequently develops from myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to test whether myelodysplastic syndrome also carries isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutations, we stained a series of bone marrow samples from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome using an antibody specific for the R132H mutation. Three out of 71 patients exhibited antibody binding to myeloid precursor cells. The presence of the R132H mutation was confirmed by DNA sequencing. We demonstrated that isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 mutations occur in myelodysplasia preceding acute myeloid leukemia and that the R132H alteration can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase with l-arabitol dehydrogenase activity from the newly isolated pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma caribbica 5XY2.

    PubMed

    Sukpipat, Wiphat; Komeda, Hidenobu; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Meyerozyma caribbica strain 5XY2, which was isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter in Thailand, was found to catabolize l-arabinose as well as d-glucose and d-xylose. The highest production amounts of ethanol from d-glucose, xylitol from d-xylose, and l-arabitol from l-arabinose were 0.45 g/g d-glucose, 0.60 g/g d-xylose, and 0.61 g/g l-arabinose with 21.7 g/L ethanol, 20.2 g/L xylitol, and 30.3 g/l l-arabitol, respectively. The enzyme with l-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) activity was purified from the strain and found to exhibit broad specificity to polyols, such as xylitol, d-sorbitol, ribitol, and l-arabitol. Xylitol was the preferred substrate with K m =16.1 mM and k cat /K m =67.0 min -1 mM -1 , while l-arabitol was also a substrate for the enzyme with K m =31.1 mM and k cat /K m =6.5 min -1  mM -1 . Therefore, this enzyme from M. caribbica was named xylitol dehydrogenase (McXDH). McXDH had an optimum temperature and pH at 40°C and 9.5, respectively. The McXDH gene included a coding sequence of 1086 bp encoding a putative 362 amino acid protein of 39 kDa with an apparent homopentamer structure. Native McXDH and recombinant McXDH exhibited relative activities toward l-arabitol of approximately 20% that toward xylitol, suggesting the applicability of this enzyme with the functions of XDH and LAD to the development of pentose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  15. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Tsutsumi, Eri; Imazeki, Hiromi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Chizu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-07-01

    The effects of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on alcohol metabolism are striking in nonalcoholics, and the effects of genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) are modest at most, whereas genetic polymorphisms of both strongly affect the susceptibility to alcoholism and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer of drinkers. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ADH1C/ALDH2 genotypes and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of 168 Japanese alcoholic men who came to our hospital for the first time in the morning and had been drinking until the day before. The ethanol levels in their blood and saliva were similar, but the acetaldehyde levels in their saliva were much higher than in their blood, probably because of acetaldehyde production by oral bacteria. Blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were both significantly higher in the subjects with the less active ADH1B*1/*1 genotype than in the ADH1B*2 carriers, but none of the levels differed according to ALDH2 genotype. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, but ADH1C genotype did not affect the blood or salivary ethanol or acetaldehyde levels. High blood acetaldehyde levels were found even in the active ALDH2*1/*1 alcoholics, which were comparable with the levels of the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 alcoholics with less active ADH1B*1/*1. The slope of the increase in blood acetaldehyde level as the blood ethanol level increased was significantly steeper in alcoholics with inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 plus ADH1B*2 allele than with any other genotype combinations, but the slopes of the increase in salivary acetaldehyde level as the salivary ethanol level increased did not differ between the groups of subjects with any combinations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype affected the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of nonabstinent alcoholics in a different manner

  16. Familiar Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Large Brazilian Family Is Not Associated with Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects.

    PubMed

    Accordi, Elen Dias; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Azevedo, Bruna; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Frasson, Carla; Gantzel, Siliane Marie; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Angelousi, Anna; Stratakis, Constantine A; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Faucz, Fabio R

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy. Advances in understanding the genetic basis for thyroid cancer revealed the potential involvement of several genes in the formation of thyroid tumors. Mutations in the gene coding for succinate dehydrogenase subtype B (SDHB) have been implicated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric protein composed of four subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, and participates in both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between variants in the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes and familiar PTC in a large Brazilian family. Four patients with PTC, 1 patient with PTC and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), 1 patient with GIST, and their relatives - several of them with different thyroid problems - from a large Brazilian family were screened for genetic variations of SDHx genes with the use of polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing. Only one rare variation in SDHA was found in some of the family members, but not segregating with the disease. No other genetic variants of these genes were detected in the family members that presented with PTC and/or GIST. Familiar PTC and a GIST were not associated with SDHx mutations; additional genetic defects, yet unknown, may be responsible for the development of tumor.

  17. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313

  18. Different specificities of two aldehyde dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suprama; Annapure, Uday S; Timson, David J

    2017-04-30

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases play crucial roles in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to carboxylic acid counterparts. The present study reports characterization of two such isoenzymes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (NCYC 3264), one mitochondrial (Ald4p) and one cytosolic (Ald6p). Both Ald4p and Ald6p were oligomeric in solution and demonstrated positive kinetic cooperativity towards aldehyde substrates. Wild-type Ald6p showed activity only with aliphatic aldehydes. Ald4p, on the contrary, showed activity with benzaldehyde along with a limited range of aliphatic aldehydes. Inspection of modelled structure of Ald6p revealed that a bulky amino acid residue (Met 177 , compared with the equivalent residue Leu 196 in Ald4p) might cause steric hindrance of cyclic substrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that specificities of the two isoenzymes towards aldehyde substrates were partly driven by steric hindrance in the active site. A variant of wild-type Ald6p with the Met 177 residue replaced by a valine was also characterized to address to the hypothesis. It showed an increased specificity range and a gain of activity towards cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde. It also demonstrated an increased thermal stability when compared with both the wild-types. These data suggest that steric bulk in the active site of yeast aldehyde dehydrogenases is partially responsible for controlling specificity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Pharmacophore Models and Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening: Concepts and Applications Exemplified on Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kaserer, Teresa; Beck, Katharina R; Akram, Muhammad; Odermatt, Alex; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-12-19

    Computational methods are well-established tools in the drug discovery process and can be employed for a variety of tasks. Common applications include lead identification and scaffold hopping, as well as lead optimization by structure-activity relationship analysis and selectivity profiling. In addition, compound-target interactions associated with potentially harmful effects can be identified and investigated. This review focuses on pharmacophore-based virtual screening campaigns specifically addressing the target class of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Many members of this enzyme family are associated with specific pathological conditions, and pharmacological modulation of their activity may represent promising therapeutic strategies. On the other hand, unintended interference with their biological functions, e.g., upon inhibition by xenobiotics, can disrupt steroid hormone-mediated effects, thereby contributing to the development and progression of major diseases. Besides a general introduction to pharmacophore modeling and pharmacophore-based virtual screening, exemplary case studies from the field of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) research are presented. These success stories highlight the suitability of pharmacophore modeling for the various application fields and suggest its application also in futures studies.

  20. Interaction of glutaric aciduria type 1-related glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Schmiesing, Jessica; Schlüter, Hartmut; Ullrich, Kurt; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST) involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB) serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1.

  1. Interaction of Glutaric Aciduria Type 1-Related glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase with Mitochondrial Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schmiesing, Jessica; Schlüter, Hartmut; Ullrich, Kurt; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST) involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB) serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1. PMID:24498361

  2. Oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Alzheimer's disease: many pathways to neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, D Allan; Hardas, Sarita S; Lange, Miranda L Bader

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the oxidoreductase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), has become a subject of interest as more and more studies reveal a surfeit of diverse GAPDH functions, extending beyond traditional aerobic metabolism of glucose. As a result of multiple isoforms and cellular locales, GAPDH is able to come in contact with a variety of small molecules, proteins, membranes, etc., that play important roles in normal and pathologic cell function. Specifically, GAPDH has been shown to interact with neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins, including the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Studies from our laboratory have shown significant inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain due to oxidative modification. Although oxidative stress and damage is a common phenomenon in the AD brain, it would seem that inhibition of glycolytic enzyme activity is merely one avenue in which AD pathology affects neuronal cell development and survival, as oxidative modification can also impart a toxic gain-of-function to many proteins, including GAPDH. In this review, we examine the many functions of GAPDH with respect to AD brain; in particular, the apparent role(s) of GAPDH in AD-related apoptotic cell death is emphasized.

  3. Activation of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by sulphobromophthalein.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, K; Tamada, Y; Deyashiki, Y; Miyabe, Y; Nakanishi, M; Ohya, I; Hara, A

    1996-01-01

    Human liver contains at least two isoenzymes (DD2 and DD4) of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. The NADP(H)-linked oxidoreductase activities of DD4 were activated more than 4-fold by sulphobromophthalein at concentrations above 20 microM and under physiological pH conditions. Sulphobromophthalein did not stimulate the activities of DD2 and human liver aldehyde reductase, which are functionally and/or structurally related to DD4. No stimulatory effect on the activity of DD4 was observed with other organic anions such as Indocyanine Green, haematin and Rose Bengal. The binding of sulphobromophthalein to DD4 was instantaneous and reversible, and was detected by fluorescence and ultrafiltration assays. The activation by sulphobromophthalein decreased the activation energy in the dehydrogenation reaction for the enzyme, and increased both kcat, and Km values for the coenzymes and substrates. Kinetic analyses with respect to concentrations of NADP+ and (S)-(+)-indan-1-ol indicated that sulphobromophthalein was a non-essential activator of mixed type showing a dissociation constant of 2.6 microM. Thus, the human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme has a binding site specific to sulphobromophthalein, and the hepatic metabolism mediated by this isoenzyme may be influenced when this drug is administered. PMID:8546681

  4. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms in canine adrenal glands treated with trilostane.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Kumagai, Takayuki; Kurano, Mai; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2014-06-01

    Trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is often used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. In some species, trilostane has been shown to have additional effects on steroid biosynthesis, and it has been postulated that trilostane might have effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) in dogs. To investigate the effect of trilostane on 11β-HSD in canine adrenal glands, healthy Beagle dogs were treated with trilostane for 8 weeks. Trilostane treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the cortisol/cortisone ratio in the serum. The adrenal gland mRNA and protein expression levels of 11β-HSD type 1 and 11β-HSD type 2 were significantly higher and significantly lower respectively in dogs treated with trilostane compared to those in control healthy Beagle dogs. These findings suggest that trilostane may have an effect on 11β-HSD activity in canine adrenal glands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and the brain: From zero to hero, a decade of progress

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin S.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have profound effects on brain development and adult CNS function. Excess or insufficient glucocorticoids cause myriad abnormalities from development to ageing. The actions of glucocorticoids within cells are determined not only by blood steroid levels and target cell receptor density, but also by intracellular metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD). 11β-HSD1 regenerates active glucocorticoids from their inactive 11-keto derivatives and is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS. Elevated hippocampal and neocortical 11β-HSD1 is observed with ageing and causes cognitive decline; its deficiency prevents the emergence of cognitive defects with age. Conversely, 11β-HSD2 is a dehydrogenase, inactivating glucocorticoids. The major central effects of 11β-HSD2 occur in development, as expression of 11β-HSD2 is high in fetal brain and placenta. Deficient feto-placental 11β-HSD2 results in a life-long phenotype of anxiety and cardiometabolic disorders, consistent with early life glucocorticoid programming. PMID:21144857

  6. [Importance of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme in clinical disorders].

    PubMed

    Feldman, Karolina; Likó, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Szappanos, Agnes; Grolmusz, Vince Kornél; Tóth, Miklós; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2013-02-24

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, they modulate the function of the immune system, and contribute to stress response. Increased and decreased production of glucocorticoids causes specific diseases. In addition to systemic hypo- or hypercortisolism, alteration of local synthesis and metabolism of cortisol may result in tissue-specific hypo- or hypercortisolism. One of the key enzymes participating in the local synthesis and metabolism of cortisol is the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme. Two isoforms, type 1 and type 2 enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and catalyze the interconversion of hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone. The type 1 enzyme mainly works as an activator, and it is responsible for the generation of cortisol from cortisone in liver, adipose tissue, brain and bone. The gene encoding this enzyme is located on chromosome 1. The authors review the physiological and pathophysiological processes related to the function of the type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme. They summarize the potential significance of polymorphic variants of the enzyme in clinical diseases as well as knowledge related to inhibitors of enzyme activity. Although further studies are still needed, inhibition of the enzyme activity may prove to be an effective tool for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 in human thymus.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Giovanni; Mayerl, Christina; Seitz, Jan-Christoph; Höfner, Kerstin; Brunner, Andrea; Wild, Vanessa; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas; Fassnacht, Martin; Prelog, Martina

    2016-06-01

    11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) is a high affinity dehydrogenase which rapidly inactivates physiologically-active glucocorticoids to protect key tissues. 11β-HSD2 expression has been described in peripheral cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system as well as in murine thymus. In absence of knowledge of 11β-HSD2 expression in human thymus, the study aimed to localize 11β-HSD2 in human thymic tissue. Thymic tissue was taken of six healthy, non-immunologically impaired male infants below 12months of age with congenital heart defects who had to undergo correction surgery. 11β-HSD2 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Kidney tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were taken as positive controls. Significant expression of 11β-HSD2 protein was found at single cell level in thymus parenchyma, at perivascular sites of capillaries and small vessels penetrating the thymus lobuli and within Hassall's bodies. The present study demonstrates that 11β-HSD2 is expressed in human thymus with predominant perivascular expression and also within Hassall's bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming 11β-HSD2 expression at the protein level in human thymic tissue underlining a potential role of this enzyme in regulating glucocorticoid function at the thymic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Syringyl lignin is unaltered by severe sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase suppression in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-12-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference-inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem.

  9. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  10. Capacitive malaria aptasensor using Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase as target antigen in undiluted human serum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naveen K; Arya, Sunil K; Estrela, Pedro; Goswami, Pranab

    2018-06-08

    A capacitive aptasensor for detecting the malaria biomarker, Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase (PfGDH), directly in human serum samples developed. A thiolated ssDNA aptamer (NG3) that binds specifically to PfGDH antigen with high affinity (K d = 79 nM) was used to develop the aptasensor. The aptasensor produced capacitance response at an optimized frequency of 2 Hz in a non-Faradaic electrochemical impedance based signal transduction platform. The aptasensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 100 fM-100 nM with a limits of detection of 0.77 pM in serum samples. The interference from other predominant malarial biomarkers, namely, Plasmodium falciparum -lactate dehydrogenase and -histidine rich protein-II on the aptasensor was negligible. This PfGDH aptasensor with highly sensitive and label free detection capability has great application potential for diagnosis of asymptotic malaria and monitoring the regression of malaria during treatment regime with antimalarial drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ziram inhibits rat neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Li, Huitao; Chen, Xiaomin; Wang, Yiyan; Li, Xiaoheng; Sun, Jianliang; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2018-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of ziram is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct inhibitions of ziram on rat neurosteroid synthetic and metabolizing enzymes, 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C14), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2). Rat SRD5A1, AKR1C14, and RDH2 were cloned and transiently expressed in COS1 cells, and the effects of ziram on these enzymes were measured. Ziram inhibited rat SRD5A1 and AKR1C14 with IC 50 values of 1.556 ± 0.078 and 1.017 ± 0.072 μM, respectively, when 1000 nM steroid substrates were used. Ziram weakly inhibited RDH2 at 100 μM, when androstanediol (1000 nM) was used. Ziram competitively inhibited SRD5A1 and non-competitively inhibited AKR1C14 when steroid substrates were used. Docking study showed that ziram bound to NADPH-binding pocket of AKR1C14. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ziram inhibited SRD5A1 and AKR1C14 activities, thus possibly interfering with neurosteroid production in rats.

  12. Apigenin inhibits rat neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Li, Lili; Zhou, Songyi; Shen, Qiuxia; Lin, Han; Zhu, Qiqi; Sun, Jianliang; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2017-11-01

    Apigenin, a common flavonoid, has extensive pharmacological activities. Apigenin inhibits some steroid biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting that it may block neurosteroid synthesis. Neurosteroids play many important roles in neurological functions. The objective of the present study is to investigate effects of apigenin on neurosteroidogenic enzymes, 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C9), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RoDH2), in rats. SRD5A1, AKR1C9, and RoDH2 were expressed in COS-1 cells and the effects of apigenin on these enzymes and modes of action were explored using radiolabeled substrates and thin-layer chromatographic separation coupled with radiometry. Apigenin inhibited SRD5A1, AKR1C9, and RoDH2 activities with IC 50 values of 100, 0.891 ± 0.065, and >100 μM, respectively. Apigenin competitively inhibited rat AKR1C9 when its substrate 5α-dihydrotestosterone was used and uncompetitively inhibited the enzyme when cofactor NADPH was used. In conclusion, apigenin is a potent inhibitor of rat AKR1C9, thereby controlling the rate of neurosteroid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Ng, Chiam Yu; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bio-based chemical product, because it can be converted into several C4 industrial chemicals. In this study, a lactate dehydrogenase-deleted mutant was constructed to improve 2,3-butanediol productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes. To delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, λ Red recombination method was successfully adapted for E. aerogenes. The resulting strain produced a very small amount of lactate and 16.7% more 2,3-butanediol than that of the wild-type strain in batch fermentation. The mutant and its parental strain were then cultured with six different carbon sources, and the mutant showed higher carbon source consumption and microbial growth rates in all media. The 2,3-butanediol titer reached 69.5 g/l in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant,which was 27.4% higher than that with the parental strain.With further optimization of the medium and aeration conditions,118.05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering.

  14. NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves. Kinetic properties of different oligomeric structures.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, A A; Andreo, C S

    1990-09-24

    NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) from sugar cane leaves was inhibited by increasing the ionic strength in the assay medium. The inhibitory effect was higher at pH 7.0 than 8.0, with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 89 mM and 160 mM respectively, for inhibition by NaCl. Gel-filtration experiments indicated that the enzyme dissociated into dimers and monomers when exposed to high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl). By using the enzyme-dilution approach in the absence and presence of 0.3 M NaCl, the kinetic properties of each oligomeric species of the protein was determined at pH 7.0 and 8.0. Tetrameric, dimeric and monomeric structures were shown to be active but with different V and Km values. The catalytic efficiency of the oligomers was tetramer greater than dimer greater than monomer, and each quaternary structure exhibited higher activity at pH 8.0 than 7.0. Dissociation constants for the equilibria between the different oligomeric forms of the enzyme were determined. It was established that Kd values were affected by pH and Mg2+ levels in the medium. Results suggest that the distinct catalytic properties of the different oligomeric forms of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and changes in their equilibrium could be the molecular basis for an efficient physiological regulation of the decarboxylation step of C4 metabolism.

  15. Systematic Functional Analysis of Active-Site Residues in l-Threonine Dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma volcanium

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, Morgan; Mak, Wai Shun; O’Brien, Terrence E.

    Enzymes have been through millions of years of evolution during which their active-site microenvironments are fine-tuned. Active-site residues are commonly conserved within protein families, indicating their importance for substrate recognition and catalysis. In this work, we systematically mutated active-site residues of l-threonine dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma volcanium and characterized the mutants against a panel of substrate analogs. Our results demonstrate that only a subset of these residues plays an essential role in substrate recognition and catalysis and that the native enzyme activity can be further enhanced roughly 4.6-fold by a single point mutation. Kinetic characterization of mutants on substrate analogs showsmore » that l-threonine dehydrogenase possesses promiscuous activities toward other chemically similar compounds not previously observed. Quantum chemical calculations on the hydride-donating ability of these substrates also reveal that this enzyme did not evolve to harness the intrinsic substrate reactivity for enzyme catalysis. Our analysis provides insights into connections between the details of enzyme active-site structure and specific function. Finally, these results are directly applicable to rational enzyme design and engineering.« less

  16. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel (S)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus kefir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qilei; Hu, Youjia; Zhao, Wenjie; Zhu, Chunbao; Zhu, Baoquan

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding a novel (S)-specific NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (LK-ADH) was isolated from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus kefir DSM 20587 by thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence of (S)-LK-ADH gene (adhS) was determined, which consists of an open reading frame of 1,044 bp, coding for 347 amino acids with a molecular mass of 37.065 kDa. After a BLAST similarity search in GenBank database, the amino acid sequence of (S)-LK-ADH showed some homologies to several zinc containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. This novel gene was deposited into GenBank with the accession number of EU877965. adhS gene was subcloned into plasmid pET-28a(+), and recombinant (S)-LK-ADH was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) by isopropyl-beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction. Purified enzyme showed a high enantioselectivity in the reduction of acetophenone to (S)-phenylethanol with an ee value of 99.4%. The substrate specificity and cofactor preference of recombinant (S)-LK-ADH were also tested.

  17. A Long-Chain Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, B.; Akundi, A.; Kendall, K.

    1995-01-01

    A NAD-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase has been purified from the alkane-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277. The enzyme was found to be active against a broad range of substrates, particularly long-chain secondary aliphatic alcohols. Although optimal activity was observed with linear 2-alcohols containing between 6 and 11 carbon atoms, secondary alcohols as long as 2-tetradecanol were oxidized at 25% of the rate seen with mid-range alcohols. The purified enzyme was specific for the S-(+) stereoisomer of 2-octanol and had a specific activity for 2-octanol of over 200 (mu)mol/min/mg of protein at pH 9 and 37(deg)C, 25-fold higher than that of any previously reported S-(+) secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. Linear primary alcohols containing between 3 and 13 carbon atoms were utilized 20- to 40-fold less efficiently than the corresponding secondary alcohols. The apparent K(infm) value for NAD(sup+) with 2-octanol as the substrate was 260 (mu)M, whereas the apparent K(infm) values for the 2-alcohols ranged from over 5 mM for 2-pentanol to less than 2 (mu)M for 2-tetradecanol. The enzyme showed moderate thermostability (half-life of 4 h at 60(deg)C) and could potentially be useful for the synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of secondary alcohols. PMID:16535152

  18. Ketogenic diet in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sofou, Kalliopi; Dahlin, Maria; Hallböök, Tove; Lindefeldt, Marie; Viggedal, Gerd; Darin, Niklas

    2017-03-01

    Our aime was to study the short- and long-term effects of ketogenic diet on the disease course and disease-related outcomes in patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency, the metabolic factors implicated in treatment outcomes, and potential safety and compliance issues. Pediatric patients diagnosed with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency in Sweden and treated with ketogenic diet were evaluated. Study assessments at specific time points included developmental and neurocognitive testing, patient log books, and investigator and parental questionnaires. A systematic literature review was also performed. Nineteen patients were assessed, the majority having prenatal disease onset. Patients were treated with ketogenic diet for a median of 2.9 years. All patients alive at the time of data registration at a median age of 6 years. The treatment had a positive effect mainly in the areas of epilepsy, ataxia, sleep disturbance, speech/language development, social functioning, and frequency of hospitalizations. It was also safe-except in one patient who discontinued because of acute pancreatitis. The median plasma concentration of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyric acid) was 3.3 mmol/l. Poor dietary compliance was associated with relapsing ataxia and stagnation of motor and neurocognitive development. Results of neurocognitive testing are reported for 12 of 19 patients. Ketogenic diet was an effective and safe treatment for the majority of patients. Treatment effect was mainly determined by disease phenotype and attainment and maintenance of ketosis.

  19. Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex-dependent succinylation of proteins in neurons and neuronal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Xu, Hui; Chen, Huan-Lian; Chen, Wei; Denton, Travis; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Reversible post-translation modifications of proteins are common in all cells and appear to regulate many processes. Nevertheless, the enzyme(s) responsible for the alterations and the significance of the modification are largely unknown. Succinylation of proteins occurs and causes large changes in the structure of proteins; however, the source of the succinyl groups, the targets, and the consequences of these modifications on other proteins are unknown. These studies focused on succinylation of mitochondrial proteins. The results demonstrate that the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) can serve as a trans-succinylase that mediates succinylation in an α-ketoglutarate-dependent manner. Inhibition of KGDHC reduced suc-cinylation of both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in cultured neurons and in a neuronal cell line. Purified KGDHC can succinylate multiple proteins including other enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle leading to modification of their activity. Inhibition of KGDHC also modifies acetylation by modifying the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The much greater effectiveness of KGDHC than succinyl CoA suggests that the catalysis due to the E2k suc-cinyltransferase is important. Succinylation appears to be a major signaling system and it can be mediated by KGDHC. PMID:25772995

  20. Phosphorylation status of pyruvate dehydrogenase distinguishes metabolic phenotypes of cultured rat brain astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Halim, Nader D; Mcfate, Thomas; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Okagaki, Peter; Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Patel, Mulchand S; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Harris, Robert A; Schell, Michael J; Verma, Ajay

    2010-08-01

    Glucose metabolism in nervous tissue has been proposed to occur in a compartmentalized manner with astrocytes contributing largely to glycolysis and neurons being the primary site of glucose oxidation. However, mammalian astrocytes and neurons both contain mitochondria, and it remains unclear why in culture neurons oxidize glucose, lactate, and pyruvate to a much larger extent than astrocytes. The objective of this study was to determine whether pyruvate metabolism is differentially regulated in cultured neurons versus astrocytes. Expression of all components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), the rate-limiting step for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle, was determined in cultured astrocytes and neurons. In addition, regulation of PDC enzymatic activity in the two cell types via protein phosphorylation was examined. We show that all components of the PDC are expressed in both cell types in culture, but that PDC activity is kept strongly inhibited in astrocytes through phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha subunit (PDH alpha). In contrast, neuronal PDC operates close to maximal levels with much lower levels of phosphorylated PDH alpha. Dephosphorylation of astrocytic PDH alpha restores PDC activity and lowers lactate production. Our findings suggest that the glucose metabolism of astrocytes and neurons may be far more flexible than previously believed. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of borneol dehydrogenase from the glandular trichomes of Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Lukman S; Galata, Mariana; Demissie, Zerihun A; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2012-12-15

    Several varieties of Lavandula x intermedia (lavandins) are cultivated for their essential oils (EOs) for use in cosmetic, hygiene and personal care products. These EOs are mainly constituted of monoterpenes including camphor, which contributes an off odor reducing the olfactory appeal of the oil. We have recently constructed a cDNA library from the glandular trichomes (the sites of EO synthesis) of L. x intermedia plants. Here, we describe the cloning of a borneol dehydrogenase cDNA (LiBDH) from this library. The 780 bp open reading frame of the cDNA encoded a 259 amino acid short chain alcohol dehydrogenase with a predicted molecular mass of ca. 27.5 kDa. The recombinant LiBDH was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The bacterially produced enzyme specifically converted borneol to camphor as the only product with K(m) and k(cat) values of 53 μM and 4.0 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The LiBDH transcripts were specifically expressed in glandular trichomes of mature flowers indicating that like other Lavandula monoterpene synthases the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The cloning of LiBDH has far reaching implications in improving the quality of Lavandula EOs through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana: Biochemical Requirements, Metabolic Pathways, and Functional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Stiti, Naim; Missihoun, Tagnon D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Here we summarize molecular genetic and biochemical analyses of selected ArabidopsisALDH genes. Aldehyde molecules are very reactive and are involved in many metabolic processes but when they accumulate in excess they become toxic. Thus activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases is important in regulating the homeostasis of aldehydes. Overexpression of some ALDH genes demonstrated an improved abiotic stress tolerance. Despite the fact that several reports are available describing a role for specific ALDHs, their precise physiological roles are often still unclear. Therefore a number of genetic and biochemical tools have been generated to address the function with an emphasis on stress-related ALDHs. ALDHs exert their functions in different cellular compartments and often in a developmental and tissue specific manner. To investigate substrate specificity, catalytic efficiencies have been determined using a range of substrates varying in carbon chain length and degree of carbon oxidation. Mutational approaches identified amino acid residues critical for coenzyme usage and enzyme activities.

  3. Systematic Functional Analysis of Active-Site Residues in l-Threonine Dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma volcanium

    DOE PAGES

    Desjardins, Morgan; Mak, Wai Shun; O’Brien, Terrence E.; ...

    2017-07-07

    Enzymes have been through millions of years of evolution during which their active-site microenvironments are fine-tuned. Active-site residues are commonly conserved within protein families, indicating their importance for substrate recognition and catalysis. In this work, we systematically mutated active-site residues of l-threonine dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma volcanium and characterized the mutants against a panel of substrate analogs. Our results demonstrate that only a subset of these residues plays an essential role in substrate recognition and catalysis and that the native enzyme activity can be further enhanced roughly 4.6-fold by a single point mutation. Kinetic characterization of mutants on substrate analogs showsmore » that l-threonine dehydrogenase possesses promiscuous activities toward other chemically similar compounds not previously observed. Quantum chemical calculations on the hydride-donating ability of these substrates also reveal that this enzyme did not evolve to harness the intrinsic substrate reactivity for enzyme catalysis. Our analysis provides insights into connections between the details of enzyme active-site structure and specific function. Finally, these results are directly applicable to rational enzyme design and engineering.« less

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Åmore » resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.« less

  5. SIRT3 deacetylates and increases pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ozkan; Park, Seong-Hoon; Wagner, Brett A; Song, Ha Yong; Zhu, Yueming; Vassilopoulos, Athanassios; Jung, Barbara; Buettner, Garry R; Gius, David

    2014-11-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α (PDHA1) is the first component enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex that transforms pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylation, into acetyl-CoA that is subsequently used by both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. As such, PDH links glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in normal as well as cancer cells. Herein we report that SIRT3 interacts with PDHA1 and directs its enzymatic activity via changes in protein acetylation. SIRT3 deacetylates PDHA1 lysine 321 (K321), and a PDHA1 mutant mimicking a deacetylated lysine (PDHA1(K321R)) increases PDH activity, compared to the K321 acetylation mimic (PDHA1(K321Q)) or wild-type PDHA1. Finally, PDHA1(K321Q) exhibited a more transformed in vitro cellular phenotype compared to PDHA1(K321R). These results suggest that the acetylation of PDHA1 provides another layer of enzymatic regulation, in addition to phosphorylation, involving a reversible acetyllysine, suggesting that the acetylome, as well as the kinome, links glycolysis to respiration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular defense against UVB-induced phototoxicity by cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seung-Hee; Lee, So-Hyun; Chun, Hang Suk; Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Lee, Sung-Eun; Chun, Jang-Soo; Park, Jeen-Woo; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2002-03-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known as a major cause of skin photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Many harmful effects of UV radiation are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Recently, we have shown that NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to UVB (312 nm), the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly overexpressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against UV radiation, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against UV radiation-induced oxidative injury. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Yee; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-03-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. Recently, we have shown that NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against singlet oxygen-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to singlet oxygen generated from photoactivated dye, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against singlet oxygen, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative injury.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Alzheimer's disease: Partners in crime? The hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ulusu, N Nuray

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifaceted brain disorder which involves various coupled irreversible, progressive biochemical reactions that significantly reduce quality of life as well as the actual life expectancy. Aging, genetic predispositions, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deficiencies in insulin signaling, dysfunction of mitochondria-associated membranes, cerebrovascular changes, high cholesterol level, increased oxidative stress and free radical formation, DNA damage, disturbed energy metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction, high blood pressure, obesity, dietary habits, exercise, social engagement, and mental stress are noted among the risk factors of this disease. In this hypothesis review I would like to draw the attention on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its relationship with Alzheimer's disease. This enzymopathy is the most common human congenital defect of metabolism and defined by decrease in NADPH+H(+) and reduced form of glutathione concentration and that might in turn, amplify oxidative stress due to essentiality of the enzyme. This most common enzymopathy may manifest itself in severe forms, however most of the individuals with this deficiency are not essentially symptomatic. To understand the sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the writer of this paper thinks that, looking into a crystal ball might not yield much of a benefit but glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could effortlessly give some clues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular evolution and functional divergence of alcohol dehydrogenases in animals, fungi and plants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claudia E; Freitas, Loreta B; Salzano, Francisco M

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases belong to the large superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which occur throughout the biological world and are involved with many important metabolic routes. We considered the phylogeny of 190 ADH sequences of animals, fungi, and plants. Non-class III Caenorhabditis elegans ADHs were seen closely related to tetrameric fungal ADHs. ADH3 forms a sister group to amphibian, reptilian, avian and mammalian non-class III ADHs. In fishes, two main forms are identified: ADH1 and ADH3, whereas in amphibians there is a new ADH form (ADH8). ADH2 is found in Mammalia and Aves, and they formed a monophyletic group. Additionally, mammalian ADH4 seems to result from an ADH1 duplication, while in Fungi, ADH formed clusters based on types and genera. The plant ADH isoforms constitute a basal clade in relation to ADHs from animals. We identified amino acid residues responsible for functional divergence between ADH types in fungi, mammals, and fishes. In mammals, these differences occur mainly between ADH1/ADH4 and ADH3/ADH5, whereas functional divergence occurred in fungi between ADH1/ADH5, ADH5/ADH4, and ADH5/ADH3. In fishes, the forms also seem to be functionally divergent. The ADH family expansion exemplifies a neofunctionalization process where reiterative duplication events are related to new activities.

  10. Checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition sensitises transformed cells to dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Stéphanie; Rodier, Geneviève; Matar, Gisèle; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Delorme, Yoann; Berthet, Charlène; Buscail, Yoan; Noël, Jean Yohan; Lachambre, Simon; Jarlier, Marta; Bernex, Florence; Delpech, Hélène; Vidalain, Pierre Olivier; Janin, Yves L.; Theillet, Charles; Sardet, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Reduction in nucleotide pools through the inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been demonstrated to effectively reduce cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. The current study sought to investigate whether this antiproliferative effect could be enhanced by combining Chk1 kinase inhibition. The pharmacological activity of DHODH inhibitor teriflunomide was more selective towards transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts than their primary or immortalised counterparts, and this effect was amplified when cells were subsequently exposed to PF477736 Chk1 inhibitor. Flow cytometry analyses revealed substantial accumulations of cells in S and G2/M phases, followed by increased cytotoxicity which was characterised by caspase 3-dependent induction of cell death. Associating PF477736 with teriflunomide also significantly sensitised SUM159 and HCC1937 human triple negative breast cancer cell lines to dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibition. The main characteristic of this effect was the sustained accumulation of teriflunomide-induced DNA damage as cells displayed increased phospho serine 139 H2AX (γH2AX) levels and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 on serine 345 upon exposure to the combination as compared with either inhibitor alone. Importantly a similar significant increase in cell death was observed upon dual siRNA mediated depletion of Chk1 and DHODH in both murine and human cancer cell models. Altogether these results suggest that combining DHODH and Chk1 inhibitions may be a strategy worth considering as a potential alternative to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:29221122

  11. Purification and characterisation of a novel iso-propanol dehydrogenase from Phytomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Uttaro, A D; Opperdoes, F R

    1997-04-01

    An alcohol dehydrogenase with two identical subunits and a subunit molecular mass of 40,000 was purified from Phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of Euphorbia characias. Digitonin titration and subcellular fractionation suggest that the enzyme is present in the mitochondrion. It utilises as substrates, primary and secondary alcohols, is specific for NAD+ as coenzyme and is inhibited by HgCl(2). The pH optimum for the oxidation of ethanol is 9.5, and for the reverse reaction 8.5. The apparent Km values for iso-propanol and ethanol are 40 and 34 microM, respectively and for the reverse reaction, with acetone as substrate, 14 microM. The respective specific activities with iso-propanol and ethanol as substrate, as measured in crude extracts are 300 and 16 mU (milligram of protein)-1. In isoelectric focusing the enzyme showed three major bands with slightly differing isoelectric points that ranged from 6.4 to 6.8. The name, iso-propanol dehydrogenase is proposed for this enzyme.

  12. Development of L-lactate dehydrogenase biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavities as fluorescence enhancers.

    PubMed

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Prieto-Simon, Beatriz; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-12-15

    The up-regulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an intracellular enzyme present in most of all body tissues, is indicative of several pathological conditions and cellular death. Herein, we demonstrate LDH detection using porous silicon (pSi) microcavities as a luminescence-enhancing optical biosensing platform. Non-fluorescent resazurin was covalently attached onto the pSi surface via thermal hydrocarbonisation, thermal hydrosylilation and acylation. Each surface modification step was confirmed by means of FTIR and the optical shifts of the resonance wavelength of the microcavity. Thermal hydrocarbonisation also afforded excellent surface stability, ensuring that the resazurin was not reduced on the pSi surface. Using a pSi microcavity biosensor, the fluorescence signal upon detection of LDH was amplified by 10 and 5-fold compared to that of a single layer and a detuned microcavity, respectively, giving a limit of detection of 0.08 U/ml. The biosensor showed a linear response between 0.16 and 6.5 U/ml, covering the concentration range of LDH in normal as well as damaged tissues. The biosensor was selective for LDH and did not produce a signal upon incubation with another NAD-dependant enzyme L-glutamic dehydrogenase. The use of the pSi microcavity as a sensing platform reduced reagent usage by 30% and analysis time threefold compared to the standard LDH assay in solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and physiological aspects of alcohol dehydrogenases in the ethanol metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Smidt, Olga; du Preez, James C; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2012-02-01

    The physiological role and possible functional substitution of each of the five alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) isozymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in five quadruple deletion mutants designated strains Q1-Q5, with the number indicating the sole intact ADH gene. Their growth in aerobic batch cultures was characterised in terms of kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. Cultivation with glucose or ethanol as carbon substrate revealed that Adh1 was the only alcohol dehydrogenase capable of efficiently catalysing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol. The oxidation of produced or added ethanol could also be attributed to Adh1. Growth of strains lacking the ADH1 gene resulted in the production of glycerol as a major fermentation product, concomitant with the production of a significant amount of acetaldehyde. Strains Q2 and Q3, expressing only ADH2 or ADH3, respectively, produced ethanol from glucose, albeit less than strain Q1, and were also able to oxidise added ethanol. Strains Q4 and Q5 grew poorly on glucose and produced ethanol, but were neither able to utilise the produced ethanol nor grow on added ethanol. Transcription profiles of the ADH4 and ADH5 genes suggested that participation of these gene products in ethanol production from glucose was unlikely. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetic properties of the human liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase for retinal isomers.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P V; Samaha, H

    1999-01-15

    Retinoic acid exerts pleiotropic effects by acting through two families of nuclear receptors, RAR and RXR. All-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid bind RARs, whereas 9-cis retinoic acid binds and activates only the RXRs. To understand the role of human liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) in retinoic acid synthesis, we examined the ability of ALDH 1 to catalyze the oxidation of the naturally occurring retinal isomers. ALDH1 catalyzed the oxidation of all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis retinal with equal efficiency. However, the affinity to all-trans retinal (Km = 2.2 microM) was twofold higher than to 9-cis (Km = 5.5 microM) and 13-cis (Km = 4.6 microM) retinal. All-trans retinol was a potent inhibitor of ALDH1 activity, and inhibited all-trans retinal oxidation uncompetitively. Comparison of the kinetic properties of ALDH1 for retinal isomers with those of previously reported rat kidney retinal dehydrogenase showed distinct differences, suggesting that ALDH1 may play a different role in retinal metabolism in liver.

  15. Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Therapeutic Strategy against Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sradhanjali, Swatishree; Reddy, Mamatha M

    2018-05-22

    Cancer cells alter their metabolism to support the uninterrupted supply of biosynthetic molecules required for continuous proliferation. Glucose metabolism is frequently reprogrammed in several tumors in addition to fatty acid, amino acid and glutamine metabolism. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a gatekeeper enzyme involved in altered glucose metabolism in tumors. There are four isoforms of PDK (1 to 4) in humans. PDK phosphorylates E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and inactivates it. PDC decarboxylates pyruvate to acetyl CoA, which is further metabolized in mitochondria. Overexpression of PDK was observed in several tumors and is frequently associated with chemotherapy related drug resistance, invasion and metastasis. Elevated expression of PDK leads to a shift in glucose metabolism towards glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation. This review summarizes recent literature related to the role of PDKs in cancer and their inhibition as a strategy. In particular, we discuss the role of PDK in tumor progression, metabolic reprogramming in stem cells, and their regulation by miRNAs and lncRNAs, oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Further, we review strategies aimed at targeting PDK to halt tumor growth and progression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Targeting 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin.

    PubMed

    Elf, S; Lin, R; Xia, S; Pan, Y; Shan, C; Wu, S; Lonial, S; Gaddh, M; Arellano, M L; Khoury, H J; Khuri, F R; Lee, B H; Boggon, T J; Fan, J; Chen, J

    2017-01-12

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is crucial for cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. We recently reported that targeting a key oxidative PPP enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), using our novel small-molecule 6PGD inhibitors Physcion and its derivative S3, shows anticancer effects. Notably, humans with genetic deficiency of either 6PGD or another oxidative PPP enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, exhibit non-immune hemolytic anemia upon exposure to aspirin and various antimalarial drugs. Inspired by these clinical observations, we examined the anticancer potential of combined treatment with 6PGD inhibitors and antimalarial drugs. We found that stable knockdown of 6PGD sensitizes leukemia cells to antimalarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Combined treatment with DHA and Physcion activates AMP-activated protein kinase, leading to synergistic inhibition of human leukemia cell viability. Moreover, our combined therapy synergistically attenuates tumor growth in xenograft nude mice injected with human K562 leukemia cells and cell viability of primary leukemia cells from human patients, but shows minimal toxicity to normal hematopoietic cells in mice as well as red blood cells and mononucleocytes from healthy human donors. Our findings reveal the potential for combined therapy using optimized doses of Physcion and DHA as a novel antileukemia treatment without inducing hemolysis.

  17. Retinaldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Deficiency Inhibits PPARγ-Mediated Bone Loss and Marrow Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Le, Phuong T.; Wang, Hong; Issacsohn, Maya J.; Reeder, David J.; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W.; Brown, Jonathan D.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Plutzky, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ, a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, regulates fundamental aspects of bone homeostasis and skeletal remodeling. PPARγ-activating anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones in clinical use promote marrow adiposity, bone loss, and skeletal fractures. As such, delineating novel regulatory pathways that modulate the action of PPARγ, and its obligate heterodimeric partner RXR, may have important implications for our understanding and treatment of disorders of low bone mineral density. We present data here establishing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1) and its substrate retinaldehyde (Rald) as novel determinants of PPARγ-RXR actions in the skeleton. When compared to wild type (WT) controls, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (Aldh1a1−/−) mice were protected against bone loss and marrow adiposity induced by either the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone or a high fat diet, both of which potently activate the PPARγ-RXR complex. Consistent with these results, Rald, which accumulates in vivo in Aldh1a1−/− mice, protects against rosiglitazone-mediated inhibition of osteoblastogenesis in vitro. In addition, Rald potently inhibits in vitro adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in WT mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respectively. Primary Aldh1a1−/− HSCs also demonstrate impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro compared to WT controls. Collectively, these findings identify Rald and retinoid metabolism through Aldh1a1 as important novel modulators of PPARγ-RXR transactivation in the marrow niche. PMID:25064526

  18. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 deficiency inhibits PPARγ-mediated bone loss and marrow adiposity.

    PubMed

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Le, Phuong T; Wang, Hong; Issacsohn, Maya J; Reeder, David J; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    PPARγ, a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, regulates fundamental aspects of bone homeostasis and skeletal remodeling. PPARγ-activating anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones in clinical use promote marrow adiposity, bone loss, and skeletal fractures. As such, delineating novel regulatory pathways that modulate the action of PPARγ, and its obligate heterodimeric partner RXR, may have important implications for our understanding and treatment of disorders of low bone mineral density. We present data here establishing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1) and its substrate retinaldehyde (Rald) as novel determinants of PPARγ-RXR actions in the skeleton. When compared to wild type (WT) controls, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-)) mice were protected against bone loss and marrow adiposity induced by either the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone or a high fat diet, both of which potently activate the PPARγ-RXR complex. Consistent with these results, Rald, which accumulates in vivo in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, protects against rosiglitazone-mediated inhibition of osteoblastogenesis in vitro. In addition, Rald potently inhibits in vitro adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in WT mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respectively. Primary Aldh1a1(-/-) HSCs also demonstrate impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro compared to WT controls. Collectively, these findings identify Rald and retinoid metabolism through Aldh1a1 as important novel modulators of PPARγ-RXR transactivation in the marrow niche. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and characterization of thermostable glucose dehydrogenases from thermophilic filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Kazumichi; Iwasa, Hisanori; Sasaki, Noriko; Kinoshita, Nao; Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Yokoyama, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH), which contains FAD as a cofactor, catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-1,5-lactone, and plays an important role in biosensors measuring blood glucose levels. In order to obtain a novel FAD-GDH gene homolog, we performed degenerate PCR screening of genomic DNAs from 17 species of thermophilic filamentous fungi. Two FAD-GDH gene homologs were identified and cloned from Talaromyces emersonii NBRC 31232 and Thermoascus crustaceus NBRC 9129. We then prepared the recombinant enzymes produced by Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Absorption spectra and enzymatic assays revealed that the resulting enzymes contained oxidized FAD as a cofactor and exhibited glucose dehydrogenase activity. The transition midpoint temperatures (T m ) were 66.4 and 62.5 °C for glycosylated FAD-GDHs of T. emersonii and T. crustaceus prepared by using P. pastoris as a host, respectively. Therefore, both FAD-GDHs exhibited high thermostability. In conclusion, we propose that these thermostable FAD-GDHs could be ideal enzymes for use as thermotolerant glucose sensors with high accuracy.

  20. Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: Biochemical–Molecular–Clinical Disease Mechanisms, Redox Regulation, and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Pearl, Phillip L.; Jensen, Kimmo; Snead, O. Carter; Malaspina, Patrizia; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1, ALDH5A1; E.C. 1.2.1.24; OMIM 610045, 271980) deficiency is a rare heritable disorder that disrupts the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Identified in conjunction with increased urinary excretion of the GABA analog gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), numerous patients have been identified worldwide and the autosomal-recessive disorder has been modeled in mice. The phenotype is one of nonprogressive neurological dysfunction in which seizures may be prominently displayed. The murine model is a reasonable phenocopy of the human disorder, yet the severity of the seizure disorder in the mouse exceeds that observed in SSADH-deficient patients. Abnormalities in GABAergic and GHBergic neurotransmission, documented in patients and mice, form a component of disease pathophysiology, although numerous other disturbances (metabolite accumulations, myelin abnormalities, oxidant stress, neurosteroid depletion, altered bioenergetics, etc.) are also likely to be involved in developing the disease phenotype. Most recently, the demonstration of a redox control system in the SSADH protein active site has provided new insights into the regulation of SSADH by the cellular oxidation/reduction potential. The current review summarizes some 30 years of research on this protein and disease, addressing pathological mechanisms in human and mouse at the protein, metabolic, molecular, and whole-animal level. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 691–718. PMID:20973619