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Sample records for a2 activates p38

  1. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-08-15

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  2. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-01-01

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  3. EphA2 modulates radiosensitive of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiao; Li, Xiangjun; Cao, Peiguo

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) in the modulation of radiosensitivity of hepatic cellular cancer (HCC) cells and to determine whether p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling mediated EphA2 function in this respect. The protein expressions of EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were tested in HCC and normal hepatic tissues. In HCC 97H cells, EphA2 was overexpressed and knocked out by transfection with EphA2 expression vector and EphA2-ShRNA, respectively, prior to cell exposure to low-dose irradiation. Significantly upregulated EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were observed in HCC tissues, compared with those in normal hepatic tissues. Low-dose irradiation (1 Gy) only caused minor damage to HCC 97H cells, as assessed by alterations in cell viability, apoptosis rate, and cell healing capacity (p = 0.072, p = 0.078, and p = 0.069 respectively). However, EphA2 knock-out in HCC 97H cells induced significant reduction in cell viability and cell healing capacity after these cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation. Apoptosis rate underwent dramatic increase (p < 0.01). By contrast, EphA2 overexpression in HCC 97H cells reversed these effects and enhanced cell colony formation rate, thus displaying remarkable attenuation of radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells. Further, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, was added to HCC 97H cells over-expressing EphA2. The effect of EphA2 overexpression on the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells was abrogated. Thus, the present study indicates that EphA2 have the ability to negatively regulate the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells, which mainly depends on 38MAPK-mediated signal pathways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction caused by beta-amyloid peptides via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Canas, Paula M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Cunha, Geanne M A; Silva, Carla G; Machado, Nuno J; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2009-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory impairment, neurochemically by accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (namely Abeta(1-42)) and morphologically by an initial loss of nerve terminals. Caffeine consumption prevents memory dysfunction in different models, which is mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which are located in synapses. Thus, we now tested whether A(2A)R blockade prevents the early Abeta(1-42)-induced synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction and what are the underlying signaling pathways. The intracerebral administration of soluble Abeta(1-42) (2 nmol) in rats or mice caused, 2 weeks later, memory impairment (decreased performance in the Y-maze and object recognition tests) and a loss of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP-25) without overt neuronal loss, astrogliosis, or microgliosis. These were prevented by pharmacological blockade [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261); 0.05 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), i.p.; for 15 d] in rats, and genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs in mice. Moreover, these were synaptic events since purified nerve terminals acutely exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm) displayed mitochondrial dysfunction, which was prevented by A(2A)R blockade. SCH58261 (50 nm) also prevented the initial synaptotoxicity (loss of MAP-2, synaptophysin, and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity) and subsequent loss of viability of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm). This A(2A)R-mediated control of neurotoxicity involved the control of Abeta(1-42)-induced p38 phosphorylation and was independent from cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway. Together, these results show that A(2A)Rs play a crucial role in the development of Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity leading to memory dysfunction through a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway and provide a molecular basis for the benefits of caffeine consumption in AD.

  5. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  6. TES inhibits colorectal cancer progression through activation of p38.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Huang, Kun; Gao, Lu; Wang, Lixia; Niu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hongli; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Jiliang

    2016-07-19

    The human TESTIN (TES) gene has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor based on its location at a common fragile site - a region where loss of heterozygosity has been detected in numerous types of tumors. To investigate its role in colorectal cancer (CRC), we examined TES protein levels in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. We observed that TES was markedly reduced in both CRC tissue and cell lines. Additionally, overexpression of TES significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while increasing cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells. By contrast, shRNA-mediated TES knockdown elicited the opposite effects. TES inhibited the progression of CRC by up-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins, down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, and simultaneously activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Collectively, these data indicate that TES functions as a necessary suppressor of CRC progression by activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. This suggests that TES may have a potential application in CRC diagnosis and targeted gene therapy.

  7. TES inhibits colorectal cancer progression through activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Wang, Lixia; Niu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hongli; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    The human TESTIN (TES) gene has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor based on its location at a common fragile site – a region where loss of heterozygosity has been detected in numerous types of tumors. To investigate its role in colorectal cancer (CRC), we examined TES protein levels in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. We observed that TES was markedly reduced in both CRC tissue and cell lines. Additionally, overexpression of TES significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while increasing cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells. By contrast, shRNA-mediated TES knockdown elicited the opposite effects. TES inhibited the progression of CRC by up-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins, down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, and simultaneously activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Collectively, these data indicate that TES functions as a necessary suppressor of CRC progression by activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. This suggests that TES may have a potential application in CRC diagnosis and targeted gene therapy. PMID:27323777

  8. Chk1 inhibition activates p53 through p38 MAPK in tetraploid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Criollo, Alfredo; Vivet, Sonia; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-07-01

    We have previously shown that tetraploid cancer cells succumb through a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway when checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is depleted by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or inhibited with 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01). Here, we demonstrate that Chk1 inhibition results in the activating phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Depletion of p38 MAPK by transfection with a siRNA targeting the alpha isoform of p38 MAPK (p38alpha MAPK) abolishes the phosphorylation of p53 on serines 15 and 46 that is induced by Chk1 knockdown. The siRNA-mediated downregulation and pharmacological inhibition of p38alpha MAPK (with SB 203580) also reduces cell death induced by Chk1 knockdown or UCN-01. These results underscore the role of p38 MAPK as a pro-apoptotic kinase in the p53-dependant pathway for the therapeutic elimination of polyploidy cells.

  9. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) overexpression in clinical staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Muzakkir, M. M.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular biological research on nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been widely practiced, such as VEGF, EGFR, COX-2 expression and so on. MAPK plays a role in cell growth such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, primarily contributing to gene expression, where p38 MAPK pathway mostly associate with anti-apoptosis and cause cell transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of p38 MAPK in clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma so that the result can be helpful in prognosis and adjunctive therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The research design is descriptive. It was done in THT- KL Department of FK USU/RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan and Pathology Anatomical Department of FK USU. The study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012. The Samples are all patients who diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in oncology division of Otorhinolaryngology Department. p38 MAPK overexpression was found in 21 samples (70%) from 30 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. The elevated of p38 MAPK expression most found on T4 by eight samples (38.1%), N3 lymph node group by nine samples (42.9%), stage IV of clinical staging is as many as 15 samples (71.4%). p38 MAPK most expressed in stage IV clinical staging of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  10. A Conserved p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Regulates Drosophila Immunity Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiqiang Stanley; Enslen, Hervé; Hu, Xiaodi; Meng, Xiangjun; Wu, I-Huan; Barrett, Tamera; Davis, Roger J.; Ip, Y. Tony

    1998-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the insect and mammalian innate immune response is mediated by homologous regulatory components. Proinflammatory cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulate mammalian immunity by activating transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1. One of the responses evoked by these stimuli is the initiation of a kinase cascade that leads to the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase on Thr and Tyr within the motif Thr-Gly-Tyr, which is located within subdomain VIII. We have investigated the possible involvement of the p38 MAP kinase pathway in the Drosophila immune response. Two genes that are highly homologous to the mammalian p38 MAP kinase were molecularly cloned and characterized. Furthermore, genes that encode two novel Drosophila MAP kinase kinases, D-MKK3 and D-MKK4, were identified. D-MKK3 is an efficient activator of both Drosophila p38 MAP kinases, while D-MKK4 is an activator of D-JNK but not D-p38. These data establish that Drosophila indeed possesses a conserved p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway. We have examined the role of the D-p38 MAP kinases in the regulation of insect immunity. The results revealed that one of the functions of D-p38 is to attenuate antimicrobial peptide gene expression following exposure to lipopolysaccharide. PMID:9584193

  11. TAO kinases mediate activation of p38 in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Malavika; Earnest, Svetlana; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yingming; Cobb, Melanie H

    2007-01-01

    Thousand and one amino acid (TAO) kinases are Ste20p-related MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3Ks) that activate p38 MAPK. Here we show that the TAO kinases mediate the activation of p38 in response to various genotoxic stimuli. TAO kinases are activated acutely by ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and hydroxyurea. Full-length and truncated fragments of dominant negative TAOs inhibit the activation of p38 by DNA damage. Inhibition of TAO expression by siRNA also decreases p38 activation by these agents. Cells in which TAO kinases have been knocked down are less capable of engaging the DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint and display increased sensitivity to IR. The DNA damage kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phosphorylates TAOs in vitro; radiation induces phosphorylation of TAO on a consensus site for phosphorylation by the ATM protein kinase in cells; and TAO and p38 activation is compromised in cells from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia that lack ATM. These findings indicate that TAO kinases are regulators of p38-mediated responses to DNA damage and are intermediates in the activation of p38 by ATM. PMID:17396146

  12. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  13. Docking, synthesis and pharmacological activity of novel urea-derivatives designed as p38 MAPK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Lopes, Raquel; Romeiro, Nelilma Correia; de Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Louback da Silva, Leandro; de Miranda, Ana Luisa Palhares; Nascimento, Paulo Gustavo B D; Cunha, Fernando Q; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia Moreira

    2012-08-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) is an important signal transducing enzyme involved in many cellular regulations, including signaling pathways, pain and inflammation. Several p38 MAPK inhibitors have been developed as drug candidates to treatment of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper we reported the docking, synthesis and pharmacological activity of novel urea-derivatives (4a-e) designed as p38 MAPK inhibitors. These derivatives presented good theoretical affinity to the target p38 MAPK, standing out compound 4e (LASSBio-998), which showed a better score value compared to the prototype GK-00687. This compound was able to reduce in vitro TNF-α production and was orally active in a hypernociceptive murine model sensible to p38 MAPK inhibitors. Otherwise, compound 4e presented a dose-dependent analgesic effect in a model of antigen (mBSA)-induced arthritis and anti-inflammatory profile in carrageenan induced paw edema, indicating its potential as a new antiarthritis prototype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanyan; Yu, Tao; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Byong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:24771982

  15. Various stressors rapidly activate the p38-MAPK signaling pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.).

    PubMed

    Gaitanaki, Catherine; Kefaloyianni, Erene; Marmari, Athina; Beis, Isidoros

    2004-05-01

    The stimulation of p38-MAPK signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve M. galloprovincialis. Oxidative stress (5 microM H2O2) induced a biphasic pattern of p38-MAPK phosphorylation with maximal values attained at 15 min (8.1-fold) and 1 h (8.0-fold) of treatment respectively. Furthermore, 1 microM SB203580 abolished the p38-MAPK phosphorylation induced by oxidative stress. Aerial exposure also induced a biphasic pattern of p38-MAPK phosphorylation, with maximal values attained at 1 h (6.8-fold) and 8 h (4.9-fold) respectively. Re-oxygenation following a 15 min of aerial exposure resulted in the progressive dephosphorylation of the kinase. Treatment with 0.5 M sorbitol (in normal seawater) induced the rapid kinase phosphorylation (9.2-fold) and this effect was reversible. Seawater salinities varying between 100-60% had no effect, whereas a salinity of 50% induced a significant p38-MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, hypertonicity (120% seawater) resulted in a moderate kinase phosphorylation. All the above results demonstrate for the first time in a marine invertebrate imposed to environmental and other forms of stress as an intact, living organism, that the p38-MAPK pathway is specifically activated by various stressful stimuli which this animal can often face and sustain in vivo.

  16. Activation of p38 in C2C12 myotubes following ATP depletion depends on extracellular glucose.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia George; Burkholder, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Muscle cells adjust their glucose metabolism in response to myriad stimuli, and particular attention has been paid to glucose metabolism after contraction, ATP depletion, and insulin stimulation. Each of these requires translocation of GLUT4 to the cell membrane, and may require activation of glucose transporters by p38. In contrast, AICAR stimulates glucose transport without activation of p38, suggesting that p38 activation may be an indirect consequence of accelerated glucose transport or metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of AMPK and p38 to ATP homeostasis and glucose metabolism to test the hypothesis that p38 reflects glycolytic activity rather than controls glucose uptake. Treating mature myotubes with rotenone caused transient ATP depletion in 15 min with recovery by 120 min, associated with increased lactate production. Both ACC and p38 were rapidly phosphorylated, but ACC remained phosphorylated while p38 phosphorylation declined as ATP recovered. AMPK inhibition blocked ATP recovery, lactate production, and phosphorylation of p38 and ACC. Inhibition of p38 had little effect. AICAR induced ACC phosphorylation, but not lactate production or p38 phosphorylation. Finally, removing extracellular glucose potentiated rotenone-induced AMPK activation, but reduced lactate generation, ATP recovery and p38 activation. Thus, glucose metabolism is highly sensitive to ATP homeostasis via AMPK activity, but p38 activity is dispensable. Although p38 is strongly phosphorylated during ATP depletion, this appears to be an indirect consequence of accelerated glycolysis.

  17. Activation of p38 MAP Kinase is Involved in Central Neuropathic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Eric D; Gwak, Young Seob; Ye, Zaiming; Johnson, Kathia M; Hulsebosch, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    Recent work regarding chronic central neuropathic pain (CNP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) suggests that activation of key signaling molecules such as members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family play a role in the expression of at-level mechanical allodynia. Specifically, Crown and colleagues (2005, 2006) have shown that the development of at-level CNP following moderate spinal cord injury is correlated with increased expression of the activated (and thus phosphorylated) forms of the MAPKs extracellular signal related kinase and p38 MAPK. The current study extends this work by directly examining the role of p38 MAPK in the maintenance of at-level CNP following spinal cord injury. Using a combination of behavioral, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological measures we demonstrate that increased activation of p38 MAPK occurs in the spinal cord just rostral to the site of injury in rats that develop at-level mechanical allodynia after moderate SCI. Immunocytochemical analyses indicate that the increases in p38 MAPK activation occurred in astrocytes, microglia, and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord rostral to the site of injury. Inhibiting the enzymatic activity of p38 MAPK dose dependently reverses the behavioral expression of at-level mechanical allodynia and also decreases the hyperexcitability seen in thoracic dorsal horn neurons after moderate SCI. Taken together, these novel data are the first to demonstrate causality that increased activation of p38 MAPK in multiple cell types play an important role in the maintenance of at-level CNP following spinal cord injury. PMID:18590729

  18. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats

    PubMed Central

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K.; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26300300

  19. Social interaction reward decreases p38 activation in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats.

    PubMed

    Salti, Ahmad; Kummer, Kai K; Sadangi, Chinmaya; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; El Rawas, Rana

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that animals acquired robust conditioned place preference (CPP) to either social interaction alone or cocaine alone. Recently it has been reported that drugs of abuse abnormally activated p38, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in the nucleus accumbens. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the activated form of p38 (pp38) in the nucleus accumbens shell and core of rats expressing either cocaine CPP or social interaction CPP 1 h, 2 h and 24 h after the CPP test. We hypothesized that cocaine CPP will increase pp38 in the nucleus accumbens shell/core as compared to social interaction CPP. Surprisingly, we found that 24 h after social interaction CPP, pp38 neuronal levels were decreased in the nucleus accumbens shell to the level of naïve rats. Control saline rats that received saline in both compartments of the CPP apparatus and cocaine CPP rats showed similar enhanced p38 activation as compared to naïve and social interaction CPP rats. We also found that the percentage of neurons expressing dopaminergic receptor D2R and pp38 was also decreased in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of social interaction CPP rats as compared to controls. Given the emerging role of p38 in stress/anxiety behaviors, these results suggest that (1) social interaction reward has anti-stress effects; (2) cocaine conditioning per se does not affect p38 activation and that (3) marginal stress is sufficient to induce p38 activation in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Manganese overload affects p38 MAPK phosphorylation and metalloproteinase activity during sea urchin embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Pinsino, A; Roccheri, M C; Matranga, V

    2014-02-01

    In the marine environment, manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. In earlier reports we found that the exposure of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos to manganese produced phenotypes with no skeleton. In addition, manganese interfered with calcium uptake, perturbed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, affected the expression of skeletogenic genes, and caused an increase of the hsc70 and hsc60 protein levels. Here, we extended our studies focusing on the temporal activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and the proteolytic activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that manganese affects the stage-dependent dynamics of p38 MAPK activation and inhibits the total gelatin-auto-cleaving activity of MMPs, with the exclusion of the 90-85 kDa and 68-58 kDa MMPs, whose levels remain high all throughout development. Our findings correlate, for the first time to our knowledge, an altered activation pattern of the p38 MAPK with an aberrant MMP proteolytic activity in the sea urchin embryo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extracellular matrix of collagen modulates arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary veins through p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Yu; Chen, Yao-Chang; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Cardiac fibrosis with enhanced extracellular collagen plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of AF through structural and electrical remodeling. Pulmonary veins (PVs) are important foci for AF genesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether collagen can directly modulate PV arrhythmogenesis. Action potentials and ionic currents were investigated in isolated male New Zealand rabbit PV cardiomyocytes with and without collagen incubation (10μg/ml, 5-7h) using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Compared to control PV cardiomyocytes (n=25), collagen-treated PV cardiomyocytes (n=22) had a faster beating rate (3.2±04 vs. 1.9±0.2Hz, p<0.005) and a larger amplitude of delayed afterdepolarization (16±2 vs. 10±1mV, p<0.01). Moreover, collagen-treated PV cardiomyocytes showed a larger transient outward potassium current, small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, inward rectifier potassium current, pacemaker current, and late sodium current than control PV cardiomyocytes, but amplitudes of the sodium current, sustained outward potassium current, and L-type calcium current were similar. Collagen increased the p38 MAPK phosphorylation in PV cardiomyocytes as compared to control. The change of the spontaneous activity and action potential morphology were ameliorated by SB203580 (the p38 MAPK catalytic activity inhibitor), indicating that collagen can directly increase PV cardiomyocyte arrhythmogenesis through p38 MAPK activation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of AF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A sestrin-dependent Erk/Jnk/p38 MAPK activation complex inhibits immunity during ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lanna, Alessio; Gomes, Daniel C O; Muller-Durovic, Bojana; McDonnell, Thomas; Escors, David; Gilroy, Derek W; Lee, Jun Hee; Karin, Michael; Akbar, Arne N

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including Erk, Jnk and p38 regulate diverse cellular functions, and are thought to be controlled by independent upstream activation cascades. Here we show that the sestrins bind to and co-ordinate simultaneous Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPK activation in T lymphocytes within a new immune-inhibitory complex (sestrin-MAPK Activation Complex; sMAC). Whereas sestrin ablation resulted in broad reconstitution of immune function in stressed T cells, inhibition of individual MAPKs only allowed partial functional recovery. T cells from old humans and mice were more likely to form the sMAC, and disruption of this complex restored antigen-specific functional responses in these cells. Correspondingly, sestrin deficiency or simultaneous inhibition of all three MAPKs enhanced vaccine responsiveness in old mice. Thus, disruption of sMAC provides a foundation for rejuvenating immunity during ageing. PMID:28114291

  4. N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole ameliorate hyperglycemia through activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wu, Hsueh-Hsia; Huang, Wei-Jan; Li, Yi-Ning; Lin, Ren-Jye; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2015-03-11

    Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, significantly reversed activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, respectively, in OHC-4p- and OHC-2m-treated cells. Compound C and SB203580 also inhibited glucose uptake induced by OHC-4p and OHC-2m. Next, we found that OHC-4p and OHC-2m significantly increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membranes and counteracted hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK by OHC-4p and OHC-2m is associated with increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation and subsequently led to amelioration of hyperglycemia. Therefore, OHC-4p and OHC-2m might have potential as antidiabetic agents for treating type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies found that osthole markedly reduced blood glucose levels in both db/db and ob/ob mice. To improve the antidiabetic activity of osthole, a series of N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole were synthesized, and their hypoglycemia activities were examined in vitro and in vivo. Both N-hydroxycinnamide derivatives of osthole, OHC-4p and OHC-2m, had the greatest potential for activating AMPK and increasing glucose uptake by L6 skeletal muscle cells. In addition, OHC-4p and OHC-2m time- and dose-dependently increased phosphorylation levels of AMPK and p38 MAPK. The AMPK inhibitor, compound C, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor

  5. Slack sodium-activated potassium channel membrane expression requires p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-04-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Slack Sodium-activated Potassium Channel Membrane Expression Requires p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gururaj, Sushmitha; Fleites, John; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2016-01-01

    p38 MAPK has long been understood as an inducible kinase under conditions of cellular stress, but there is now increasing evidence to support its role in the regulation of neuronal function. Several phosphorylation targets have been identified, an appreciable number of which are ion channels, implicating the possible involvement of p38 MAPK in neuronal excitability. The KNa channel Slack is an important protein to be studied as it is highly and ubiquitously expressed in DRG neurons and is important in the maintenance of their firing accommodation. We sought to examine if the Slack channel could be a substrate of p38 MAPK activity. First, we found that the Slack C-terminus contains two putative p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites that are highly conserved across species. Second, we show via electrophysiology experiments that KNa currents and further, Slack currents, are subject to tonic modulation by p38 MAPK. Third, biochemical approaches revealed that Slack channel regulation by p38 MAPK occurs through direct phosphorylation at the two putative sites of interaction, and mutating both sites prevented surface expression of Slack channels. Based on these results, we conclude that p38 MAPK is an obligate regulator of Slack channel function via the trafficking of channels into the membrane. The present study identifies Slack KNa channels as p38 MAPK substrates. PMID:26721627

  7. Tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells lacking the p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Rhone A; Moody, Emily E; Enriquez, Marlene I; Mejia, Sylvia M; Thordarson, Gudmundur

    2011-01-01

    We have generated cell lines with significantly reduced expression of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), Min-p38 MAPK cells, and used these cells to investigate p38 MAPK's role in tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid producing small interfering RNA that inhibited the expression of p38 MAPK. Control cells were stably transfected with the same plasmid producing non-interfering RNA. The reduction in the p38 MAPK activity caused a significant increase in the expressions of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and the progesterone receptor, but eliminated the expression of ERβ. Min-p38 MAPK cells showed an enhanced overall growth response to 17β-estradiol (E₂), whereas GH plus epidermal growth factor were largely ineffective growth stimulators in these cells compared to controls. Although the long-term net growth rate of the Min-p38 MAPK cells was increased in response to E₂, their proliferation rate was lower compared to controls in short-term cultures. However, the Min-p38 MAPK cells did show a significant decreased rate of apoptosis after E₂ treatment and a reduction in the basal phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein compared to controls. When the Min-p38 MAPK cells were xenografted into E₂-treated athymic nude mice, their tumorigenicity was enhanced compared to control cells. Increased tumorigenicity of Min-p38 MAPK cells was caused mainly by a decrease in the apoptosis rate indicating that the lack of the p38 MAPK caused an imbalance to increase the ERα:ERβ ratio and a reduction in the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.

  8. Thrombin-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation is mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Yasunari; Mizuno, Katsushige; Kuroki, Yasutomi; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2001-01-01

    Thrombin is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and has been implicated its pathogenic role in vascular remodelling. However, the signalling pathways by which thrombin mediates its mitogenic response are not fully understood.We have previously reported that thrombin activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) by a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK has a role in thrombin-induced mitogenic response in rat VSMC.In the present study, we examine the involvement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in thrombin-induced p38 MAPK activation. We found that thrombin induced EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (transactivation) in A10 cells, a clonal VSMC cell line. A selective inhibitor of EGF receptor kinase (AG1478) inhibited the p38 MAPK activation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it had no effect on the response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). EGF receptor phosphorylation induced by thrombin was inhibited by BAPTA-AM and GF109203X, which suggest a requirement for intracellular Ca2+ increase and protein kinase C.We next examined the effect of AG1478 on thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. AG1478 inhibited thrombin-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, PDGF-induced DNA synthesis was not affected by AG1478.In conclusion, these data suggest that the EGF receptor transactivation and subsequent p38 MAPK activation is required for thrombin-induced proliferation of VSMC. PMID:11309236

  9. Constitutive activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells contributes to osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; He, Jin; Wang, Ji; Cao, Yabing; Ling, Jianhua; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Zheng, Yuhuan; Lan, Yongsheng; Hong, Sungyoul; Matthews, Jairo; Starbuck, Michael W; Navone, Nora M; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Lin, Pei; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma and affects more than 80% of patients. However, current therapy is unable to completely cure and/or prevent bone lesions. Although it is accepted that myeloma cells mediate bone destruction by inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that constitutive activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in myeloma cells is responsible for myeloma-induced osteolysis. Our results show that p38 is constitutively activated in most myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells from patients. Myeloma cells with high/detectable p38 activity, but not those with low/undetectable p38 activity, injected into SCID or SCID-hu mice caused bone destruction. Inhibition or knockdown of p38 in human myeloma reduced or prevented myeloma-induced osteolytic bone lesions without affecting tumor growth, survival, or homing to bone. Mechanistic studies showed that myeloma cell p38 activity inhibited osteoblastogenesis and bone formation and activated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in myeloma-bearing SCID mice. This study elucidates a novel molecular mechanism—sactivation of p38 signaling in myeloma cells—by which myeloma cells induce osteolytic bone lesions and indicates that targeting myeloma cell p38 may be a viable approach to treating or preventing myeloma bone disease. PMID:22425892

  10. Tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells lacking the p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Rhone A; Moody, Emily E; Enriquez, Marlene I; Mejia, Sylvia M; Thordarson, Gudmundur

    2011-01-01

    We have generated cell lines with significantly reduced expression of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), Min-p38 MAPK cells, and used these cells to investigate its role in tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid producing small interfering RNA that inhibited the expression of p38 MAPK. Control cells were stably transfected with the same plasmid producing non-interfering RNA. The reduction in the p38 MAPK activity caused a significant increase in the expressions of the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and the progesterone receptor, but eliminated the expression of the ERβ. Min-p38 MAPK cells showed an enhanced overall growth response to 17β-estradiol (E2), whereas growth hormone plus epidermal growth factor were largely ineffective growth stimulators in these cells compared to controls. Although the long-term net growth rate of the Min-p38 MAPK cells was increased in response to E2, their proliferation rate was not different from controls in short-term cultures. However, the Min-p38 MAPK cells did show a significant decreased rate of apoptosis after E2 treatment and a reduction in the basal phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein compared to controls. When the Min-p38 MAPK cells were xenografted into E2-treated athymic nude mice, their tumorigenicity was enhanced compared to control cells. Conclusions: increased tumorigenicity of Min-p38 MAPK cells was caused mainly by a decrease in apoptosis rate indicating that the lack of the p38 MAPK caused an imbalance to increase the ERα:ERβ ratio and a reduction in the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. PMID:20974639

  11. Dual p38/JNK Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitors Prevent Ozone-Induced Airway Hyperreactivity in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Verhein, Kirsten C.; Salituro, Francesco G.; Ledeboer, Mark W.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity and increases hospitalizations resulting from pulmonary complications. Ozone reacts with the epithelial lining fluid and airway epithelium to produce reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, which then activate cell signaling pathways, including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Both p38 and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) are MAPK family members that are activated by cellular stress and inflammation. To test the contribution of both p38 and JNK MAPK to ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, guinea pigs were pretreated with dual p38 and JNK MAPK inhibitors (30 mg/kg, ip) 60 minutes before exposure to 2 ppm ozone or filtered air for 4 hours. One day later airway reactivity was measured in anesthetized animals. Ozone caused airway hyperreactivity one day post-exposure, and blocking p38 and JNK MAPK completely prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity. Blocking p38 and JNK MAPK also suppressed parasympathetic nerve activity in air exposed animals, suggesting p38 and JNK MAPK contribute to acetylcholine release by airway parasympathetic nerves. Ozone inhibited neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors and blocking both p38 and JNK prevented M2 receptor dysfunction. Neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage was not affected by MAPK inhibitors. Thus p38 and JNK MAPK mediate ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity through multiple mechanisms including prevention of neuronal M2 receptor dysfunction. PMID:24058677

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, 234 G.M. Trout Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1224; Gray, Jennifer S.

    2006-06-15

    The effects of the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated IL-8 expression were investigated in cloned human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). DON (250 to 1000 ng/ml) induced both IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA), an indicator of IL-8 transcription, in the human U937 monocytic cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of IL-8 hnRNA, mRNA and protein correlated with p38 phosphorylation and was completely abrogated by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. DON at 500 ng/ml similarly induced p38-dependent IL-8 protein and mRNA expression in PBMC cultures from healthy volunteers. Significantly increased IL-6 andmore » IL-1{beta} intracellular protein and mRNA expression was also observed in PBMC treated with DON (500 ng/ml) which were also partially p38-dependent. Flow cytometry of PBMC revealed that DON-induced p38 phosphorylation varied among individuals relative to both threshold toxin concentrations (25-100 ng/ml) and relative increases in percentages of phospho-p38{sup +} cells. DON-induced p38 activation occurred exclusively in the CD14{sup +} monocyte population. DON was devoid of agonist activity for human Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9. However, two other ribotoxins, emetine and anisomycin, induced p38 phosphorylation in PBMC similarly to DON. Taken together, these data suggest that (1) p38 activation was required for induction of IL-8 and proinflammatory gene expression in the monocyte and (2) DON induced p38 activation in human monocytes via the ribotoxic stress response.« less

  13. Rat mesothelioma cell proliferation requires p38δ mitogen activated protein kinase and C/EBP-α.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Szilard, John; Tamm, Michael; Roth, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Pleural malignant mesothelioma is a rare but deadly tumour mainly induced by asbestos inhalation. Despite the ban of asbestos in 1990 in 52 countries, mesothelioma cases still increase worldwide. In pleural mesothelioma, p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) have been suggested to play a major role in carcinogenesis and aggressiveness of tumours. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the different four p38 MAPK isoforms and their effect on proliferation together with the underlying signalling pathways in a rat pleural mesothelioma cell line. Rat pleural mesothelioma cells were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and/or transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β. MAPK and transcription factor expression and activation was monitored in the cytosol and nucleus by immuno-blotting. Proliferation was determined by manual cell count and siRNAs were used to control MAPK and transcription factor expression and action. Only PDGF-BB, but not TGF-β1 induced proliferation via activated Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK. The p38α and δ isoforms were expressed in the cytosol, and upon activation p38δ translocated into the nucleus, while p38α remained in the cytosol. No other p38 isoform was expressed by rat mesothelioma cells. C/EBP-α was found in both the cytosol and the nucleus, while C/EBP-β was not expressed at all. PDGF-BB induced proliferation was suppressed by down-regulation of either Erk1/2, or p38δ MAPK, or C/EBP-α. Furthermore, TGF-β inhibited PDGF-BB induced proliferation by interruption of p38 MAPK signalling. From this rat model, we conclude that in pleural mesothelioma, p38δ in C/EBP-α mediate proliferation and thus may represent new targets in mesothelioma therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serine 209 resides within a putative p38(MAPK) consensus motif and regulates monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xia; Rui, Lewei; Pennington, Paul R; Chlan-Fourney, Jennifer; Jiang, Zhongjian; Wei, Zelan; Li, Xin-Min; Edmondson, Dale E; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2009-10-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade as well as the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) have both been associated with oxidative stress. We observed that the specific inhibition of the p38(MAPK) protein [using either a chemical inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38(MAPK) clone] selectively induces MAO-A activity and MAO-A-sensitive toxicity in several neuronal cell lines, including primary cortical neurons. Over-expression of a constitutively active p38(MAPK) results in the phosphorylation of the MAO-A protein and inhibition of MAO-A activity. The MAO-A(Ser209Glu) phosphomimic - bearing a targeted substitution within a putative p38(MAPK) consensus motif - is neither active nor neurotoxic. In contrast, the MAO-A(Ser209Ala) variant (mimics dephosphorylation) does not associate with p38(MAPK), and is both very active and very toxic. Substitution of the homologous serine in the MAO-B isoform, i.e. Ser200, with either Glu or Ala does not affect the catalytic activity of the corresponding over-expressed proteins. These combined in vitro data strongly suggest a direct p38(MAPK)-dependent inhibition of MAO-A function. Based on published observations, this endogenous means of selectively regulating MAO-A function could provide for an adaptive response to oxidative stress associated with disorders as diverse as depression, reperfusion/ischemia, and the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

  15. N-acetylcysteine attenuates TNF-α-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shu; Gon, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Ken; Takeshita, Ikuko; Horie, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 generated by TNF-α can act as signalling intermediates for cytokine induction; therefore, scavenging ROS by anti-oxidants is important for the regulation of cytokine production. However, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts as a precursor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, on TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells has not been determined. To clarify these issues, we examined the effect of NAC on TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6 which are upstream regulators of p38 MAP kinase, and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production. Human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells that had been preincubated with NAC were stimulated with TNF-α and then the activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6 in the cells and IL-8 concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. Intracellular GSH levels increased in NAC-treated cells. NAC attenuated TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6. NAC attenuated p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by TNF-α-stimulated cells. These results indicate that the cellular reduction and oxidation (redox) regulated by intracellular GSH is critical for TNF-α-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and we emphasize that anti-oxidant therapy is an important strategy for the treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:11156586

  16. N-acetylcysteine attenuates TNF-alpha-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Gon, Y; Matsumoto, K; Takeshita, I; Horie, T

    2001-01-01

    1. We have previously shown that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activates p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H(2)O(2) generated by TNF-alpha can act as signalling intermediates for cytokine induction; therefore, scavenging ROS by anti-oxidants is important for the regulation of cytokine production. However, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts as a precursor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, on TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells has not been determined. To clarify these issues, we examined the effect of NAC on TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase, MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6 which are upstream regulators of p38 MAP kinase, and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production. 2. Human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells that had been preincubated with NAC were stimulated with TNF-alpha and then the activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6 in the cells and IL-8 concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. 3. Intracellular GSH levels increased in NAC-treated cells. 4. NAC attenuated TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase and MKK3/MKK6. 5. NAC attenuated p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by TNF-alpha-stimulated cells. 6. These results indicate that the cellular reduction and oxidation (redox) regulated by intracellular GSH is critical for TNF-alpha-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase pathway and p38 MAP kinase-mediated IL-8 production by human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, and we emphasize that anti-oxidant therapy is an important strategy for the treatment of acute lung injury.

  17. Kappa Opioid Receptor Activation of p38 MAPK Is GRK3- and Arrestin-dependent in Neurons and Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Bruchas, Michael R.; Macey, Tara A.; Lowe, Janet D.; Chavkin, Charles

    2007-01-01

    AtT-20 cells expressing the wild-type kappa opioid receptor (KOR) increased phospho-p38 MAPK following treatment with the kappa agonist U50,488. The increase was blocked by the kappa antagonist norbinaltorphimine and not evident in untransfected cells. In contrast, U50,488 treatment of AtT-20 cells expressing KOR having alanine substituted for serine-369 (KSA) did not increase phospho-p38. Phosphorylation of serine 369 in the KOR carboxyl terminus by G-protein receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) was previously shown to be required for receptor desensitization, and the results suggest that p38 MAPK activation by KOR may require arrestin recruitment. This hypothesis was tested by transfecting arrestin3-(R170E), a dominant positive form of arrestin that does not require receptor phosphorylation for activation. AtT-20 cells expressing both KSA and arrestin3-(R170E) responded to U50,488 treatment with an increase in phospho-p38 consistent with the hypothesis. Primary cultured astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive) and neurons (γ-aminobutyric acid-positive) isolated from mouse striata also responded to U50,488 by increasing phospho-p38 immunolabeling. p38 activation was not evident in either striatal astrocytes or neurons isolated from KOR knock-out mice or GRK3 knock-out mice. Astrocytes pretreated with small interfering RNA for arrestin3 were also unable to activate p38 in response to U50,488 treatment. Furthermore, in striatal neurons, the kappa-mediated phospho-p38 labeling was colocalized with arrestin3. These findings suggest that KOR may activate p38 MAPK in brain by a GRK3 and arrestin-dependent mechanism. PMID:16648139

  18. Galectin-9 exhibits anti-myeloma activity through JNK and p38 MAP kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kuroda, J; Ashihara, E; Oomizu, S; Terui, Y; Taniyama, A; Adachi, S; Takagi, T; Yamamoto, M; Sasaki, N; Horiike, S; Hatake, K; Yamauchi, A; Hirashima, M; Taniwaki, M

    2010-04-01

    Galectins constitute a family of lectins that specifically exhibit the affinity for beta-galactosides and modulate various biological events. Galectin-9 is a tandem-repeat type galectin with two carbohydrate recognition domains and has recently been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. We investigated the effect of recombinant protease-resistant galectin-9 (hGal9) on multiple myeloma (MM). In vitro, hGal9 inhibited the cell proliferation of five myeloma cell lines examined, including a bortezomib-resistant subcell line, with IC(50) between 75.1 and 280.0 nM, and this effect was mediated by the induction of apoptosis with the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3. hGal9-activated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK signaling pathways followed by H2AX phosphorylation. Importantly, the inhibition of either JNK or p38 MAPK partly inhibited the anti-proliferative effect of hGal9, indicating the crucial role of these pathways in the anti-MM effect of hGal9. hGal9 also induced cell death in patient-derived myeloma cells, some with poor-risk factors, such as chromosomal deletion of 13q or translocation t(4;14)(p16;q32). Finally, hGal9 potently inhibited the growth of human myeloma cells xenografted in nude mice. These suggest that hGal9 is a new therapeutic target for MM that may overcome resistance to conventional chemotherapy.

  19. PKCalpha-mediated ERK, JNK and p38 activation regulates the myogenic program in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Annunziata; Ciccarelli, Carmela; De Cesaris, Paola; Scoglio, Arianna; Bouché, Marina; Molinaro, Mario; Aquino, Angelo; Zani, Bianca Maria

    2002-09-15

    We have previously suggested that PKCalpha has a role in 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-mediated growth arrest and myogenic differentiation in human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD). Here, by monitoring the signalling pathways triggered by TPA, we demonstrate that PKCalpha mediates these effects by inducing transient activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNKs) and sustained activation of both p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) (all referred to as MAPKs). Activation of MAPKs following ectopic expression of constitutively active PKCalpha, but not its dominant-negative form, is also demonstrated. We investigated the selective contribution of MAPKs to growth arrest and myogenic differentiation by monitoring the activation of MAPK pathways, as well as by dissecting MAPK pathways using MEK1/2 inhibitor (UO126), p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and JNK and p38 agonist (anisomycin) treatments. Growth-arresting signals are triggered either by transient and sustained JNK activation (by TPA and anisomycin, respectively) or by preventing both ERK and JNK activation (UO126) and are maintained, rather than induced, by p38. We therefore suggest a key role for JNK in controlling ERK-mediated mitogenic activity. Notably, sarcomeric myosin expression is induced by both TPA and UO126 but is abrogated by the p38 inhibitor. This finding indicates a pivotal role for p38 in controlling the myogenic program. Anisomycin persistently activates p38 and JNKs but prevents myosin expression induced by TPA. In accordance with this negative role, reactivation of JNKs by anisomycin, in UO126-pre-treated cells, also prevents myosin expression. This indicates that, unlike the transient JNK activation that occurs in the TPA-mediated myogenic process, long-lasting JNK activation supports the growth-arrest state but antagonises p38-mediated myosin expression. Lastly, our results with the MEK inhibitor suggest a key role of the ERK pathway in regulating

  20. Protease Activated Receptor-2 Mediates Activated Protein C–Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing via Inhibition of p38

    PubMed Central

    Julovi, Sohel M.; Xue, Meilang; Dervish, Suat; Sambrook, Philip N.; March, Lyn; Jackson, Christopher John

    2011-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a natural anticoagulant that exerts anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties mediated through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1. APC can also proteolytically cleave PAR-2, although subsequent function is unknown. On the basis of recent evidence that APC promotes wound healing, the aim of this study was to determine whether APC acts through PARs to heal murine excisional wounds or to regulate human cultured keratinocyte function and to determine the signaling mechanisms. Topical administration of APC accelerated wound healing in wild-type mice and, unexpectedly, in PAR-1 knockout mice. PAR-2 knockout mice healed significantly slower than wild-type mice, and healing was not altered by adding APC, indicating that APC acts through PAR-2 to heal wounds. In cultured human primary keratinocytes, APC enhanced PAR-2, stimulated proliferation, activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Src/Akt, and inhibited phosphorylated (P)-p38. Inhibiting PAR-1 or PAR-2, by small-interfering RNA or blocking antibody, reversed APC-induced keratinocyte proliferation and Akt activation. Blocking PAR-2, but not PAR-1, reversed the inhibition of P-p38 by APC. Furthermore, inhibition of P-p38 accelerated wound healing in wild-type mice. In summary, although APC acts through both PAR-1 and PAR-2 to activate Akt and to increase keratinocyte proliferation, APC-induced murine wound healing depends on PAR-2 activity and inhibition of P-p38. PMID:21907694

  1. TMPYP4 exerted antitumor effects in human cervical cancer cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Jun; Cao, Yun-Gui

    2017-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms by which TMPyP4 exerted its actions. After human cervical cancer cells were treated with different doses of TMPyP4, cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry (FCM), and the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), capase-3, MAPKAPK2 (MK-2) and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was measured by Western blot analysis. The analysis revealed that TMPyP4 potently suppressed cell viability and induced the apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the up-regulation of p-p38 MAPK expression levels was detected in TMPyP4-treated human cervical cancer cells. However, followed by the block of p38 MAPK signaling pathway using the inhibitor SB203580, the effects of TMPyP4 on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells were significantly changed. It was indicated that TMPyP4-inhibited proliferation and -induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells was accompanied by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrates that TMPyP4 may represent a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  2. In vitro glycoxidized low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins isolated from type 2 diabetic patients activate platelets via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Catherine; Coulon, Laurent; Halimi, Déborah; Le Coquil, Elodie; Pruneta-Deloche, Valérie; Moulin, Philippe; Ponsin, Gabriel; Véricel, Evelyne; Lagarde, Michel

    2007-05-01

    Platelet hyperactivation contributes to the increased risk for atherothrombosis in type 2 diabetes and is associated with oxidative stress. Plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are exposed to both hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, and their role in platelet activation remains to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LDLs modified by both glycation and oxidation in vitro or in vivo on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade. The activation of platelet p38 MAPK, the stress kinase responsible for the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2), and the concentration of thromboxane B(2), the stable catabolite of the proaggregatory arachidonic acid metabolite thromboxane A(2), were assessed. First, in vitro-glycoxidized LDLs increased the phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK as well as the concentration of thromboxane B(2). Second, LDLs isolated from plasma of poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients stimulated both platelet p38 MAPK phosphorylation and thromboxane B(2) production and possessed high levels of malondialdehyde but normal alpha-tocopherol concentrations. By contrast, LDLs from sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers had no activating effects on platelets. Our results indicate that LDLs modified by glycoxidation may play an important contributing role in platelet hyperactivation observed in type 2 diabetes via activation of p38 MAPK.

  3. Src Family Kinases and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Regulate Pluripotent Cell Differentiation in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Boon Siang Nicholas; Kwek, Joly; Wong, Chong Kum Edwin; Saner, Nicholas J.; Yap, Charlotte; Felquer, Fernando; Morris, Michael B.; Gardner, David K.; Rathjen, Peter D.; Rathjen, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pluripotent cell populations, which together comprise the pluripotent cell lineage, have been identified. The mechanisms that control the progression between these populations are still poorly understood. The formation of early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells provides a model to understand how one such transition is regulated. EPL cells form from mES cells in response to l-proline uptake through the transporter Slc38a2. Using inhibitors of cell signaling we have shown that Src family kinases, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and GSK3β are required for the transition between mES and EPL cells. ERK1/2, c-Src and GSK3β are likely to be enforcing a receptive, primed state in mES cells, while Src family kinases and p38 MAPK are involved in the establishment of EPL cells. Inhibition of these pathways prevented the acquisition of most, but not all, features of EPL cells, suggesting that other pathways are required. L-proline activation of differentiation is mediated through metabolism and changes to intracellular metabolite levels, specifically reactive oxygen species. The implication of multiple signaling pathways in the process suggests a model in which the context of Src family kinase activation determines the outcomes of pluripotent cell differentiation. PMID:27723793

  4. Size uniformity of animal cells is actively maintained by a p38 MAPK-dependent regulation of G1-length.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shixuan; Ginzberg, Miriam Bracha; Patel, Nish; Hild, Marc; Leung, Bosco; Li, Zhengda; Chen, Yen-Chi; Chang, Nancy; Wang, Yuan; Tan, Ceryl; Diena, Shulamit; Trimble, William; Wasserman, Larry; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Kirschner, Marc W; Kafri, Ran

    2018-03-29

    Animal cells within a tissue typically display a striking regularity in their size. To date, the molecular mechanisms that control this uniformity are still unknown. We have previously shown that size uniformity in animal cells is promoted, in part, by size-dependent regulation of G1 length. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this process, we performed a large-scale small molecule screen and found that the p38 MAPK pathway is involved in coordinating cell size and cell cycle progression. Small cells display higher p38 activity and spend more time in G1 than larger cells. Inhibition of p38 MAPK leads to loss of the compensatory G1 length extension in small cells, resulting in faster proliferation, smaller cell size and increased size heterogeneity. We propose a model wherein the p38 pathway responds to changes in cell size and regulates G1 exit accordingly, to increase cell size uniformity. © 2017, Liu et al.

  5. The p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase as a central nervous system drug discovery target.

    PubMed

    Borders, Aaron S; de Almeida, Lucia; Van Eldik, Linda J; Watterson, D Martin

    2008-12-03

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can be a cause or contributor to disease progression in a variety of disorders. This has led to the emergence of protein kinases as an important new class of drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. A serine/threonine protein kinase, p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an established therapeutic target for peripheral inflammatory disorders because of its critical role in regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. There is increasing evidence that p38alpha MAPK is also an important regulator of proinflammatory cytokine levels in the central nervous system, raising the possibility that the kinase may be a drug discovery target for central nervous system disorders where cytokine overproduction contributes to disease progression. Development of bioavailable, central nervous system-penetrant p38alpha MAPK inhibitors provides the required foundation for drug discovery campaigns targeting p38alpha MAPK in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Targeting neuronal MAPK14/p38α activity to modulate autophagy in the Alzheimer disease brain.

    PubMed

    Alam, John; Scheper, Wiep

    2016-12-01

    Dysregulated autophagic-lysosomal degradation of proteins has been linked to the most common genetic defect in familial Alzheimer disease, and has been correlated with disease progression in both human disease and in animal models. Recently, it was demonstrated that the expression of MAPK14/p38α protein is upregulated in the brain of APP-PS1 transgenic Alzheimer mouse and further that genetic deficiency of Mapk14 in the APP-PS1 mouse stimulates macroautophagy/autophagy, which then leads to reduced amyloid pathology via increasing autophagic-lysosomal degradation of BACE1. The findings resolve at least in the context of the APP-PS1 mouse, prior conflicting in vitro observations that have implicated MAPK14 in autophagic processes, and indicate that inhibition of MAPK14 enzyme activity has potential as a therapeutic approach to mitigate a critical physiological defect within neurons of the Alzheimer disease brain. Moreover, the findings suggest that biomarkers of BACE1 activity could be utilized to evaluate the effects of MAPK14 inhibition and other autophagy-inducing therapeutic approaches in human clinical studies, thereby potentially facilitating the clinical development of such agents.

  7. Targeting neuronal MAPK14/p38α activity to modulate autophagy in the Alzheimer disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Alam, John; Scheper, Wiep

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysregulated autophagic-lysosomal degradation of proteins has been linked to the most common genetic defect in familial Alzheimer disease, and has been correlated with disease progression in both human disease and in animal models. Recently, it was demonstrated that the expression of MAPK14/p38α protein is upregulated in the brain of APP-PS1 transgenic Alzheimer mouse and further that genetic deficiency of Mapk14 in the APP-PS1 mouse stimulates macroautophagy/autophagy, which then leads to reduced amyloid pathology via increasing autophagic-lysosomal degradation of BACE1. The findings resolve at least in the context of the APP-PS1 mouse, prior conflicting in vitro observations that have implicated MAPK14 in autophagic processes, and indicate that inhibition of MAPK14 enzyme activity has potential as a therapeutic approach to mitigate a critical physiological defect within neurons of the Alzheimer disease brain. Moreover, the findings suggest that biomarkers of BACE1 activity could be utilized to evaluate the effects of MAPK14 inhibition and other autophagy-inducing therapeutic approaches in human clinical studies, thereby potentially facilitating the clinical development of such agents. PMID:27715387

  8. p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK): A New Therapeutic Target for Reducing the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ramkumar; Papaconstantinou, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remain as a major clinical and therapeutic problem for intervention and management. Current strategies, based on our knowledge of pathways of preterm labor, have only been effective, in part, due to major gaps in our existing knowledge of risks and risk specific pathways. Areas covered Recent literature has identified physiologic aging of fetal tissues as a potential mechanistic feature of normal parturition. This process is affected by telomere dependent and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced senescence activation. Pregnancy associated risk factors can cause pathologic activation of this pathway that can cause oxidative stress induced p38 MAPK activation leading to senescence and premature aging of fetal tissues. Premature aging is associated with sterile inflammation capable of triggering preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Preterm activation of p38MAPK can be considered as a key contributor to adverse pregnancies. Expert Opinion This review considers p38MAPK activation as a potential target for therapeutic interventions to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes mediated by stress factors. In this review, we propose multiple strategies to prevent p38MAPK activation and its functional effects. PMID:27459026

  9. Activation of the p38- pathway by a novel monoketone curcumin analog, EF24, suggests a potential combination strategy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shala L.; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zijian; Lou, Bin; Du, Yuhong; Purcell, Jamie; Snyder, James P.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Liotta, Dennis; Fu, Haian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and the ability of this natural product to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. New curcumin analogs have been developed to optimize the in vitro and in vivo activity of the parent compound yet retain the same safety profile. EF24, a fluorinated synthetic analog, surpasses curcumin in its ability to inhibit cancer cell viability and down-regulate TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Here we report a critical role of the p38-mediated signaling pathway in the determination of lung cancer cell’s sensitivity to EF24. We have found that EF24-induced decease of lung cancer cell viability was accompanied by upregulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Pharmacological investigation led to our suggestion that EF24 triggers a negative feedback loop through p38 activation. In support of this model, inhibition of p38, either by small molecule inhibitors or through an RNAi-mediated knockdown approach, enhanced the EF24 induced apoptotic death of A549 cells. Thus, inhibition of p38 may boost the EF24 anticancer effect. Indeed, a combination of EF24 and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, synergistically inhibited clonogenic activity of A549 lung cancer cells and induced their apoptosis as reflected by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, the accumulation of the sub-G1 fraction of cells, and apoptotic cell staining. These studies offer a novel strategy that combines the curcumin analog EF24 with a p38 inhibitor for potentially enhanced therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:20615389

  10. Activation of the p38 pathway by a novel monoketone curcumin analog, EF24, suggests a potential combination strategy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shala L; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zijian; Lou, Bin; Du, Yuhong; Purcell, Jamie; Snyder, James P; Khuri, Fadlo R; Liotta, Dennis; Fu, Haian

    2010-11-01

    Increasing attention has been given to the anticancer effects of curcumin and the ability of this natural product to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. New curcumin analogs have been developed to optimize the in vitro and in vivo activity of the parent compound yet retain the same safety profile. EF24, a fluorinated synthetic analog, surpasses curcumin in its ability to inhibit cancer cell viability and down-regulate TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. Here we report a critical role of the p38-mediated signaling pathway in the determination of lung cancer cell's sensitivity to EF24. We have found that EF24-induced decease of lung cancer cell viability was accompanied by upregulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Pharmacological investigation led to our suggestion that EF24 triggers a negative feedback loop through p38 activation. In support of this model, inhibition of p38, either by small molecule inhibitors or through an RNAi-mediated knockdown approach, enhanced the EF24-induced apoptotic death of A549 cells. Thus, inhibition of p38 may boost the EF24 anticancer effect. Indeed, a combination of EF24 and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, synergistically inhibited clonogenic activity of A549 lung cancer cells and induced their apoptosis as reflected by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, the accumulation of the sub-G(1) fraction of cells, and apoptotic cell staining. These studies offer a novel strategy that combines the curcumin analog EF24 with a p38 inhibitor for potentially enhanced therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in arginase-II-mediated eNOS-Uncoupling in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-uncoupling links obesity-associated insulin resistance and type-II diabetes to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that increased arginase is involved in eNOS-uncoupling through competing with the substrate L-arginine. Given that arginase-II (Arg-II) exerts some of its biological functions through crosstalk with signal transduction pathways, and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) is involved in eNOS-uncoupling, we investigated here whether p38mapk is involved in Arg-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. Methods Obesity was induced in wild type (WT) and Arg-II-deficient (Arg-II-/-) mice on C57BL/6 J background by high-fat diet (HFD, 55% fat) for 14 weeks starting from age of 7 weeks. The entire aortas were isolated and subjected to 1) immunoblotting analysis of the protein level of eNOS, Arg-II and p38mapk activation; 2) arginase activity assay; 3) endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotor responses; 4) en face staining of superoxide anion and NO production with Dihydroethidium and 4,5-Diaminofluorescein Diacetate, respectively, to assess eNOS-uncoupling. To evaluate the role of p38mapk, isolated aortas were treated with p38mapk inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L, 1 h) prior to the analysis. In addition, the role of p38mapk in Arg-II-induced eNOS-uncoupling was investigated in cultured human endothelial cells overexpressing Arg-II in the absence or presence of shRNA against p38mapk. Results HFD enhanced Arg-II expression/activity and p38mapk activity, which was associated with eNOS-uncoupling as revealed by decreased NO and enhanced L-NAME-inhibitable superoxide in aortas of WT obese mice. In accordance, WT obese mice revealed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine despite of higher eNOS protein level, whereas Arg-II-/- obese mice were protected from HFD-induced eNOS-uncoupling and

  12. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Metastasis Associated with Transforming Growth Factor Beta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Functional Analysis of cells • Expression of HA-tagged TβRI • Signaling (p-Smad2, p- HSP27 , p-p38) • Transcription (SBE-Lux, 3TP-Lux) • Proliferation...when they also affected lls expressing DN-p38alpha phosphorylation of HSP27 was effectively blocked (data not shown). However, cells e studies show...231-ALK5-T204D cells treated with kinase inhibitors U0126, SB202190, SP600125 (JNK). (B) Immunoblot of phospho-Smad2/3, phospho- HSP27 , and alpha

  13. Selective inhibition of ATPase activity during contraction alters the activation of p38 MAP kinase isoforms in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Jeffrey J.; Pizzimenti, Natalie M.; Dentel, John N.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle contractions strongly activate p38 MAP kinases, but the precise contraction-associated sarcoplasmic event(s) (e.g. force production, energetic demands and/or calcium cycling) that activate these kinases are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that during contraction the phosphorylation of p38 isoforms is sensitive to the increase in ATP demand relative to ATP supply. Energetic demands were inhibited using N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS, type II actomyosin) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, SERCA). Extensor digitorum longus muscles from Swiss Webster mice were incubated in Ringer’s solution (37°C) with or without inhibitors and then stimulated at 10 Hz for 15 min. Muscles were immediately freeze-clamped for metabolite and western blot analysis. BTS and BTS+CPA treatment decreased force production by 85%, as measured by the tension time integral, while CPA alone potentiated force by 310%. In control muscles, contractions resulted in a 73% loss of ATP content and a concomitant 7-fold increase in IMP content, a measure of sustained energetic imbalance. BTS or CPA treatment lessened the loss of ATP, but BTS+CPA treatment completely eliminated the energetic imbalance since ATP and IMP levels were nearly equal to those of non-stimulated muscles. The independent inhibition of cytosolic ATPase activities had no effect on contraction-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but combined treatment prevented the increase in phosphorylation of the γ isoform while the α/βisoforms unaffected. These observations suggest that an energetic signal may trigger phosphorylation of the p38γ isoform while other factors are involved in activating the α/β isoforms, and also may explain how contractions differentially activate signaling pathways. PMID:23296747

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P38-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase from Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Lü, Guodong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Chuanshan; Li, Liang; Bi, Xiaojuan; Li, Chaowang; Fan, Jinliang; Lu, Xiaomei; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Lin, Renyong

    2016-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) treatment urgently requires a novel drug. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases, but still have to be characterized in Echinococcus granulosus . We identified a 1,107 bp cDNA encoding a 368 amino acid MAPK protein (Egp38) in E. granulosus . Egp38 exhibits 2 distinguishing features of p38-like kinases: a highly conserved T-X-Y motif and an activation loop segment. Structural homology modeling indicated a conserved structure among Egp38, EmMPK2, and H. sapiens p38α, implying a common binding mechanism for the ligand domain and downstream signal transduction processing similar to that described for p38α. Egp38 and its phosphorylated form are expressed in the E. granulosus larval stages vesicle and protoscolices during intermediate host infection of an intermediate host. Treatment of in vitro cultivated protoscolices with the p38-MAPK inhibitor ML3403 effectively suppressed Egp38 activity and led to significant protoscolices death within 5 days. Treatment of in vitro-cultivated protoscolices with TGF-β1 effectively induced Egp38 phosphorylation. In summary, the MAPK, Egp38, was identified in E. granulosus , as an anti-CE drug target and participates in the interplay between the host and E. granulosus via human TGF-β1.

  15. By activating Fas/ceramide synthase 6/p38 kinase in lipid rafts, Stichoposide D inhibits growth of leukemia xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Park, Eun-Seon; Shin, Sung-Won; Ju, Mi-Ha; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Stonik, Valentin A.; Kwak, Jong-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2015-01-01

    Stichoposide D (STD) is a marine triterpene glycoside isolated from sea cucumbers. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of STD in human leukemia cells. The role of Fas (CD95), ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6) and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis was examined in human leukemia cells. In addition, the antitumor effects of STD in K562 and HL-60 leukemia xenograft models were investigated. We found that STD induces Fas translocation to lipid rafts, and thus mediates cell apoptosis. We also observed the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase during STD-induced apoptosis. The use of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin to disrupt lipid rafts prevents the clustering of Fas and the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase, and also inhibits STD-induced apoptosis. Specific inhibition by Fas, CerS6, and p38 kinase siRNA transfection partially blocked STD-induced apoptosis. In addition, STD has antitumor activity through the activation of CerS6 and p38 kinase without displaying any toxicity in HL-60 and K562 xenograft models. We observed that the anti-tumor effect of STD is partially prevented in CerS6 shRNA-silenced xenograft models. We first report that Fas/CerS6/p38 kinase activation in lipid rafts by STD is involved in its anti-leukemic activity. We also established that STD is able to enhance the chemosensitivity of K562 cells to etoposide or Ara-C. These data suggest that STD may be used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat leukemia. PMID:26318294

  16. Antisense protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B reverses activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in liver of ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Gum, Rebecca J; Gaede, Lori L; Heindel, Matthew A; Waring, Jeffrey F; Trevillyan, James M; Zinker, Bradley A; Stark, Margery E; Wilcox, Denise; Jirousek, Michael R; Rondinone, Cristina M; Ulrich, Roger G

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorylation of stress-activated kinase p38, a MAPK family member, was increased in liver of ob/ob diabetic mice relative to lean littermates. Treatment of ob/ob mice with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) reduced phosphorylation of p38 in liver-to below lean littermate levels-and normalized plasma glucose while reducing plasma insulin. Phosphorylation of ERK, but not JNK, was also decreased in ASO-treated mice. PTP1B ASO decreased TNFalpha protein levels and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in liver, both of which can occur through decreased phosphorylation of p38 and both of which have been implicated in insulin resistance or hyperglycemia. Decreased p38 phosphorylation was not directly due to decreased phosphorylation of the kinases that normally phosphorylate p38-MKK3 and MKK6. Additionally, p38 phosphorylation was not enhanced in liver upon insulin stimulation of ASO-treated ob/ob mice (despite increased activation of other signaling molecules) corroborating that p38 is not directly affected via the insulin receptor. Instead, decreased phosphorylation of p38 may be due to increased expression of MAPK phosphatases, particularly the p38/ERK phosphatase PAC1 (phosphatase of activated cells). This study demonstrates that reduction of PTP1B protein using ASO reduces activation of p38 and its substrates TNFalpha and CREB in liver of diabetic mice, which correlates with decreased hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia.

  17. The activation of p38 MAPK limits the abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high sodium concentrations

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN; ZHOU, JUAN; WANG, HUAN; WU, YUE; GAO, QIYUE; WANG, LIJUN; ZHAO, QIANG; LIU, PEINING; GAO, SHANSHAN; WEN, WEN; ZHANG, WEIPING; LIU, YAN; YUAN, ZUYI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether high sodium levels can directly promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Additional sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to the routine culture medium. Cell proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay. The mRNA expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expression levels of PCNA and phosphorylated c-Jun amino N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were measured by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation assay revealed that Na+ rather than Cl− or osmotic pressure promoted the proliferation of the VSMCs. The high sodium level upregulated the expression of PCNA and the phosphorylation levels of JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. The inhibition of JNK and ERK1/2 decreased PCNA expression. Of note, the inhibition of p38 MAPK using the inhibitor, SB203580, increased PCNA expression. However, when p38 MAPK was activated by anisomycin, PCNA expression was decreased. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that a relatively high sodium level per se directly promotes the proliferation of VSMCs through the JNK/ERK1/2/PCNA pathway. At the same time, this induction of the proliferation of VSMCs due to high sodium levels can be maintained at a low level via the activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:26530729

  18. Insulin-mediated inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase protects cardiomyocytes in severe burns.

    PubMed

    Lv, Gen-fa; Dong, Mao-long; Hu, Da-hai; Zhang, Wan-fu; Wang, Yun-chuan; Tang, Chao-wu; Zhu, Xiong-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Thermal injury inhibits Akt activation and upregulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which in turn induces inflammation and increases apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the cytoprotective role of insulin in severe burns by examining the effects of insulin on inflammation and apoptosis mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in burn serum-challenged cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to burn serum for 6 hours in the presence or absence of insulin and pretreated with inhibitors to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB203580) and Akt (LY294002). The authors examined expression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cardiac myofilament proteins caspase-3 and Bcl2, and apoptosis. Burn serum-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor was inhibited by both SB203580 and insulin. LY294002 reversed insulin-mediated downregulation of tumor necrosis factor. Both SB203580 and insulin inhibited apoptosis, resulting in fewer pyknotic nuclei and inhibition of caspase-3 activation and Bcl2 downregulation. LY294002 reversed insulin-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Insulin decreases inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis via PI3K/Akt-mediated inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The cytoprotective role of insulin suggests that it may have a potential role in strategies for treating thermal injuries.

  19. Targeting p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Restores Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells and Corrects Neuromotor Deficits in Atm Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesun

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive degenerative disorder that results in major neurological disability. In A-T patients, necropsy has revealed atrophy of cerebellar cortical layers along with Purkinje and granular cell loss. We have previously identified an oxidative stress-mediated increase in phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the resultant downregulation of Bmi-1 and upregulation of p21 as key components of the mechanism causing defective proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm−/− mice. However, the in vivo aspect of alteration in SVZ tissue and the functional significance of p38MAPK activation in NSCs for neuropathogenesis of ATM deficiency remain unknown. Here we show that the NSC population was abnormally decreased in the SVZ of 3-month-old Atm−/− mice; this decrease was accompanied by p38MAPK activation. However, after a 2-month treatment with the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, starting at 1 month old, Atm−/− mice showed restoration of normal levels of Bmi-1 and p21 with the rescue of NSC population in the SVZ. In addition, treated Atm−/− mice exhibited more Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Most importantly, motor coordination of Atm−/− mice was significantly improved in the treatment group. Our results show for the first time in vivo evidence of depleted NSCs in the SVZ of Atm−/− mice and also demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of p38MAPK signaling has the potential to treat neurological defects of A-T. This study provides a promising approach targeting the oxidative stress-dependent p38 signaling pathway not only for A-T but also for other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23197859

  20. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-dong, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830; Park, Ji-Yun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biologicalmore » process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal

  1. Cardioprotective role of P38 MAPK during myocardial infarction via parallel activation of α-crystallin B and Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Arkadeep; Ray, Aramita; Datta, Ritwik; Sengupta, Shantanu; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as cardiac cell death due to prolonged ischemia. Although necrotic cell death was considered to be solely responsible for myocyte death during MI, it was recently revealed that apoptosis also plays its part in this death process. Our laboratory has recently shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis is the predominant route for apoptosis during MI and the conventional mitochondrial pathway is bypassed by activation of a small heat shock protein α-crystallin B (CRYAB). Since CRYAB is a direct target of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, we were prompted to check the role of P38 MAPK in 20-week-old male Wister rats immediately after infarct formation. Interestingly, parallel activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway with an increase in ER stress-induced apoptotic load was observed along with decreased activation of CRYAB and Nrf2 (a pro-survival protein activated in response to ER stress) in MI rats treated with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of P38α and P38β compared to the MI alone. As a cumulative effect, this inhibitor treatment also resulted in significant increase in the levels of caspase3 activity and TUNEL positivity, the end point apoptotic markers. Furthermore, SB203580-treated hypoxic adult cardiomyocytes showed formation of desmin aggregates which were previously associated with impaired cardiac function. Thus, this study shows for the first time the precise mechanism by which P38 MAPK plays a pro-survival role and confers protection of cardiomyocytes, during infarct formation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dihydroartemisinin sensitizes Lewis lung carcinoma cells to carboplatin therapy via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Yong; Rao, Zhiguo; Gao, Jianfei

    2018-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, is an effective novel antimalarial agent. Studies have suggested that it also exhibits anticancer effects when administered alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of DHA combined with carboplatin (CBP) on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. MTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that the proliferation activity of LLC cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by DHA combined with CBP. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell cycle arrest was induced at the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis was induced following treatment with the combination. When administered in combination with CBP, DHA exhibited more effective anticancer activity compared with DHA or CBP used alone, via increased apoptosis. Following treatment with DHA with or without CBP, the expression of phosphorylated-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which can be inhibited with the selective inhibitor SB202190, was detected by western blotting. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that DHA may sensitize LLC cells to CBP therapy via the activation of p38MAPK, which suggests that a combined treatment of DHA and CBP may be a potential novel therapeutic schedule for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:29740482

  3. The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase as a central nervous system drug discovery target

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Aaron S; de Almeida, Lucia; Van Eldik, Linda J; Watterson, D Martin

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can be a cause or contributor to disease progression in a variety of disorders. This has led to the emergence of protein kinases as an important new class of drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. A serine/threonine protein kinase, p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an established therapeutic target for peripheral inflammatory disorders because of its critical role in regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. There is increasing evidence that p38α MAPK is also an important regulator of proinflammatory cytokine levels in the central nervous system, raising the possibility that the kinase may be a drug discovery target for central nervous system disorders where cytokine overproduction contributes to disease progression. Development of bioavailable, central nervous system-penetrant p38α MAPK inhibitors provides the required foundation for drug discovery campaigns targeting p38α MAPK in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19090985

  4. C3G knock-down enhances migration and invasion by increasing Rap1-mediated p38α activation, while it impairs tumor growth through p38α-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Priego, Neibla; Arechederra, María; Sequera, Celia; Bragado, Paloma; Vázquez-Carballo, Ana; Gutiérrez-Uzquiza, Álvaro; Martín-Granado, Víctor; Ventura, Juan José; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.; Guerrero, Carmen; Porras, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    C3G, a Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) for Rap1 and R-Ras, has been shown to play important roles in development and cancer. Previous studies determined that C3G regulates cell death through down-regulation of p38α MAPK activity. Here, we found that C3G knock-down in MEFs and HCT116 cells promotes migration and invasion through Rap1-mediated p38α hyper-activation. These effects of C3G were inhibited by Rap1 knock-down or inactivation. The enhanced migration observed in C3G depleted HCT116 cells was associated with reduction in E-cadherin expression, internalization of ZO-1, actin cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased adhesion. We also found that matrix metalloproteases MMP2 and MMP9 are involved in the pro-invasive effect of C3G down-regulation. Additionally, our studies revealed that both C3G and p38α collaborate to promote growth of HCT116 cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly by enhancing cell survival. In fact, knocking-down C3G or p38α individually or together promoted cell death in vitro, although only the double C3G-p38α silencing was able to increase cell death within tumors. Notably, we found that the pro-tumorigenic function of C3G does not depend on p38α or Rap1 activation. Altogether, our studies uncover novel mechanisms by which C3G controls key aspects of tumorigenesis. PMID:27286263

  5. Zinc rescues obesity-induced cardiac hypertrophy via stimulating metallothionein to suppress oxidative stress-activated BCL10/CARD9/p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shudong; Gu, Junlian; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Bai, Tao; Xu, Jianxiang; Cai, Jun; Barnes, Gregory; Liu, Qiu-Ju; Freedman, Jonathan H; Wang, Yonggang; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Obesity often leads to obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), which is suppressed by zinc-induced inactivation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which zinc inactivates p38 MAPK to prevent ORCH. Mice (4-week old) were fed either high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) containing variable amounts of zinc (deficiency, normal and supplement) for 3 and 6 months. P38 MAPK siRNA and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 were used to suppress p38 MAPK activity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. HFD activated p38 MAPK and increased expression of B-cell lymphoma/CLL 10 (BCL10) and caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9). These responses were enhanced by zinc deficiency and attenuated by zinc supplement. Administration of SB203580 to HFD mice or specific siRNA in palmitate-treated cardiomyocytes eliminated the HFD and zinc deficiency activation of p38 MAPK, but did not significantly impact the expression of BCL10 and CARD9. In cultured cardiomyocytes, inhibition of BCL10 expression by siRNA prevented palmitate-induced increased p38 MAPK activation and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented ANP expression, but did not affect BCL10 expression. Deletion of metallothionein abolished the protective effect of zinc on palmitate-induced up-regulation of BCL10 and phospho-p38 MAPK. HFD and zinc deficiency synergistically induce ORCH by increasing oxidative stress-mediated activation of BCL10/CARD9/p38 MAPK signalling. Zinc supplement ameliorates ORCH through activation of metallothionein to repress oxidative stress-activated BCL10 expression and p38 MAPK activation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Novel Antiplatelet Activity of Minocycline Involves Inhibition of MLK3-p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Axis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joseph W.; Singh, Meera V.; Singh, Vir B.; Jones, Letitia D.; Davidson, Gregory A.; Ture, Sara; Morrell, Craig N.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and wound healing by facilitating thrombus formation at sites of injury. Platelets also mediate inflammation and contain several pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and chemokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment and activation. Not surprisingly, platelet dysfunction is known to contribute to several inflammatory disorders. Antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonists, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitors, and anticoagulants such as warfarin, dampen platelet activity at the risk of unwarranted bleeding. Thus, the development of drugs that reduce platelet-mediated inflammation without interfering with thrombus formation is of importance to combat platelet-associated disorders. We have shown here for the first time that the tetracycline antibiotic, minocycline, administered to HIV-infected individuals reduces plasma levels of soluble CD40L and platelet factor 4 levels, host molecules predominately released by platelets. Minocycline reduced the activation of isolated platelets in the presence of the potent platelet activator, thrombin, as measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Platelet degranulation was reduced upon exposure to minocycline as shown by mepacrine retention and flow cytometry. However, minocycline had no effect on spreading, aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, or in vivo thrombus formation. Lastly, immunoblot analysis suggests that the antiplatelet activity of minocycline is likely mediated by inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-p38 MAPK signaling axis and loss of p38 activity. Our findings provide a better understanding of platelet biology and a novel repurposing of an established antibiotic, minocycline, to specifically reduce platelet granule release without affecting thrombosis, which may yield insights in generating novel, specific antiplatelet therapies. PMID:27270236

  7. Novel Antiplatelet Activity of Minocycline Involves Inhibition of MLK3-p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Axis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joseph W; Singh, Meera V; Singh, Vir B; Jones, Letitia D; Davidson, Gregory A; Ture, Sara; Morrell, Craig N; Schifitto, Giovanni; Maggirwar, Sanjay B

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis and wound healing by facilitating thrombus formation at sites of injury. Platelets also mediate inflammation and contain several pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and chemokines that mediate leukocyte recruitment and activation. Not surprisingly, platelet dysfunction is known to contribute to several inflammatory disorders. Antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonists, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitors, and anticoagulants such as warfarin, dampen platelet activity at the risk of unwarranted bleeding. Thus, the development of drugs that reduce platelet-mediated inflammation without interfering with thrombus formation is of importance to combat platelet-associated disorders. We have shown here for the first time that the tetracycline antibiotic, minocycline, administered to HIV-infected individuals reduces plasma levels of soluble CD40L and platelet factor 4 levels, host molecules predominately released by platelets. Minocycline reduced the activation of isolated platelets in the presence of the potent platelet activator, thrombin, as measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Platelet degranulation was reduced upon exposure to minocycline as shown by mepacrine retention and flow cytometry. However, minocycline had no effect on spreading, aggregation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, or in vivo thrombus formation. Lastly, immunoblot analysis suggests that the antiplatelet activity of minocycline is likely mediated by inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3)-p38 MAPK signaling axis and loss of p38 activity. Our findings provide a better understanding of platelet biology and a novel repurposing of an established antibiotic, minocycline, to specifically reduce platelet granule release without affecting thrombosis, which may yield insights in generating novel, specific antiplatelet therapies.

  8. Celecoxib increases SMN and survival in a severe spinal muscular atrophy mouse model via p38 pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Faraz; Abadía-Molina, Francisco; MacKenzie, Duncan; Hadwen, Jeremiah; Shamim, Fahad; O'Reilly, Sean; Holcik, Martin; MacKenzie, Alex

    2013-09-01

    The loss of functional Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein due to mutations or deletion in the SMN1 gene causes autosomal recessive neurodegenerative spinal muscle atrophy (SMA). A potential treatment strategy for SMA is to upregulate the amount of SMN protein originating from the highly homologous SMN2 gene, compensating in part for the absence of the functional SMN1 gene. We have previously shown that in vitro activation of the p38 pathway stabilizes and increases SMN mRNA levels leading to increased SMN protein levels. In this report, we explore the impact of the p38 activating, FDA-approved, blood brain barrier permeating compound celecoxib on SMN levels in vitro and in a mouse model of SMA. We demonstrate a significant induction of SMN protein levels in human and mouse neuronal cells upon treatment with celecoxib. We show that activation of the p38 pathway by low doses celecoxib increases SMN protein in a HuR protein-dependent manner. Furthermore, celecoxib treatment induces SMN expression in brain and spinal cord samples of wild-type mice in vivo. Critically, celecoxib treatment increased SMN levels, improved motor function and enhanced survival in a severe SMA mouse model. Our results identify low dose celecoxib as a potential new member of the SMA therapeutic armamentarium.

  9. Stress-specific p38 MAPK activation is sufficient to drive EGFR endocytosis but not its nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Alejandra; Jones, Sylwia; Vaughan, Simon O; Hochhauser, Daniel; Futter, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    EGF receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is induced by stress in a manner dependent on the p38 MAPK family. Ligand and stresses such as X-rays, reportedly promote nuclear trafficking of endocytosed EGFR for regulation of gene transcription and DNA repair. We fail to detect EGFR endocytosis or nuclear transport following X-ray treatment of HeLa or head and neck cancer cells, despite extensive DNA damage induction. Apparent nuclear staining with EGFR extracellular domain antibody remained present despite reduced/absent EGFR expression, and so did not represent nuclear EGFR. UVB and UVC, but not X-ray or UVA, treatment induced p38 activation and EGFR endocytosis, although all of these stresses induced DNA damage, indicating that DNA damage alone is not sufficient to induce EGFR endocytosis. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following UVB treatment, compared to that seen with X-rays, do not alone explain differences in p38 activation. UVB, like UVC, induced EGFR accumulation predominantly in perinuclear endosomes, rather than in the nucleus. Our morphological techniques identifying major changes in receptor distribution do not exclude the possibility that small but biologically relevant amounts of EGFR enter the nucleus. This study highlights the importance and limitations of morphological analyses of receptor distribution in understanding signaling outcome. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Blockade of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibits Murine Sclerodermatous Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Takashi; Date, Mutsumi; Kano, Miyu; Mizumaki, Kie; Tennichi, Momoko; Kobayashi, Tadahiro; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) of B10.D2 mice into sublethally irradiated BALB/c mice across minor histocompatibility loci is a well-established animal model for human sclerodermatous chronic graft-versus-host disease (Scl-cGVHD) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a key regulator of inflammation and cytokine production. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK plays an important role in collagen production in SSc. We investigated the effects of p38 MAPK inhibitor, VX-702, on Scl-cGVHD mice. VX-702 was orally administered to Scl-cGVHD mice from day 7 to 35 after BMT. We compared skin fibrosis of Scl-cGVHD mice between the VX-702-treated group and control group. Allogeneic BMT increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the skin. The administration of VX-702 attenuated the skin fibrosis of Scl-cGVHD compared to the control mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that VX-702 suppressed the infiltration of CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and CD11b + cells into the dermis of Scl-cGVHD mice compared to the control mice. VX-702 attenuated the mRNA expression of extracellular matrix and fibrogenic cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-13, in the skin of Scl-cGVHD mice. In addition, VX-702 directly inhibited collagen production from fibroblasts in vitro. VX-702 was shown to be a promising candidate for use in treating patients with Scl-cGVHD and SSc. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. P38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activity Is Required during Mitosis for Timely Satisfaction of the Mitotic Checkpoint But Not for the Fidelity of Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghee; Kenny, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    Although p38 activity is reported to be required as cells enter mitosis for proper spindle assembly and checkpoint function, its role during the division process remains controversial in lieu of direct data. We therefore conducted live cell studies to determine the effect on mitosis of inhibiting or depleting p38. We found that in the absence of p38 activity the duration of mitosis is prolonged by ∼40% in nontransformed human RPE-1, ∼80% in PtK2 (rat kangaroo), and ∼25% in mouse cells, and this prolongation leads to an elevated mitotic index. However, under this condition chromatid segregation and cytokinesis are normal. Using Mad2/YFP-expressing cells, we show the prolongation of mitosis in the absence of p38 activity is directly due to a delay in satisfying the mitotic checkpoint. Inhibiting p38 did not affect the rate of chromosome motion; however, it did lead to the formation of significantly (10%) longer metaphase spindles. From these data we conclude that normal p38 activity is required for the timely stable attachment of all kinetochores to spindle microtubules, but not for the fidelity of the mitotic process. We speculate that p38 activity promotes timely checkpoint satisfaction by indirectly influencing those motor proteins (e.g., Klp10, Klp67A) involved in regulating the dynamics of kinetochore microtubule ends. PMID:20462950

  12. Protocatechuic Acid from Alpinia oxyphylla Induces Schwann Cell Migration via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Paul, Catherine Reena; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Yung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve.

  13. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin.more » The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.« less

  14. Electromagnetic-pulse-induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway and disruption of blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Juan; Guo, Liang-Mei; Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Juan; Xie, Xue-Jun; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2013-06-20

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is critical for maintaining retina homeostasis and low permeability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on the permeability of BRB, alterations of tight junction (TJ) proteins of BRB and if any, involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and RF/6A cells which were pretreated with or without MAPKs inhibitors were sham exposed or exposed to EMP at 200kV/m for 200 pulses. The alteration of BRB permeability was examined through fluorescence microscope and quantitatively assessed using Evans blue (EB) and endogenous albumin as tracers. The expressions of TJ proteins and some signaling molecules of MAPK pathway were measured by Western blots. The observations were that EMP exposure resulted in increased BRB permeability concurrent with the decreased expressions of occludin and claudin-5, which were correlated with the increased expressions of phospho-p38, phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK and could be blocked when pretreated with p38 MAPK inhibitor. Thus, the results suggested that the alterations of occludin and claudin-5 may play an important role in the disruption of TJs, which may lead to the transient breakdown of BRB after EMP exposure with the involvement of p38 MAPK pathway through phosphorylation of signaling molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase but Not of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Lymphocytes Requires Allosteric Activation of SOS

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jesse E.; Yang, Ming; Chen, Hang; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2013-01-01

    Thymocytes convert graded T cell receptor (TCR) signals into positive selection or deletion, and activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), p38, and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) has been postulated to play a discriminatory role. Two families of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs), SOS and RasGRP, activate Ras and the downstream RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. The pathways leading to lymphocyte p38 and JNK activation are less well defined. We previously described how RasGRP alone induces analog Ras-ERK activation while SOS and RasGRP cooperate to establish bimodal ERK activation. Here we employed computational modeling and biochemical experiments with model cell lines and thymocytes to show that TCR-induced ERK activation grows exponentially in thymocytes and that a W729E allosteric pocket mutant, SOS1, can only reconstitute analog ERK signaling. In agreement with RasGRP allosterically priming SOS, exponential ERK activation is severely decreased by pharmacological or genetic perturbation of the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-diacylglycerol-RasGRP1 pathway. In contrast, p38 activation is not sharply thresholded and requires high-level TCR signal input. Rac and p38 activation depends on SOS1 expression but not allosteric activation. Based on computational predictions and experiments exploring whether SOS functions as a RacGEF or adaptor in Rac-p38 activation, we established that the presence of SOS1, but not its enzymatic activity, is critical for p38 activation. PMID:23589333

  16. Doxycycline Suppresses Microglial Activation by Inhibiting the p38 MAPK and NF-kB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Socias, Benjamin; Ouidja, Mohand O; Sepulveda-Diaz, Julia E; Acuña, Leonardo; Silva, Rangel L; Michel, Patrick P; Del-Bel, Elaine; Cunha, Thiago M; Raisman-Vozari, Rita

    2016-05-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, the inflammatory response is mediated by activated glial cells, mainly microglia, which are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. Activated microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators and neurotoxic factors that are suspected to cause or exacerbate these diseases. We recently demonstrated that doxycycline protects substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. This effect was associated with a reduction of microglial cell activation, which suggests that doxycycline may operate primarily as an anti-inflammatory drug. In the present study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of doxycycline using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary microglial cells in culture as a model of neuroinflammation. Doxycycline attenuated the expression of key activation markers in LPS-treated microglial cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. More specifically, doxycycline treatment lowered the expression of the microglial activation marker IBA-1 as well as the production of ROS, NO, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). In primary microglial cells, we also found that doxycycline inhibits LPS-induced p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and NF-kB nuclear translocation. The present results indicate that the effect of doxycycline on LPS-induced microglial activation probably occurs via the modulation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kB signaling pathways. These results support the idea that doxycycline may be useful in preventing or slowing the progression of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases that exhibit altered glia function.

  17. Activated Rho Kinase Mediates Diabetes-Induced Elevation of Vascular Arginase Activation and Contributes to Impaired Corpora Cavernosa Relaxation: Possible Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Kenia P.; Yao, Lin; Liao, James K.; Webb, R. Clinton; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Caldwell, R. William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Activated RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated in diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Earlier studies have demonstrated involvement of ROCK pathway in the activation of arginase in endothelial cells. However, signaling pathways activated by ROCK in the penis remain unclear. Aim We tested whether ROCK and p38 MAPK are involved in the elevation of arginase activity and subsequent impairment of corpora cavernosal (CC) relaxation in diabetes. Methods Eight weeks after streptozotocin-induced diabetes, vascular functional studies, arginase activity assay, and protein expression of RhoA, ROCK, phospho-p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, phospho-MYPT-1Thr850, MYPT-1 and arginase levels were assessed in CC tissues from nondiabetic wild type (WT), diabetic (D) WT (WT + D), partial ROCK 2+/− knockout (KO), and ROCK 2+/− KO + D mice. Main Outcome Measures The expression of RhoA, ROCK 1 and 2, phosphorylation of MYPT-1Thr850 and p38 MAPK, arginase activity/expression, endothelial- and nitrergic-dependent relaxation of CC was assayed. Results Diabetes significantly reduced maximum relaxation (Emax) to both endothelium-dependent acetylcholine (WT + D: Emax; 61 ± 4% vs. WT: Emax; 75 ± 2%) and nitrergic nerve stimulation. These effects were associated with increased expression of active RhoA, ROCK 2, phospho-MYPT-1Thr850, phospho-p38 MAPK, arginase II, and activity of corporal arginase (1.6-fold) in WT diabetic CC. However, this impairment in CC of WT + D mice was absent in heterozygous ROCK 2+/− KO + D mice for acetylcholine (Emax: 80 ± 5%) and attenuated for nitrergic nerve-induced relaxation. CC of ROCK 2+/− KO + D mice showed much less ROCK activity, did not exhibit p38 MAPK activation, and had reduced arginase activity and arginase II expression. These findings indicate that ROCK 2 mediates diabetes-induced elevation of arginase activity. Additionally, pretreatment of WT diabetic CC with inhibitors of arginase (ABH) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) partially prevented

  18. Metabolic Respiration Induces AMPK- and Ire1p-Dependent Activation of the p38-Type HOG MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Hema; Cullen, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate the response to stress as well as cell differentiation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth in non-preferred carbon sources (like galactose) induces differentiation to the filamentous cell type through an extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)-type MAPK pathway. The filamentous growth MAPK pathway shares components with a p38-type High Osmolarity Glycerol response (HOG) pathway, which regulates the response to changes in osmolarity. To determine the extent of functional overlap between the MAPK pathways, comparative RNA sequencing was performed, which uncovered an unexpected role for the HOG pathway in regulating the response to growth in galactose. The HOG pathway was induced during growth in galactose, which required the nutrient regulatory AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) Snf1p, an intact respiratory chain, and a functional tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The unfolded protein response (UPR) kinase Ire1p was also required for HOG pathway activation in this context. Thus, the filamentous growth and HOG pathways are both active during growth in galactose. The two pathways redundantly promoted growth in galactose, but paradoxically, they also inhibited each other's activities. Such cross-modulation was critical to optimize the differentiation response. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans showed a similar regulatory circuit. Thus, an evolutionarily conserved regulatory axis links metabolic respiration and AMPK to Ire1p, which regulates a differentiation response involving the modulated activity of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:25356552

  19. Potent antiplatelet activity of sesamol in an in vitro and in vivo model: pivotal roles of cyclic AMP and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chao C; Lu, Wan J; Chiang, Cheng W; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Ong, Eng T; Hsiao, George; Fong, Tsorng H; Chou, Duen S; Sheu, Joen R

    2010-12-01

    Sesamol is a potent phenolic antioxidant which possesses antimutagenic, antihepatotoxic and antiaging properties. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of acute thrombotic events and coronary heart diseases. There have been few studies on the effect of sesamol on platelets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of sesamol in preventing platelet activation in vitro and in vivo. Sesamol (2.5-5 μM) exhibited more potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists. Sesamol inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization, thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) formation, and phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in washed platelets. Sesamol markedly increased cAMP and cGMP levels, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and NO release, as well as vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the sesamol-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and sesamol-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation, and NO release. Sesamol also reduced hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation in platelets. In an in vivo study, sesamol (5 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that sesamol possesses potent antiplatelet activity, which may involve activation of the cAMP-eNOS/NO-cGMP pathway, resulting in inhibition of the PLCγ2-PKC-p38 MAPK-TxA(2) cascade, and, finally, inhibition of platelet aggregation. Sesamol treatment may represent a novel approach to lowering the risk of or improving function in thromboembolism-related disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MAPK/p38 regulation of cytoskeleton rearrangement accelerates induction of macrophage activation by TLR4, but not TLR3.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hongjun; Li, Feifei; Wang, Wenwen; Zhao, Qi; Gao, Shanshan; Ma, Jincai; Li, Xiao; Ren, Wanhua; Qin, Chengyong; Qi, Jianni

    2017-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 utilize adaptor proteins to activate mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK), resulting in the acute but transient inflammatory response aimed at the clearance of pathogens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or poly(I:C), leading to changes in cell morphology, differed significantly between the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, the expression of α- and β-tubulin was markedly decreased following LPS stimulation. By contrast, α- and β-tubulin expression were only mildly increased following poly(I:C) treatment. However, the expression of β-actin and GAPDH was not significantly affected. Furthermore, it was verified that vincristine pretreatment abrogated the cytoskeleton rearrangement and decreased the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and migration of macrophages caused by LPS. Finally, it was observed that the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement may participate in LPS‑induced macrophage cytokine production and migration. Overall, the findings of the present study indicated that MAPK/p38 regulation of the cytoskeleton, particularly tubulin proteins, plays an important role in LPS-induced inflammatory responses via alleviating the synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the migration of macrophages.

  1. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling reduces multidrug transporter activity and anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiye; Wang, Cuicui; Hong, Zhen; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the up-regulation of P-gp expression remains unclear. Our previous studies have demonstrated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates P-gp expression in cultured K562 cells. However, a lack of in vivo research leaves unanswered questions regarding whether p38MAPK regulates P-gp expression or drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. This in vivo study examined the effects of p38MAPK on the expression of P-gp and mdr1 in the rat brain and quantified antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations in the hippocampal extracellular fluid. In addition, the role of p38MAPK in electrical and behavioral activity in a rat epilepsy model was studied. The results indicated that p38MAPK inhibition by SB202190 reduced P-gp expression, while increasing AED concentration in the hippocampal extracellular fluid in refractory epileptic rats. SB202190 also reduced the resistance to AEDs in drug-resistant rats and significantly reduced the severity of seizure activity. These results suggest that p38MAPK could participate in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-gp. We show that the specific inhibitor of p38MAPK could down-regulate the expression of multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein) in blood-brain barrier, increase the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in the hippocampal extracellular fluid and reduce anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats. We propose that the p38MAPK signaling pathway participates in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles stimulate sea urchin immune cell phagocytic activity involving TLR/p38 MAPK-mediated signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pinsino, Annalisa; Russo, Roberta; Bonaventura, Rosa; Brunelli, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are one of the most widespread-engineered particles in use for drug delivery, cosmetics, and electronics. However, TiO2NP safety is still an open issue, even for ethical reasons. In this work, we investigated the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immune cell model as a proxy to humans, to elucidate a potential pathway that can be involved in the persistent TiO2NP-immune cell interaction in vivo. Morphology, phagocytic ability, changes in activation/inactivation of a few mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK, ERK), variations of other key proteins triggering immune response (Toll-like receptor 4-like, Heat shock protein 70, Interleukin-6) and modifications in the expression of related immune response genes were investigated. Our findings indicate that TiO2NPs influence the signal transduction downstream targets of p38 MAPK without eliciting an inflammatory response or other harmful effects on biological functions. We strongly recommend sea urchin immune cells as a new powerful model for nano-safety/nano-toxicity investigations without the ethical normative issue. PMID:26412401

  3. JS-III-49, a hydroquinone derivative, exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting Akt and p38

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Young-Su

    2017-01-01

    Since previous studies have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) exerted immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity, various HQ derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities investigated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory activity of JS-III-49, a novel HQ derivative, in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. JS-III-49 suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1b without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. JS-III-49 inhibited nuclear translocation of the NF-kB transcription factors p65 and p50 by directly targeting Akt, an upstream kinase of the NF-kB pathway, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. However, JS-III-49 did not directly inhibit the kinase activities of Src and Syk, which are upstream kinases of Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, JS-III-49 suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, one of the components of AP-1, by specifically targeting p38, an upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the AP-1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that JS-III-49 plays an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-stimulated macrophages by targeting Akt and p38 in the NF-kB and AP-1 pathways, respectively. PMID:28461777

  4. JS-III-49, a hydroquinone derivative, exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting Akt and p38.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-05-01

    Since previous studies have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) exerted immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity, various HQ derivatives have been synthesized and their biological activities investigated. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory activity of JS-III-49, a novel HQ derivative, in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. JS-III-49 suppressed the production of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and down-regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1b without cytotoxicity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. JS-III-49 inhibited nuclear translocation of the NF-kB transcription factors p65 and p50 by directly targeting Akt, an upstream kinase of the NF-kB pathway, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. However, JS-III-49 did not directly inhibit the kinase activities of Src and Syk, which are upstream kinases of Akt, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, JS-III-49 suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, one of the components of AP-1, by specifically targeting p38, an upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the AP-1 pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that JS-III-49 plays an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-stimulated macrophages by targeting Akt and p38 in the NF-kB and AP-1 pathways, respectively.

  5. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Guoping; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likelymore » that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.« less

  6. Continuous Blood Purification Ameliorates Multiple Organ Failure Through Inhibiting the Activation of the P38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lan; Wen, Qian-Kuan; Zhang, Shan-Hong; Zhi, Li-Da; Li, Hong; Li, Gang; Zhang, Wen-Jia

    2018-06-07

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) is a primary threat to the survival of patients with systemic inflammation. Blood purification is employed in the treatment of MOF, as an artificial kidney or artificial liver. This study focuses on the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP) on ameliorating MOF through regulating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in a rat model. A rat model of MOF was successfully established by endotoxin injection after hemorrhagic shock resuscitation. The mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and p38 MAPK of liver, kidney, and lung tissues in each group were measured by RT-qPCR at each measuring time point. To evaluate the activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, protein levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK and p38 MAPK was measured by western blot analysis. The serum levels of nitric oxide and TNF-α were determined. After CBP treatment, the levels of SGPT, SGOT, Cr, and BUN were significantly declined, while the PaO2 value was increased. Expressions of p38 MAPK mRNA, iNOS mRNA, p-p38 MAPK protein and p38 MAPK protein, and nitric oxide and TNF-α levels were markedly elevated in MOF, an effect blunted by CPB. Meanwhile, pathological sections of liver, kidney, and lung tissues after CPB treatment ameliorated swelling and inflammation. Our study proved that CBP could downregulate the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, suppress iNOS expression, reduced the serum levels of nitric oxide and TNF-α, thus ameliorate symptom of MOF. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Berberine induces FasL-related apoptosis through p38 activation in KB human oral cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAE-SUNG; OH, DAHYE; YIM, MIN-JI; PARK, JIN-JU; KANG, KYEONG-ROK; CHO, IN-A; MOON, SUNG-MIN; OH, JI-SU; YOU, JAE-SEEK; KIM, CHUN SUNG; KIM, DO KYUNG; LEE, SOOK-YOUNG; LEE, GYEONG-JE; IM, HEE-JEONG; KIM, SU-GWAN

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of berberine in KB oral cancer cells with a specific focus on its cellular mechanism. Berberine did not affect the cell viability of the primary human normal oral keratinocytes that were used as a control. However, the viability of KB cells was found to decrease significantly in the presence of berberine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in KB cells, berberine induced the fragmentation of genomic DNA, changes in cell morphology, and nuclear condensation. In addition, caspase-3 and -7 activation, and an increase in apoptosis were observed. Berberine was also found to upregulate significantly the expression of the death receptor ligand, FasL. In turn, this upregulation triggered the activation of pro-apoptotic factors such as caspase-8, -9 and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, pro-apoptotic factors such as Bax, Bad and Apaf-1 were also significantly upregulated by berberine. Anti-apoptotic factors such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were downregulated. Z-VAD-FMK, a cell-permeable pan-caspase inhibitor, suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and PARP. These results clearly indicate that berberine-induced cell death of KB oral cancer cells was mediated by both extrinsic death receptor-dependent and intrinsic mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, berberine-induced upregulation of FasL was shown to be mediated by the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. We also found that berberine-induced migration suppression was mediated by downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In summary, berberine has the potential to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent, with limited side-effects, for the management of oral cancer. PMID:25634589

  8. GW501516-activated PPARβ/δ promotes liver fibrosis via p38-JNK MAPK-induced hepatic stellate cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova, Radina; Montagner, Alexandra; Gouranton, Erwan; Fleury, Sébastien; Guillou, Hervé; Dombrowicz, David; Desreumaux, Pierre; Wahli, Walter

    2012-10-10

    After liver injury, the repair process comprises activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which produce extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) is highly expressed in these cells, but its function in liver repair remains incompletely understood. This study investigated whether activation of PPARβ/δ with the ligand GW501516 influenced the fibrotic response to injury from chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment in mice. Wild type and PPARβ/δ-null mice were treated with CCl4 alone or CCl4 co-administered with GW501516. To unveil mechanisms underlying the PPARβ/δ-dependent effects, we analyzed the proliferative response of human LX-2 HSCs to GW501516 in the presence or absence of PPARβ/δ. We found that GW501516 treatment enhanced the fibrotic response. Compared to the other experimental groups, CCl4/GW501516-treated wild type mice exhibited increased expression of various profibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes, such as those involved in extracellular matrix deposition and macrophage recruitment. Importantly, compared to healthy liver, hepatic fibrotic tissues from alcoholic patients showed increased expression of several PPAR target genes, including phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, transforming growth factor beta-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. GW501516 stimulated HSC proliferation that caused enhanced fibrotic and inflammatory responses, by increasing the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase-C alpha/beta mixed lineage kinase-3 pathway. This study clarified the mechanism underlying GW501516-dependent promotion of hepatic repair by stimulating proliferation of HSCs via the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways.

  9. ROCK activity affects IL-1-induced signaling possibly through MKK4 and p38 MAPK in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayantan; McGee, Dennis W

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) accompany inflammatory bowel disease. IL-1-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells can secrete potent chemokines like CXCL8 to exacerbate inflammation. Previously, we found that inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) could inhibit IL-1- or TNF-α-induced CXCL8 secretion by the Caco-2 colonic epithelial cell line. This ROCK inhibition did not affect IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, but suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Therefore, ROCK must play an important role in epithelial cell CXCL8 responses through an effect on the JNK signaling pathway. Here, we extend these studies by showing that inhibiting ROCK suppressed the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of MKK4, a known activator of JNK, but not MKK7. Yet, ROCK inhibition had no significant effect on the IL-1-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Inhibiting ROCK also suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK after IL-1 stimulation, but this inhibition had no significant effect on the stability of CXCL8 messenger RNA (mRNA) after IL-1 stimulation. These results suggest that ROCK may be important in IL-1-induced signaling through MKK4 to JNK and the activation of p38 MAPK. Finally, inhibiting ROCK in IL-1 and TNF-α co-stimulated Caco-2 cells also resulted in a significant suppression of CXCL8 secretion and mRNA levels suggesting that inhibiting ROCK may be a mechanism to inhibit the overall response of epithelial cells to both cytokines. These studies indicate a novel signaling event, which could provide a target for suppressing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) chemokine responses involved in mucosal inflammation.

  10. Fullerene (C60) nanoparticles exert photocytotoxicity through modulation of reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the MCF-7 cancer cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Fei-long; Wang, Zhiyuan; Pan, Li-li; Shen, Ying-ying; Zhang, Zhen-zhong

    2013-12-01

    The photocytotoxicity of water-dispersed 100-300 nm fullerene amino acid derivatives nanoparticles was studied. The nanoparticle solution of fullerene derivatives, l-phenylalanine (C60-phe) and glycine (C60-gly), suppressed the in vitro growth of MCF-7 cells lines, induced cancer cells apoptosis, and caused a perturbation of the cell cycle. These nanoparticle solutions increased intracellular reactive oxygen species after irradiation. C60-phe or C60-gly upregulated the expression of phosphorylated (p)p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). N-Acetyl- l-cysteine significantly depressed the composite-induced activation of p38MAPK, and the kinase inhibitor SB203580 significantly prevented C60 derivative-induced cell apoptosis. This study revealed that p38MAPK is activated by C60 nanoparticles through triggering reactive oxygen species generation, leading to cancer cell injuries.

  11. Enhanced basal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in adipocytes from type 2 diabetes: potential role of p38 in the downregulation of GLUT4 expression.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christian J; Koterski, Sandra; Sciotti, Richard J; Poccard, German Braillard; Rondinone, Cristina M

    2003-03-01

    Serine and threonine kinases may contribute to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. To test the potential for members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family to contribute to type 2 diabetes, we examined basal and insulin-stimulated Erk 1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation in adipocytes isolated from healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals. Maximal insulin stimulation increased the phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 and JNK in healthy control subjects but not type 2 diabetic patients. Insulin stimulation did not increase p38 phosphorylation in either healthy control subjects or type 2 diabetic patients. In type 2 diabetic adipocytes, the basal phosphorylation status of these MAP kinases was significantly elevated and was associated with decreased IRS-1 and GLUT4 in these fat cells. To determine whether MAP kinases were involved in the downregulation of IRS-1 and GLUT4 protein levels, selective inhibitors were used to inhibit these MAP kinases in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated chronically with insulin. Inhibition of Erk 1/2, JNK, or p38 had no effect on insulin-stimulated reduction of IRS-1 protein levels. However, inhibition of the p38 pathway prevented the insulin-stimulated decrease in GLUT4 protein levels. In summary, type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased basal activation of the MAP kinase family. Furthermore, upregulation of the p38 pathway might contribute to the loss of GLUT4 expression observed in adipose tissue from type 2 diabetic patients.

  12. ERK and p38 MAPK-Activated Protein Kinases: a Family of Protein Kinases with Diverse Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Philippe P.; Blenis, John

    2004-01-01

    Conserved signaling pathways that activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in relaying extracellular stimulations to intracellular responses. The MAPKs coordinately regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival, which are functions also known to be mediated by members of a growing family of MAPK-activated protein kinases (MKs; formerly known as MAPKAP kinases). The MKs are related serine/threonine kinases that respond to mitogenic and stress stimuli through proline-directed phosphorylation and activation of the kinase domain by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p38 MAPKs. There are currently 11 vertebrate MKs in five subfamilies based on primary sequence homology: the ribosomal S6 kinases, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases, the MAPK-interacting kinases, MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3, and MK5. In the last 5 years, several MK substrates have been identified, which has helped tremendously to identify the biological role of the members of this family. Together with data from the study of MK-knockout mice, the identities of the MK substrates indicate that they play important roles in diverse biological processes, including mRNA translation, cell proliferation and survival, and the nuclear genomic response to mitogens and cellular stresses. In this article, we review the existing data on the MKs and discuss their physiological functions based on recent discoveries. PMID:15187187

  13. Leptin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of thymocytes partially via down-regulation of cPLA2 and p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Liao, Jie; Deng, Zihui; Song, Cuihong; Zhang, Jinying; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Zhang, Kai; Xue, Hui; Yan, Guangtao

    2013-03-01

    Leptin, a 16-kDa protein that is mainly secreted by adipocytes, plays a protective role in many cell types. It has been shown that leptin acts in the central and peripheral immune system to protect thymocytes. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is an enzyme that can specifically initiate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) to produce eicosanoids, which regulate inflammation and immune responses. Our previous work has shown that leptin is important to prevent apoptosis of thymocytes. However, the role of cPLA(2) is still unclear, and the precise mechanism also remains to be elucidated. In this work, we demonstrated that leptin inhibited the LPS-induced toxicity and apoptosis of thymocytes. Western blot and RT-PCR showed that leptin led to a reduction of cPLA(2) activity and mRNA level, as well as caspase-3 cleavage. Moreover, we found that leptin could decrease the activation of p38 MAPK. Accordingly, we pre-treated apoptotic thymocytes with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580 and observed an effect similar to the leptin alone treated group. SB203580 also suppressed expression of cPLA(2) and cleavage of caspase-3. Based on these results, we suggest that leptin could attenuate LPS-induced apoptotic injury in mouse thymocyte cells, mainly through the p38/cPLA(2) signalling pathway. The study of the regulatory role of leptin in LPS-induced thymocyte apoptosis can help to explain the role of leptin in the immune system and may provide a novel treatment option in cases of severe trauma, infection, shock, organ failure and autoimmune disease caused by thymic atrophy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. OSU-DY7, a novel D-tyrosinol derivative, mediates cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Burkitt lymphoma through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Ma, Yihui; Kulp, Samuel K.; Wang, Shu-Huei; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Frissora, Frank; Mani, Rajeswaran; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Muthusamy, Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug resistance and associated immune deregulation limit use of current therapies in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), thus warranting alternative therapy development. Herein we demonstrate that OSU-DY7, a novel D-tyrosinol derivative targeting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), mediates cytotoxicity in lymphocytic cell lines representing CLL (MEC-1), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (697 cells), Burkitt lymphoma (Raji and Ramos) and primary B cells from CLL patients in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is dependent on caspase activation, as evidenced by induction of caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and rescue of cytotoxicity by Z-VAD-FMK. Interestingly, OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is mediated through activation of p38 MAPK, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream target protein MAPKAPK2. Pretreatment of B-CLL cells with SB202190, a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, results in decreased MAPKAPK2 protein level with concomitant rescue of the cells from OSU-DY7-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, OSU-DY7-induced cytotoxicity is associated with down regulation of p38 MAPK target BIRC5, that is rescued at protein and mRNA levels by SB202190. This study provides evidence for a role of OSU-DY7 in p38 MAPK activation and BIRC5 down regulation associated with apoptosis in B lymphocytic cells, thus warranting development of this alternative therapy for lymphoid malignancies. PMID:21470196

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide activates canonical Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK signalling in stem cells from the apical papilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Dai, Jiewen; Liu, Bin; Gu, Shensheng; Cheng, Lan; Liang, Jingping

    2013-12-01

    As dental precursor cells, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) are capable of forming roots and undergoing apexogenesis, which are impaired upon exposure to bacterial infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a common Gram-negative bacterium that is involved in pulpal and periapical infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the Wnt/β-catenin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways in SCAP. As indicated by the IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels, P. gingivalis LPS induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, activation of the p38 MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin pathways was confirmed by the augmentation of phospho-p38 and β-catenin protein expression and increased expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 mRNA. Despite no significant increase in β-catenin mRNA expression, increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β suggested that GSK-3β was responsible for the accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and translocation to the nucleus. Previous studies have shown that GSK-3β plays a critical role in crosstalk between the Wnt/β-catenin and p38 MAPK pathways. In the present study, we showed that the level of p38 phosphorylation decreased upon pretreatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor for 1 h before stimulating SCAP with 10 μg/ml P. gingivalis LPS. However, the levels of GSK-3β and β-catenin phosphorylation in the cytoplasm and nucleus were not significantly altered. Our results suggest that the p38 MAPK and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways are activated by P. gingivalis LPS in SCAP, but we have no evidence that p38 MAPK is upstream of GSK-3β in the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway.

  16. Schwann Cell Migration Induced by Earthworm Extract via Activation of PAs and MMP2/9 Mediated through ERK1/2 and p38

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Shih, Ying-Ting; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Liang; Fang, Wen-Kuei; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The earthworm, which has stasis removal and wound-healing functions, is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine in China. Schwann cell migration is critical for the regeneration of injured nerves. Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive activity for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular migration mechanisms induced by earthworms in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we investigate the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) pathways for earthworm-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production in Schwann cells. Moreover, earthworm induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs and MMPs in a time-dependent manner. Earthworm-stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and SB203580, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. The results were confirmed using small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA. These results demonstrated that earthworms can stimulate Schwann cell migration and up-regulate PAs and MMP2/9 expression mediated through the MAPK pathways, ERK1/2 and p38. Taken together, our data suggests the MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38)-, PAs (uPA, tPA)-, MMP (MMP2, MMP9) signaling pathway of Schwann cells regulated by earthworms might play a major role in Schwann cell migration and nerve regeneration. PMID:19808845

  17. Coordination of Satellite Cell Activation and Self-Renewal by Par-Complex-Dependent Asymmetric Activation of p38α/β MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Andrew; Cadwallader, Adam B.; Fedorov, Yuri; Tyner, Kristina; Tanaka, Kathleen Kelly; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In response to muscle injury, satellite cells activate the p38α/β MAPK pathway to exit quiescence, then proliferate, repair skeletal muscle, and self-renew, replenishing the quiescent satellite cell pool. Although satellite cells are capable of asymmetric division, the mechanisms regulating satellite cell self-renewal are not understood. We found that satellite cells, once activated, enter the cell cycle and a subset undergoes asymmetric division, renewing the satellite cell pool. Asymmetric localization of the Par complex activates p38α/β MAPK in only one daughter cell, inducing MyoD, which permits cell cycle entry and generates a proliferating myoblast. The absence of p38α/β MAPK signaling in the other daughter cell prevents MyoD induction, renewing the quiescent satellite cell. Thus, satellite cells employ a mechanism to generate distinct daughter cells, coupling the Par complex and p38α/β MAPK signaling to link the response to muscle injury with satellite cell self-renewal. PMID:23040480

  18. Shrimp TAB1 interacts with TAK1 and p38 and activates the host innate immune response to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Mengqiao; Yin, Bin; Li, Haoyang; Xiao, Bang; Lǚ, Kai; Huang, Zhijian; Li, Sedong; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2017-08-01

    Mammalian TAB1 has been previously identified as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) binding protein, which functions as the activator of TAK1 and p38. This report, for the first time, identified and characterized the homolog of TAB1 in shrimp, to be specific, the homolog gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, containing a 1560-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a putative protein of 519 amino acids with the conserved PP2Cc (Serine/threonine phosphatases, family 2C, catalytic) domain in N-terminal and a TAK1 binding motif in C-terminus, has been cloned and named LvTAB1. LvTAB1 was most abundant in gills and its expression could respond significantly to a series of stimuli, including LPS, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments showed that LvTAB1 could combine with LvTAK1 as well as Lvp38, two members of IMD-NF-κB/MAPK pathway, which meant LvTAB1 could have a role in regulating the activities of these kinases. Over-expression of LvTAB1 in drosophila S2 cells could improve the transcriptional levels of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs) such as Diptericin (Dpt), the hallmark of drosophila NF-κB activated genes, indicating its activation effect on NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, suppression of LvTAB1 expression in vivo by RNA-interference increased the sensibility of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus infection, implying its protective role against bacterial infection. In conclusion, these results provide some insight into the function of LvTAB1 during bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A 5-hydroxyoxindole derivative attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses by activating the p38-Nrf2 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Niino, Tomomi; Tago, Kenji; Yasuda, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kyoko; Mashino, Tadahiko; Tamura, Hiroomi; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi

    2018-06-22

    5-Hydroxyoxindole is a urinary metabolite of indole that exhibits antioxidant activity. In the present study, we found that a 5-hydroxyoxindole derivative (5-HI) significantly inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory effects in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7. 5-HI induced the expression of the transcription factor, Nrf2, which is typically ubiquitinated by Keap1, an adaptor component of the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, resulting in its proteasomal degradation. By utilizing Keap1-/- MEFs reconstituted with Keap1 mutants harboring substitutions in their major cysteine residues, we clarified the importance of Cys151 in Keap1 as a sensor for 5-HI in the induction of Nrf2 expression. Furthermore, 5-HI induced the activation of the MKK3/6-p38 pathway, which is required for the transcriptional activation of Nrf2. The knockdown of Nrf2 enhanced the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, including iNOS, NO, and CCL2, and effectively repressed the inhibitory effects of 5-HI on their expression. Although 5-HI and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) both reduced LPS-induced ROS generation, the treatment with NAC did not affect the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory activity of 5-HI mediated by Nrf2 is independent of redox control. Furthermore, when injected into mice with 5-HI, the expression of Nrf2 was significantly increased, and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CXCL1, CCL2, TNFα, and IL-6 were remarkably inhibited in the kidneys, liver, and lungs, and the production of these cytokines in serum was effectively reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that 5-HI has potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases through the activation of Nrf2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Chloroquine inhibits lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by disrupting mTOR and p38-MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengtian; Huang, Lu; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-09-01

    Lytic infection is essential for the persistent infection and pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and inhibiting KSHV lytic replication may effectively prevent the occurrence of KSHV-related diseases. Chloroquine (CQ), a well-known antimalarial drug and autophagy inhibitor, exerts broad-spectrum antiviral effects and shows anti-cancer therapeutic potential. However, the ability of CQ and its derivatives to control infection of oncogenic γ-herpesvirus remains undefined. Here we reveal that CQ suppresses KSHV lytic gene expression and virion production, and shows cytotoxicity toward KSHV lytically infected B cells at clinically acceptable doses. CQ suppresses mTOR and p38-MAPK pathway activation during KSHV lytic replication but not latent infection. Furthermore, CQ blocks Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication via a distinct mechanism that is invoked to block virion production but does not affect viral gene expression. These results suggest that CQ is an effective antiviral drug against KSHV lytic infection. Our findings indicate that CQ treatment should be considered for controlling KSHV-related diseases, particularly for primary use in co-infection of KSHV with malaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crosstalk between Signaling Pathways in Pemphigus: A Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation?

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Gabriel A; Park, Jong Kook; Lavker, Robert M; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus consists of a group of chronic blistering skin diseases mediated by autoantibodies (autoAbs). The dogma that pemphigus is caused by keratinocyte dissociation (acantholysis) as a distinctive and direct consequence of the presence of autoAb targeting two main proteins of the desmosome-desmoglein (DSG) 1 and/or DSG3-has been put to the test. Several outside-in signaling events elicited by pemphigus autoAb in keratinocytes have been described, among which stands out p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) engagement and its apoptotic effect on keratinocytes. The role of apoptosis in the disease is, however, debatable, to an extent that it may not be a determinant event for the occurrence of acantholysis. Also, it has been verified that compromised DSG trans-interaction does not lead to keratinocyte dissociation when p38 MAPK is inhibited. These examples of conflicting results have been followed by recent work revealing an important role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pemphigus' pathogenesis. ER stress is known to activate the p38 MAPK pathway, and vice versa . However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the context of activated signaling pathways in pemphigus. Therefore, by reviewing and hypothetically connecting the role(s) of ER stress and p38 MAPK pathway in pemphigus, we highlight the importance of elucidating the crosstalk between all activated signaling pathways, which may in turn contribute for a better understanding of the role of apoptosis in the disease and a better management of this life-threatening condition.

  2. p38α Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Plays a Critical Role in Cardiomyocyte Survival but Not in Cardiac Hypertrophic Growth in Response to Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Hirotani, Shinichi; Hikoso, Shungo; Higuchi, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Takeda, Toshihiro; Osuka, Soh; Morita, Takashi; Kondoh, Gen; Uno, Yoshihiro; Kashiwase, Kazunori; Taniike, Masayuki; Nakai, Atsuko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Sudo, Tatsuhiko; Hongo, Kenichi; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Kurihara, Satoshi; Chien, Kenneth R.; Takeda, Junji; Hori, Masatsugu; Otsu, Kinya

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism for the transition from cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptive response to biomechanical stress, to heart failure is poorly understood. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38α is a key component of stress response pathways in various types of cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the in vivo physiological functions of p38α in hearts. First, we generated mice with floxed p38α alleles and crossbred them with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the α-myosin heavy-chain promoter to obtain cardiac-specific p38α knockout mice. These cardiac-specific p38α knockout mice were born normally, developed to adulthood, were fertile, exhibited a normal life span, and displayed normal global cardiac structure and function. In response to pressure overload to the left ventricle, they developed significant levels of cardiac hypertrophy, as seen in controls, but also developed cardiac dysfunction and heart dilatation. This abnormal response to pressure overload was accompanied by massive cardiac fibrosis and the appearance of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that p38α plays a critical role in the cardiomyocyte survival pathway in response to pressure overload, while cardiac hypertrophic growth is unaffected despite its dramatic down-regulation. PMID:15572667

  3. A chimeric cyclic interferon-α2b peptide induces apoptosis by sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase Cδ and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Blank, V C; Bertucci, L; Furmento, V A; Peña, C; Marino, V J; Roguin, L P

    2013-06-10

    We have previously demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1/3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation are involved in the apoptotic response triggered by a chimeric cyclic peptide of the interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) in WISH cells. Since the peptide also induced serine phosphorylation of STAT proteins, in the present study we examined the kinase involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation and the signaling effectors acting upstream such activation. We first found that p38 MAPK is involved in serine STAT1 phosphorylation, since a reduction of phophoserine-STAT1 levels was evident after incubating WISH cells with cyclic peptide in the presence of a p38 pharmacological inhibitor or a dominant-negative p38 mutant. Next, we demonstrated that the peptide induced activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ). Based on this finding, the role of this kinase was then evaluated. After incubating WISH cells with a PKCδ inhibitor or after decreasing PKCδ expression levels by RNA interference, both peptide-induced serine STAT1 and p38 phosphorylation levels were significantly decreased, indicating that PKCδ functions as an upstream regulator of p38. We also showed that PKCδ and p38 activation stimulated by the peptide was inhibited by a specific pharmacological inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or by a dominant-negative p85 PI3K-regulatory subunit, suggesting that PI3K is upstream in the signaling cascade. In addition, the role of PI3K and PKCδ in cyclic peptide-induced apoptosis was examined. Both signaling effectors were found to regulate the antiproliferative activity and the apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells. In conclusion, we herein demonstrated that STAT1 serine phosphorylation is mediated by the sequential activation of PI3K, PKCδ and p38 MAPK. This signaling cascade contributes to the antitumor effect induced by the chimeric IFN-α2b cyclic peptide in WISH cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  4. Autoantibodies in the Autoimmune Disease Pemphigus Foliaceus Induce Blistering via p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Signaling in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Paula; Chua, Michael; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A.; Rubenstein, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is a human autoimmune blistering disease in which a humoral immune response targeting the skin results in a loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial layers of the epidermal epithelium. In PF, desmoglein-1-specific autoantibodies induce blistering. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that activation of signaling may have an important role in the ability of pathogenic pemphigus IgGs to induce blistering and that both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and heat shock protein (HSP) 27 are part of this signaling pathway. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of PF IgGs to activate signaling as well as the contribution of this signaling pathway to blister induction in an in vivo model of PF. Phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK and HSP25, the murine HSP27 homolog, was observed in the skin of PF IgG-treated mice. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 MAPK blocked the ability of PF IgGs to induce blistering in vivo. These results indicate that PF IgG-induced blistering is dependent on activation of p38 MAPK in the target keratinocyte. Rather than influencing the immune system, limiting the autoantibody-induced intracellular signaling response that leads to target end-organ damage may be a more viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may be an effective strategy for the treatment of PF. PMID:18988808

  5. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling Activates Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein-2 in Hepatocyte Cells via p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Pham, Dan Duc; Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Kukkonen, Jyrki P; Eriksson, Ove; Mogollón, Isabel; Korhonen, Laura T; Arumäe, Urmas; Lindholm, Dan

    2016-05-13

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) influences the survival and differentiation of a specific population of neurons during development, but its role in non-neuronal cells has been less studied. We observed here that NGF and its pro-form, pro-NGF, are elevated in fatty livers from leptin-deficient mice compared with controls, concomitant with an increase in low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs). Stimulation of mouse primary hepatocytes with NGF or pro-NGF increased LDLR expression through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Studies using Huh7 human hepatocyte cells showed that the neurotrophins activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2) that regulates genes involved in lipid metabolism. The mechanisms for this were related to stimulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and activation of caspase-3 and SREBP2 cleavage following NGF and pro-NGF stimulations. Cell fractionation experiments showed that caspase-3 activity was increased particularly in the membrane fraction that harbors SREBP2 and caspase-2. Experiments showed further that caspase-2 interacts with pro-caspase-3 and that p38 MAPK reduced this interaction and caused caspase-3 activation. Because of the increased caspase-3 activity, the cells did not undergo cell death following p75NTR stimulation, possibly due to concomitant activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway by the neurotrophins. These results identify a novel signaling pathway triggered by ligand-activated p75NTR that via p38 MAPK and caspase-3 mediate the activation of SREBP2. This pathway may regulate LDLRs and lipid uptake particularly after injury or during tissue inflammation accompanied by an increased production of growth factors, including NGF and pro-NGF. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Bee venom suppresses PMA-mediated MMP-9 gene activation via JNK/p38 and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Ji; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chung, Il-Kyung; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Han, Sang-Mi; Bae, Young-Seuk; Chang, Young-Chae

    2010-02-17

    Bee venom has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and for the relief of pain in traditional oriental medicine. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of bee venom on MMP-9 expression and determine possible mechanisms by which bee venom relieves or prevents the expression of MMP-9 during invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. We examined the expression and activity of MMP-9 and possible signaling pathway affected in PMA-induced MCF-7 cells. Bee venom was obtained from the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology of Korea. Matrigel invasion assay, wound-healing assay, zymography assay, western blot assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase gene assay were used for assessment. Bee venom inhibited cell invasion and migration, and also suppressed MMP-9 activity and expression, processes related to tumor invasion and metastasis, in PMA-induced MCF-7 cells. Bee venom specifically suppressed the phosphorylation of p38/JNK and at the same time, suppressed the protein expression, DNA binding and promoter activity of NF-kappaB. The levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and c-Jun did not change. We also investigated MMP-9 inhibition by melittin, apamin and PLA(2), representative single component of bee venom. We confirmed that PMA-induced MMP-9 activity was significantly decreased by melittin, but not by apamin and phospholipase A(2). These data demonstrated that the expression of MMP-9 was abolished by melittin, the main component of bee venom. Bee venom inhibits PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and activity by inhibition of NF-kappaB via p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that bee venom can be a potential anti-metastatic and anti-invasive agent. This useful effect may lead to future clinical research on the anti-cancer properties of bee venom. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) first regulates filamentous actin at the 8-16-cell stage during preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Paliga, Andrew J M; Natale, David R; Watson, Andrew J

    2005-08-01

    The MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) superfamily of proteins consists of four separate signalling cascades: the c-Jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK); the ERKs (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases); the ERK5 or big MAPK1; and the p38 MAPK group of protein kinases, all of which are highly conserved. To date, our studies have focused on defining the role of the p38 MAPK pathway during preimplantation development. p38 MAPK regulates actin filament formation through the downstream kinases MAPKAPK2/3 (MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/3) or MAPKAPK5 [PRAK (p38 regulated/activated kinase)] and subsequently through HSP25/27 (heat-shock protein 25/27). We recently reported that 2-cell-stage murine embryos treated with cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDtrade mark; SB203580 and SB220025) display a reversible blockade of development at the 8-16-cell stage, indicating that p38 (MAPK) activity is required to complete murine preimplantation development. In the present study, we have investigated the stage-specific action and role of p38 MAPK in regulating filamentous actin during murine preimplantation development. Treatment of 8-cell-stage embryos with SB203580 and SB220025 (CSAIDtrade mark) resulted in a blockade of preimplantation development, loss of rhodamine phalloidin fluorescence, MK-p (phosphorylated MAPKAPK2/3), HSP-p (phosphorylated HSP25/27) and a redistribution of alpha-catenin immunofluorescence by 12 h of treatment. In contrast, treatment of 2- and 4-cell-stage embryos with CSAIDtrade mark drugs resulted in a loss of MK-p and HSP-p, but did not result in a loss of rhodamine phalloidin fluorescence. All these effects of p38 MAPK inhibition were reversed upon removal of the inhibitor, and development resumed in a delayed but normal manner to the blastocyst stage. Treatment of 8-cell embryos with PD098059 (ERK pathway inhibitor) did not affect development or fluorescence of MK-p, HSP-p or rhodamine phalloidin

  8. TSG-6 secreted by human umbilical cord-MSCs attenuates severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activations of P38 and JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lingying; Song, Huifeng; Duan, Hongjie; Chai, Jiake; Yang, Jing; Li, Xiao; Yu, Yonghui; Zhang, Xulong; Hu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Mengjing; Feng, Rui; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Yang, Longlong; Du, Jundong; Li, Tianran

    2016-07-22

    The hMSCs have become a promising approach for inflammation treatment in acute phase. Our previous study has demonstrated that human umbilical cord-MSCs could alleviate the inflammatory reaction of severely burned wound. In this study, we further investigated the potential role and mechanism of the MSCs on severe burn-induced excessive inflammation. Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups: Sham, Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+MAPKs inhibitors, and Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+Vehicle, Burn+siTSG-6, Burn+rhTSG-6 in the both experiments. It was found that MSCs could only down-regulate P38 and JNK signaling, but had no effect on ERK in peritoneal macrophages of severe burn rats. Furthermore, suppression of P38 and JNK activations significantly reduced the excessive inflammation induced by severe burn. TSG-6 was secreted by MSCs using different inflammatory mediators. TSG-6 from MSCs and recombinant human (rh)TSG-6 all significantly reduced activations of P38 and JNK signaling induced by severe burn and then attenuated excessive inflammations. On the contrary, knockdown TSG-6 in the cells significantly increased phosphorylation of P38 and JNK signaling and reduced therapeutic effect of the MSCs on excessive inflammation. Taken together, this study suggested TSG-6 from MSCs attenuated severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activation of P38 and JNK signaling.

  9. Uric acid stimulates proliferative pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells through the activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and PDGFRβ.

    PubMed

    Kırça, M; Oğuz, N; Çetin, A; Uzuner, F; Yeşilkaya, A

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia and angiotensin II (Ang II) may have a pathogenetic role in the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether uric acid can induce proliferative pathways of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) that are thought to be responsible for the development of CVD. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) was measured by Elisa and Western blot techniques to determine the activation of proliferative pathways in primary cultured VSMCs from rat aorta. Results demonstrated that uric acid can stimulate p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and PDGFRβ phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of VSMCs with the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) inhibitor losartan suppressed p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK induction by uric acid. The stimulatory effect of uric acid on p38 MAPK was higher compared to that of Ang II. The results of this study show for the first time that uric acid-induced PDGFRβ phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the development of CVDs and that elevated uric acid levels could be a potential therapeutical target in CVD patients.

  10. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  11. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli flagellin-induced interleukin-8 secretion requires Toll-like receptor 5-dependent p38 MAP kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammed A S; Kang, Jian; Steiner, Theodore S

    2004-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging enteric pathogen that causes acute and chronic diarrhoea in a number of clinical settings. EAEC diarrhoea involves bacterial aggregation, adherence to intestinal epithelial cells and elaboration of several toxigenic bacterial mediators. Flagellin (FliC-EAEC), a major bacterial surface protein of EAEC, causes interleukin (IL)-8 release from several epithelial cell lines. The host response to flagellins from E. coli and several other bacteria is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), which signals through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) to induce transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. p38 mitogen-activating protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) is a member of a family of stress-related kinases that influences a diverse range of cellular functions including host inflammatory responses to microbial products. We studied the role of p38 MAPK in FliC-EAEC-induced IL-8 secretion from Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells and THP-1 human monocytic cells. We found that IL-8 secretion from both cell types is dependent on p38 MAPK, which is phospho-activated in response to FliC-EAEC. The role of TLR5 in p38 MAPK-dependent IL-8 secretion was verified in HEp-2 cells transiently transfected with a TLR5 expression construct. Activation of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) was also observed in Caco-2 and TLR5-transfected HEp-2 cells after exposure to FliC-EAEC. Finally, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK reduced IL-8 transcription and mRNA levels, but did not affect NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results suggest that TLR5 mediates p38 MAPK-dependent IL-8 secretion from epithelial and monocytic cells incubated with FliC-EAEC, and that this effect requires IL-8 promoter activation independent of NF-κB nuclear migration. PMID:15270737

  12. Activation of the Rb/E2F1 pathway by the nonproliferative p38 MAPK during Fas (APO1/CD95)-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng T; Xie, Xiaoqi; Baggley, Anne; Park, David S; Chen, Gao; Walker, Teena

    2002-12-13

    Aberrant activation of the Rb/E2F1 pathway in cycling cells, in response to mitogenic or nonmitogenic stress signals, leads to apoptosis through hyperphosphorylation of Rb. To test whether in postmitotic neurons the Rb/E2F1 pathway can be activated by the nonmitogenic stress signaling, we examined the role of the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) in regulating Rb phosphorylation in response to Fas (CD95/APO1)-mediated apoptosis of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Anti-Fas antibody induced a dramatic and early activation of p38. Activated p38 was correlated with the induction of hyperphosphorylation of both endogenous and exogenous Rb. The p38-selective inhibitor, SB203580, attenuated such an increase in pRb phosphorylation and significantly protected CGNs from Fas-induced apoptosis. The cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated Rb phosphorylation played a lesser role in this neuronal death paradigm, since cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, such as olomoucine, roscovitine, and flavopiridol, did not significantly prevent anti-Fas antibody-evoked neuronal apoptosis. Hyperphosphorylation of Rb by p38 SAPK resulted in the release of Rb-bound E2F1. Increased E2F1 modulated neuronal apoptosis, since E2F1-/- CGNs were significantly less susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis in comparison with the wild-type CGNs. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that neuronal Rb/E2F1 is modulated by the nonproliferative p38 SAPK in Fas-mediated neuronal apoptosis.

  13. Acute exercise activates p38 MAPK and increases the expression of telomere-protective genes in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Andrew T; Gratidão, Laila; Ludlow, Lindsay W; Spangenburg, Espen E; Roth, Stephen M

    2017-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? A positive association between telomere length and exercise training has been shown in cardiac tissue of mice. It is currently unknown how each bout of exercise influences telomere-length-regulating proteins. We sought to determine how a bout of exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes and a related signalling pathway in cardiac tissue of mice. What is the main finding and its importance? Acute exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes in cardiac tissue and might be related to altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. These findings are important in understanding how exercise provides a cardioprotective phenotype with ageing. Age is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Telomere length is shorter in the hearts of aged mice compared with young mice, and short telomere length has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One year of voluntary wheel-running exercise attenuates the age-associated loss of telomere length and results in altered gene expression of telomere-length-maintaining and genome-stabilizing proteins in heart tissue of mice. Understanding the early adaptive response of the heart to an endurance exercise bout is paramount to understanding the impact of endurance exercise on heart tissue and cells. To this end, we studied mice before (BL), immediately after (TP1) and 1 h after a treadmill running bout (TP2). We measured the changes in expression of telomere-related genes (shelterin components), DNA-damage-sensing (p53 and Chk2) and DNA-repair genes (Ku70 and Ku80) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. The TP1 animals had increased TRF1 and TRF2 protein and mRNA levels, greater expression of DNA-repair and -response genes (Chk2 and Ku80) and greater protein content of phosphorylated p38 MAPK compared with both BL and TP2 animals. These data provide insights into how physiological stressors

  14. p38 MAPK activation and H3K4 trimethylation is decreased by lactate in vitro and high intensity resistance training in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Willkomm, Lena; Gehlert, Sebastian; Jacko, Daniel; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Exercise induces adaptation of skeletal muscle by acutely modulating intracellular signaling, gene expression, protein turnover and myogenic activation of skeletal muscle stem cells (Satellite cells, SCs). Lactate (La)-induced metabolic stimulation alone has been shown to modify SC proliferation and differentiation. Although the mechanistic basis remains elusive, it was demonstrated that La affects signaling via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) which might contribute to trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) known to regulate satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. We investigated the effects of La on p38 MAPK and H3K4me3 in a model of activated SCs. Differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were treated with La (20 mM) and samples analysed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We determined a reduction of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, decreased H3K4me3 and reduced expression of Myf5, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) leading to decreased differentiation of La-treated C2C12 cells after 5 days of repeated La treatment. We further investigated whether this regulatory pathway would be affected in human skeletal muscle by the application of two different resistance exercise regimes (RE) associated with distinct metabolic demands and blood La accumulation. Muscle biopsies were obtained 15, 30 min, 1, 4, and 24 h post exercise after moderate intensity RE (STD) vs. high intensity RE (HIT). Consistent with in vitro results, reduced p38 phosphorylation and blunted H3K4me3 were also observed upon metabolically demanding HIT RE in human skeletal muscle. Our data provide evidence that La-accumulation acutely affects p38 MAPK signaling, gene expression and thereby cell differentiation and adaptation in vitro, and likely in vivo.

  15. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IL-18-induced interferon-gamma production through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in human NK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Soyoung; Song, Seok Bean; Jung, Minkyung

    2008-09-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the innate immune response. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a well-known interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma} inducing factor, which stimulates immune response in NK and T cells. Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which acts as a second messenger to function as an anti-apoptotic factor and proliferation stimulator of immune cells. In this study, to elucidate whether SPHK is involved in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, we measured IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production after pre-treatment with SPHK inhibitor (SKI) in NK-92MI cells. We found that IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} expression was blocked by SKI pre-treatment in both mRNAmore » and protein levels. In addition, the increased IFN-{gamma} production by stimulation with IL-18 is mediated through both SPHK and p38 MAPK. To determine the upstream signals of SKI and p38 MAPK in IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production, phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK was measured after SKI pre-treatment. As a result, inhibition of SPHK by SKI blocked phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, showing that SPHK activation by IL-18 is an upstream signal of p38 MAPK activation. Inhibition of SPHK by SKI also inhibited IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production in human primary NK cells. In conclusion, SPHK activation is an essential factor for IL-18-induced IFN-{gamma} production via p38 MAPK.« less

  16. Diagnostic Significance of p38 Isoforms (p38α, p38β, p38γ, p38δ) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comparative Serum Level Evaluation and Design of Novel Peptide Inhibitor Targeting the Same.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Vishal; Nigam, Lokesh; Agnihotri, Vertica; Gupta, Abhishek; Shekhar, Shashank; Subbarao, Naidu; Bhaskar, Suman; Dey, Sharmistha

    2018-05-09

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) play a crucial role in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and over-expression of it increase cytokines which promote cancer. Among four isoforms, p38α has been well studied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other cancers as a therapeutic target.p38δ has recently emerged as a potential disease-specific drug target. Elevated serum p38α level in HNSCC was reported earlier from our lab. This study aims to estimate the levels of p38 MAPK-isoforms in the serum of HNSCC and design peptide inhibitor targeting the same. Levels of p38 MAPK isoforms in the serum of HNSCC and healthy controls were quantified by surface plasmon resonance technology. The peptide inhibitor for p38 MAPK was designed by molecular modeling using Grid-based Ligand Docking with Energetics tools and compared with known specific inhibitors. We have observed highly elevated levels of all four isoforms of p38 MAPK in serum of HNSCC patients compared to the control group. Further, serum p38α, p38β, and p38δ levels were down regulated after therapy in follow up patients, while p38γ showed no response to the therapy. Present study screened designed peptide WFYH as a specific inhibitor against p38δ. The specific inhibitor of p38δ was found to have no effect on p38α due to great structural difference at ATP binding pocket. In this study, first time estimated the levels of p38 MAPK isoforms in the serum of HNSCC. It can be concluded that p38 MAPK isoforms can be a diagnostic and prognostic marker for HNSCC and p38δ as a therapeutic target.

  17. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-γ Inhibition by Long-Acting β2 Adrenergic Agonists Reversed Steroid Insensitivity in Severe Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Nicholas; To, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Adcock, Ian M.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroid insensitivity (CI) is a major barrier to treating severe asthma. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanism of CI remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine abnormality in corticosteroid action in severe asthma and to identify the molecular mechanism of the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) formoterol and salmeterol on restoration of corticosteroid sensitivity in severe asthma in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 16 subjects with severe corticosteroid-insensitive asthma, 6 subjects with mild corticosteroid-sensitive asthma, and 11 healthy volunteers. Corticosteroid (dexamethasone) sensitivity was determined on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation and kinase phosphorylation were evaluated by immunoprecipitation-Western blotting analysis and kinase phosphorylation array in IL-2/IL-4-treated corticosteroid insensitive model in PBMCs. In vitro corticosteroid sensitivity on TNF-α-induced IL-8 production was significantly lower in patients with severe asthma than in healthy volunteers and patients with mild asthma. This CI seen in severe asthma was associated with reduced GR nuclear translocation and with hyperphosphorylation of GR, which were reversed by LABAs. In IL-2/IL-4-treated PBMCs, LABAs inhibited phosphorylation of Jun-NH2-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-γ (p38MAPK-γ) as well as GR. In addition, cells with p38MAPK-γ knockdown by RNA interference did not develop CI in the presence of IL-2/IL-4. Furthermore, p38MAPK-γ protein expression was up-regulated in PBMCs from some patients with severe asthma. In conclusion, p38 MAPK-γ activation impairs corticosteroid action and p38 MAPK-γ inhibition by LABAs has potential for the treatment of severe asthma. PMID:21917909

  18. Activation of p38 MAPK-regulated Bcl-xL signaling increases survival against zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis in osteoclast precursors.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin; Chen, Ching-Yu; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2014-10-01

    The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) induces apoptosis in osteoclasts and inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It is widely used to treat osteoporosis. However, some patients are less responsive to ZA treatment, and the mechanisms of resistance are still unclear. Here, we identified that murine osteoclast precursors may develop resistance to ZA-induced apoptosis. These resistant cells survived the apoptotic effect of ZA following an increase in anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Pharmacologically inhibiting Bcl-xL facilitated ZA-induced apoptosis. Treatment with ZA activated p38 MAPK, increasing Bcl-xL expression and cell survival. Nuclear import of β-catenin regulated by p38 MAPK determined Bcl-xL mRNA expression and cell survival in response to ZA. ZA also inactivated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a negative upstream regulator of β-catenin, in a p38 MAPK-mediated manner. Synergistic pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK with ZA attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and facilitated ZA-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that elevated Bcl-xL expression mediated by p38 MAPK-regulated GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling is required for cell survival of ZA-induced apoptosis in both osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibiting p38 MAPK-mediated pathway enhanced ZA effect on increasing the bone mineral density of ovariectomized mice. This result suggests that targeting these pathways may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, 804, Taiwan; He Shiping

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38more » MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.« less

  20. Activation of p38 MAPK participates in brain ischemic tolerance induced by limb ischemic preconditioning by up-regulating HSP 70.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Cai; Xian, Xiao-Hui; Li, Wen-Bin; Li, Li; Yan, Cai-Zhen; Li, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Min

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates whether activation of p38 MAPK by the up-regulation of HSP 70 participates in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance by limb ischemic preconditioning (LIP). Western blot and immunohistochemical assays indicated that p38 MAPK activation occurred earlier than HSP 70 induction in the CA1 region of the hippocampus after LIP. P-p38 MAPK expression was up-regulated at 6h and reached its peak 12h after LIP, while HSP 70 expression was not significantly increased until 1 day and peaked 2 days after LIP. Neuropathological evaluation by thionin staining showed that quercetin (4 ml/kg, 50mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), an inhibitor of HSP 70, blocked the protective effect of LIP against delayed neuronal death that is normally induced by lethal brain ischemic insult, indicating that HSP 70 participates in the induction of brain ischemic tolerance by LIP. Furthermore, SB 203580, an inhibitor of HSP 70, inhibited HSP 70 activation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induced by LIP either with or without the presence of subsequent brain ischemic insult. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that activation of p38 MAPK participates in the brain ischemic tolerance induced by LIP at least partly by the up-regulation of HSP 70 expression. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Role for p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Threonine 30-dependent Norepinephrine Transporter Regulation in Cocaine Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference*

    PubMed Central

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; NarasimhaNaidu, Kamalakkannan; Damaj, Mohamad Imad; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle Damodara

    2015-01-01

    The noradrenergic and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) systems are implicated in cocaine-elicited behaviors. Previously, we demonstrated a role for p38 MAPK-mediated norepinephrine transporter (NET) Thr30 phosphorylation in cocaine-induced NET up-regulation (Mannangatti, P., Arapulisamy, O., Shippenberg, T. S., Ramamoorthy, S., and Jayanthi, L. D. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 20239–20250). The present study explored the functional interaction between p38 MAPK-mediated NET regulation and cocaine-induced behaviors. In vitro cocaine treatment of mouse prefrontal cortex synaptosomes resulted in enhanced NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Pretreatment with PD169316, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In mice, in vivo administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 completely blocked cocaine-induced NET up-regulation and p38 MAPK activation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. When tested for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP), mice receiving SB203580 on cocaine challenge day or on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine sensitization and CPP. A transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide strategy was utilized to test the involvement of the NET-Thr30 motif. In vitro treatment of synaptosomes with TAT-NET-Thr30 (wild-type peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In vivo administration of TAT-NET-Thr30 peptide but not TAT-NET-T30A (mutant peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In the cocaine CPP paradigm, mice receiving TAT-NET-Thr30 but not TAT-NET-T30A on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine CPP. Following extinction, TAT-NET-Thr30 when given prior to cocaine challenge significantly reduced reinstatement of cocaine CPP. These results demonstrate that the direct inhibition of p38

  2. Rottlerin enhances IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression through sustained p38 MAPK activation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important enzyme in inflammation. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the synergistic effect of rottlerin on interleukin1β (IL-1β)-induced COX-2 expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with rottlerin enhanced IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Combined treatment with rottlerin and IL-1β significantly induced COX-2 expression, at least in part, through the enhancement of COX-2 mRNA stability. In addition, rottlerin and IL-1β treatment drove sustained activation of p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is involved in induced COX-2 expression. Also, a pharmacological inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB 203580) and transient transfection with inactive p38 MAPK inhibited rottlerin and IL-1β-induced COX-2 upregulation. However, suppression of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) expression by siRNA or overexpression of dominant-negative PKC δ (DN-PKC-δ) did not abrogate the rottlerin plus IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. Furthermore, rottlerin also enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced COX-2 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that rottlerin causes IL-1β-induced COX-2 upregulation through sustained p38 MAPK activation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. PMID:21971413

  3. Substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinones: A new class of potent, selective, and orally active p38 MAP kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, Balekudru; Selness, Shaun R.; Xing, Li

    2012-02-28

    A novel series of highly potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was developed originating from a substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinone scaffold. SAR studies coupled with in vivo evaluations in rat arthritis model culminated in the identification of 10 with excellent oral efficacy. Compound 10 exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared to 1, translating to a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rat. In animal studies 10 inhibited LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to dexamethasone in a rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model.

  4. Gingerol Inhibits Serum-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Injury-Induced Neointimal Hyperplasia by Suppressing p38 MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; Singh, Ankita; Singh, Vishal; Maurya, Preeti; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Gingerol inhibits growth of cancerous cells; however, its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is not known. The present study investigated the effect of gingerol on VSMC proliferation in cell culture and during neointima formation after balloon injury. Rat VSMCs or carotid arteries were harvested at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of fetal bovine serum (FBS; 10%) stimulation or balloon injury, respectively. Gingerol prevented FBS (10%)-induced proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (50 μmol/L-400 μmol/L). The FBS-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) upregulation and p27(Kip1) downregulation were also attenuated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Fetal bovine serum-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation were abrogated in gingerol (200 μmol/L) and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580, 10 μmol/L) pretreated cells. Balloon injury induced time-dependent p38 MAPK activation in the carotid artery. Pretreatment with gingerol (200 μmol/L) significantly attenuated injury-induced p38 MAPK activation, PCNA upregulation, and p27(Kip1) downregulation. After 14 days of balloon injury, intimal thickening, neointimal proliferation, and endothelial dysfunction were significantly prevented in gingerol pretreated arteries. In isolated organ bath studies, gingerol (30 nmol/L-300 μmol/L) inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions and induced dose-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aortic rings in a partially endothelium-dependent manner. Gingerol prevented FBS-induced VSMC proliferation and balloon injury-induced neointima formation by regulating p38 MAPK. Vasodilator effect of gingerol observed in the thoracic aorta was partially endothelium dependent. Gingerol is thus proposed as an attractive agent for modulating VSMC proliferation, vascular reactivity, and progression of vascular proliferative diseases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates β-amyloid protein internalization through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Yang, Wei-Na; Chang, Ke-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Zhai, Wan-Ying; Zong, Hang-Fan; Qian, Yi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known. Therefore, in this study, we revealed that Aβ is internalized by cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. The internalized Aβ were found deposits in lysosomes/endosomes and mitochondria. Aβ could form Aβ-α7nAChR complex with α7nAChR, activates the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). And the increasing of α7nAChR could in return mediate Aβ internalization in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, by using the α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, the p38 phosphorylation level decreases, rescues the biochemical changes which are tightly associated with Aβ-induced apoptosis, such as Bcl2/Bax level, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release. Collectively, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could regulate the α7nAChR-mediated internalization of Aβ. The activation of α7nAChR or the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be a beneficial therapy to AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TIPE attenuates the apoptotic effect of radiation and cisplatin and promotes tumor growth via JNK and p38 activation in Raw264.7 and EL4 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Ni, Xiao Yan; Chen, Rui Ling; Li, Juan; Gao, Feng Guang

    2018-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α‑induced protein 8 (TIPE) is highly expressed in many types of malignancies. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death which maintains the balance of cell survival and death. TIPE is involved in the carcinogenesis of many tumor types, yet the exact role of TIPE in defective apoptosis‑associated carcinogenesis remains uncertain. In the present study, TIPE‑overexpressing Raw264.7 and EL4 cells and vector control cells were treated with 4 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet radiation or 2 µg/ml cisplatin. Following ultraviolet irradiation, TIPE overexpression decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells as detected by flow cytometric and reversed the cisplatin‑mediated decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential by JC‑1 assay. Western blot analyses also revealed that TIPE overexpression inhibited cisplatin‑induced activation of caspase‑3 and ‑9 and PARP. Secondly, TIPE overexpression increased the levels of phosphorylated JNK, MEK and p38. Moreover, inhibition of JNK and p38, but not MEK, efficiently abolished the cell pro‑survival effect of TIPE. Most importantly, an in vivo tumor implantation model revealed that TIPE overexpression augmented the volume and weight of the implanted tumors, indicating that TIPE facilitated tumor formation. We found that TIPE exhibited an anti‑apoptotic effect via JNK and p38 activation, which ultimately promoted tumor. Hence, the present study revealed that activation of JNK and p38 kinases contribute to the TIPE‑mediated anti‑apoptotic effect, indicating that JNK and p38 may be potential therapeutic molecules for TIPE overexpression‑associated diseases.

  7. Changes in the free-energy landscape of p38α MAP kinase through its canonical activation and binding events as studied by enhanced molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Sutto, Ludovico; Saladino, Giorgio; Nebreda, Angel R; Gervasio, Francesco L; Orozco, Modesto

    2017-04-26

    p38α is a Ser/Thr protein kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes and pathological conditions, which makes it a promising pharmacological target. Although the activity of the enzyme is highly regulated, its molecular mechanism of activation remains largely unexplained, even after decades of research. By using state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations, we decipher the key elements of the complex molecular mechanism refined by evolution to allow for a fine tuning of p38α kinase activity. Our study describes for the first time the molecular effects of different regulators of the enzymatic activity, and provides an integrative picture of the activation mechanism that explains the seemingly contradictory X-ray and NMR data.

  8. Changes in the free-energy landscape of p38α MAP kinase through its canonical activation and binding events as studied by enhanced molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Sutto, Ludovico; Saladino, Giorgio; Nebreda, Angel R; Gervasio, Francesco L; Orozco, Modesto

    2017-01-01

    p38α is a Ser/Thr protein kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes and pathological conditions, which makes it a promising pharmacological target. Although the activity of the enzyme is highly regulated, its molecular mechanism of activation remains largely unexplained, even after decades of research. By using state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations, we decipher the key elements of the complex molecular mechanism refined by evolution to allow for a fine tuning of p38α kinase activity. Our study describes for the first time the molecular effects of different regulators of the enzymatic activity, and provides an integrative picture of the activation mechanism that explains the seemingly contradictory X-ray and NMR data. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22175.001 PMID:28445123

  9. Hydrogen saline suppresses neuronal cell apoptosis and inhibits the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase‑caspase‑3 signaling pathway following cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Da; Ai, Yanqiu

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury (CIRI) is a serious pathological disease that is associated with a high rate death and disability. Saturated hydrogen (H2) saline exhibits brain protective functions through anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. The present study investigated the potential treatment effects of H2 on CIRI. In addition, the potential protective mechanisms of H2 in the prevention of CIRI were investigated. Adult, male Sprague‑Dawley rats (n=60) were randomly divided into the following three groups: Sham‑operated group; IR group; and IR + H2 group (0.6 mmol/l, 0.5 ml/kg/day). Hematoxylin and eosin, and TUNEL staining were performed for histopathological analysis and investigation of apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the protein expression of caspase‑3, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated‑p38 MAPK in the cortex were measured by western blotting analysis. These results demonstrated that H2 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells, and the protein expression of p38 MAPK and caspase‑3, compared with the IR group. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK signaling pathway.

  10. Silica nanoparticles induce cytokine responses in lung epithelial cells through activation of a p38/TACE/TGF-α/EGFR-pathway and NF-κΒ signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Skuland, Tonje, E-mail: tonje.skuland@fhi.no; Øvrevik, Johan; Låg, Marit

    2014-08-15

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have previously been shown to induce marked cytokine (interleukin-6; IL-6 and interleukin-8; CXCL8/IL-8) responses independently of particle uptake in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. In this study the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP-kinases), nuclear factor-kappa Β (NF-κΒ) and in particular tumour necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) and—epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathways were examined in triggering of IL-6 and CXCL8 release after exposure to a 50 nm silica nanoparticle (Si50). Exposure to Si50 increased phosphorylation of NF-κΒ p65 and MAP-kinases p38 and JUN-N-terminal protein kinase pathways (JNK), but not extracellular signal regulated kinasesmore » (ERK). Inhibition of NF-κΒ and p38 reduced the cytokine responses to Si50, whereas neither JNK- nor ERK-inhibition exerted any significant effect on the responses to Si50. Increases in membrane-bound transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) release and EGFR phosphorylation were also observed after Si50 exposure, and pre-treatment with inhibitors of these pathways reduced the release of IL-6 and CXCL8, but did not affect the Si50-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p65. In contrast, p38-inhibition partially reduced Si50-induced TGF-α release, while the p65-inhibition was without effect. Overall, our results indicate that Si50-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 responses in BEAS-2B cells were regulated through combined activation of several pathways, including NF-κΒ and p38/TACE/TGF-α/EGFR signalling. The study identifies critical, initial events in the triggering of pro-inflammatory responses by nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles induce IL-6 and CXCL8 via NFκB and MAPKinase p38 in BEAS-2B • Silica nanoparticles induce release of the EGF-receptor ligand TGF-α • TGF-α release contributes to the IL-6 and CXCL8 release • Phosphorylation of p38 is involved in release of TGF-α.« less

  11. Ebselen suppresses inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Gong, Changguo; Li, Guangming; Wei, Jue; Wang, Ting; Meng, Wenying; Shi, Min; Wang, Yugang

    2018-05-01

    Ebselen is a seleno-organic compound that has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A previous study determined that ebselen inhibits airway inflammation induced by inhalational lipopolysaccharide (LPS), however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of ebselen on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX)‑reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway and interleukin‑8 (IL‑8) expression induced by Helicobacter pylori LPS in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Cells were treated with 200 ng/ml H. pylori‑LPS in the presence or absence of ebselen for various durations and concentrations (µmol/l). The expression of toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4), GPX2, GPX4, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), phosphorylated‑p38 MAPK, ROS production and IL‑8 expression were detected with western blotting or ELISA. The present study revealed that TLR4 expression was upregulated; however, GPX2 and GPX4 expression was reduced following treatment with H. pylori LPS, which led to increased ROS production, subsequently altering the IL‑8 expression level in GC cells. Additionally, it was determined that ebselen prevented the reduction in GPX2/4 levels induced by H. pylori LPS, however, TLR4 expression was not affected. Ebselen may also block the expression of IL‑8 by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These data suggest ebselen may inhibit ROS production triggered by H. pylori LPS treatment via GPX2/4 instead of TLR4 signaling and reduce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, resulting in altered production of IL‑8. Ebselen may, therefore, be a potential therapeutic agent to mediate H. pylori LPS-induced cell damage.

  12. A Role for the p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Myocardial Cell Growth, Sarcomeric Organization, and Cardiac-specific Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zechner, Dietmar; Thuerauf, Donna J.; Hanford, Deanna S.; McDonough, Patrick M.; Glembotski, Christopher C.

    1997-01-01

    Three hallmark features of the cardiac hypertrophic growth program are increases in cell size, sarcomeric organization, and the induction of certain cardiac-specific genes. All three features of hypertrophy are induced in cultured myocardial cells by α1- adrenergic receptor agonists, such as phenylephrine (PE) and other growth factors that activate mitogen- activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In this study the MAPK family members extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 were activated by transfecting cultured cardiac myocytes with constructs encoding the appropriate kinases possessing gain-of-function mutations. Transfected cells were then analyzed for changes in cell size, sarcomeric organization, and induction of the genes for the A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs), as well as the α-skeletal actin (α-SkA) gene. While activation of JNK and/or ERK with MEKK1COOH or Raf-1 BXB, respectively, augmented cell size and effected relatively modest increases in NP and α-SkA promoter activities, neither upstream kinase conferred sarcomeric organization. However, transfection with MKK6 (Glu), which specifically activated p38, augmented cell size, induced NP and α-Ska promoter activities by up to 130-fold, and elicited sarcomeric organization in a manner similar to PE. Moreover, all three growth features induced by MKK6 (Glu) or PE were blocked with the p38-specific inhibitor, SB 203580. These results demonstrate novel and potentially central roles for MKK6 and p38 in the regulation of myocardial cell hypertrophy. PMID:9314533

  13. Administration of chlorogenic acid alleviates spinal cord injury via TLR4/NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathway anti‑inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Pan, Dan; Tang, Shaolong; Tan, Zhihong; Zhang, Yanan; Fu, Yunfeng; Lü, Guohua; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, as a secondary metabolite of plants, exhibits a variety of effects including free radical scavenging, antiseptic, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑viral, in addition to its ability to reduce blood glucose, protect the liver and act as an anti‑hyperlipidemic agent and cholagogue. The present study demonstrated that administration of chlorogenic acid alleviated spinal cord injury (SCI) via anti‑inflammatory activity mediated by nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and p38 signaling pathways. Wistar rats were used to structure a SCI model rat to explore the effects of administration of chlorogenic acid on SCI. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan test was executed for assessment of neuronal functional recovery and then spinal cord tissue wet/dry weight ratio was recorded. The present study demonstrated that chlorogenic acid increased SCI‑inhibition of BBB scores and decreased SCI‑induction of spinal cord wet/dry weight ratio in rats. In addition, chlorogenic acid suppressed SCI‑induced inflammatory activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and cyclooxygenase‑2 protein expression in the SCI rat. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid suppressed Toll like receptor (TLR)‑4/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/NF‑κB/IκB signaling pathways and downregulated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase protein expression in SCI rats. The findings suggest that administration of chlorogenic acid alleviates SCI via anti‑inflammatory activity mediated by TLR4/MyD88/NF‑κB and p38 signaling pathways.

  14. Aqueous fraction from Cuscuta japonica seed suppresses melanin synthesis through inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ha Neui; Kim, Yu Ri; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Byung Woo; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2012-05-07

    Semen cuscutae has been used traditionally to treat pimples and alleviate freckles and melasma in Korea. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Cuscuta japonica Choisy seeds on alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis. The aqueous fraction from Semen cuscutae (AFSC) was used to determine anti-melanogenic effects by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay and Western blot analysis for melanin synthesis-related signaling proteins in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. AFSC markedly inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, and also decreased α-MSH-induced expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRPs). Moreover, AFSC significantly decreased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling through the down-regulation of α-MSH-induced cAMP. Furthermore, we confirmed that the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580)-mediated suppressed melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity was further attenuated by AFSC. AFSC also further decreased SB203580-mediated suppression of MITF and TRP expression. These results indicate that AFSC inhibits p38 MAPK phosphorylation with suppressed cAMP levels and subsequently down-regulate MITF and TRP expression, which results in a marked reduction of melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of chromium picolinate on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes involve activation of p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-qun; Yao, Ming-hui

    2009-12-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been discovered as a supplemental or alternative medication for type 2 diabetes, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible anti-diabetic mechanisms of CrPic in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes; the insulin resistance was induced by treatment with high glucose and insulin for 24 h. The effects of CrPic on glucose metabolism and the glucose uptake-inducing activity of CrPic were investigated. Meanwhile, the effects of CrPic on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation were visualized by immonofluorescence microscopy. In addition, its effects on insulin signaling pathways and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades were assessed by immunoblotting analysis and real-time PCR. The results showed that CrPic induced glucose metabolism and uptake, as well as GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane (PM) in both control and insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes without any changes in insulin receptor beta (IR-beta), protein kinase B (AKt), c-Cbl, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun phosphorylation and c-Cbl-associated protein (CAP) mRNA levels. Interestingly, CrPic was able to increase the basal and insulin-stimulated levels of p38 MAPK activation in the control and insulin-resistant cells. Pretreatment with the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 partially inhibited the CrPic-induced glucose transport, but CrPic-activated translocation of GLUT4 was not inhibited by SB203580. This study provides an experimental evidence of the effects of CrPic on glucose uptake through the activation of p38 MAPK and it is independent of the effect on GLUT4 translocation. The findings also suggest exciting new insights into the role of p38 MAPK in glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation.

  16. Icaritin induces MC3T3-E1 subclone14 cell differentiation through estrogen receptor-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhidi; Ou, Ling; Wang, Chaopeng; Yang, Li; Wang, Panpan; Liu, Hengrui; Xiong, Yingquan; Sun, Kehuan; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from the genus Epimedium, has many indicated pharmacological and biological activities. Several studies have shown that ICT has potential osteoprotective effects, including stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism for this anabolic action of ICT remains largely unknown. Here, we found that ICT could enhance MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 preosteoblastic cell differentiation associated with increased mRNA levels and protein expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), osteoponin (OPN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and improved mineralization, confirmed by bone nodule formation and collagen synthesis. To characterize the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effect of ICT on estrogen receptor (ER) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. ICT treatment induced p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation, but it demonstrated at the same time point no effect on activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). ER antagonist ICI182780, p38 antagonist SB203580 and ERK1/2 antagonist PD98059 markedly inhibited the ICT-induced the mRNA expression of ALP, COL1, OC and OPN. ICI182780 attenuated the ICT-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. These observations indicate a potential mechanism of osteogenic effects of ICT involving the ERK1/2 and p38 pathway activation through the ER. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-induced hypothermia inhibits the activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and NF-κB in endotoxemic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlong; Zhang, Aihua; Lu, Shulai; Pan, Xinting; Jia, Dongmei; Yu, Wenjuan; Jiang, Yanxia; Li, Xinde; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Jidong; Hou, Lin; Sun, Yunbo

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown that LPS mainly activates four signal transduction pathways to induce inflammation, namely the p38, ERK1/2, JNK and IKK/NF-κB pathways. Studies have demonstrated that 5'-AMP-induced hypothermia (AIH) exhibits high anti-inflammatory capabilities. In this study, we explore that how AIH inhibits the inflammatory response. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: a control group, an LPS group, a 5'-AMP pre-treatment group, a 5'-AMP post-treatment group and a 5'-AMP group. For each group, plasma and lung were collected from the rats at 6h and 12h after LPS injection. ELISA assays were used to detect plasma levels of CD14, CRP and MCP-1. Inflammatory pathway activation and TLR4 expression were assayed separately by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that rats treated with AIH either before or after an LPS-challenge had a significant decrease in plasma levels of CD14, CRP and TLR4 compared with rats that received LPS only. Western blot analysis showed that AIH inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB in inflammatory rats. Our study concluded that AIH attenuated LPS-induced inflammation mainly by inhibiting activation on the ERK1/2, p38, JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tangeretin suppresses IL-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression through inhibition of p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT activation in human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hung; Weng, Meng-Shih; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2007-01-15

    Tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone) is a polymethoxylated flavonoid concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits. Recent studies have shown that tangeretin exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-metastatic, and antioxidant activities. However, the anti-inflammatory properties of tangeretin are unclear. In this study, we examine the effects of tangeretin and its structure-related compound, nobiletin, on the expression of cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) in human lung epithelial carcinoma cells, A549, and human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells, H1299. Tangeretin exerts a much better inhibitory activity than nobiletin against IL-1beta-induced production of COX-2 in A549 cells, and it effectively represses the constitutively expressed COX-2 in H1299. RT-PCR was used to investigate the transcriptional inhibition of COX-2 by tangeretin. COX-2 mRNA was rapidly induced by IL-1beta in 3h and markedly suppressed by tangeretin. IL-1beta-induced the activation of ERK, p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT in A549 cells. COX-2 expression in response to IL-1beta was attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580, SP600125, and LY294002, but not with PD98059, suggesting the involvement of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K in this response. Pretreatment of cells with tangeretin inhibited IL-1beta-induced p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT phosphorylation and the downstream activation of NF-kappaB. These results may reveal that the tangeretin inhibition of IL-1beta-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells is, at least in part, mediated through suppression of NF-kappaB transcription factor as well as through suppression of the signaling proteins of p38 MAPK, JNK, and PI3K, but not of ERK.

  19. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Hahm, Young-Tae; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-12-09

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na⁺-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C ) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight) in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  20. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Hahm, Young-Tae; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na+-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight) in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27941667

  1. Cpg-ODN, a TLR9 Agonist, Aggravates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Activation of TLR9-P38 MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang; He, Songqing; Kong, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tang, Yi; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Zhengbing; Liu, Jing; Gong, Jianbin

    2018-06-19

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been implicated in myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury. We examined the effect of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) on myocardial I/R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either CpG-ODN or control ODN 1 h prior to myocardial ischemia (30 min) followed by reperfusion. Rats treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) served as I/R controls (n = 8/group). Infarct size was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Evans blue straining. Cardiac function was examined by echocardiography before and up to 14 days after myocardial I/R. CpG-ODN administration significantly increased infarct size and reduced cardiac function and survival rate after myocardial I/R, compared to the PBS-treated I/R group. Control-ODN did not alter I/R-induced myocardial infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and survival rate. Additionally, CpG-ODN promoted I/R-induced myocardial apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 levels in the myocardium. CpG-ODN increased TLR9 activation and p38 phosphorylation in the myocardium. In vitro data also suggested that CpG-ODN treatment induced TLR9 activation and p38 phosphorylation. Importantly, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition abolished CpG-ODN-induced cardiac injury. CpG-ODN, the TLR9 ligand, accelerates myocardial I/R injury. The mechanisms involve activation of the TLR9-p38 MAPK signaling pathway. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Activation of the EGFR/p38/JNK Pathway by Mitochondrial-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes To Oxygen-induced Contraction Of Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhigang; Cabrera, Jésus A; Mahapatra, Saswati; Kutty, Shelby; Weir, E. Kenneth; Archer, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen-induced contraction of the ductus arteriosus (DA) involves a mitochondrial oxygen-sensor, which signals pO2 in the DA smooth muscle cell (DASMC) by increasing production of diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 stimulates vasoconstriction by regulating ion channels and rho kinase, leading to calcium influx and calcium sensitization. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is also redox regulated and participates in oxygen sensing and vasoconstriction in other systems, we explored the role of the EGFR and its signaling cascade (p38 and JNK) in DA contraction. Experiments were performed in DA rings isolated from full-term New Zealand White rabbits and human DASMC. In human DASMCs increasing pO2 from hypoxia to normoxia (40 to 100 mmHg) significantly increased cytosolic calcium, p<0.01. This normoxic rise in intracellular calcium was mimicked by EGF and inhibited by EGFR siRNA. In DA rings, EGF caused contraction whilst the specific EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) and the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein or tyrphostin A23) selectively attenuated oxygen-induced contraction (p <0.01). Conversely, orthovanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor known to activate EGFR signaling, caused dose-dependent contraction of hypoxic DA and superimposed increases in oxygen caused minimal additional contraction. Ansomycin, an activator of EGFR’s downstream kinases, p38 and JNK, caused DA contraction; conversely, oxygen-induced DA contraction was blocked by inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) or JNK (JNK inhibitor II). O2-induced phosphorylation of EGFR occurred within 5-minutes of increasing pO2 and was inhibited by mitochondrial-targeted overexpression of catalase. AG1478 prevented the oxygen-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, O2-induced EGFR transactivation initiates p38/JNK-mediated increases in cytosolic calcium and contributes to DA contraction. The EGFR/p38/JNK pathway is regulated by mitochondrial redox signaling and is a promising

  3. Dual modulation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase activities induced by minocycline reverses the neurotoxic effects of the prion protein fragment 90-231.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Alessandro; Thellung, Stefano; Chiovitti, Katia; Villa, Valentina; Simi, Alessandro; Raggi, Federica; Paludi, Domenico; Russo, Claudio; Aceto, Antonio; Florio, Tullio

    2009-02-01

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies addressed the identification of molecular determinants of the neuronal death induced by PrP(Sc) or related peptides. We developed an experimental model to assess PrP(Sc) neurotoxicity using a recombinant polypeptide encompassing amino acids 90-231 of human PrP (hPrP90-231) that corresponds to the protease-resistant core of PrP(Sc) identified in prion-infected brains. By means of mild thermal denaturation, we can convert hPrP90-231 from a PrP(C)-like conformation into a PrP(Sc)-like structure. In virtue of these structural changes, hPrP90-231 powerfully affected the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, inducing caspase 3 and p38-dependent apoptosis, while in the native alpha-helix-rich conformation, hPrP90-231 did not induce cell toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify drugs able to block hPrP90-231 neurotoxic effects, focusing on minocycline, a tetracycline with known neuroprotective activity. hPrP90-231 caused a caspase 3-dependent apoptosis via the blockade of ERK1/2 activation and the subsequent activation of p38 MAP kinase. We propose that hPrP90-231-induced apoptosis is dependent on the inhibition of ERK1/2 responsiveness to neurotrophic factors, removing a tonic inhibition of p38 activity and resulting in caspase 3 activation. Minocycline prevented hPrP90-231-induced toxicity interfering with this mechanism: the pretreatment with this tetracycline restored ERK1/2 activity and reverted p38 and caspase 3 activities. The effects of minocycline were not mediated by the prevention of hPrP90-231 structural changes or cell internalization (differently from Congo Red). In conclusion, minocycline elicits anti-apoptotic effects against the neurotoxic activity of hPrP90-231 and these effects are mediated by opposite modulation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase activities.

  4. Stimulation of IFN-γ production by garlic lectin in mouse spleen cells: involvement of IL-12 via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Karasaki, Yuji

    2011-02-15

    Several lectins, present in beans and edible plant products, have immuno-potentiating and anti-tumor activities. We here report the effects of garlic lectin purified from garlic bulbs on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the mouse. Garlic lectin induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in a bell-shaped time (24-60 h)- and concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/ml)-dependent manner. The maximal enhancement was observed at 36 h with 0.5 mg/ml of garlic lectin. The stimulatory effect of garlic lectin on IFN-γ production was completely inhibited by both actinomycin D and cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, and was associated with an increase in IFN-γ mRNA level. Garlic lectin also induced IL-12 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a concentration (0.25-1.0 mg/ml)- and bell-shaped time (3-24 h)-dependent manner. The lectin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in macrophages. Furthermore, specific pharmacological inhibitors of ERK kinase (U0126) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) also suppressed the production of IL-12 induced by garlic lectin. The present findings suggest that garlic lectin induces IL-12 production via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in mouse macrophages, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-γ production through an increase in IFN-γ mRNA in the spleen cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via p38 pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-bing; Ma, Xiao-qiong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) is an anticancer compound extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DMAS on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and explored the mechanisms of its anti-cancer action. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were tested. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry and DAPI staining. The expression of the related proteins was detected using Western blotting. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using a JC-1 kit, and subcellular distribution of cytochrome c was analyzed using immunofluorescence staining. Results: Treatment of A549 cells with DMAS suppressed the cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners (the IC50 value was 14.22 and 10.61 μmol/L, respectively, at 24 and 48 h). DMAS (7.5, 10, and 15 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis, down-regulated cIAP-2 and XIAP expression, and up-regulated Bax and Bak expression in the cells. Furthermore, DMAS resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in the cells, and activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3, and subsequently cleaved PARP, which was abolished by pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. DMAS induced sustained p38 phosphorylation in the cells, while pretreatment with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, blocked DMAS-induced p38 activation and apoptosis. Conclusion: DMAS inhibits the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro via activation of p38 signaling pathway. PMID:25434989

  6. Lactobacillus acidophilus Induces Cytokine and Chemokine Production via NF-κB and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Xuena; Man, Chaoxin; Han, Linlin; Shan, Yi; Qu, Xingguang; Liu, Ying; Yang, Shiqin; Xue, Yuqing; Zhang, Yinghua

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells can respond to certain bacteria by producing an array of cytokines and chemokines which are associated with host immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a characterized probiotic, originally isolated from human feces. This study aimed to test the ability of L. acidophilus NCFM to stimulate cytokine and chemokine production in intestinal epithelial cells and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their upregulation. In experiments using intestinal epithelial cell lines and mouse models, we observed that L. acidophilus NCFM could rapidly but transiently upregulate a number of effector genes encoding cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, CCL2, and CCL20 and that cytokines showed lower expression levels with L. acidophilus NCFM treatment than chemokines. Moreover, L. acidophilus NCFM could activate a pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), in intestinal epithelial cell lines. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in intestinal epithelial cell lines was also enhanced by L. acidophilus NCFM. Furthermore, inhibitors of NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate [PDTC]) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) significantly reduced cytokine and chemokine production in the intestinal epithelial cell lines stimulated by L. acidophilus NCFM, suggesting that both NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were important for the production of cytokines and chemokines induced by L. acidophilus NCFM. PMID:22357649

  7. Carprofen induction of p75NTR-dependent apoptosis via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Fatima S; Quann, Emily J; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Wynne, Shehla; Djakiew, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) functions as a tumor suppressor in prostate epithelial cells, where its expression declines with progression to malignant cancer. Previously, we showed that treatment with R-flurbiprofen or ibuprofen induced p75(NTR) expression in several prostate cancer cell lines leading to p75(NTR)-mediated decreased survival. Using the 2-phenyl propionic acid moiety of these profens as a pharmacophore, we screened an in silico database of 30 million compounds and identified carprofen as having an order of magnitude greater activity for induction of p75(NTR) levels and inhibition of cell survival. Prostate (PC-3 and DU-145) and bladder (T24) cancer cells were more sensitive to carprofen induction of p75(NTR)-associated loss of survival than breast (MCF-7) and fibroblast (3T3) cells. Transfection of prostate cell lines with a dominant-negative form of p75(NTR) before carprofen treatment partially rescued cell survival, showing a cause-and-effect relationship between carprofen induction of p75(NTR) levels and inhibition of survival. Carprofen induced apoptotic nuclear fragmentation in prostate but not in MCF-7 and 3T3 cells. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein prevented induction of p75(NTR) by carprofen in both prostate cell lines. Carprofen treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK as early as within 1 min. Expression of a dominant-negative form of MK2, the kinase downstream of p38 MAPK frequently associated with signaling cascades leading to apoptosis, prevented carprofen induction of the p75(NTR) protein. Collectively, we identify carprofen as a highly potent profen capable of inducing p75(NTR)-dependent apoptosis via the p38 MAPK pathway in prostate cancer cells.

  8. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesun; Hwangbo, Jeon; Wong, Paul K. Y.

    2011-01-01

    A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm -/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway. PMID:21305053

  9. A1 adenosine receptor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rats by activating the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Weiwei; Chen, Dongdong; Shen, Haitao; Chen, Zhouqing; Li, Haiying; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to determine the role of the A1 adenosine receptors in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury and the underlying mechanisms. A collagenase-induced ICH model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin at a concentration of 10 μM to mimic ICH in vitro. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and antagonist 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine were used to study the role of A1 adenosine receptor in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, and antagonists of P38 and Hsp27 were used to study the underlying mechanisms of A1 adenosine receptor actions. The protein level of A1 adenosine receptor was significantly increased by ICH, while there was no significant change in protein levels of the other 3 adenosine receptors. In addition, the A1 adenosine receptor expression could be increased by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine and decreased by 8-phenyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine under ICH conditions. Activation of the A1 adenosine receptor attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the subcortex, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of P38, MAPK, MAPKAP2, and Hsp27. Inhibition of the A1 adenosine receptor resulted in opposite effects. Finally, the neuroprotective effect of the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine was inhibited by antagonists of P38 and Hsp27. This study demonstrates that activation of the A1 adenosine receptor by N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine could prevent ICH-induced secondary brain injury via the P38-MAPKAP2-Hsp27 pathway.

  10. Loss of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function Enhances Activation of p38 and ERK MAPKs, Increasing Interleukin-6 Synthesis in Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Bérubé, Julie; Roussel, Lucie; Nattagh, Leila; Rousseau, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), the absence of functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) translates into chronic bacterial infection, excessive inflammation, tissue damage, impaired lung function and eventual death. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this vicious circle of inflammation is important to design better therapies for CF. We found in CF lung biopsies increased immunoreactivity for p38 MAPK activity markers. Moreover, when compared with their non-CF counterpart, airway epithelial cells expressing the most common mutation in CF (CFTRΔF508) were more potent at inducing neutrophil chemotaxis through increased interleukin (IL)-6 synthesis when challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa diffusible material. We then discovered that in CFTRΔF508 cells, the p38 and ERK MAPKs are hyperactivated in response to P. aeruginosa diffusible material, leading to increased IL-6 mRNA expression and stability. Moreover, although TLR5 contributes to p38 MAPK activation upon P. aeruginosa challenge, it only played a weak role in IL-6 synthesis. Instead, we found that the production of reactive oxygen species is essential for IL-6 synthesis in response to P. aeruginosa diffusible material. Finally, we uncovered that in CFTRΔF508 cells, the extracellular glutathione levels are decreased, leading to a greater sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, providing an explanation for the hyperactivation of the p38 and ERK MAPKs and increased IL-6 synthesis. Taken together, our study has characterized a mechanism whereby the CFTRΔF508 mutation in airway epithelial cells contributes to increase inflammation of the airways. PMID:20460375

  11. Development of an online p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase binding assay and integration of LC–HR-MS

    PubMed Central

    Falck, David; de Vlieger, Jon S. B.; Niessen, Wilfried M. A.; Kool, Jeroen; Honing, Maarten; Irth, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    A high-resolution screening method was developed for the p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase to detect and identify small-molecule binders. Its central role in inflammatory diseases makes this enzyme a very important drug target. The setup integrates separation by high-performance liquid chromatography with two parallel detection techniques. High-resolution mass spectrometry gives structural information to identify small molecules while an online enzyme binding detection method provides data on p38α binding. The separation step allows the individual assessment of compounds in a mixture and links affinity and structure information via the retention time. Enzyme binding detection was achieved with a competitive binding assay based on fluorescence enhancement which has a simple principle, is inexpensive, and is easy to interpret. The concentrations of p38α and the fluorescence tracer SK&F86002 were optimized as well as incubation temperature, formic acid content of the LC eluents, and the material of the incubation tubing. The latter notably improved the screening of highly lipophilic compounds. For optimization and validation purposes, the known kinase inhibitors BIRB796, TAK715, and MAPKI1 were used among others. The result is a high-quality assay with Z′ factors around 0.8, which is suitable for semi-quantitative affinity measurements and applicable to various binding modes. Furthermore, the integrated approach gives affinity data on individual compounds instead of averaged ones for mixtures. Figure P38 α online screening platform Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-010-4087-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20730527

  12. Neuroprotective effects of ebselen in traumatic brain injury model: involvement of nitric oxide and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liang; Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Qi; Zhuang, Zhongwei; Sun, Zhiyang

    2014-02-01

    Previous investigations have found that ebselen is able to treat neurodegenerative diseases caused by radical and acute total cerebral ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ebselen in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. Ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 18 in each): (i) sham operation; (ii) an injury model group; (iii) low-dose (3 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group; (iv) a moderate-dose (10 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group; and (v) a high-dose (30 mg/kg) ebselen-treated group. The TBI model was created according using a modified weight-drop model. Neurological severity score (NSS), brain water content and histopathological deficits were assessed as parameters of injury severity. Expression of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, Toll-like receptor (TLR) and phosphorylated (p-) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were examined by chemical colorimetry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting 24 h after intragastric ebselen administration. Rats in the TBI model group exhibited markedly more severe neurological injury (higher NSS, more brain water content and more histopathological deficits) than those in the sham-operated group. Ebselen treatment significantly ameliorated the neurological injury of TBI rats in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ebselen significantly reduced the NO and iNOS mRNA levels and inhibited TLR4 and p-p38 MAPK expression, indicating the involvement of NO and p38 MAPK signalling pathways in the neuroprotection afforded by ebselen. In conclusion, ebselen ameliorated neurological injury, possibly by reducing NO levels and modulating the TLR4-mediated p38 MAPK signalling pathway. Therefore, ebselen may have potential to treat secondary injuries of TBI. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. B7-H3 Augments Inflammatory Responses and Exacerbates Brain Damage via Amplifying NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 Activation during Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuqin; Li, Yan; Blankson, Siobhan; Liu, Min; Huang, Danping; Redmond, H Paul; Huang, Jing; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The costimulatory protein B7-H3 has been shown to play a contributory role in the development and progression of experimental pneumococcal meningitis by augmentation of the innate immunity-associated inflammatory response via a TLR2-dependent manner. This study aimed to clarify the component(s) of TLR2-mediated signal transduction pathways responsible for B7-H3-augmented inflammatory response and subsequent brain damage during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Administration of B7-H3 did not augment expression of TLR2 and other TLR2 upstream components, but led to an enhanced formation of MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Furthermore, B7-H3 substantially augmented S. pneumoniae-induced activation of TLR2 downstream NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 pathways in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Notably, blockage of NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 with their specific inhibitors strongly attenuated B7-H3-amplified inflammatory response with significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and markedly ameliorated B7-H3-exacerbated disruption of blood-brain barrier and severity of disease status in S. pneumoniae-infected mice. These results indicate that targeting NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 may represent a promising therapeutic option for amelioration of overwhelming inflammatory response-associated brain injury frequently observed during pneumococcal meningitis.

  14. B7-H3 Augments Inflammatory Responses and Exacerbates Brain Damage via Amplifying NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 Activation during Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuqin; Li, Yan; Blankson, Siobhan; Liu, Min; Huang, Danping; Redmond, H. Paul; Huang, Jing; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The costimulatory protein B7-H3 has been shown to play a contributory role in the development and progression of experimental pneumococcal meningitis by augmentation of the innate immunity-associated inflammatory response via a TLR2-dependent manner. This study aimed to clarify the component(s) of TLR2-mediated signal transduction pathways responsible for B7-H3-augmented inflammatory response and subsequent brain damage during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Administration of B7-H3 did not augment expression of TLR2 and other TLR2 upstream components, but led to an enhanced formation of MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Furthermore, B7-H3 substantially augmented S. pneumoniae-induced activation of TLR2 downstream NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 pathways in the brain of S. pneumoniae-infected mice. Notably, blockage of NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 with their specific inhibitors strongly attenuated B7-H3-amplified inflammatory response with significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and markedly ameliorated B7-H3-exacerbated disruption of blood-brain barrier and severity of disease status in S. pneumoniae-infected mice. These results indicate that targeting NF-κB p65 and/or MAPK p38 may represent a promising therapeutic option for amelioration of overwhelming inflammatory response-associated brain injury frequently observed during pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:28141831

  15. The mechanism by which MEK/ERK regulates JNK and p38 activity in polyamine depleted IEC-6 cells during apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bavaria, Mitul N.; Jin, Shi; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine-depletion inhibited apoptosis by activating ERK1/2, while, preventing JNK1/2 activation. MKP-1 knockdown by SiRNA increased ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation and apoptosis. Therefore, we predicted that polyamines might regulate MKP1 via MEK/ERK and thereby apoptosis. We examined the role of MEK/ERK in the regulation of MKP1 and JNK, and p38 activities and apoptosis. Inhibition of MKP-1 activity with a pharmacological inhibitor, sanguinarine (SA), increased JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2 activities without causing apoptosis. However, pre-activation of these kinases by SA significantly increased camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis suggesting different roles for MAPKs during survival and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 activity prevented the expression of MKP-1 protein and augmented CPT-induced apoptosis, which correlated with increased activities of JNK1/2, caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Polyamine depleted cells had higher levels of MKP-1 protein and decreased JNK1/2 activity and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 prevented MKP-1 expression and increased JNK1/2 and apoptosis. Phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-ERK2, MKP-1, and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac) formed a complex in response to TNF/CPT. Inactivation of PP2Ac had no effect on the association of MKP-1 and JNK1. However, inhibition of MKP-1 activity decreased the formation of the MKP-1, PP2Ac and JNK complex. Following inhibition by SA, MKP-1 localized in the cytoplasm, while basal and CPT-induced MKP-1 remained in the nuclear fraction. These results suggest that nuclear MKP-1 translocates to the cytoplasm, binds phosphorylated JNK and p38 resulting in dephosphorylation and decreased activity. Thus, MEK/ERK activity controls the levels of MKP-1 and, thereby, regulates JNK activity in polyamine-depleted cells. PMID:24253595

  16. Morus alba Leaf Lectin (MLL) Sensitizes MCF-7 Cells to Anoikis by Inhibiting Fibronectin Mediated Integrin-FAK Signaling through Ras and Activation of P38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, Jayaram; Shilpa, Ganesan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G.; Priya, Sulochana

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a unique class of carbohydrate binding proteins/glycoproteins, and many of them possess anticancer properties. They can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibit protein synthesis, telomerase activity and angiogenesis in cancer cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of Morus alba leaf lectin (MLL) on anoikis induction in MCF-7 cells. Anoikis induction in cancer cells has a significant role in preventing early stage metastasis. MLL treatment in monolayers of MCF-7 cells caused significant detachment of cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. The detached cells failed to re-adhere and grew even to culture plates coated with different matrix proteins. DNA fragmentation, membrane integrity studies, annexin V staining, caspase 9 activation and upregulation of Bax/Bad confirmed that the detached cells underwent apoptosis. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) caused a decrease in fibronectin (FN) production which facilitated the cells to detach by blocking the FN mediated downstream signaling. On treatment with MLL, we have observed downregulation of integrin expression, decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), loss in FAK-integrin interaction and active Ras. MLL treatment downregulated the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PI3K. Also, we have studied the effect of MLL on two stress activated protein kinases p38 MAPK and JNK. p38 MAPK activation was found to be elevated, but there was no change in the level of JNK. Thus our study substantiated the possible antimetastatic effect of MLL by inducing anoikis in MCF-7 cells by activation of caspase 9 and proapoptotic Bax/Bad by blockage of FN mediated integrin/FAK signaling and partly by activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:28223935

  17. Puerarin reduces apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons culturea in high glucose medium by modulating the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Wang, Jingbo; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Guoqing; Liu, Yuqin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective etfect of puerarin on rat hippocampal neurons cultured in high glucose medium, and to examine the role of the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways in this effect. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were prepared from newborn Sprague Dawley rats. Neuron-specific enolase immunocytochemistry was used to identify neurons. The neurons were cultured with normal medium (control group) or with high-glucose medium (high-glucose group), and puerarin (puerarin group), a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB239063; p38 MAPK inhibitor group) or a JNK inhibitor (SP600125; JNK inhibitor group) were added. After 72 h of treatment, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay was performed to detect apoptosis, and western blotting was used to assess protein levels of p-p38, p38, p-JNK and JNK. In the high-glucose group, the neuronal apoptosis rate and the p-p38/p38 and p-JNK/JNK ratios were higher than in the control group. The p38 MAPK and JNK inhibitors prevented this increase in the apoptosis rate. The apoptosis rates in the puerarin group, the p38 MAPK inhibitor group and the JNK inhibitor group were significantly decreased compared with the high-glucose group. Moreover, protein levels of p-p38 and p-JNK were significantly reduced, and the p-p38/p38 and p-JNK/JNK ratios were decreased in the puerarin group compared with the high-glucose group. In addition, compared with the high-glucose group, p-p38 levels and the p-p38/p38 ratio were reduced in the p38 MAPK inhibitor group, and p-JNK levels and the p-JNK/JNK ratio were decreased in the JNK inhibitor group. Puerarin attenuates neuronal apoptosis induced by high glucose by reducing the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK.

  18. Lipoxin A4-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Cardiomyocytes against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury via p38 MAPK Activation and Nrf2/ARE Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Zhou, Yu; Tang, Yan-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether lipoxin A4 (LXA4) increases expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) in cardiomyocytes, whether LXA4-induced HO-1 protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, and what are the mechanisms involved in the LXA4-induced HO-1 induction. Methods Rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to H/R injury with or without preincubation with LXA4 or HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-IX or various signal molecule inhibitors. Expressions of HO-1 protein and mRNA were analyzed by using Western blot and RT-PCR respectively. Activity of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binding to the HO-1 E1 enhancer was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Nrf2 binding to the HO-1 antioxidant responsive element (ARE) were measured by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results Pretreatment of the cells undergoing H/R lesion with LXA4 significantly reduced the lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase productions, increased the cell viability, and increased the expressions of HO-1 protein and mRNA and HO-1 promoter activity. HO-1 inhibition abolished the protective role of LXA4 on the cells undergoing H/R lesion. LXA4 increased p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, Nrf2 binding to the HO-1 ARE and E1 enhancer in cardiomyocytes with or without H/R exposure. Conclusion The protection role of LXA4 against H/R injury of cardiomyocytes is related to upregulation of HO-1, via activation of p38 MAPK pathway and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and Nrf2 binding to the HO-1 ARE and E1 enhancer, but not via activation of phosphatidyinositol-3-kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. PMID:23826208

  19. Formononetin-induced apoptosis by activation of Ras/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Sun, L

    2012-12-01

    Formononetin is one of the main active components of red clover plants, and considered as a phytoestrogen. Its pharmacological effects in vivo may be either estrogenic or anti-estrogenic, mainly depending upon the estrogen levels. Our recent studies suggested that formononetin inactivated IGF1/IGF1R-PI3K/Akt pathways and decreased cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the induced apoptosis effect of formononetin on breast cancer cells. Our results suggested that formononetin inhibited the proliferation of ER-positive MCF-7 cells and T47D cells. In contrast, formononetin could not inhibit the cell of growth of ER-negative breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-435 S cells. We further found that formononetin activated MAPK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner, which resulted in the increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cells. However, when MCF-7 cells were pretreated with p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 before formononetin, apoptosis induced by formononetin was significantly attenuated. Thus, we conclude that the induced apoptosis effect of formononetin on human breast cancer cells were related to Ras-p38MAPK pathway. Considering that red clover plants are widely used clinically, our results provide the foundation for future development of formononetin for treatment of ER-positive breast cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. IL-1β-induced and p38MAPK-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) in hepatocytes: Signal transduction with robust and concentration-independent signal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kulawik, Andreas; Engesser, Raphael; Ehlting, Christian; Raue, Andreas; Albrecht, Ute; Hahn, Bettina; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Gaestel, Matthias; Klingmüller, Ursula; Häussinger, Dieter; Timmer, Jens; Bode, Johannes G.

    2017-01-01

    The IL-1β induced activation of the p38MAPK/MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) pathway in hepatocytes is important for control of the acute phase response and regulation of liver regeneration. Many aspects of the regulatory relevance of this pathway have been investigated in immune cells in the context of inflammation. However, very little is known about concentration-dependent activation kinetics and signal propagation in hepatocytes and the role of MK2. We established a mathematical model for IL-1β-induced activation of the p38MAPK/MK2 pathway in hepatocytes that was calibrated to quantitative data on time- and IL-1β concentration-dependent phosphorylation of p38MAPK and MK2 in primary mouse hepatocytes. This analysis showed that, in hepatocytes, signal transduction from IL-1β via p38MAPK to MK2 is characterized by strong signal amplification. Quantification of p38MAPK and MK2 revealed that, in hepatocytes, at maximum, 11.3% of p38MAPK molecules and 36.5% of MK2 molecules are activated in response to IL-1β. The mathematical model was experimentally validated by employing phosphatase inhibitors and the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Model simulations predicted an IC50 of 1–1.2 μm for SB203580 in hepatocytes. In silico analyses and experimental validation demonstrated that the kinase activity of p38MAPK determines signal amplitude, whereas phosphatase activity affects both signal amplitude and duration. p38MAPK and MK2 concentrations and responsiveness toward IL-1β were quantitatively compared between hepatocytes and macrophages. In macrophages, the absolute p38MAPK and MK2 concentration was significantly higher. Finally, in line with experimental observations, the mathematical model predicted a significantly higher half-maximal effective concentration for IL-1β-induced pathway activation in macrophages compared with hepatocytes, underscoring the importance of cell type-specific differences in pathway regulation. PMID:28223354

  1. Reversion of apoptotic resistance of TP53-mutated Burkitt lymphoma B-cells to spindle poisons by exogenous activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Farhat, M; Poissonnier, A; Hamze, A; Ouk-Martin, C; Brion, J-D; Alami, M; Feuillard, J; Jayat-Vignoles, C

    2014-05-01

    Defects in apoptosis are frequently the cause of cancer emergence, as well as cellular resistance to chemotherapy. These phenotypes may be due to mutations of the tumor suppressor TP53 gene. In this study, we examined the effect of various mitotic spindle poisons, including the new isocombretastatin derivative isoNH2CA-4 (a tubulin-destabilizing molecule, considered to bind to the colchicine site by analogy with combretastatin A-4), on BL (Burkitt lymphoma) cells. We found that resistance to spindle poison-induced apoptosis could be reverted in tumor protein p53 (TP53)-mutated cells by EBV (Epstein Barr virus) infection. This reversion was due to restoration of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, as assessed by relocation of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial integrity and activation of the caspase cascade with PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) cleavage. EBV sensitized TP53-mutated BL cells to all spindle poisons tested, including vincristine and taxol, an effect that was systematically downmodulated by pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases. Exogenous activation of p38 and JNK pathways by dihydrosphingosine reverted resistance of TP53-mutated BL cells to spindle poisons. Dihydrosphingosine treatment of TP53-deficient Jurkat and K562 cell lines was also able to induce cell death. We conclude that activation of p38 and JNK pathways may revert resistance of TP53-mutated cells to spindle poisons. This opens new perspectives for developing alternative therapeutic strategies when the TP53 gene is inactivated.

  2. Cell-free extracts of Propionibacterium acnes stimulate cytokine production through activation of p38 MAPK and Toll-like receptor in SZ95 sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Li, Ting-Ting; Zouboulis, Christos C; Hsu, Han-Chi

    2015-10-15

    Propionibacterium acnes has been considered to influence the acne lesions. The present study intended to elucidate the underlying signaling pathways of P. acnes in human sebaceous gland cells relative to the generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes under stationary growth phase were co-incubated with human immortalized SZ95 sebocytes. Then, cell-free P. acnes extracts-induced cytokine expression was evaluated by measuring mRNA and protein levels using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. Changes of phosphorylated cell signaling proteins and transcription factors were measured by Western blots and Milliplex assay. The interactive molecular mechanisms of P. acnes and sebocytes were examined through use of shRNA and the specific inhibitors of signaling pathways. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes significantly stimulated secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 in SZ95 sebocytes. The degradation of IκB-α and increased phosphorylation of IκB-α, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), CREB, and STAT3 were demonstrated. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that gene expression of IL-8 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was enhanced by cell-free extracts of P. acnes. In addition, the NF-κB inhibitor BMS345541, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, or anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibody prevented cell-free P. acnes extracts-induced secretion of IL-8. Knockdown of TLR2 using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects on IL-8 expression. Moreover, inhibition of STAT3 activity by STA-21 enhanced P. acnes-mediated secretion of IL-8. Cell-free extracts of P. acnes are capable to activate NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways and up-regulate secretion of IL-8 through TLR2-dependent signaling in human SZ95 sebocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specificity of anti-Vibrio immune response through p38 MAPK and PKC activation in the hemocytes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, Caterina; Betti, Michele; Canonico, Barbara; Citterio, Barbara; Roch, Philippe; Canesi, Laura

    2010-09-01

    In mussel (Mytilus sp.) hemocytes, differential functional responses to injection with different types of live and heat-killed Vibrio species have been recently demonstrated. In this work, responses of Mytilus hemocytes to heat-killed Vibrio splendidus LGP32 and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro and the results were compared with those obtained with Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264). Adhesion of hemocytes after incubation with bacteria was evaluated by flow cytometry: both total hemocyte counts (THC) and percentage of hemocyte sub-populations were determined in non-adherent cells. Functional parameters such as lysosomal membrane stability, lysozyme release, extracellular ROS production and NO production were evaluated, as well as the phosphorylation state of the stress-activated p38 MAPK and PKC. Neither Vibrio affected total hemocyte adhesion, while both induced similar lysosomal destabilization and NO production. However, V. splendidus decreased adhesion of large granulocytes, induced rapid and persistent lysozyme release and stimulated extracellular ROS production: these effects were associated with persistent activation of p38 MAPK and PKC. In contrast, V. anguillarum decreased adhesion of large semigranular hemocytes and increased that of hyalinocytes, had no effect on the extracellular ROS production, and induced significantly lower lysozyme release and phosphorylation of p-38 MAPK and PKC than V. splendidus. These data reinforced the existence of specific interactions between mussel hemocytes and V. splendidus LGP32 and suggest that this Vibrio strain affects bivalve hemocytes through disregulation of immune signaling. The results support the hypothesis that responses of bivalve hemocytes to different bacterial stimuli may depend not only on the nature of the stimulus, but also on the cell subtype, thus leading to differential activation of signaling components. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification and cDNA cloning of SAPKK3, the major activator of RK/p38 in stress- and cytokine-stimulated monocytes and epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cuenda, A; Alonso, G; Morrice, N; Jones, M; Meier, R; Cohen, P; Nebreda, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two chromatographically distinct stress-activated protein kinase kinases (SAPKKs) have been identified in several mammalian cells, termed SAPKK2 and SAPKK3, which activate the MAP kinase family member RK/p38 but not JNK/SAPK in vitro. Here we demonstrate that SAPKK2 is identical or very closely related to the MAP kinase kinase family member MKK3. However, under our assay conditions, SAPKK3 was the major activator of RK/p38 detected in extracts prepared from stress- or interleukin-1-stimulated epithelial (KB) cells, from bacterial lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor alpha-stimulated THP1 monocytes or from rabbit skeletal muscle. The activated form of SAPKK3 was purified from muscle to near homogeneity, and tryptic peptide sequences were used to clone human and murine cDNAs encoding this enzyme. Human SAPKK3 comprised 334 amino acids and was 78% identical to MKK3. The murine and human SAPKK3 were 97% identical in their amino acid sequences. We also cloned a different murine cDNA that appears to encode a SAPKK3 protein truncated at the N-terminus. SAPKK3 is identical to the recently cloned MKK6. Images PMID:8861944

  5. Glucocorticoid combined with hyaluronic acid enhance glucocorticoid receptor activity through inhibiting p-38MAPK signal pathway activation in treating acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Q

    2016-09-01

    In order to seek an effective strategy for clinical treatment of acute lung injury (ALI), we are committed to explore the effect of combination therapy of glucocorticoid and hyaluronic acid on acute lung injury caused by an endotoxin (LPS) and its mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: normal group (n=8); LPS group (n=8); dexamethasone +LPS group (DXMS group, n=8); hyaluronic acid+ LPS group (HA group, n=8); dexamethasone +hyaluronic acid +LPS group (DXMS+HA group, n=8). Firstly, SD rat model with acute lung injury induced by LPS was established, and injected corresponding drugs according to the plan. Then, the expression of TNF-a, IL-8, IL-10, ICAM-1 and total protein were measured by ELISA, and the HE staining was used for detected the pathological change in lung tissue. Subsequently, the water content, dry and wet ratio and permeability in lung tissues of SD rats was assayed. Finally, the expression level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was detected by RT-PCR, and activation of p-p38MAPK was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that concentration of IL-8, IL-10 and ICAM-1 was significantly increased in BALF after LPS injection, and the results from HE staining showed it had widespread inflammation. However, lung structures in SD rats with inhalation lung injury were improved significantly after the injection of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid, and the Pa02/Fi02, blood pressure and Cdyn were also increased. Moreover, lung water content, the ratio of wet and dry lung, and lung permeability index (LPI) was decreased after having treated the SD rats with a combination of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid, and the apoptosis index was also decreased in the rats with LPS-induced ALI. Our data also suggested that TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and total protein was significantly declined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats with LPS-induced acute lung injury

  6. MicroRNA-16 Alleviates Inflammatory Pain by Targeting Ras-Related Protein 23 (RAB23) and Inhibiting p38 MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjin; Guo, Shengdong; Wang, Shenggang

    2016-10-22

    BACKGROUND The purpose of our study was to determine the functional role of microRNA (miR)-16 in chronic inflammatory pain and to disclose its underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to Wistar rats. The pWPXL-miR-16, PcDNA3.1- Ras-related protein (RAB23), and/or SB203580 were delivered intrathecally to the rats. Behavioral tests were detected at 0 h, 4 h, 1 d, 4 d, 7 d, and 14 d after CFA injection. After behavioral tests, L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord were obtained and the levels of miR-16, RAB23, and phosphorylation of p38 (p-p38) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, luciferase reporter assay was performed to explore whether RAB23 was a target of miR-16, and qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm the regulation between RAB23 and miR-16. RESULTS The level of miR-16 was significantly decreased in the CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Intrathecal injection of miR-16 alleviates pain response and raised pain threshold. The level of RAB23 was significantly increased in the pain model, and intrathecal injection of RAB23 aggravated pain response. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that RAB23 was a direct target of miR-16, and RAB23 was negatively regulated by miR-16. In addition, we found that simultaneous administration of SB203580 and miR-16 further alleviates pain response compared to only administration of miR-16. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that miR-16 relieves chronic inflammatory pain by targeting RAB23 and inhibiting p38 MAPK activation.

  7. Cardiac Fibroblast-Specific Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protects Against Heart Failure by Suppressing MAP2K3-p38 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Li, Zhenya; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Ping; Wu, Yina; Wang, Chunxiao; Bond Lau, Wayne; Ma, Xin-Liang; Du, Jie

    2017-05-23

    Hypertensive ventricular remodeling is a common cause of heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ventricular remodeling remain poorly understood. We used a discovery-driven/nonbiased approach to identify increased activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression in hypertensive heart. We used loss/gain of function approaches to understand the role of ATF3 in heart failure. We also examined the mechanisms through transcriptome, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis, and in vivo and in vitro experiments. ATF3 expression increased in murine hypertensive heart and human hypertrophic heart. Cardiac fibroblast cells are the primary cell type expressing high ATF3 levels in response to hypertensive stimuli. ATF3 knockout (ATF3KO) markedly exaggerated hypertensive ventricular remodeling, a state rescued by lentivirus-mediated/miRNA-aided cardiac fibroblast-selective ATF3 overexpression. Conversely, conditional cardiac fibroblast cell-specific ATF3 transgenic overexpression significantly ameliorated ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We identified Map2K3 as a novel ATF3 target. ATF3 binds with the Map2K3 promoter, recruiting HDAC1, resulting in Map2K3 gene-associated histone deacetylation, thereby inhibiting Map2K3 expression. Genetic Map2K3 knockdown rescued the profibrotic/hypertrophic phenotype in ATF3KO cells. Last, we demonstrated that p38 is the downstream molecule of Map2K3 mediating the profibrotic/hypertrophic effects in ATF3KO animals. Inhibition of p38 signaling reduced transforming growth factor-β signaling-related profibrotic and hypertrophic gene expression, and blocked exaggerated cardiac remodeling in ATF3KO cells. Our study provides the first evidence that ATF3 upregulation in cardiac fibroblasts in response to hypertensive stimuli protects the heart by suppressing Map2K3 expression and subsequent p38-transforming growth factor-β signaling. These results suggest that positive modulation of cardiac fibroblast ATF3

  8. Roles of p38 and JNK protein kinase pathways activated by compound cantharidin capsules containing serum on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yonghao; Zhang, Dejuan; Mao, Mao; Lu, Yangping; Jiao, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of compound cantharides capsules (CCCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823 and SGC-7901, and to detect its regulation of gene expression levels, as well as its inhibition mechanisms. Each cell line was grouped into a control group, CCC serum group, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group, combination therapy group (CCC serum + 5-FU) and serum control group. Growth curves were measured and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell viability. The mRNA expression level of proliferation-related C-MYC and p53 genes were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein phosphorylation levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and IκB were assayed by western blotting. The combined CCC serum and 5-FU group exhibited a higher inhibition rate in both cell lines and CCC serum therapy demonstrated a similar effect to 5-FU treatment, as demonstrated in the MTT and cell growth assay. Combined therapy significantly decreased the C-MYC mRNA expression levels and increased p53 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). Combined therapy of 5-FU and CCC was more significant compared with CCC serum or 5-FU only (P<0.05). P38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation are involved in apoptosis initiated by CCC combined 5-FU therapy. Combined therapy was able to significantly inhibit human gastric cancer cell growth (P<0.05), and advance cell apoptosis compared with CCC serum only. CCC serum resulted in downregulation of the c-Myc gene and upregulation of the p53 gene. p38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation is involved in the inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:28810654

  9. Roles of p38 and JNK protein kinase pathways activated by compound cantharidin capsules containing serum on proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghao; Zhang, Dejuan; Mao, Mao; Lu, Yangping; Jiao, Ning

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of compound cantharides capsules (CCCs) on the viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823 and SGC-7901, and to detect its regulation of gene expression levels, as well as its inhibition mechanisms. Each cell line was grouped into a control group, CCC serum group, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) group, combination therapy group (CCC serum + 5-FU) and serum control group. Growth curves were measured and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell viability. The mRNA expression level of proliferation-related C-MYC and p53 genes were assayed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein phosphorylation levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and IκB were assayed by western blotting. The combined CCC serum and 5-FU group exhibited a higher inhibition rate in both cell lines and CCC serum therapy demonstrated a similar effect to 5-FU treatment, as demonstrated in the MTT and cell growth assay. Combined therapy significantly decreased the C-MYC mRNA expression levels and increased p53 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). Combined therapy of 5-FU and CCC was more significant compared with CCC serum or 5-FU only (P<0.05). P38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation are involved in apoptosis initiated by CCC combined 5-FU therapy. Combined therapy was able to significantly inhibit human gastric cancer cell growth (P<0.05), and advance cell apoptosis compared with CCC serum only. CCC serum resulted in downregulation of the c-Myc gene and upregulation of the p53 gene. p38 and JNK-related protein phosphorylation is involved in the inhibition of cell viability and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell lines.

  10. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase impairs influenza virus-induced primary and secondary host gene responses and protects mice from lethal H5N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Börgeling, Yvonne; Schmolke, Mirco; Viemann, Dorothee; Nordhoff, Carolin; Roth, Johannes; Ludwig, Stephan

    2014-01-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) induce severe inflammation in poultry and men. One characteristic of HPAIV infections is the induction of a cytokine burst that strongly contributes to viral pathogenicity. This cell-intrinsic hypercytokinemia seems to involve hyperinduction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here we investigate the role of p38 MAPK signaling in the antiviral response against HPAIV in mice as well as in human endothelial cells, the latter being a primary source of cytokines during systemic infections. Global gene expression profiling of HPAIV-infected endothelial cells in the presence of the p38-specific inhibitor SB 202190 revealed that inhibition of p38 MAPK leads to reduced expression of IFNβ and other cytokines after H5N1 and H7N7 infection. More than 90% of all virus-induced genes were either partially or fully dependent on p38 signaling. Moreover, promoter analysis confirmed a direct impact of p38 on the IFNβ promoter activity. Furthermore, upon treatment with IFN or conditioned media from HPAIV-infected cells, p38 controls interferon-stimulated gene expression by coregulating STAT1 by phosphorylation at serine 727. In vivo inhibition of p38 MAPK greatly diminishes virus-induced cytokine expression concomitant with reduced viral titers, thereby protecting mice from lethal infection. These observations show that p38 MAPK acts on two levels of the antiviral IFN response. Initially the kinase regulates IFN induction and, at a later stage, p38 controls IFN signaling and thereby expression of IFN-stimulated genes. Thus, inhibition of MAP kinase p38 may be an antiviral strategy that protects mice from lethal influenza by suppressing excessive cytokine expression.

  11. Ginsenoside Rc from Panax ginseng exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting TANK-binding kinase 1/interferon regulatory factor-3 and p38/ATF-2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Yanyan; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Song, Gwan Gyu; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Rhee, Man Hee; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc) is one of the major protopanaxadiol-type saponins isolated from Panax ginseng , a well-known medicinal herb with many beneficial properties including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and antidiabetic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of G-Rc on inflammatory responses in vitro and examined the mechanisms of these effects. The in vitro inflammation system used lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophages, tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ-treated synovial cells, and HEK293 cells transfected with various inducers of inflammation. G-Rc significantly inhibited the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. G-Rc also markedly suppressed the activation of TANK-binding kinase 1/IκB kinase ε/interferon regulatory factor-3 and p38/ATF-2 signaling in activated RAW264.7 macrophages, human synovial cells, and HEK293 cells. G-Rc exerts its anti-inflammatory actions by suppressing TANK-binding kinase 1/IκB kinase ε/interferon regulatory factor-3 and p38/ATF-2 signaling.

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signals Inversely Regulate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Activity to Control Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Quiescence, Propagation, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Vandomme, Jerome; Touil, Yasmine; Ostyn, Pauline; Olejnik, Cecile; Flamenco, Pilar; El Machhour, Raja; Segard, Pascaline; Masselot, Bernadette; Bailliez, Yves; Formstecher, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) remain quiescent until activated in response to severe dental pulp damage. Once activated, they exit quiescence and enter regenerative odontogenesis, producing reparative dentin. The factors and signaling molecules that control the quiescence/activation and commitment to differentiation of human DPSCs are not known. In this study, we determined that the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling commonly activates DPSCs and promotes their exit from the G0 phase of the cell cycle as well as from the pyronin Ylow stem cell compartment. The inhibition of these two pathways, however, inversely determines DPSC fate. In contrast to p38 MAPK inhibitors, IGF-1R inhibitors enhance dental pulp cell sphere-forming capacity and reduce the cells' colony-forming capacity without inducing cell death. The inverse cellular changes initiated by IGF-1R and p38 MAPK inhibitors were accompanied by inverse changes in the levels of active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) factor, inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3, and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, a marker of early odontoblast differentiation. Our data suggest that there is cross talk between the IGF-1R and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in DPSCs and that the signals provided by these pathways converge at STAT3 and inversely regulate its activity to maintain quiescence or to promote self-renewal and differentiation of the cells. We propose a working model that explains the possible interactions between IGF-1R and p38 MAPK at the molecular level and describes the cellular consequences of these interactions. This model may inspire further fundamental study and stimulate research on the clinical applications of DPSC in cellular therapy and tissue regeneration. PMID:24266654

  13. ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases control prion protein fragment 90-231-induced astrocyte proliferation and microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Thellung, Stefano; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Pellistri, Francesca; Venezia, Valentina; Russo, Claudio; Aceto, Antonio; Robello, Mauro; Florio, Tullio

    2007-11-01

    Astrogliosis and microglial activation are a common feature during prion diseases, causing the release of chemoattractant and proinflammatory factors as well as reactive free radicals, involved in neuronal degeneration. The recombinant protease-resistant domain of the prion protein (PrP90-231) displays in vitro neurotoxic properties when refolded in a beta-sheet-rich conformer. Here, we report that PrP90-231 induces the secretion of several cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide (NO) release, in both type I astrocytes and microglial cells. PrP90-231 elicited in both cell types the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase that displays, in astrocytes, a rapid kinetics and a proliferative response. Conversely, in microglia, PrP90-231-dependent MAP kinase activation was delayed and long lasting, inducing functional activation and growth arrest. In microglial cells, NO release, dependent on the expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the secretion of the chemokine CCL5 were Ca(2+) dependent and under the control of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38: ERK1/2 inhibition, using PD98059, reduced iNOS expression, while p38 blockade by PD169316 inhibited CCL5 release. In summary, we demonstrate that glial cells are activated by extracellular misfolded PrP90-231 resulting in a proliferative/secretive response of astrocytes and functional activation of microglia, both dependent on MAP kinase activation. In particular, in microglia, PrP90-231 activated a complex signalling cascade involved in the regulation of NO and chemokine release. These data argue in favor of a causal role for misfolded prion protein in sustaining glial activation and, possibly, glia-mediated neuronal death.

  14. The NHERF1 PDZ2 Domain Regulates PKA–RhoA–p38-mediated NHE1 Activation and Invasion in Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Rosa A.; Bellizzi, Antonia; Busco, Giovanni; Weinman, Edward J.; Dell'Aquila, Maria E.; Casavola, Valeria; Azzariti, Amalia; Mangia, Anita; Paradiso, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the signal transduction systems governing invasion is fundamental for the design of therapeutic strategies against metastasis. Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1) is a postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain-containing protein that recruits membrane receptors/transporters and cytoplasmic signaling proteins into functional complexes. NHERF1 expression is altered in breast cancer, but its effective role in mammary carcinogenesis remains undefined. We report here that NHERF1 overexpression in human breast tumor biopsies is associated with metastatic progression, poor prognosis, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression. In cultured tumor cells, hypoxia and serum deprivation increase NHERF1 expression, promote the formation of leading-edge pseudopodia, and redistribute NHERF1 to these pseudopodia. This pseudopodial localization of NHERF1 was verified in breast biopsies and in three-dimensional Matrigel culture. Furthermore, serum deprivation and hypoxia stimulate the Na+/H+ exchanger, invasion, and activate a protein kinase A (PKA)-gated RhoA/p38 invasion signal module. Significantly, NHERF1 overexpression was sufficient to induce these morphological and functional changes, and it potentiated their induction by serum deprivation. Functional experiments with truncated and binding groove-mutated PDZ domain constructs demonstrated that NHERF1 regulates these processes through its PDZ2 domain. We conclude that NHERF1 overexpression enhances the invasive phenotype in breast cancer cells, both alone and in synergy with exposure to the tumor microenvironment, via the coordination of PKA-gated RhoA/p38 signaling. PMID:17332506

  15. Nerve growth factor pretreatment inhibits lidocaine-induced myelin damage via increasing BDNF expression and inhibiting p38 mitogen activation in the rat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyi; Li, Dan; Ding, Xudong; Li, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) pretreatment on demyelination in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats, and explored the potential neuroprotective mechanisms of NGF. A total of 36 rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=12 per group): Sham group; Lido group, received intrathecal injection of lidocaine; NGF group, received intrathecal injection of NGF followed by intrathecal injection of lidocaine. Tail-flick tests were used to evaluate neurobehavioral function. Ultrastructural alternations were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). ELISA was used to determine serum levels of MBP and proteolipid protein (PLP). Western blotting was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). NGF pretreatment reduced lidocaine-induced neurobehavioral damage, nerve fiber demyelination, accompanied by a decrease in MBP expression in the spinal cord and an increase in MBP and PLP in serum. In addition, NGF pretreatment increased BDNF expression in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats. Furthermore, NGF pretreatment reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in the spinal cord of lidocaine-treated rats. NGF treatment reduces lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity via the upregulation of BDNF and inhibition of p38 MAPK. NGF therapy may improve the clinical use of lidocaine in intravertebral anesthesia. PMID:28849178

  16. Flavonoids from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger induces caspase-dependent apoptosis at least partly through activation of p38 MAPK pathway in U937 human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Sup; Yun, Jeong Won; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Jung, Ji Hyun; Yi, Sang Mi; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, GonSup; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Jung, Jin-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (A. Berger) is commonly used as a folk remedy for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms of its anti-cancer activity are poorly investigated in human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether flavonoids extracted from Orostachys japonicus A. Berger (FEOJ) might have anticancer effects in human leukemia cells, focusing on cell death mechanisms. U937 human leukemic cancer cells were used. FEOJ induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in human U937 cancer cells. Flow cytometry revealed significant accumulation of cells with sub-G1 DNA content at the concentrations of 200 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL. FEOJ-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) in human U937 cancer cells, which might be associated with suppression of Bcl-2 and XIAP proteins. FEOJ induced the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, playing at least in part an important role in FEOJ-induced apoptosis. This study suggested that FEOJ may induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in human leukemic cells by regulating MMP (ΔΨm) through suppressing Bcl-2 and X-IAP. In addition, the results indicated that upstream p38 MAPK signaling regulates the apoptotic effect of FEOJ. This study provides evidence that FEOJ might have anti-cancer potential for human leukemic cells.

  17. Induction of Tca8113 tumor cell apoptosis by icotinib is associated with reactive oxygen species mediated p38-MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cailing; Yan, Jianguo; Yuan, Guoyan; Zhang, Yinghua; Lu, Derong; Ren, Mingxin; Cui, Weigang

    2014-08-01

    Icotinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity against several tumor cell lines. However, the exact molecular mechanism of icotinib's anti-tumor effect remains unknown. This study aims to examine the zytotoxic effect of icotinib on Tca8113 cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Icotinib significantly resulted in dose-dependent cell death as determined by MTT assay, accompanied by increased levels of Bax and DNA fragmentation. Icotinib could also induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Further studies confirmed that scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and pharmacological inhibition of MAPK reversed icotinib-induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells. Our data provide evidence that icotinib induces apoptosis, possibly via ROS-mediated MAPK pathway in Tca8113 cells.

  18. Stimulation of the p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes by the G Protein–coupled Receptor Agonists, Endothelin-1 and Phenylephrine: A Role in Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Clerk, Angela; Michael, Ashour; Sugden, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway by the G protein–coupled receptor agonists, endothelin-1 and phenylephrine in primary cultures of cardiac myocytes from neonatal rat hearts. Both agonists increased the phosphorylation (activation) of p38-MAPK by ∼12-fold. A p38-MAPK substrate, MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2), was activated approximately fourfold and 10 μM SB203580, a p38-MAPK inhibitor, abolished this activation. Phosphorylation of the MAPKAPK2 substrate, heat shock protein 25/27, was also increased. Using selective inhibitors, activation of the p38-MAPK pathway by endothelin-1 was shown to involve protein kinase C but not Gi/Go nor the extracellularly responsive kinase (ERK) pathway. SB203580 failed to inhibit the morphological changes associated with cardiac myocyte hypertrophy induced by endothelin-1 or phenylephrine between 4 and 24 h. However, it decreased the myofibrillar organization and cell profile at 48 h. In contrast, inhibition of the ERK cascade with PD98059 prevented the increase in myofibrillar organization but not cell profile. These data are not consistent with a role for the p38-MAPK pathway in the immediate induction of the morphological changes of hypertrophy but suggest that it may be necessary over a longer period to maintain the response. PMID:9679149

  19. Aesculin inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and activator protein 1 in lipopolysachride-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Jai-Eun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Joo, Myungsoo; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2012-11-01

    Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) may contribute to inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary fibrosis, which involves the destruction of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) express MMP-9 through the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathways. Aesculin, a 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin-6-O-beta-glucopyranoside, has been highlighted for its anti-hepatotoxic, hypouricemic, antioxidative, photo-protective, and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of aesculin on LPS-stimulated MMP-9 production and its regulatory mechanism by using murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Aesculin did not trigger any significant cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 cells at concentration up to 150 μM. Secretion and expression levels of MMP-9, which were highly elevated by LPS treatment, were reduced by the addition of aesculin in a dose-dependent manner. However, gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 was not reduced by aesculin. Luciferase activity assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays using RAW264.7 cells showed that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by aesculin was mediated by AP-1 rather than NF-κB. In addition, aesculin inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and subsequent activation of c-fos, a component of AP-1 transcription factor, but not JNK, ERK1/2, and c-jun. These findings suggest that aesculin is a potent drug candidate that protects against the inflammatory destruction of ECM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polydatin ameliorates Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kang-Feng; Zhao, Gan; Deng, Gan-Zhen; Wu, Hai-Chong; Yin, Nan-Nan; Chen, Xiu-Ying; Qiu, Chang-Wei; Peng, Xiu-Li

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies show that Polydatin (PD) extracted from the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb, a widely used traditional Chinese remedies, possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PD on Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice and elucidated the potential mechanisms. In mice with S aureus-induced mastitis, administration of PD (15, 30, 45 mg/kg, ip) or dexamethasone (Dex, 5 mg/kg, ip) significantly suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells, ameliorated the mammary structural damage, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase, a biomarker of neutrophils accumulation. Furthermore, PD treatment dose-dependently decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland tissues. PD treatment also dose-dependently decreased the expression of TLR2, MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK4 and TRAF6 as well as the phosphorylation of TAK1, MKK3/6, p38 MAPK, IκB-α and NF-κB in the mammary gland tissues. In mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) infected by S aureus in vitro, pretreatment with PD dose-dependently suppressed the upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling proteins, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and AP-1. A TLR2-neutralizing antibody mimicked PD in its suppression on S aureus-induced upregulation of MyD88, p-p38 and p-p65 levels in mMECs. PD (50, 100 μg/mL) affected neither the growth of S aureus in vitro, nor the viability of mMECs. In conclusion, PD does not exhibit antibacterial activity against S aureus, its therapeutic effects in mouse S aureus-induced mastitis depend on its ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine levels via inhibiting TLR2-mediated activation of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  1. Activation of p38-MAPK by CXCL4/CXCR3 axis contributes to p53-dependent intestinal apoptosis initiated by 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Wang, Xia; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Ye, Hao; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a major does limiting side-effect of chemoagents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Molecules involved in this disease process are still not fully understood. We proposed that the homeostatically regulated genes during CIM may participate in the disease. A cluster of such genes were previously identified by expression gene-array from the mouse jejunum in 5-FU-induced mucositis model. Here, we report that CXCL4 is such a homeostatically regulated gene and serves as a new target for the antibody treatment of CIM. CXCL4 and its receptor CXCR3 were confirmed at both the gene and protein levels to be homeostatically regulated during 5-FU-induced mucositis. Using of CXCL4 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (CXCL4mab) decreased the incidence, severity, and duration of the chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, the major symptom of CIM, in a 5-FU mouse CIM model. Mechanistically, CXCL4mab reduced the apoptosis of the crypt epithelia by suppression of the 5-FU-induced expression of p53 and Bax through its receptor CXCR3. The downstream signaling pathway of CXCL4 in activation of the epithelial apoptosis was identified in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). CXCL4 activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which mediated the stimulated expression of p53 and Bax, and resulted in the ultimate activation of Caspase-8, -9, and -3. Taken together, activation of CXCL4 expression by 5-FU in mice participates in 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis through upregulation of p53 via activation of p38-MAPK, and CXCL4mab is potentially beneficial in preventing CIM in the intestinal tract.

  2. Activation of p38-MAPK by CXCL4/CXCR3 axis contributes to p53-dependent intestinal apoptosis initiated by 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Gao, Jin; Qian, Lan; Wang, Xia; Wu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yang; Ye, Hao; Zhu, Shunying; Yu, Yan; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a major does limiting side-effect of chemoagents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Molecules involved in this disease process are still not fully understood. We proposed that the homeostatically regulated genes during CIM may participate in the disease. A cluster of such genes were previously identified by expression gene-array from the mouse jejunum in 5-FU-induced mucositis model. Here, we report that CXCL4 is such a homeostatically regulated gene and serves as a new target for the antibody treatment of CIM. CXCL4 and its receptor CXCR3 were confirmed at both the gene and protein levels to be homeostatically regulated during 5-FU-induced mucositis. Using of CXCL4 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (CXCL4mab) decreased the incidence, severity, and duration of the chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, the major symptom of CIM, in a 5-FU mouse CIM model. Mechanistically, CXCL4mab reduced the apoptosis of the crypt epithelia by suppression of the 5-FU-induced expression of p53 and Bax through its receptor CXCR3. The downstream signaling pathway of CXCL4 in activation of the epithelial apoptosis was identified in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). CXCL4 activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which mediated the stimulated expression of p53 and Bax, and resulted in the ultimate activation of Caspase-8, -9, and -3. Taken together, activation of CXCL4 expression by 5-FU in mice participates in 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis through upregulation of p53 via activation of p38-MAPK, and CXCL4mab is potentially beneficial in preventing CIM in the intestinal tract. PMID:24800927

  3. Novel Indole-based Tambjamine-Analogues Induce Apoptotic Lung Cancer Cell Death through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Manresa, Pilar; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Hernando, Elsa; Villanueva, Alberto; Martínez-García, David; Rodilla, Ananda M; Ramos, Ricard; Fardilha, Margarida; Moya, Juan; Quesada, Roberto; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer has become the leading killer cancer worldwide, due to late diagnosis and lack of efficient anticancer drugs. We have recently described novel natural-derived tambjamine analogues that are potent anion transporters capable of disrupting cellular ion balance, inducing acidification of the cytosol and hyperpolarization of cellular plasma membranes. Although these tambjamine analogues were able to compromise cell survival, their molecular mechanism of action remains largely unknown. Herein we characterize the molecular cell responses induced by highly active indole-based tambjamine analogues treatment in lung cancer cells. Expression changes produced after compounds treatment comprised genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle, growth factors and its receptors, protein kinases and topoisomerases, among others. Dysregulation of BCL2 and BIRC5 /survivin genes suggested the apoptotic pathway as the induced molecular cell death mechanism. In fact, activation of several proapoptotic markers (caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP) and reversion of the cytotoxic effect upon treatment with an apoptosis inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) were observed. Moreover, members of the Bcl-2 protein family suffered changes after tambjamine analogues treatment, with a concomitant protein decrease towards the prosurvival members. Besides this, it was observed cellular accumulation of ROS upon compound treatment and an activation of the stress-kinase p38 MAPK route that, when inhibited, reverted the cytotoxic effect of the tambjamine analogues. Finally, a significant therapeutic effect of these compounds was observed in subcutaneous and orthotopic lung cancer mice models. Taken together, these results shed light on the mechanism of action of novel cytotoxic anionophores and demonstrate the therapeutic effects against lung cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1224-35. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. A Mechanism of Male Germ Cell Apoptosis Induced by Bisphenol-A and Nonylphenol Involving ADAM17 and p38 MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell apoptosis regulation is pivotal in order to maintain proper daily sperm production. Several reports have shown that endocrine disruptors such as Bisphenol-A (BPA) and Nonylphenol (NP) induce germ cell apoptosis along with a decrease in sperm production. Given their ubiquitous distribution in plastic products used by humans it is important to clarify their mechanism of action. TACE/ADAM17 is a widely distributed extracellular metalloprotease and participates in the physiological apoptosis of germ cells during spermatogenesis. The aims of this work were: 1) to determine whether BPA and NP induce ADAM17 activation; and 2) to study whether ADAM17 and/or ADAM10 are involved in germ cell apoptosis induced by BPA and NP in the pubertal rat testis. A single dose of BPA or NP (50 mg/kg) induces germ cell apoptosis in 21-day-old male rats, which was prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of ADAM17, but not by an inhibitor of ADAM10. In vitro, we showed that BPA and NP, at similar concentrations to those found in human samples, induce the shedding of exogenous and endogenous (TNF-α) ADAM17 substrates in primary rat Sertoli cell cultures and TM4 cell line. In addition, pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases and genetic silencing of ADAM17 prevent the shedding induced in vitro by BPA and NP. Finally, we showed that in vivo BPA and NP induced early activation (phosphorylation) of p38 MAPK and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. Interestingly, the inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents germ cell apoptosis and translocation of ADAM17 to the cell surface. These results show for the first time that xenoestrogens can induce activation of ADAM17 at concentrations similar to those found in human samples, suggesting a mechanism by which they could imbalance para/juxtacrine cell-to-cell-communication and induce germ cell apoptosis. PMID:25474107

  5. Gypenoside IX Suppresses p38 MAPK/Akt/NFκB Signaling Pathway Activation and Inflammatory Responses in Astrocytes Stimulated by Proinflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Liu; Yang, Li; Xing, Faping; Yang, Hua; Qin, Liyue; Lan, Yunyi; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Beibei; Shi, Hailian; Lu, Cheng; Huang, Fei; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2017-12-01

    Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo. GP IX significantly reduced the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at either protein or mRNA level in glial cell line C6 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/TNF-α combination. It also alleviated the astrogliosis and decreased the production of inflammatory mediators in brain cortex of LPS-treated mice. Further study disclosed that GP IX inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and reduced its transcriptional activity. Meanwhile, GP IX significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of NFκB, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), Akt, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) under inflammatory conditions both in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicated that GP IX might suppress reactive astrogliosis by suppressing Akt/p38 MAPK/NFκB signaling pathways. And GP IX might be a promising drug candidate or prodrug for the therapy of neuroinflammatory disorders characterized with reactive astrogliosis.

  6. Differential immunotoxic effects of ethanol on murine EL-4 lymphoma and normal lymphocytes is mediated through increased ROS production and activation of p38MAPK.

    PubMed

    Premachandran, Sudha; Khan, Nazir M; Thakur, Vikas S; Shukla, Jyoti; Poduval, T B

    2012-08-01

    Ethanol has been used to achieve thymic depletion in myasthenia gravis patients. Ethanol (95%) has also been used widely in the therapy of many tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma. In light of these findings, we delineated the differential immunotoxic behavior and mechanism of lower concentration of ethanol towards murine EL-4 lymphoma and its normal counterpart lymphocytes. EL-4 lymphoma and normal lymphocytes were cultured with ethanol (0%-5%) for 6 h and cytotoxicity was measured by various methods. EL-4 cells treated with ethanol showed concentration-dependent loss of viability at 2%-5% ethanol concentration and exhibit proliferative arrest at preG1 stage. Acridine-orange and ethidium-bromide staining indicated that ethanol induced death in EL-4 cells, by induction of both apoptosis and necrosis which was further supported by findings of DNA-fragmentation and trypan blue dye exclusion test. However, treatment of lymphocytes with similar concentration of ethanol did not show any death-associated parameters. Furthermore, ethanol induced significantly higher ROS generation in EL-4 cells as compared to lymphocytes and caused PARP cleavage and activation of apoptotic proteins like p53 and Bax, in EL-4 cells and not in normal lymphocytes. In addition, ethanol exposure to EL-4 cells led to phosphorylation of p38MAPK, and upregulation of death receptor Fas (CD95). Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol upto a concentration of 5% caused no significant immunotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes and induced cell death in EL-4 cells via phosphorylation of p38MAPK and regulation of p53 leading to further activation of both extrinsic (Fas) and intrinsic (Bax) apoptotic markers.

  7. FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 decreases saturated-fatty-acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle by reducing p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Alba; Girona, Josefa; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Heras, Mercedes; Saavedra-García, Paula; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Masana, Lluís; Rodríguez-Calvo, Ricardo

    2018-06-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches against insulin resistance-related inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these molecules drive these effects in skeletal muscle remain unknown. Here, we assessed whether the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 prevented lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle. The BMS309403 treatment was assessed both in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in palmitate-stimulated C2C12 myotubes. HFD feeding promoted insulin resistance, which is characterized by increased plasma levels of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, resistin, and leptin and reduced plasma levels of adiponectin compared with control mice fed a standard diet. Additionally, insulin-resistant animals showed increased FABP4 plasma levels. In line with this evidence, recombinant FABP4 attenuated the insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment with BMS309403 reduced lipid-induced ER stress and inflammation in both mouse skeletal muscle and C2C12 myotubes. The effects of the FABP4 inhibitor reducing lipid-induced ER stress-associated inflammation were related to the reduction of fatty acid-induced intramyocellular lipid deposits, ROS and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation. Accordingly, BMS309403 reduced lipid-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is upstream of NF-κB activation. Overall, these findings indicate that BMS309403 reduces fatty acid-induced ER stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle by reducing p38 MAPK activation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracellular acidification synergizes with PDGF to stimulate migration of mouse embryo fibroblasts through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive manner

    SciTech Connect

    An, Caiyan; Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi; Clinical Medicine Research Center of the Affiliated Hospital, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia

    The elucidation of the functional mechanisms of extracellular acidification stimulating intracellular signaling pathway is of great importance for developing new targets of treatment for solid tumors, and inflammatory disorders characterized by extracellular acidification. In the present study, we focus on the regulation of extracellular acidification on intracellular signaling pathways in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). We found extracellular acidification was at least partly involved in stimulating p38MAPK pathway through PTX-sensitive behavior to enhance cell migration in the presence or absence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Statistical analysis showed that the actions of extracellular acidic pH and PDGF on inducing enhancement ofmore » cell migration were not an additive effect. However, we also found extracellular acidic pH did inhibit the viability and proliferation of MEFs, suggesting that extracellular acidification stimulates cell migration probably through proton-sensing mechanisms within MEFs. Using OGR1-, GPR4-, and TDAG8-gene knock out technology, and real-time qPCR, we found known proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) were unlikely to be involved in the regulation of acidification on cell migration. In conclusion, our present study validates that extracellular acidification stimulates chemotactic migration of MEFs through activation of p38MAPK with a PTX-sensitive mechanism either by itself, or synergistically with PDGF, which was not regulated by the known proton-sensing GPCRs, TRPV1, or ASICs. Our results suggested that others proton-sensing GPCRs or ion channels might exist in MEFs, which mediates cell migration induced by extracellular acidification in the presence or absence of PDGF. - Highlights: • Acidic pH and PDGF synergize to stimulate MEFs migration via Gi/p38MAPK pathway. • Extracellular acidification inhibits

  9. Rosiglitazone attenuates NF-{kappa}B-dependent ICAM-1 and TNF-{alpha} production caused by homocysteine via inhibiting ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yong-Ping; Liu, Yu-Hui; Chen, Jia

    2007-08-17

    Previous studies demonstrated an important interaction between nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) activation and homocysteine (Hcy)-induced cytokines expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains illusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hcy on NF-{kappa}B-mediated sICAM-1, TNF-{alpha} production and the possible involvement of ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK pathway. The effects of rosiglitazone intervention were also examined. Our results show that Hcy increased the levels of sICAM-1 and TNF-{alpha} in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was significantly depressed by rosiglitazone and different inhibitors (PDTC, NF-{kappa}B inhibitor; PD98059,more » MEK inhibitor; SB203580, p38MAPK specific inhibitor; and staurosporine, PKC inhibitor). Next, we investigated the effect of Hcy on ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK pathway and NF-{kappa}B activity in HUVECs. The results show that Hcy activated both ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK pathway and NF-{kappa}B-DNA-binding activity. These effects were markedly inhibited by rosiglitazone as well as other inhibitors (SB203580, PD98059, and PDTC). Further, the pretreatment of staurosporine abrogated ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting that Hcy-induced ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK activation is associated with PKC activity. Our results provide evidence that Hcy-induced NF-{kappa}B activation was mediated by activation of ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK pathway involving PKC activity. Rosiglitazone reduces the NF-{kappa}B-mediated sICAM-1 and TNF-{alpha} production induced by Hcy via inhibition of ERK{sub 1/2}/p38MAPK pa0011thw.« less

  10. Nobiletin and tangeretin ameliorate scratching behavior in mice by inhibiting the action of histamine and the activation of NF-κB, AP-1 and p38.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se-Eun; Ryu, Kwon-Ryeol; Park, Sung-Hwan; Chung, Suna; Teruya, Yuto; Han, Myung Joo; Woo, Je-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Nobiletin and tangeretin are polymethoxy flavonoids that are abundantly present in the pericarp of Citrus unshiu (family Rutaceae) and the fruit of Citrus depressa (family Rutaceae). They exhibit various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects. To evaluate the anti-allergic effects of nobiletin and tangeretin, we measured their inhibitory effects in histamine- or compound 48/80-induced scratching behavioral mice. Nobiletin and tangeretin potently inhibited scratching behavior, as well as histamine-induced vascular permeability. Furthermore, they inhibited the expression of the allergic cytokines, IL-4 and TNF-α as well as the activation of their transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1 and p38 in histamine-stimulated skin tissues. They also inhibited the expression of IL-4 and TNF-α and the activation of NF-κB and c-jun in PMA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. Furthermore, nobiletin and tangeretin inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) activity and the IgE-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. These agents showed potent anti-histamine effect through the Magnus test when guinea pig ileum was used. Based on these results, nobiletin and tangeretin may ameliorate scratching behavioral reactions by inhibiting the action of histamine as well as the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 via PKC. © 2013.

  11. Activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-p38 MAP kinase pathway mediates apoptosis induced by conjugated linoleic acid in p53-mutant mouse mammary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Chung; Meng, Xiaojing; Ou, Lihui; Ip, Margot M

    2010-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor growth in most model systems, an effect mediated in part by its pro-apoptotic activity. We previously showed that trans-10,cis-12 CLA induced apoptosis of p53-mutant TM4t mouse mammary tumor cells through both mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. In the current study, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key player in fatty acid metabolism, in CLA-induced apoptosis in TM4t cells. We found that t10,c12-CLA increased phosphorylation of AMPK, and that CLA-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C. The increased AMPK activity was not due to nutrient/energy depletion since ATP levels did not change in CLA-treated cells, and knockdown of the upstream kinase LKB1 did not affect its activity. Furthermore, our data do not demonstrate a role for the AMPK-modulated mTOR pathway in CLA-induced apoptosis. Although CLA decreased mTOR levels, activity was only modestly decreased. Moreover, rapamycin, which completely blocked the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2, did not induce apoptosis, and attenuated rather than enhanced CLA-induced apoptosis. Instead, the data suggest that CLA-induced apoptosis is mediated by the AMPK-p38 MAPK-Bim pathway: CLA-induced phosphorylation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, and increased expression of Bim, occurred with a similar time course as apoptosis; phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was blocked by compound C; the increased Bim expression was blocked by p38 MAPK siRNA; CLA-induced apoptosis was attenuated by the p38 inhibitor SB-203580 and by siRNAs directed against p38 MAPK or Bim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Renal Apoptosis through a p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Regulated Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingmei; Lu, Xiaodan; Nguyen, Sinh; Olson, Jean L.; Webb, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) catalyzes the conversion of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids into less active eicosanoids, and inhibitors of sEH have anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Based on previous observations that sEH inhibition attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating nuclear factor-κB signaling, we hypothesized that this strategy would also attenuate cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH with AR9273 [1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(1-methylsulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl-urea)] reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis through mechanisms involving mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and by reducing reactive oxygen species. Renal mitochondrial Bax induction following cisplatin treatment was significantly decreased by treatment of mice with AR9273 and these antiapoptotic effects involved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Similar mechanisms contributed to reduced apoptosis in Ephx2−/− mice treated with cisplatin. Moreover, in pig kidney proximal tubule cells, cisplatin-induced mitochondrial trafficking of Bax and cytochrome c, caspase-3 activation, and oxidative stress are significantly attenuated in the presence of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Collectively, these in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate a role for EETs in limiting cisplatin-induced renal apoptosis. Inhibition of sEH represents a novel therapeutic strategy for protection against cisplatin-induced renal damage. PMID:24092818

  13. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults. PMID:25967738

  14. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-08-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    PubMed

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence.

  16. Galectin-9 Produced by Intestinal Epithelial Cells Enhances Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Dendritic Cells in a PI3K- and p38-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    de Kivit, Sander; Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Kerperien, JoAnn; Ayechu Muruzabal, Veronica; Morgan, Mary E; Knippels, Leon M J; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) drive regulatory T cell (Treg) responses by promoting the differentiation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-expressing CD103+ dendritic cells (DC). Apical stimulation of TLR9 by CpG DNA on IEC supports galectin-9 expression by IEC, which is promoted by short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (GF). While galectin-9 can induce the maturation of monocyte-derived DC (moDC), the contribution of galectin-9 on the induction of ALDH activity in DC is not known. To this end, DC were stimulated with galectin-9, and ALDH activity and the expression of CD103 were assessed. ALDH activity was increased by moDC exposed to galectin-9, while the expression of CD103 remained unaltered. Galectin-9 secreted by IEC apically exposed to CpG DNA and GF enhanced ALDH activity, but not CD103 expression by moDC, which was abrogated upon galectin-9 neutralization. Similar observations were found in murine GM-CSF-cultured bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). Using Flt3L-cultured BMDC and ex vivo murine splenic DC, it was observed that galectin-9 only enhanced ALDH activity in the presence of GM-CSF in CD103- cells. The induction of ALDH activity in BMDC was dependent on p38 and PI3K signaling. These data indicate a novel role for galectin-9 in modulating innate immunity by inducing ALDH activity in DC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A role for protein phosphatase-2A in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated regulation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Avdi, Natalie J; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Nick, Jerry A; Worthen, G Scott

    2002-10-25

    Human neutrophil accumulation in inflammatory foci is essential for the effective control of microbial infections. Although exposure of neutrophils to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), generated at sites of inflammation, leads to activation of MAPK pathways, mechanisms responsible for the fine regulation of specific MAPK modules remain unknown. We have previously demonstrated activation of a TNFalpha-mediated JNK pathway module, leading to apoptosis in adherent human neutrophils (Avdi, N. J., Nick, J. A., Whitlock, B. B., Billstrom, M. A., Henson, P. M., Johnson, G. L., and Worthen, G. S. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2189-2199). Herein, evidence is presented linking regulation of the JNK pathway to p38 MAPK and the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB 203580 and M 39 resulted in significant augmentation of TNFalpha-induced JNK and MKK4 (but not MKK7 or MEKK1) activation, whereas prior exposure to a p38-activating agent (platelet-activating factor) diminished the TNFalpha-induced JNK response. TNFalpha-induced apoptosis was also greatly enhanced upon p38 inhibition. Studies with a reconstituted cell-free system indicated the absence of a direct inhibitory effect of p38 MAPK on the JNK module. Neutrophil exposure to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A induced JNK activation. Increased phosphatase activity following TNFalpha stimulation was shown to be PP2A-associated and p38-dependent. Furthermore, PP2A-induced dephosphorylation of MKK4 resulted in its inactivation. Thus, in neutrophils, p38 MAPK, through a PP2A-mediated mechanism, regulates the JNK pathway, thus determining the extent and nature of subsequent responses such as apoptosis.

  18. Hepatic p38α regulates gluconeogenesis by suppressing AMPK.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Wei; Cao, Hongchao; Zhang, Duo; Yao, Xuan; Zhang, Shengjie; Xia, Hongfeng; Li, Dan; Wang, Yu-cheng; Yan, Jun; Hui, Lijian; Ying, Hao

    2015-06-01

    It is proposed that p38 is involved in gluconeogenesis, however, the genetic evidence is lacking and precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. We sought to delineate the role of hepatic p38α in gluconeogenesis during fasting by applying a loss-of-function genetic approach. We examined fasting glucose levels, performed pyruvate tolerance test, imaged G6Pase promoter activity, as well as determined the expression of gluconeogenic genes in mice with a targeted deletion of p38α in liver. Results were confirmed both in vivo and in vitro by using an adenoviral dominant-negative form of p38α (p38α-AF) and the constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, respectively. Adenoviral dominant-negative form of AMP-activated protein kinase α (DN-AMPKα) was employed to test our proposed model. Mice lacking hepatic p38α exhibited reduced fasting glucose level and impaired gluconeogenesis. Interestingly, hepatic deficiency of p38α did not result in an alteration in CREB phosphorylation, but led to an increase in AMPKα phosphorylation. Adenoviral DN-AMPKα could abolish the effect of p38α-AF on gluconeogenesis. Knockdown of up-steam transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 decreased the AMPKα phosphorylation induced by p38α-AF, suggesting a negative feedback loop. Consistently, inverse correlations between p38 and AMPKα phosphorylation were observed during fasting and in diabetic mouse models. Importantly, adenoviral p38α-AF treatment ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Our study provides evidence that hepatic p38α functions as a negative regulator of AMPK signaling in maintaining gluconeogenesis, dysregulation of this regulatory network contributes to unrestrained gluconeogenesis in diabetes, and hepatic p38α could be a drug target for hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 Pathway Signaling Regulates Expression of Inhibitory Molecules in T Cells Activated by HIV-1–Exposed Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Che, Karlhans Fru; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Muthu, Sundaram; Zandi, Sasan; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Hinkula, Jorma; Messmer, Davorka; Larsson, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection enhances the expression of inhibitory molecules on T cells, leading to T-cell impairment. The signaling pathways underlying the regulation of inhibitory molecules and subsequent onset of T-cell impairment remain elusive. We showed that both autologous and allogeneic T cells exposed to HIV-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) upregulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4), tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG3), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), CD160 and certain suppression-associated transcription factors, such as B-lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), deltex homolog 1 protein (DTX1) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), leading to T-cell suppression. This induction was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (P38MAPK/STAT3) pathways, because their blockade significantly abrogated expression of all the inhibitory molecules studied and a subsequent recovery in T-cell proliferation. Neither interleukin-6 (IL-6) nor IL-10 nor growth factors known to activate STAT3 signaling events were responsible for STAT3 activation. Involvement of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathways was evident because these proteins had a higher level of phosphorylation in the HIV-1–primed cells. Furthermore, blockade of viral CD4 binding and fusion significantly reduced the negative effects DCs imposed on primed T cells. In conclusion, HIV-1 interaction with DCs modulated their functionality, causing them to trigger the activation of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathway in T cells, which was responsible for the upregulation of inhibitory molecules. PMID:22777388

  20. Downregulation of TFAM inhibits the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer by activating ROS-mediated JNK/p38MAPK signaling and reducing cellular bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Shangguan, Fugeng; Lin, Xiaoming; Chen, Fuhong; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Ya; Chen, Zilei; Huang, Kate; Wang, Rongrong; Wang, Lu; Song, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for the replication, transcription and maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The role of TFAM in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Herein, we report that downregulation of TFAM in NSCLC cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and significantly blocked NSCLC cell growth and migration through the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced c-Jun amino-terminal kinase(JNK)/p38 MAPK signaling and decreased cellular bioenergetics. We further found that TFAM downregulation in NSCLC cells led to increased apoptotic cell death and enhanced the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin. Tissue microarray (TMA) data showed that elevated expression of TFAM was related to the histological grade and TNM stage of NSCLC patients. We also demonstrated that TFAM is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that TFAM could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and molecular target for the treatment of NSCLC, as well as for prediction of the effectiveness of chemotherapy. PMID:26820294

  1. Single Molecule Analysis of Serotonin Transporter Regulation Using Antagonist-Conjugated Quantum Dots Reveals Restricted, p38 MAPK-Dependent Mobilization Underlying Uptake Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jerry C.; Tomlinson, Ian D.; Warnement, Michael R.; Ustione, Alessandro; Carneiro, Ana M. D.; Piston, David W.; Blakely, Randy D.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    The presynaptic serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is targeted by widely prescribed antidepressant medications. Altered SERT expression or regulation has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism. Here, we implement a generalizable strategy that exploits antagonist-conjugated quantum dots (Qdots) to monitor, for the first time, single SERT proteins on the surface of serotonergic cells. We document two pools of SERT proteins defined by lateral mobility, one that exhibits relatively free diffusion, and a second, localized to cholesterol and GM1 ganglioside-enriched microdomains, that displays restricted mobility. Receptor-linked signalling pathways that enhance SERT activity mobilize transporters that, nonetheless, remain confined to membrane microdomains. Mobilization of transporters arise from a p38 MAPK-dependent untethering of the SERT C-terminus from the juxtamembrane actin cytoskeleton. Our studies establish the utility of ligand-conjugated Qdots for analysis of the behaviour of single membrane proteins and reveal a physical basis for signaling-mediated SERT regulation. PMID:22745492

  2. Strigolactone analogues induce apoptosis through activation of p38 and the stress response pathway in cancer cell lines and in conditionally reprogrammed primary prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Claire B; McDonough, Sara; Wang, Victor S; Lee, Hyojung; Ringer, Lymor; Li, Xin; Prandi, Cristina; Lee, Richard J; Feldman, Adam S; Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram; Rodriguez, Olga C; Schlegel, Richard; Albanese, Christopher; Yarden, Ronit I

    2014-03-30

    Strigolactones are a novel class of plant hormones produced in roots and regulate shoot and root development. We have previously shown that synthetic strigolactone analogues potently inhibit growth of breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells. Here we show that strigolactone analogues inhibit the growth and survival of an array of cancer-derived cell lines representing solid and non-solid cancer cells including: prostate, colon, lung, melanoma, osteosarcoma and leukemic cell lines, while normal cells were minimally affected. Treatment of cancer cells with strigolactone analogues was hallmarked by activation of the stress-related MAPKs: p38 and JNK and induction of stress-related genes; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis evident by increased percentages of cells in the sub-G1 fraction and Annexin V staining. In addition, we tested the response of patient-matched conditionally reprogrammed primary prostate normal and cancer cells. The tumor cells exhibited significantly higher sensitivity to the two most potent SL analogues with increased apoptosis confirmed by PARP1 cleavage compared to their normal counterpart cells. Thus, Strigolactone analogues are promising candidates for anticancer therapy by their ability to specifically induce cell cycle arrest, cellular stress and apoptosis in tumor cells with minimal effects on growth and survival of normal cells.

  3. Fungal Allergen β-Glucans Trigger p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–Mediated IL-6 Translation in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Wendy A.; Bernardo, Edgar; Allard, Jenna L.; Nagaleekar, Viswas; Wargo, Matthew J.; Davis, Roger J.; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Whittaker, Laurie A.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to immune cells, airway epithelial cells can contribute to and shape the immune response in the lung by secreting specific cytokines. IL-6 is a key factor in determining the effector fate of CD4+ T cells. Here we show that under basal conditions, the IL-6 gene is already highly expressed in lung epithelial cells, but not in immune cells resident in the lung. However, upon exposure of the lungs to fungal allergens, the direct contact of β-glucans present in the fungus cell wall with lung epithelial cells is sufficient to trigger the rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-6 protein. This posttranscriptional regulation of IL-6 in response to fungal extracts is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The inhalation of β-glucans with a nonallergenic antigen is sufficient to provide an adjuvant effect that leads to mucous hyperplasia in the airways. Thus, β-glucans may constitute a common determinant of the fungal and plant-derived allergens responsible for some of the pathological features in allergic asthma. PMID:21642586

  4. Tributyltin chloride induced testicular toxicity by JNK and p38 activation, redox imbalance and cell death in sertoli-germ cell co-culture.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2013-12-06

    The widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) as biocides in antifouling paints and agricultural chemicals has led to environmental and marine pollution. Human exposure occurs mainly through TBT contaminated seafood and drinking water. It is a well known endocrine disruptor in mammals, but its molecular mechanism in testicular damage is largely unexplored. This study was therefore, designed to ascertain effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) on sertoli-germ cell co-culture in ex-vivo and in the testicular tissue in-vivo conditions. An initial Ca(2+) rise followed by ROS generation and glutathione depletion resulted in oxidative damage and cell death. We observed p38 and JNK phosphorylation, stress proteins (Nrf2, MT and GST) induction and mitochondrial depolarization leading to caspase-3 activation. Prevention of TBTC reduced cell survival and cell death by Ca(2+) inhibitors and free radical scavengers specify definitive role of Ca(2+) and ROS. Sertoli cells were found to be more severely affected which in turn can hamper germ cells functionality. TBTC exposure in-vivo resulted in increased tin content in the testis with enhanced Evans blue leakage into the testicular tissue indicating blood-testis barrier disruption. Tesmin levels were significantly diminished and histopathological studies revealed marked tissue damage. Our data collectively indicates the toxic manifestations of TBTC on the male reproductive system and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasmodium berghei NK65 in Combination with IFN-γ Induces Endothelial Glucocorticoid Resistance via Sustained Activation of p38 and JNK

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Karolina A.; de Cauwer, Lode; Knoops, Sofie; Van der Molen, Kristof; Sneyers, Alexander; Thommis, Jonathan; De Souza, J. Brian; Opdenakker, Ghislain; De Bosscher, Karolien; Van den Steen, Philippe E.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is an often lethal complication of malaria. Currently, no adequate therapy for this syndrome exists. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used to improve clinical outcome of ARDS, their therapeutic benefits remain unclear. We previously developed a mouse model of MA-ARDS, in which dexamethasone treatment revealed GC resistance. In the present study, we investigated GC sensitivity of mouse microvascular lung endothelial cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Plasmodium berghei NK65 (PbNK65). Upon challenge with IFN-γ alone, dexamethasone inhibited the expression of CCL5 (RANTES) by 90% and both CCL2 (MCP-1) and CXCL10 (IP-10) by 50%. Accordingly, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that dexamethasone differentially affected several gene clusters and in particular inhibited a large cluster of IFN-γ-induced genes, including chemokines. In contrast, combined stimulation with IFN-γ and PbNK65 extract impaired inhibitory actions of GCs on chemokine release, without affecting the capacity of the GC receptor to accumulate in the nucleus. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of GCs on two signaling pathways activated by IFN-γ. Dexamethasone left phosphorylation and protein levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) unhampered. In contrast, dexamethasone inhibited the IFN-γ-induced activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), JNK, and p38. However, PbNK65 extract abolished the inhibitory effects of GCs on MAPK signaling, inducing GC resistance. These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms of GC actions in endothelial cells and show how malaria may impair the beneficial effects of GCs. PMID:29033931

  6. The three-dimensional structure of MAP kinase p38[beta]: different features of the ATP-binding site in p38[beta] compared with p38[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Sangita B.; Cameron, Patricia M.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.

    2010-10-18

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to environmental stress and cytokines and play a significant role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. Of the four p38 isoforms known to date, two (p38{alpha} and p38{beta}) have been identified as targets for cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, it was reported that specific inhibition of the p38{alpha} isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, while further inhibition of p38{beta} may not provide any additional benefit. In order to aid the development of p38{alpha}-selective compounds, the three-dimensional structure of p38{beta} was determined. To do so, the C162S and C119S,C162Smore » mutants of human MAP kinase p38{beta} were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening hits in crystallization trials in the presence of an inhibitor led upon optimization to crystals that diffracted to 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and allowed structure determination (PDB codes 3gc8 and 3gc9 for the single and double mutant, respectively). The structure of the p38{alpha} C162S mutant in complex with the same inhibitor is also reported (PDB code 3gc7). A comparison between the structures of the two kinases showed that they are highly similar overall but that there are differences in the relative orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains that causes a reduction in the size of the ATP-binding pocket in p38{beta}. This difference in size between the two pockets could be exploited in order to achieve selectivity.« less

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell activity is required for neuroprotection in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Zou, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) played a neuroprotective role in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. However, the mechanism of NF-κB neuroprotection is still unclear. We hypothesize that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is expressed and NF-κB activity induced by p38 MAPK plays a neuroprotective role through antiapoptotic genes (B-cell lymphoma [Bcl]-2 and Bcl-XL) in retinal cells in retinal I/R injury. Retinal ischemia was induced by elevating intraocular pressure in rats. After retinal I/R, the p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL mRNA levels were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. NF-κB p65 activity was assessed with NF-κB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in retinal I/R injury and after application of the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, SB203580 and NF-κB p65 short interfering RNA (siRNA) were used in retinal I/R injury to examine the effects on Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL levels and nucleosome release in the retina and cell survival in the ganglion cell layer. The mRNA levels of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK reached a peak at 6 h after retinal I/R and then decreased gradually. The mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL significantly increased at 2, 4, and 6 h, peaked at 8 h, and decreased gradually, but remained at a higher level compared with the normal control, which was accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 in nuclear extracts. After application of SB203580, the increase in the NF-κB p65 levels in the nucleus induced with I/R was completely abolished, and the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL decreased significantly compared with the I/R controls. In addition, NF-κB p65 siRNA inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway (using SB203580 or NF-κB p65 siRNA) increased retinal nucleosome release and decreased the number of ganglion cells. These findings provide evidence of crosstalk between p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 and

  8. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase–induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell activity is required for neuroprotection in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Zou, Yuan-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In our previous study, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) played a neuroprotective role in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. However, the mechanism of NF-κB neuroprotection is still unclear. We hypothesize that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is expressed and NF-κB activity induced by p38 MAPK plays a neuroprotective role through antiapoptotic genes (B-cell lymphoma [Bcl]-2 and Bcl-XL) in retinal cells in retinal I/R injury. Methods Retinal ischemia was induced by elevating intraocular pressure in rats. After retinal I/R, the p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL mRNA levels were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. NF-κB p65 activity was assessed with NF-κB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in retinal I/R injury and after application of the p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, SB203580 and NF-κB p65 short interfering RNA (siRNA) were used in retinal I/R injury to examine the effects on Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL levels and nucleosome release in the retina and cell survival in the ganglion cell layer. Results The mRNA levels of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK reached a peak at 6 h after retinal I/R and then decreased gradually. The mRNA levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL significantly increased at 2, 4, and 6 h, peaked at 8 h, and decreased gradually, but remained at a higher level compared with the normal control, which was accompanied by an increase in NF-κB p65 in nuclear extracts. After application of SB203580, the increase in the NF-κB p65 levels in the nucleus induced with I/R was completely abolished, and the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL decreased significantly compared with the I/R controls. In addition, NF-κB p65 siRNA inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK-NF-κB pathway (using SB203580 or NF-κB p65 siRNA) increased retinal nucleosome release and decreased the number of ganglion cells. Conclusions These findings provide evidence of crosstalk

  9. The activation of the TLR2/p38 pathway by sodium butyrate in bovine mammary epithelial cells is involved in the reduction of Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; Báez-Magaña, Marisol; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an etiological agent of human and animal diseases, and it is able to internalize into non-professional phagocytic cells (i.e. bovine mammary epithelial cells, bMECs), which is an event that is related to chronic and recurrent infections. bMECs contribute to host innate immune responses (IIR) through TLR pathogen recognition, whereby TLR2 is the most relevant for S. aureus. In a previous report, we showed that sodium butyrate (NaB, 0.5mM), which is a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), reduced S. aureus internalization into bMECs by modulating their IIR. However, the molecular mechanism of this process has not been described, which was the aim of this study. The results showed that the TLR2 membrane abundance (MA) and mRNA expression were induced by 0.5mM NaB ∼1.6-fold and ∼1.7-fold, respectively. Additionally, 0.5mM NaB induced p38 phosphorylation, but not JNK1/2 or ERK1/2 phosphorylation in bMECs, which reached the baseline when the bMECs were S. aureus-challenged. Additionally, bMECs that were treated with 0.5mM NaB (24h) showed activation of 8 transcriptional factors (AP-1, E2F-1, FAST-1, MEF-1, EGR, PPAR, ER and CBF), which were partially reverted when the bMECs were S. aureus-challenged. Additionally, 0.5mM NaB (24h) up-regulated mRNA expression of the antimicrobial peptides, TAP (∼4.8-fold), BNBD5 (∼3.2-fold) and BNBD10 (∼2.6-fold). Notably, NaB-treated and S. aureus-challenged bMECs increased the mRNA expression of all of the antimicrobial peptides that were evaluated, and this was evident for LAP and BNBD5. In the NaB-treated bMECs, we did not detect significant expression changes for IL-1β and IL-6 and only TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-8 were induced. Interestingly, the NaB-treated and S. aureus-challenged bMECs maintained the anti-inflammatory response that was induced by this SCFA. In conclusion, our results suggest that 0.5mM NaB activates bMECs via TLR2/p38, which leads to improved antimicrobial defense before/after pathogen

  10. Chemotherapy-related cachexia is associated with mitochondrial depletion and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Rafael; Waning, David L.; Gao, Hongyu; Liu, Yunlong; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Bonetto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia affects the majority of cancer patients, with currently no effective treatments. Cachexia is defined by increased fatigue and loss of muscle function resulting from muscle and fat depletion. Previous studies suggest that chemotherapy may contribute to cachexia, although the causes responsible for this association are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) associated with chemotherapy-related effects on body composition and muscle function. Normal mice were administered chemotherapy regimens used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, such as Folfox (5-FU, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) or Folfiri (5-FU, leucovorin, irinotecan) for 5 weeks. The animals that received chemotherapy exhibited concurrent loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness. Consistently with previous findings, muscle wasting was associated with up-regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. No changes in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis or in the expression of TGFβ-family members were detected. Further, marked decreases in mitochondrial content, associated with abnormalities at the sarcomeric level and with increase in the number of glycolytic fibers were observed in the muscle of mice receiving chemotherapy. Finally, ACVR2B/Fc or PD98059 prevented Folfiri-associated ERK1/2 activation and myofiber atrophy in C2C12 cultures. Our findings demonstrate that chemotherapy promotes MAPK-dependent muscle atrophy as well as mitochondrial depletion and alterations of the sarcomeric units. Therefore, these findings suggest that chemotherapy potentially plays a causative role in the occurrence of muscle loss and weakness. Moreover, the present observations provide a strong rationale for testing ACVR2B/Fc or MEK1 inhibitors in combination with anticancer drugs as novel strategies aimed at preventing chemotherapy-associated muscle atrophy. PMID:27259276

  11. Cyr61/CCN1 induces CCL20 production by keratinocyte via activating p38 and JNK/AP-1 pathway in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huidan; Li, Haichuan; Huo, Rongfen; Wu, Pinru; Shen, Zhengyu; Xu, Hui; Shen, Baihua; Li, Ningli

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61/CCN1) has recently been implicated in psoriasis pathogenesis by promoting keratinocyte activation. However, the mechanisms by which CCN1 enhances cutaneous inflammation are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of CCN1 on the expression of CCL20 in human keratinocyte. By double-label immunofluorescence staining, we first identified that the expression of CCN1 colocalized well with CCL20 production in the epidermis of psoriasis skin lesion. Furthermore, in vivo, blocking or knockdown CCN1 expression ameliorated skin inflammation and reduced the expression of CCL20 in both imiquimod and IL-23-induced psoriasis-like mouse models, which indicated that CCN1 might be involved in the regulation of CCL20 production in psoriasis. Next, in vitro, we stimulated primary normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) with exogenous protein CCN1 and found that CCN1 directly upregulated CCL20 production independent of TNF-α, IL-22 and IL-17 pathway. Lastly, the signaling pathway study showed that CCN1 enhanced the binding of AP-1 to the CCL20 promoter via crosstalk with p38 and JNK. Our study demonstrates that CCN1 stimulates CCL20 production in vitro and in vivo, and thus supports the notion that overexpressed CCN1 in hyperproliferating keratinocyte is functionally involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to skin lesions affected by psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemotherapy-related cachexia is associated with mitochondrial depletion and the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rafael; Waning, David L; Gao, Hongyu; Liu, Yunlong; Zimmers, Teresa A; Bonetto, Andrea

    2016-07-12

    Cachexia affects the majority of cancer patients, with currently no effective treatments. Cachexia is defined by increased fatigue and loss of muscle function resulting from muscle and fat depletion. Previous studies suggest that chemotherapy may contribute to cachexia, although the causes responsible for this association are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) associated with chemotherapy-related effects on body composition and muscle function. Normal mice were administered chemotherapy regimens used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, such as Folfox (5-FU, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) or Folfiri (5-FU, leucovorin, irinotecan) for 5 weeks. The animals that received chemotherapy exhibited concurrent loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness. Consistently with previous findings, muscle wasting was associated with up-regulation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. No changes in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis or in the expression of TGFβ-family members were detected. Further, marked decreases in mitochondrial content, associated with abnormalities at the sarcomeric level and with increase in the number of glycolytic fibers were observed in the muscle of mice receiving chemotherapy. Finally, ACVR2B/Fc or PD98059 prevented Folfiri-associated ERK1/2 activation and myofiber atrophy in C2C12 cultures. Our findings demonstrate that chemotherapy promotes MAPK-dependent muscle atrophy as well as mitochondrial depletion and alterations of the sarcomeric units. Therefore, these findings suggest that chemotherapy potentially plays a causative role in the occurrence of muscle loss and weakness. Moreover, the present observations provide a strong rationale for testing ACVR2B/Fc or MEK1 inhibitors in combination with anticancer drugs as novel strategies aimed at preventing chemotherapy-associated muscle atrophy.

  13. S100A8 and S100A9 Promotes Invasion and Migration through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent NF-κB Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chae Hwa; Moon, Hyun Jung; Park, Hye Ji; Choi, Jin Hwa; Park, Do Youn

    2013-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 (S100A8/A9) are low-molecular weight members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. Recent studies have reported S100A8/A9 promote tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that S100A8/A9 is mostly expressed in stromal cells and inflammatory cells between gastric tumor cells. However, the role of environmental S100A8/A9 in gastric cancer has not been defined. We observed in the present study the effect of S100A8/A9 on migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. S100A8/A9 treatment increased migration and invasionat lower concentrations that did not affect cell proliferation and cell viability. S100A8/A9 caused activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was not affected by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay whereas activation of NF-κB was blocked by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating that S100A8/A9-induced NF-κB activation is mediated by phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. S100A8/A9-induced cell migration and invasion was inhibited by SB203580 and Bay, suggesting that activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB is involved in the S100A8/A9 induced cell migration and invasion. S100A8/A9 caused an increase in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP12 expression, which were inhibited by SB203580 and Bay. S100A8/A9-induced cell migration and invasion was inhibited by MMP2 siRNA and MMP12 siRNA, indicating that MMP2 and MMP12 is related to the S100A8/A9 induced cell migration and invasion. Taken together, these results suggest that S100A8/A9 promotes cell migration and invasion through p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB activation leading to an increase of MMP2 and MMP12 in gastric cancer. PMID:23456298

  14. Assay development and case history of a 32K-biased library high-content MK2-EGFP translocation screen to identify p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors on the ArrayScan 3.1 imaging platform.

    PubMed

    Trask, Oscar J; Baker, Audrey; Williams, Rhonda Gates; Nickischer, Debra; Kandasamy, Ramani; Laethem, Carmen; Johnston, Patricia A; Johnston, Paul A

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the conversion and assay development of a 96-well MK2-EGFP translocation assay into a higher density 384-well format high-content assay to be screened on the ArrayScan 3.1 imaging platform. The assay takes advantage of the well-substantiated hypothesis that mitogen-activated protein kinase-activating protein kinase-2 (MK2) is a substrate of p38 MAPK kinase and that p38-induced phosphorylation of MK-2 induces a nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation. This chapter also presents a case history of the performance of the MK2-EGFP translocation assay, run as a "high-content" screen of a 32K kinase-biased library to identify p38 inhibitors. The assay performed very well and a number of putative p38 inhibitor hits were identified. Through the use of multiparameter data provided by the nuclear translocation algorithm and by checking images, a number of compounds were identified that were potential artifacts due to interference with the imaging format. These included fluorescent compounds, or compounds that dramatically reduced cell numbers due to cytotoxicity or by disrupting cell adherence. A total of 145 compounds produced IC(50) values <50.0 muM in the MK2-EGFP translocation assay, and a cross target query of the Lilly-RTP HTS database confirmed their inhibitory activity against in vitro kinase targets, including p38a. Compounds were confirmed structurally by LCMS analysis and profiled in cell-based imaging assays for MAPK signaling pathway selectivity. Three of the hit scaffolds identified in the MK2-EGFP translocation HCS run on the ArrayScan were selected for a p38a inhibitor hit-to-lead structure activity relationship (SAR) chemistry effort.

  15. Involvement of p38 MAPK activation mediated through AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons in angiotensin II- and III-induced nociceptive behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Wataru; Ogata, Yoshiki; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Yaoita, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated the possibility that angiotensin (Ang) II and its N-terminal metabolite Ang (1-7) act as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators in the spinal transmission of nociceptive information. Ang III, which is a C-terminal metabolite of Ang II, can also act on AT1 receptors, but its role in spinal nociceptive transmission remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the role of Ang III on the spinal nociceptive system in comparison with that of Ang II. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of Ang III into mice produced a nociceptive behavior, which was dose-dependently inhibited by the co-administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. In addition, Ang III increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, which was inhibited by losartan. These effects were similar to those of observed with Ang II. The nociceptive behavior produced by Ang II or III was also attenuated by the administration of the astrocytic inhibitor L-α-aminoadipic acid, but not by the microglial inhibitor minocycline. Double immunohistochemical staining showed that spinal AT1 receptors were expressed on neurons and astrocytes, and that i.t. administration of either Ang II or III phosphorylated p38 MAPK in both spinal astrocytes and neurons. These results indicate that Ang III produces nociceptive behavior similar to Ang II, and suggest that the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK mediated through AT1 receptors on spinal astrocytes and neurons contributes to Ang II- and III-induced nociceptive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TGF-beta induces connexin43 gene expression in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells via activation of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tacheau, Charlotte; Fontaine, Juliette; Loy, Jennifer; Mauviel, Alain; Verrecchia, Franck

    2008-12-01

    One of the shared physiological roles between TGF-beta and connexin family members is to inhibit epithelial cell cycle progression and consequently, to provide protection against malignant transformation. Herein, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 induces the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cell lines at the protein and mRNA levels, and transcriptionally. Using overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of Cx43, we determined that the modulation of gap junctional communication by TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the control of NMuMG cells proliferation by TGF-beta1. In addition, using overexpression of truncated dominant-negative forms of either Smad2 or Smad3, and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells deficient for Smad4, we determined that the Smad cascade is not implicated in TGF-beta1 effect on Cx43 expression. Using specific pharmacologic inhibitors for JNK, ERK, p38, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, we demonstrated the cooperative role of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling in TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 expression and gap junctional communication. Furthermore, transfection of a c-jun antisense expression vector significantly prevented TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression demonstrating the involvement of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway together with p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways in mediating TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression.

  17. p38 MAPK Signaling in Pemphigus: Implications for Skin Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mavropoulos, Athanasios; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Liaskos, Christos; Smyk, Daniel S.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Sakkas, Lazaros I.; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling plays a major role in the modulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses and therefore has been linked with several autoimmune diseases. The extent of the involvement of p38 MAPK in the pathogenesis of autoimmune blistering diseases has started to emerge, but whether it pays a critical role is a matter of debate. The activity of p38 MAPK has been studied in great detail during the loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesions and the development of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF). These diseases are characterised by autoantibodies targeting desmogleins (Dsg). Whether autoantibody-antigen interactions can trigger signaling pathways (such as p38 MAPK) that are tightly linked to the secretion of inflammatory mediators which may perpetuate inflammation and tissue damage in pemphigus remains unclear. Yet, the ability of p38 MAPK inhibitors to block activation of the proapoptotic proteinase caspase-3 suggests that the induction of apoptosis may be a consequence of p38 MAPK activation during acantholysis in PV. This review discusses the current evidence for the role of p38 MAPK in the pathogenesis of pemphigus. We will also present data relating to the targeting of these cascades as a means of therapeutic intervention. PMID:23936634

  18. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to inhibition of the cytochrome c

  19. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Kao, Shung-Te; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA) administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra. Methods FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA), 2 h before ischemia (P-FA), immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA), 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA), or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA). Results Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK) expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad) expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Conclusions Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to

  20. Early Secreted Antigenic Target of 6 kDa of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Stimulates Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 Production by Macrophages and Its Regulation by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Jung, B-G; Yi, N; Samten, B

    2016-07-01

    Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa (ESAT-6), the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, affects host immunity and the formation of granulomas likely through inflammatory cytokines. To understand its role in this regard further, we investigated the effect of ESAT-6 on macrophages by determining the production of macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, a major chemokine associated with tuberculosis pathogenesis, by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and its regulation by protein kinases and cytokines. The results revealed that ESAT-6, but not Ag85A and culture filtrate protein 10 kDa (CFP10), induced MCP-1 production by BMDMs dose and time dependently. Inhibition of p38 but not other mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and PI3K further enhanced ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 production by BMDMs. Inhibition of p38 MAPK enhanced ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 mRNA accumulation without affecting mRNA stability. ESAT-6 also induced TNF-α from BMDMs and MCP-1 from mouse lung epithelial cells, and these were suppressed by p38 MAPK inhibition, implying cytokine- and cell-specific effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 by macrophages. Pretreatment of BMDMs with IL-4, but not other cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1α) further elevated ESAT-6-stimulated MCP-1 production although IL-4 did not induce MCP-1 without ESAT-6. Both p38 MAPK inhibitor and IL-4 did not show additive effect on ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 protein level despite such effect on MCP-1 mRNA level was evident. In conclusion, these results indicate a specific role for both p38 MAPK and IL-4 in ESAT-6-induced MCP-1 production by macrophages and suggest a pathway with significance in tuberculosis pathogenesis. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  1. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    PubMed

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently

  2. Curcumin I mediates neuroprotective effect through attenuation of quinoprotein formation, p-p38 MAPK expression, and caspase-3 activation in 6-hydroxydopamine treated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Meesarapee, Benjawan; Thampithak, Anusorn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Sanvarinda, Pimtip; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2014-04-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively enters dopaminergic neurons and undergoes auto-oxidation resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and dopamine quinones, subsequently leading to apoptosis. This mechanism mimics the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and has been used to induce experimental Parkinsonism in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In this study, we investigated the effects of curcumin I (diferuloylmethane) purified from Curcuma longa on quinoprotein production, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (p-p38), and caspase-3 activation in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y with curcumin I at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, and 20 μM, significantly decreased the formation of quinoprotein and reduced the levels of p-p38 and cleaved caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the levels of the dopaminergic neuron marker, phospho-tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH), were also dose-dependently increased upon treatment with curcumin I. Our results clearly demonstrated that curcumin I protects neurons against oxidative damage, as shown by attenuation of p-p38 expression, caspase-3-activation, and toxic quinoprotein formation, together with the restoration of p-TH levels. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin I in the chemoprevention of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pro-life role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla in experimental brain stem death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on an experimental brain stem death model, we demonstrated previously that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-interacting kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) cascade plays a pro-life role in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study assessed the hypothesis that, in addition to ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), the other two mammalian members of MAPKs that are originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases, are activated specifically by MAPK kinase 4 (MAP2K4) or MAP2K6 and play a pro-life role in RVLM during experimental brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of phosphorylating activating transcriptional factor-2 (ATF-2) and c-Jun, the classical transcription factor activated by JNK or p38MAPK, in this process. Results An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague–Dawley rats was used, alongside cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total JNK, p38MAPK, MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 were not affected, augmented phosphorylation of JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185 and p38MAPK at Thr180 and Tyr182, accompanied by phosphorylation of their upstream activators MAP2K4 at Ser257 and Thr261 and MAP2K6 at Ser207 and Thr211 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors ATF-2 at Thr71 and c-Jun at Ser73

  4. Pro-life role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla in experimental brain stem death.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alice Y W

    2012-11-17

    Based on an experimental brain stem death model, we demonstrated previously that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-interacting kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) cascade plays a pro-life role in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study assessed the hypothesis that, in addition to ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), the other two mammalian members of MAPKs that are originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases, are activated specifically by MAPK kinase 4 (MAP2K4) or MAP2K6 and play a pro-life role in RVLM during experimental brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of phosphorylating activating transcriptional factor-2 (ATF-2) and c-Jun, the classical transcription factor activated by JNK or p38MAPK, in this process. An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague-Dawley rats was used, alongside cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total JNK, p38MAPK, MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 were not affected, augmented phosphorylation of JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185 and p38MAPK at Thr180 and Tyr182, accompanied by phosphorylation of their upstream activators MAP2K4 at Ser257 and Thr261 and MAP2K6 at Ser207 and Thr211 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors ATF-2 at Thr71 and c-Jun at Ser73, rather than Elk-1 at

  5. Complete inhibition of anisomycin and UV radiation but not cytokine induced JNK and p38 activation by an aryl-substituted dihydropyrrolopyrazole quinoline and mixed lineage kinase 7 small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xushan; Mader, Mary M; Toth, John E; Yu, Xiaohong; Jin, Najia; Campbell, Robert M; Smallwood, Jeffrey K; Christe, Michael E; Chatterjee, Arindam; Goodson, Theodore; Vlahos, Chris J; Matter, William F; Bloem, Laura J

    2005-05-13

    Mixed lineage kinase 7 (MLK7) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) that activates the pro-apoptotic signaling pathways p38 and JNK. A library of potential kinase inhibitors was screened, and a series of dihydropyrrolopyrazole quinolines was identified as highly potent inhibitors of MLK7 in vitro catalytic activity. Of this series, an aryl-substituted dihydropyrrolopyrazole quinoline (DHP-2) demonstrated an IC50 of 70 nM for inhibition of pJNK formation in COS-7 cell MLK7/JNK co-transfection assays. In stimulated cells, DHP-2 at 200 nM or MLK7 small interfering RNA completely blocked anisomycin and UV induced but had no effect on interleukin-1beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced p38 and JNK activation. Additionally, the compound blocked anisomycin and UV-induced apoptosis in COS-7 cells. Heart tissue homogenates from MLK7 transgenic mice treated with DHP-2 at 30 mg/kg had reduced JNK and p38 activation with no apparent effect on ERK activation, demonstrating that this compound can be used to block MLK7-driven MAPK pathway activation in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MLK7 is the MAPKKK required for modulation of the stress-activated MAPKs downstream of anisomycin and UV stimulation and that DHP-2 can be used to block MLK7 pathway activation in cells as well as in vivo.

  6. Estrogen receptorβ2 regulates interlukin-12 receptorβ2 expression via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and inhibits non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Guo; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Guang; Feng, Ke; Luo, Hong-He

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Estrogens are known to be involved in the development and progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These effects are initially mediated through binding of estrogen to estrogen receptors (ERs), in particular ERβ2. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that ERβ2 and interleukin-12 receptorβ2 (IL-12Rβ2) expression are correlated in NSCLC. The present study investigated the expression of these proteins in NSCLC cells and how changes in their expression affected cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, it aimed to explore whether p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) is involved in the regulation of IL-12Rβ2 expression by ERβ2. An immunocytochemical array was used to observe the distribution of ERβ2 and IL-12Rβ2. Co-immuoprecipitation was employed to observe the interaction between p38MAPK and IL-12Rβ2, by varying the expression of ERβ2 and p38MAPK. Western-blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays were used to investigate the mechanism underlying ERβ2 regulation of IL-12Rβ2 expression. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, scratch wound healing and Transwell assays were used to investigate the impact of ERβ2 on proliferative, invasive and migratory abilities of NSCLC cells. ERβ2 was predominantly found in the cytoplasm and nucleus, whilst IL-12Rβ2 was largely confined to the cytoplasm, although a degree of expression was observed in the nucleus. Compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells, IL-12Rβ2 and ERβ2 were overexpressed in the NSCLC cell groups. Coimmuoprecipitation demonstrated an interaction between p38MAPK and IL-12Rβ2. ERβ2 appeared to upregulate IL-12Rβ2 expression and inhibition of p38MAPK attenuated this effect. ERβ2 and IL-12Rβ2 expression inhibited the proliferation, metastasis and invasion of NSCLC cell lines, but knockout of IL-12Rβ2

  7. The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jiwon; Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764; Choi, Jeong-Hae

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Regulation of transcriptional activation of RhoB is still unclear. {yields} We examine the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition, and c-Jun and RhoB depletion on UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis. {yields} We identify the regions of RhoB promoter necessary to confer UV responsiveness using pRhoB-luciferase reporter assays. {yields} c-Jun, ATF2 and p300 are dominantly associated with NF-Y on the distal CCAAT box. {yields} The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contribute to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins on distal CCAAT box of RhoB promoter. -- Abstract: The Ras-related small GTP-binding protein RhoB is rapidly inducedmore » in response to genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation. It is known that UV-induced RhoB expression results from the binding of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) via NF-Y to the inverted CCAAT box (-23) of the RhoB promoter. Here, we show that the association of c-Jun with the distal CCAAT box (-72) is primarily involved in UV-induced RhoB expression and p38 MAPK regulated RhoB induction through the distal CCAAT box. UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor. siRNA knockdown of RhoB, ATF2 and c-Jun resulted in decreased RhoB expression and eventually restored the growth of UV-irradiated Jurkat cells. In the reporter assay using luciferase under the RhoB promoter, inhibition of RhoB promoter activity by the p38 inhibitor and knockdown of c-Jun using siRNA occurred through the distal CCAAT box. Immunoprecipitation and DNA affinity protein binding assays revealed the association of c-Jun and p300 via NF-YA and the dissociation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) via c-Jun recruitment to the CCAAT boxes of the RhoB promoter. These results suggest that the activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter

  8. Regulation of Hippo signalling by p38 signalling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dashun; Li, Xiaojiao; Sun, Li; Huang, Ping; Ying, Hao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jiarui; Song, Haiyun

    2016-08-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression. Loss-of-function studies show that lic regulates Hippo signalling in ovary follicle cells and in the wing disc. Epistasis analysis indicates that Mekk1 and lic affect Hippo signalling via p38b and wts We further demonstrate that the Mekk1-Lic-p38b cascade inhibits Hippo signalling by promoting F-actin accumulation and Jub phosphorylation. In addition, p38 signalling modulates actin filaments and Hippo signalling in parallel to small GTPases Ras, Rac1, and Rho1. Lastly, we show that p38 signalling regulates Hippo signalling in mammalian cell lines. The Lic homologue MKK3 promotes nuclear localization of YAP via the actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. Our work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  9. Regulation of Hippo signalling by p38 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dashun; Li, Xiaojiao; Sun, Li; Huang, Ping; Ying, Hao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jiarui; Song, Haiyun

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression. Loss-of-function studies show that lic regulates Hippo signalling in ovary follicle cells and in the wing disc. Epistasis analysis indicates that Mekk1 and lic affect Hippo signalling via p38b and wts. We further demonstrate that the Mekk1-Lic-p38b cascade inhibits Hippo signalling by promoting F-actin accumulation and Jub phosphorylation. In addition, p38 signalling modulates actin filaments and Hippo signalling in parallel to small GTPases Ras, Rac1, and Rho1. Lastly, we show that p38 signalling regulates Hippo signalling in mammalian cell lines. The Lic homologue MKK3 promotes nuclear localization of YAP via the actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. Our work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation. PMID:27402810

  10. Involvement of histone H3 phosphorylation via the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and intracellular redox status in cytotoxicity of HL-60 cells induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Yuhara, Eisuke; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Takagi, Norio; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex angus-castus (Vitex), might be a promising anticancer candidate. In order to further provide a molecular rationale for clinical development in anticancer therapy, a detailed mechanism underlying the efficacy of Vitex against HL-60 cells was investigated. Vitex induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability associated with induction of apoptosis and G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, both of which were suppressed by the addition of SB203580, an inhibitor for p38 MAPK. Furthermore, SB203580 significantly suppressed Vitex-induced phosphorylation of histone H3, a downstream molecule of p38 MAPK known to be involved in apoptosis induction in tumor cells. Notably, Vitex induced upregulation of intracellular ATP, known to bind its binding pocket inside activated p38 MAPK and to be required for the activation of p38 MAPK pathway. These results, thus, suggest that upregulation of intracellular ATP and phosphorylation of histone H3 are closely associated with the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, consequently contributing to Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, a significant decrease of intracellular ROS levels and downregulation of expression level of gp91(phox), an important component of NADPH oxidase, were observed in Vitex-treated cells. A greater decline in ROS levels along with enhanced apoptosis was observed after treatment with Vitex in combination with SnPP, an inhibitor specific for HO-1. Since NADPH oxidase and HO-1 are closely correlated to redox status associated with intracellular ROS levels, the two enzymes are suggested to be implicated in Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells by regulating ROS generation. We also suggest that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway may be dependent on the alterations of intracellular ATP levels, rather than that of intracellular ROS levels. These results may have important implications for appropriate clinical uses of Vitex and provide novel insights

  11. Fisetin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Down-Regulating Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression through Suppressing the p38 MAPK-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:23940799

  12. The dopamine-somatostatin chimeric compound BIM-23A760 exerts antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in human non-functioning pituitary tumors by activating ERK1/2 and p38 pathways.

    PubMed

    Peverelli, Erika; Olgiati, Luca; Locatelli, Marco; Magni, Paolo; Fustini, Marco Faustini; Frank, Giorgio; Mantovani, Giovanna; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna; Lania, Andrea

    2010-02-28

    The study investigated the effects of the dopamine-somatostatin chimeric compound BIM-23A760 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cultured cells from human non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFPTs). Both BIM-23A760 and the dopaminergic agonist BIM-53097 induced a significant inhibition of cell proliferation associated with increased p27 expression, together with a significant increase in caspase-3 activity. Conversely, null or marginal effects were elicited by somatostatin analogs. Moreover, BIM-23A760 and BIM-53097 induced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation and the blockade of these pathways prevented both the antiproliferative and the pro-apoptotic effects of these drugs. In conclusions the chimeric compound BIM-23A760 is able to exert cytostatic and cytotoxic effects in NFPTs, these phenomena being mainly mediated by DR2D and involving ERK1/2 and p38 pathways activation. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RITA can induce cell death in p53-defective cells independently of p53 function via activation of JNK/SAPK and p38

    PubMed Central

    Weilbacher, A; Gutekunst, M; Oren, M; Aulitzky, W E; van der Kuip, H

    2014-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of small molecules blocking the p53/MDM2 interaction. The Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 is restricted to tumors carrying wtp53. In contrast, RITA, a compound that binds p53, has recently been shown also to restore transcriptional functions of mtp53. As more than 50% of solid tumors carry p53 mutations, RITA promises to be a more effective therapeutic strategy than Nutlin-3. We investigated effects of RITA on apoptosis, cell cycle and induction of 45 p53 target genes in a panel of 14 cell lines from different tumor entities with different p53 status as well as primary lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Nine cell strains expressed wtp53, four harbored mtp53, and three were characterized by the loss of p53 protein. A significant induction of cell death upon RITA was observed in 7 of 16 cell lines. The nonmalignant cells in our panel were substantially less sensitive. We found that in contrast to Nultin-3, RITA is capable to induce cell death not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells. Importantly, whereas p53 has a central role for RITA-mediated effects in wtp53 cells, neither p53 nor p63 or p73 were essential for the RITA response in mtp53 or p53-null cells in our panel demonstrating that besides the known p53-dependent action of RITA in wtp53 cells, RITA can induce cell death also independently of p53 in cells harboring defective p53. We identified an important role of both p38 and JNK/SAPK for sensitivity to RITA in these cells leading to a typical caspase- and BAX/BAK-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that RITA can induce apoptosis through p38 and JNK/SAPK not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells, making RITA an interesting tumor-selective drug. PMID:25010984

  14. RITA can induce cell death in p53-defective cells independently of p53 function via activation of JNK/SAPK and p38.

    PubMed

    Weilbacher, A; Gutekunst, M; Oren, M; Aulitzky, W E; van der Kuip, H

    2014-07-10

    Significant advances have been made in the development of small molecules blocking the p53/MDM2 interaction. The Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 is restricted to tumors carrying wtp53. In contrast, RITA, a compound that binds p53, has recently been shown also to restore transcriptional functions of mtp53. As more than 50% of solid tumors carry p53 mutations, RITA promises to be a more effective therapeutic strategy than Nutlin-3. We investigated effects of RITA on apoptosis, cell cycle and induction of 45 p53 target genes in a panel of 14 cell lines from different tumor entities with different p53 status as well as primary lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Nine cell strains expressed wtp53, four harbored mtp53, and three were characterized by the loss of p53 protein. A significant induction of cell death upon RITA was observed in 7 of 16 cell lines. The nonmalignant cells in our panel were substantially less sensitive. We found that in contrast to Nultin-3, RITA is capable to induce cell death not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells. Importantly, whereas p53 has a central role for RITA-mediated effects in wtp53 cells, neither p53 nor p63 or p73 were essential for the RITA response in mtp53 or p53-null cells in our panel demonstrating that besides the known p53-dependent action of RITA in wtp53 cells, RITA can induce cell death also independently of p53 in cells harboring defective p53. We identified an important role of both p38 and JNK/SAPK for sensitivity to RITA in these cells leading to a typical caspase- and BAX/BAK-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that RITA can induce apoptosis through p38 and JNK/SAPK not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells, making RITA an interesting tumor-selective drug.

  15. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta

    2002-05-01

    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  16. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated β-amyloid protein internalization in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Chang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Xin-Lin; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) alone plays a pivotal role in the progression of AD. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway and proteins that control Aβ internalization may provide new insight for regulating Aβ levels. In the present study, the regulation of Aβ internalization by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed in vivo. The data derived from this investigation revealed that Aβ1-42 were internalized by neurons and astrocytes in mouse brain, and were largely deposited in mitochondria and lysosomes, with some also being found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex was formed during Aβ1-42 internalization, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated by Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were co- localized in the cells of parietal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the level of LRP1-mRNA and LRP1 protein involved in Aβ1-42 internalization in mouse brain. The results of this investigation demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced an LRP1-dependent pathway that related to the activation of p38 MAPK resulting in internalization of Aβ1-42. These results provide evidence supporting a key role for the p38 MAPK signaling pathway which is involved in the regulation of Aβ1-42 internalization in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of mouse through LRP1 in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Porcine circovirus type 2 activates PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways to promote interleukin-10 production in macrophages via Cap interaction of gC1qR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongtong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Yu; Cui, Beibei; Li, Delong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-κB pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-κB1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:26883107

  18. Depurinized milk downregulates rat thymus MyD88/Akt/p38 function, NF-κB-mediated inflammation, caspase-1 activity but not the endonuclease pathway: in vitro/in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Colic, Miodrag; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Tomovic, Katarina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Smelcerovic, Andrija

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of 15 days dietary regimen of depurinized (DP) milk (obtained using our patented technological procedures) or 1.5% fat UHT milk instead of standard chow diet, on rat thymus and bone marrow MyD88/Akt/p38, NF-κB, caspase-1 and endonuclease pathways, in relation to peripheral blood cell composition. To determine whether the reduced mass of the thymus is a consequence of the direct effect of DP/UHT milk on apoptosis of thymocytes, in vitro Annexin-V-FITC/PI assay was performed. Significant decreases in the thymus wet weight, thymocyte MyD88, Akt-1/phospho-Akt-1 kinase, p38/phospho-p38, NF-κB, caspase-1 activity and CD4+/CD8+ antigen expression were obtained, especially in the DP milk group. The activity of thymocyte alkaline and acid DNase increased in the DP but not in the UHT milk group. The level of IL-6 significantly decreased in DP milk treated group, while the level of total TGF-β and IL-6 increased in UHT milk group. Significant differences in hematological parameters were obtained in commercial milk fed group. Observed results about prevention of experimental diabetes in DP pretreated groups may suggest that purine compounds, uric acid and other volatile toxic compounds of commercial milk may suppress oral tolerance, probably via IL-6 and TGF-β cytokine effects.

  19. Second-generation inhibitors demonstrate the involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in post-transcriptional modulation of inflammatory mediator production in human and rodent airways.

    PubMed

    Birrell, Mark A; Wong, Sissie; McCluskie, Kerryn; Catley, Matthew C; Hardaker, Elizabeth L; Haj-Yahia, Saleem; Belvisi, Maria G

    2006-03-01

    The exact role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the expression of inflammatory cytokines is not clear; it may regulate transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, translationally, or post-translationally. The involvement of one or more of these mechanisms has been suggested to depend on the particular cytokine, the cell type studied, and the specific stimulus used. Interpretation of some of the published data is further complicated by the use of inhibitors such as 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole (SB 203580) used at single, high concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of two second-generation p38 MAPK inhibitors on the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines at the gene and protein levels in human cultured cells. Similar assessment of the impact of these compounds on inflammatory cytokine expression in a preclinical in vivo model of airway inflammation was performed. The results in THP-1 cells and primary airway macrophages clearly show that protein expression is inhibited at much lower concentrations of inhibitor than are needed to impact on gene expression. In the rodent model, both compounds, at doses that cause maximal inhibition of cellular recruitment, inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) protein production without impacting on nuclear factor kappaB pathway activation or TNFalpha gene expression. In summary, the data shown here demonstrate that, although at high compound concentrations there is some level of transcriptional regulation, the predominant role of p38 MAPK in cytokine production is at the translational level. These data question whether the effect of p38 inhibitors on gene transcription is related to their potential therapeutic role as anti-inflammatory compounds.

  20. Ghrelin protects against depleted uranium-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through oxidative stress-mediated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yuhui; Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei

    Depleted uranium (DU) mainly accumulates in the bone over the long term. Osteoblast cells are responsible for the formation of bone, and they are sensitive to DU damage. However, studies investigating methods of reducing DU damage in osteoblasts are rarely reported. Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormones released from the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, and it is believed to play an important physiological role in bone metabolism. This study evaluates the impact of ghrelin on DU-induced apoptosis of the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and investigates its underlying mechanisms. The results show that ghrelin relieved the intracellular oxidative stress induced by DU,more » eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing intracellular GSH levels; in addition, ghrelin effectively suppressed apoptosis, enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation after DU exposure. Moreover, ghrelin significantly reduced the expression of DU-induced phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A specific inhibitor (SB203580) or specific siRNA of p38-MAPK could significantly suppress DU-induced apoptosis and related signals, whereas ROS production was not affected. In addition, ghrelin receptor inhibition could reduce the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin on DU and reverse the effect of ghrelin on intracellular ROS and p38-MAPK after DU exposure. These results suggest that ghrelin can suppress DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells, reduce DU-induced oxidative stress by interacting with its receptor, and inhibit downstream p38-MAPK activation, thereby suppressing the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • Ghrelin suppressed DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. • Ghrelin inhibited DU-induced oxidative stress and further p38-MAPK activation. • Ghrelin further suppressed mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. • The anti-oxidation effect

  1. Functional Adaptation of the N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor to Inhibition by Ethanol Is Modulated by Striatal-Enriched Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Coultrap, Steven J.; Browning, Michael D.; Proctor, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity plays important roles in cognition and is a major substrate for ethanol-induced memory dysfunction. This receptor is a glutamate-gated ion channel, which is composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits in various brain areas. Although homomeric NR1 subunits form an active ion channel that conducts Na+ and Ca2+ currents, the incorporation of NR2 subunits allows this channel to be modulated by the Src family of kinases, phosphatases, and by simple molecules such as ethanol. We have found that short-term ethanol application inhibits the NMDAR activity via striatal enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP)-regulated mechanisms. The genetic deletion of the active form of STEP, STEP61, leads to marked attenuation of ethanol inhibition of NMDAR currents. In addition, STEP61 negatively regulates Fyn and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and these proteins are members of the NMDAR super molecular complex. Here we demonstrate, using whole-cell electrophysiological recording, Western blot analysis, and pharmacological manipulations, that neurons exposed to a 3-h, 45 mM ethanol treatment develop an adaptive attenuation of short-term ethanol inhibition of NMDAR currents in brain slices. Our results suggest that this adaptation of NMDAR responses is associated with a partial inactivation of STEP61, an activation of p38 MAPK, and a requirement for NR2B activity. Together, these data indicate that altered STEP61 and p38 MAPK signaling contribute to the modulation of ethanol inhibition of NMDARs in brain neurons. PMID:21680777

  2. Phloretin induces apoptosis in H-Ras MCF10A human breast tumor cells through the activation of p53 via JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in Ras play a critical role in the development of human cancers, including breast cancer. We investigated the possible antiproliferative effects of the naturally occurring dihydrochalcone phloretin [2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propiophenone] on H-Ras-transformed MCF10A human breast epithelial (H-Ras MCF10A) cells. Phloretin suppressed H-Ras MCF10A cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced nuclear condensation in the cells, indicating that phloretin-induced cell death occurs mainly via the induction of apoptosis. Prominent upregulation of p53 and Bax and cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase were also detected in the phloretin-treated cells. Finally, phloretin markedly increased caspase-3 activity as well as JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our findings suggest that the phloretin-induced apoptosis of breast tumor cells contributes to the chemopreventive potential of phloretin against breast cancer.

  3. Cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NF-κB-MT1MMP in activating proMMP-2 by ET-1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused an increase in the expression and activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this scenario. We demonstrated that (i) pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin; PKC-α inhibitor, Go6976; p(38)MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by ET-1; (ii) ET-1 treatment to the cells stimulated NADPH oxidase and PKCα activity, p(38)MAPK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation by translocation of NF-κBp65 subunit from cytosol to the nucleus, and subsequently by increasing its DNA-binding activity; (iii) ET-1 increases MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin, Go6976, SB293580, and Bay 11-7082; (iv) ET-1 treatment to the cells downregulated TIMP-2 level. Although apocynin and Go6976 pretreatment reversed ET-1 effect on TIMP-2 level, yet pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay 11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by ET-1. Overall, our results suggest that ET-1-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NFκB-MT1MMP signaling pathways along with a marked decrease in TIMP-2 expression in the cells.

  4. Krüppel-like factor 17 inhibits urokinase plasminogen activator gene expression to suppress cell invasion through the Src/p38/MAPK signaling pathway in human lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuai; Li, Jiong; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Xing-Fei; Wang, Qin-Qin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ming-Juan; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Ma, Hong-Ming; Wu, Yi; Liu, Sheng-Ming; Zhou, Yan-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 17 (KLF17) has been reported to be involved in invasion and metastasis suppression in lung cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-invasion and anti-metastasis roles of KLF17 in lung cancer are not fully illustrated. Here, we showed that KLF17 inhibited the invasion of A549 and H322 cells; the anti-invasion effect of KLF17 was associated with the suppression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA/PLAU) expression. KLF17 can bind with the promoter of uPA and inhibit its expression. Enforced expression of uPA abrogated the anti-invasion effect of KLF17 in A549 and H322 cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry staining showed that the protein expression of KLF17 was negatively correlated with that of uPA in archived samples from patients with lymph node metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma (rho = −0.62, P = 0.01). The mutually exclusive expression of KLF17 with uPA could predict lymph node metastasis for lung adenocarcinoma (AUC = 0.758, P = 0.005). Enforced expression of KLF17 inhibited the expression of phosphorylated Src and phosphorylated p38/MAPK in A549 and H322 cells. The invasiveness of the cells were suppressed by treating with sb203580 (p38/MAPK inhibitor) or HY-13805 (PP2, Src inhibitor). furthermore, p38/MAPK inhibition could block the KLF17-induced reduction of p-p38/MAPK and uPA, and Src inhibition enhanced the KLF17-induced suppression of p-Src and uPA in A549 and H322 cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that KLF17 suppressed the uPA-mediated invasion of lung adenocarcinoma. The Src and p38/MAPK signaling pathways were suggested as mediators of KLF17-induced uPA inhibition, thus providing evidence that KLF17 might be a potential anti-invasion candidate for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28454121

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of 4-methoxyhonokiol is a function of the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages via NF-kappaB, JNK and p38 MAPK inactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong Yu; Shin, Eun Myoung; Guo, Lian Yu; Youn, Ui Joung; Bae, KiHwan; Kang, Sam Sik; Zou, Li Bo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2008-05-31

    The extracts or constituents from the bark of Magnolia (M.) obovata are known to have many pharmacological activities. 4-Methoxyhonokiol, a neolignan compound isolated from the stem bark of M. obovata, was found to exhibit a potent anti-inflammatory effect in different experimental models. Pretreatment with 4-methoxyhonokiol (i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited the dye leakage and paw swelling in an acetic-acid-induced vascular permeability assay and a carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in mice, respectively. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation model, 4-methoxyhonokiol significantly inhibited plasma nitric oxide (NO) release in mice. To identify the mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory action, we investigated the effect of 4-methoxyhonokiol on LPS-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. The results demonstrated that 4-methoxyhonokiol significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO production as well as the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, 4-methoxyhonokiol inhibited LPS-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation via the prevention of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) phosphorylation and degradation. 4-Methoxyhonokiol had no effect on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas it attenuated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our data suggest that 4-methoxyhonokiol is an active anti-inflammatory constituent of the bark of M. obovata, and that its anti-inflammatory property might be a function of the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via down-regulation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinase signal pathways and inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  6. Discovery and optimization of p38 inhibitors via computer-assisted drug design.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel R; Hao, Ming-Hong; Qian, Kevin C; Swinamer, Alan D; Gao, Donghong A; Xiong, Zhaoming; Sarko, Chris; Berry, Angela; Lord, John; Magolda, Ronald L; Fadra, Tazmeen; Kroe, Rachel R; Kukulka, Alison; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Martin, Leslie; Pargellis, Christopher; Skow, Donna; Song, Jinhua J; Tan, Zhulin; Torcellini, Carol A; Zimmitti, Clare S; Yee, Nathan K; Moss, Neil

    2007-08-23

    Integration of computational methods, X-ray crystallography, and structure-activity relationships will be disclosed, which lead to a new class of p38 inhibitors that bind to p38 MAP kinase in a Phe out conformation.

  7. Concurrent suppression of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and reactive oxygen species formation underlies the effect of a novel compound isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in LPS-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Jiamvoraphong, Nittaya; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Sanvarinda, Pantip; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Pimtip

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of (3S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-(6E)-6-hepten-3-ol, also known as compound 092, isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated highly aggressive proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cell lines. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess reaction, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Western blotting was used to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and their related upstream proteins. Compound 092 suppressed NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated HAPI cells. These effects originated from the ability of compound 092 to attenuate the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as determined by the reduction in p-NF-κB and p-IκB kinase (IKK) protein levels. Compound 092 also significantly lowered LPS-activated intracellular reactive oxygen species production and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Compound 092 suppresses microglial activation through attenuation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Compound 092 thus holds the potential to treat neurodegenerative disorders associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. The Drosophila MAPK p38c Regulates Oxidative Stress and Lipid Homeostasis in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sveta; Poidevin, Mickaël; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cassette has been implicated in stress and immunity in evolutionarily diverse species. In response to a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological stresses p38 kinases phosphorylate various substrates, transcription factors of the ATF family and other protein kinases, regulating cellular adaptation to stress. The Drosophila genome encodes three p38 kinases named p38a, p38b and p38c. In this study, we have analyzed the role of p38c in the Drosophila intestine. The p38c gene is expressed in the midgut and upregulated upon intestinal infection. We showed that p38c mutant flies are more resistant to infection with the lethal pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila but are more susceptible to the non-pathogenic bacterium Erwinia carotovora 15. This phenotype was linked to a lower production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the gut of p38c mutants, whereby the transcription of the ROS-producing enzyme Duox is reduced in p38c mutant flies. Our genetic analysis shows that p38c functions in a pathway with Mekk1 and Mkk3 to induce the phosphorylation of Atf-2, a transcription factor that controls Duox expression. Interestingly, p38c deficient flies accumulate lipids in the intestine while expressing higher levels of antimicrobial peptide and metabolic genes. The role of p38c in lipid metabolism is mediated by the Atf3 transcription factor. This observation suggests that p38c and Atf3 function in a common pathway in the intestine to regulate lipid metabolism and immune homeostasis. Collectively, our study demonstrates that p38c plays a central role in the intestine of Drosophila. It also reveals that many roles initially attributed to p38a are in fact mediated by p38c. PMID:25254641

  9. COMP-angiopoietin 1 increases proliferation, differentiation, and migration of stem-like cells through Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Lim, Shin-Saeng; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COMP-Ang1 induces Tie-2 activation in BMMSCs, but not in primary osteoblasts. • Tie-2 knockdown inhibits COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation and osteoblastogenesis. • Tie-2 knockdown prevents COMP-Ang1-induced activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK. • COMP-Ang1 induces migration of cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and CXCR4 pathways. • COMP-Ang1 stimulates in vivo migration of PDLSCs into a calvarial defect site of rats. - Abstract: Recombinant COMP-Ang1, a chimera of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) and a short coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), is under consideration as a therapeutic agent capable of inducing the homing of cells with increased angiogenesis. However, the potentialsmore » of COMP-Ang1 to stimulate migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the associated mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the potential of COMP-Ang1 on bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and calvarial osteoblasts. COMP-Ang1 augmented Tie-2 induction at protein and mRNA levels and increased proliferation and expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix, and CXCR4 in BMMSCs, but not in osteoblasts. The COMP-Ang1-mediated increases were inhibited by Tie-2 knockdown and by treating inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), SB203580. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt was prevented by siRNA-mediated silencing of Tie-2. COMP-Ang1 also induced in vitro migration of BMMSCs and PDLSCs. The induced migration was suppressed by Tie-2 knockdown and by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonist or LY294002, but not by SB203580. Furthermore, COMP-Ang1 stimulated the migration of PDLSCs into calvarial defect site of rats. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COMP-Ang1-stimulated proliferation, differentiation, and migration of progenitor cells may involve the Tie-2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.« less

  10. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P < 0.05). Western blotting result shows that 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  11. Prediction of p38 map kinase inhibitory activity of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3, 2-d] pyrimidone derivatives using an expert system based on principal component analysis and least square support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    Shahlaei, M.; Saghaie, L.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study is suggested for the prediction of biological activity (pIC50) of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3,2-d] pyrimidone derivatives as p38 inhibitors. Modeling of the biological activities of compounds of interest as a function of molecular structures was established by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) methods. The results showed that the pIC50 values calculated by LS-SVM are in good agreement with the experimental data, and the performance of the LS-SVM regression model is superior to the PCA-based model. The developed LS-SVM model was applied for the prediction of the biological activities of pyrimidone derivatives, which were not in the modeling procedure. The resulted model showed high prediction ability with root mean square error of prediction of 0.460 for LS-SVM. The study provided a novel and effective approach for predicting biological activities of 3, 4-dihydropyrido [3,2-d] pyrimidone derivatives as p38 inhibitors and disclosed that LS-SVM can be used as a powerful chemometrics tool for QSAR studies. PMID:26339262

  12. Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction and suppresses the inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases, nuclear factor‑κB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ya; Wen, Min; Zhang, Ju; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Jiagang

    2017-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited infarct size, increased serum histamine levels and weakened creatine kinase (CK)‑MB activity in AMI mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited serum interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β levels, and caspase‑3/9 activity. In addition, it suppressed matrix metallopeptidase‑9, transforming growth factor‑β, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB protein expression, and promoted B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) protein expression in AMI mice. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract prevents AMI and suppresses inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 MAPK, NF‑κB and Bcl‑2 signaling pathways.

  13. A Member of the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Family Is Responsible for Transcriptional Induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the Epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the Innate Immune Response▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Monica M.; Primrose, David A.; Hodgetts, Ross B.

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila innate immunity is controlled primarily by the activation of IMD (immune deficiency) or Toll signaling leading to the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). IMD signaling also activates the JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) cascade, which is responsible for immune induction of non-antimicrobial peptide immune gene transcription though the transcription factor AP-1. Transcription of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene is induced in response to gram-negative and gram-positive septic injury, but not aseptic wounding. Transcription is induced throughout the epidermis and not specifically at the site of infection. Ddc transcripts are detectible within 2 h and remain high for several hours following infection with either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria. Using Ddc-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs, we show that a conserved consensus AP-1 binding site upstream of the Ddc transcription start site is required for induction. However, neither the Toll, IMD, nor JNK pathway is involved. Rather, Ddc transcription depends on a previously uncharacterized member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family, p38c. We propose that the involvement of DDC in a new pathway involved in Drosophila immunity increases the levels of dopamine, which is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert an antimicrobial effect on invading bacteria. PMID:18519585

  14. Anti-food allergic activity of sulfated polysaccharide from gracilaria lemaneiformis is dependent on immunosuppression and inhibition of p38 mapk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polysaccharides from marine sources offer diverse therapeutic functions due to their multifarious biological nature. Polysaccharide from Gracilaria lemaneiformis possesses various bioactive functions, but its anti-allergic activity remains incompletely defined. Objective: This study aimed to extract...

  15. Acquisition of contextual discrimination involves the appearance of a RAS-GRF1/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated signaling pathway that promotes long term potentiation (LTP).

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan-Xue; Arai, Junko; Tian, Xuejun; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra; Feig, Larry A

    2013-07-26

    RAS-GRF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the ability to activate RAS and RAC GTPases in response to elevated calcium levels. We previously showed that beginning at 1 month of age, RAS-GRF1 mediates NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-induction of long term depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. Here we show that beginning at 2 months of age, when mice first acquire the ability to discriminate between closely related contexts, RAS-GRF1 begins to contribute to the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus by mediating the action of calcium-permeable, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs). Surprisingly, LTP induction by CP-AMPARs through RAS-GRF1 occurs via activation of p38 MAP kinase rather than ERK MAP kinase, which has more frequently been linked to LTP. Moreover, contextual discrimination is blocked by knockdown of Ras-Grf1 expression specifically in the CA1 hippocampus, infusion of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor into the CA1 hippocampus, or the injection of an inhibitor of CP-AMPARs. These findings implicate the CA1 hippocampus in the developmentally dependent capacity to distinguish closely related contexts through the appearance of a novel LTP-supporting signaling pathway.

  16. Acquisition of Contextual Discrimination Involves the Appearance of a RAS-GRF1/p38 Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase-mediated Signaling Pathway That Promotes Long Term Potentiation (LTP)*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan-Xue; Arai, Junko; Tian, Xuejun; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra; Feig, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    RAS-GRF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the ability to activate RAS and RAC GTPases in response to elevated calcium levels. We previously showed that beginning at 1 month of age, RAS-GRF1 mediates NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-induction of long term depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. Here we show that beginning at 2 months of age, when mice first acquire the ability to discriminate between closely related contexts, RAS-GRF1 begins to contribute to the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus by mediating the action of calcium-permeable, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs). Surprisingly, LTP induction by CP-AMPARs through RAS-GRF1 occurs via activation of p38 MAP kinase rather than ERK MAP kinase, which has more frequently been linked to LTP. Moreover, contextual discrimination is blocked by knockdown of Ras-Grf1 expression specifically in the CA1 hippocampus, infusion of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor into the CA1 hippocampus, or the injection of an inhibitor of CP-AMPARs. These findings implicate the CA1 hippocampus in the developmentally dependent capacity to distinguish closely related contexts through the appearance of a novel LTP-supporting signaling pathway. PMID:23766509

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-mediated upregulation of hepatic microRNA-181 family promotes cancer cell migration by targeting MAPK phosphatase-5, regulating the activation of p38 MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Kyung; School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701; Park, Yong-Keun

    2013-11-15

    Growing evidence indicates that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer induced by chemical carcinogens play an important role in cancer development and progression by regulating related genes. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain unclear. Thus, the identification of aberrant miRNA expression during PAH-induced cancer cell migration will lead to a better understanding of the substantial role of miRNAs in cancer progression. In the present study, miRNA expression profiling showed significant upregulation of miR-181a, -181b, and -181d in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 line) exposed to benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF).more » MAPK phosphatase-5 (MKP-5), a validated miR-181 target that deactivates MAPKs, was markedly suppressed while phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was increased after BA and BF exposure. The migration of HepG2 cells, observed using the scratch wound-healing assay, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of miR-181 family members by miRNA inhibitors enhanced the expression of MKP-5 and suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the depletion of the miR-181 family inhibited cancer cell migration. Based on these results, we conclude that the miR-181 family plays a critical role in PAH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by targeting MKP-5, resulting in the regulation of p38 MAPK activation. - Highlights: • We found significant upregulation of miR-181 family in HCC exposed to BA and BF. • We identified the MKP-5 as a putative target of miR-181 family. • MKP-5 was suppressed while p-P38 was increased after BA and BF exposure. • The migration of HepG2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner.« less

  18. P38 AND EGF RECEPTOR KINASE-MEDIATED ACTIVATION OF THE PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE/AKT PATHWAY IS REQUIRED FOR ZN2+INDUCED CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is induced by physiological and inflammatory stimuli. Regulation of COX-2 expression is stimulus- and cell type-specific. Exposure to Zn2+ has been associated with activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways as well as the induction...

  19. Microplastic Size-Dependent Toxicity, Oxidative Stress Induction, and p-JNK and p-p38 Activation in the Monogonont Rotifer (Brachionus koreanus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Won, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Souissi, Sami; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-08-16

    In this study, we evaluated accumulation and adverse effects of ingestion of microplastics in the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus). The dependence of microplastic toxicity on particle size was investigated by measuring several in vivo end points and studying the ingestion and egestion using 0.05-, 0.5-, and 6-μm nonfunctionalized polystyrene microbeads. To identify the defense mechanisms activated in response to microplastic exposure, the activities of several antioxidant-related enzymes and the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were determined. Exposure to polystyrene microbeads of all sizes led to significant size-dependent effects, including reduced growth rate, reduced fecundity, decreased lifespan and longer reproduction time. Rotifers exposed to 6-μm fluorescently labeled microbeads exhibited almost no fluorescence after 24 h, while rotifers exposed to 0.05- and 0.5-μm fluorescently labeled microbeads displayed fluorescence until 48 h, suggesting that 6-μm microbeads are more effectively egested from B. koreanus than 0.05- or 0.5-μm microbeads. This observation provides a potential explanation for our findings that microbead toxicity was size-dependent and smaller microbeads were more toxic. In vitro tests revealed that antioxidant-related enzymes and MAPK signaling pathways were significantly activated in response to microplastic exposure in a size-dependent manner.

  20. 2',4-Dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Chromolaena odorata possesses anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rana; Kimseng, Rungruedee; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn; Hiransai, Poonsit; Utaipan, Tanyarath; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chunglok, Warangkana

    2018-02-01

    Immune dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Macrophages play a crucial role contributing to the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. Macrophage inflammatory mediators are of considerable interest as potential targets to treat inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1), the major chalcone isolated from Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell viability, nitric oxide (NO), and proinflammatory cytokines of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells were measured by MTT, Griess, and ELISA assays, respectively. Cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting for investigation of protein expression. Treatment with the major chalcone 1 significantly attenuated the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The chalcone suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) stimulation by preventing activation of inhibitor κB kinase (IKK) α/β, degradation of inhibitor κB (IκB) α, and translocation of p65 NF-κB into the nucleus. Additionally, the chalcone markedly repressed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but no further inhibition was detected for c-Jun N-terminal activated kinases or extracellular regulated kinases. Thus, suppression of NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation may be the core mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1). These findings provide evidence that 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone (1) possesses anti-inflammatory activity via targeting proinflammatory macrophages. This anti-inflammatory chalcone is a promising compound for reducing inflammation.

  1. Enhanced levels of soluble CD40 ligand exacerbate platelet aggregation and thrombus formation through a CD40-dependent tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-2/Rac1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Daniel; Hachem, Ahmed; Théorêt, Jean-François; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Mourad, Walid; Merhi, Yahye

    2010-12-01

    CD40 ligand is a thromboinflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), which has been shown to influence platelet activation, although its exact functional impact on platelets and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed to determine the impact and the signaling mechanisms of sCD40L on platelets. sCD40L strongly enhances platelet activation and aggregation. Human platelets treated with a mutated form of sCD40L that does not bind CD40, and CD40(-/-) mouse platelets failed to elicit such responses. Furthermore, sCD40L stimulation induces the association of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-2 with platelet CD40. Notably, sCD40L primes platelets through activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and its downstream target p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which leads to platelet shape change and actin polymerization. Moreover, sCD40L exacerbates thrombus formation and leukocyte infiltration in wild-type mice but not in CD40(-/-) mice. sCD40L enhances agonist-induced platelet activation and aggregation through a CD40-dependent tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-2/Rac1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Thus, sCD40L is an important platelet primer predisposing platelets to enhanced thrombus formation in response to vascular injury. This may explain the link between circulating levels of sCD40L and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Early interleukin-6 enhances hepatic ketogenesis in APPSWE/PSEN1dE9 mice via 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase 2 signaling activation by p38/nuclear factor κB p65.

    PubMed

    Shi, Le; Zhao, Daina; Hou, Chen; Peng, Yunhua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Shuangxi; Liu, Jiankang; Long, Jiangang

    2017-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a multifactorial disease that affects the central nervous system and periphery. A decline in brain glucose metabolism is an early feature of AD and is accompanied by a phenotypic shift from aerobic glycolysis to ketogenesis. The liver is responsible for the generation of the ketone body. However, the mechanism that underlies hepatic ketogenesis in AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated hepatic ketogenesis during the early stage of AD pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APP SWE ) and presenilin (PSEN1dE9) (APP/PS1) mice. We observed that β-hydroxybutyric acid was increased in the brain of the postmortem mild cognitive impairment and AD subjects and in 3-month-old APP/PS1 AD mice. A rise in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), a key enzyme for catalyzing β-hydroxybutyric acid production, was observed in early AD mice. We further showed that proinflammatory cytokines were activated in the liver prior to their activation in the brain of 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice. Among the cytokines, interleukin-6 significantly activated HMGCS2 through the binding of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 to the HMGCS2 promoter. Additionally, interleukin-6 stimulated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinases, an upstream molecule for NF-κB p65 signaling. We have demonstrated that a hepatic inflammatory factor enhances ketogenesis through HMGCS2 signaling activation by p38/NF-κB p65. These results provide a novel peripheral metabolic mechanism for enhanced ketone production and suggest a plausible early AD phenotype to diagnose AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ssanghwa-tang, an oriental herbal cocktail, exerts anti-melanogenic activity by suppression of the p38 MAPK and PKA signaling pathways in B16F10 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ssanghwa-tang (SHT) is a widely used medication for the treatment of fatigue, pain, inflammation, hypothermia, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and osteoporosis in Asia, however, role of SHT on the melanin synthesis has not been checked previously. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effect of SHT on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogensis and its mechanisms of action in murine B16F10 melanoma cells. Method Cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells were determined after α-MSH stimulation with or without pre-treatment of SHT at the concentration of 250 and 500 μg/ml. Expression level of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and activation of c-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), c-AMP-related element binding protein (CREB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were examined by Western blot analysis. Results SHT significantly inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity, and also decreased α-MSH-induced expression of MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP-1. In addition, SHT remarkably suppressed tyrosinase, CRE, and MITF luciferase reporter activity in a resting state as well as in α-MSH-stimulating condition. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by α-MSH stimulation was efficiently blocked by SHT pre-treatment. Moreover, SHT as an herbal cocktail showed synergistic anti-melanogenic effect compared with that of each single constituent herb. Conclusion SHT efficiently inhibited c-AMP-induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells via suppression of PKA and p38 MAPK signaling pathways and subsequently decreased the level of CREB phosphorylation, MITF, and melanogenic enzymes. These results indicate that SHT may be useful as herbal medicine for treating hyperpigmentation and cosmetics as a skin-whitening agent. PMID:23981281

  4. EETs Attenuate Ox-LDL-Induced LTB4 Production and Activity by Inhibiting p38 MAPK Phosphorylation and 5-LO/BLT1 Receptor Expression in Rat Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun-xia; Zhang, Shui-juan; Xiong, Yao-kang; Jia, Yong-liang; Sun, Yan-hong; Lin, Xi-xi; Shen, Hui-juan; Xie, Qiang-min; Yan, Xiao-feng

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase (EPOX)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the product of 5-LO, all play a pivotal role in the vascular inflammatory process. We have previously shown that EETs can alleviate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial inflammation in primary rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAECs). Here, we investigated whether ox-LDL can promote LTB4 production through the 5-LO pathway. We further explored how exogenous EETs influence ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and activity. We found that treatment with ox-LDL increased the production of LTB4 and further led to the expression and release of both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). All of the above ox-LDL-induced changes were attenuated by the presence of 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET, as these molecules inhibited the 5-LO pathway. Furthermore, the LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1 receptor) antagonist U75302 attenuated ox-LDL-induced ICAM-1 and MCP-1/CCL2 expression and production, whereas LY255283, a LTB4 receptor 2 (BLT2 receptor) antagonist, produced no such effects. Moreover, in RPAECs, we demonstrated that the increased expression of 5-LO and BLT1 following ox-LDL treatment resulted from the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results indicated that EETs suppress ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and subsequent inflammatory responses by downregulating the 5-LO/BLT1 receptor pathway, in which p38 MAPK phosphorylation activates NF-κB. These results suggest that the metabolism of arachidonic acid via the 5-LO and EPOX pathways may present a mutual constraint on the physiological regulation of vascular endothelial cells.

  5. EETs Attenuate Ox-LDL-Induced LTB4 Production and Activity by Inhibiting p38 MAPK Phosphorylation and 5-LO/BLT1 Receptor Expression in Rat Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yao-kang; Jia, Yong-liang; Sun, Yan-hong; Lin, Xi-xi; Shen, Hui-juan; Xie, Qiang-min; Yan, Xiao-feng

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase (EPOX)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), the product of 5-LO, all play a pivotal role in the vascular inflammatory process. We have previously shown that EETs can alleviate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial inflammation in primary rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAECs). Here, we investigated whether ox-LDL can promote LTB4 production through the 5-LO pathway. We further explored how exogenous EETs influence ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and activity. We found that treatment with ox-LDL increased the production of LTB4 and further led to the expression and release of both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). All of the above ox-LDL-induced changes were attenuated by the presence of 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET, as these molecules inhibited the 5-LO pathway. Furthermore, the LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1 receptor) antagonist U75302 attenuated ox-LDL-induced ICAM-1 and MCP-1/CCL2 expression and production, whereas LY255283, a LTB4 receptor 2 (BLT2 receptor) antagonist, produced no such effects. Moreover, in RPAECs, we demonstrated that the increased expression of 5-LO and BLT1 following ox-LDL treatment resulted from the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Our results indicated that EETs suppress ox-LDL-induced LTB4 production and subsequent inflammatory responses by downregulating the 5-LO/BLT1 receptor pathway, in which p38 MAPK phosphorylation activates NF-κB. These results suggest that the metabolism of arachidonic acid via the 5-LO and EPOX pathways may present a mutual constraint on the physiological regulation of vascular endothelial cells. PMID:26035589

  6. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  7. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pu; Goodrich, Chris; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis involves multistep adhesive interactions between tumor cells (TCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), but the molecular mechanisms of intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment remain elusive. Using static and flow coculture systems in conjunction with flow cytometry, we discovered that certain receptors on the ECs are upregulated on melanoma cell adhesion. Direct contact but not separate coculture between human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and a human melanoma cell line (Lu1205) increased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin expression on HUVECs by 3- and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with HUVECs alone. The nonmetastatic cell line WM35 failed to promote ICAM-1 expression changes in HUVECs on contact. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that EC–TC contact has a synergistic effect on the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and growth-related oncogene α (Gro-α). By using E-selectin cross-linking and beads coated with CD44 immunopurified from Lu1205 cells, we showed that CD44/selectin ligation was responsible for the ICAM-1 up-regulation on HUVECs. Protein kinase Cα (PKC-α) activation was found to be the downstream target of the CD44/selectin-initiated signaling, as ICAM-1 elevation was inhibited by siRNA targeting PKCα or a dominant negative form of PKCα (PKCα DN). Western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that TC–EC contact mediated p38 phosphorylation and binding of the transcription factor SP-1 to its regulation site. In conclusion, CD44/selectin binding signals ICAM-1 up-regulation on the EC surface through a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway, which further enhances melanoma cell adhesion to ECs during metastasis.—Zhang, P., Goodrich, C., Fu, C., Dong, C. Melanoma upregulates ICAM-1 expression on ECs through engagement of tumor CD44 with endothelial E-selectin and activation of a PKCα–p38–SP-1 pathway. PMID:25138157

  8. Methylmercury promotes prostacyclin release from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells via induction of cyclooxygenase-2 through activation of the EGFR-p38 MAPK pathway by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Eiko; Kurita, Masaru; Eto, Komyo; Kumagai, Yoshito; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that exhibits neurotoxicity when ingested, primarily in the form of neuropathological lesions that localize along deep sulci and fissures, in addition to edematous and inflammatory changes in patient cerebrums. These conditions been known to give rise to a variety of ailments that have come to be collectively termed Minamata disease. Since prostaglandins I 2 and E 2 (PGI 2 and PGE 2 ) increase vascular permeability and contribute to the progression of inflammatory changes, we hypothesize that methylmercury induces the synthesis of these prostaglandins in brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes. To test this theory, human brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes were cultured and treated with methylmercury, after which the PGI 2 and PGE 2 released from endothelial cells and/or pericytes were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay while protein and mRNA expressions in endothelial cells were analyzed by western blot analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Experimental results indicate that methylmercury inhibits the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which in turn activates the epidermal growth factor receptor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression. It was also found that the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway, which can be activated by PGI 2 and PGE 2 , is involved in methylmercury-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Since it appears that protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B serves as a sensor protein for methylmercury in these mechanisms, it is our belief that the results of the present study may provide additional insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for edematous and inflammatory changes in the cerebrum of patients with Minamata disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lockheed P-38 Lightning in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    The P-38 shown in this photo was one of the fighters built in the late 1930s and early 1940s that experienced compressibility effects. In steep dives, these aircraft could reach speeds above Mach 0.75 (called transonic). At transonic speeds, air in front of the wings became compressed and reached supersonic speeds as it flowed over the wings, forming a shock wave. This resulted in an increase in drag and a decrease in lift. Another result was the movement of the wing's center of lift to the rear, forcing the aircraft to rotate so that the nose moved downward and it went into a steep dive. Pilots found that that their aircraft would not pull out of this dive. When they attempted to pull out, they found the control stick, as one pilot put it, 'was cast in about two feet of concrete.' In some cases, the airplanes crashed or broke up in the denser air as they approached the ground. In other cases, the pilots were able to pull out of the dive. These accidents and near misses reinforced the popular belief in a 'sound barrier.' The need for data at speeds near that of sound and the inability of wind tunnels at the time to provide it would lead to the construction and flight of the X-1 and D-558 research aircraft. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was one of the best-known Army Air Forces fighters that flew in World War II. It was already in mass production before the war started for the United States, and production lasted until 1945. With a wingspan of 52 feet; a length of 37 feet, 10 inches; and a height of 9 feet, 10 inches, the P-38s had maximum speeds ranging from 390 miles per hour for the basic P-38 to 414 mph for the P-38L. Except for the M model (a two-seater), all the P-38s were single-seat pursuit and long-range escort aircraft.

  10. Stress-induced interaction between p38 MAPK and HSP70

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Xiaowei, E-mail: gongxw@fimmu.com; Luo, Tingting; Deng, Peng

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSP70 interacts to p38 MAPK in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSP70 co-localizes with p38 MAPK in the nucleus upon stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSP70 is involved in the nuclear phosphorylation of MK2 by p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: p38 MAPK, one of the four MAPK subfamilies in mammalian cells, is activated by environmental stresses and pro-inflammatory cytokines, playing fundamental roles in many biological processes. Despite all that is known on the structure and functions of p38, many questions still exist. The coupling of activation and nuclear translocation represents an important aspect of p38 signaling. In our effort in exploring themore » potential chaperone for p38 translocation, we performed an endogenous pull-down assay and identified HSP70 as a potential interacting protein of p38. We confirmed the interaction between p38 and HSP70 in vitro and in vivo, and identified their interaction domains. We also showed stress-induced nuclear co-localization of these two proteins. Our preliminary result indicated that HSP70 was related to the phosphorylation of MK2, a specific nuclear downstream target of p38, suggesting HSP70 is a potential chaperone for the nuclear translocation of p38.« less

  11. Chebulagic acid Chebulinic acid and Gallic acid, the active principles of Triphala, inhibit TNFα induced pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory activities in retinal capillary endothelial cells by inhibiting p38, ERK and NFkB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Sivasankar; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2018-04-17

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) a pleiotropic cytokine induces pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and neovascular age related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Hence, inhibition of TNFα mediated changes can benefit the management of DR and NV-AMD. Triphala, an ayurvedic herbal preparation is known to have immunomodulatry functions. In this study we evaluated the alcoholic extract of triphala (AlE) and its compounds Chebulagic acid (CA), Chebulinic acid (CI) and Gallic acid (GA) for their anti-TNFα activity. TNFα induced pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in the retinal-choroid microvascular endothelial cells (RF/6A). Treatment with CA/CI/GA and the whole Triphala extract showed characteristic inhibition of MMP-9, cell proliferation/migration and tube formation as well the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 without affecting cell viability. This was mediated by inhibition of p38, ERK and NFκB phosphorylation. Ex vivo angiogenesis assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model also showed that TNFα-induced angiogenesis and it was inhibited by AlE and its active principles. Further, in silico studies revealed that CA, CI and GA are capable of binding the TNFα-receptor-1 to mediate anti-TNFα activity. This study explains the immunomodulatory function of Triphala, evaluated in the context of retinal and choroid vasculopathies in vitro and ex vivo; which showed that CA, CI and GA can be a potential pharmacological agents in the management of DR and NV-AMD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 induces selective apoptosis in glioblastoma cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and NFkappaB pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of p38-JNK1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Braganhol, Elizandra; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2012-12-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are emerging as a new class of anticancer agents. In this work, we examined the mechanisms underlying cytotoxicity, selectivity and adjuvant potential of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in a panel of glioblastoma (GBM) cells (U138MG, C6, U87 and U373) and in normal astrocytes. MG132 markedly inhibited GBM cells growth irrespective of the p53 or PTEN mutational status of the cells whereas astrocytic viability was not affected, suggesting a selective toxicity of MG132 to cancerous glial cells. Mechanistically, MG132 arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and increased p21(WAF1) protein immunocontent. Following cell arrest, cells become apoptotic as shown by annexin-V binding, caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation and formation of sub-G1 apoptotic cells. MG132 promoted mitochondrial depolarization and decreased the mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein bcl-xL; it also induced activation of JNK and p38, and inhibition of NFkappaB and PI3K/Akt survival pathways. Pre-treatment of GBMs with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor, bongkrekic acid, or pharmacological inhibitors of JNK1/2 and p38, SP600125 and SB203580, attenuated MG132-induced cell death. Besides its apoptotic effect alone, MG132 also enhanced the antiglioma effect of the chemotherapeutics cisplatin, taxol and doxorubicin in C6 and U138MG cells, indicating an adjuvant/chemosensitizer potential. In summary, MG132 exerted profound and selective toxicity in GBMs, being a potential agent for further testing in animal models of the disease.

  13. Osteoblast-Secreted Factors Mediate Dormancy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer in the Bone via Activation of the TGFβRIII-p38MAPK-pS249/T252RB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Yu, Guoyu; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lin, Song-Chang; Pan, Jing; Pan, Tianhong; Yu, Kai-Jie; Liu, Bin; Creighton, Chad J; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Villalobos, Pamela A; Wistuba, Ignacio I; de Nadal, Eulalia; Posas, Francesc; Gallick, Gary E; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2018-06-01

    Bone metastasis from prostate cancer can occur years after prostatectomy, due to reactivation of dormant disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone, yet the mechanism by which DTCs are initially induced into a dormant state in the bone remains to be elucidated. We show here that the bone microenvironment confers dormancy to C4-2B4 prostate cancer cells, as they become dormant when injected into mouse femurs but not under the skin. Live-cell imaging of dormant cells at the single-cell level revealed that conditioned medium from differentiated, but not undifferentiated, osteoblasts induced C4-2B4 cellular quiescence, suggesting that differentiated osteoblasts present locally around the tumor cells in the bone conferred dormancy to prostate cancer cells. Gene array analyses identified GDF10 and TGFβ2 among osteoblast-secreted proteins that induced quiescence of C4-2B4, C4-2b, and PC3-mm2, but not 22RV1 or BPH-1 cells, indicating prostate cancer tumor cells differ in their dormancy response. TGFβ2 and GDF10 induced dormancy through TGFβRIII to activate phospho-p38MAPK, which phosphorylates retinoblastoma (RB) at the novel N-terminal S249/T252 sites to block prostate cancer cell proliferation. Consistently, expression of dominant-negative p38MAPK in C4-2b and C4-2B4 prostate cancer cell lines abolished tumor cell dormancy both in vitro and in vivo Lower TGFβRIII expression in patients with prostate cancer correlated with increased metastatic potential and decreased survival rates. Together, our results identify a dormancy mechanism by which DTCs are induced into a dormant state through TGFβRIII-p38MAPK-pS249/pT252-RB signaling and offer a rationale for developing strategies to prevent prostate cancer recurrence in the bone. Significance: These findings provide mechanistic insights into the dormancy of metastatic prostate cancer in the bone and offer a rationale for developing strategies to prevent prostate cancer recurrence in the bone. Cancer Res; 78(11); 2911

  14. Discovery of highly selective inhibitors of p38alpha.

    PubMed

    Popa-Burke, Ioana; Birkos, Steve; Blackwell, Leonard; Cheatham, Lynn; Clark, Jennifer; Dickson, John K; Galasinski, Scott; Janzen, William P; Mendoza, Jose; Miller, Jennifer L; Mohney, Robert P; Steed, Paul M; Hodge, C Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a key role in cellular pathways leading to pro-inflammatory responses. We have developed and implemented a method for rapidly identifying and optimizing potent and selective p38alpha inhibitors, which is amenable to other targets and target classes. A diverse library of druggable, purified and quantitated molecules was assembled and standardized enzymatic assays were performed in a microfluidic format that provided very accurate and precise inhibition data allowing for development of SAR directly from the primary HTS. All compounds were screened against a collection of more than 60 enzymes (kinases, proteases and phosphatases), allowing for removal of promiscuous and non-selective inhibitors very early in the discovery process. Follow-up enzymological studies included measurement of concentration of compound in buffer, yielding accurate determination of K(i) and IC50 values, as well as mechanism of action. In addition, active compounds were screened against less desirable properties such as inhibition of the enzyme activity by aggregation, irreversible binding, and time-dependence. Screening of an 88,634-compound library through the above-described process led to the rapid identification of multiple scaffolds (>5 active compounds per scaffold) of potential drug leads for p38alpha that are highly selective against all other enzymes tested, including the three other p38 isoforms. Potency and selectivity data allowed prioritization of the identified scaffolds for optimization. Herein we present results around our 3-thio-1,2,4-triazole lead series of p38- selective inhibitors, including identification, SAR, synthesis, selectivity profile, enzymatic and cellular data in their progression towards drug candidates.

  15. CD28 co-stimulation restores T cell responsiveness in NOD mice by overcoming deficiencies in Rac-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and IL-2 and IL-4 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Salojin, K V; Delovitch, T L

    2001-03-01

    Previously, we reported that T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by TCR ligation is causal to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neonatal CD28 co-stimulation reverses T cell hyporesponsiveness and protects NOD mice from diabetes by an IL-4-mediated mechanism, indicating that a deficiency in TCR signaling may be overcome by CD28/B7-2 co-stimulation in NOD T cells. To investigate which co-stimulation-induced signaling events mediate this protection, we analyzed the activity of Ras, Rac-1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and several transcription factors in TCR-activated NOD T cells in the presence or absence of CD28 co-stimulation. We show that CD28 co-stimulation restores normal TCR-induced activation of Rac-1 and p38 MAPK in NOD T cells. Deficiencies in TCR-induced nuclear expression of activating protein (AP)-1 binding proteins as well as activation of AP-1 and NF-AT in the IL-2 and IL-4 P1 promoters are also corrected by CD28 co-stimulation. Thus, CD28 co-stimulation reverses NOD T cell hyporesponsiveness by restoring TCR signaling leading to the activation of AP-1 and NF-AT during IL-2 and IL-4 gene transcription. Our findings provide additional evidence that CD28 co-stimulation amplifies signals delivered by the TCR and further explain the mechanism by which CD28 co-stimulation may protect against autoimmune diabetes.

  16. Total saponin from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt abrogates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption via the inhibition of RANKL-induced NF-κB, JNK and p38 MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangying; Wu, Wenbin; Yang, Yue; Wan, Hongye; Li, Xiaomin; Zhong, Michun; Zhao, Hongyan; Su, Xiaohui; Jia, Shiwei; Ju, Dahong; Lin, Na

    2015-03-15

    Osteoclasts, bone-specialized multinucleated cells, are responsible for bone destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Natural plant-derived products have received substantial attention given their potential therapeutic and preventive activities against bone destructive diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of total saponin (TS) from Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced in vitro osteoclast differentiation. We observed that TS concentration-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cell and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), as well as decreased extent of actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. The RANKL-stimulated expression of osteoclast-related transcription factors were also diminished by TS. Moreover, TS blocked the RANKL-triggered TRAF6 expression, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and IκB-α, and inhibited NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Furthermore, TS almost abrogated the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) and c-Fos expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TS suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and inflammatory bone loss via the down-regulation of TRAF6 level, suppression of JNK and p38 MAPKs and NF-κB activation, and subsequent decreased expression of c-Fos and NFATc1. Therefore, TS may be a potential agent and needs to be more evaluated in vivo or in clinical trials to become a therapeutic for lytic bone diseases.

  17. Synergistic activation of NF-{kappa}B by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKK{beta}-I{kappa}B{alpha}, and p38 MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida

    2006-12-15

    In review of the past studies on NF-{kappa}B regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-{kappa}B is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-{kappa}B and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitromore » and in vivo. The classical IKK{beta}-I{kappa}B{alpha} and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-{kappa}B via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-{kappa}B via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.« less

  18. Inhibition of autophagy promotes CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in HepG2 cells via elevated oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction and activation of p38 and JNK MAPK☆

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Defeng; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy has been shown to be protective against drug and alcohol-induced liver injury. CYP2E1 plays a role in the toxicity of ethanol, carcinogens and certain drugs. Inhibition of autophagy increased ethanol-toxicity and accumulation of fat in wild type and CYP2E1 knockin mice but not in CYP2E1 knockout mice as well as in HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 (E47 cells) but not HepG2 cells lacking CYP2E1 (C34 cells). The goal of the current study was to evaluate whether modulation of autophagy can affect CYP2E1-dependent cytotoxicity in the E47 cells. The agents used to promote CYP2E1 –dependent toxicity were a polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid (AA), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes GSH, and CCl4, which is metabolized to the CCl3 radical. These three agents produced a decrease in E47 cell viability which was enhanced upon inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Atg 7 siRNA. Toxicity was lowered by rapamycin which increased autophagy and was much lower to the C34 cells which do not express CYP2E1. Toxicity was mainly necrotic and was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen production and oxidative stress; 3-MA increased while rapamycin blunted the oxidative stress. The enhanced toxicity and ROS formation produced when autophagy was inhibited was prevented by the antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine. AA, BSO and CCl4 produced mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered cellular ATP levels and elevated mitochondrial production of ROS. This mitochondrial dysfunction was enhanced by inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA but decreased when autophagy was increased by rapamycin. The mitogen activated protein kinases p38 MAPK and JNK were activated by AA especially when autophagy was inhibited and chemical inhibitors of p38 MAPK and JNK lowered the elevated toxicity of AA produced by 3-MA. These results show that autophagy was protective against the toxicity produced by several agents known to be activated by CYP2E1. Since CYP2E1 plays an important role

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus alleviates the inflammatory response to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 via inhibition of the NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Longbin; Zhu, Qi; Wang, Wenjie; Qiao, Jiayun

    2016-11-10

    A newly isolated L. acidophilus strain has been reported to have potential anti-inflammatory activities against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in piglet, while the details of the related inflammatory responses are limited. Here we aimed to analysis the ability of L. acidophilus to regulate inflammatory responses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in its anti-inflammatory activity. The ETEC (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) K88-induced up-regulations of IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α were obviously inhibited by L. acidophilus while IL-10 was significantly increased. Moreover, L. acidophilus down-regulated pattern recognition receptors TLR (Toll-like receptor) 2 and TLR4 expression in both spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of ETEC-challenged piglets, in accompanied with the reduced phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 as well in spleen of ETEC-infected piglets. Furthermore, L.acidophilus significantly increased the expression of the negative regulators of TLRs signaling, including Tollip, IRAK-M, A20 and Bcl-3 in spleen of ETEC-challenged piglets. Our findings suggested that L. acidophilus regulated inflammatory response to ETEC via impairing both NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in piglets.

  20. Evaluating the Role of p38 MAPK in the Accelerated Cell Senescence of Werner Syndrome Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terence; Brook, Amy J. C.; Rokicki, Michal J.; Bagley, Mark C.; Kipling, David

    2016-01-01

    Progeroid syndromes show features of accelerated ageing and are used as models for human ageing, of which Werner syndrome (WS) is one of the most widely studied. WS fibroblasts show accelerated senescence that may result from p38 MAP kinase activation since it is prevented by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Thus, small molecule inhibition of p38-signalling may be a therapeutic strategy for WS. To develop this approach issues such as the in vivo toxicity and kinase selectivity of existing p38 inhibitors need to be addressed, so as to strengthen the evidence that p38 itself plays a critical role in mediating the effect of SB203580, and to find an inhibitor suitable for in vivo use. In this work we used a panel of different p38 inhibitors selected for: (1) having been used successfully in vivo in either animal models or human clinical trials; (2) different modes of binding to p38; and (3) different off-target kinase specificity profiles, in order to critically address the role of p38 in the premature senescence seen in WS cells. Our findings confirmed the involvement of p38 in accelerated cell senescence and identified p38 inhibitors suitable for in vivo use in WS, with BIRB 796 the most effective. PMID:27136566

  1. Activation of the MAPK11/12/13/14 (p38 MAPK) pathway regulates the transcription of autophagy genes in response to oxidative stress induced by a novel copper complex in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wu; Zhu, Haichuan; Sheng, Fugeng; Tian, Yonglu; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yingyu; Li, Song; Lin, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Transition metal copper (Cu) can exist in oxidized or reduced states in cells, leading to cytotoxicity in cancer cells through oxidative stress. Recently, copper complexes are emerging as a new class of anticancer compounds. Here, we report that a novel anticancer copper complex (HYF127c/Cu) induces oxidative stress-dependent cell death in cancer cells. Further, transcriptional analysis revealed that oxidative stress elicits broad transcriptional changes of genes, in which autophagy-related genes are significantly changed in HYF127c/Cu-treated cells. Consistently, autophagy was induced in HYF127c/Cu-treated cells and inhibitors of autophagy promoted cell death induced by HYF127c/Cu. Further analysis identified that the MAPK11/12/13/14 (formerly known as p38 MAPK) pathway was also activated in HYF127c/Cu-treated cells. Meanwhile, the MAPK11/12/13/14 inhibitor SB203580 downregulated autophagy by inhibiting the transcription of the autophagy genes MAP1LC3B, BAG3, and HSPA1A, and promoted HYF127c/Cu-induced cell death. These data suggest that copper-induced oxidative stress will induce protective autophagy through transcriptional regulation of autophagy genes by activation of the MAPK11/12/13/14 pathway in HeLa cells.

  2. Metabolic oxidative stress elicited by the copper(II) complex [Cu(isaepy)2] triggers apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells through the induction of the AMP-activated protein kinase/p38MAPK/p53 signalling axis: evidence for a combined use with 3-bromopyruvate in neuroblastoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Filomeni, Giuseppe; Cardaci, Simone; Da Costa Ferreira, Ana Maria; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2011-08-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the complex bis[(2-oxindol-3-ylimino)-2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine-N,N']copper(II), named [Cu(isaepy)(2)], induces AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-dependent/p53-mediated apoptosis in tumour cells by targeting mitochondria. In the present study, we found that p38(MAPK) (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) is the molecular link in the phosphorylation cascade connecting AMPK to p53. Transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK resulted in a decrease in apoptosis and a significant reduction in phospho-active p38(MAPK) and p53. Similarly, reverse genetics of p38(MAPK) yielded a reduction in p53 and a decrease in the extent of apoptosis, confirming an exclusive hierarchy of activation that proceeds via AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53. Fuel supplies counteracted [Cu(isaepy)(2)]-induced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 activation, with glucose being the most effective, suggesting a role for energetic imbalance in [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity. Co-administration of 3BrPA (3-bromopyruvate), a well-known inhibitor of glycolysis, and succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced apoptosis and AMPK/p38(MAPK)/p53 signalling pathway activation. Under these conditions, no toxic effect was observed in SOD (superoxide dismutase)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells or in PCNs (primary cortical neurons), which are, conversely, sensitized to the combined treatment with [Cu(isaepy)(2)] and 3BrPA only if grown in low-glucose medium or incubated with the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone. Overall, the results suggest that NADPH deriving from the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to PCN resistance to [Cu(isaepy)(2)] toxicity and propose its employment in combination with 3BrPA as possible tool for cancer treatment. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  3. Lycorine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing P38 and STATs activation and increases the survival rate of mice after LPS challenge.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jingjing; Zhang, Yushun; Cao, Xiang; Fan, Jie; Li, Guilan; Wang, Qi; Diao, Ying; Zhao, Zhihui; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    As a natural alkaloid extracted from Amaryllidaceae, lycorine shows various biological effects on tumor cells. Here we show that lycorine dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level in RAW264.7 cells. Besides, it also inhibited NO, PGE(2), TNF-α and IL-6 release from LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR experiments showed that lycorine suppressed LPS-induced iNOS but not COX-2 gene expression. Moreover, lycorine decreased LPS-induced mortality in mice. Mechanistically, LPS-induced activation of P38 and STATs pathways was suppressed significantly by lycorine. In addition, lycorine did not interfere with the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and NF-κB pathways. In conclusion, lycorine inhibits LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators and increases the survival rate of mice after LPS challenge, suggesting that lycorine could play an anti-inflammatory role in response to LPS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex-specific control of CNS autoimmunity by p38 MAPK signaling in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Noubade, Rajkumar; Dragon, Julie A.; Otsu, Kinya; Rincon, Mercedes; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by a global increasing incidence driven by relapsing-remitting disease in females. p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) has been described as a key regulator of inflammatory responses in autoimmunity, but its role in the sexual dimorphism in MS or MS models remains unexplored. Methods Toward this end, we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal animal model of MS, combined with pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of p38 MAPK activity and transcriptomic analyses. Results Pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK selectively ameliorated EAE in female mice. Conditional deletion studies demonstrated that p38α signaling in macrophages/myeloid cells, but not T cells or dendritic cells, recapitulated this sexual dimorphism. Analysis of CNS inflammatory infiltrates showed that female, but not male mice lacking p38α in myeloid cells exhibited reduced immune cell activation compared with controls, while peripheral T cell priming was unaffected in both sexes. Transcriptomic analyses of myeloid cells revealed differences in p38α-controlled transcripts comprising female- and male-specific gene modules, with greater p38α dependence of pro-inflammatory gene expression in females. Interpretation Our findings demonstrate a key role for p38α in myeloid cells in CNS autoimmunity and uncover important molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in disease pathogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway represents a novel target for much needed disease modifying therapies for MS. PMID:24027119

  5. Differential interaction of the tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP with the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38alpha is determined by a kinase specificity sequence and influenced by reducing agents.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Juan José; Tárrega, Céline; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Pulido, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP are mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) substrates and regulators that bind to MAPKs through a kinase-interaction motif (KIM) located in their non-catalytic regulatory domains. We have found that the binding of these PTPs to the MAPKs extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and p38alpha is differentially determined by the KIM-adjacent C-terminal regions of the PTPs, which have been termed kinase-specificity sequences, and is influenced by reducing agents. Under control conditions, PTP-SL bound preferentially to ERK1/2, whereas STEP and HePTP bound preferentially to p38alpha. Under reducing conditions, the association of p38alpha with STEP or HePTP was impaired, whereas the association with PTP-SL was unaffected. On the other hand, the association of ERK1/2 with HePTP was increased under reducing conditions, whereas the association with STEP or PTP-SL was unaffected. In intact cells, PTP-SL and STEP distinctively regulated the kinase activity and the nuclear translocation of ERK1/2 and p38alpha. Our results suggest that intracellular redox conditions could modulate the activity and subcellular location of ERK1/2 and p38alpha by controlling their association with their regulatory PTPs. PMID:12583813

  6. Role of spinal p38α and β MAPK in inflammatory hyperalgesia and spinal COX-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Bethany L.; Zattoni, Michela; Svensson, Camilla I.; Steinauer, Joanne; Hua, Xiao-Ying; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological studies indicate that spinal p38 MAPK plays a role in the development of hyperalgesia. We investigated whether either the spinal isoform p38α or p38β is involved in peripheral inflammation-evoked pain state and increased expression of spinal COX-2. Using intrathecal antisense oligonucleotides, we show that hyperalgesia is prevented by downregulation of p38β but not p38α, while increases in spinal COX-2 protein expression at eight hours is mediated by both p38α and β isoforms. These data suggest that early activation of spinal p38β isoform may affect acute facilitatory processing, and both p38β and α isforms mediate temporally delayed upregulation of spinal COX-2. PMID:20134354

  7. The Macrophage Activation Induced by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Protoxin Involves ERK1/2 and p38 Pathways and the Interaction with Cell-Surface-HSP70.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Infante, Nestor; Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado, Damaris; Torres-Martínez, Marilu; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Nava-Acosta, Raúl; González-González, Edith; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2018-01-01

    Here, we aimed to further characterize the mechanisms involved in protoxin (p) Cry1Ac-induced macrophage activation. We demonstrated that pCry1Ac induces MAPK ERK1/2, p38, and JNK phosphorylation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Because MAPK activation is mainly triggered via ligand-receptor interactions, we focused on the identification of potential pCry1Ac-receptor proteins. Flow cytometry and confocal analysis showed specific saturable pCry1Ac-binding to the macrophage surface and evidenced its internalization via the clathrin-pathway. We performed immunoprecipitation assays and identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF several possible pCry1Ac-binding proteins, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), vimentin, α-enolase, and actin; whose interaction and presence was confirmed, respectively, by ligand blot and Western blot assays. We also detected cell-surface (cs) pCry1Ac-HSP70 colocalization, so HSP70 was chosen for further characterization. Co-immunoprecipitation with HSP70 antibodies followed by Western blot confirmed the pCry1Ac-HSP70 interaction. Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with HSP70 antibodies reduced pCry1Ac-induced ERK1 phosphorylation and MCP-1 production; thus suggest the functional participation of csHSP70 in pCry1Ac-induced macrophage activation. csHSP70 also was evaluated in peritoneal-cavity (PerC) macrophages of untreated BALB/c mice, interestingly it was found that the predominant population namely large-peritoneal-macrophages (LPM) displayed csHSP70 + hi. Furthermore, the dynamics of PerC macrophage subsets, LPM, and small-peritoneal macrophages (SPM) were evaluated in response to in vivo pCry1Ac stimuli in presence or not of phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) a functional HSP70 inhibitor. It was found that pCry1Ac increased the proportion of SPM CD11b + F4/80 + lowMHCII + csHSP70 + low and markedly reduced the amount of LPM CD11b + F4/80 + hiMHCII-csHSP70 + hi; while PES, partially suppressed this pCry1Ac-induced effect

  8. Species Comparison of the Role of p38 MAP Kinase in the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Marusak, Rosemary A; Morris, Dale L

    2009-06-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are members of discrete signal transduction pathways that have significant regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes, depending on the cell, tissue and organ type. p38 MAPKs are involved in inflammation, cell growth and differentiation and cell cycle. In the female reproductive system, p38 MAPKs are known to regulate various aspects of the reproductive process such as mammalian estrous and menstrual cycles as well as early pregnancy and parturition. p38 MAPKs have also been implicated in alterations and pathologies observed in the female reproductive system. Therefore, pharmacologic modulation of p38 MAPKs, and inter-connected signaling pathways (e.g., estrogen receptor signaling, c-fos, c-jun), may influence reproductive physiology and function. This article provides a critical, comparative review of available data on the roles of p38 MAPKs in the mammalian female reproductive system and in reproductive pathophysiology in humans and preclinical species. We first introduce fundamental differences and similarities of the mammalian female reproductive system that should be considered by toxicologists and toxicologic pathologists when assessing the effects of new pharmacologic agents on the female reproductive system. We then explore in detail the known roles for p38 MAPKs and related molecules in female reproduction. This foundation is then extended to pathological conditions in which p38 MAPKs are thought to play an integral role.

  9. The P38alpha and P38delta MAP kinases may be gene therapy targets in the future treatment of severe burns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyun; Huang, Qiaobing; Guo, Xiaohua; Brunk, Ulf T; Han, Jiahuai; Zhao, Keseng; Zhao, Ming

    2010-08-01

    Microvascular barrier damage, induced by thermal injury, imposes life-threatening problems owing to the pathophysiological consequences of plasma loss and impaired perfusion that finally may lead to multiple organ failure. The aim of the present study was to define the signaling role of selected mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in general vessel hyperpermeability caused by burns and to look for a potential gene therapy. Rearrangement of cytoskeletons and cell tight junctions were evaluated by phalloidin labeling of actin and immunocytochemical demonstration of the ZO-1 protein, whereas blood vessel permeability was evaluated by a fluorescence ratio technique. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 largely blocked burn serum-induced stress-fiber formation and tight-junction damage. Using the adenoviral approach to transfect dominant negative forms of p38 MAPKs, we found that p38alpha and p38delta had similar effects. The in vivo part of the study showed that transfection of these two constructs significantly lowered general venular hyperpermeability and enhanced the survival of burned animals. Because the p38 MAPK pathway seems to play a crucial role in burn-induced vascular hyperpermeability, general transfection with p38 MAP dominant negative constructs might become a new therapeutic method to block burn-induced plasma leakage.

  10. Kupffer Cell p38 MAPK Signaling Drives Post Burn Hepatic Damage and Pulmonary Inflammation when Alcohol Intoxication Precedes Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael M.; O’Halloran, Eileen B.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that alcohol intoxication at the time of injury worsens post-burn outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the role and mechanism of Kupffer cell derangement in exacerbating post-burn end organ damage in alcohol exposed mice. Design Interventional study. Setting Research Institute. Subjects Male C57BL/6 mice. Interventions Alcohol administered 30 minutes before a 15% scald burn injury. Antecedent Kupffer cell depletion with clodronate liposomes (0.5 mg/kg). p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition via SB203580 (10 mg/kg). Measurements and Main Results Kupffer cells were isolated 24 hours after injury and analyzed for p38 activity and IL-6 production. Intoxicated burned mice demonstrated a 2-fold (p<0.05) elevation of Kupffer cell p38 activation relative to either insult alone and this corresponded to a 43% (p<0.05) increase in IL-6 production. Depletion of Kupffer cells attenuated hepatic damage as seen by decreases of 53% (p<0.05) in serum ALT and 74% (p<0.05) in hepatic triglycerides, as well as a 77% reduction (p<0.05) in serum IL-6 levels compared to matched controls. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 54% decrease (p<0.05) in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and reduced alveolar wall thickening by 45% (p<0.05). In vivo p38 inhibition conferred nearly identical hepatic and pulmonary protection after the combined injury as mice depleted of Kupffer cells. Conclusions Intoxication exacerbates post-burn hepatic damage through p38-dependent IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. PMID:27322363

  11. P38 delta MAPK promotes breast cancer progression and lung metastasis by enhancing cell proliferation and cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Wada, M; Canals, D; Adada, M; Coant, N; Salama, M F; Helke, K L; Arthur, J S; Shroyer, K R; Kitatani, K; Obeid, L M; Hannun, Y A

    2017-11-23

    The protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) delta isoform (p38δ) is a poorly studied member of the MAPK family. Data analysis from The Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that p38δ is highly expressed in all types of human breast cancers. Using a human breast cancer tissue array, we confirmed elevation in cancer tissue. The breast cancer mouse model, MMTV-PyMT (PyMT), developed breast tumors with lung metastasis; however, mice deleted in p38δ (PyMT/p38δ -/- ) exhibited delayed primary tumor formation and highly reduced lung metastatic burden. At the cellular level, we demonstrate that targeting of p38δ in breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 resulted in a reduced rate of cell proliferation. In addition, cells lacking p38δ also displayed an increased cell-matrix adhesion and reduced cell detachment. This effect on cell adhesion was molecularly supported by the regulation of the focal adhesion kinase by p38δ in the human breast cell lines. These studies define a previously unappreciated role for p38δ in breast cancer development and evolution by regulating tumor growth and altering metastatic properties. This study proposes MAPK p38δ protein as a key factor in breast cancer. Lack of p38δ resulted in reduced primary tumor size and blocked the metastatic potential to the lungs.

  12. p38β, A novel regulatory target of Pokemon in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Cao, Deliang; Liu, Min; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2013-06-27

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38β, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38β protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38β is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells.

  13. p38β, A Novel Regulatory Target of Pokemon in Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Cao, Deliang; Liu, Min; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38β, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38β protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38β is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells. PMID:23807508

  14. The role of p38 in mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaohua; Wen, Yi; Metzger, Daniel; Jung, Marianna

    2013-06-07

    p38 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase and mediates cell growth, cell differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which p38 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice under a normal condition. To achieve this aim, we have generated transgenic mice that lack p38 in cerebellar Purkinje neurons by crossing Pcp2 (Purkinje cell protein 2)-Cre mice with p38(loxP/loxP) mice. Mitochondria from cerebellum were then isolated from the transgenic and wild-type mice to measure mitochondrial respiration using XF24 respirometer. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in cerebellum were also measured using RT-PCR and immunoblot methods. Separately, HT22 cells were used to determine the involvement of 17β-estradiol (E2) and COX in mitochondrial respiration. The genetic knockout of p38 in Purkinje neurons suppressed the mitochondrial respiration only in male mice and increased COX expression only in female mice. The inhibition of COX by sodium azide (SA) sharply suppressed mitochondrial respiration of HT22 cells in a manner that was protected by E2. These data suggest that p38 is required for the mitochondrial respiration of male mice. When p38 is below a normal level, females may maintain mitochondrial respiration through COX up-regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glutamate-dependent transcriptional regulation in bergmann glia cells: involvement of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Rossana C; Barrera, Iliana; Castelán, Francisco; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa C; López-Bayghen, Esther; Ortega, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) are present in neurons and glial cells and are involved in gene expression regulation. Mitogen-activated proteins kinases (MAPK) are critical for all the membrane to nuclei signaling pathways described so far. In cerebellar Bergmann glial cells, glutamate-dependent transcriptional regulation is partially dependent on p42/44 MAPK activity. Another member of this kinase family, p38 MAPK is activated by non-mitogenic stimuli through its Thr180/Tyr182 phosphorylation and phosphorylates cytoplasmic and nuclear protein targets involved in translational and transcriptional events. Taking into consideration that the role of p38MAPK in glial cells is not well understood, we demonstrate here that glutamate increases p38 MAPK phosphorylation in a time and dose dependent manner in cultured chick cerebellar Bergmann glial cells (BGC). Moreover, p38 MAPK is involved in the glutamate-induced transcriptional activation in these cells. Ionotropic as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors participate in p38 MAPK activation. The present findings demonstrate the involvement of p38 MAPK in glutamate-dependent gene expression regulation in glial cells.

  16. Human Th17 Migration in Three-Dimensional Collagen Involves p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Kadiri, Maleck; El Azreq, Mohammed-Amine; Berrazouane, Sofiane; Boisvert, Marc; Aoudjit, Fawzi

    2017-09-01

    T cell migration across extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step of the adaptive immune response but is also involved in the development of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Currently, the molecular mechanisms regulating the motility of effector T cells in ECM are not fully understood. Activation of p38 MAPK has been implicated in T cell activation and is critical to the development of immune and inflammatory responses. In this study, we examined the implication of p38 MAPK in regulating the migration of human Th17 cells through collagen. Using specific inhibitor and siRNA, we found that p38 is necessary for human Th17 migration in three-dimensional (3D) collagen and that 3D collagen increases p38 phosphorylation. We also provide evidence that the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), which promotes Th17 migration in 3D collagen, is involved in p38 activation. Together, our findings suggest that targeting DDR1/p38 MAPK pathway could be beneficial for the treatment of Th17-mediated inflammatory diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2819-2827, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Sensitive to Selective p38 Pathway Inhibition | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most-common cancer of the pancreas, is an aggressive disease that is estimated by the American Cancer Society to be the fourth leading cause of cancer death in men and women in 2015. Like most solid tumors, PDAC is surrounded by an inflammatory microenvironment containing numerous infiltrating immune cells. These cells are unable to eliminate the tumor and instead create a hospitable environment by providing tumor growth-promoting cytokines, the production of which lies downstream of the kinase p38. Unlike most immune cells, which use the classical pathway to activate p38, T cells employ an alternative p38 pathway that involves phosphorylation of tyrosine 323 (pY323) by the T cell receptor. Jonathan Ashwell, M.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology and his colleagues decided to assess the role of the alternative p38 pathway in pancreatic cancer.

  18. p38α MAPK Is Required for Tooth Morphogenesis and Enamel Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Matthew B.; Kim, Jung-Min; Oh, Hwanhee; Park, Kwang Hwan; Choo, Min-Kyung; Sano, Yasuyo; Tye, Coralee E.; Skobe, Ziedonis; Davis, Roger J.; Park, Jin Mo; Bei, Marianna; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Shim, Jae-Hyuck

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of the molecular pathways that drive tooth morphogenesis and enamel secretion is needed to generate teeth from organ cultures for therapeutic implantation or to determine the pathogenesis of primary disorders of dentition (Abdollah, S., Macias-Silva, M., Tsukazaki, T., Hayashi, H., Attisano, L., and Wrana, J. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 27678–27685). Here we present a novel ectodermal dysplasia phenotype associated with conditional deletion of p38α MAPK in ectodermal appendages using K14-cre mice (p38αK14 mice). These mice display impaired patterning of dental cusps and a profound defect in the production and biomechanical strength of dental enamel because of defects in ameloblast differentiation and activity. In the absence of p38α, expression of amelogenin and β4-integrin in ameloblasts and p21 in the enamel knot was significantly reduced. Mice lacking the MAP2K MKK6, but not mice lacking MAP2K MKK3, also show the enamel defects, implying that MKK6 functions as an upstream kinase of p38α in ectodermal appendages. Lastly, stimulation with BMP2/7 in both explant culture and an ameloblast cell line confirm that p38α functions downstream of BMPs in this context. Thus, BMP-induced activation of the p38α MAPK pathway is critical for the morphogenesis of tooth cusps and the secretion of dental enamel. PMID:25406311

  19. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2014-07-10

    Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the signaling mechanisms involve an

  20. Characterization of p38 MAPK isoforms for drug resistance study using systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huiming; Peng, Tao; Wen, Jianguo; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Su, Jing; Zhang, Le; Chang, Chung-Che Jeff; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-07-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic cytotoxic drugs in treating multiple myeloma (MM). However, how the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in drug resistance, in particular the roles that the various p38 isoforms play, remains largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we developed a novel systems biology approach by integrating liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein array data from human MM cell lines with computational pathway models in which the unknown parameters were inferred using a proposed novel algorithm called modularized factor graph. New mechanisms predicted by our models suggest that combined activation of various p38 isoforms may result in drug resistance in MM via regulating the related pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and NFкB pathway. ERK pathway regulating cell growth is synergistically regulated by p38δ isoform, whereas nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB) pathway regulating cell apoptosis is synergistically regulated by p38α isoform. This finding that p38δ isoform promotes the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MM cells treated with bortezomib was validated by western blotting. Based on the predicted mechanisms, we further screened drug combinations in silico and found that a promising drug combination targeting ERK1/2 and NFκB might reduce the effects of drug resistance in MM cells. This study provides a framework of a systems biology approach to studying drug resistance and drug combination selection. RPPA experimental Data and Matlab source codes of modularized factor graph for parameter estimation are freely available online at http://ctsb.is.wfubmc.edu/publications/modularized-factor-graph.php. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The p38 pathway, a major pleiotropic cascade that transduces stress and metastatic signals in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Isabelle; Paris, François; Huot, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    By gating the traffic of molecules and cells across the vessel wall, endothelial cells play a central role in regulating cardiovascular functions and systemic homeostasis and in modulating pathophysiological processes such as inflammation and immunity. Accordingly, the loss of endothelial cell integrity is associated with pathological disorders that include atherosclerosis and cancer. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are major signaling pathways that regulate several functions of endothelial cells in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli including growth factors, stress and cytokines. The p38 MAPK family contains four isoforms p38α, p38β, p38γ and p38δ that are encoded by four different genes. They are all widely expressed although to different levels in almost all human tissues. p38α/MAPK14, that is ubiquitously expressed is the prototype member of the family and is referred here as p38. It regulates the production of inflammatory mediators, and controls cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and survival. Its activation in endothelial cells leads to actin remodeling, angiogenesis, DNA damage response and thereby has major impact on cardiovascular homeostasis, and on cancer progression. In this manuscript, we review the biology of p38 in regulating endothelial functions especially in response to oxidative stress and during the metastatic process. PMID:28903453

  2. p38 phosphorylation in medullary microglia mediates ectopic orofacial inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyomoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Nakaya, Yuka; Dezawa, Ko; Katagiri, Ayano; Kamakura, Satoshi; Inoue, Tomio; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-08-12

    Orofacial inflammatory pain is likely to accompany referred pain in uninflamed orofacial structures. The ectopic pain precludes precise diagnosis and makes treatment problematic, because the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Using the established ectopic orofacial pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into trapezius muscle, we analyzed the possible role of p38 phosphorylation in activated microglia in ectopic orofacial pain. Mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin was induced following trapezius muscle inflammation, which accompanied microglial activation with p38 phosphorylation and hyperexcitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Intra-cisterna successive administration of a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase selective inhibitor, SB203580, suppressed microglial activation and its phosphorylation of p38. Moreover, SB203580 administration completely suppressed mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin and enhanced WDR neuronal excitability in Vc. Microglial interleukin-1β over-expression in Vc was induced by trapezius muscle inflammation, which was significantly suppressed by SB203580 administration. These findings indicate that microglia, activated via p38 phosphorylation, play a pivotal role in WDR neuronal hyperexcitability, which accounts for the mechanical hypersensitivity in the lateral facial skin associated with trapezius muscle inflammation.

  3. The MAP kinase pathway is involved in odontoblast stimulation via p38 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Stephane; Smith, Anthony J; Berdal, Ariane; Lumley, Philip J; Cooper, Paul R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown that the p38 gene is highly expressed in odontoblasts during active primary dentinogenesis, but is drastically down-regulated as cells become quiescent in secondary dentinogenesis. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that p38 expression might be upregulated, and the protein activated by phosphorylation, when odontoblasts are stimulated such as during tertiary reactionary dentinogenesis. We stimulated immortalized, odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells, alone or in combination, with heat-inactivated Streptococcus mutans, EDTA-extracted dentine matrix proteins (DMPs), or growth factors, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and adrenomedullin (ADM). We used ELISA to measure the resulting phosphorylation of the p38 protein, as well as its degree of nuclear translocation. Our results suggest that the p38-MAPKinase pathway is activated during odontoblast stimulation in tertiary dentinogenesis by both p38 phosphorylation and enhanced nuclear translocation. Data indicate that odontoblast behaviour therefore potentially recapitulates that during active primary dentinogenesis. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  4. Pirfenidone inhibits p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticles by human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Lombardi, Stefania; Faìta, Francesca; Petrini, Silvia; Balìa, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a drug recently approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but its mechanisms of action are partially unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contain procoagulant microparticles that activate coagulation factor X to its active form, Xa, a proteinase that signals fibroblast growth and differentiation, thus potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. We also reported that in vitro exposure of human alveolar cells to H2O2 causes microparticle generation. Since p38 activation is involved in microparticle generation in some cell models and p38 inhibition is one of the mechanisms of action of pirfenidone, we investigated the hypothesis that H2O2-induced generation of microparticles by alveolar cells is dependent on p38 phosphorylation and is inhibited by pirfenidone. H2O2 stimulation of alveolar cells caused p38 phosphorylation that was inhibited by pirfenidone. The drug also inhibited H2O2 induced microparticle generation as assessed by two independent methods (solid phase thrombin generation and flow cytometry). The shedding of microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was also inhibited by pirfenidone. Inhibition of p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticle is a previously unrecognized mechanism of action of the antifibrotic drug, pirfenidone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oestrogen exerts anti-inflammation via p38 MAPK/NF-κB cascade in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Pan-Wei; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Man-Man; Chen, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Shu-Hui; Tan, Zhi; Jiang, Wei; Zeng, Long-Yi; Wang, Ting-Huai

    Oestrogen has anti-inflammatory property in obesity. However, the mechanism is still not defined. To investigate the effect of oestrogen on LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in adipocytes. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used to imitate inflammatory responses and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was selected as an inflammatory marker to observe. 17β-Estradiol (E 2 ), SB203580 (SB), pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), pertussis toxin (PTX), wortmannin (WM), p65 siRNA and p38 MAPK siRNA were pre-treated respectively or together in LPS-induced MCP-1. Then p38 MAPK and NF-κB cascade were silenced successively to observe the change of each other. Lastly, oestrogen receptor (ER) α agonist, ERβ agonist and ER antagonist were utilised. LPS-induced MCP-1 largely impaired by pre-treatment with E 2 , SB, PDTC or silencing NF-κB subunit. E 2 inhibited LPS-induced MCP-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was related to the suppression of p65 translocation to nucleus. Furthermore, LPS rapidly activated p38 MAPK, while E 2 markedly inhibited this activation. It markedly attenuated LPS-stimulated p65 translocation to nucleus and MCP-1 production by transfecting with p38 MAPK siRNA or using p38 MAPK inhibitor. The oestrogen's inhibitory effect was mimicked by the ERα agonist, but not by the ERβ agonist. The inhibition of E 2 on p38 MAPK phosphorylation was prevented by ER antagonist. E 2 inhibits LPS-stimulated MCP-1 in adipocytes. This effect is related to the inhibition of p38 MAPK/NF-κB cascade, and ERα appears to be the dominant ER subtype in these events. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human prostate luminal cell differentiation requires NOTCH3 induction by p38-MAPK and MYC.

    PubMed

    Frank, Sander B; Berger, Penny L; Ljungman, Mats; Miranti, Cindy K

    2017-06-01

    Many pathways dysregulated in prostate cancer are also involved in epithelial differentiation. To better understand prostate tumor initiation, we sought to investigate specific genes and mechanisms required for normal basal to luminal cell differentiation. Utilizing human prostate basal epithelial cells and an in vitro differentiation model, we tested the hypothesis that regulation of NOTCH3 by the p38 MAPK family (hereafter p38-MAPK), via MYC, is required for luminal differentiation. Inhibition (SB202190 and BIRB796) or knockdown of p38α (also known as MAPK14) and/or p38δ (also known as MAPK13) prevented proper differentiation. Additionally, treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor (RO4929097) or knockdown of NOTCH1 and/or NOTCH3 greatly impaired differentiation and caused luminal cell death. Constitutive p38-MAPK activation through MKK6(CA) increased NOTCH3 (but not NOTCH1) mRNA and protein levels, which was diminished upon MYC inhibition (10058-F4 and JQ1) or knockdown. Furthermore, we validated two NOTCH3 enhancer elements through a combination of enhancer (e)RNA detection (BruUV-seq) and luciferase reporter assays. Finally, we found that the NOTCH3 mRNA half-life increased during differentiation or upon acute p38-MAPK activation. These results reveal a new connection between p38-MAPK, MYC and NOTCH signaling, demonstrate two mechanisms of NOTCH3 regulation and provide evidence for NOTCH3 involvement in prostate luminal cell differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Construction of 4D-QSAR Models for Use in the Design of Novel p38-MAPK Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeiro, Nelilma Correia; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Ravi, Malini; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2005-06-01

    The p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) plays a key role in lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) release during the inflammatory process, emerging as an attractive target for new anti-inflammatory agents. Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis [Hopfinger et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119 (1997) 10509] was applied to a series of 33 (a training set of 28 and a test set of 5) pyridinyl-imidazole and pyrimidinyl-imidazole inhibitors of p38-MAPK, with IC50 ranging from 0.11 to 2100 nM [Liverton et al., J. Med. Chem., 42 (1999) 2180]. Five thousand conformations of each analogue were sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) during 50 ps at a constant temperature of 303 K. Each conformation was placed in a 2 Å grid cell lattice for each of three trial alignments. 4D-QSAR models were constructed by genetic algorithm (GA) optimization and partial least squares (PLS) fitting, and evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation technique. In the best models, with three to six terms, the adjusted cross-validated squared correlation coefficients, Q 2 adj, ranged from 0.67 to 0.85. Model D ( Q 2 adj = 0.84) was identified as the most robust model from alignment 1, and it is representative of the other best models. This model encompasses new molecular regions as containing pharmacophore sites, such as the amino-benzyl moiety of pyrimidine analogs and the N1-substituent in the imidazole ring. These regions of the ligands should be further explored to identify better anti-inflammatory inhibitors of p38-MAPK.

  8. P38/TRHr-Dependent Regulation of TPO in Thyroid Cells Contributes to the Hypothyroidism of Triclosan-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Yang, Min; Zeng, Li; Liu, Changjiang

    2018-01-01

    Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs). To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474), or TRHr siRNA. Tissues and/or cells were analyzed by several techniques including transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, gene silencing, western blot, and real-time PCR. Triclosan led to histopathologic changes in the thyroid and decreases in triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Triclosan stimulated ROS production and oxidative stress occurrence, thereby activating the p38 pathway in vivo and in vitro. Thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr) was induced when the p38 pathway was activated, and was suppressed when that pathway was inhibited. Moreover, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) was restrained and modulated by the p38/TRHr pathway after triclosan treatment. Furthermore, deiodinase 3 (D3) and hepatic enzymes (Ugt2b1, CYP1a1, CYP1a2, CYP2b1, CYP3a1, and Sult1e1) were also induced by triclosan. Taken together, p38/TRHr-dependent regulation of TPO in thyroid cells contributes to the hypothyroidism of triclosan-treated rats. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Crosstalk between p38, Hsp25 and Akt in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashov, A. K.; Ul Haq, I.; Hill, C.; Park, E.; Smith, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Goldberg, D. J.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The p38 stress-activated protein kinase pathway is involved in regulation of phosphorylation of Hsp25, which in turn regulates actin filament dynamic in non-neuronal cells. We report that p38, Hsp25 and Akt signaling pathways were specifically activated in spinal motor neurons after sciatic nerve axotomy. The activation of the p38 kinase was required for induction of Hsp25 expression. Furthermore, Hsp25 formed a complex with Akt, a member of PI-3 kinase pathway that prevents neuronal cell death. Together, our observations implicate Hsp25 as a central player in a complex system of signaling that may both promote regeneration of nerve fibers and prevent neuronal cell death in the injured spinal cord.

  10. Involvement of p38 MAPK- and JNK-modulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Naja nigricollis CMS-9-induced apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Chang, Long-Sen

    2010-06-15

    CMS-9, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isolated from Naja nigricollis venom, induced apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells, characterized by mitochondrial depolarization, modulation of Bcl-2 family members, cytochrome c release and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Moreover, an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was noted. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, ROS scavenger) proved that Ca2+ was an upstream event in inducing ROS generation. Upon exposure to CMS-9, activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was observed in K562 cells. BAPTA-AM or NAC abrogated CMS-9-elicited p38 MAPK and JNK activation, and rescued viability of CMS-9-treated K562 cells. SB202190 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) suppressed CMS-9-induced dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bcl-2 down-regulation, Bax up-regulation and increased mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Inactivation of PLA(2) activity reduced drastically the cytotoxicity of CMS-9, and a combination of lysophosphatidylcholine and stearic acid mimicked the cytotoxic effects of CMS-9. Taken together, our data suggest that CMS-9-induced apoptosis of K562 cells is catalytic activity-dependent and is mediated through mitochondria-mediated death pathway triggered by Ca2+/ROS-evoked p38 MAPK and JNK activation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estrogen suppresses breast cancer proliferation through GPER / p38 MAPK axis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sathya, S; Sudhagar, S; Lakshmi, B S

    2015-12-05

    Breast cancer cells frequently experience hypoxia which is associated with resistance to hormonal therapy and poor clinical prognosis, making it important to understand the function of estrogen under hypoxic condition. Here, we demonstrate that estrogen suppresses breast cancer cell growth under hypoxia, through inhibition at G1/S phase of cell cycle, by elevation of p21 expression. The involvement of GPER in estrogen mediated growth arrest was elucidated using specific ligands and siRNA. Although, estrogen was observed to activate both p44/42 and p38 MAPK signaling, pharmacological inhibition and silencing of p38 MAPK abrogated the induction of p21 expression and growth arrest, during hypoxia. The involvement of estrogen induced ROS in the p38 MAPK mediated p21 expression and cell growth arrest was established by observing that scavenging of ROS by NAC abrogated p38 MAPK activation and p21 expression during hypoxia. In conclusion, Estrogen suppresses breast cancer growth by inhibiting G1/S phase transition through GPER/ROS/p38 MAPK/p21 mediated signaling during hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CD14 Signaling Restrains Chronic Inflammation through Induction of p38-MAPK/SOCS-Dependent Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Bikash; Patsey, Rebeca L.; Eggers, Christian H.; Salazar, Juan C.; Radolf, Justin D.; Sellati, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Current thinking emphasizes the primacy of CD14 in facilitating recognition of microbes by certain TLRs to initiate pro-inflammatory signaling events and the importance of p38-MAPK in augmenting such responses. Herein, this paradigm is challenged by demonstrating that recognition of live Borrelia burgdorferi not only triggers an inflammatory response in the absence of CD14, but one that is, in part, a consequence of altered PI3K/AKT/p38-MAPK signaling and impaired negative regulation of TLR2. CD14 deficiency results in increased localization of PI3K to lipid rafts, hyperphosphorylation of AKT, and reduced activation of p38. Such aberrant signaling leads to decreased negative regulation by SOCS1, SOCS3, and CIS, thereby compromising the induction of tolerance in macrophages and engendering more severe and persistent inflammatory responses to B. burgdorferi. Importantly, these altered signaling events and the higher cytokine production observed can be mimicked through shRNA and pharmacological inhibition of p38 activity in CD14-expressing macrophages. Perturbation of this CD14/p38-MAPK-dependent immune regulation may underlie development of infectious chronic inflammatory syndromes. PMID:20011115

  13. Tumor p38MAPK signaling enhances breast carcinoma vascularization and growth by promoting expression and deposition of pro-tumorigenic factors.

    PubMed

    Limoge, Michelle; Safina, Alfiya; Truskinovsky, Alexander M; Aljahdali, Ieman; Zonneville, Justin; Gruevski, Aleksandar; Arteaga, Carlos L; Bakin, Andrei V

    2017-09-22

    The breast carcinoma microenvironment strikingly influences cancer progression and response to therapy. Various cell types in the carcinoma microenvironment show significant activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), although the role of p38MAPK in breast cancer progression is still poorly understood. The present study examined the contribution of tumor p38MAPK to breast carcinoma microenvironment and metastatic capacity. Inactivation of p38MAPK signaling in metastatic breast carcinoma cells was achieved by forced expression of the kinase-inactive mutant of p38/MAPK14 (a dominant-negative p38, dn-p38). Disruption of tumor p38MAPK signaling reduced growth and metastases of breast carcinoma xenografts. Importantly, dn-p38 markedly decreased tumor blood-vessel density and lumen sizes. Mechanistic studies revealed that p38 controls expression of pro-angiogenic extracellular factors such as matrix protein Fibronectin and cytokines VEGFA, IL8, and HBEGF. Tumor-associated fibroblasts enhanced tumor growth and vasculature as well as increased expression of the pro-angiogenic factors. These effects were blunted by dn-p38. Metadata analysis showed elevated expression of p38 target genes in breast cancers and this was an unfavorable marker of disease recurrence and poor-outcome. Thus, our study demonstrates that tumor p38MAPK signaling promotes breast carcinoma growth, invasive and metastatic capacities. Importantly, p38 enhances carcinoma vascularization by facilitating expression and deposition of pro-angiogenic factors. These results argue that p38MAPK is a valuable target for anticancer therapy affecting tumor vasculature. Anti-p38 drugs may provide new therapeutic strategies against breast cancer, including metastatic disease.

  14. Tumor p38MAPK signaling enhances breast carcinoma vascularization and growth by promoting expression and deposition of pro-tumorigenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Limoge, Michelle; Safina, Alfiya; Truskinovsky, Alexander M.; Aljahdali, Ieman; Zonneville, Justin; Gruevski, Aleksandar; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Bakin, Andrei V.

    2017-01-01

    The breast carcinoma microenvironment strikingly influences cancer progression and response to therapy. Various cell types in the carcinoma microenvironment show significant activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), although the role of p38MAPK in breast cancer progression is still poorly understood. The present study examined the contribution of tumor p38MAPK to breast carcinoma microenvironment and metastatic capacity. Inactivation of p38MAPK signaling in metastatic breast carcinoma cells was achieved by forced expression of the kinase-inactive mutant of p38/MAPK14 (a dominant-negative p38, dn-p38). Disruption of tumor p38MAPK signaling reduced growth and metastases of breast carcinoma xenografts. Importantly, dn-p38 markedly decreased tumor blood-vessel density and lumen sizes. Mechanistic studies revealed that p38 controls expression of pro-angiogenic extracellular factors such as matrix protein Fibronectin and cytokines VEGFA, IL8, and HBEGF. Tumor-associated fibroblasts enhanced tumor growth and vasculature as well as increased expression of the pro-angiogenic factors. These effects were blunted by dn-p38. Metadata analysis showed elevated expression of p38 target genes in breast cancers and this was an unfavorable marker of disease recurrence and poor-outcome. Thus, our study demonstrates that tumor p38MAPK signaling promotes breast carcinoma growth, invasive and metastatic capacities. Importantly, p38 enhances carcinoma vascularization by facilitating expression and deposition of pro-angiogenic factors. These results argue that p38MAPK is a valuable target for anticancer therapy affecting tumor vasculature. Anti-p38 drugs may provide new therapeutic strategies against breast cancer, including metastatic disease. PMID:28977919

  15. Chronic ethanol exposure enhances the aggressiveness of breast cancer: the role of p38γ

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mei; Wang, Siying; Ren, Zhenhua; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Zhang, Zhuo; Ke, Zun-ji; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that ethanol may enhance aggressiveness of breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that short term exposure to ethanol (12–48 hours) increased migration/invasion in breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB2, but not in breast cancer cells with low expression of ErbB2, such as MCF7, BT20 and T47D breast cancer cells. In this study, we showed that chronic ethanol exposure transformed breast cancer cells that were not responsive to short term ethanol treatment to a more aggressive phenotype. Chronic ethanol exposure (10 days - 2 months) at 100 (22 mM) or 200 mg/dl (44 mM) caused the scattering of MCF7, BT20 and T47D cell colonies in a 3-dimension culture system. Chronic ethanol exposure also increased colony formation in an anchorage-independent condition and stimulated cell invasion/migration. Chronic ethanol exposure increased cancer stem-like cell (CSC) population by more than 20 folds. Breast cancer cells exposed to ethanol in vitro displayed a much higher growth rate and metastasis in mice. Ethanol selectively activated p38γ MAPK and RhoC but not p38α/β in a concentration-dependent manner. SP-MCF7 cells, a derivative of MCF7 cells which compose mainly CSC expressed high levels of phosphorylated p38γ MAPK. Knocking-down p38γ MAPK blocked ethanol-induced RhoC activation, cell scattering, invasion/migration and ethanol-increased CSC population. Furthermore, knocking-down p38γ MAPK mitigated ethanol-induced tumor growth and metastasis in mice. These results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure can enhance the aggressiveness of breast cancer by activating p38γ MAPK/RhoC pathway. PMID:26655092

  16. Keratinocyte p38δ loss inhibits Ras-induced tumor formation, while systemic p38δ loss enhances skin inflammation in the early phase of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Alexi; Koppel, Aaron C; Anders, Joanna; Cataisson, Christophe; Yuspa, Stuart H; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Efimova, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    p38δ expression and/or activity are increased in human cutaneous malignancies, including invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and head and neck SCC, but the role of p38δ in cutaneous carcinogenesis has not been well-defined. We have reported that mice with germline loss of p38δ exhibited a reduced susceptibility to skin tumor development compared with wild-type mice in the two-stage 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) chemical skin carcinogenesis model. Here, we report that p38δ gene ablation inhibited the growth of tumors generated from v-ras(Ha) -transformed keratinocytes in skin orthografts to nude mice, indicating that keratinocyte-intrinsic p38δ is required for Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Gene expression profiling of v-ras(Ha) -transformed p38δ-null keratinocytes revealed transcriptional changes associated with cellular responses linked to tumor suppression, such as reduced proliferation and increased differentiation, cell adhesion, and cell communications. Notably, a short-term DMBA/TPA challenge, modeling the initial stages of chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment, elicited an enhanced inflammation in p38δ-null skin compared with skin of wild-type mice, as assessed by measuring the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNFα. Additionally, p38δ-null skin and p38δ-null keratinocytes exhibited increased p38α activation and signaling in response to acute inflammatory challenges, suggesting a role for p38α in stimulating the elevated inflammatory response in p38δ-null skin during the initial phases of the DMBA/TPA treatment compared with similarly treated p38δ(+/+) skin. Altogether, our results indicate that p38δ signaling regulates skin carcinogenesis not only by keratinocyte cell-autonomous mechanisms, but also by influencing the interaction between between the epithelial compartment of the developing skin tumor and its stromal microenvironment. © 2015 Wiley

  17. Naringin protects ultraviolet B-induced skin damage by regulating p38 MAPK signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaolin; Shi, Yuling; Zhao, Di; Xu, Mengyu; Li, Xiaolong; Dang, Yongyan; Ye, Xiyun

    2016-05-01

    Naringin is a bioflavonoid and has free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined the effects of naringin on skin after ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) irradiation and the signal pathways by in vitro and in vivo assay. HaCaT cells pretreated with naringin significantly inhibited UVB induced-cell apoptosis and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in HaCaT cells pretreated with naringin were decreased compared with the only UVB group. Also, the activation of p38 induced by UVB in HaCaT cells was reversed by naringin treatments. The inhibition function of naringin on p38 activity was more obvious than JNK. In vivo, topical treatments with naringin prevented the increase of epidermal thickness, IL-6 production, cell apoptosis and the overexpression of COX-2 in BALB/c mice skin irradiated with UVB. Naringin treatment also markedly blocked the activation of p38 in response to UVB stimulation in the mouse skin. Naringin can effectively protect against UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin damage by inhibiting ROS production, COX-2 overexpression and strong inflammation reactions. It seemed that naringin played its role against UVB-induced skin damage through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p38 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of P38MAPK signal transduction pathway on apoptosis of THP-1 induced by allicin].

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang; Chen, Jianbin; Tang, Weixue; Ge, Qunfang; Lu, Qianwei; Yang, Zesong

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the change of P38MAPK and Fas in the apoptosis of THP-1 cells induced by allicin. The proliferation inhibition rates of THP-1 cells after various treatments were examined by MTT assay. Apoptosis rate was determined with Annexin V- FITC/PI double staining by flow cytometry. The expression and distribution change of the phosphorylation p38MAPK (P-p38MAPK) were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The changes of P-p38 MAPK and Fas proteins were detected by Western blot. The proliferations of leukemia cell line THP-1 are inhibited by allicin. MTT assay showed that allicin can inhibit the proliferation of the THP-1 cell, and the inhibition was dependent on both dose and time. The IC50 of 72 hours was 12.8 mg x L(-1). Apoptosis rate detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI was proportional to the concentration of the allicin. After the immunohistochemical staining test, the P-p38MAPK was located in the cell nucleus and plasma, showing deep brown, when adding allicin to THP-1 cell. Western blot test showed that the P-p38MAPK proteins expression was proportional to the concentration of Allicin and was also dose dependent. The levels of P-p38MAPK in negative control group, 1/2 IC50 of 72 hours group and IC50 of 72 hours group were 0.259 8 +/- 0.013 2, 0.61 2 +/- 0.008 3 and 0.505 6 +/- 0.005 5 respectively, and the levels of Fas proteins were 0.287 4 +/- 0.008 9, 0.426 8 +/- 0.007 9 and 0.597 1 +/- 0.010 9 respectively. The difference was statistically significant when compared with the negative control group (P < 0.01). Allicin can significantly induce THP-1 cells apoptosis, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of P38MAPK/Fas.

  19. PP2A regulates SCF-induced cardiac stem cell migration through interaction with p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Xia, Yanli; Kuang, Dong; Duan, Yaqi; Wang, Guoping

    2017-12-15

    Previous studies have shown that stem cell factor (SCF) induces the migration of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) and helps to repair myocardial infarctions. Earlier studies on the migration mechanism only focused on the activation of kinases; here, we aimed to explore the functional role of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in SCF-induced CSC migration. CSCs were treated with SCF, PP2A enzymatic activity was measured, the phosphorylation levels of PP2A, p38 MAPK and cofilin were evaluated using western blot. Transwell assay was used to determine the migratory ability of CSCs. In vitro, SCF induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and cofilin, leading to the migration of CSCs. Cofilin acted as a downstream signal of p38 MAPK. PP2A was involved in this process. Further studies revealed that PP2A was inactivated via phosphorylation at Tyr307 by SCF and the inactivation/phosphorylation was mediated by activated p38 MAPK, as p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or siRNA prevented SCF-induced inactivation and phosphorylation of PP2A. When CSCs were pretreated with PP2A inhibitor (okadaic acid, OA), SCF-induced CSC migration and the downstream signals were enhanced, and the enhancement was reversed when p38 MAPK was blocked. Additionally, co-immunoprecipitation showed a direct interaction of PP2A with p38 MAPK. Our results indicated that PP2A regulated the SCF-induced activation of p38 MAPK/cofilin signaling pathway and subsequent migration of CSCs by interaction with p38 MAPK. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. p38 MAPK inhibitors: a patent review (2012 - 2013).

    PubMed

    Bühler, Stefanie; Laufer, Stefan A

    2014-05-01

    The p38 MAPK is a ubiquitous target in the research-based pharmaceutical industry. It plays a decisive role in the regulation of the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Since novel biological therapies have revolutionized the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, an intensive global search is underway for small molecules for the same application. Herein, the patents and the corresponding publications of international companies, which focus on the development and identification of a new generation of small-molecule p38 inhibitors, are summarized. The most promising approach is the development of linear binders, which induce a glycine flip at Gly110 of the kinase hinge region by a carbonyl oxygen atom of the respective ligand. The major focus of the patent works was the application of molecules in new indications. Previous applications were in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; currently, there are several new applications, including pulmonary diseases, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Targeting p38 upstream kinases and downstream effectors has also proved to be a very promising step in the development of more effective inhibitors. A further trend is drug combination, applied to a wide range of indications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer.

  1. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled 4-(phenylamino)-pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine derivatives as new potential PET tracers for imaging of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2014-08-15

    The reference standards methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate (10a), methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate (10b) and corresponding precursors 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylic acid (11a), methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylic acid (11b) were synthesized from methyl crotonate and 3-amino-4-methylbenzoic acid in multiple steps with moderate to excellent yields. The target tracer [(11)C]methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(methoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate ([(11)C]10a) and [(11)C]methyl 4-(2-methyl-5-(ethoxycarbamoyl)phenylamino)-5-methylpyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine-6-carboxylate ([(11)C]10b) were prepared from their corresponding precursors with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition through O-[(11)C]methylation and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method in 50-60% radiochemical yields at end of bombardment (EOB) with 185-555 GBq/μmol specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid synthesis of VX-745: p38 MAP kinase inhibition in Werner syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Dix, Matthew C; Rokicki, Michal J; Kipling, David

    2007-09-15

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor VX-745 is prepared rapidly and efficiently in a four-step sequence using a combination of conductive heating and microwave-mediated steps. Its inhibitory activity was confirmed in hTERT immortalized HCA2 and WS dermal fibroblasts at 0.5-1.0 microM concentration by ELISA and immunoblot assay, and displays excellent kinase selectivity over the related stress-activated kinase JNK.

  3. p38α MAPK regulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors and bone remodeling in an aging-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qian; Jia, Hao; Li, Ping; Qiu, Shoutao; Yeh, James; Wang, Yibin; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Ao, Junping; Li, Baojie; Liu, Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Bone mass is determined by the balance between bone formation, carried out by mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts, and bone resorption, carried out by monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Here we investigated the potential roles of p38 MAPKs, which are activated by growth factors and cytokines including RANKL and BMPs, in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by ablating p38α MAPK in LysM+monocytes. p38α deficiency promoted monocyte proliferation but regulated monocyte osteoclastic differentiation in a cell-density dependent manner, with proliferating p38α−/− cultures showing increased differentiation. While young mutant mice showed minor increase in bone mass, 6-month-old mutant mice developed osteoporosis, associated with an increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption and an increase in the pool of monocytes. Moreover, monocyte-specific p38α ablation resulted in a decrease in bone formation and the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, likely due to decreased expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2. The expression of PDGF-AA and BMP2 was positively regulated by the p38 MAPK-Creb axis in osteoclasts, with the promoters of PDGF-AA and BMP2 having Creb binding sites. These findings uncovered the molecular mechanisms by which p38α MAPK regulates osteoclastogenesis and coordinates osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. PMID:28382965

  4. Rac3 Regulates Cell Invasion, Migration and EMT in Lung Adenocarcinoma through p38 MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenlei; Liu, Tieqin; Wang, Gebang; Wang, Huan; Che, Xiaofang; Gao, Xinghua; Liu, Hongxu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role of Rac3 in cell proliferation in lung adenocarcinoma has been tackled in our previous study. However, the role of Rac3 in cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma is still not clear. Methods: The expression of Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma specimens and paired noncancerous normal tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to silence Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 and H1299. A p38 MAPK inhibitor (LY2228820) was employed to inhibit activity of p38 MAPK pathway. Cell invasion and migration in vitro were examined by invasion and migration assays, respectively. PathScan® intracellular signaling array kit and western blot were employed in mechanism investigation. Results: Rac3 expression was frequently higher in lung adenocarcinoma than paired noncancerous normal tissues. Rac3 expression was an independent risk factor for lymphonode metastasis, and was associated with worse survival outcome. Silencing of Rac3 inhibited cell invasion and cell migration in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of Rac3 decreased activity of p38 MAPK pathway. LY2228820, which was an important p38 MAPK inhibitor, inhibited Rac3-induced cell invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma. E-cadherin expression was increased and vimentin expression was decreased after silencing of Rac3 or following the treatment of LY2228820. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Rac3 regulates cell invasion, migration and EMT via p38 MAPK pathway. Rac3 may be a potential biomarker of invasion and metastasis for lung adenocarcinoma, and knockdown of Rac3 may potentially serve as a promising therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28900489

  5. Designing an orally available nontoxic p38 inhibitor with a fragment-based strategy.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The MAPK p38 became a focal point of inflammatory research when it was recognized that it played a key role in the production of the pro-inflammatory molecules TNF-alpha, IL-beta, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The pharmaceutical industry devoted enormous efforts to creating p38 inhibitors, because blocking p38 had the potential of downregulating a group of pro-inflammatory mediators, and thus, one drug could have a cocktail effect. The market potential seemed to be clearly established (Bonafede et al., Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 6:381-388, 2014) with a multiplicity of TNF-alpha antibodies and a soluble receptor (Mewar and Wilson, Br J Pharmacol 162:785-791, 2011) already on the market, although the relationship between TNF-alpha production and p38 activation is a complicated two-way (Sabio and Davis, Semin Immunol 26:237-245, 2014) signal transduction process. With the discovery that activated p38 stabilizes (Mancini and Di Battista, Inflamm Res 60:1083-1092, 2011) COX-2 mRNA and upregulates expression of IL-beta (Bachstetter and Van Eldik, Aging Dis 1:199-211, 2010) probably in a similar manner, inhibiting p38 appeared to be a way of blocking TNF-alpha, COX-2, and IL-beta simultaneously. At Locus Pharmaceuticals we jumped on this opportunity, because we believed that our fragment-based drug discovery approach was ideally suited for making a potent small molecule p38 inhibitor that did not bind in the ATP site, but also had the solubility, lack of planarity, and low molecular weight required of a clinical candidate. Just to be clear, in our experience highly planar compounds often result in poor pharmacokinetics, because they tend to bind strongly to plasma proteins. At Locus we typically repeated assays by adding increasing amounts of plasma to check for potency degradation in the presence of blood. We found this to be a useful early indicator of pharmacokinetics and in vivo behavior. It became clear from our work and the work of others that binding to the ATP site

  6. Structural Bioinformatics-Based Prediction of Exceptional Selectivity of p38 MAP Kinase Inhibitor PH-797804

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Li; Shieh, Huey S.; Selness, Shaun R.

    2009-07-24

    PH-797804 is a diarylpyridinone inhibitor of p38{alpha} mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase derived from a racemic mixture as the more potent atropisomer (aS), first proposed by molecular modeling and subsequently confirmed by experiments. On the basis of structural comparison with a different biaryl pyrazole template and supported by dozens of high-resolution crystal structures of p38{alpha} inhibitor complexes, PH-797804 is predicted to possess a high level of specificity across the broad human kinase genome. We used a structural bioinformatics approach to identify two selectivity elements encoded by the TXXXG sequence motif on the p38{alpha} kinase hinge: (i) Thr106 that serves as themore » gatekeeper to the buried hydrophobic pocket occupied by 2,4-difluorophenyl of PH-797804 and (ii) the bidentate hydrogen bonds formed by the pyridinone moiety with the kinase hinge requiring an induced 180{sup o} rotation of the Met109-Gly110 peptide bond. The peptide flip occurs in p38{alpha} kinase due to the critical glycine residue marked by its conformational flexibility. Kinome-wide sequence mining revealed rare presentation of the selectivity motif. Corroboratively, PH-797804 exhibited exceptionally high specificity against MAP kinases and the related kinases. No cross-reactivity was observed in large panels of kinase screens (selectivity ratio of >500-fold). In cellular assays, PH-797804 demonstrated superior potency and selectivity consistent with the biochemical measurements. PH-797804 has met safety criteria in human phase I studies and is under clinical development for several inflammatory conditions. Understanding the rationale for selectivity at the molecular level helps elucidate the biological function and design of specific p38{alpha} kinase inhibitors.« less

  7. Podocyte-derived microparticles promote proximal tubule fibrotic signaling via p38 MAPK and CD36

    PubMed Central

    Munkonda, Mercedes N.; Akbari, Shareef; Landry, Chloe; Sun, Suzy; Xiao, Fengxia; Turner, Maddison; Holterman, Chet E.; Nasrallah, Rania; Hébert, Richard L.; Kennedy, Christopher R. J.; Burger, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of advanced diabetic kidney disease that is linked to a decline in renal function, however the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Microparticles (MPs) are 100–1000 nm vesicles shed from injured cells that are implicated in intercellular signalling. Our lab recently observed the formation of MPs from podocytes and their release into urine of animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and in humans with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of podocyte MPs in tubular epithelial cell fibrotic responses. MPs were isolated from the media of differentiated, untreated human podocytes (hPODs) and administered to cultured human proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs). Treatment with podocyte MPs increased p38 and Smad3 phosphorylation and expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibronectin and collagen type IV. MP-induced responses were attenuated by co-treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB202190. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor inhibitor (LY2109761) blocked MP-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and ECM protein expression but not p38 phosphorylation suggesting that these responses occurred downstream of p38. Finally, blockade of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 completely abrogated MP-mediated p38 phosphorylation, downstream Smad3 activation and fibronectin/collagen type IV induction. Taken together our results suggest that podocyte MPs interact with proximal tubule cells and induce pro-fibrotic responses. Such interactions may contribute to the development of tubular fibrosis in glomerular disease. PMID:29435202

  8. PRAK, a novel protein kinase regulated by the p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    New, L; Jiang, Y; Zhao, M; Liu, K; Zhu, W; Flood, L J; Kato, Y; Parry, G C; Han, J

    1998-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a novel serine/ threonine kinase, p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). PRAK is a 471 amino acid protein with 20-30% sequence identity to the known MAP kinase-regulated protein kinases RSK1/2/3, MNK1/2 and MAPKAP-K2/3. PRAK was found to be expressed in all human tissues and cell lines examined. In HeLa cells, PRAK was activated in response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines. PRAK activity was regulated by p38alpha and p38beta both in vitro and in vivo and Thr182 was shown to be the regulatory phosphorylation site. Activated PRAK in turn phosphorylated small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at the physiologically relevant sites. An in-gel kinase assay demonstrated that PRAK is a major stress-activated kinase that can phosphorylate small heat shock protein, suggesting a potential role for PRAK in mediating stress-induced HSP27 phosphorylation in vivo. PMID:9628874

  9. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through ROS/p38MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-chun; Liang, Yun; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Guang-rui

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the antiproliferative effect of arctigenin, plant lignin, was evaluated on human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Furthermore, attempts were made to explore the signaling mechanism which may be responsible for its effect. Cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT and LDH assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine cell arrest in the cell cycle phase and apoptosis. Furthermore, to confirm the apoptotic activity of arctigenin, caspase-9 and -3 activities analysis was performed. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were investigated to determine their role in inducing apoptosis in arctigenin-treated HT-29 colon cancer cell line. MTT and LDH results demonstrated significant cell growth inhibitory effect of arctigenin on HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increase in cell number arrested at G2/M phase was observed in flow cytometric analysis upon arctigenin treatment. In addition, arctigenin increased the apoptotic ratio in a dose-dependent manner. The involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway was indicated by the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Moreover, increased ROS production, activation of p38 MAPK and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) also revealed the role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cell growth inhibition after arctigenin exposure. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by regulating ROS and p38 MAPK pathways.

  10. Pharmacophore modeling of diverse classes of p38 MAP kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rituparna; Sinha, Sharat; Ravikumar, Muttineni; Kishore Kumar, Madala; Mahmood, S K

    2008-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) p38 kinase is a serine-threonine protein kinase and its inhibitors are useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Pharmacophore models were developed using HypoGen program of Catalyst with diverse classes of p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. The best pharmacophore hypothesis (Hypo1) with hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA), hydrophobic (HY), hydrogen-bond donor (HBD), and ring aromatic (RA) as features has correlation coefficient of 0.959, root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.069 and configuration cost of 14.536. The model was validated using test set containing 119 compounds and had high correlation coefficient of 0.851. The results demonstrate that results obtained in this study can be considered to be useful and reliable tools in identifying structurally diverse compounds with desired biological activity.

  11. Heat stress prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells by blocking calpain/p38 MAPK signalling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Feng; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing; Su, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs) injury including apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury during sepsis. Our recent study has demonstrated that calpain activation contributes to apoptosis in PMECs under septic conditions. This study investigated how calpain activation mediated apoptosis and whether heat stress regulated calpain activation in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated PMECs. In cultured mouse primary PMECs, incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml, 24 h) increased active caspase-3 fragments and DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis. These effects of LPS were abrogated by pre-treatment with heat stress (43 °C for 2 h). LPS also induced calpain activation and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of calpain and p38 MAPK prevented apoptosis induced by LPS. Furthermore, inhibition of calpain blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated PMECs. Notably, heat stress decreased the protein levels of calpain-1/2 and calpain activities, and blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in response to LPS. Additionally, forced up-regulation of calpain-1 or calpain-2 sufficiently induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis in PMECs, both of which were inhibited by heat stress. In conclusion, heat stress prevents LPS-induced apoptosis in PMECs. This effect of heat stress is associated with down-regulation of calpain expression and activation, and subsequent blockage of p38 MAPK activation in response to LPS. Thus, blocking calpain/p38 MAPK pathway may be a novel mechanism underlying heat stress-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells.

  12. Heat stress prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells by blocking calpain/p38 MAPK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-feng; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Guo-chang; Peng, Tianqing; Su, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs) injury including apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury during sepsis. Our recent study has demonstrated that calpain activation contributes to apoptosis in PMECs under septic conditions. This study investigated how calpain activation mediated apoptosis and whether heat stress regulated calpain activation in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated PMECs. In cultured mouse primary PMECs, incubation with LPS (1 µg/ml, 24 h) increased active caspase-3 fragments and DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis. These effects of LPS were abrogated by pre-treatment with heat stress (43 °C for 2 h). LPS also induced calpain activation and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of calpain and p38 MAPK prevented apoptosis induced by LPS. Furthermore, inhibition of calpain blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated PMECs. Notably, heat stress decreased the protein levels of calpain-1/2 and calpain activities, and blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in response to LPS. Additionally, forced up-regulation of calpain-1 or calpain-2 sufficiently induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis in PMECs, both of which were inhibited by heat stress. In conclusion, heat stress prevents LPS-induced apoptosis in PMECs. This effect of heat stress is associated with down-regulation of calpain expression and activation, and subsequent blockage of p38 MAPK activation in response to LPS. Thus, blocking calpain/p38 MAPK pathway may be a novel mechanism underlying heat stress-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells. PMID:27325431

  13. Intratracheal administration of p38α short-hairpin RNA plasmid ameliorates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiangqi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Dongdong; Wu, Ping; Cui, Xiaoguang

    2012-06-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) remains a significant problem after lung transplantation. A crucial signaling enzyme involved in inflammation and apoptosis during LIRI is p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Gene silencing of p38α by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) can downregulate p38α expression. The lungs have an extremely large surface area, which makes the absorption of shRNA highly effective. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of p38α shRNA plasmids in a rat model of lung transplantation. The delivery of p38α shRNA plasmid was performed by intratracheal administration 48 hours before transplantation into donor rats. Control animals received scrambled shRNA plasmids. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to assess gene silencing efficacy. The therapeutic effects of shRNA plasmids were evaluated by lung function tests. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines, the level of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), c-Myc mRNA expression, and ICAM-1 protein expression, and the presence of cell apoptosis. Rats administered p38α shRNA plasmids showed a significant downregulation in lung expression of p38α transcripts and protein levels. Compared with the control group, the p38α shRNA group showed a higher pulmonary vein oxygen level, lower wet weight-to-dry weight ratio, lower lung injury score, and lower serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. Messenger RNA levels of ICAM-1 and c-Myc in the p38α shRNA group were dramatically lower than in the control group. Levels of ICAM-1 protein expression exhibited a similar trend. Cell apoptosis decreased in the p38α shRNA group vs the control group. Intratracheal administration of p38α shRNA plasmids provided therapeutic effects in a rat model of lung transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of lipopolysaccharides extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis on the expression of p38 and ERK1/2 in osteoblast].

    PubMed

    Lv, You; Jia, Ge; Qiu, Li-hong; Bao, Mu-rong; Yu, Ya-qiong; Guo, Yan

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) on the expression of p38 and ERK1/2 in osteoblast. MC3T3-E1 cells were stimulated with 10 μg/mL P.e-LPS for 0,5,15,30,60,180 min. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 was measured by Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed using one- way ANOVA and Dunnett t test with SPSS11.0 software package. 10 μg/mL LPS could significantly activate p38 MAPK. The peak of phosphorylated p38 was detected at 5 to 30 min(P<0.01) and returned to baseline within 60 min; the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 increased after the stimulation of LPS for 5 min and reached maximum at 15 min (P<0.01) and declined after 30 min. P.e-LPS can induce the expression of p38 and ERK1/2 in osteoblast MC3T3-E1, which indicates that P.e-LPS may play an important role in osteoblast through p38 and ERK1/2.

  15. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li, E-mail: zhangcuili@hotmail.com; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580)more » blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.« less

  16. Fluorophore Labeled Kinase Detects Ligands That Bind within the MAPK Insert of p38α Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Termathe, Martin; Grütter, Christian; Rabiller, Matthias; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Rauh, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of small molecules known to modulate kinase activity, target the highly conserved ATP-pocket. Consequently, such ligands are often less specific and in case of inhibitors, this leads to the inhibition of multiple kinases. Thus, selective modulation of kinase function remains a major hurdle. One of the next great challenges in kinase research is the identification of ligands which bind to less conserved sites and target the non-catalytic functions of protein kinases. However, approaches that allow for the unambiguous identification of molecules that bind to these less conserved sites are few in number. We have previously reported the use of fluorescent labels in kinases (FLiK) to develop direct kinase binding assays that exclusively detect ligands which stabilize inactive (DFG-out) kinase conformations. Here, we present the successful application of the FLiK approach to develop a high-throughput binding assay capable of directly monitoring ligand binding to a remote site within the MAPK insert of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Guided by the crystal structure of an initially identified hit molecule in complex with p38α, we developed a tight binding ligand which may serve as an ideal starting point for further investigations of the biological function of the MAPK insert in regulating the p38α signaling pathway. PMID:22768308

  17. p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT Signalling Cascades inParkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Kar, Rohan; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative condition which has the second largest incidence rate among all other neurodegenerative disorders barring Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently there is no cure and researchers continue to probe the therapeutic prospect in cell cultures and animal models of PD. Out of the several factors contributing to PD prognosis, the role of p38 MAPK (Mitogen activated protein-kinase) and PI3K/AKT signalling module in PD brains is crucial because the impaired balance between the pro- apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways trigger unwanted phenotypes such as microglia activation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. These factors continue challenging the brain homeostasis in initial stages thereby essentially assisting the dopaminergic (DA) neurons towards progressive degeneration in PD. Neurotherapeutics against PD shall then be targeted against the misregulated accomplices of the p38 and PI3K/AKT cascades. In this review, we have outlined many such established mechanisms involving the p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways which can offer therapeutic windows for the rectification of aberrant DA neuronal dynamics in PD brains. PMID:26261796

  18. The Tyrosine Kinase c-Met Contributes to the Pro-tumorigenic Function of the p38 Kinase in Human Bile Duct Cholangiocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Rongyang; Li, Juanjuan; Fu, Jing; Chen, Yao; Wang, Ruoyu; Zhao, Xiaofang; Luo, Tao; Zhu, Junjie; Ren, Yibin; Cao, Jie; Qian, Youwen; Li, Ning; Wang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    Pro-tumorigenic function of the p38 kinase plays a critical role in human cholangiocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that c-Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), contributes to the pro-tumorigenic ability of p38 in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Both p38 and c-Met promote the proliferation and invasion of human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Importantly, inhibition or knockdown of p38 decreased the basal activation of c-Met. Tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor studies revealed that p38 promotes the activity of c-Met, at least in part, by inhibiting dephosphorylation of the receptor. Moreover, density enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) is involved in p38-mediated inhibiting dephosphorylation of c-Met. Furthermore, p38 inhibits the degradation of c-Met. Taken together, these data provide a potential mechanism to explain how p38 promotes human cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and invasion. We propose that the link between p38 and c-Met is implicated in the progression of human cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23024367

  19. Power Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect the p38 MAPK-Mediated Regulation of NB69 Cell Proliferation Implication of Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Antonia; Úbeda, Alejandro; Moreno, Jorge; Trillo, María Ángeles

    2016-04-06

    The proliferative response of the neuroblastoma line NB69 to a 100 µT, 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) has been shown mediated by activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 pathway. This work investigates the MF effect on the cell cycle of NB69, the participation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases in the field-induced proliferative response and the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 and -p38 signaling pathways. NB69 cultures were exposed to the 100 µT MF, either intermittently for 24, 42 or 63 h, or continuously for periods of 15 to 120 min, in the presence or absence of p38 or JNK inhibitors: SB203580 and SP600125, respectively. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as ROS scavenger. Field exposure induced transient activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The MF proliferative effect, which was mediated by changes in the cell cycle, was blocked by the p38 inhibitor, but not by the JNK inhibitor. NAC blocked the field effects on cell proliferation and p38 activation, but not those on ERK1/2 activation. The MF-induced proliferative effects are exerted through sequential upregulation of MAPK-p38 and -ERK1/2 activation, and they are likely mediated by a ROS-dependent activation of p38.

  20. Power Frequency Magnetic Fields Affect the p38 MAPK-Mediated Regulation of NB69 Cell Proliferation Implication of Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, María Antonia; Úbeda, Alejandro; Moreno, Jorge; Trillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative response of the neuroblastoma line NB69 to a 100 µT, 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) has been shown mediated by activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 pathway. This work investigates the MF effect on the cell cycle of NB69, the participation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases in the field-induced proliferative response and the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the MAPK-ERK1/2 and -p38 signaling pathways. NB69 cultures were exposed to the 100 µT MF, either intermittently for 24, 42 or 63 h, or continuously for periods of 15 to 120 min, in the presence or absence of p38 or JNK inhibitors: SB203580 and SP600125, respectively. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used as ROS scavenger. Field exposure induced transient activation of p38, JNK and ERK1/2. The MF proliferative effect, which was mediated by changes in the cell cycle, was blocked by the p38 inhibitor, but not by the JNK inhibitor. NAC blocked the field effects on cell proliferation and p38 activation, but not those on ERK1/2 activation. The MF-induced proliferative effects are exerted through sequential upregulation of MAPK-p38 and -ERK1/2 activation, and they are likely mediated by a ROS-dependent activation of p38. PMID:27058530

  1. p38 MAPK protects human monocytes from postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2013-05-01

    Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport dietary fatty acids through the circulatory system to satisfy the energy and structural needs of the tissues. However, fatty acids are also able to modulate gene expression and/or induce cell death. We investigated the underlying mechanism by which postprandial TRLs of different fatty acid compositions can induce cell death in human monocytes. Three types of dietary fat [refined olive oil (ROO), high-palmitic sunflower oil (HPSO), and butter] with progressively increasing SFA:MUFA ratios (0.18, 0.41, and 2.08, respectively) were used as a source of postprandial TRLs (TRL-ROO, TRL-HPSO, and TRL-BUTTER) from healthy men. The monocytic cell line THP-1 was used as a model for this study. We demonstrated that postprandial TRLs increased intracellular lipid accumulation (31-106%), reactive oxygen species production (268-349%), DNA damage (133-1467%), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (800-1710%) and caspase-3 (696-1244%) activities, and phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) (54 kDa, 141-288%) and p38 (24-92%). These effects were significantly greater with TRL-BUTTER, and TRL-ROO did not induce DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, or p38 phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of p38, but not of JNK, significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and increased cell death in postprandial TRL-treated cells. These results suggest that in human monocytes, p38 is involved in survival signaling pathways that protect against the lipid-mediated cytotoxicity induced by postprandial TRLs that are abundant in saturated fatty acids.

  2. Major Differences in Hypoxia Tolerance and P38 Regulation Among Different Renal Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qianqian; Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Song, Guanglai; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and their dysregulation may contribute to the progression and pathology of diverse human renal diseases. Recent studies suggest that the regulation of MAPK responses to hypoxic stress may be different in different cells, even within the same organ. However, it is unclear if MAPKs are differentially regulated in different renal cells in hypoxia. This work was carried out to clarify this fundamental issue. We cultured normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK-52E) cells, human kidney epithelial (HK-2) cells and human renal cell adenocarcinoma (769-P) cells simultaneously under normoxia and hypoxia (1% O2) for 24-72 hours. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, P-p38, p38 and eEF2K were detected by western blotting. The morphology of all cells was examined using light microscopy. Under the same hypoxic condition, P-ERK1/2 was up-regulated in all renal cells. Meanwhile,P-p38 in NRK-52E cells was markedly increased after hypoxia for 24-72 hours, while it appeared to show no appreciable change in HK-2 and 769-P cells exposed to hypoxia for 24-48 hours and significantly decreased in these cells after 72 hours hypoxia. On the other hand, hypoxia markedly down-regulated the expression of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) in all three cells. Under microscopy, NRK-52E cells had no visible injury after 72 hours hypoxia, while HK-2 and 769-P cells were mostly damaged under the same condition. Our data suggest that in response to prolonged hypoxic stress, ERK1/2 and p38 are differentially regulated in three renal cells, while eEF2K is largely down-regulated in all of these cells. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Keratins Regulate p38MAPK-Dependent Desmoglein Binding Properties in Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Walter, Elias; Fuchs, Michael; Radeva, Mariya Y.; Buechau, Fanny; Magin, Thomas M.; Spindler, Volker; Waschke, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Keratins are crucial for the anchorage of desmosomes. Severe alterations of keratin organization and detachment of filaments from the desmosomal plaque occur in the autoimmune dermatoses pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus (PF), which are mainly caused by autoantibodies against desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and 3. Keratin alterations are a structural hallmark in pemphigus pathogenesis and correlate with loss of intercellular adhesion. However, the significance for autoantibody-induced loss of intercellular adhesion is largely unknown. In wild-type (wt) murine keratinocytes, pemphigus autoantibodies induced keratin filament retraction. Under the same conditions, we used murine keratinocytes lacking all keratin filaments (KtyII k.o.) as a model system to dissect the role of keratins in pemphigus. KtyII k.o. cells show compromised intercellular adhesion without antibody (Ab) treatment, which was not impaired further by pathogenic pemphigus autoantibodies. Nevertheless, direct activation of p38MAPK via anisomycin further decreased intercellular adhesion indicating that cell cohesion was not completely abrogated in the absence of keratins. Direct inhibition of Dsg3, but not of Dsg1, interaction via pathogenic autoantibodies as revealed by atomic force microscopy was detectable in both cell lines demonstrating that keratins are not required for this phenomenon. However, PF-IgG shifted Dsg1-binding events from cell borders toward the free cell surface in wt cells. This led to a distribution pattern of Dsg1-binding events similar to KtyII k.o. cells under resting conditions. In keratin-deficient keratinocytes, PF-IgG impaired Dsg1-binding strength, which was not different from wt cells under resting conditions. In addition, pathogenic autoantibodies were capable of activating p38MAPK in both KtyII wt and k.o. cells, the latter of which already displayed robust p38MAPK activation under resting conditions. Since inhibition of p38MAPK blocked autoantibody-induced loss of

  4. p38 inhibitor inhibits the apoptosis of cowanin-treated human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chowchaikong, Nittiya; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Laphookhieo, Surat; Tanunyutthawongse, Chantra; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the third most common type of cancer diagnosed in both men and women, is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cowanin is a pure compound extracted from Garcinia cowa Roxb., a tree species present in Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. The crude extract has been demonstrated to have antitumor activity, inflammation induction, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimalarial activity. In the present study, the effects of cowanin on apoptosis induction and on the apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated in the LoVo human colorectal cancer cell line. The cytotoxicity of cowanin in LoVo cells was determined by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and JC‑1 staining were used to determine nuclear morphological changes and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. The expression levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2) family, MAPK and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt) pathway proteins following cowanin treatment were determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death via the apoptosis pathway. Cowanin treatment increased BCL2 associated X (Bax) and decreased Bcl‑2 expression. In addition, cowanin activated caspase‑9, -7 and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase expression. Furthermore, cowanin decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p‑ERK), p‑Akt, p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1, while it increased p‑p38 expression, thus resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of LoVo cells via the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Notably, inhibition of p38 by using a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) prevented the cowanin-induced apoptosis in LoVo cells. These results suggested that cowanin may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer and provided

  5. Ionizing radiation induces cellular senescence of articular chondrocytes via negative regulation of SIRT1 by p38 kinase.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Hee; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kee-Ho; Um, Hong-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Song-Ja; Kim, Jong-Il; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2010-01-08

    Radiotherapy is increasingly used in the treatment of joint diseases, but limited information is available on the effects of radiation on cartilage. Here, we characterize the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular senescence in irradiated primary cultured articular chondrocytes. Ionizing radiation (IR) causes activation of ERK, in turn generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) activity. ROS activate p38 kinase, which further promotes ROS generation, forming a positive feedback loop to sustain ROS-p38 kinase signaling. The ROS inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and GSH, suppress phosphorylation of p38 and cell numbers positive for SA-beta-gal following irradiation. Moreover, inhibition of the ERK and p38 kinase pathways leads to blockage of IR-induced SA-beta-gal activity via reduction of ROS generation. Although JNK is activated by ROS, this pathway is not associated with cellular senescence of chondrocytes. Interestingly, IR triggers down-regulation of SIRT1 protein expression but not the transcript level, indicative of post-transcriptional cleavage of the protein. SIRT1 degradation is markedly blocked by SB203589 or MG132 after IR treatment, suggesting that cleavage occurs as a result of binding with p38 kinase, followed by processing via the 26 S proteasomal degradation pathway. Overexpression or activation of SIRT1 significantly reduces the IR-induced senescence phenotype, whereas inhibition of SIRT1 activity induces senescence. Based on these findings, we propose that IR induces cellular senescence of articular chondrocytes by negative post-translational regulation of SIRT1 via ROS-dependent p38 kinase activation.

  6. C‑reactive protein/oxidized low density lipoprotein/β2‑glycoprotein i complexes induce lipid accumulation and inflammatory reaction in macrophages via p38/mitogen‑activated protein kinase and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Feng, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Yu, De-Min; Zhou, Sai-Jun; Chen, Rui; Yu, Pei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can bind to β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to form stable complexes, which exert certain effects in diabetic cardiovascular disease. A previous study by our group has confirmed that the resulting complexes promote atherosclerosis in diabetic BALB/c mice. The present study was designed to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of oxLDL complexes on lipid accumulation and inflammatory reactions in RAW264.7 macrophages cultured in a hyperglycemic environment. Cultured cells were divided into seven groups, which were treated with phosphate‑buffered saline (control), CRP, β2GPI, oxLDL, CRP/oxLDL, oxLDL/β2GPI or CRP/oxLDL/β2GPI. The results revealed the formation of foam cells in the oxLDL, CRP/oxLDL, oxLDL/β2GPI as well as CRP/oxLDL/β2GPI groups. Compared with oxLDL, the three complexes induced less lipid accumulation (P<0.05) through inhibiting the expression of CD36 mRNA and promoting the expression of and ABCG1 mRNA (P<0.05 vs. oxLDL). Furthermore, the levels of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α were elevated in the CRP/oxLDL and CRP/oxLDL/β2GPI groups (P>0.05 vs. oxLDL), and obvious effects on p38/mitogen‑activated protein kinase and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB phosphorylation were also observed in these groups (P<0.05 vs. oxLDL). These results suggested that CRP/oxLDL/βG2P1 complexes may induce lipid accumulation and inflammation in macrophages via the p38/MAPK and NF‑κB signaling pathways. However, some differences were observed between the complexes, which may be attributed to the property of each constituent; therefore, further studies are required.

  7. PKR is a novel functional direct player that coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation via p38MAPK/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Alisi, A; Spaziani, A; Anticoli, S; Ghidinelli, M; Balsano, C

    2008-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a highly orchestrated multistep process controlled by extracellular growth factors that modulate largely unknown signals into the cell affecting the muscle-transcription program. P38MAPK-dependent signalling, as well as PI3K/Akt pathway, has a key role in the control of muscle gene expression at different stages during the myogenic process. P38MAPK affects the activities of transcription factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, and contributes, together with PI3K/Akt pathway, to control the early and late steps of myogenic differentiation. The aim of our work was to better define the role of PKR, a dsRNA-activated protein kinase, as potential component in the differentiation program of C2C12 murine myogenic cells and to correlate its activity with p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt myogenic regulatory pathways. Here, we demonstrate that PKR is an essential component of the muscle development machinery and forms a functional complex with p38MAPK and/or Akt, contributing to muscle differentiation of committed myogenic cells in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous PKR activity by a specific (si)RNA and a PKR dominant-negative interferes with the myogenic program of C2C12 cells, causing a delay in activation of myogenic specific genes and inducing the formation of thinner myofibers. In addition, the construction of three PKR mutants allowed us to demonstrate that both N and C-terminal regions of PKR are critical for the interaction with p38MAPK and Akt. The novel discovered complex permits PKR to timely regulate the inhibition/activation of p38MAPK and Akt, controlling in this way the different steps characterizing skeletal muscle differentiation.

  8. New approaches to the treatment of inflammatory disorders small molecule inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Christian; Wagner, Gerd; Laufer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been enriched by the successful launch of the anti-cytokine biologicals Etanercept (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-p75 Fc fusion protein), Infliximab (chimeric anti-human TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody), Adalimumab (recombinant human anti-human TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody) and Anakinra (recombinant form of human interleukin 1beta (IL-1) receptor antagonist). The success of these novel treatments has impressively demonstrated the clinical benefit that can be gained from therapeutic intervention in cytokine signalling, highlighting the central role of proinflammatory cytokine systems like IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha to be validated targets. However, all of the anti-cytokine biologicals available to date are proteins, and therefore suffering to a varying degree from the general disadvantages associated with protein drugs. Therefore, small molecular, orally active anti-cytokine agents, which target specific pathways of proinflammatory cytokines, would offer an attractive alternative to anti-cytokine biologicals. A number of molecular targets have been identified for the development of such small molecular agents but p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase occupies a central role in the regulation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling network at both the transcriptional and translational level. Since the mid-1990s, an immense number of inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase has been characterised in vitro, and to date several compounds have been advanced into clinical trials. This review will highlight the correlation between effective inhibition of p38 MAP kinase at the molecular target and cellular activity in functional assays of cytokine, particularly TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production. SAR will be discussed regarding activity at the enzyme target, but also with regard to properties required for efficient in vitro and in vivo activity.

  9. p38 MAPK mediates fibrogenic signal through Smad3 phosphorylation in rat myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Fukiko; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Mori, Shigeo; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Katsunori; Sugano, Yasushi; Yamagata, Hideo; Matsushita, Masanori; Seki, Toshihito; Inagaki, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Mikio; Fujisawa, Junichi; Inoue, Kyoichi

    2003-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) spontaneously transdifferentiate into myofibroblast (MFB)-phenotype on plastic dishes. This response recapitulates the features of activation in vivo. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays a prominent role in stimulating liver fibrogenesis by MFBs. In quiescent HSCs, TGF-beta signaling involves TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI)-mediated phosphorylation of serine residues within the conserved SSXS motif at the C-terminus of Smad2 and Smad3. The middle linker regions of Smad2 and Smad3 also are phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This study elucidates the change of Smad3-mediated signals during the transdifferentiation process. By using antibodies highly specific to the phosphorylated C-terminal region and the phosphorylated linker region of Smad3, we found that TGF-beta-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation at the C-terminal region decreased, but that the phosphorylation at the linker region increased in the process of transdifferentiation. TGF-beta activated the p38 MAPK pathway, further leading to Smad3 phosphorylation at the linker region in the cultured MFBs, irrespective of Smad2. The phosphorylation promoted hetero-complex formation and nuclear translocation of Smad3 and Smad4. Once combined with TbetaRI-phosphorylated Smad2, the Smad3 and Smad4 complex bound to plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I promoter could enhance the transcription. In addition, Smad3 phosphorylation mediated by the activated TbetaRI was impaired severely in MFBs during chronic liver injury, whereas Smad3 phosphorylation at the linker region was remarkably induced by p38 MAPK pathway. In conclusion, p38 MAPK-dependent Smad3 phosphorylation promoted extracellular matrix production in MFBs both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Targeted inhibition of p38alpha MAPK suppresses tumor-associated endothelial cell migration in response to hypericin-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Nico; Dewaele, Michael; Buytaert, Esther; Marsboom, Glenn; Janssens, Stefan; Van Boven, Maurits; Vandenheede, Jackie R; de Witte, Peter; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2005-11-25

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established anticancer modality and hypericin is a promising photosensitizer for the treatment of bladder tumors. We show that exposure of bladder cancer cells to hypericin PDT leads to a rapid rise in the cytosolic calcium concentration which is followed by the generation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 (PLA2). PLA2 inhibition significantly protects cells from the PDT-induced intrinsic apoptosis and attenuates the activation of p38 MAPK, a survival signal mediating the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 that converts arachidonic acid into prostanoids. Importantly, inhibition of p38alpha MAPK blocks the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and suppresses tumor-promoted endothelial cell migration, a key step in angiogenesis. Hence, targeted inhibition of p38alpha MAPK could be therapeutically beneficial to PDT, since it would prevent COX-2 expression, the inducible release of growth and angiogenic factors by the cancer cells, and cause an increase in the levels of free arachidonic acid, which promotes apoptosis.

  11. Nur77 inhibits oxLDL induced apoptosis of macrophages via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Qin; Han, Fei; Peng, Shi

    2016-03-18

    The interaction between macrophages and oxLDL plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. As a key initiator in a number of plaque promoting processes, oxLDL induces variable effects such as cell apoptosis or proliferation. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is potently induced in macrophages by diverse stimuli, suggesting that it is of importance in vascular inflammation resulting in atherosclerosis, but whether Nur77 induction is detrimental or protective is unclear. In our study, we explore the role of Nur77 in the regulation of oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis and the signaling pathways that are involved. We found that oxLDL inducedmore » Nur77 expression in a dose and time dependent fashion, and cell viability was decreased in parallel. To determine whether Nur77 induction contributes to the loss of cell viability or is a protective mechanism, the effect of Nur77 overexpression was examined. Importantly, Nur77 overexpression inhibited the oxLDL-induced decrease of cell viability, inhibited the production of apoptotic bodies and restored DNA synthesis following oxLDL exposure. Furthermore, we found that Nur77 induction is mediated through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. After pretreatment with SB203580, cell viability was decreased, the expression of CyclinA2 and PCNA was attenuated and the percentage of cell apoptosis was enhanced. Likewise, Nur77 overexpression increased the expression of the cell cycle genes PCNA and p21, and attenuated the increase in caspase-3. On the other hand, knockdown of Nur77 expression by specific siRNA resulted in the increased expression of caspase 3. The results demonstrate that Nur77 is induced by oxLDL via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which is involved in the regulation of cell survival. Nur77 enhanced cell survival via suppressing apoptosis, without affecting cell proliferation of activated macrophages, which may be beneficial in patients with atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • oxLDL could

  12. Glutamine starvation enhances PCV2 replication via the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, as promoted by reducing glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxiang; Shi, Xiuli; Gan, Fang; Huang, Da; Huang, Kehe

    2015-03-18

    Glutamine has a positive effect on ameliorating reproductive failure caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). However, the mechanism by which glutamine affects PCV2 replication remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of glutamine on PCV2 replication and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. The results show that glutamine promoted PK-15 cell viability. Surprisingly, glutamine starvation significantly increased PCV2 replication. The promotion of PCV2 replication by glutamine starvation disappeared after fresh media with 4 mM glutamine was added. Likewise, promotion of PCV2 was observed after adding buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Glutamine starvation or BSO treatment increased the level of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and PCV2 replication in PK-15 cells. Meanwhile, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and PCV2 replication significantly decreased in p38-knockdown PK-15 cells. Promotion of PCV2 replication caused by glutamine starvation could be blocked in p38-knockdown PK-15 cells. Therefore, glutamine starvation increased PCV2 replication by promoting p38 MAPK activation, which was associated with the down regulation of intracellular glutathione levels. Our findings may contribute toward interpreting the possible pathogenic mechanism of PCV2 and provide a theoretical reference for application of glutamine in controlling porcine circovirus-associated diseases.

  13. Coal-induced interleukin-6 gene expression is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Zhang, Q

    2003-08-15

    In the present study, we have tested the ability of coal dust to stimulate kinase phosphorylation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) signal transduction pathways and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both mouse epidermal JB6 and human lung epithelial A549 cells. Seven coal samples from three coalmine regions of Pennsylvania (PA), West Virginia (WV), and Utah (UT) with high, medium, and low prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), respectively, were investigated. Results from the present study indicate that three PA coals stimulated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK, but not c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) in human lung A549 cells. The effects of three UT coals on the kinase phosphorylation were less as compared to those of the PA coals. Coal dusts from three coalmine regions induced IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner in both JB6 and A549 cells. Interestingly, levels of IL-6 in both cells treated with coals from three coalmine regions correlated well with CWP prevalence from that region. To assess the role of AP-1 pathways in coal-mediated transcriptional activation of IL-6, various inhibitors were used in cells treated with one PA coal, which induced a maximal response. It was found that the increase in IL-6 protein and mRNA by the PA coal was completely eliminated by the pretreatment of both cell types with PD98059, a specific MEK1 inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor. Our results indicate that coal dust can stimulate IL-6 release from mouse epidermal JB6 cells and human lung epithelial A549 cells, and the coal-induced IL-6 increase may involve ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways.

  14. The reversal of pulmonary vascular remodeling through inhibition of p38 MAPK-alpha: a potential novel anti-inflammatory strategy in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Damien H.; Wadsworth, Roger; Bryson, Gareth; Fisher, Andrew J.; Welsh, David J.; Peacock, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) system is increasingly recognized as an important inflammatory pathway in systemic vascular disease but its role in pulmonary vascular disease is unclear. Previous in vitro studies suggest p38 MAPKα is critical in the proliferation of pulmonary artery fibroblasts, an important step in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVremod). In this study the role of the p38 MAPK pathway was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models of pulmonary hypertension and human disease. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPKα in both chronic hypoxic and monocrotaline rodent models of pulmonary hypertension prevented and reversed the pulmonary hypertensive phenotype. Furthermore, with the use of a novel and clinically available p38 MAPKα antagonist, reversal of pulmonary hypertension was obtained in both experimental models. Increased expression of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and p38 MAPKα was observed in the pulmonary vasculature from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting a role for activation of this pathway in the PVremod A reduction of IL-6 levels in serum and lung tissue was found in the drug-treated animals, suggesting a potential mechanism for this reversal in PVremod. This study suggests that the p38 MAPK and the α-isoform plays a pathogenic role in both human disease and rodent models of pulmonary hypertension potentially mediated through IL-6. Selective inhibition of this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach that targets both remodeling and inflammatory pathways in pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:26024891

  15. Aldosterone Induces Apoptosis in Rat Podocytes: Role of PI3-K/Akt and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Liang, Wei; Jia, Junya; van Goor, Harry; Singhal, Pravin C.; Ding, Guohua

    2009-01-01

    Background Podocytes play a critical role in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone (ALD) is involved in the initiation and progression of glomerular damage. It is, however, unknown whether there is a direct injurious effect of ALD on podocytes. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of ALD on podocyte apoptosis and studied the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3-K/Akt) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathways in this process. Methods Podocytes were incubated in media containing either buffer or increasing concentrations of ALD (10–9∼10–5M) for variable time periods. The cells were also treated with either wortmannin (inhibitor of PI3-K, 100 nM), SB202190 (SB20, inhibitor of p38MAPK, 10 μM) or buffer. All treatments were performed with or without ALD (10–7M) for 24 h. At the end of the incubation period, apoptosis was evaluated by cell nucleus staining and flow cytometric analyses. Activation of PI3-K/Akt and p38MAPK phosphorylation of cultured rat podocytes was evaluated by performing Akt kinase assay and Western blot, respectively. Results Apoptosis of cultured rat podocytes was induced by ALD in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ALD inhibited the activity of PI3-K/Akt and increased the activation of p38MAPK. PI3-K/Akt activity was further inhibited by the addition of wortmannin to the cells in the presence of ALD. This was accompanied by a significant increase in apoptosis. ALD-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis were inhibited when the cells were pretreated with SB20. Furthermore, treatment with spironolactone not only attenuated the proapoptotic effect of ALD, but also significantly reversed its effects on PI3-K/Akt and p38MAPK signaling pathways. Conclusion ALD induces apoptosis in rat podocytes through inhibition of PI3-K/Akt and stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Spironolactone attenuates ALD-induced podocyte apoptosis

  16. Defining a Role for Acid Sphingomyelinase in the p38/Interleukin-6 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Perry, David M.; Newcomb, Benjamin; Adada, Mohamad; Wu, Bill X.; Roddy, Patrick; Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Siskind, Leah; Obeid, Lina M.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2014-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is one of the key enzymes involved in regulating the metabolism of the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide in the sphingolipid salvage pathway, yet defining signaling pathways by which ASM exerts its effects has proven difficult. Previous literature has implicated sphingolipids in the regulation of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the specific sphingolipid pathways and mechanisms involved in inflammatory signaling need to be further elucidated. In this work, we sought to define the role of ASM in IL-6 production because our previous work showed that a parallel pathway of ceramide metabolism, acid β-glucosidase 1, negatively regulates IL-6. First, silencing ASM with siRNA abrogated IL-6 production in response to the tumor promoter, 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in MCF-7 cells, in distinction to acid β-glucosidase 1 and acid ceramidase, suggesting specialization of the pathways. Moreover, treating cells with siRNA to ASM or with the indirect pharmacologic inhibitor desipramine resulted in significant inhibition of TNFα- and PMA-induced IL-6 production in MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cells. Knockdown of ASM was found to significantly inhibit PMA-dependent IL-6 induction at the mRNA level, probably ruling out mechanisms of translation or secretion of IL-6. Further, ASM knockdown or desipramine blunted p38 MAPK activation in response to TNFα, revealing a key role for ASM in activating p38, a signaling pathway known to regulate IL-6 induction. Last, knockdown of ASM dramatically blunted invasion of HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASM plays a critical role in p38 signaling and IL-6 synthesis with implications for tumor pathobiology. PMID:24951586

  17. YY1 and HDAC9c transcriptionally regulate p38-mediated mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Huey; Chung, Chiao-Chen; Liu, Yu-Chia; Lai, Wei-Chen; Lin, Zong-Shin; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Li, Long-Yuan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a high self-renewal potential and can differentiate into various types of cells, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Previously, we reported that the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic component of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2, and HDAC9c mediate the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. In the current study, we identify the role of p38 in osteogenic differentiation from a MAPK antibody array screen and investigate the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation. Our data show that YY1, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, and HDAC9c coordinate p38 transcriptional activity to promote its expression to facilitate the osteogenic potential of MSCs. Our results show that p38 mediates osteogenic differentiation, and this has significant implications in bone-related diseases, bone tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:29637005

  18. Involvement of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK in the induction of COX-2 expression by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in murine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Mercau, M E; Astort, F; Giordanino, E F; Martinez Calejman, C; Sanchez, R; Caldareri, L; Repetto, E M; Coso, O A; Cymeryng, C B

    2014-03-25

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the involvement of COX-2 in the stimulation of steroid production by LPS in murine adrenocortical Y1 cells, as well as in the adrenal cortex of male Wistar rats. In this paper we analyzed signaling pathways involved in the induction of this key regulatory enzyme in adrenocortical cells and demonstrated that LPS triggers an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels by mechanisms involving the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the activation of p38 MAPK and Akt, in addition to the previously demonstrated increase in NFκB activity. In this sense we showed that: (1) inhibition of p38 MAPK or PI3K/Akt (pharmacological or molecular) prevented the increase in COX-2 protein levels by LPS, (2) LPS induced p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, (3) antioxidant treatment blocked the effect of LPS on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and in COX-2 protein levels, (4) PI3K inhibition with LY294002 prevented p38 MAPK phosphorylation and, (5) the activity of an NFκB reporter was decreased by p38 MAPK or PI3K inhibition. These results suggest that activation of both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways promote the stimulation of NFκB activity and that PI3K/Akt activity might regulate both p38 MAPK and NFκB signaling pathways. In summary, in this study we showed that in adrenal cells, LPS induces COX-2 expression by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and that both pathways converge in the modulation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Leptin regulates MMP-2, TIMP-1 and collagen synthesis via p38 MAPK in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Schram, Kristin; De Girolamo, Sabrina; Madani, Siham; Munoz, Diana; Thong, Farah; Sweeney, Gary

    2010-12-01

    A clear association between obesity and heart failure exists and a significant role for leptin, the product of the obese gene, has been suggested. One aspect of myocardial remodeling which characterizes heart failure is a disruption in the balance of extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. Here we investigated the effects of leptin on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression, as well as collagen synthesis in HL-1 cardiac muscle cells. Gelatin zymographic analysis of MMP activity in conditioned media showed that leptin enhanced MMP-2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Leptin is known to stimulate phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in cardiac cells and utilization of the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, demonstrated that this kinase also plays a role in regulating several extracellular matrix components, such that inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling prevented the leptin-induced increase in MMP-2 activation. We also observed that leptin enhanced collagen synthesis determined by both proline incorporation and picrosirius red staining of conditioned media. Pro-collagen type-I and pro-collagen type-III expression, measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting were also increased by leptin, effects which were again attenuated by SB203580. In summary, these results demonstrate the potential for leptin to play a role in mediating myocardial ECM remodeling and that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in mediating these effects.

  20. Protective Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Deoxynivalenol-Induced Injury of Porcine Macrophage via Attenuating p38 MAPK Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chao; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Xue-Dong; Wu, Jin-E

    2017-05-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced injury in porcine alveolar macrophage cells (PAMCs) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis, ELISA, qRT-PCR, and western blot were performed to assess whether S. boulardii could prevent DON-induced injury by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signal pathway. The results showed that pretreatment with 8 μM DON could decrease the viability of PAMC and significantly increase the apoptosis rate of PAMC, whereas S. boulardii could rescue apoptotic PAMC cells induced by DON. Further experiments revealed that S. boulardii effectively reversed DON-induced cytotoxicity via downregulating the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-lβ. In addition, S. boulardii significantly alleviated DON-induced phosphorylation and mRNA expression of p38 and further increased the expression of apoptosis regulation genes Bcl-xl and Bcl-2 and inhibited the activation of Bax. Our results suggest that S. boulardii could suppress DON-induced p38 MAPK pathway activation and reduce the expression of downstream inflammatory cytokines, as well as promote the expression of anti-apoptotic genes to inhibit apoptosis induced by DON in PAMC.

  1. Synthesis of the highly selective p38 MAPK inhibitor UR-13756 for possible therapeutic use in Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Rokicki, Michal J; Widdowson, Caroline S; Kipling, David

    2010-02-01

    UR-13756 is a potent and selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, reported to have good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties and, thus, is of potential use in the treatment of accelerated aging in Werner syndrome. Irradiation of 2-chloroacrylonitrile and methylhydrazine in ethanol at 100 °C gives 1-methyl-3-aminopyrazole, which reacts with 4-fluorobenzaldehyde and a ketone, obtained by Claisen condensation of 4-picoline, in a Hantzsch-type 3-component hereocyclocondensation, to give the pyrazolopyridine UR-13756. UR-13756 shows p38 MAPK inhibitory activity in human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized HCA2 dermal fibroblasts, with an IC(50) of 80 nm, as shown by ELISA, is 100% efficacious for up to 24 h at 1.0 μm and displays excellent kinase selectivity over the related stress-activated c-Jun kinases. In addition, UR-13756 is an effective p38 inhibitor at 1.0 μm in Werner syndrome cells, as shown by immunoblot. The convergent synthesis of UR-13756 is realized using microwave dielectric heating and provides a highly selective inhibitor that shows excellent selectivity for p38 MAPK over c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

  2. Effect of Tongxinluo on Podocyte Apoptosis via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and P38 Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fangqiang; Zhao, Wenjing; Zou, Dawei; Wu, Xiaoming; Tian, Nianxiu; Wang, Xiaolei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Podocyte apoptosis is a main mechanism of progression of DN. It has been demonstrated that activated P38 and caspase-3 induced by oxidative stress mainly account for increased podocyte apoptosis and proteinuria in DN. Meanwhile, Tongxinluo (TXL) can ameliorate renal structure disruption and dysfunction in DN patients in our clinical practice. However, the effect of TXL on podocyte apoptosis and P38 pathway remains unclear. To explore the effect of TXL on podocyte apoptosis and its molecular mechanism in DN, our in vivo and in vitro studies were performed. TXL attenuated oxidative stress in podocyte in DN in our in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, TXL inhibited the activation of P38 and caspase-3. Bcl-2 and Bax expression was partially restored by TXL treatment in our in vivo and in vitro studies. More importantly, TXL decreased podocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats and high glucose cultured podocyte. In conclusion, TXL protects podocyte from apoptosis in DN, partially through its antioxidant effect and inhibiting of the activation of P38 and caspase-3. PMID:27672400

  3. Aged dominant negative p38α MAPK mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in adult-neurogenesis and context discrimination fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2017-03-30

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38α AF/+ ) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38α AF/+ ) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38α AF/+ mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual's relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38α AF/+ and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38α AF/+ exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38α AF/+ , we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38α AF/+ mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AGED DOMINANT NEGATIVE p38α MAPK MICE ARE RESISTANT TO AGE-DEPENDENT DECLINE IN ADULT-NEUROGENESIS AND CONTEXT DISCRIMINATION FEAR CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, IbDanelo; Bulavin, Dmitry V.; Wu, Ping; McGrath, Erica L; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Wakamiya, Maki; Papaconstantinou, John; Dineley, Kelly T

    2018-01-01

    A major aspect of mammalian aging is the decline in functional competence of many self-renewing cell types, including adult-born neuronal precursors. Since age-related senescence of self-renewal occurs simultaneously with chronic up-regulation of the p38MAPKalpha (p38α) signaling pathway, we used the dominant negative mouse model for attenuated p38α activity (DN-p38αAF/+ ) in which Thr180 and Tyr182 are mutated (T→A/Y→F) to prevent phosphorylation activation (DN-p38αAF/+) and kinase activity. As a result, aged DN-p38αAF/+ mice are resistant to age-dependent decline in proliferation and regeneration of several peripheral tissue progenitors when compared to wild-type littermates. Aging is the major risk factor for non-inherited forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); environmental and genetic risk factors that accelerate the senescence phenotype are thought to contribute to an individual’s relative risk. In the present study, we evaluated aged DN-p38αAF/+ and wildtype littermates in a series of behavioral paradigms to test if p38α mutant mice exhibit altered baseline abnormalities in neurological reflexes, locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent cognitive decline. While aged DN-p38αAF/+ and wildtype littermates appear equal in all tested baseline neurological and behavioral parameters, DN-p38αAF/+ exhibit superior context discrimination fear conditioning. Context discrimination is a cognitive task that is supported by proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Consistent with enhanced context discrimination in aged DN-p38αAF/+, we discovered enhanced production of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of DN-p38αAF/+ mice compared to wildtype littermates. Our findings support the notion that p38α inhibition has therapeutic utility in aging diseases that affect cognition, such as AD. PMID:27765672

  5. Attenuation of p38α MAPK stress response signaling delays the in vivo aging of skeletal muscle myofibers and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Papaconstantinou, John; Wang, Chen Z; Zhang, Min; Yang, San; Deford, James; Bulavin, Dmitry V; Ansari, Naseem H

    2015-09-01

    Functional competence and self-renewal of mammalian skeletal muscle myofibers and progenitor cells declines with age. Progression of the muscle aging phenotype involves the decline of juvenile protective factorsi.e., proteins whose beneficial functions translate directly to the quality of life, and self-renewal of progenitor cells. These characteristics occur simultaneously with the age-associated increase of p38α stress response signaling. This suggests that the maintenance of low levels of p38α activity of juvenile tissues may delay or attenuate aging. We used the dominant negative haploinsufficient p38α mouse (DN-p38α(AF/+)) to demonstrate that in vivo attenuation of p38α activity in the gastrocnemius of the aged mutant delays age-associated processes that include: a) the decline of the juvenile protective factors, BubR1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2); b) attenuated expression of p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) tumor suppressor genes of the Cdkn2a locus; c) decreased levels of hydroxynonenal protein adducts, expression of COX2 and iNOS; d) decline of the senescent progenitor cell pool level and d) the loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass. We propose that elevated P-p38α activity promotes skeletal muscle aging and that the homeostasis of p38α impacts the maintenance of a beneficial healthspan.

  6. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Block, Dena H. S.; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A.; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity. PMID:26016853

  7. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P < 0.0001). CD63 MFI expression was reduced from 68 248 (29 336-92 001) to 30 496 (14 046-46 179, P < 0.0001). Basophils from multi-allergic subjects were desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P < 0.05). Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth. PMID:26508738

  9. TNF-α stimulates System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increase the risk of delivering infants that are large for gestational age with greater adiposity, who are prone to the development of metabolic disease in childhood and beyond. These maternal conditions are also associated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in maternal tissues and the placenta. Recent evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport contribute to altered fetal growth. TNF-α was previously shown to stimulate System A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts (PHTs), however the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TNF-α regulates amino acid uptake in cultured PHTs by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. Treatment of PHTs with TNF-α significantly increased System A amino acid transport, as well as Erk and p38 MAPK signaling. Pharmacological antagonism of p38, but not Erk MAPK activity, inhibited TNF-α stimulated System A activity. Silencing of p38 MAPK using siRNA transfections prevented TNF-α stimulated System A transport in PHTs. TNF-α significantly increased the protein expression of System A transporters SNAT1 and SNAT2, but did not affect their mRNA expression. The effects of TNF-α on SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression were reversed by p38 MAPK siRNA silencing. In conclusion, TNF-α regulates System A activity through increased SNAT1 and SNAT2 transporter protein expression in PHTs. These findings suggest that p38 MAPK may represent a critical mechanistic link between elevated proinflammatory cytokines and increased placental amino acid transport in obese and GDM pregnancies associated with fetal overgrowth. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Acidic pH stimulates the production of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, CXCL8 (interleukin-8), in human adult mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB pathways.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, David S; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Makhijani, Nalini S; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2008-07-01

    Blood vessel injury results in limited oxygen tension and diffusion leading to hypoxia, increased anaerobic metabolism, and elevated production of acidic metabolites that cannot be easily removed due to the reduced blood flow. Therefore, an acidic extracellular pH occurs in the local microenvironment of disrupted bone. The potential role of acidic pH and glu-leu-arg (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) treated with medium of decreasing pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.4). The cells showed a reciprocal increase in CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) mRNA levels as extracellular pH decreased. At pH 6.4, CXCL8 mRNA was induced >60x in comparison to levels at pH 7.4. hMSCs treated with osteogenic medium (OGM) also showed an increase in CXCL8 mRNA with decreasing pH; although, at a lower level than that seen in cells grown in non-OGM. CXCL8 protein was secreted into the medium at all pHs with maximal induction at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the G-protein-coupled receptor alpha, G(alphai), suppressed CXCL8 levels in response to acidic pH; whereas phospholipase C inhibition had no effect on CXCL8. The use of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction inhibitors indicated that the pH-dependent increase in CXCL8 mRNA is due to activation of ERK and p38 pathways. The JNK pathway was not involved. NF-kappaB inhibition resulted in a decrease in CXCL8 levels in hMSCs grown in non-OGM. However, OGM-differentiated hMSCs showed an increase in CXCL8 levels when treated with the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC, a pyrrolidine derivative of dithiocarbamate. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Intervention of electroacupuncture on spinal p38 MAPK/ATF-2/VR-1 pathway in treating inflammatory pain induced by CFA in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) can suppress the inflammatory pain. However, the relationship between EA effect and p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway in inflammatory pain remains poorly understood. It is our hypothesis that p38 MAPK/ATF-2/VR-1 and/or p38 M