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Sample records for a2 b1 b2

  1. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Downregulation of kinin B1 receptor function by B2 receptor heterodimerization and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Tan, Fulong; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on β-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions. PMID:25289859

  3. Evidence for the η(b)(2S) and observation of h(b)(1P)→η(b)(1S)γ and h(b)(2P)→η(b)(1S)γ.

    PubMed

    Mizuk, R; Asner, D M; Bondar, A; Pedlar, T K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Bischofberger, M; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, I-S; Cho, K; Choi, S-K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Jaegle, I; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kawasaki, T; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Koblitz, S; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Lange, J S; Lee, S-H; Li, J; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Mussa, R; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Ng, C; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, C W; Park, H; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Röhrken, M; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T-A; Shiu, J-G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y-S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M-Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V

    2012-12-07

    We report the first evidence for the η(b)(2S) using the h(b)(2P)→η(b)(2S)γ transition and the first observation of the h(b)(1P)→η(b)(1S)γ and h(b)(2P)→η(b)(1S)γ transitions. The mass and width of the η(b)(1S) and η(b)(2S) are measured to be m(η(b)(1S))=(9402.4±1.5±1.8) MeV/c(2), m(η(b)(2S))=(9999.0±3.5(-1.9)(+2.8)) MeV/c(2), and Γ(η(b)(1S))=(10.8(-3.7-2.0)(+4.0+4.5)) MeV. We also update the h(b)(1P) and h(b)(2P) mass measurements. We use a 133.4 fb(-1) data sample collected at energies near the Υ(5S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) collider.

  4. Structure investigation of maltacine B1a, B1b, B2a and B2b: cyclic peptide lactones of the maltacine complex from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Hagelin, Gunnar

    2005-04-01

    A new complex of cyclic peptide lactone antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis, which we named maltacines, has recently been described. The structure elucidation of four of them is reported in this paper. The amino acid sequences and structures of the peptides were found by MSn of the ring-opened linear peptides that gave uninterrupted sequences of Bn and Y''n ions. The identities of three unknown residues in the sequences were solved by a combination of derivatization with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), high-resolution mass spectrometry and H/D exchange. The nature and position of the cyclic structure were revealed by a chemoselective ring opening with Na18OH and was found to be a lactone formed between a hydroxyl of residue number 4 and the C-terminal amino acid number 12. For verification of the structure of the B2+ ion, peptides with different combinations of P/Q and P/K at the N-terminus were synthesized. The structures of the four peptides were found to be as follows: B1a/B2a, cyclo-4,12(P-Q-Y-HNLeu-A-E-T-Y-Orn-103-Y-I-OH); and B1b/B2b, cyclo-4,12(P-Q-Y-HNLeu-A-E-T-Y-K-103-Y-I-OH). Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Absence of B1-B2 structural transition in lithium halides under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Murrieta, Gabriel

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the B1-B2 structural transition in LiF, LiCl, LiBr, and LiI under hydrostatic pressure by means of first-principles total-energy calculations using the Full- Potential LAPW method. In order to analyze the gradient effects, we have performed calculations using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), for the exchange and correlation potential. In agreement with the experimental observations, we find that even for pressures higher than 100 GPa, the Li halides do not present the B1-B2 structural transition. In order to understand this behavior, we have calculated the distribution of the electron densities. From the analysis of the distribution of electron densities for the Li halides in the B1 and B2 phases, we find that for this group of ionic compounds the B1 phase have a distribution of electron densities more homogeneous than in the B2 phase, preventing the B1-B2 structural transition. This work was partially supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog'ia (CONACYT, M'exico) under Grant No. 43830-F.

  6. B1 to B2 structural phase transition in LiF under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aayushi; Dixit, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    In the last few decades the alkali halides emerged as crystals with useful applications and their high-pressure behaviour is the most intensively studied subject in high-pressure physics/chemistry, material science, and geosciences. Most alkali halides follow the B1 (NaCl-type)→B2 (CsCl-type) phase-transition route under pressure. In the present paper, we have investigated the characteristics of structural phase transition that occurred in Lithium Florid compound under high pressure. The transition pressure of B1-B2 was calculated using an effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP). The changes of the characteristics of crystals like, Gibbs free energy, cohesive energy, volume collapse, and lattice constant are calculated for the B1 and B2 structures. These data were compared with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  7. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  8. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins.

  9. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. II. Structure determination of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, K; Yonemoto, T; Konishi, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    The structures of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a, and B2b have been determined. Bu-2470 A is a simple octapeptide having no fatty acid moiety, while Bu-2470 B1, B2a and B2b are octapeptides that have been acylated with a beta-hydroxy C11 or C10 fatty acid. The octapeptide structure of Bu-2470 components was found identical with that of octapeptin C1, hence generic names of octapeptin C0, C2, C3 and C4 are proposed for Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b, respectively.

  10. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  11. [In vitro study of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 adsorption on zeolite].

    PubMed

    Basić, Zorica; Kilibarda, Vesna; Dobrić, Silva; Resanović, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are the hydratised alumosilicates of alcali and earthalcali cations, which have a long three-dimensional crystal structure. Preparations on the basis of zeolites are used for adsorption of organic and nonorganic toxic substances and they, also, find more and more use in veterinary and human medicine and pharmacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of zeolite to adsorb vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in acid and neutral solutions, as well as the characteristics of the process (saturability, reversibility and competitiveness). The specific and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescent detector was used for determination of vitamins B1, B2 and B6. Analyte separation and detection were carried out by applying the reverse-phase method on column C18. An in vitro experiment was done by testing the influence of pH value (2 and 7), concentration of vitamin solution (1, 2 and 5 mg/L), the length of contact with zeolite (10-180 min) and cation competitiveness on the exchange capacity, which is achieved by media and zeolite contact, as well as a possible vitamins desorption through changing pH value of the solution at 37 degrees C. Jon competitiveness was examined by adding commercial feed mixture (grower) with a defined content of the examined vitamins in zeolite solutions the pH = 2 and pH = 7. Vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were stable in both pH=2 and pH = 7 solutions at 37 degrees C, in the defined time intervals. In acid solution concentrations of vitamins significantly declined in the first 10 min, with no significant decline in further 30 min for all the three concentrations tests. In neutral solution, after the addition of 1% zeolite, decrease in vitamins concentrations was slightly lower than in acid solution, but also significant in the first 10 min of the contact with zeolite. It was found that zeolite, which adsorbed vitamins in acid solution, transferred in the neutral one released a significant quantity of adsorbed vitamins after 30 min of extraction

  12. Bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors, tumour necrosis factor α and inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S; Lorenzetti, B B; Cunha, J M; Cunha, F Q; Ferreira, S H

    1999-01-01

    The effects of BK agonists and antagonists, and other hyperalgesic/antihyperalgesic drugs were measured (3 h after injection of hyperalgesic drugs) in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia (the end-point of which was indicated by a brief apnoea, the retraction of the head and forepaws, and muscular tremor). DALBK inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, DABK, and kallidin. Responses to kallidin and DABK were inhibited by indomethacin or atenolol and abolished by the combination of indomethacin+atenolol. DALBK or HOE 140, given 30 min before, but not 2 h after, carrageenin, BK, DABK and kallidin reduced hyperalgesic responses to these agents. A small dose of DABK+a small dose of BK evoked a response similar to the response to a much larger dose of DABK or BK, given alone. Responses to BK were antagonized by HOE 140 whereas DALBK antagonized only responses to larger doses of BK. The combination of a small dose of DALBK with a small dose of HOE 140 abolished the response to BK. The hyperalgesic response to LPS (1 μg) was inhibited by DALBK or HOE 140 and abolished by DALBK+HOE 140. The hyperalgesic response to LPS (5 μg) was not antagonized by DALBK+HOE 140. These data suggest: (a) a predominant role for B2 receptors in mediating hyperalgesic responses to BK and to drugs that stimulate BK release, and (b) activation of the hyperalgesic cytokine cascade independently of both B1 and B2 receptors if the hyperalgesic stimulus is of sufficient magnitude. PMID:10188975

  13. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.

    2016-01-28

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at amore » given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.« less

  14. Quantitative assessment of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression in aldosterone-producing adenomas.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Pezzi, V; Barzon, L; Mulatero, P; Veglio, F; Sonino, N; Mathis, J M

    2002-12-01

    The presence and pathophysiological role of CYP11B1 (11beta-hydroxylase) gene in the zona glomerulosa of human adrenal cortex is still controversial. In order to specifically quantify CYP11B1, CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP17(17alpha-hydroxylase) mRNA levels, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay and examined the expression in a series of adrenal tIssues, including six normal adrenals from patients adrenalectomized for renal cancer and twelve aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) from patients with primary aldosteronism. CYP11B1 mRNA levels were clearly detected in normal adrenals, which comprised both zona glomerulosa and fasciculata/reticularis cells, but were also measured at a lower range (P<0.05) in APA. The levels of CYP11B2 mRNA were lower (P<0.005) in normal adrenals than in APA. CYP17 mRNAlevels were similar in normal adrenals and in APA. In patients with APA, CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 mRNA levels were not correlated either with basal aldosterone or with the change from basal aldosterone in response to posture or to dexamethasone. No correlation between CYP11B1 mRNA or CYP11B2 mRNA and the percentage of zona fasciculata-like cells was observed in APA. Real-time RT-PCR can be reliably used to quantify CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA levels in adrenal tIssues. Expression of CYP11B1 in hyperfunctioning zona glomerulosa suggests an additional formation of corticosterone via 11beta-hydroxylase, providing further substrate for aldosterone biosynthesis. CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA levels in APA are not related to the in vivo secretory activity of glomerulosa cells, where post-transcriptional factors might ultimately regulate aldosterone production.

  15. HSD3B2, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, ESR1, ESR2 and AR expression in infertile women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Osiński, Maciej; Wirstlein, Przemysław; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Mikołajczyk, Mateusz; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr; Szczepańska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    The development of endometriosis is associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD3B2) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD17B2), estrogen receptors 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2) and the androgen receptor (AR). However, little is known about the expression of HSD3B2, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, ESR1 ESR2 and AR during the endometrial phases in eutopic endometrium from infertile women with endometriosis. Using RT-qPCR analysis, we assessed the expression of the studied genes in the follicular and luteal phases in eutopic endometrium from fertile women (n = 17) and infertile women (n = 35) with endometriosis. In the mid-follicular eutopic endometrium, we observed a significant increase in HSD3B2 transcript levels in all infertile women with endometriosis (p = 0.003), in infertile women with stage I/II endometriosis (p = 0.008) and in infertile women with stage III/IV endometriosis (p = 0.009) compared to all fertile women. There was a significant increase in ESR1 tran-scripts in all infertile women with endometriosis (p = 0.008) and in infertile women with stage I/II endometriosis (p = 0.019) and in infertile women with stage III/IV endometriosis (p = 0.023) compared to all fertile women. In the mid-luteal eutopic endometrium, we did not observe significant differences in HSD3B2, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, ESR1, ESR2 and AR transcripts between infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women. Observed significant increase in HSD3B2 and ESR1 transcripts in follicular eutopic endometrium from infer-tile women with endometriosis may be related to abnormal biological effect of E2 in endometrium, further affecting the development of human embryos.

  16. Zebrafish Lmx1b.1 and Lmx1b.2 are required for maintenance of the isthmic organizer.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Beck, Ernestine; Barr, Lauren K; Wong, Lily L; Kessler, Daniel S; Riddle, Robert D

    2005-07-01

    The mesencephalic and metencephalic region (MMR) of the vertebrate central nervous system develops in response to signals produced by the isthmic organizer (IsO). We have previously reported that the LIM homeobox transcription factor Lmx1b is expressed within the chick IsO, where it is sufficient to maintain expression of the secreted factor wnt1. In this paper, we show that zebrafish express two Lmx1b orthologs, lmx1b.1 and lmx1b.2, in the rostral IsO, and demonstrate that these genes are necessary for key aspects of MMR development. Simultaneous knockdown of Lmx1b.1 and Lmx1b.2 using morpholino antisense oligos results in a loss of wnt1, wnt3a, wnt10b, pax8 and fgf8 expression at the IsO, leading ultimately to programmed cell death and the loss of the isthmic constriction and cerebellum. Single morpholino knockdown of either Lmx1b.1 or Lmx1b.2 has no discernible effect on MMR development. Maintenance of lmx1b.1 and lmx1b.2 expression at the isthmus requires the function of no isthmus/pax2.1, as well as Fgf signaling. Transient misexpression of Lmx1b.1 or Lmx1b.2 during early MMR development induces ectopic wnt1 and fgf8 expression in the MMR, as well as throughout much of the embryo. We propose that Lmx1b.1- and Lmx1b.2-mediated regulation of wnt1, wnt3a, wnt10b, pax8 and fgf8 maintains cell survival in the isthmocerebellar region.

  17. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice.

    PubMed

    Magome, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takahito; Hanada, Atsushi; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Shinma, Yuko; Katsumata, Takumi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2013-01-29

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of growth and development in plants. GA(1) has been the most frequently found bioactive GA in various tissues of flowering plants, but the enzymes responsible for GA(1) biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated due to the enzymes catalyzing the 13-hydroxylation step not being identified. Because of the lack of mutants defective in this enzyme, biological significance of GA 13-hydroxylation has been unknown. Here, we report that two cytochrome P450 genes, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2, encode GA 13-oxidase in rice. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress CYP714B1 or CYP714B2 show semidwarfism. There was a trend that the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were increased in these transgenic plants. Functional analysis using yeast or insect cells shows that recombinant CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 proteins can convert GA(12) into GA(53) (13-OH GA(12)) in vitro. Moreover, the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were decreased, whereas those of 13-H GAs including GA(4) (which is more active than GA(1)) were increased, in the rice cyp714b1 cyp714b2 double mutant. These results indicate that CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 play a predominant role in GA 13-hydroxylation in rice. The double mutant plants appear phenotypically normal until heading, but show elongated uppermost internode at the heading stage. Moreover, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 expression was up-regulated by exogenous application of bioactive GAs. Our results suggest that GA 13-oxidases play a role in fine-tuning plant growth by decreasing GA bioactivity in rice and that they also participate in GA homeostasis.

  18. Structures of two intermediate phases between the B1 and B2 phases of PbS under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanchun, E-mail: liyc@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: liuj@ihep.ac.cn; Lin, Chuanlong; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-12-15

    The structural transitions of PbS were investigated at pressures up to 50 GPa using synchrotron powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods in diamond anvil cells. We found two intermediate phases between the B1 phase under atmospheric pressure and the B2 phase at 21.1 GPa, which is different to previous reports. The structures of these two intermediate phases were indexed as B27 and B33, respectively. Their structural parameters were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the transition pathway between the B1 and B2 phases in PbS.

  19. Variability of vitamins B1, B2 and minerals content in baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves in East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinthe, Traoré; Charles, Parkouda; Adama, Korbo; Diarra, Compaoré-Sérémé; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Svejgaard, Jan J; Diawara, Bréhima

    2015-01-01

    The regional variability and age–age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania, Togo, Senegal, and Sudan. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g was found in baobab leaves from Mali. For age–age correlation, adult baobab leaves of Nankoun in Burkina Faso provided the highest calcium (Ca) content of 3373 mg/100 g. However, for provenance trial, young plants from three communities of Burkina Faso showed the highest calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) content. The study demonstrated that vitamins B1 and B2 and mineral contents in baobab leaves vary with the country and the age of the tree. Vitamin B1 content was higher in baobab leaves from ascendants compared to those from descendants, while in contrast vitamin B2 content was higher in the leaves from the descendants compared to their ascendants (mother tree). PMID:25649547

  20. MISR Level 1A CCD, 1B1, 1B2, and Browse Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... ESDT Product File Name Prefix Current Quality Designations MI1B2E MISR_AM1_GRP_ELLIPSOID_GM, ... should be used. All calibration files for the life of the mission have been reprocessed using the best available calibration. ...

  1. Role of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process of mice.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Mayra Tolentino Resk; Amaral, Fabio Agostini; Dong, Karis Ester; Bittencourt, Maria Fernanda Queiroz Prado; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Pesquero, João Bosco; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2010-04-01

    Under physiological conditions, elderly people present memory deficit associated with neuronal loss. This pattern is also associated with Alzheimer's disease but, in this case, in a dramatically intensified level. Kinin receptors have been involved in neurodegeneration and increase of amyloid-beta concentration, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering these findings, this work evaluated the role of kinin receptors in memory consolidation during the aging process. Male C57Bl/6 (wt), knock-out B1 (koB1) or B2 (koB2) mice (3, 6, 12 and 18-month-old - mo; n=10 per group) were submitted to an acquisition session, reinforcement to learning (24h later: test 1) and final test (7days later: test 2), in an active avoidance apparatus, to evaluate memory. Conditioned avoidance responses (CAR, % of 50 trials) were registered. In acquisition sessions, similar CAR were obtained among age matched animals from all strains. However, a significant decrease in CAR was observed throughout the aging process (3mo: 8.8+/-2.3%; 6mo: 4.1+/-0.6%; 12mo: 2.2+/-0.6%, 18mo: 3.6+/-0.6%, P<0.01), indicating a reduction in the learning process. In test 1, as expected, memory retention increased significantly (P<0.05) in all 3- and 6-month-old animals as well as in 12-month-old-wt and 12-month-old-koB1 (P<0.01), compared to the training session. However, 12-month-old-koB2 and all 18-month-old animals did not show an increase in memory retention. In test 2, 3- and 6-month-old wt and koB1 mice of all ages showed a significant improvement in memory (P<0.05) compared to test 1. However, 12-month-old wt and koB2 mice of all ages showed no difference in memory retention. We suggest that, during the aging process, the B1 receptor could be involved in neurodegeneration and memory loss. Nevertheless, the B2 receptor is apparently acting as a neuroprotective factor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Ochratoxins, Fumonisin B2 , Aflatoxins (B1 and B2 ), and Other Secondary Fungal Metabolites in Dried Date Palm Fruits from Egypt: A Mini-Survey.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1.48 to 6070 μg/kg for ochratoxin A and from 0.28 to 692 μg/kg for ochratoxin B. In addition, fumonisin B 2 was observed in 2 (7%) samples with contamination levels ranging from 4.99 to 16.2 μg/kg. The simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 2 in the same contaminated samples with ochratoxins indicates the fungal attack by Aspergillus niger species during storage. Only 1 sample was contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (14.4 μg/kg) and B 2 (2.44 μg/kg). The highest maximum concentration (90400 μg/kg) was for kojic acid that contaminated 43% of the samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the natural co-occurrence of fumonisin B 2 and ochratoxin A and B in addition to a wide range of other fungal metabolites in date palm fruits. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi. These metabolites pose a potential risk on human health since they contaminate many food commodities. Among these, date palm fruits which are an integral part of diet in several countries. Therefore, detection of mycotoxins is a prerequisite to insure the safety of food. Here, different types of mycotoxins have been detected in levels that may have health hazard. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. 75 FR 34062 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model AS355 E, F, F1, F2... AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model AS355 E, F, F1, F2, and N helicopters, with certain main... an unsafe condition for certain Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, BB, B1, B2, B3, and D, and...

  4. 75 FR 65222 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model AS355 E, F, F1, F2... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D... 14 CFR part 39 to include an AD that would apply to the Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2...

  5. Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats.

    PubMed

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Shumakova, A A; Shipelin, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Khotimchenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received through­out the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were deter­mined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 par­tial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any param­eters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However

  6. Retinal plasma extravasation in streptozotocin-diabetic rats mediated by kinin B1 and B2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdouh, M; Talbot, S; Couture, R; Hasséssian, H M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated whether or not kinin receptors play a role in diabetic blood–retinal barrier breakdown, which is a leading cause of vision loss. Experimental approach: Blood–retinal barrier breakdown was quantified using Evans blue, and expression of kinin B1 receptor mRNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcrition-PCR. Diabetic rats (streptozotocin (STZ), 65 mg kg−1) received a single intraocular injection of bradykinin (BK) or des-Arg9-BK, alone, or in combination with antagonists for B1 (des-Arg10-Hoe140, R-715) and/or B2 (Hoe140) receptors, given intraocularly or intravenously (i.v.). Key results: In control rats, BK (0.1–10 nmol) dose-dependently increased plasma extravasation, which was inhibited by Hoe140 (0.2 nmol), whereas des-Arg9-BK (0.1 and 1 nmol) was without effect. B1 receptor mRNA was markedly increased in retinas of diabetic rats, and this was prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (1 g kg−1 day−1 for 7 days). Plasma extravasation in retinas of STZ-diabetic rats was higher than in controls and enhanced by des-Arg9-BK. Response to des-Arg9-BK was inhibited by intraocular or i.v. injection of B1 receptor antagonists. Diabetes-induced plasma extravasation was inhibited only by a combination of des-Arg10-Hoe140 and Hoe 140 (100 nmol kg−1, i.v. 15 min earlier) or by R-715 (1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) injected daily for 7 days. Conclusions and implications: Kinin B1 receptors are upregulated in retinas of STZ-diabetic rats through a mechanism involving oxidative stress. Both kinin B1 and B2 receptors contribute to increased plasma extravasation in diabetic retinopathy. Chronic inhibition of both kinin receptors, possibly with antioxidant adjuvants, may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic retinopathy. PMID:18311190

  7. In vitro interaction of actinomycetes isolates with Aspergillus flavus: impact on aflatoxins B1 and B2 production.

    PubMed

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Darriet, M; Sabaou, N; Mathieu, F

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to study the interaction between Actinomycetal isolates and Aspergillus flavus to promote mutual antagonism in contact. Thirty-seven soilborn Streptomyces spp. isolates were chosen as potential candidates. After a 10-day in vitro co-incubation period, 27 isolates respond to the criteria, that is, mutual antagonism in contact. Further aflatoxins B1 and B2 analysis revealed that those 27 isolates reduced aflatoxin B1 residual concentration from 38·6 to 4·4%, depending on the isolate. We selected 12 isolates and tested their capacity to reduce AFB1 in pure culture to start identifying the mechanisms involved in its reduction. AFB1 was reduced by eight isolates. The remaining AFB1 concentration varied between 82·2 and 15·6%. These findings led us to suggest that these eight isolates could be used as biocontrol agents against AFB1 and B2 with low risk of impacting the natural microbial equilibrium. Interaction between Aspergillus flavus and Actinomycetes isolates was conducted in vitro. Actinomycetes isolates having a mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus were chosen for further aflatoxins production study. This is a new approach based to develop biocontrol against aflatoxins accumulation in maize while respecting natural microbial equilibrium. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. I. Production, isolation and properties of Bu-2470 A, B1 and B2.

    PubMed

    Konishi, M; Sugawara, K; Tomita, K; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Fujisawa, K; Tsukiura, H; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    A strain of Bacillus circulans produced a complex of basic peptide antibiotics designated Bu-2470, which was found to contain four active components, A, B1, B2a and B2b. Bu-2470 A specifically inhibited various Pseudomonas species including P. aeruginosa, P. maltophilia and P. putida, but otherwise its antibacterial spectrum was limited to certain Gram-negative organisms. Bu-2470 B1 and B2 (B2a + B2b) showed broad antibiotic activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas species. The physicochemical and biological properties of Bu-2470 B1 and B2 are very similar to those of the octapeptin group of antibiotics.

  9. 76 FR 70046 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and AS355E, F, F1, F2, N... France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1 helicopters; and Model AS355E, F, F1, F2... (AD 2003- 22-06), for Eurocopter Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, C, D, and D1; and Model AS355E, F, F1...

  10. New analytical techniques for mycotoxins in complex organic matrices. [Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

    SciTech Connect

    Bicking, M.K.L.

    1982-07-01

    Air samples are collected for analysis from the Ames Solid Waste Recovery System. The high level of airborne fungi within the processing area is of concern due to the possible presence of toxic mycotoxins, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites. An analytical method has been developed to determine the concentration of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the air of the plant which produces Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). After extraction with methanol, some components in the matrix are precipitated by dissolving the sample in 30% acetonitrile/chloroform. An aliquot of this solution is injected onto a Styragel column where the sample componentsmore » undergo simultaneous size exclusion and reverse phase partitioning. Additional studies have provided a more thorough understanding of solvent related non-exclusion effects on size exclusion gels. The Styragel column appears to have a useable lifetime of more than six months. After elution from Styragel, the sample is diverted to a second column containing Florisil which has been modified with oxalic acid and deactivated with water. Aflatoxins are eluted with 5% water/acetone. After removal of this solvent, the sample is dissolved in 150 ..mu..L of a spotting solvent and the entire sample applied to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate using a unique sample applicator developed here. The aflatoxins on the TLC plate are analyzed by laser fluorescence. A detection limit of 10 pg is possible for aflatoxin standards using a nitrogen laser as the excitation source. Sample concentrations are determined by comparing with an internal standard, a specially synthesized aflatoxin derivative. In two separate RDF samples, aflatoxin B1 was found at levels of 6.5 and 17.0 ppB. The analytical method has also proven useful in the analysis of contaminated corn and peanut meal samples. 42 figures, 8 tables.« less

  11. 75 FR 22508 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E, F, F1, F2, N... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D and D1; and AS 355E..., both dated November 16, 2005, is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of May 14, 2010...

  12. 77 FR 3380 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (ECF) Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and D; and AS355E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (ECF) Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and D; and AS355E, F, F1, F2... Register as of February 8, 2012. We must receive comments on this AD by March 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may..., 2009, specifying MOD 073330 for the Model SA350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, BB, D, and L1 helicopters. ECF has...

  13. 75 FR 79988 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., 2009, for the Model AS350 B, BA, BB, B1, B2, and B3 helicopters (ASB 80.00.07); and ASB No. 80A003... authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the FAA proposes to amend 14 CFR part 39 as follows: PART 39...

  14. Interactions of phytochromes A, B1 and B2 in light-induced competence for adventitious shoot formation in hypocotyl of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Lercari, B; Bertram, L

    2004-02-01

    The interactions of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B1 (phyB1) and phytochrome B2 (phyB2) in light-dependent shoot regeneration from the hypocotyl of tomato was analysed using all eight possible homozygous allelic combinations of the null mutants. The donor plants were pre-grown either in the dark or under red or far-red light for 8 days after sowing; thereafter hypocotyl segments (apical, middle and basal portions) were transferred onto hormone-free medium for culture under different light qualities. Etiolated apical segments cultured in vitro under white light showed a very high frequency of regeneration for all of the genotypes tested besides phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants. Evidence is provided of a specific interference of phyB2 with phyA-mediated HIR to far-red and blue light in etiolated explants. Pre-treatment of donor plants by growth under red light enhanced the competence of phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants for shoot regeneration, whereas pre-irradiation with far-red light enhanced the frequency of regeneration only in the phyAphyB1 mutant. Multiple phytochromes are involved in red light- and far-red light-dependent acquisition of competence for shoot regeneration. The position of the segments along the hypocotyl influenced the role of the various phytochromes and the interactions between them. The culture of competent hypocotyl segments under red, far-red or blue light reduced the frequency of explants forming shoots compared to those cultured under white light, with different genotypes having different response patterns.

  15. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in solid medium by using pulsed light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Mahoney, Noreen E; Khir, Ragab; Wu, Bengang; Zhou, Cunshan; Pan, Zhongli; Ma, Haile

    2018-04-10

    Pulsed light (PL) is a new potential technology to degrade aflatoxin. The objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B 2 (AFB 2 ) treated under PL irradiation. A kinetic degradation study of AFB 1 and AFB 2 in solid medium was performed under PL irradiation at different initial concentrations of AFB 1 (229.9, 30.7 and 17.8 μg kg -1 ) and AFB 2 (248.2, 32.2 and 19.5 μg kg -1 ) and irradiation intensities (2.86, 1.60 and 0.93 W cm -2 ) of PL. A second-order reaction model was applied to describe degradation of AFB 1 and AFB 2 . The results showed that the degradation of AFB 1 and AFB 2 followed the second-order reaction kinetic model well (R 2  > 0.97). The degradation rate was proportional to the intensities of PL irradiation and the initial concentrations of aflatoxins. It is concluded that the degradation of AFB 1 and AFB 2 with the use of PL could be accurately described using the second-order reaction kinetic model. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Removal of fumonisin B1 and B2 from model solutions and red wine using polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; Kreitman, Gal Y; Folch-Cano, Christian; Elias, Ryan J; Laurie, V Felipe

    2017-06-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins found in various foods whose consumption is known to be harmful for human health. In this study, we evaluated the ability of three polymers (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP; a resin of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and triallyl isocyanurate, PVP-DEGMA-TAIC; and poly(acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol-dimethacrylate), PA-EGDMA) to remove fumonisin B 1 (FB1) and fumonisin B 2 (FB2) from model solutions and red wine. Various polymer concentrations (1, 5 and 10mgmL -1 ) and contact times (2, 8 and 24h) were tested, with all polymers exhibiting fumonisin removal capacities (monitored by LC-MS). The impact of all polymers on polyphenol removal was also assessed. PA-EGDMA showed to be the most promising polymer, removing 71% and 95% of FB 1 , and FB 2 , respectively, with only a 22.2% reduction in total phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Bai, F; Zhang, K; Bai, S; Peng, X; Ding, X; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) on serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, and pathological lesions of broilers. In total, 1,200 Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 30 birds per replicate, in a 42-d experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated corn groups. Results showed that serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the 75 and 100% contaminated groups were higher than that in the control group on d 21 (P < 0.05). Decreased content of hepatic total protein and increased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were observed as the percentage of contaminated corn increased (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of hepatic malondialdehyde increased when the broilers were fed with more than 50% contaminated corn (P < 0.05). A reduction in glutathione peroxidase level was observed in the AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated groups on d 21 (P < 0.05). The average pathological lesion scores and apoptosis rate of liver cells increased as the concentration of dietary AFB(1) and AFB(2) increased. Ultrastructural changes were found in the livers of broilers fed 100% contaminated corn. In conclusion, diets containing AFB(1) and AFB(2) could induce pathological lesions in the livers, slightly change the serum biochemical parameters, and damage the hepatic antioxidant functions when the inclusion of AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated corn reached or exceeded 50%.

  18. Heat shock factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b are involved in the regulation of Pdf1.2 expression and pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses.

  19. Heat Shock Factors HsfB1 and HsfB2b Are Involved in the Regulation of Pdf1.2 Expression and Pathogen Resistance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Busch, Wolfgang; Birke, Hannah; Kemmerling, Birgit; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the functional roles of heat stress-induced class B-heat shock factors in Arabidopsis, we investigated T-DNA knockout mutants of AtHsfB1 and AtHsfB2b. Micorarray analysis of double knockout hsfB1/hsfB2b plants revealed as strong an up-regulation of the basal mRNA-levels of the defensin genes Pdf1.2a/b in mutant plants. The Pdf expression was further enhanced by jasmonic acid treatment or infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. The single mutant hsfB2b and the double mutant hsfB1/B2b were significantly improved in disease resistance after A. brassicicola infection. There was no indication for a direct interaction of Hsf with the promoter of Pdf1.2, which is devoid of perfect HSE consensus Hsf-binding sequences. However, changes in the formation of late HsfA2-dependent HSE binding were detected in hsfB1/B2b plants. This suggests that HsfB1/B2b may interact with class A-Hsf in regulating the shut-off of the heat shock response. The identification of Pdf genes as targets of Hsf-dependent negative regulation is the first evidence for an interconnection of Hsf in the regulation of biotic and abiotic responses. PMID:19529832

  20. Pharmacophore Modeling and in Silico/in Vitro Screening for Human Cytochrome P450 11B1 and Cytochrome P450 11B2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee; Haupenthal, Joerg; Hartmann, Rolf W; Schuster, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing's syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8 - 10 ), one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11 , IC 50 = 2.5 μM), and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12 , IC 50 = 1.1 μM), respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models.

  1. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico / in vitro screening for human cytochrome P450 11B1 & cytochrome P450 11B2 inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Muhammad; Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee; Haupenthal, Joerg; Hartmann, Rolf W.; Schuster, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing’s syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8-10), one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11, IC50 = 2.5 µM), and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12, IC50 = 1.1 µM), respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models.

  2. Pharmacophore Modeling and in Silico/in Vitro Screening for Human Cytochrome P450 11B1 and Cytochrome P450 11B2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Muhammad; Waratchareeyakul, Watcharee; Haupenthal, Joerg; Hartmann, Rolf W.; Schuster, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol synthase (CYP11B1) is the main enzyme for the endogenous synthesis of cortisol and its inhibition is a potential way for the treatment of diseases associated with increased cortisol levels, such as Cushing's syndrome, metabolic diseases, and delayed wound healing. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is the key enzyme for aldosterone biosynthesis and its inhibition is a promising approach for the treatment of congestive heart failure, cardiac fibrosis, and certain forms of hypertension. Both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 are structurally very similar and expressed in the adrenal cortex. To facilitate the identification of novel inhibitors of these enzymes, ligand-based pharmacophore models of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibition were developed. A virtual screening of the SPECS database was performed with our pharmacophore queries. Biological evaluation of the selected hits lead to the discovery of three potent novel inhibitors of both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in the submicromolar range (compounds 8–10), one selective CYP11B1 inhibitor (Compound 11, IC50 = 2.5 μM), and one selective CYP11B2 inhibitor (compound 12, IC50 = 1.1 μM), respectively. The overall success rate of this prospective virtual screening experiment is 20.8% indicating good predictive power of the pharmacophore models. PMID:29312923

  3. Stimulation of EphB2/ephrin-B1 signalling by tumour necrosis factor alpha in human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lifang; Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal; Green, David William; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in vitro stimulation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) would induce secretion of EphB2/ephrin-B1 signalling. Dental pulp stem cells isolated from human dental pulp were treated with TNF-α (5-100 ng/ml) over 2-48 h. EphB2/ephrin-B1 mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis respectively. Additionally, DPSCs were pre-incubated with TNF-α receptor neutralizing antibodies or infected with nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) inhibitor, p38 MAPK inhibitor, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor and MEK inhibitor before TNF-α treatment. Results were analysed by one-way ANOVA. Tumour necrosis factor alpha increased EphB2 mRNA expression in DPSCs at concentrations up to 20 ng/ml and ephrin-B1 at concentrations up to 40 ng/ml (P < 0.05). Its mRNA expression reached maximum at 24 h when treated with TNF-α at 20 ng/ml (P < 0.05). EphB2/ephrin-B1 protein expression levels were high at 16 and 24 h as shown by western blotting. Neutralizing antibodies for TNFR1/2 receptors down-regulated EphB2/ephrin-B1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) and ephrin-B1 protein expression, but not EphB2 protein expression. JNK-inhibitor inhibited EphB2 mRNA expression only (P < 0.05). EphB2/ephrin-B1 were invoked in DPSCs with TNF-α treatment via the JNK-dependent pathway, but not NF-ĸB, p38 MAPK or MEK signalling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Enhanced expression of rat hepatic CYP2B1/2B2 and 2E1 by pyridine: differential induction kinetics and molecular basis of expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Putt, D; Reddy, S; Hollenberg, P F; Novak, R F

    1993-11-01

    Expression of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B subfamily in rat and rabbit hepatic tissues after pyridine (PY) treatment has been examined, and the molecular basis for enhanced 2B1/2B2 expression has been determined. P450 expression was monitored using metabolic activity, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analyses, and the identity of the proteins was confirmed through N-terminus microsequence analysis. PY caused a dose-dependent elevation of hepatic CYP2B1/B2B levels in rats, which ranged from 4- to 22-fold over the dosing regimen of 100 to 400 mg PY/kg/day, for 3 days, respectively. PY at low dose failed to induce CYP2B in rabbit hepatic tissue, suggesting a species-dependent response in 2B expression. Anti-2B1 IgG addition to PY-induced microsomes inhibited benzphetamine N-demethylase activity by only approximately 15%, in sharp contrast to the approximately 73% inhibition observed for phenobarbital-induced microsomes, suggesting the induction of other form(s) of P450 having benzphetamine N-demethylase activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that PY treatment increased 2B1 and 2B2 poly(A)+ RNA levels approximately 69- and approximately 34-fold, respectively, whereas the 2E1 poly(A)+ RNA levels failed to increase. The results of this study show that PY induces CYP2B1/2B2 and that induction is species-dependent and kinetically distinguishable from 2E1 induction. Moreover, 2B1/2B2 induction occurs as a result of elevated mRNA levels associated with either transcriptional activation or mRNA stabilization, and it differs from the mechanism of hepatic 2E1 induction by PY.

  5. B1 Cell IgE Impedes Mast Cell-Mediated Enhancement of Parasite Expulsion through B2 IgE Blockade.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rebecca K; Damle, Sheela R; Valentine, Yolander A; Zellner, Matthew P; James, Briana N; Lownik, Joseph C; Luker, Andrea J; Davis, Elijah H; DeMeules, Martha M; Khandjian, Laura M; Finkelman, Fred D; Urban, Joseph F; Conrad, Daniel H

    2018-02-13

    Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated. In T cell-reconstituted RAG1 -/- mice, N. brasiliensis clearance was enhanced with the addition of B2 cells in an IgE-dependent manner. This enhanced clearance was impeded by reconstitution with IgE sufficient B1 cells. Mucosal mast cells mediated the B2 cell enhancement of clearance in the absence of B1 cells. The data support B1 cell IgE secretion as a regulatory response exploited by the helminth. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 28637 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA, and EC130 B4 Helicopters AGENCY... Register as of June 22, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http... available data, we have determined that air safety and the public interest require adopting the AD as...

  7. Confirmatory Survey Report for Area B1S/B2S at the Chevron Mining Washington Remediation Project, Washington, PA

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Adams

    2007-11-20

    During the period of October 2 and 3, 2007, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performed confirmatory radiological survey activities which included gamma surface scans within Area B1S/B2S and the collection of soil samples from these areas.

  8. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  9. Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kelsey; Burns, Gregory; Spencer, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    In sheep, the elongating conceptus synthesizes and secretes interferon tau (IFNT) as well as prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol. The enzymes, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and HSD11B2 interconvert cortisone and cortisol. In sheep, HSD11B1 is expressed and active in the conceptus trophectoderm as well as in the endometrial luminal epithelia; in contrast, HSD11B2 expression is most abundant in conceptus trophectoderm. Cortisol is a biologically active glucocorticoid and ligand for the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 or GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2 or MR). Expression of MR is not detectable in either the ovine endometrium or conceptus during early pregnancy. In tissues that do not express MR, HSD11B2 protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or proapoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. In study one, an in utero loss-of-function analysis of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 was conducted in the conceptus trophectoderm using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) that inhibit mRNA translation. Elongating, filamentous conceptuses were recovered on Day 14 from ewes infused with control morpholino or HSD11B2 MAO. In contrast, HSD11B1 MAO resulted in severely growth-retarded conceptuses or conceptus fragments with apoptotic trophectoderm. In study two, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing was used to determine the role of GR in conceptus elongation and development. Elongating, filamentous-type conceptuses (12-14 cm in length) were recovered from ewes gestating control embryos (n = 7/7) and gestating GR-edited embryos (n = 6/7). These results support the idea that the effects of HSD11B1-derived cortisol on conceptus elongation are indirectly mediated by the endometrium and are not directly mediated through GR in the trophectoderm. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  10. Coexistence of Eph receptor B1 and ephrin B2 in port-wine stain endothelial progenitor cells contributes to clinicopathological vasculature dilatation.

    PubMed

    Tan, W; Wang, J; Zhou, F; Gao, L; Yin, R; Liu, H; Sukanthanag, A; Wang, G; Mihm, M C; Chen, D-B; Nelson, J S

    2017-12-01

    Port-wine stain (PWS) is a vascular malformation characterized by progressive dilatation of postcapillary venules, but the molecular pathogenesis remains obscure. To illustrate that PWS endothelial cells (ECs) present a unique molecular phenotype that leads to pathoanatomical PWS vasculatures. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the ultrastructure and molecular phenotypes of PWS blood vessels. Primary culture of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and in vitro tube formation assay were used for confirmative functional studies. Multiple clinicopathological features of PWS blood vessels during the development and progression of the disease were shown. There were no normal arterioles and venules observed phenotypically and morphologically in PWS skin; arterioles and venules both showed differentiation impairments, resulting in a reduction of arteriole-like vasculatures and defects in capillary loop formation in PWS lesions. PWS ECs showed stemness properties with expression of endothelial progenitor cell markers CD133 and CD166 in non-nodular lesions. They also expressed dual venous/arterial identities, Eph receptor B1 (EphB1) and ephrin B2 (EfnB2). Co-expression of EphB1 and EfnB2 in normal human dermal microvascular ECs led to the formation of PWS-like vasculatures in vitro, for example larger-diameter and thick-walled capillaries. PWS ECs are differentiation-impaired, late-stage endothelial progenitor cells with a specific phenotype of CD133 + /CD166 + /EphB1 + /EfnB2 + , which form immature venule-like pathoanatomical vasculatures. The disruption of normal EC-EC interactions by coexistence of EphB1 and EfnB2 contributes to progressive dilatation of PWS vasculatures. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. A Common Origin for B-1a and B-2 Lymphocytes in Clonal Pre- Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Mandal, Pankaj K; Rossi, Derrick J; Poulos, Michael G; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Yoder, Mervin C; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2017-06-06

    Recent evidence points to the embryonic emergence of some tissue-resident innate immune cells, such as B-1a lymphocytes, prior to and independently of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, whether the full hematopoietic repertoire of embryonic HSCs initially includes these unique lineages of innate immune cells has been difficult to assess due to lack of clonal assays that identify and assess HSC precursor (pre-HSC) potential. Here, by combining index sorting of single embryonic hemogenic precursors with in vitro HSC maturation and transplantation assays, we analyze emerging pre-HSCs at the single-cell level, revealing their unique stage-specific properties and clonal lineage potential. Remarkably, clonal pre-HSCs detected between E9.5 and E11.5 contribute to the complete B cell repertoire, including B-1a lymphocytes, revealing a previously unappreciated common precursor for all B cell lineages at the pre-HSC stage and a second embryonic origin for B-1a lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth inhibitory effects of the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKI-166 on human prostate cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Tran, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L

    2002-09-15

    Experiments with human prostate cancer cell lines have shown that forced overexpression of the ErbB2-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) promotes androgen-independent growth and increases androgen receptor-transcriptional activity in a ligand-independent fashion. To investigate the relationship between ErbB-RTK signaling and androgen in genetically unmanipulated human prostate cancer, we performed biochemical and biological studies with the dual ErbB1/ErbB2 RTK inhibitor PKI-166 using human prostate cancer xenograft models with isogenic sublines reflecting the transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent growth. In the presence of low androgen concentrations, PKI-166 showed profound growth-inhibitory effects on tumor growth, which could be partially reversed by androgen add-back. At physiological androgen concentrations, androgen withdrawal greatly enhanced the ability of PKI-166 to retard tumor growth. The level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation correlated with the response to PKI-166 treatment, whereas the expression levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 did not. These results suggest that ErbB1/ErbB2 RTKs play an important role in the biology of androgen-independent prostate cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of inhibitors targeted to this pathway.

  13. Betacellulin-Induced Beta Cell Proliferation and Regeneration Is Mediated by Activation of ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Shin, Seungjin; Lee, Youn-Jung; Kim, Eung Hwi; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Background Betacellulin (BTC), a member of the epidermal growth factor family, is known to play an important role in regulating growth and differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Growth-promoting actions of BTC are mediated by epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbBs), namely ErbB-1, ErbB-2, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4; however, the exact mechanism for beta cell proliferation has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated which ErbBs are involved and some molecular mechanisms by which BTC regulates beta cell proliferation. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of ErbB-1, ErbB-2, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in both a beta cell line (MIN-6 cells) and C57BL/6 mouse islets. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting analysis showed that BTC treatment of MIN-6 cells induced phosphorylation of only ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 among the four EGF receptors. BTC treatment resulted in DNA synthetic activity, cell cycle progression, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive staining. The proliferative effect was blocked by treatment with AG1478 or AG825, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors of ErbB-1 and ErbB-2, respectively. BTC treatment increased mRNA and protein levels of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), and this was blocked by the ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 inhibitors. Inhibition of IRS-2 by siRNA blocked cell cycle progression induced by BTC treatment. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice injected with a recombinant adenovirus expressing BTC and treated with AG1478 or AG825 showed reduced islet size, reduced numbers of BrdU-positive cells in the islets, and did not attain BTC-mediated remission of diabetes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that BTC exerts proliferative activity on beta cells through the activation of ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 receptors, which may increase IRS-2 expression, contributing to the regeneration of beta cells. PMID:21897861

  14. Functional and molecular characterization of kinin B1 and B 2 receptors in human bladder cancer: implication of the PI3Kγ pathway.

    PubMed

    Sgnaolin, V; Pereira, T C B; Bogo, M R; Zanin, R; Battastini, A M O; Morrone, F B; Campos, M M

    2013-08-01

    Kinins and their receptors have been recently implicated in cancer. Using functional and molecular approaches, we investigated the relevance of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in bladder cancer. Functional studies were conducted using bladder cancer cell lines, and human biopsies were employed for molecular studies. Both B1 des-Arg(9)-BK and B2 BK receptor agonists stimulated the proliferation of grade 3-derived T24 bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with B1 and B2 receptor antagonists (SSR240612 and HOE140) markedly inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells. Only higher concentrations of BK increased the proliferation of the grade 1 bladder cancer cell line RT4, while des-Arg(9)-BK completely failed to induce its proliferation. Real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of kinin receptors, particularly B1 receptors, was increased in T24 cells relative to RT4 cells. Data from bladder cancer human biopsies revealed that B1 receptor expression was increased in all tumor samples and under conditions of chronic inflammation. We also show novel evidence demonstrating that the pharmacological inhibition of PI3Kγ (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) with AS252424, concentration-dependently reduced T24 cell proliferation induced by BK or des-Arg(9)-BK. Finally, the incubation of T24 cells with kinin agonists led to a marked activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways, whereas p38 MAP kinase remained unaffected. Kinin receptors, especially B1 receptors, appear to be implicated in bladder cancer progression. It is tempting to suggest that selective kinin antagonists might represent potential alternative therapies for bladder cancer.

  15. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in spices using a multifunctional column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, H; Goda, Y; Tanaka, T; Toyoda, M

    2001-10-12

    A rapid and simple method using a multifunctional column, which contains lipophilic and charged active sites, was developed to analyse aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in various spices, such as red pepper and nutmeg. After extraction by acetonitrile:water (9:1) and clean-up using MultiSep #228 column, the aflatoxins and aflatoxin-TFA derivatives are determined using LC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of each aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 spiked to red pepper, white pepper, black pepper, nutmeg and tear grass at the level of 10 ng/g were over 80-85% in all instances. The minimum detectable concentration for aflatoxins in red pepper was 0.5 ng/g.

  16. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  17. 75 FR 80293 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS 350 B, BA, B1, B2, B3, and D, and Model AS355 E, F, F1, F2... identified in the Applicability section, Table 1, of the AD. As published, two part numbers shown in Table 1... corrected to read as follows: Table 1 Component Part No. (P/N) Serial No. (S/N) Main rotor servo-control...

  18. Genotype and environment effects on the contents of vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in wheat grain.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Van Schaik, Frank; Ravel, Catherine; Charmet, Gilles; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2011-10-12

    The total contents of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxine (B6) and the bioavailable forms of niacin (B3) were determined on wholemeal flours of 24 winter wheat varieties grown on four sites (United Kingdom, Poland, France, and Hungary) in 2007 and of two spring varieties grown on the same sites with the exception of Poland. The contents of vitamins B1 (5.53-13.55 μg/g dw), B2 (0.77-1.40 μg/g dw), and B6 (1.27-2.97 μg/g dw) were within the ranges reported previously, while the content of bioavailable vitamin B3 (0.16-1.74 μg/g dw) was about 10-15% of the total contents of vitamin B3 reported in previous studies. Strong correlations were observed between the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6, and partitioning of the variance in the contents of these three B vitamins showed that between 48 and 70% was accounted for by the environment. By contrast, the content of vitamin B2 was not correlated with the contents of other B vitamins, and 73% of the variance was ascribed to the error term, which suggests that this trait may be influenced by genotype × environment interactions. Whereas the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6 were correlated positively with the mean temperature from heading to harvest (r > 0.8), the content of vitamin B2 was positively correlated with precipitation during the 3 months prior to heading. These results are discussed in relation to the development of new wheat varieties with enhanced health benefits.

  19. Preparation of dimeric procyanidins B1, B2, B5, and B7 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of black chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa ).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-04-28

    A semisynthetic approach has been used for the preparative formation of dimeric procyanidins B1, B2, B5, and B7. As starting material for the semisynthesis, polymeric procyanidins from black chokeberry were applied. These polymers were found to consist almost exclusively of (-)-epicatechin units. Under acidic conditions the interflavanoid linkages of the polymeric procyanidins are cleaved and the liberated (-)-epicatechin can react with nucleophiles, such as (+)-catechin or (-)-epicatechin. In this way, the polymeric procyanidins are degraded while dimeric procyanidins are formed. During this reaction only dimeric procyanidins are formed that contain (-)-epicatechin in the upper unit, that is, B1 [(-)-EC-4beta-->8-(+)-C)], B2 [(-)-EC-4beta-->8-(-)-EC], B5 [(-)-EC-4beta-->6-(-)-EC], and B7 [(-)-EC-4beta-->6-(+)-C]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis can be successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and it is possible to isolate pure procyanidins B1, B2, B5, and B7 on a preparative scale.

  20. Pharmacological validation of Trypanosoma brucei phosphodiesterases B1 and B2 as druggable targets for African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Bland, Nicholas D; Wang, Cuihua; Tallman, Craig; Gustafson, Alden E; Wang, Zhouxi; Ashton, Trent D; Ochiana, Stefan O; McAllister, Gregory; Cotter, Kristina; Fang, Anna P; Gechijian, Lara; Garceau, Norman; Gangurde, Rajiv; Ortenberg, Ron; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Campbell, Robert K; Pollastri, Michael P

    2011-12-08

    Neglected tropical disease drug discovery requires application of pragmatic and efficient methods for development of new therapeutic agents. In this report, we describe our target repurposing efforts for the essential phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes TbrPDEB1 and TbrPDEB2 of Trypanosoma brucei , the causative agent for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We describe protein expression and purification, assay development, and benchmark screening of a collection of 20 established human PDE inhibitors. We disclose that the human PDE4 inhibitor piclamilast, and some of its analogues, show modest inhibition of TbrPDEB1 and B2 and quickly kill the bloodstream form of the subspecies T. brucei brucei . We also report the development of a homology model of TbrPDEB1 that is useful for understanding the compound-enzyme interactions and for comparing the parasitic and human enzymes. Our profiling and early medicinal chemistry results strongly suggest that human PDE4 chemotypes represent a better starting point for optimization of TbrPDEB inhibitors than those that target any other human PDEs.

  1. [Study on the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Li, Shulong; Zha, Wansheng; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Qixing

    2015-07-01

    To study the expression of bradykinin and its receptors B1R and B2R in the kidney immune injury in trichloroethylene-sensitized mouse and discuss the pathogenesis of Dermatitis Medicamentosa-like of TCE (ODMLT). On the first days, intradermal injection by 50% TCE and the amount of FCA mixture 100 µl for initial sensitization; on 4, 7, 10 days, painted abdominal skin by 100 µl 50% TCE for three sensitization, on 17, 19 days, painted on the back skin by 100 µl 30% TCE for initial excitation and the last challenge; 24 h before each challenge, PKSI-527+TCE group received intraperitoneal injection by inhibitor PKSI-527 (50 mg/kg); solvent control group treat without TCE and sensitization and excitation reagent the same proportion of olive oil and acetone mixture, blank control group without any treatment. Before killing the mouse, renal weight and body weight were recorded. The renals and plasma were separated at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after the last challenge and observed pathological of the renals. Expression of B1R and B2R in renal were examined by immunofluorescence technique. Plasma were examined by ELISA for BK. The renal pathological examination revealed the apparent damage of TCE sensitized mice which compared to solvent control group showed obvious cellular infiltration, vacuolar degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells. The renal damage of PKSI-527+TCE-sensitized groups which compared to the corresponding point of TCE-sensitized groups showed significantly reduced. The expression of BK in 24 h, 48 h and 72 h TCE-sensitized groups were significant higher than solvent control group and related TCE non-sensitized groups (P < 0.05) and 72 h point compared to the corresponding point of PKSI-527+TCE group was also increased, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The expression levels of B1R and B2R in the kidney in 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d TCE-sensitized groups were obviously higher than solvent control group and related TCE non

  2. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural occurrence of Fusarium species, fumonisin production by toxigenic strains, and concentrations of fumonisins B1, and B2 in conventional and organic maize grown in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ariño, Agustín; Juan, Teresa; Estopañan, Gloria; González-Cabo, José F

    2007-01-01

    Sixty samples of corn from both conventional and organic farms were tested for internal fungal contamination. Molds were identified to genus, and those belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified to species. Twenty isolates of Fusarium verticillioides were tested with a high-performance liquid chromatography-naphthalene dicarboxaldehyde-fluorescence method for their ability to produce fumonisins B1 and B2. The internal fungal infection in organic maize (63.20%) was significantly higher than that in conventional maize (40.27%) (P < 0.05). However, the distribution of fungal genera indicated a significantly higher prevalence of Fusarium in conventional (34.93%) than in organic (18.15%) maize, making Fusarium the predominant fungus in conventional maize. This difference in mold distribution between organic and conventional maize was attributed to the difference in cultivation system. The dominant Fusarium species in both conventional and organic samples was F. verticillioides. There were no significant differences in the ability of 20 selected isolates of F. verticillioides to produce fumonisins on conventional or organic corn. Up to 13.3% of the conventional corn samples contained fumonisins B1 and B2 at mean concentrations of 43 and 22 ng/g, respectively. Organic corn samples had somewhat lower levels of contamination: 35 ng/g fumonisin B1 and 19 ng/g fumonisin B2 (P > 0.05). The organic farming system, with well-balanced crop rotation, tillage, and compost fertilization, produced corn that was less likely to be contaminated with Fusarium species, although no significant difference in fumonisin concentrations was found between the two types of contaminated corn.

  4. [Determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn by high performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Lili; Ma, Liyan

    2012-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection with post-column derivatization method was developed to detect fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in corn. Several factors, such as the pH of derivatization buffer, concentration and flow rate of derivatization reagents, excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, which affected the detection of fumonisins were optimized. The separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB C18 column operated at 40 degrees C with the gradient elution by two mobile phases of 0.1 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution (pH 3.3) and methanol at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The derivatization was performed at ambient temperature. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The results showed that the optimum conditions were pH 10.5 of the derivatization reagent, OPA concentration at 2 g/L, and excitation wavelength of 335 nm, emission wavelength of 440 nm. The linear plots of FB1 and FB2 were obtained between 0.2 to 20 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients above 0.999 for both FB1 and FB2. The limits of detection of fumonisins B1 and B2 were 0.02 mg/kg. The mean recoveries at the three spiked levels of 0.1 - 4.0 mg/kg were 82.5% - 89.8%. This method is accurate, simple, rapid and suitable for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn.

  5. Evaluation of FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Jinhong; Xie, Yafeng; Xiao, Yongjian; Wang, Chuan; Kuang, Xingxing; Xu, Man; Li, Ranhui; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuanquan; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Feijun; Wu, Yimou

    2016-02-01

    Syphilis is a multistage disease caused by the invasive spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and accurate diagnosis is important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. Here, to identify appropriate diagnostic antigens for serodiagnosis of syphilis, 6 recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, including flagellins (FlaB1 [Tp0868], FlaB2 [Tp0792], and FlaB3 [Tp0870]), Tp0463, Tp0751, and Tp1038. The sensitivities were determined by screening sera from individuals with primary (n=82), secondary (n=115), latent (n=105), and congenital (n=65) syphilis. The specificities were determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n=30) and potentially cross-reactive infections including Lyme disease (n=30), leptospirosis (n=5), and hepatitis B (n=30). Our data showed that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, Tp0463, and Tp1038 exhibited higher overall sensitivities and specificities for detecting IgG antibody, with 95.4% and 98.9%, 92.6% and 95.8%, 95.1% and 95.8%, 92.6% and 97.9%, and 95.9% and 98.9%, respectively. In contrast, Tp0751 demonstrated only an overall sensitivity of 39.2%. For comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of Architect Syphilis TP were determined to be 98.1% and 93.7%, respectively. In addition, FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 demonstrated excellent performance for detecting IgM antibody in primary and congenital syphilis, with sensitivities of 76.8% and 83.1%, 72.0% and 87.7%, 74.4% and 89.2%, and 64.6% and 75.3%, respectively. These results indicate that FlaB1, FlaB2, FlaB3, and Tp0463 could be as novel diagnostic candidates for serodiagnosis of syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitation of fumonisin B1 and B2 in feed using FMOC pre-column derivatization with HPLC and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lori L; Francis, Kyle A; Johnson, Joseph T; Gaskill, Cynthia L

    2017-11-01

    Pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was determined to be effective for quantitation of fumonisins B 1 and B 2 in feed. Liquid-solid extraction, clean-up using immunoaffinity solid phase extraction chromatography, and FMOC-derivatization preceded analysis by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence. Instrument response was unchanged in the presence of matrix, indicating no need to use matrix-matched calibrants. Furthermore, high method recoveries indicated calibrants do not need to undergo clean-up to account for analyte loss. Established method features include linear instrument response from 0.04-2.5µg/mL and stable derivatized calibrants over 7days. Fortified cornmeal method recoveries from 0.1-30.0μg/g were determined for FB 1 (75.1%-109%) and FB 2 (96.0%-115.2%). Inter-assay precision ranged from 1.0%-16.7%. Method accuracy was further confirmed using certified reference material. Inter-laboratory comparison with naturally-contaminated field corn demonstrated equivalent results with conventional derivatization. These results indicate FMOC derivatization is a suitable alternative for fumonisins B 1 and B 2 quantitation in corn-based feeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure assessment to fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 through consumption of gluten-free foodstuffs intended for people affected by celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria; Cirillo, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins. The sample consisted of 154 gluten-free products analyzed according to method UNI EN 14352:2005. Results showed a heterogeneous contamination by fumoninisin B1, B2 and B3, although below limits of Commission Regulation No 1126/2007 and consistent with other European literature data. Exposure to fumonisins was evaluated for different age groups. In some cases exposure to fumonisins could not be ignored since the total intake could exceed EFSA Provisional Maximum Tolerable Intake up to 150%. Therefore, in the light of an overall contamination by fumonisins the total dietary exposure could be underrated not only in people affected by celiac disease, but also in non-celiac population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Increased levels of B1 and B2 SINE transcripts in mouse fibroblast cells due to minute virus of mice infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Warren P; Tamburic, Lillian; Astell, Caroline R

    2004-10-01

    Minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous parvovirus, has served as a model for understanding parvovirus infection including host cell response to infection. In this paper, we report the effect of MVM infection on host cell gene expression in mouse fibroblast cells (LA9 cells), analyzed by differential display. Somewhat surprisingly, our data reveal that few cellular protein-coding genes appear to be up- or downregulated and identify the murine B1 and B2 short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts as being increased upon MVM infection. Primer extension assays confirm the effect of MVM infection on SINE expression and demonstrate that both SINEs are upregulated in a roughly linear fashion throughout MVM infection. They also demonstrate that the SINE response was due to RNA polymerase III transcription and not contaminating DNA or RNA polymerase II transcription. Furthermore, expression of MVM NS1, the major nonstructural protein, by transient transfection also leads to an increase in both murine SINEs. We believe this is the first time that the B1 and B2 SINEs have been shown to be altered by viral infection and the first time parvovirus infection has been shown to increase SINE expression. The increase in SINE transcripts caused by MVM infection does not appear to be due to an increase in either of the basal transcription factors TFIIIC110 or 220, in contrast to that which has been shown for other viruses.

  10. Pressure induced structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Aayushi; Dixit, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    Pressure induced structural phase transition of NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type (B2) structure in Sodium Chloride NaCl are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP) with long range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and the short-range repulsive interaction upto second-neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach with modified ionic charge is reported here. The reckon value of the phase transition pressure (Pt) and the magnitude of the discontinuity in volume at the transition pressure are compatible as compared with reported data. The variations of elastic constants and their combinations with pressure follow ordered behavior. The present approach has also succeeded in predicting the Born and relative stability criteria.

  11. "Send & hold" clinical decision support rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-06-27

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  12. Gluten-Free Flours from Different Raw Materials as the Source of Vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B6.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Iga; Gliszczynska-Swiglo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Gluten-free (GF) products are those with a natural absence or acceptable level (<20 mg/kg) of gluten. They should be a part of a diet for people with gluten-related disorders, like celiac disease. Recently the popularity of a gluten-free diet (GFD) has risen extremely, because a lot of healthy individuals exclude gluten from their menus. According to the literature data on nutritional deficiencies in the GFD, this trend seems to be risky. This paper describes the nutritional value of 14 flours from different GF raw materials from the aspect of B-group vitamin content (B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , B 6 ). Vitamins were determined using high performance liquid chromatography after enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the samples. The vitamin contents significantly differed in the analysed flours. The content (in 100 g of the product) of vitamin B 1 ranged from 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 0.60 mg (teff flour), vitamin B 2 from 0.03 mg (GF flour with oats) to 0.22 mg (buckwheat flour), vitamin B 3 from below 0.01 mg (amaranth flour) to 6.02 mg (millet flour), and vitamin B 6 from 0.03 mg (acorn flour) to 0.69 mg (amaranth flour). The content of vitamins in the analysed GF flours was also compared to gluten-containing flours. Obtained results indicate that flours from teff, millet, chestnut, buckwheat, and amaranth are better sources of certain B-group vitamins than flours from corn, rice, and some flours with gluten.

  13. Erythrocyte concentrations of B1, B2, B6 but not plasma C and E are reliable indicators of nutrition status in the presence of systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ghashut, Rawia A; McMillan, Donald C; Kinsella, John; Talwar, Dinesh

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the plasma concentration of vitamin D, carotenoids, zinc and selenium are associated with the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response. In order to examine whether other vitamins may be affected and whether red cell concentrations are less affected by systemic inflammation the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the systemic inflammatory response on red cell measurements of vitamins B1, B2 and B6, and plasma concentration of vitamin C and E in a large cohort of patients referred for a nutritional screen. Patients referred for nutritional assessment of B1 (n = 551), B2 (n = 251), B6 (n = 313), ascorbic acid (n = 494) and α-tocopherol (n = 395) concentrations. These vitamins were measured using routine laboratory methods. The median concentrations of vitamin B1 grouped according to C-reactive protein concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 543, 664 and 766 ng/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 41% higher). The median concentration of vitamin B1 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 547, 664 and 701 ng/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 28% higher). The median concentrations of red cell vitamin B2 grouped according to CRP concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 nmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 9% higher). The median red cell concentrations of vitamin B2 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 2.1, 2.4 and 2.3 nmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 14% higher). The median concentrations of red cell vitamin B6 grouped according to CRP concentrations ≤10, 11-80 and >80 mg/L were 534, 548 and 767 pmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 44% higher). The median red cell concentrations of vitamin B6 grouped according to albumin concentrations ≥35, 25-34 and <25 g/l were 462, 644 and 840 pmol/g Hb respectively (p < 0.001, 82% higher). In contrast, the median plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid

  14. Natural incidence of Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2 associated with maize kernels from nine provinces in China in 2012.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meng; Li, Renjie; Guo, Congcong; Pang, Minhao; Liu, Yingchao; Dong, Jingao

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Ningxia) in China. Fusarium species were isolated and identified using morphological (electron microscope) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing). Fumonisins B1 and B2 were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with OPA (2-Mercaptoethanol, o-phthaldialdehyde) post-column derivatisation. A total of 2321 Fusarium isolates (20.7%) were obtained from all the samples. These isolates included nine Fusarium species, namely, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale and F. chlamydosporum. The incidence of occurrence of Fusarium species in Guizhou was the highest, while in Inner Mongolia it was the lowest. F. verticillioides was the dominant species of maize ear rot in Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei and Ningxia. F. graminearum was the dominant species in Yunnan, Guizhou and Shanxi. F. subglutinans was the dominant species in Heilongjiang. F. verticillioides and F. graminearum percentages were the same in Inner Mongolia. The incidence of fumonisins in Liaoning was high (up to 81.0%) and in Heilongjiang low (up to 10.3%). Except Shanxi, more than 50% of maize samples from other provinces were contaminated with fumonisins, with concentrations less than 500 ng g(-1). About 33% of maize samples from Yunnan were contaminated with high levels of fumonisins, and average of fumonisin levels were 5191 ng g(-1). Fusarium species causing maize

  15. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  16. Aflatoxin (B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ) contamination in rice of Mexico and Spain, from local sources or imported.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonnet, Elena; Carvajal, Magda; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Castillo-Urueta, Pável; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Melero-Vara, José María

    2013-11-01

    Rice is an important cereal but it is often contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify AF (B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 ) in 67 rice samples cultivated in Mexico and Spain, and from imported crops collected in 2008 and 2009. The methodology was validated, the rice samples were concentrated and purified with immunoaffinity columns and were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average total AF (AFt) in the Spanish rice was 37.3 μg/kg, the range was from 1.6 to 1383 μg/kg, the most contaminated samples being from San Juan de Aznalfarache, Sevilla (AFt = 138.6 μg/kg), from Tortosa, Tarragona (AFt = 104.6 μg/kg), and Calasparra, Murcia (AFt = 103.9 μg/kg). The rice imported from France to Spain had AFt of 26.6 μg/kg and from Pakistan AFt of 18.4 μg/kg, showing less AF contamination than the local one. The rice which originated from Mexico contained (AFt = 16.9 μg/kg), and those imported from the United States (AFt = 14.4 μg/kg) and Uruguay (AFt = 15.6 μg/kg). The imported rice had better quality in terms of the presence of AFs. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. On the P 21/m and Pmmn pathways of the B1 B2 phase transition in NaCl: a quantum-mechanical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catti, Michele

    2004-06-01

    The monoclinic P 21/m and orthorhombic Pmmn (Watanabe et al' s-type) mechanisms of the high-pressure phase transition of NaCl between the B1 (rocksalt, Fm\\overline 3 m ) and B2 (CsCl-like, Pm\\overline 3 m ) cubic phases were investigated by ab initio DFT techniques with all-electron localized basis sets. Enthalpy profiles versus the order parameter were computed at constant pressures of 15, 26.3 (equilibrium) and 35 GPa for each pathway. The monoclinic path shows a lower activation enthalpy at the equilibrium pressure, but at different p values (hysteresis effects) the other mechanism becomes competitive. In the P 21/m case, sharp jumps of structural parameters are observed along the transformation coordinate, which can be explained by a mechanism based on discontinuous sliding of alternating pairs of (100) atomic layers. This accounts also for the predicted formation of a metastable intermediate Cmcm phase with TlI-like structure, similar to that observed experimentally at high pressure in AgCl, and the relations with the KOH structure are discussed, too. On the other hand, along the Pmmn pathway the structural parameters vary quite smoothly, indicating a continuous motion of neighbouring atomic planes within the constraint of the additional mirror symmetry.

  18. Mass spectrometric identification and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Corymbia citriodora aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the detoxification potential of Corymbia citriodora plant extracts against aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L−1 and AFB2; 50 μg L−1) in In vitro and In vivo assays. Detoxification was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by TLC and HPLC, respectively. The study was carried out by using different parameters of optimal temperature, pH and incubation time period. Results indicated that C. citriodora leaf extract(s) more effectively degrade AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 95.21% and 92.95% respectively than C. citriodora branch extract, under optimized conditions. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products was done by LCMS/MS analysis. Ten degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 and their fragmentation pathways were proposed based on molecular formulas and MS/MS spectra. Toxicity of these degraded products was significantly reduced as compared to that of parent compounds because of the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring. The biological toxicity of degraded toxin was further analyzed by brine shrimps bioassay, which showed that only 17.5% mortality in larvae was recorded as compared to untreated toxin where 92.5% mortality was observed after 96hr of incubation. Therefore, our finding suggests that C. citriodora leaf extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:26423838

  19. Extraction of fumonisins B1 and B2 from white rice flour and their stability in white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y; Lewis, David A

    2002-06-05

    To extract fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) from Thai white rice flour, different solvent mixtures, temperatures, pH values, and addition of enzymes or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) were examined. Three extractions with 0.1 M Na2EDTA achieved the highest recoveries. Initial recoveries of fumonisins added to white rice flour, cornstarch, cornmeal, and glucose varied with commodity. Fumonisins disappeared in Thai white rice flour after 12 h, but 55% remained in another white rice flour. With cornstarch 20-30% fumonisins remained after 24 h; only 43% of 14C-labeled FB1 materials extracted from cornstarch was eluted with methanol from an immunoaffinity column. Fumonisins were stable in cornmeal for 24 h but only approximately 50% remained after 30 days. With glucose, 25% of FB1 and FB2 remained 24 h after addition; N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)FB(1) andN-(carboxymethyl)FB(1) were detected in lower amounts than residual FB(1) after 3 months.

  20. Simultaneous determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in different types of maize by matrix solid phase dispersion and HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Barros; de Castro Gomes Vieira, Carolyne Menezes; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2017-10-15

    This work involved the optimization and validation of a method, according to Directive 2002/657/EC and the Analytical Quality Assurance Manual of Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, Brazil, for simultaneous extraction and determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize. The extraction procedure was based on a matrix solid phase dispersion approach, the optimization of which employed a sequence of different factorial designs. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for determining these analytes using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method employed only 1g of silica gel for dispersion and elution with 70% ammonium formate aqueous buffer (50mmolL -1 , pH 9), representing a simple, cheap and chemically friendly sample preparation method. Trueness (recoveries: 86-106%), precision (RSD ≤19%), decision limits, detection capabilities and measurement uncertainties were calculated for the validated method. The method scope was expanded to popcorn kernels, white maize kernels and yellow maize grits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A rapid method for detection of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn meal using Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy implemented with integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Gaspardo, B; Del Zotto, S; Torelli, E; Cividino, S R; Firrao, G; Della Riccia, G; Stefanon, B

    2012-12-01

    Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is an analytical procedure generally used to detect organic compounds in food. In this work the ability to predict fumonisin B(1)+B(2) contents in corn meal using an FT-NIR spectrophotometer, equipped with an integration sphere, was assessed. A total of 143 corn meal samples were collected in Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (Italy) and used to define a 15 principal components regression model, applying partial least square regression algorithm with full cross validation as internal validation. External validation was performed to 25 unknown samples. Coefficients of correlation, root mean square error and standard error of calibration were 0.964, 0.630 and 0.632, respectively and the external validation confirmed a fair potential of the model in predicting FB(1)+FB(2) concentration. Results suggest that FT-NIR analysis is a suitable method to detect FB(1)+FB(2) in corn meal and to discriminate safe meals from those contaminated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Affinity capture of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by aptamer-functionalized magnetic agarose microspheres prior to their determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Lu, Anxiang; Fu, Hailong; Li, Bingru; Yang, Meihua; Wang, Jihua; Luan, Yunxia

    2018-06-12

    A novel adsorbent is described for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of the aflatoxins AFB 1 and AFB 2 (AFBs). Magnetic agarose microspheres (MAMs) were functionalized with an aptamer to bind the AFBs which then were quantified by HPLC and on-line post-column photochemical derivatization with fluorescence detection. Streptavidin-conjugated MAMs were synthesized first by a highly reproducible strategy. They possess strong magnetism and high surface area. The MAMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, laser diffraction particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Then, the AFB-aptamers were immobilized on MAMs through biotin-streptavidin interaction. Finally, the MSPE is performed by suspending the aptamer-modified MAMs in the sample. They are then collected by an external magnetic field and the AFBs are eluted with methanol/buffer (20:80). Several parameters affecting the coupling, capturing and eluting efficiency were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method is fast, has good linearity, high selectivity, and sensitivity. The LODs are 25 pg·mL -1 for AFB 1 and 10 pg·mL -1 for AFB 2 . The binding capacity is 350 ± 8 ng·g -1 for AFB 1 and 384 ± 8 ng·g -1 for AFB 2 , and the precision of the assay is <8%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of AFBs in spiked maize samples. Graphical abstract Schematic of novel aptamer functionalized magnetic agarose microspheres (Apt-MAM) as magnetic adsorbents for simultaneous and specific affinity capture of aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 (AFBs).

  3. [Determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in armeniacae semen amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2013-10-01

    A simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in Armeniacae Semen Amarum and the application was performance in 11 samples collected from different markets, medical stores and hospitals. The sample was extracted with 84% acetonitrile/water and 250 microL extraction was directly injected into a LC-MS/MS system without further purification procedure after being redissolved with methanol. The LC separation was performed on a C18 column with a linear gradient elution program of 4 mmol x L(-1) NH4 Ac-0.1% formic acid solution and menthol as the mobile phase. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for selective determination of the four aflatoxins on a triple quadruple mass spectrometer, which was operated in positive ionization modes. All the four aflatoxins showed a good linear relationship with r > 0.999 0, the average recoveries were between 87.88% and 102.9% and the matrix effect was ranged from 90.71% to 99.30% in low, intermediate and high levels. Furthermore, the higher recovery was obtained by the method reported in this study, comparing to the cleanup procedure with the Mycosep 226 purification column. Eleven samples collected were detected and the contamination levels of the AFB1 were between 1.590-2.340 microg x kg(-1) and the AF (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) was ranged from 2.340 to 3.340 microg x kg(-1). In summary, the developed method was suitable to detect and screen AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 in Armeniacae Semen Amarum.

  4. [Effect of vitamins B1, B2, B6, folic acid and vitamin C on the motor activity of chicken's intestines in chronic experiments and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Nagórna-Stasiak, B; Wawrzeńska, M

    1987-01-01

    The studies were carried out on 33 chickens of the broiler breed in chronic experiments and in vitro. In the chronic experiments the motility of the jejunum under the influence of vitamins of group B and vitamine C was recorded in 8 chickens. The vitamins were used at concentrations from 10 mg/l to 2.5 x 10(3) mg/l. In the experiments in vitro, the motility of the isolated segment of the jejunum was recorded by the method of Magnus. In this part of experiments the chickens were divided into 3 groups, of which group I (15 chickens) were fed with DKA finischer mixture, group II (5 hens) received, besides the mixture, per os 200 mg of vitamin C for 2 weeks, group III (5 hens) received the mixture and for 2 weeks intraperitoneally 200 mg of vitamin C. The effect of vitamins of group B in vitro was determined in chickens of group I, whereas that of vitamin C in chickens of group I, II and III. At the same time the level of vitamin C in the wall of the jejunum was determined by the method of Roe-Kuenther. It was shown that vitamin B2 and folic acid caused stimulation of intestine motility in the chickens, while vitamin B1, B6 and C decreased the motoric activity. Increased level of vitamin C in the intestinal wall resulted in increased intestine sensitivity. Chicken intestines sensitivity to vitamins was 10 times stronger to vitamins than that of the intestines of rabbits.

  5. Analysis of the roles of cyclin B1 and cyclin B2 in porcine oocyte maturation by inhibiting synthesis with antisense RNA injection.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Takao; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji; Yamashita, Masakane; Takakura, Ikuko; Tojo, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    The function of cyclin B1 (CB1) and cyclin B2 (CB2) during porcine oocyte maturation was investigated by injecting oocytes with their antisense RNAs (asRNAs). At first, protein levels of both cyclin Bs were examined by immunoblotting, revealing that immature oocytes had only CB2, at a level comparable to 1/20 to 1/40 of that detected in first metaphase oocytes. Both cyclin B syntheses were started around germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD); CB1 and CB2 peaked at the second metaphase and first metaphase, respectively. We obtained a porcine CB2 cDNA fragment, which was 88% homologous with human CB2, by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNAs of immature porcine oocytes and a primer set of human CB2. Specific asRNAs of CB1 and CB2 were prepared in vitro. Then one, the other, or both were injected into the cytoplasm of immature oocytes. CB1 asRNA inhibited CB1 synthesis specifically; the injected oocytes underwent first meiosis normally but could not arrest at the second meiotic metaphase. CB2 asRNA inhibited CB2 synthesis specifically, but had almost no effect on the maturation of injected oocytes. When both CB1 and CB2 asRNAs were injected, synthesis of both cyclin Bs was inhibited, and GVBD was significantly suppressed but occurred slowly. These results suggest that CB1 is the principal molecule for regulation in mammalian oocyte maturation, whereas CB2 has only an accessory role. They also show that in porcine oocytes, cyclin B synthesis is not necessary for GVBD induction itself, but synthesis of at least one cyclin B, CB1 or CB2, is necessary for GVBD induction in a normal time course.

  6. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. However, O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  7. Effects of ACTH, dexamethasone, and adrenalectomy on 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene expression in the rat central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ping; Kenyon, Christopher J; MacKenzie, Scott M; Nichol, Katherine; Seckl, Jonathan R; Fraser, Robert; Connell, John M C; Davies, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Using a highly sensitive quantitative RT-PCR method for the measurement of CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) mRNAs, we previously demonstrated that CYP11B2 expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is subject to regulation by dietary sodium. We have now quantified the expression of these genes in the CNS of male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats in response to systemic ACTH infusion, dexamethasone infusion, and to adrenalectomy. CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 mRNA levels were measured in total RNA isolated from the adrenal gland and discrete brain regions using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. ACTH infusion (40 ng/day for 7 days, N=8) significantly increased CYP11B1 mRNA in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex compared with animals infused with vehicle only. ACTH infusion decreased adrenal CYP11B2 expression but increased expression in all of the CNS regions except the cortex. Dexamethasone (10 μg/day for 7 days, N=8) reduced adrenal CYP11B1 mRNA compared with control animals but had no significant effect on either gene's expression in the CNS. Adrenalectomy (N=6 per group) significantly increased CYP11B1 expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and raised CYP11B2 expression in the cerebellum relative to sham-operated animals. This study confirms the transcription of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 throughout the CNS and demonstrates that gene transcription is subject to differential regulation by ACTH and circulating corticosteroid levels. PMID:18252953

  8. Abnormal levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) in tumour tissue and blood samples from patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Pollard, Damian; Larkin, AnneMarie; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Gately, Kathy; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Barr, Martin P; Lynch, Vincent; Ballot, Jo; Crown, John; Moriarty, Michael; O'Brien, Emmet; Morgan, Ross; Clynes, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.

  9. Biotransformation of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists spironolactone and canrenone by human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2: Characterization of the products and their influence on mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Lina; Müller, Anne-Rose; Hobler, Anna; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Zapp, Josef; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Spironolactone and its major metabolite canrenone are potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and are, therefore, applied as drugs for the treatment of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension. We report that both compounds can be converted by the purified adrenocortical cytochromes P450 CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, while no conversion of the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone was observed. As their natural function, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 carry out the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids. Dissociation constants for the new exogenous substrates were determined by a spectroscopic binding assay and demonstrated to be comparable to those of the natural substrates, 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone. Metabolites were produced at preparative scale with a CYP11B2-dependent Escherichia coli whole-cell system and purified by HPLC. Using NMR spectroscopy, the metabolites of spironolactone were identified as 11β-OH-spironolactone, 18-OH-spironolactone and 19-OH-spironolactone. Canrenone was converted to 11β-OH-canrenone, 18-OH-canrenone as well as to the CYP11B2-specific product 11β,18-diOH-canrenone. Therefore, a contribution of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 to the biotransformation of drugs should be taken into account and the metabolites should be tested for their potential toxic and pharmacological effects. A mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation assay in antagonist mode revealed 11β-OH-spironolactone as pharmaceutically active metabolite, whereas all other hydroxylation products negate the antagonist properties of spironolactone and canrenone. Thus, human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 turned out to metabolize steroid-based drugs additionally to the liver-dependent biotransformation of drugs. Compared with the action of the parental drug, changed properties of the metabolites at the target site have been observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of fumonisins B1 and B2 in food and feed using monolithic column and positive confirmation by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Salleh, Baharuddin; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Abdul Manaf, Normaliza Hj; Abdul Latiff, Aishah

    2010-10-29

    The development of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method for the determination of the mycotoxins fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2) by using silica-based monolithic column is described. The samples were first extracted using acetonitrile:water (50:50, v/v) and purified by using a C(18) solid phase extraction-based clean-up column. Then, pre-column derivatization for the analyte using ortho-phthaldialdehyde in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol was carried out. The developed method involved optimization of mobile phase composition using methanol and phosphate buffer, injection volume, temperature and flow rate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed phase Chromolith(®) RP-18e column (100 mm × 4.6 mm) at 30 °C and eluted with a mobile phase of a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.35 (78:22, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The fumonisins separation was achieved in about 4 min, compared to approximately 20 min by using a C(18) particle-packed column. The fluorescence excitation and emission were at 335 nm and 440 nm, respectively. The limits of detections were 0.01-0.04 μg g(-1) fumonisin B(1) and fumonisin B(2), respectively. Good recoveries were found for spiked samples (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 μg g(-1) fumonisins B(1) and B(2)), ranging from 84.0 to 106.0% for fumonisin B(1) and from 81.0 to 103.0% for fumonisin B(2). Fifty-three samples were analyzed including 39 food and feeds and 14 inoculated corn and rice. Results show that 12.8% of the food and feed samples were contaminated with fumonisin B(1) (range, 0.01-0.51 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (0.05 μg g(-1)). The total fumonisins in these samples however, do not exceed the legal limits established by the European Union of 0.8 μg g(-1). Of the 14 inoculated samples, 57.1% contained fumonisin B(1) (0.16-41.0 μg g(-1)) and fumonisin B(2) (range, 0.22-50.0 μg g(-1)). Positive confirmation of selected samples was carried out using

  11. Global Profiling of hnRNP A2/B1-RNA Binding on Chromatin Highlights LncRNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Eric D; Balas, Maggie M; Griffin, April M; Roberts, Justin T; Johnson, Aaron M

    2018-06-23

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) often carry out their functions through associations with adaptor proteins. We recently identified heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 as an adaptor of the human HOTAIR lncRNA. hnRNP A2 and B1 are splice isoforms of the same gene. The spliced version of HOTAIR preferentially associates with the B1 isoform, which we hypothesize contributes to RNA-RNA matching between HOTAIR and transcripts of target genes in breast cancer. Here we used enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) to map the direct interactions between A2/B1 and RNA in breast cancer cells. Despite differing by only twelve amino acids, the A2 and B1 splice isoforms associate preferentially with distinct populations of RNA in vivo. Through cellular fractionation experiments we characterize the pattern of RNA association in chromatin, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. We find that a majority of interactions occur on chromatin, even those that do not contribute to co-transcriptional splicing. A2/B1 binding site locations on multiple RNAs hint at a contribution to the regulation and function of lncRNAs. Surprisingly, the strongest A2/B1 binding site occurs in a retained intron of HOTAIR, which interrupts an RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. In vitro eCLIP experiments highlight additional exonic B1 binding sites in HOTAIR which also surround the RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. Interestingly, a version of HOTAIR with the intron retained is still capable of making RNA-RNA interactions in vitro through the hotspot region. Our data further characterize the multiple functions of a repurposed splicing factor with isoform-biased interactions, and highlight that the majority of these functions occur on chromatin-associated RNA.

  12. Fabrication of a novel nanocomposite based on sol-gel process for hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction of aflatoxins: B1 and B2, in cereals combined with high performane liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Sorayaei, Hoda; Samadi, Fateme; Masrournia, Mahboubeh; Bakherad, Zohreh

    2011-10-15

    The new pre-concentration technique, hollow fiber-solid phase microextraction based on carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel and liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection was applied to determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2) (AFB(1), AFB(2)) in rice, peanut and wheat samples. This research provides an overview of trends related to synthesis of solid phase microextraction (SPME) sorbnents that improves the assay of aflatoxins as the semi-polar compounds in several real samples. It mainly includes summary and a list of the results for a simple carbon nanotube reinforced sol-gel in-fiber device. This device was used for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of aflatoxins B1, B2 in real samples. In this technique carbon nanotube reinforced sol was prepared by the sol-gel method via the reaction of phenyl trimethoxysilane (PTMS) with a basic catalyst (tris hydroxymethyl aminomethan). The influences of microextraction parameters such as pH, ageing time, carbon nanotube contents, desorption conditions, desorption solvent and agitation speed were investigated. Optimal HPLC conditions were: C(18) reversed phase column for separation, water-acetonitril-methanol (35:10:55) as the mobile phase and maximum wavelength for detection was 370 nm. The method was evaluated statistically and under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the analytes were 0.074 and 0.061 ng/mL for B1 and B2 respectively. Limit of quantification for B1 and B2 was 0.1 ng/mL too (n=7). The precisions were in the range of 2.829-2.976% (n=3), and linear ranges were within 0.1 and 400 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cereals (peanut, wheat, rice) with the relative recoveries from 47.43% to 106.83%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative study for the establishment of the 2(nd) International Standard for Bleomycin Complex A2/B2.

    PubMed

    Jorajuria, S; Raphalen, C; Dujardin, V; Daas, A

    2015-01-01

    Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS) for bleomycin complex A2/B2. Eight laboratories from different countries participated. Potencies of the candidate material were estimated by microbiological assays with sensitive micro-organisms. To ensure continuity between consecutive batches, the 1(st) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was used as a reference. Based on the results of the study, the 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 was adopted at the meeting of the WHO Expert Committee for Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2014 with an assigned potency of 12 500 International Units (IU) per vial. The 2(nd) IS for bleomycin complex A2/B2 is available from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM).

  14. Effects of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormones rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2 on the osmo-ionic regulation of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Díaz, Fernando; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2018-03-26

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline organism that copes with salinity fluctuations in the environment; therefore, its osmotic and ionic regulation abilities are vital. Osmoregulation may be controlled by the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a neuropeptide mainly expressed in the eyestalks. In L. vannamei, CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 are CHH isoforms isolated from the eyestalks whose expression is influenced by environmental salinity. It has been suggested that they are involved in the response to salinity stress. To clarify this, we investigated the effect of the recombinant peptides, rCHH-B1 and rCHH-B2, on the osmo-ionic regulation of shrimp acutely exposed to different salinity conditions (8, 26 and 45‰). Both rCHHs promoted differential effects on the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and the ionoregulatory capacity (IC) for hemolymph Na + and Cl - during iso-osmotic (26‰) and hyper-osmotic (45‰) transfers. These changes were linked to the changes observed in Na + /K + ATPase and carbonic anhydrase gene expression in gills, especially under high salinity conditions, suggesting that the hormones may regulate the expression of these genes. Glucose and protein levels measured during acute salinity transfer suggest their roles as sources of metabolic energy for osmotic regulation or as organic osmolytes. These results taken together suggest that both the CHH-B1 and CHH-B2 peptides are important regulators of the physiological response of L. vannamei to acute salinity fluctuations.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Total Vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in Infant Formula and Related Nutritionals by Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2015.14.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Louis M; McClure, Sean C; Reddy, Todime M; Cellar, Nicholas A

    2016-05-01

    This method provides simultaneous determination of total vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 in infant formula and related nutritionals (adult and infant). The method was given First Action for vitamins B1, B2, and B6, but not B3, during the AOAC Annual Meeting in September 2015. The method uses acid phosphatase to dephosphorylate the phosphorylated vitamin forms. It then measures thiamine (vitamin B1); riboflavin (vitamin B2); nicotinamide and nicotinic acid (vitamin B3); and pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) from digested sample extract by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single-laboratory validation was performed on 14 matrixes provided by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) to demonstrate method effectiveness. The method met requirements of the AOAC SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirement for each of the three vitamins, including average over-spike recovery of 99.6 ± 3.5%, average repeatability of 1.5 ± 0.8% relative standard deviation, and average intermediate precision of 3.9 ± 1.3% relative standard deviation.

  16. Influence of pressure and volume on superconductivity in Mg1-xAlxB2 and Mg(B1-yCy)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Roopam; Singh, Namita; Khenata, R.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    A quantitative analysis of observed parameters is studied that influences superconducting state in Al (C) doped MgB2. The three square well model with three interactions namely, the Coulomb the electron-phonon and the electron- charge fluctuations is based on indirect-exchange Cooper pairing of electrons (quasiparticles) via adhoc attractive charge fluctuations apart from phonons. The relevant energy gap expressions are solved. The indirect-exchange formalism provides a unique set of electronic parameters [electron-phonon (λσσph), electron-charge fluctuations (λσσpl), electron-electron (μσσ) and Coulomb screening parameter (μσσ*)] which, in particular, reproduce the dependence of Tc on Al (C) doping concentration and pressure P. Also, the variation in slope dTc/dP with increased Al (C) substitution (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)(0 ≤ y ≤ 0.125) is studied. Moreover, variation of dlnTc/dV Å-3 as a function of electron-phonon coupling strength and as a function of Coulomb screening parameter is studied.

  17. Observation of the $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b1}$$(3P) and $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b2}$$(3P) and measurement of their masses

    SciTech Connect

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    Themore » $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b1}$$(3P) and $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b3}$$(3P) states are observed through their $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) $$\\gamma$$ decays, using an event sample of proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. data were collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 80.0 fb$$^{-1}$$. $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) mesons are identified through their dimuon decay channel, while the low-energy photons are detected after converting to e$^+$e$^-$ pairs in the silicon tracker, leading to a $$\\chi_\\mathrm{b}$$(3P) mass resolution of 2.2 MeV. This is the first time that the $J =$ 1 and 2 states are well resolved and their masses individually measured: 10$$\\,$$513.42 $$\\pm$$ 0.41 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.18 (syst) MeV and 10$$\\,$$524.02 $$\\pm$$ 0.57 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.18 (syst) MeV; they are determined with respect to the world-average value of the $$\\Upsilon$$(3S) mass, which has an uncertainty of 0.5 MeV. mass splitting is measured to be 10.60 $$\\pm$$ 0.64 (stat) $$\\pm$$ 0.17 (syst) MeV.« less

  18. Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1) with Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gődér, Beatrix; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and drinks causes serious health risks for people worldwide. It is well-known that the reactive epoxide metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) forms covalent adducts with serum albumin. However, non-covalent interactions of aflatoxins with human serum albumin (HSA) are poorly characterized. Thus, in this study the complex formation of aflatoxins was examined with HSA applying spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Our results demonstrate that aflatoxins form stable complexes with HSA as reflected by binding constants between 2.1 × 104 and 4.5 × 104 dm3/mol. A binding free energy value of −26.90 kJ mol−1 suggests a spontaneous binding process between AFB1 and HSA at room-temperature, while the positive entropy change of 55.1 JK−1 mol−1 indicates a partial decomposition of the solvation shells of the interacting molecules. Modeling studies and investigations with site markers suggest that Sudlow’s Site I of subdomain IIA is the high affinity binding site of aflatoxins on HSA. Interaction of AFB1 with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumins was also investigated. Similar stabilities of the examined AFB1-albumin complexes were observed suggesting the low species differences of the albumin-binding of aflatoxins. PMID:29068381

  19. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    PubMed

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  20. Measurement of the production cross section ratio σ(χ b2(1P)) / σ(χ b1(1P)) in pp collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-02-24

    Our measurement of the production cross section ratio σ(χ b2(1P))/σ(χ b1(1P)) is presented. The χ b1(1P) and χ b2(1P) bottomonium states, promptly produced in pp collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV , are detected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC through their radiative decays χ b1,2(1P)→Υ(1S)+γ. The emitted photons are measured through their conversion to e +e - pairs, whose reconstruction allows the two states to be resolved. The Υ(1S) is measured through its decay to two muons. An event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb -1 is used to measure the cross section ratiomore » in a phase-space region defined by the photon pseudorapidity, |η γ|<1.0; the Υ(1S) rapidity, |y Υ|<1.5; and the Υ(1S) transverse momentum, 7T Υ<40 GeV . Finally, the cross section ratio shows no significant dependence on the Υ(1S) transverse momentum, with a measured average value of 0.85± 0.07 (stat + syst) ± 0.08 (BF), where the first uncertainty is the combination of the experimental statistical and systematic uncertainties and the second is from the uncertainty in the ratio of the χ b branching fractions.« less

  1. Measurement of the production cross section ratio σ (χb2 (1 P)) / σ (χb1 (1 P)) in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, S.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Heister, A.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Dujany, G.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Gray, J.; Kenny, R. P., III; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-04-01

    A measurement of the production cross section ratio σ (χb2 (1 P)) / σ (χb1 (1 P)) is presented. The χb1 (1 P) and χb2 (1 P) bottomonium states, promptly produced in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV, are detected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC through their radiative decays χ b 1 , 2 (1 P) → ϒ (1 S) + γ. The emitted photons are measured through their conversion to e+e- pairs, whose reconstruction allows the two states to be resolved. The ϒ (1 S) is measured through its decay to two muons. An event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.7 fb-1 is used to measure the cross section ratio in a phase-space region defined by the photon pseudorapidity, |ηγ | < 1.0; the ϒ (1 S) rapidity, |yϒ | < 1.5; and the ϒ (1 S) transverse momentum, 7 < pTϒ < 40 GeV. The cross section ratio shows no significant dependence on the ϒ (1 S) transverse momentum, with a measured average value of 0.85 ± 0.07 (stat +syst) ± 0.08 (BF), where the first uncertainty is the combination of the experimental statistical and systematic uncertainties and the second is from the uncertainty in the ratio of the χb branching fractions.

  2. High-Resolution Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy of Thiophosgene: the νb{1}, νb{5}, 2νb{4}, and νb{2} + 2νb{6} bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellar, Bob; Billinghurst, Brant E.

    2015-06-01

    Thiophosgene (Cl_2CS) is a favorite model system for studies of photophysics, vibrational dynamics, and intersystem interactions. But at high resolution its infrared spectrum is very congested due to hot bands and multiple isotopic species. Previously, we reported the first high resolution IR study of this molecule, analyzing the νb{2} (504 wn) and νb{4} (471 wn) fundamental bands. Here we continue, with analysis of the νb{1} (1139 wn) and νb{5} (820 wn) fundamentals for the two most abundant isotopologues, 35Cl2CS and 35Cl37ClCS, based on spectra with a resolution of about 0.001 wn obtained at the Canadian Light Source far-infrared beamline using synchrotron radiation and a Bruker IFS125 Fourier transform spectrometer. The νb{2} + νb{4} (942 wn) and νb{2} + 2νb{6} (1104 wn) bands are also studied here. But so far the νb{2} + νb{6} combination band (795 wn) resists analysis, as do the weak νb{3} (292.9 wn) and νb{6} (≈300? wn) fundamentals. A.R.W. McKellar, B.E.Billinghurst, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 260, 66 (2010).

  3. Symbiotic effects of a lipase-secreting bacterium, Burkholderia arboris SL1B1, and a glycerol-assimilating yeast, Candida cylindracea SL1B2, on triacylglycerol degradation.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Miura, Atsuto; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2009-04-01

    Although microbial degradation of oils and fats has been developed for application in wastewater treatment, microbial degraders are not always effective in the field, for example, in grease-traps installed for the treatment of wastewater from restaurants and food industries. Wastewater in grease-traps is usually in a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5 due to hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Because many microorganisms commercialized for use in grease-traps cannot grow at pH 6.0, we screened oil-degrading microorganisms from the environment by growing in a medium at pH 6.0 containing canola oil as the sole carbon source. We succeeded in isolating the bacterial strain Burkholderia arboris SL1B1, which secretes lipase and assimilates fatty acids, and the yeast strain Candida cylindracea SL1B2, which assimilates glycerol. The former cannot utilize glycerol as a carbon source while the latter shows only faint lipase activity that cannot support its active growth on TAG. Canola oil was degraded rapidly by a pure culture of SL1B1 at pH 6.0. However, the degradation was markedly enhanced by a mixed culture of SL1B1 and SL1B2, although lipase activity during cultivation was similar between the pure and mixed cultures. This suggests that the reversible reaction proceeds in the direction of hydrolysis of TAG due to consumption of the reaction product, glycerol, by the symbiotic yeast strain. The optimum pH and temperature of lipase secreted by B. arboris SL1B1 were 8.0 and 60 degrees C, respectively. This lipase showed highly thermal stability; the residual activity after incubation at 70 degrees C for 2 h did not decline.

  4. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  5. Prediction, Refinement and Persistency of Transmembrane Helix Dimers in Lipid Bilayers using Implicit and Explicit Solvent/Lipid Representations: Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations of ErbB1/B2 and EphA1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqun; Sodt, Alexander J.; Venable, Richard M.; Pastor, Richard W.; Buck, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    All-atom simulations are carried out on ErbB1/B2 and EphA1 transmembrane helix dimers in lipid bilayers starting from their solution/DMPC bicelle NMR structures. Over the course of microsecond trajectories, the structures remain in close proximity to the initial configuration and satisfy the great majority of experimental tertiary contact restraints. These results further validate CHARMM protein/lipid force fields and simulation protocols on Anton. Separately, dimer conformations are generated using replica exchange in conjunction with an implicit solvent and lipid representation. The implicit model requires further improvement, and this study investigates whether lengthy all-atom molecular dynamics simulations can alleviate the shortcomings of the initial conditions. The simulations correct many of the deficiencies. For example excessive helix twisting is eliminated over a period of hundreds of nanoseconds. The helix tilt, crossing angles and dimer contacts approximate those of the NMR derived structure, although the detailed contact surface remains off-set for one of two helices in both systems. Hence, even microsecond simulations are not long enough for extensive helix rotations. The alternate structures can be rationalized with reference to interaction motifs and may represent still sought after receptor states that are important in ErbB1/B2 and EphA1 signaling. PMID:23042146

  6. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  7. Comparison of the amount of bioaccessible fumonisin B1 and B2 in maize and rice inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826) and determined by in vitro digestion-preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Szabó-Fodor, J; Bors, I; Szabó, A; Kovács, M

    2016-08-01

    In this study the occurrence of hidden fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) was analysed, on two cereal substrates (maize and rice), inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides (MRC 826), in order to determine the ratio of hidden FB1 and FB2. Two parallel methods were applied: an in vitro human digestion sample pre-treatment and the routine extraction procedure, in both cases with subsequent LC-MS analysis. It was found that all samples showed higher concentration of total fumonisin B1 after digestion, as compared to that of free fumonisin analysed only after extraction. The percentage of the hidden form by maize was 18.8 % (±2.4) for FB1 and 36.8 % (±3.8) for FB2, while for rice it was 32.3 % (±11.3) and 58.0 (±6.8), respectively, expressed as the proportion to total fumonisin B1, for the total dataset. Significant differences were found in the FB1 and FB2 concentration measured after the different digestion phases (saliva, gastric and duodenal) in case of both matrixes. The results are useful for human risk assessment, since both humans and animals may be exposed to markedly higher toxin load, as determined merely by conventional analytical methods.

  8. Characterization of the Critical Amino Acids of an Aspergillus parasiticus Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase Encoded by ordA That Is Involved in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiujiang; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Montalbano, Beverly; Dyer, John M.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion of O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) and dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin to aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2 requires a cytochrome P-450 type of oxidoreductase activity. ordA, a gene adjacent to the omtA gene, was identified in the aflatoxin-biosynthetic pathway gene cluster by chromosomal walking in Aspergillus parasiticus. The ordA gene was a homolog of the Aspergillus flavus ord1 gene, which is involved in the conversion of OMST to aflatoxin B1. Complementation of A. parasiticus SRRC 2043, an OMST-accumulating strain, with the ordA gene restored the ability to produce aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2. The ordA gene placed under the control of the GAL1 promoter converted exogenously supplied OMST to aflatoxin B1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast, the ordA gene homolog in A. parasiticus SRRC 2043, ordA1, was not able to carry out the same conversion in the yeast system. Sequence analysis revealed that the ordA1 gene had three point mutations which resulted in three amino acid changes (His-400→Leu-400, Ala-143→Ser-143, and Ile-528→Tyr-528). Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the change of His-400 to Leu-400 resulted in a loss of the monooxygenase activity and that Ala-143 played a significant role in the catalytic conversion. In contrast, Ile-528 was not associated with the enzymatic activity. The involvement of the ordA gene in the synthesis of aflatoxins G1, and G2 in A. parasiticus suggests that enzymes required for the formation of aflatoxins G1 and G2 are not present in A. flavus. The results showed that in addition to the conserved heme-binding and redox reaction domains encoded by ordA, other seemingly domain-unrelated amino acid residues are critical for cytochrome P-450 catalytic activity. The ordA gene has been assigned to a new cytochrome P-450 gene family named CYP64 by The Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature Committee. PMID:9835571

  9. Impacts of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury on Expressions of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B1, 2D1, and 3A2 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Junrui; Cheng, Jingmin; Xiao, Wenjing; Fan, Kaihua; Gu, Jianwen; Yu, Botao; Yin, Guangfu; Wu, Juan; Ren, Jiandong; Hou, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Tan, Yonghong; Jin, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme superfamily is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, which is responsible for the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant medications used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. Modification of CYP450 expression may have important influences on drug metabolism and lead to untoward effects on those with narrow therapeutic windows. However, the impact of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) on the expression of CYP450 has received little attention. The subfamilies of CYP1A, 2B, 2D, and 3A account for about 85 % of all human drug metabolism of clinical significance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expressions of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 in rats suffering bTBI. Meanwhile, we also measured some important cytokines in serum after injury, and calculated the correlation between these cytokines and the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. The results showed that bTBI could significantly reduce mRNA expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 at the early stage and induce the expressions from 48 h to 1 week after injury. The protein expressions of these CYP450s had all been downregulated from 24 to 48 h post- injury, and then began to elevate at 48 h after bTBI. The cytokines, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased significantly in the early phase, and began to reduce at the delayed phase of bTBI. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but not IL-2 were significantly negative correlated with the mRNA expressions of CYP2B1 and CYP2D1 and the proteins expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. In conclusion, our work has, for the first time, indicated that bTBI has significant impact on the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2, which may be related to the cytokines induced by the injury.

  10. Visual Non-Instrumental On-Site Detection of Fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in Cereal Samples Using a Clean-Up Combined with Gel-Based Immunoaffinity Test Column Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hesen; Ji, Weihong; Li, Zhi; Chu, Fangyu; Wang, Shuo

    2018-01-01

    A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in cereal samples for spot tests without the need for special instruments. The developed IATC assay had equivalent recognition capability for fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), or fumonisin B3 (FB3), and exhibited no cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, or the T-2 toxin. The sample pretreatment was accomplished more rapidly and with greater ease, the entire assay procedure was completed in approximately 10 min, including sample pretreatment and testing. The limits of detection (LODs) of the IATC assay to detect fumonisins in the maize, barley, oat, and millet samples were 20 μg kg−1. The results of the spiked maize, barley, oat, and millet and real maize samples by the IATC assay agreed well with the results obtained by the commercial fumonisin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. The developed IATC assay can serve as a useful screening tool for the rapid, qualitative, and semi-quantitative detection of the total content of fumonisins (sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) in cereal samples on-site. PMID:29671825

  11. Broad-spectrum immunoaffinity cleanup for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, M2 in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shujuan; Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Shao, Bing; Zhu, Kui; Sun, Yuanze; Yao, Kai; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Haiyang

    2017-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 , M 1 and M 2 (AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 , AFM 1 and AFM 2 ) in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations. A rapid and reliable immunoaffinity column containing a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody for six aflatoxins was used for sample cleanup. Under the optimized conditions, the home-made immunoaffinity column capacity were about 315, 319, 292, 102, 444 and 369ng/mL gel for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 , AFM 1 and AFM 2 , respectively. Recoveries for all tested aflatoxins ranged from 79.28% to 103.42% with relative standard deviation less than 8%. The limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.008-0.045μg/kg. Among 31 real samples analyzed, one sample was contaminated with AFB 1 , AFB 2 and AFM 1 at levels of 0.483, 0.068 and 0.104μg/kg, respectively. The established method is simple, accurate, and can be effectively used to determine the aflatoxins in Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Halkjaer, J; van Gils, C H; Buijsse, B; Verhagen, H; Jenab, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Ericson, U; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Waaseth, M; Skeie, G; Khaw, K T; Travis, R; Ferrari, P; Sanchez, M J; Agudo, A; Overvad, K; Linseisen, J; Weikert, C; Sacerdote, C; Evangelista, A; Zylis, D; Tsiotas, K; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons aged between 35 and 74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes of the four B vitamins and vitamin C were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Intake of B vitamins did not vary considerably between centres, except in the UK health-conscious cohort, in which substantially higher intakes of thiamine and lower intakes of vitamin B12 were reported compared with other centres. Overall, meat was the most important contributor to the B vitamins in all centres except in the UK health-conscious group. Vitamin C showed a clear geographical gradient, with higher intakes in the southern centres as compared with the northern ones; this was more pronounced in men than in women. Vegetables and fruits were major contributors to vitamin C in all centres, but juices and potatoes were also important sources in the northern centres. This study showed no major differences across centres in the mean intakes of B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, B6, B12), whereas a tendency towards a north-south gradient was observed for vitamin C.

  13. Validation of a screening method for the simultaneous identification of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins (A, E, B1, B2 and B6) in an aqueous micellar medium of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    León-Ruiz, V; Vera, S; San Andrés, M P

    2005-04-01

    Simultaneous determination of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E and the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2 and B6 has been carried using a screening method from fluorescence contour graphs. These graphs show different colour zones in relation to the fluorescence intensity measured for the pair of excitation/emission wavelengths. The identification of the corresponding excitation/emission wavelength zones allows the detection of different vitamins in an aqueous medium regardless of the fat or water solubility of each vitamin, owing to the presence of a surfactant which forms micelles in water at the used concentration (over the critical micelle concentration). The micelles dissolve very water insoluble compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, inside the aggregates. This approach avoids the use of organic solvents in determining these vitamins and offers the possibility of analysing fat- and water-soluble vitamins simultaneously. The method has been validated in terms of detection limit, cut-off limit, sensitivity, number of false positives, number of false negatives and uncertainty range. The detection limit is about microg L(-1). The screening method was applied to different samples such as pharmaceuticals, juices and isotonic drinks.

  14. Observation of the spin-orbit components of the 3B 2g( 3A 2g) ground state in the system Ni 2+:MgF 2 by fluorescence line narrowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonucci, R. J.; Jacobsen, S. M.; Yen, W. M.

    1990-10-01

    Using a tunable narrow-band infrared laser, we demonstrate for the first time infrared-fluorescnece line narrowing in the system Ni 2+:MgF 2. High-resolution emission spectra were obtained by pumping the lowest spin-orbit component B 3 ( 3T 2g) (orthorhombic notation with octahedral notation in parentheses) of the 3T 2g multiplet and observing the B 3( 3T 2g)→B 1, A, B 2( 3A 2g) luminescent transitions at low temperature. By tuning the narrow-band laser over the B 3( 3T 2g) band, resonant and non-resonant fluorescence were obtained which narrowed with respect to the inhomogeneously broadened profile, and additional lines were observed. The spectra can be understood in terms of a simultaneous excitation of two different subsets of Ni 2+ ions which have their B 2( 3A 2g)→B 3( 3T 2g) and A( 3A 2g)→B 3( 3T 2g) transitions in resonance with the laser. The A( 3A 2g) and B 1( 3A 2g) spin-orbit components of the ground-state multiplet lie 1.9 cm -1 and 6.5 cm -1 above the B 2( 3A 2g) ground state, respectively, at 2 K.

  15. NF-κB1, NF-κB2 and c-Rel differentially regulate susceptibility to colitis-associated adenoma development in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, Michael D; Hanedi, Abdalla F; Duckworth, Carrie A; Williams, Jonathan M; Tang, Joseph M; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Putoczki, Tracy L; Gerondakis, Steve; Dimaline, Rod; Caamano, Jorge H; Pritchard, D Mark

    2015-07-01

    NF-κB signalling is an important factor in the development of inflammation-associated cancers. Mouse models of Helicobacter-induced gastric cancer and colitis-associated colorectal cancer have demonstrated that classical NF-κB signalling is an important regulator of these processes. In the stomach, it has also been demonstrated that signalling involving specific NF-κB proteins, including NF-κB1/p50, NF-κB2/p52, and c-Rel, differentially regulate the development of gastric pre-neoplasia. To investigate the effect of NF-κB subunit loss on colitis-associated carcinogenesis, we administered azoxymethane followed by pulsed dextran sodium sulphate to C57BL/6, Nfkb1(-/-), Nfkb2(-/-), and c-Rel(-/-) mice. Animals lacking the c-Rel subunit were more susceptible to colitis-associated cancer than wild-type mice, developing 3.5 times more colonic polyps per animal than wild-type mice. Nfkb2(-/-) mice were resistant to colitis-associated cancer, developing fewer polyps per colon than wild-type mice (median 1 compared to 4). To investigate the mechanisms underlying these trends, azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulphate were administered separately to mice of each genotype. Nfkb2(-/-) mice developed fewer clinical signs of colitis and exhibited less severe colitis and an attenuated cytokine response compared with all other groups following DSS administration. Azoxymethane administration did not fully suppress colonic epithelial mitosis in c-Rel(-/-) mice and less colonic epithelial apoptosis was also observed in this genotype compared to wild-type counterparts. These observations demonstrate different functions of specific NF-κB subunits in this model of colitis-associated carcinogenesis. NF-κB2/p52 is necessary for the development of colitis, whilst c-Rel-mediated signalling regulates colonic epithelial cell turnover following DNA damage. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain

  16. FOUR WAVE MIXING SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NO_3 tilde{B} ^2E' - tilde{X} ^2A_2' transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Masaru; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    The tilde{B} ^2E' - tilde{X} ^2A_2' electronic transition of NO_3 generated in a supersonic free jet expansion was investigated by four wave mixing ( 4WM ) spectroscopy. The degenerated 4WM and laser induced fluorescence ( LIF ) spectra around the 0_0^0 band region were measured simultaneously. The D4WM spectrum shows broad band features for the 0_0^0 band similar to that of the LIF spectrum. The broad 0_0^0 band does not consist of one sub-band, but of several bands. The intensity distribution of the sub-bands of the D4WM spectrum is similar, but not identical to that of the LIF spectrum.

  17. Test wells SF-1A, 1B, 1C, and SF-2A, 2B, 2C, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two well nests, SF-1 and SF-2, were drilled in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, to monitor the hydraulic head within selected zones of the aquifer. Each well nest consists of three piezometers of shallow, middle, and deep completion within the aquifer. Each set of wells was drilled to a depth of about 2,000 ft before actual construction of the piezometers. Each piezometer was completed using either 5 or 10 ft of wire-wrapped screen. These piezometers were constructed as part of a larger ongoing program with the Santa Fe Metropolitan Water Board and New Mexico State Engineer Office to establish a regional observation-well network and to define better the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Santa Fe and Santa Fe well fields. (USGS)

  18. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HR-MS Method for the Determination of Fumonisin B1 and Its Hydrolysed Metabolites and Fumonisin B2 in Broiler Chicken Plasma.

    PubMed

    De Baere, Siegrid; Croubels, Siska; Novak, Barbara; Bichl, Gerlinde; Antonissen, Gunther

    2018-01-31

    A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of Fumonisin B1 (FB1), its partially hydrolysed metabolites pHFB1a+b and hydrolysed metabolite HFB1, and Fumonisin B2 (FB2) in broiler chicken plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis ® Ostro TM 96-well plate. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity HSS-T3 column, using 0.3% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the two multiple reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for each component for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r ≥ 0.99) was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (1-500 ng/mL for FB1 and FB2; 0.86-860 ng/mL for pHFB1a; 0.72-1430 ng/mL for pHFB1b and 2.5-2500 ng/mL for HFB1). Limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in plasma ranged between 0.72 to 2.5 ng/mL and 0.03 to 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the specified ranges. Moreover, the method was transferred to an UPLC high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) instrument in order to determine potential metabolites of HFB1, such as N-acyl-HFB1s and phase II metabolites. The method has been successfully applied to investigate the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of HFB1 in broiler chickens.

  19. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HR-MS Method for the Determination of Fumonisin B1 and Its Hydrolysed Metabolites and Fumonisin B2 in Broiler Chicken Plasma

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Siegrid; Novak, Barbara; Bichl, Gerlinde

    2018-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of Fumonisin B1 (FB1), its partially hydrolysed metabolites pHFB1a+b and hydrolysed metabolite HFB1, and Fumonisin B2 (FB2) in broiler chicken plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The sample preparation was rapid, straightforward and consisted of a deproteinization and phospholipid removal step using an Oasis® OstroTM 96-well plate. Chromatography was performed on an Acquity HSS-T3 column, using 0.3% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in water, and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The MS/MS instrument was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and the two multiple reaction monitoring transitions were monitored for each component for quantification and identification, respectively. The method was validated in-house: matrix-matched calibration graphs were prepared and good linearity (r ≥ 0.99) was achieved over the concentration ranges tested (1–500 ng/mL for FB1 and FB2; 0.86–860 ng/mL for pHFB1a; 0.72–1430 ng/mL for pHFB1b and 2.5–2500 ng/mL for HFB1). Limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in plasma ranged between 0.72 to 2.5 ng/mL and 0.03 to 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. The results for the within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell within the specified ranges. Moreover, the method was transferred to an UPLC high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) instrument in order to determine potential metabolites of HFB1, such as N-acyl-HFB1s and phase II metabolites. The method has been successfully applied to investigate the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of HFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29385109

  20. High-pressure behavior of A 2 B 2 O 7 pyrochlore (A=Eu, Dy; B=Ti, Zr)

    SciTech Connect

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye

    2017-01-24

    In situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the influence of composition on the high-pressure behavior of A 2B 2O 7 pyrochlore (A = Eu, Dy; B = Ti, Zr) up to ~50 GPa. Based on X-ray diffraction results, all compositions transformed to the high-pressure cotunnite structure. The B-site cation species had a larger effect on the transition pressure than the A-site cation species, with the onset of the phase transformation occurring at ~41 GPa for B = Ti and ~16 GPa B = Zr. But, the A-site cation affected the kinetics of the phase transformation,more » with the transformation for compositions with the smaller ionic radii, i.e., A = Dy, proceeding faster than those with a larger ionic radii, i.e., A = Eu. Our results were consistent with previous work in which the radius-ratio of the A- and B-site cations determined the energetics of disordering, and compositions with more similarly sized A- and B-site cations had a lower defect formation energy. Raman spectra revealed differences in the degree of short-range order of the different compositions. Due to the large phase fraction of cotunnite at high pressure for B = Zr compositions, Raman modes for cotunnite could be observed, with more modes recorded for A = Eu than A = Dy. These additional modes are attributed to increased short-to-medium range ordering in the initially pyrochlore structured Eu 2Zr 2O 7 as compared with the initially defect-fluorite structured Dy 2Zr 2O 7.« less

  1. High-pressure behavior of A 2 B 2 O 7 pyrochlore (A=Eu, Dy; B=Ti, Zr)

    SciTech Connect

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye

    2017-01-28

    In situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the influence of composition on the high-pressure behavior of A 2B 2O 7 pyrochlore (A=Eu, Dy; B=Ti, Zr) up to ~50GPa. Based on X-ray diffraction results, all compositions transformed to the high-pressure cotunnite structure. The B-site cation species had a larger effect on the transition pressure than the A-site cation species, with the onset of the phase transformation occurring at ~41 GPa for B=Ti and ~16 GPa B=Zr. However, the A-site cation affected the kinetics of the phase transformation, with the transformation for compositions with the smaller ionicmore » radii, i.e., A=Dy, proceeding faster than those with a larger ionic radii, i.e., A=Eu. These results were consistent with previous work in which the radius-ratio of the A- and B-site cations determined the energetics of disordering, and compositions with more similarly sized A- and B-site cations had a lower defect formation energy. Raman spectra revealed differences in the degree of short-range order of the different compositions. Due to the large phase fraction of cotunnite at high pressure for B=Zr compositions, Raman modes for cotunnite could be observed, with more modes recorded for A=Eu than A=Dy. These additional modes are attributed to increased short-to-medium range ordering in the initially pyrochlore structured Eu 2Zr 2O 7 as compared with the initially defect-fluorite structured Dy 2Zr 2O 7.« less

  2. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Yu, Ge; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Shu-Hua; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. We discovered that all available O3a2b*-P164(xM134) samples belong to the newly defined haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and samples from Austronesian populations belong to the sublineage O3a2b2a2-F706. Additionally, we genotyped a series of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a large collection of samples from China. We confirmed that the sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations. We found that O3a2b2-N6 samples are widely distributed on the eastern coastal regions of Asia, from Korea to Vietnam. Furthermore, we propose- that the O3a2b2a2b-B451 lineage represents a genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where foxtail millet was domesticated about 11,000 years ago. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree of O3a2b2-N6 will be helpful to explore the origin of proto-Austronesians and the early diffusion process of Austronesian populations. PMID:28380021

  3. 75 FR 28188 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Frost, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office, FAA, Engine & Propeller Directorate, 12 New..., Massachusetts, on May 10, 2010. Peter A. White, Assistant Manager, Engine and Propeller Directorate, Aircraft... Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1 Turbofan Engines...

  4. Fourier transform emission spectra and deperturbation analysis of the A2Π - X2Σ+ and B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ electronic transitions of ZnH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Mahdi; Shayesteh, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    A discharge-furnace emission source was used to generate the A2Π → X2Σ+ and B2Σ+ → X2Σ+ spectra of ZnH radical. High resolution emission spectra were recorded with a Fourier transform spectrometer, and several bands have been assigned for the 64ZnH major isotopologue. The data span the v″ = 0-6 levels of the X2Σ+ ground state, the v‧ = 0-3 levels of the A2Π state, and the v‧ = 0-2 levels of the B2Σ+ state, extending to high rotational quantum numbers near and above the dissociation asymptote of the ground state. Large local perturbations were observed in the A2Π and B2Σ+ electronic states, and a deperturbation analysis was carried out using a single Hamiltonian matrix that includes 2Π and 2Σ+ matrix elements, as well as off-diagonal elements coupling vibrational levels of the two electronic states. Band constants and Dunham coefficients were obtained for the A2Π and B2Σ+ excited states by least-squares-fitting of all the experimental data. The equilibrium vibrational constants ωe and ωexe have been determined to be 1907.528(4) and 38.674(2) cm-1, respectively, for the A2Π state, and 1021.135(94) and 17.725(80) cm-1, for the B2Σ+ state, and the equilibrium Zn-H distances (re) are 1.511662(2) Å and 2.26805(7) Å for the A2Π and B2Σ+ states, respectively. The RKR potential curves were constructed for the A2Π and B2Σ+ states, and vibrational radial overlap integrals were computed. The off-diagonal matrix elements coupling the electronic wavefunctions of the A2Π and B2Σ+ states, i.e., a+ and b, were determined to be 228 ± 3 cm-1 and 0.73 ± 0.01, respectively, for the ZnH molecule.

  5. Prediction of A2 to B2 Phase Transition in the High Entropy Alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, William; Widom, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In this talk we show that an effective Hamiltonian fit with first principles calculations predicts an order/disorder transition occurs in the high entropy alloy Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Using the Alloy Theoretic Automated Toolset, we find T=0K enthalpies of formation for all binaries containing Mo, Nb, Ta, and W, and in particular we find the stable structures for binaries at equiatomic concentrations are close in energy to the associated B2 structure, suggesting that at intermediate temperatures a B2 phase is stabilized in Mo-Nb-Ta-W. Our ``hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics'' results for the Mo-Nb-Ta-W system are analyzed to identify certain preferred chemical bonding types. A mean field free energy model incorporating nearest neighbor bonds will be presented, allowing us to predict the mechanism of the order/disorder transition. We find the temperature evolution of the system is driven by strong Mo-Ta bonding. Comparison of the free energy model and our MC/MD results suggest the existence of additional low-temperature phase transitions in the system likely ending with phase segregation into binary phases. We would like to thank DOD-DTRA for funding this research under contract number DTRA-11-1-0064.

  6. Genetic modification of potato against microbial diseases: in vitro and in planta activity of a dermaseptin B1 derivative, MsrA2.

    PubMed

    Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Kay, William; Misra, Santosh

    2005-08-01

    Dermaseptin B1 is a potent cationic antimicrobial peptide found in skin secretions of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. A synthetic derivative of dermaseptin B1, MsrA2 (N-Met-dermaseptin B1), elicited strong antimicrobial activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria in vitro. To assess its potential for plant protection, MsrA2 was expressed at low levels (1-5 microg/g of fresh tissue) in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. Stringent challenges of these transgenic potato plants with a variety of highly virulent fungal phytopathogens--Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium species--and with the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora demonstrated that the plants had an unusually broad-spectrum and powerful resistance to infection. MsrA2 profoundly protected both plants and tubers from diseases such as late blight, dry rot and pink rot and markedly extended the storage life of tubers. Due to these properties in planta, MsrA2 is proposed as an ideal antimicrobial peptide candidate to significantly increase resistance to phytopathogens and improve quality in a variety of crops worldwide with the potential to obviate fungicides and facilitate storage under difficult conditions.

  7. Activation of bradykinin B2 receptor induced the inflammatory responses of cytosolic phospholipase A2 after the early traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Lin, Chao; Xu, Xiupeng; Li, Zheng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Fan, Liang; Tao, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Phospholipase A 2 is a known aggravator of inflammation and deteriorates neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the exact inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptor, which are known initial mediators within inflammation activation, as well as the mechanisms of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 )-related inflammatory responses after TBI. We found that cPLA 2 and bradykinin B2 receptor were upregulated after a TBI. Rats treated with the bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor LF 16-0687 exhibited significantly less cPLA 2 expression and related inflammatory responses in the brain cortex after sustaining a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Both the cPLA 2 inhibitor and the LF16-0687 improved CCI rat outcomes by decreasing neuron death and reducing brain edema. The following TBI model utilized both primary astrocytes and primary neurons in order to gain further understanding of the inflammation mechanisms of the B2 bradykinin receptor and the cPLA 2 in the central nervous system. There was a stronger reaction from the astrocytes as well as a protective effect of LF16-0687 after the stretch injury and bradykinin treatment. The protein kinase C pathway was thought to be involved in the B2 bradykinin receptor as well as the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory responses. Rottlerin, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ inhibitor, decreased the activity of the cPLA 2 activity post-injury, and LF16-0687 suppressed both the PKC pathway and the cPLA 2 activity within the astrocytes. These results indicated that the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated pathway is involved in the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory response from the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Volume 2; WLE Small-Scale Fiberglass Panel Flat Multi-Layer Targets A-1, A-2, and B-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Michael R.; Ziola, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    During 2003 and 2004, the Johnson Space Center's White Sands Testing Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico conducted hypervelocity impact tests on the space shuttle wing leading edge. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted to determine if Micro-Meteoroid/Orbital Debris impacts could be reliably detected and located using simple passive ultrasonic methods. The objective of Targets A-1, A-2, and B-2 was to study hypervelocity impacts through multi-layered panels simulating Whipple shields on spacecraft. Impact damage was detected using lightweight, low power instrumentation capable of being used in flight.

  9. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to themore » cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.« less

  10. Magnetic damping in sputter-deposited C o2MnGe Heusler compounds with A 2 ,B 2 , and L 21 orders: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Justin M.; Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna K.; Edwards, Eric R. J.; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Thonig, Danny; Schoen, Martin A. W.; Pufall, Matt; Schneider, Michael L.; Silva, Thomas J.; Karis, Olof; Rice, Katherine P.; Eriksson, Olle; Nembach, Hans T.

    2018-03-01

    We show that very low values of the magnetic damping parameter can be achieved in sputter deposited polycrystalline films of C o2MnGe annealed at relatively low temperatures ranging from 240 °C to 400 °C. Damping values as low as 0.0014 are obtained with an intrinsic value of 0.0010 after spin-pumping contributions are considered. Of importance to most applications is the low value of inhomogeneous linewidth that yields measured linewidths of 1.8 and 5.1 mT at 10 and 40 GHz, respectively. The damping parameter monotonically decreases as the B 2 order of the films increases. This trend is reproduced and explained by ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and damping parameter. Here, the damping parameter is calculated as the structure evolves from A 2 to B 2 to L 21 orders. The largest decrease in the damping parameter occurs during the A 2 to B 2 transition as the half-metallic phase becomes established.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of monoisomeric 1,8,15,22-substituted (A3B and A2B2) phthalocyanines and phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Jenni; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2010-08-06

    Synthesis and characterization of three phthalocyanine-fullerene (Pc-C(60)) dyads, corresponding monoisomeric phthalocyanines (Pc), and building blocks, phthalonitriles, are described. Six novel bisaryl phthalonitriles were prepared by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction from trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 2,3-dicyanophenyl ester and various oxaborolanes. Two phthalonitriles were selected for the synthesis of A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines. Phthalonitrile 4 has a bulky 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl substituent at the alpha-phthalo position, which forces only one regioisomer to form and greatly increases the solubility of phthalocyanine. Phthalonitrile 8 has a 3-phenylpropanol side chain at the alpha-position making further modifications of the side group possible. Synthesized monoisomeric A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines are modified by attachment of malonic residues. Finally, fullerene is covalently linked to phthalocyanine with one or two malonic bridges to produce Pc-C(60) dyads. Due to the monoisomeric structure and increased solubility of phthalocyanines, the quality of NMR spectra of the compounds is enhanced significantly, making detailed NMR analysis of the structures possible. The synthesized dyads have different orientations of phthalocyanine and fullerene, which strongly influence the electron transfer (ET) from phthalocyanine to fullerene moiety. Fluorescence quenchings of the dyads were measured in both polar and nonpolar solvents, and in all cases, the quenching was more efficient in the polar environment. As expected, most efficient fluorescence quenching was observed for dyad 20b, with two linkers and phthalocyanine and fullerene in face-to-face orientation.

  12. Transition moments, radiative transition probabilities, and radiative lifetimes for the band systems A 2Π-X 2Σ+, B 2Σ+-X 2Σ+, and A 2Π-A´ 2Δ of scandium monosulfide, ScS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeu, João Gabriel Farias; Belinassi, Antonio Ricardo; Ornellas, Fernando R.

    2018-05-01

    A manifold of electronic states of ScS was investigated with special emphasis on the low-lying states X 2Σ+, A´ 2Δ, A 2Π, and B 2Σ+. For all states, potential energy curves were constructed covering internuclear distances from the equilibrium region through the dissociation limit. For the above states, besides providing the most accurate set of theoretical spectroscopic parameters to date, we have also computed dipole moment functions, transitions dipole moment functions, the associated radiative transition probabilities, and radiative lifetimes. For the states known experimentally, X 2Σ+, A 2Π, and B 2Σ+, our results significantly expand our present knowledge of the energetic profile of these states thus providing a new perspective for understanding the limited spectral data for this species known so far. For the new state, A´ 2Δ, yet unobserved experimentally, our results are sufficiently reliable and accurate to guide spectroscopists on further studies of this species.

  13. Atom probe study of B2 order and A2 disorder of the FeCo matrix in an Fe-Co-Mo-alloy.

    PubMed

    Turk, C; Leitner, H; Schemmel, I; Clemens, H; Primig, S

    2017-07-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of intermetallic alloys can be tailored by controlling the degree of order of the solid solution by means of heat treatments. FeCo alloys with an appropriate composition exhibit an A2-disorder↔B2-order transition during continuous cooling from the disordered bcc region. The study of atomic order in intermetallic alloys by diffraction and its influence on the material properties is well established, however, investigating magnetic FeCo-based alloys by conventional methods such as X-ray diffraction is quite challenging. Thus, the imaging of ordered FeCo-nanostructures needs to be done with high resolution techniques. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of ordered FeCo domains are difficult, due to the chemical and physical similarity of Fe and Co atoms and the ferromagnetism of the samples. In this work it will be demonstrated, that the local atomic arrangement of ordered and disordered regions in an industrial Fe-Co-Mo alloy can be successfully imaged by atom probe measurements supported by field ion microscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Furthermore, a thorough atom probe parameter study will be presented and field evaporation artefacts as a function of crystallographic orientation in Fe-Co-samples will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy of A2B2O7 oxides: quantitative isotopic enrichment and spectral acquisition?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Arantxa; Moran, Robert F; Sneddon, Scott; Dawson, Daniel M; McKay, David; Bignami, Giulia P M; Blanc, Frédéric; Whittle, Karl R; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2018-02-13

    The potential of 17 O NMR spectroscopy for the investigation of A 2 B 2 O 7 ceramic oxides important in the encapsulation of radioactive waste is demonstrated, with post-synthetic enrichment by exchange with 17 O 2 gas. For Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 , Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and La 2 Sn 2 O 7 pyrochlores, enrichment of the two distinct O species is clearly non quantitative at lower temperatures (∼700 °C and below) and at shorter times, despite these being used in prior work, with preferential enrichment of OA 2 B 2 favoured over that of OA 4 . At higher temperatures, the 17 O NMR spectra suggest that quantitative enrichment has been achieved, but the integrated signal intensities do not reflect the crystallographic 1 : 6 (O1 : O2) ratio until corrected for differences in T 1 relaxation rates and, more importantly, the contribution of the satellite transitions. 17 O NMR spectra of Y 2 Zr 2 O 7 and Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 defect fluorites showed little difference with any variation in enrichment temperature or time, although an increase in the absolute level of enrichment (up to ∼7.5%) was observed at higher temperature. DFT calculations show that the six distinct resonances observed cannot be assigned unambiguously, as each has contributions from more than one of the five possible next nearest neighbour environments. For La 2 Ti 2 O 7 , which adopts a layered perovskite-like structure, little difference in the spectral intensities is observed with enrichment time or temperature, although the highest absolute levels of enrichment (∼13%) were obtained at higher temperature. This work demonstrates that 17 O NMR has the potential to be a powerful probe of local structure and disorder in oxides, but that considerable care must be taken both in choosing the conditions for 17 O enrichment and the experimental acquisition parameters if the necessary quantitative measurements are to be obtained for more complex systems.

  15. Projected SST trends across the Caribbean Sea based on PRECIS downscaling of ECHAM4, under the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurse, Leonard A.; Charlery, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea and adjacent land areas are highly sensitive to the projected impacts of global climate change. The countries bordering the Caribbean Sea depend heavily on coastal and marine assets as a major source of livelihood support. Rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are known to be associated with coral bleaching, ocean acidification, and other phenomena that threaten livelihoods in the region. The paucity of SST systematic observations in both the Caribbean Sea and adjoining Western Atlantic waters is a limiting factor in the projection of future climate change impacts on the region's marine resources. Remote sensing of SST by satellites began only within the last three decades and although the data collected so far might be insufficient to provide conclusive definitions of long-term SST variations in the Caribbean waters, these data along with the output from climate model simulations provide a useful basis for gaining further insights into plausible SST futures under IPCC SRES scenarios. In this paper, we examine the recent SST records from the NESDIS AVHRR satellite data and NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) sea surface temperature V2 and provide a comparative analysis of projected SST changes for the Caribbean Sea up to the end of the twenty-first century, under the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios' simulations of the sea surface skin temperatures (SSsT) using the Hadley Centre's regional model, PRECIS. The implications of these projected SST changes for bleaching of coral reefs, one of the region's most valuable marine resource, and for rainfall are also discussed.

  16. Nuclear waste disposal—pyrochlore (A2B2O7): Nuclear waste form for the immobilization of plutonium and "minor" actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Weber, William J.; Lian, Jie

    2004-06-01

    During the past half-century, the nuclear fuel cycle has generated approximately 1400 metric tons of plutonium and substantial quantities of the "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am, and Cm. The successful disposition of these actinides has an important impact on the strategy for developing advanced nuclear fuel cycles, weapons proliferation, and the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. During the last decade, there has been substantial interest in the use of the isometric pyrochlore structure-type, A2B2O7, for the immobilization of actinides. Most of the interest has focused on titanate-pyrochlore because of its chemical durability; however, these compositions experience a radiation-induced transition from the crystalline-to-aperiodic state due to radiation damage from the alpha-decay of actinides. Depending on the actinide concentration, the titanate pyrochlore will become amorphous in less than 1000 years of storage. Recently, systematic ion beam irradiations of a variety of pyrochlore compositions has revealed that many zirconate pyrochlores do not become amorphous, but remain crystalline as a defect fluorite structure-type due to disordering of the A- and B-site cations. The zirconate pyrochlores will remain crystalline even to very high doses, greater than 100 displacements per atom. Systematic experimental studies of actinide-doped and ion beam-irradiated pyrochlore, analyses of natural U- and Th-bearing pyrochlore, and simulations of the energetics of the disordering process now provide a rather detailed understanding of the structural and chemical controls on the response of pyrochlore to radiation. These results provide a solid basis for predicting the behavior and durability of pyrochlore used to immobilize plutonium.

  17. Design synthesis and evaluation of the inhibitory selectivity of novel trans-resveratrol analogues on human recombinant CYP1A1 CYP1A2 and CYP1B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of trans-stilbene derivatives containing 4’-thiomethyl substituent were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activities on human recombinant cytochrome P450(s): CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. CYP1A2-related metabolism of stilbene derivatives was estimated by using NADPH oxidation assay. A...

  18. Low-voltage organic field effect transistors with a 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene semiconductor layer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Atefeh Y; Khassanov, Artoem; Reuter, Knud; Meyer-Friedrichsen, Timo; Halik, Marcus

    2012-10-10

    An asymmetric n-alkyl substitution pattern was realized in 2-tridecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C(13)-BTBT) in order to improve the charge transport properties in organic thin-film transistors. We obtained large hole mobilities up to 17.2 cm(2)/(V·s) in low-voltage operating devices. The large mobility is related to densely packed layers of the BTBT π-systems at the channel interface dedicated to the substitution motif and confirmed by X-ray reflectivity measurements. The devices exhibit promising stability in continuous operation for several hours in ambient air.

  19. Pyranoflavones: a group of small-molecule probes for exploring the active site cavities of cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiawang; Taylor, Shannon F; Dupart, Patrick S; Arnold, Corey L; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Yuji; Skripnikova, Elena V; Zhao, Ming; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2013-05-23

    Selective inhibition of P450 enzymes is the key to block the conversion of environmental procarcinogens to their carcinogenic metabolites in both animals and humans. To discover highly potent and selective inhibitors of P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, as well as to investigate active site cavities of these enzymes, 14 novel flavone derivatives were prepared as chemical probes. Fluorimetric enzyme inhibition assays were used to determine the inhibitory activities of these probes toward P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, and 2B1. A highly selective P450 1B1 inhibitor 5-hydroxy-4'-propargyloxyflavone (5H4'FPE) was discovered. Some tested compounds also showed selectivity between P450s 1A1 and 1A2. α-Naphthoflavone-like and 5-hydroxyflavone derivatives preferentially inhibited P450 1A2, while β-naphthoflavone-like flavone derivatives showed selective inhibition of P450 1A1. On the basis of structural analysis, the active site cavity models of P450 enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 were generated, demonstrating a planar long strip cavity and a planar triangular cavity, respectively.

  20. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in animal feeds by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Zhu, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Ning, Jinyan; Yang, Yaling

    2016-10-01

    A novel two-step extraction technique combining ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with magnetic solid-phase extraction was developed for the preconcentration and separation of aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs before high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this work, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and hydrophobic pelargonic acid modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent were applied to retrieve the aflatoxins-containing ionic liquid. Notably, the target of magnetic nanoparticles was the ionic liquid rather than the aflatoxins. Because of the rapid mass transfer associated with the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid phase steps, fast extraction could be achieved. The main parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of aflatoxins were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, vortexing at 2500 rpm for 1 min in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and magnetic solid-phase extraction and then desorption by sonication for 2 min with acetonitrile as eluent. The recoveries were 90.3-103.7% with relative standard deviations of 3.2-6.4%. Good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9995. The detection limits were 0.632, 0.087, 0.422 and 0.146 ng/mL for aflatoxins B 1 , B2, G1, and G2, respectively. The results were also compared with the pretreatment method carried out by conventional immunoaffinity columns. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Selective increases in serotonin 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2C binding sites in adult rat basal ganglia following lesions of serotonergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Compan, V; Segu, L; Buhot, M C; Daszuta, A

    1998-05-18

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine possible adaptive changes in serotonin 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2A/2C receptor binding sites in adult rat basal ganglia, after partial or severe lesions of serotonergic neurons produced by intraraphe injections of variable amounts of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. In controls, the 5-HT1B/1D sites labeled with S-CM-G[125I]TNH2 were evenly distributed in the core and the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The density of 5-HT1B/1D sites was higher in the ventral than dorsal part of the striatum and no regional differences were detected along the rostrocaudal axis of the structure. The 5-HT2A/2C sites labeled with [125I]DOI were preferentially distributed in the mediodorsal striatum and higher densities were detected in the shell than core of the nucleus accumbens. Following 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections, there were no changes in binding of either receptor subtype after partial lesions entailing 80-90% 5-HT depletions. After severe 5-HT depletions (over 95%), large increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding were observed in the substantia nigra (78%), but no changes took place in the globus pallidus. Increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding were also detected in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (27%). Similar sized increases in 5-HT2A/2C binding (22%) were restricted to the medial striatum. The present results suggest a preferential association between 5-HT1B/1D receptors and the striatonigral neurons containing substance P, as indicated by the striatal distribution of these receptors and their selective increases in the substantia nigra after severe 5-HT deprivation. We recently proposed a similar relationship between the 5-HT4 receptors and the striatopallidal neurons containing met-enkephalin. Moreover, the increases in 5-HT1B/1D binding in the substantia nigra and in the shell of the nucleus accumbens reinforce the view of an implication of this receptor subtype in motor functions. In contrast, the prominent increases in 5-HT2A/2C binding after

  2. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  3. Endophilin B1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Zelda H

    2009-01-01

    Endophilin B1 is a member of the endophilin family that is localized predominantly to intracellular membranes. Also known as Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1), this protein has been observed to regulate the membrane dynamics of various intracellular compartments, such as the control of mitochondrial morphology and autophagosome formation in fibroblast. Endophilin B1 is expressed in the brain, but its functions in neurons had remained unknown. Recently, we have observed a novel role of endophilin B1 in neurons where it controls the trafficking of TrkA, cognate receptor for the prototypic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF). Knock-down of endophilin B1 expression induces precocious targeting of NGF/TrkA to late endosomes and lysosomes, thereby leading to reduced TrkA levels. This is accompanied by marked attenuation of NGF-induced gene transcription and neurite outgrowth. Our observations suggest that endophilin B1 regulates TrkA level and downstream functions by controlling the movement of TrkA to late endosomes/lysosomes, possibly acting at the level of early endosomes. PMID:19704909

  4. Comparison of isolated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins to catechin and procyanidins A2 and B2 for use as standards in the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde assay.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Shea, Michael P; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Krueger, Christian G; Howell, Amy B; Reed, Jess D

    2012-05-09

    The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. However, this method suffers from issues of accuracy and precision in the analysis and comparison of PAC levels across a broad range of cranberry products. Current use of procyanidin A2 as a standard leads to an underestimation of PACs content in certain cranberry products, especially those containing higher molecular weight PACs. To begin to address the issue of accuracy, a method for the production of a cranberry PAC standard, derived from an extraction of cranberry (c-PAC) press cake, was developed and evaluated. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 2.2 times higher than those determined by procyanidin A2. Increased accuracy is critical for estimating PAC content in relationship to research on authenticity, efficacy, and bioactivity, especially in designing clinical trials for determination of putative health benefits.

  5. Avermectin B1

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Avermectin B1 ; CASRN 65195 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  6. Einstein A coefficients for rovibronic lines of the A2Π → X2Σ+ and B2Σ+ → X2Σ+ transitions of CaH and CaD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, S. Fatemeh; Shayesteh, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    Calcium monohydride is an important diatomic molecule appearing in the spectra of sunspots and M dwarfs. We report complete line lists with Einstein A coefficients for the A2Π-X2Σ+ and B2Σ+-X2Σ+ electronic transitions of CaH and CaD radicals. The most recent ab initio transition dipole moments and potential energy curves were used for the calculation of vibronic band intensities, taking the Herman-Wallis effect into account, and the rotational line strengths were calculated using the PGOPHER program of Western. For the A2Π and B2Σ+ excited states of CaH and CaD, new off-diagonal electronic matrix elements were included in the Hamiltonian matrix, and new sets of spectroscopic constants were determined in order to accurately reproduce the line positions and relative intensities of the observed branches in laboratory spectra. For both CaH and CaD isotopologues, Einstein A coefficients were calculated for all possible rovibronic transitions from the v΄ = 0-3 vibrational levels of the A2Π state and the v΄ = 0-2 vibrational levels of the B2Σ+ state to the v″ = 0-4 vibrational levels of the X2Σ+ ground state. The line lists and intensities reported here can be used to accurately determine the amounts of CaH and CaD in stellar environments.

  7. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to have...

  8. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to have...

  9. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to have...

  10. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to have...

  11. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-2 - Definitions and special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (QBU) (B1) in France, whose functional currency is the euro. FC2, an unrelated foreign corporation... functional currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 is the euro. (ii) Result. FC2's acquisition of... currency of the combined operations of B1 and B2 after the exchange is the euro, B2 is deemed to have...

  12. Characterization of the X~ 2A1, A~ 2B1, and X~ 2Π electronic states of the Ga2H molecule and the X~ 2A' and A~ 2A'' isomerization transition states connecting the three minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Suyun; Yan, Ge; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of highly correlated ab initio methods has been used to predict the geometrical parameters of the linear (X˜Π2) and H-bridged (X˜A12 and ÃB12) Ga2H isomers and two isomerization transition states (X˜A'2 and ÃA″2) connecting the three minima. Dipole moments and vibrational frequencies are also obtained. The global minimum X˜A12 ground state of the H-bridged GaHGa isomer is predicted to lie only 1.6 [1.9 with the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) corrections] kcalmol-1 below the ÃB12 state. The X˜A12 state lies 5.4kcalmol-1 below the X˜Π2 ground state of the linear GaGaH isomer at the coupled-cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] level of theory with the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set. The full triples coupled-cluster method is found to alter these CCSD(T) predictions by as much as 0.3kcalmol-1. The forward isomerization barriers from the linear ground state to the X˜A'2 and ÃA″2 transition states are determined to be 3.3 and 5.3kcalmol-1, respectively. The reverse isomerization barrier between the X˜A12 GaHGa structure and the X˜Π2 GaGaH structure is predicted to be 8.6 (8.2 with the ZPVE corrections) kcalmol-1 at the aug-cc-pVQZ CCSD(T) level of theory.

  13. Expression and inducibility of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 by β-naphthoflavone and CYP2B22, CYP3As by rifampicin in heart regions and coronary arteries of pig.

    PubMed

    Messina, Andrea; Puccinelli, Emanuela; Gervasi, Pier Giovanni; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the constitutive and inducible expression of the CYP genes (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B22, 3A22, 3A29 and 3A46), related transcriptional factors (AhR, CAR, PXR, and Nrf2) and the antioxidant enzymes SOD, catalase, GSSH-reductase and GSH-peroxidase were investigated in the liver, heart regions and coronary arteries of control pigs and pigs treated with β-naphthoflavone (βNF) or with rifampicin (RIF). Real-time PCR experiments and enzymatic or immunoblot assays showed that CYP1A1 was predominantly enhanced by βNF in a similar manner in all the heart regions, whereas antioxidant enzyme activity was not affected. The rifampicin treatment resulted in an induction of CYP2B22 and CYP3As, at the transcriptional, activity and protein level in liver but not in heart nor in the coronary arteries, despite the expression of CAR and PXR in the cardiac tissues. These results obtained in vivo suggest that pig cardiac tissues may represent a useful model for humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. B-1 phagocytes: the myeloid face of B-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Popi, Ana Flavia

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between malignant B cells and macrophages has long been established. Furthermore, evolutionary studies have demonstrated that B cells from early vertebrates have both phagocytic and antibody production capabilities. In addition to their lymphoid nature, B-1 cells retain several myeloid characteristics. Various reports have demonstrated that B-1 cells can differentiate into phagocytes. However, descriptions of B-1 cells as a novel phagocyte cell member are rarely found in the literature. This review aims to present the available data regarding B-1 cell-derived phagocytes and also discusses how their existence might be relevant to hematopoiesis and immune responses. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. B1-B2 phase transition mechanism and pathway of PbS under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleke, Adebayo A.; Yao, Yansun

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies at finite Pressure-Temperature (P-T) conditions and a theoretical study at 0 K of the phase transition in lead sulphide (PbS) have been inconclusive. Many studies that have been done to understand structural transformation in PbS can broadly be classified into two main ideological streams—one with Pnma and another with Cmcm orthorhombic intermediate phase. To foster better understanding of this phenomenon, we present the result of the first-principles study of phase transition in PbS at finite temperature. We employed the particle swarm-intelligence optimization algorithm for the 0 K structure search and first-principles metadynamics simulations to study the phase transition pathway of PbS from the ambient pressure, 0 K Fm-3m structure to the high-pressure Pm-3m phase under experimentally achievable P-T conditions. Significantly, our calculation shows that both streams are achievable under specific P-T conditions. We further uncover new tetragonal and monoclinic structures of PbS with space group P21/c and I41/amd, respectively. We propose the P21/c and I41/amd as a precursor phase to the Pnma and Cmcm phases, respectively. We investigated the stability of the new structures and found them to be dynamically stable at their stability pressure range. Electronic structure calculations reveal that both P21/c and I41/amd phases are semiconducting with direct and indirect bandgap energies of 0.69(5) eV and 0.97(3) eV, respectively. In general, both P21/c and I41/amd phases were found to be energetically competitive with their respective orthorhombic successors.

  16. Forecasting Flying Hour Costs of the B-1, B-2, and the B-52 Bomber Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    reject the null hypothesis that the residuals are normally distributed. Likewise, in the Breusch Pagan test , a p-value greater than 0.05 means we...normality or constant variance, it will be noted in the results tables in Chapter IV. The Shapiro Wilk and Breusch Pagan tests are also very...the model; and • the results of the Shapiro Wilk, Breusch Pagan , and Durbin Watson tests . Summary This chapter outlines the methodology used in

  17. NMR solution structures and MD-simulation of procyanidin B1, B2, and C1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Procyanidins are polyphenols associated with a variety of benefits to the health of both plants and animals. Procyanidins provide increased defense against microbes, act as strong antioxidants, and may decrease the incidence of cancer. Key to understanding how procyanidins function requires understa...

  18. Non-selectivity of new bradykinin antagonists for B1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rhaleb, N E; Gobeil, F; Regoli, D

    1992-01-01

    Two new B1 receptor antagonists, [Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK and DArg[Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK were tested in vitro on the rabbit jugular vein and the guinea pig ileum (preparations containing B2 receptors) and on the rabbit aorta (preparation containing B1 receptors) for pharmacological characterization. The results indicate that both compounds are antagonists on both B1 and B2 receptors, are competitive and discriminate between B2A and B2B receptor subtypes.

  19. The structure, stability, and infrared spectrum of B 2N, B 2N +, B 2N -, BO, B 2O and B 2N 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. M. L.; François, J. P.; Gijbels, R.

    1992-05-01

    The structure, infrared spectrum, and heat of formation of B 2N, B 2N -, BO, and B 2O have been studied ab initio. B 2N is very stable; B 2O even more so. B 2N, B 2N -, B 2O, and probably B 2N + have symmetric linear ground-state structures; for B 2O, an asymmetric linear structure lies about 12 kcal/mol above the ground state. B 2N +, B 2N - and B 2O have intense asymmetric stretching frequencies, predicted near 870, 1590 and 1400 cm -1, respectively. Our predicted harmonic frequencies and isotopic shifts for B 2O confirm the recent experimental identification by Andrews and Burkholder. Absorptions at 1889.5 and 1998.5 cm -1 in noble-gas trapped boron nitride vapor belong the BNB and BNBN ( 3Π), respectively; a tentative assignment of 882.5 cm -1 to BNB + is proposed. Total atomization energies Σ De (Σ D0) are computed (accuracy ±2 kcal/mol) as: BO 193.1 (190.4), B 2O 292.5 (288.7), B 2N 225.0 (250.3) kcal/mol. The ionization potential and electron affinity of B 2N are predicted to be 8.62±0.1 and 3.34±0.1 eV. The MP4-level additivity approximations involved in G1 theory results in errors on the order of 1 kcal/mol in the Σ De values.

  20. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by use of UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products and used it to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the US. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled and amended with 13C17-labelled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. Our method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3>241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3>285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5% to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105–111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analysed ranged from B1 was most frequently detected in dry snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 we detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds. PMID:26452144

  1. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xuejiao; Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000; Zhang, Zhan

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose-more » and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by

  2. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plan satisfies section 410(b)(1) if it satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this... this subparagraph if it benefits— (i) Seventy percent or more of all employees, or (ii) Eighty percent... requirements of section 410(b)(1) and this subparagraph if it benefits such employees as qualify under a...

  3. Study of grain boundary transparency in (Y b1 -xC ax) B a2C u3O bicrystal thin films over a wide temperature, field, and field orientation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Abraimov, Dmytro; Polyanskii, Anatolii; Kametani, Fumitake; Larbalestier, David

    2015-03-01

    The residual low-angle grain boundary (GB) network is still the most important current-limiting mechanism operating in biaxially textured rare-earth barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) coated conductors. While Ca doping is well established to improve supercurrent flow across low-angle GBs in weak fields at high temperatures, Ca doping also depresses Tc, making it so far impractical for high-temperature applications of REBCO coated conductors. On the other hand, high-field-magnet applications of REBCO require low temperatures. Here we systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Ca doping in improving the GB transparency, rGB=JcGB/ Jcgrain , of low-angle Y b1 -xC axBaCuO [001] tilt bicrystal films down to 10 K and with magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the film surfaces, while varying the Ca and oxygen doping level. Using low-temperature scanning laser microscopy and magneto-optical imaging, we found rGB to strongly depend on the angle between magnetic field and the GB plane and clearly identified regimes in which JcGB can exceed Jcgrain(rGB>1 ) where the GB pinning is optimized by the field being parallel to the GB dislocations. However, even in this favorable situation, we found that rGB became much smaller at lower temperatures. Calculations of the GB Ca segregation profile predict that the high-Jc channels between the GB dislocation cores are almost Ca free. It may be therefore that the positive effects of Ca doping seen by many authors near Tc are partly a consequence of the higher Tc of these Ca-free channels.

  4. B1-Metallo-beta-Lactamases: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Maria F.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Fast, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-beta-Lactamases (MBLs) are class B β-lactamases that hydrolyze almost all clinically-available β-lactam antibiotics. MBLs feature the distinctive αβ/βα sandwich fold of the metallo-hydrolase / oxidoreductase superfamily and possess a shallow active-site groove containing one or two divalent zinc ions, flanked by flexible loops. According to sequence identity and zinc ion dependence, MBLs are classified into three subclasses (B1, B2 and B3), of which the B1 subclass enzymes have emerged as the most clinically significant. Differences among the active site architectures, the nature of zinc ligands, and the catalytic mechanisms have limited the development of a common inhibitor. In this review, we will describe the molecular epidemiology and structural studies of the most prominent representatives of class B1 MBLs (NDM-1, IMP-1 and VIM-2) and describe the implications for inhibitor design to counter this growing clinical threat. PMID:26424398

  5. B-1 AFT Nacelle Flow Visualization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celniker, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A 2-month program was conducted to perform engineering evaluation and design tasks to prepare for visualization and photography of the airflow along the aft portion of the B-1 nacelles and nozzles during flight test. Several methods of visualizing the flow were investigated and compared with respect to cost, impact of the device on the flow patterns, suitability for use in the flight environment, and operability throughout the flight. Data were based on a literature search and discussions with the test personnel. Tufts were selected as the flow visualization device in preference to several other devices studied. A tuft installation pattern has been prepared for the right-hand aft nacelle area of B-1 air vehicle No.2. Flight research programs to develop flow visualization devices other than tufts for use in future testing are recommended. A design study was conducted to select a suitable motion picture camera, to select the camera location, and to prepare engineering drawings sufficient to permit installation of the camera. Ten locations on the air vehicle were evaluated before the selection of the location in the horizontal stabilizer actuator fairing. The considerations included cost, camera angle, available volume, environmental control, flutter impact, and interference with antennas or other instrumentation.

  6. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed...

  7. 32 CFR 242b.1 - Regents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regents. 242b.1 Section 242b.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL... SCIENCES § 242b.1 Regents. (a) History and name. The Congress of the United States in the Uniformed...

  8. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a... Education. (c) Department means the Department of Education. (d) Disclosure means the availability or...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a...

  13. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence. It does not... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a...

  14. Novel kinin B1 receptor agonists with improved pharmacological profiles.

    PubMed

    Côté, Jérôme; Savard, Martin; Bovenzi, Veronica; Bélanger, Simon; Morin, Josée; Neugebauer, Witold; Larouche, Annie; Dubuc, Céléna; Gobeil, Fernand

    2009-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that inducible kinin B1 receptors (B1R) may play beneficial and protecting roles in cardiovascular-related pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic organ diseases. Peptide B1R agonists bearing optimized pharmacological features (high potency, selectivity and stability toward proteolysis) hold promise as valuable therapeutic agents in the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, we used solid-phase methodology to synthesize a series of novel peptide analogues based on the sequence of Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin, a relatively stable peptide agonist with moderate affinity for the human B1R. We evaluated the pharmacological properties of these peptides using (1) in vitro competitive binding experiments on recombinant human B1R and B2R (for index of selectivity determination) in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293T cells), (2) ex vivo vasomotor assays on isolated human umbilical veins expressing endogenous human B1R, and (3) in vivo blood pressure tests using anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-immunostimulated rabbits. Key chemical modifications at the N-terminus, the positions 3 and 5 on Sar[dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin led to potent analogues. For example, peptides 18 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Cha(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) and 20 (SarLys[Hyp(3),Igl(5), dPhe(8)]desArg(9)-bradykinin) outperformed the parental molecule in terms of affinity, functional potency and duration of action in vitro and in vivo. These selective agonists should be valuable in future animal and human studies to investigate the potential benefits of B1R activation.

  15. A new superhard material: Osmium diboride OsB 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbache, M.; Stuparević, L.; Živković, D.

    2006-08-01

    Superhard materials have many industrial applications, wherever resistance to abrasion and wear are important. The synthesis of new superhard materials is one of the great challenges to scientists. We re-examined the phase diagram of the binary osmium-boron system and confirmed the existence of two hexagonal phases, OsB 1.1, Os 2B 3, and an orthorhombic phase, OsB 2. Almost nothing is known about the physical properties of osmium borides. Microhardness measurements show that OsB 2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that this is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB 2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used as hard coating.

  16. The Vaporization of B2O3(l) to B2O3(g) and B2O2(g)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2011-01-01

    The vaporization of B2O3 in a reducing environment leads to formation of both B2O3(g) and B2O2(g). While formation of B2O3(g) is well understood, many questions about the formation of B2O2(g) remain. Previous studies using B(s) + B2O3(l) have led to inconsistent thermodynamic data. In this study, it was found that after heating, B(s) and B2O3(l) appear to separate and variations in contact area likely led to the inconsistent vapor pressures of B2O2(g). To circumvent this problem, an activity of boron is fixed with a two-phase mixture of FeB and Fe2B. Both second and third law enthalpies of formation were measured for B2O2(g) and B2O3(g). From these the enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are calculated to be -479.9 +/- 41.5 kJ/mol for B2O2(g) and -833.4 +/- 13.1 kJ/mol for B2O3(g). Ab initio calculations to determine the enthalpies of formation of B2O2(g) and B2O3(g) were conducted using the W1BD composite method and show good agreement with the experimental values.

  17. Kinin B1 receptor deficiency leads to leptin hypersensitivity and resistance to obesity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Marcelo A; Araújo, Ronaldo C; Reis, Felipe C G; Sgai, Daniela G; Fonseca, Raphael G; Barros, Carlos C; Merino, Vanessa F; Passadore, Mariana; Barbosa, Ana M; Ferrari, Bernard; Carayon, Pierre; Castro, Charlles H M; Shimuta, Suma I; Luz, Jacqueline; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Even, Patrick C; Oliveira, Suzana M; Bader, Michael; Pesquero, João B

    2008-06-01

    Kinins mediate pathophysiological processes related to hypertension, pain, and inflammation through the activation of two G-protein-coupled receptors, named B(1) and B(2). Although these peptides have been related to glucose homeostasis, their effects on energy balance are still unknown. Using genetic and pharmacological strategies to abrogate the kinin B(1) receptor in different animal models of obesity, here we present evidence of a novel role for kinins in the regulation of satiety and adiposity. Kinin B(1) receptor deficiency in mice (B(1)(-/-)) resulted in less fat content, hypoleptinemia, increased leptin sensitivity, and robust protection against high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Under high-fat diet, B(1)(-/-) also exhibited reduced food intake, improved lipid oxidation, and increased energy expenditure. Surprisingly, B(1) receptor deficiency was not able to decrease food intake and adiposity in obese mice lacking leptin (ob/ob-B(1)(-/-)). However, ob/ob-B(1)(-/-) mice were more responsive to the effects of exogenous leptin on body weight and food intake, suggesting that B(1) receptors may be dependent on leptin to display their metabolic roles. Finally, inhibition of weight gain and food intake by B(1) receptor ablation was pharmacologically confirmed by long-term administration of the kinin B(1) receptor antagonist SSR240612 to mice under high-fat diet. Our data suggest that kinin B(1) receptors participate in the regulation of the energy balance via a mechanism that could involve the modulation of leptin sensitivity.

  18. SOFIA FIFI-LS Observations of Sgr B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean; Cotera, Angela; Kaufman, Michael; Stolovy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Although Sgr B1 is the third most luminous H II region in the Galactic Center, after the region ionized by the central star cluster Sgr A and the very young star-forming region Sgr B2, it has surprisingly not been well studied. Because Sgr B1 is found with Sgr B2 in a common envelope of molecular gas and far-infrared (FIR) emission, it has been assumed that the two sources are physically related, even though the ionized gas of Sgr B1 is much more extended and there are evolved-star indicators of a significantly greater age than Sgr B2. This presents a problem because the current paradigm of Galactic Center gas motions and star formation requires that the entire Sgr B complex must have reasonably similar ages. To clarify the situation, we have mapped Sgr B1 with the FIFI-LS spectrometer on SOFIA in the FIR lines of [O III] 52 and 88 micron, [O I] 146 micron, and [C II] 158 micron. For the most part, we find little correlation of the density-sensitive ratio of the [O III] lines with the radio VLA images or the FIR Herschel PACS images, from which we infer that the structures seen in those images are not due to density enhancements but are due to bubbles of gas and dust seen edge-on. The [C II] 158 micron line correlates much better with the structure seen in the Herschal PACS Blue 60-85 micron image than it does with the Red 130-210 micron image, which is dominated by the massive molecular cloud seen at higher Galactic latitude. Sgr B1 is largely covered by spectra from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Archive, from which we measure mid-infrared lines of [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], and [Ar II]. From the ratios of these lines with the observed FIR lines we find that there are at least six small regions with significantly higher excitation than their surroundings; we infer that these regions contain the stars that excite the gas. Our presentation will describe these results in further detail.

  19. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with this...

  20. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with this...

  1. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.2 Basic guidelines. This part implements the Privacy Act of 1974...

  2. 42 CFR 52b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 52b.2 Section 52b.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Public Health Service Act, as...

  3. 42 CFR 52b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 52b.2 Section 52b.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Public Health Service Act, as...

  4. 12 CFR 261b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 261b.2 Section 261b.2 Banks and... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following... bank capital and surplus which may be represented by loans secured by stock and bond collateral under...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  7. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  8. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  9. 15 CFR 8b.2 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application. 8b.2 Section 8b.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.2...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to investigations...

  14. Laboratory detection of a new interstellar free radical CH2CN(2B1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Shuji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Irvine, W. M.; Ziurys, L. M.; Suzuki, Hiroko

    1988-01-01

    An asymmetric-top free radical CH2CN with a 2B1 ground state was detected by laboratory microwave spectroscopy. The radical was produced in a free-space absorption cell by a DC glow discharge in pure CH3CN gas. About 60 fine-structure components were observed for the N = 11-10 to 14-13 a-type rotational transitions in the frequency region of 220-260 GHz. Hyperfine resolved components for the N = 4-3 and 5-4 transitions were resolved in the 80 and 100 GHz regions, respectively. Molecular constants were determined and U100602 and U80484 from Sgr B2, and U40240 and U20120 from TMC-1 were assigned to the N = 5-4, 4-3, 2-1, and 1-0 transitions with K(-1) = 0 of the CH2CN radical.

  15. 45 CFR 73b.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 73b.1 Section 73b.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DEBARMENT OR SUSPENSION OF FORMER EMPLOYEES... officer or employee of the Department, including former and retired officers of the commissioned corps of...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... pipelines, electric utilities and hydroelectric projects. [43 FR 27174, June 23, 1978, as amended by Order...

  17. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  18. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  19. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  20. 18 CFR 3b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3b.1 Section 3b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  1. 75 FR 16664 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca ARRIEL 1B, 1D, 1D1, 2B, and 2B1 Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... limited to, Eurocopter AS 350 B, AS 350 BA, AS 350 B1, AS 350 B2, AS 350 B3, and EC 130 B4 helicopters... an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: During production of Arriel 1 and... by Turbom[eacute]ca. Potentially non-conforming PT blades have been traced as having been installed...

  2. Development of Specific Inhibitors for Breast Cancer-Associated Variants of ErbB2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Produce ErbB2 structures for drug-lead identification Months 1-12 Milestone #2: Production of computationally-derived pdb files of the structures of...crystallographic structures of the kinase domain of ErbB2 and its close relative EGFR (ErbB1). The kinase domains of ErbB2 and EGFR are highly...homologous as indicated by a sequence identity of ~ 78%. There are two currently available crystallographic structures of the ErbB2 kinase domain. One is

  3. Effect of alkaline cooking of maize on the content of fumonisins B1 and B2 and their hydrolysed forms.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, A; Lattanzio, V M T; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Pascale, M

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nixtamalization on the content of fumonisins (FBs), hydrolysed (HFBs) and partially hydrolysed (PHFBs) fumonisins in maize was investigated at laboratory-scale. Maize naturally contaminated with FBs and PHFBs was cooked with lime. Starting raw maize, steeping and washing waters and final masa fractions were analysed for toxin content. Control-cooking experiments without lime were also carried out. The nixtamalization reduced the amount of FBs and PHFBs in masa and converted them to HFBs. However, the three forms of fumonisins collected in all fractions amounted to 183%, indicating that nixtamalization made available forms of matrix-associated fumonisins that were then converted to their hydrolysed forms. Control-cooking enhanced FBs and PHFBs reduction, due to the solubility of fumonisins in water during the steeping process, but did not form HFBs. These findings indicate that benefits associated with enhancing the nutritional value of nixtamalized maize are also associated with a safer product in terms of fumonisin contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  5. Rapid, economical qualitative method for separation of aflatoxins B-1, B-2 & G-1, G-2 by dry column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Megalla, S E

    1983-12-01

    A good correlation of four components of aflatoxins was accomplished by using the dry column chromatography method. The decolorization process of interfering substances, by 0.01 N KOH and defatting the extract with petroleum ether yields a clean residue for DCC separation. It is clear that the dry column chromatography is a very simple and time-saving procedure for separation of aflatoxins. DCC columns are more economical than precoated 'thick layer' preparative plates and, in DCC, no large developing tanks need to be used. Hazards associated with the use of large volumes of flammable solvents are greatly reduced.

  6. Attenuation of Persistent Experimental Pancreatitis Pain by a Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingmin; Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H.; Vardanyan, Marina; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective The role of bradykinin (BK) receptors in activating and sensitizing peripheral nociceptors is well known. Recently, we showed that spinal dynorphin was pronociceptive through direct or indirect BK receptor activation. Here, we explored the potential role of BK receptors in pain associated with persistent pancreatitis in rats. Methods Experimental pancreatitis and abdominal hypersensitivity were induced by intravenous administrations of dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK (B1 antagonist) and HOE 140 (B2 antagonist) were given by intraperitoneal or intrathecal injection. Dynorphin antiserum was given intrathecally. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to detect spinal mRNA for BK receptors. Results Dibutyltin dichloride–induced pancreatitis upregulated B1 and B2 mRNA in the thoracic dorsal root ganglion and B2, but not B1, in the pancreas. No changes in spinal B1 or B2 mRNA were observed. Intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration of HOE 140 dose dependently abolished DBTC-induced abdominal hypersensitivity, whereas [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK was without effect by either route of administration. Antiserum to dynorphin (intrathecal) abolished DBTC-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions These results suggest that blockade of peripheral or spinal BK B2 receptors may be an effective approach for diminishing pain associated with pancreatitis. Moreover, it is suggested that spinal dynorphin may maintain pancreatitis pain through direct or indirect activation of BK B2 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:20531238

  7. MR fingerprinting with simultaneous B1 estimation.

    PubMed

    Buonincontri, Guido; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) can be used for quantitative estimation of physical parameters in MRI. Here, we extend the method to incorporate B1 estimation. The acquisition is based on steady state free precession MR fingerprinting with a Cartesian trajectory. To increase the sensitivity to the B1 profile, abrupt changes in flip angle were introduced in the sequence. Slice profile and B1 effects were included in the dictionary and the results from two- and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions were compared. Acceleration was demonstrated using retrospective undersampling in the phase encode directions of 3D data exploiting redundancy between MRF frames at the edges of k-space. Without B1 estimation, T2 and B1 were inaccurate by more than 20%. Abrupt changes in flip angle improved B1 maps. T1 and T2 values obtained with the new MRF methods agree with classical spin echo measurements and are independent of the B1 field profile. When using view sharing reconstruction, results remained accurate (error <10%) when sampling under 10% of k-space from the 3D data. The methods demonstrated here can successfully measure T1, T2, and B1. Errors due to slice profile can be substantially reduced by including its effect in the dictionary or acquiring data in 3D. Magn Reson Med 76:1127-1135, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. Themore » Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased

  9. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM.... (d) Air Force members will: (1) Keep paper and electronic records that are retrieved by name or...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.2 - Basic guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic guidelines. 806b.2 Section 806b.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM.... (d) Air Force members will: (1) Keep paper and electronic records that are retrieved by name or...

  11. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  12. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  13. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  14. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 3b.2 Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL...

  15. Aflatoxin B1 in common Egyptian foods.

    PubMed

    Selim, M I; Popendorf, W; Ibrahim, M S; el Sharkawy, S; el Kashory, E S

    1996-01-01

    Samples of common Egyptian foods (17 nuts and seeds, 10 spices, 31 herbs and medicinal plants, 12 dried vegetables, and 28 cereal grains) were collected from markets in Cairo and Giza. A portion of each sample was extracted with chloroform, and the concentrated extract was cleaned by passing through a silica gel column. Aflatoxin B1 was determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. The highest prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was in nuts and seeds (82%), followed by spices (40%), herbs and medicinal plants (29%), dried vegetables (25%), and cereal grains (21%). The highest mean concentration of aflatoxin B1 was in herb and medicinal plants (49 ppb), followed by cereals (36 ppb), spices (25 ppb), nuts and seeds (24 ppb), and dried vegetables (20 ppb). Among nuts and seeds, the prevalence of aflatoxin B1 was highest (100%) in watermelon seeds, inshell peanuts, and unshelled peanuts. The lowest prevalence and concentrations were in hommos (garbanzo beans). The highest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 were detected in foods that had no potential for field contamination but required drying during processing and storage, such as pomegranate peel, watermelon seeds, and molokhia.

  16. The purification step is not crucial in EIA measurements of thromboxane B2 and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sadilkova, Lenka; Paluch, Zoltan; Mottlova, Jirina; Bednar, Frantisek; Alusik, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and particularly 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11-dTxB2) are widely used as prognostic risk markers of platelet activation in cardiovascular diseases. The main errors in TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determination include either low concentrations of circulating TxB2 (1 - 2 pg/mL) and 11-dTxB2 (0.9 - 4.3 pg/mL) or rather high transiency (mean TxB2 half-life is approximately 5 minutes) as well as an incorrect pre-analytical phase set up. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a widely used purification step on the results of enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA)--based measurement of the two selected thromboxanes. For the purpose of this study, 20 plasma samples (10 healthy donors, 10 patients under treatment with acetylsalicylic acid) were screened for TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 concentrations using commercial competitive EIA kits (Cayman Chemicals, Tallinn, Estonia; Neogen, Lexington, KY, USA) with or without the introduction of the purification procedure. The purification step does not significantly affect the results of EIA measurements of the two of TxA2 metabolites (TxB2, 11-dTxB2) in human plasma. The levels of TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 determined in the plasma samples were not significantly changed (p < 0.05) when the purification step was omitted compared to the purified samples. This study establishes a protocol allowing for reliable and reproducible plasma TxB2 and 11-dTxB2 EIA measurement for routine basic screening of platelet function.

  17. Structure and genomic organization of the human B1 receptor gene for kinins (BDKRB1).

    PubMed

    Bachvarov, D R; Hess, J F; Menke, J G; Larrivée, J F; Marceau, F

    1996-05-01

    Two subtypes of mammalian bradykinin receptors, B1 and B2 (BDKRB1 and BDKRB2), have been defined based on their pharmacological properties. The B1 type kinin receptors have weak affinity for intact BK or Lys-BK but strong affinity for kinin metabolites without the C-terminal arginine (e.g., des-Arg9-BK and Lys-des-Arg9-BK, also called des-Arg10-kallidin), which are generated by kininase I. The B1 receptor expression is up-regulated following tissue injury and inflammation (hyperemia, exudation, hyperalgesia, etc.). In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding human B1 receptor from a human genomic library. The human B1 receptor gene contains three exons separated by two introns. The first and the second exon are noncoding, while the coding region and the 3'-flanking region are located entirely on the third exon. The exon-intron arrangement of the human B1 receptor gene shows significant similarity with the genes encoding the B2 receptor subtype in human, mouse, and rat. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed the presence of a consensus TATA box and of numerous candidate transcription factor binding sequences. Primer extension experiments have shown the existence of multiple transcription initiation sites situated downstream and upstream from the consensus TATA box. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the human B1 receptor is encoded by a single-copy gene.

  18. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  19. 26 CFR 1.381(b)-1 - Operating rules applicable to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for the purpose of winding up its affairs, paying its debts, and distributing any remaining balance of... DISTRIBUTION OR TRANSFER PURSUANT TO § 1.381(b)-1(b)(2),” and must include: [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF DISTRIBUTOR OR TRANSFEROR CORPORATION] AND [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER...

  20. 26 CFR 1.410(b)-1 - Minimum coverage requirements (before 1994).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....410(b)-1(b)(2). (6) Integration with Social Security Act. See section 401(a)(5) and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to integration of plans with the Social Security Act. (7) Different age and..., all the employees of corporations or trades and businesses whose employees are treated as employed by...

  1. Kinin B1 receptor antagonists containing alpha-methyl-L-phenylalanine: in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activities.

    PubMed

    Gobeil, F; Charland, S; Filteau, C; Perron, S I; Neugebauer, W; Regoli, D

    1999-03-01

    -To protect from metabolism and to improve potency of the AcLys-[D-betaNal7,Ile8]desArg9-bradykinin (BK) (R 715), we prepared and tested 3 analogues containing alpha-methyl-L-Phe ([alphaMe]Phe) in position 5: these are the AcLys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 892), Lys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 913), and AcLys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 914). The new compounds were tested against the contractile effect induced by desArg9BK on 2 B1 receptor bioassays, the human umbilical vein, and the rabbit aorta. Their antagonistic activities were compared with those of the early prototypes (Lys-[Leu8]desArg9BK and [Leu8]desArg9BK) and with other recently described peptide antagonists. The 3 (alphaMe)Phe analogues showed high antagonistic potencies (pA2) at both the human (8.8, 7.7, and 8. 7, respectively) and rabbit (8.6, 7.8, and 8.6, respectively) B1 receptors. No antagonistic effects (pA2<5) were observed on the B2 receptors that mediate the contractile effects of BK on the human umbilical vein, the rabbit jugular vein, and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, these new B1 antagonists were found to be resistant to in vitro degradation by purified angiotensin-converting enzyme from rabbit lung. The Nalpha-acetylated forms, R 892 and R 914, were resistant to aminopeptidases from human plasma. In vivo antagonistic potencies (ID50) of B1 receptor antagonists were evaluated in anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-treated (for B1 receptor) and nontreated (for B2 receptor) rabbits against the hypotensive effects of exogenous desArg9BK and BK. R 892 efficiently inhibited (ID50 2.8 nmol/kg IV) hypotension induced by desArg9BK without affecting that evoked by BK (ID50 >600 nmol/kg IV). Conversely, the peptide antagonists Lys-Lys-[Hyp3,Igl5,D-Igl7,Oic8]desArg9BK (B 9858) and DArg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8] desArg9BK (S 0765) showed dual B1/B2 receptor antagonism in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that R 892 and congeners provide selective

  2. 45 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As... the Department of Health and Human Services. (c) Department means the Department of Health and Human... used in connection with the term “record”; and, to have control over or responsibility for a system of...

  3. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  4. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  5. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  7. 15 CFR 8b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE HANDICAPPED IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OPERATED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE General Provisions § 8b.1 Purpose. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, prohibits discrimination on the basis...

  8. Solvent-dependent transformation of aflatoxin B1 in soil.

    PubMed

    Starr, James M; Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-08-01

    To date, all studies of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B 2 (AFB 2 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products. In this study, we investigated the role of the solvent vehicle in the transformation of AFB 1 in soil. To do this, we spiked soils with AFB 1 dissolved in water (93:7, water/methanol) or methanol and used HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS to identify the transformation products. Contrasting previous published reports, we did not detect AFB 2 or AFG 2 . In an aqueous-soil environment, we identified aflatoxin B 2a (AFB 2a ) as the single major transformation product. We propose that AFB 2a is formed from hydrolysis of AFB 1 with the soil acting as an acid catalyst. Alternatively, when methanol was used, we identified methoxy aflatoxin species likely formed via acid-catalyzed addition of methanol to AFB 1 . These results suggest that where soil moisture is adequate, AFB 1 is hydrolyzed to AFB 2a and that reactive organic solvents should be avoided when replicating natural conditions to study the fate of AFB 1 in soil.

  9. A search for cyanopolyynes in L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Lefloch, B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.; Jaber, A. A.; Podio, L.; Benedettini, M.; Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Bachiller, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present here a systematic search for cyanopolyynes in the shock region L1157-B1 and its associated protostar L1157-mm in the framework of the Large Program`Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM' (ASAI), dedicated to chemical surveys of solar-type star-forming regions with the IRAM 30-m telescope. Observations of the millimeter windows between 72 and 272 GHz permitted the detection of HC3N and its 13C isotopologues, and HC5N (for the first time in a protostellar shock region). In the shock, the analysis of the line profiles shows that the emission arises from the outflow cavities associated with L1157-B1 and L1157-B2. Molecular abundances and excitation conditions were obtained from the analysis of the Spectral Line Energy Distributions under the assumption of Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium or using a radiative transfer code in the Large Velocity Gradient approximation. Towards L1157 mm, the HC3N emission arises from the cold envelope (T_rot=10K) and a higher-excitation region (Trot = 31K) of smaller extent around the protostar. We did not find any evidence of 13C or D fractionation enrichment towards L1157-B1. We obtain a relative abundance ratio HC3N/HC5N of 3.3 in the shocked gas. We find an increase by a factor of 30 of the HC3N abundance between the envelope of L1157-mm and the shock region itself. Altogether, these results are consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of HC3N was produced by means of gas phase reactions in the passage of the shock. This scenario is supported by the predictions of a parametric shock code coupled with the chemical model UCL_CHEM.

  10. [Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates derived from phylogenetic groups A and B1 causing extraintestinal infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eva; Prats, Guillem; Planells, Irene; Planes, Ana M; Pérez, Teresa; Andreu, Antonia

    2006-10-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from the non-pathogenic phylogenetic groups A and B1 rarely cause extraintestinal infections. The aim of this study was to analyze 37 E. coli isolates pertaining to phylogenetic groups A and B1 and compare them with 37 E. coli isolates from group B2 and 31 from group D, which caused the same infections. Among 105 E. coli isolated from the urine of patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis and from the blood of patients with urinary-source and other-source bacteriemia, the E. coli phylogenetic groups, 15 virulence-associated genes, 7 O-antigens and fluoroquinolone resistance were analyzed. E. coli from groups A and B1 showed fewer virulence determinants (median 3.5) than E. coli from group B2 (8.6, P < 0.01) or D (5.3, P < .001); however, a subgroup containing 3 isolates from group A and 5 from B1 harbored 5 or more factors. E. coli from groups A/B1 were associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (74%, P < .001), whereas E. coli from group B2 were associated with susceptibility to this antibiotic (76%, P = .003). E. coli from groups A/B1 were isolated significantly more frequently in patients with pyelonephritis or sepsis and local or general factors favoring infection, association not observed in patients with cystitis. Even though most of the E. coli isolates from phylogenetic groups A and B1 presented a low virulence potential, they were able to cause extraintestinal infections, particularly in compromised patients.

  11. New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] from the series A2Pb2[B2O7], A = K, Cs, B = Si, Ge with the umbrella-like [PbO3]4- group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokoneva, Elena L.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Volkov, Anatoly S.; Dimitrova, Olga V.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.

    2018-04-01

    New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] was synthesized in multi-components hydrothermal solution with 20 w.% concentration of Cs2CO3 mineralizer, pH = 10. Novel mixed compound belongs to the structure type A2Pb2[B2O7] previously indicated for powders with A = K, B=Si or Ge. Singe crystal structure determination of Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] revealed the need for the correction of the space group of the earlier suggested structural model from P-3 to P-3m1, as well as for the splitting of the Pb-atom position. Umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- are located between [(Si,Ge)O4]4- tetrahedra in mica-like honeycomb layers and play the role of tetrahedra with the Pb-lone-pair as the forth apex. Crystal chemical comparison revealed similarities and differences with the classical structure type of α-celsian Ba[Al2Si2O8] with the tetrahedral double layer. Recently investigated nonlinear optical acentric borates Pb2(BO3)(NO3) and Pb2(BO3)Cl are both related to this structural type, possessing umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- and honeycomb layers [Pb2(BO3)]+ with the BO3-triangles on the tetrahedral positions.

  12. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371 (b)), WIN expenses (as defined in paragraph (a) of § 1.50B-1) shall be...

  13. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371 (b)), WIN expenses (as defined in paragraph (a) of § 1.50B-1) shall be...

  14. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371 (b)), WIN expenses (as defined in paragraph (a) of § 1.50B-1) shall be...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-2 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; basic rules. 48.4216(b... to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(b)-2 Constructive sale price; basic rules. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(1) sets forth the conditions that require the Secretary to construct a sale price on which to...

  16. 26 CFR 1.475(b)-2 - Exemptions-identification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements. (a) Identification of the basis for exemption. An identification of a security as exempt from mark to market does not satisfy section 475(b)(2) if it fails to state whether the security is described in— (1) Either of the first two subparagraphs of section 475(b)(1) (identifying a security as held...

  17. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang Shang; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Ri Zhe; Choi, Byung-Min; Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Bok-Ryang

    2012-01-01

    Typically, chemopreventive agents involve either induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and/or inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) that are required for the activation of procarcinogens. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of phloretin against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) activation to the ultimate carcinogenic intermediate, AFB(1)-8, 9-epoxide (AFBO), and its subsequent detoxification. Phloretin markedly inhibited formation of the epoxide with human liver microsomes in a dose-dependent manner. Phloretin also inhibited the activities of nifedipine oxidation and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in human liver microsomes. These data show that phloretin strongly inhibits CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activities, which are involved in the activation of AFB1. Phloretin increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12) cells in a dose-dependent manner. GST activity toward AFBO in cell lysates treated with 20 μM phloretin was 23-fold that of untreated control cell lysates. The expression of GSTA3, GSTA4, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 was induced by phloretin in a dose-dependent manner in AML 12 cells. GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were able to significantly increase the conjugation of AFBO with glutathione. Concurrently, induction of the GST isozyme genes was partially associated with the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that phloretin has a strong chemopreventive effect against AFB1 through its inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and its inductive effect on GST activity. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Radio Observations of Sgr B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xin-Jie; Su, Jiang-Tao

    2001-10-01

    The 13CO (J=1-0) map of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 reveals that the mass center of the molecular cloud nucleus does not coincide with that of compact HII regions which are likely to be the outcome of a shock on the cloud. We find evidence of cloud contraction probably resulting from cloud-cloud collision at subsonic speed.

  19. 18 CFR 3b.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 3b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE, USE, AND DISSEMINATION OF RECORDS OF IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL... or the granting of access to a record, by oral, written, electronic or mechanical communication. ...

  20. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  1. CARDIO-i2b2: integrating arrhythmogenic disease data in i2b2.

    PubMed

    Segagni, Daniele; Tibollo, Valentina; Dagliati, Arianna; Napolitano, Carlo; G Priori, Silvia; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The CARDIO-i2b2 project is an initiative to customize the i2b2 bioinformatics tool with the aim to integrate clinical and research data in order to support translational research in cardiology. In this work we describe the implementation and the customization of i2b2 to manage the data of arrhytmogenic disease patients collected at the Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri of Pavia in a joint project with the NYU Langone Medical Center (New York, USA). The i2b2 clinical research chart data warehouse is populated with the data obtained by the research database called TRIAD. The research infrastructure is extended by the development of new plug-ins for the i2b2 web client application able to properly select and export phenotypic data and to perform data analysis.

  2. Contribution of B2 receptors for bradykinin in Arthus reaction-induced plasma extravasation in wild-type or B2 transgenic knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Samadfam, R; Teixeira, C; Bkaily, G; Sirois, P; de Brum-Fernandes, A; D'Orleans-Juste, P

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of bradykinin (BK) B1 and B2 receptors in a model of type III hypersensitivity, the reverse passive Arthus reaction (RPA), in wild-type mice and transgenic B2 knockout littermates.BK (10 μg mouse−1) or bovine serum albumin (0.5 mg mouse−1) induced a sustained Evans blue extravasation for more than 80 min in naive or rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin-treated mice (RPA model), respectively. The response to the two stimuli was prevented by the B2 receptor antagonist, HOE-140, but not by [Leu8]desArg9-BK (B1 receptor antagonist).In contrast to the wild-type littermates, RPA and bradykinin were unable to trigger an increase in plasma extravasation in B2 knockout mice.Furthermore, endothelin-1 (5 μg mouse−1) and a selective NK-1 receptor agonist [Sar9,Met (O2)11]-SP (20 μg mouse−1), triggered a significant increase in peritoneal plasma extravasation in both wild-type and B2 knockout animals.A pretreatment with indomethacin (200 μg mouse−1) significantly reduced the RPA-induced but not the BK-induced increase in Evans blue extravasation. Furthermore, RPA, but not BK, triggered a significant indomethacin-sensitive increase in peritoneal prostaglandin E2 content.Our results suggest a pivotal role for B2 receptors in the mechanism of plasma extravasation which occurs during the reverse passive Arthus reaction in the mouse. Moreover, our results suggest an important contribution of prostanoids in the plasma leakage mechanisms triggered by RPA but not by bradykinin. PMID:10780980

  3. The B1 Protein Guides the Biosynthesis of a Lasso Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaozhou; Fage, Christopher D.; Hegemann, Julian D.; Mielcarek, Andreas; Yan, Dushan; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    2016-10-01

    Lasso peptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) with a unique lariat knot-like fold that endows them with extraordinary stability and biologically relevant activity. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of these fascinating molecules remains largely speculative. Generally, two enzymes (B for processing and C for cyclization) are required to assemble the unusual knot-like structure. Several subsets of lasso peptide gene clusters feature a “split” B protein on separate open reading frames (B1 and B2), suggesting distinct functions for the B protein in lasso peptide biosynthesis. Herein, we provide new insights into the role of the RiPP recognition element (RRE) PadeB1, characterizing its capacity to bind the paeninodin leader peptide and deliver its peptide substrate to PadeB2 for processing.

  4. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) and dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Gary E.; Hirsch, Joseph A.; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Jordon, Barry D.; Cirio, Rosanna T.; Elder, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The earliest and perhaps best example of an interaction between nutrition and dementia is related to thiamine (vitamin B1). Throughout the last century, research showed that thiamine deficiency is associated with neurological problems, including cognitive deficits and encephalopathy. Multiple similarities exist between classical thiamine deficiency and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in that both are associated with cognitive deficits and reductions in brain glucose metabolism. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are critical components of glucose metabolism that are reduced in the brains of AD patients and by thiamine deficiency, and their decline could account for the reduction in glucose metabolism. In preclinical models, reduced thiamine can drive AD-like abnormalities, including memory deficits, plaques, and hyperphosphorylation of tau. Furthermore, excess thiamine diminishes AD-like pathologies. In addition to dietary deficits, drugs, or other manipulations that interfere with thiamine absorption can cause thiamine deficiency. Elucidating the reasons why the brains of AD patients are functionally thiamine deficient and determining the effects of thiamine restoration may provide critical information to help treat patients with AD. PMID:26971083

  5. In vivo Metabolism of Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most prevalent fumonisin mycotoxin found in corn and corn-based foods. It inhibits ceramide synthase, disrupts sphingolipid metabolism and function, is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and induces neural tube defects in some mouse strains. Its human health effect...

  6. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2KB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  7. Lattice Thermal Conductivity from Atomistic Simulations: ZrB2 and HfB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, John W.; Daw, Murray S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC) including ZrB2 and HfB2 have a number of properties that make them attractive for applications in extreme environments. One such property is their high thermal conductivity. Computational modeling of these materials will facilitate understanding of fundamental mechanisms, elucidate structure-property relationships, and ultimately accelerate the materials design cycle. Progress in computational modeling of UHTCs however has been limited in part due to the absence of suitable interatomic potentials. Recently, we developed Tersoff style parameterizations of such potentials for both ZrB2 and HfB2 appropriate for atomistic simulations. As an application, Green-Kubo molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of ZrB2 and HfB2. The atomic mass difference in these binary compounds leads to oscillations in the time correlation function of the heat current, in contrast to the more typical monotonic decay seen in monoatomic materials such as Silicon, for example. Results at room temperature and at elevated temperatures will be reported.

  8. Effect of the allelic variant of alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gaeun; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jong-Keun

    2014-06-01

    It has been known that ADH1B*2 allele has a protective effect against the development of alcohol dependence. However, the protection mechanism is still unknown. We investigated whether ADH1B gene polymorphism affects ethanol (EtOH) metabolism. In a parent study, we conducted a randomized crossover trials on 24 healthy male subjects who were selected by genotyping: 12 with ALDH2*1/*1 (active form) and 12 with ALDH2*1/*2 (inactive form). In the present study, the 24 subjects were reclassified into 2 groups of 11 with ADH1B*1/*2 and 13 with ADH1B*2/*2 according to the ADH1B genotypes. Each subject was administered 1 of 3 doses of EtOH (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) or a placebo in 4 trials. After the administration of alcohol, blood EtOH and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured 9 times over 4 hours. In the case of EtOH, the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4 ) and the peak blood concentration of EtOH (Cmax ) in subjects with ADH1B*2/*2 were significantly higher than those in subjects with ADH1B*1/*2 at all 3 dosages before stratifying by ALDH2 genotype. However, after stratifying by ALDH2 genotype, a statistically significant difference between ADH1B*2/*2 and ADH1B*1/*2 was found only at the 0.5 g/kg dosage regardless of ALDH2 genotype. In the case of acetaldehyde, the AUC0-4 and Cmax of acetaldehyde of ADH1B*2/*2 after administration of 0.25 g/kg alcohol and the AUC0-4 of acetaldehyde of ADH1B*2/*2 at 0.5 g/kg were significantly higher than corresponding values of ADH1B*1/*2 only in the group of ALDH2*1/*2. Our findings indicate that the blood EtOH concentrations of ADH1B*2/*2 group are higher than those of ADH1B*1/*2 group regardless of ALDH2 genotype, and the blood acetaldehyde concentrations of ADH1B*2/*2 are also higher than those of ADH1B*1/*2 only in the ALDH2*1/*2 group. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the association of ADH1B*2 allele with blood EtOH and acetaldehyde levels in humans, and these results

  9. B-1a transitional cells are phenotypically distinct and are lacking in mice deficient in IκBNS.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Gabriel K; Àdori, Monika; Khoenkhoen, Sharesta; Dosenovic, Pia; Beutler, Bruce; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B

    2014-09-30

    B-1 cells mediate early protection against infection by responding to T cell-independent (TI) antigens found on the surface of various pathogens. Mice with impaired expression of the atypical IκB protein IκBNS have markedly reduced frequencies of B-1 cells. We used a mouse strain with dysfunctional IκBNS derived from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen, named bumble, to investigate the point in the development of B-1 cells where IκBNS is required. The presence of wild-type (wt) peritoneal cells in mixed wt/bumble chimeras did not rescue the development of bumble B-1 cells, but wt peritoneal cells transferred to bumble mice restored natural IgM levels and response to TI antigens. The bumble and wt mice displayed similar levels of fetal liver B-1 progenitors and splenic neonatal transitional B (TrB) cells, both of which were previously shown to give rise to B-1 cells. Interestingly, we found that a subset of wt neonatal TrB cells expressed common B-1a markers (TrB-1a) and that this cell population was absent in the bumble neonatal spleen. Sorted TrB-1a (CD93(+)IgM(+)CD5(+)) cells exclusively generated B-1a cells when adoptively transferred, whereas sorted CD93(+)IgM(+)CD5(-) cells gave rise to B-2 cells and, to a lesser extent, B-1b and B-1a cells. This study identifies a phenotypically distinct splenic population of TrB-1a cells and establishes that the development of B-1a cells is blocked before this stage in the absence of IκBNS.

  10. Effect of vitamin B1 and mixtures of B1 with other vitamins on cytostatic efficiency of sanazole under irradiation. A study in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Edith; Getoff, Nikola

    2003-06-01

    Experiments in vitro, using bacteria Escherichia coli (AB 1157) as a biological model, showed that the cytostatic efficiency of sanazole (AK-2123, a nitrotriazole-type radiosensitizer) in radiation treatment can be strongly influenced by the presence of various vitamins. In airfree media the sanazole action is increased by a factor of 2.5 in the presence of vitamin (vit.) B1, vit. C E-acetate and β-carotene, whereas vit. B1 used individually possesses a 2.7-times higher cytostatic activity than sanazole itself. In media containing air the highest increase of sanazole action is observed in the presence of vit. B1 and C, whereas the individual use of vit. B1 shows a radiation protection effect. In media saturated with N 2O the addition of the vit. B1 and C causes a 1.8-times larger sanazole activity, but the application of vit. B1 alone brings about a very high radiation protection. From studies of vit. B1-radiolysis it can be concluded that OH radicals are the major primary transients leading to substrate degradation. The results are of interest for the radiation therapy of cancer.

  11. Adjuvant Effect of Killed Propionibacterium acnes on Mouse Peritoneal B-1 Lymphocytes and Their Early Phagocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Teixeira, Daniela; Yendo, Tatiana Mina; Thies, Felipe Garutti; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda

    2012-01-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are the predominant cells in mouse peritoneal cavity. They express macrophage and lymphocyte markers and are divided into B-1a, B-1b and B-1c subtypes. The role of B-1 cells is not completely clear, but they are responsible for natural IgM production and seem to play a regulatory role. An enriched B-1b cell population can be obtained from non-adherent peritoneal cell cultures, and we have previously demonstrated that these cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype upon attachment to the substrate in vitro. Nevertheless, the B-1 cell response to antigens or adjuvants has been poorly investigated. Because killed Propionibacterium acnes exhibits immunomodulatory effects on both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes, we analyzed whether a killed bacterial suspension or its soluble polysaccharide (PS) could modulate the absolute number of peritoneal B-1 cells in BALB/c mice, the activation status of these cells and their ability to differentiate into phagocytes in vitro. In vivo, P. acnes treatment elevated the absolute number of all B-1 subsets, whereas PS only increased B-1c. Moreover, the bacterium increased the number of B-1b cells that were positive for MHC II, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-12, in addition to up-regulating TLR9, CD80 and CD86 expression. PS increased B-1b cell expression of TLR4, TLR9, CD40 and CD86, as well as IL-10 and IL-12 synthesis. Both of the treatments decreased the absolute number of B-1b cells in vitro, suggesting their early differentiation into B-1 cell-derived phagocytes (B-1CDP). We also observed a higher phagocytic activity from the phagocytes that were derived from B-1b cells after P. acnes and PS treatment. The adjuvant effect that P. acnes has on B-1 cells, mainly the B-1b subtype, reinforces the importance of B-1 cells in the innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:22448280

  12. Adjuvant effect of killed Propionibacterium acnes on mouse peritoneal B-1 lymphocytes and their early phagocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mussalem, Juliana Sekeres; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Teixeira, Daniela; Yendo, Tatiana Mina; Thies, Felipe Garutti; Popi, Ana Flavia; Mariano, Mario; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda

    2012-01-01

    B-1 lymphocytes are the predominant cells in mouse peritoneal cavity. They express macrophage and lymphocyte markers and are divided into B-1a, B-1b and B-1c subtypes. The role of B-1 cells is not completely clear, but they are responsible for natural IgM production and seem to play a regulatory role. An enriched B-1b cell population can be obtained from non-adherent peritoneal cell cultures, and we have previously demonstrated that these cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype upon attachment to the substrate in vitro. Nevertheless, the B-1 cell response to antigens or adjuvants has been poorly investigated. Because killed Propionibacterium acnes exhibits immunomodulatory effects on both macrophages and B-2 lymphocytes, we analyzed whether a killed bacterial suspension or its soluble polysaccharide (PS) could modulate the absolute number of peritoneal B-1 cells in BALB/c mice, the activation status of these cells and their ability to differentiate into phagocytes in vitro. In vivo, P. acnes treatment elevated the absolute number of all B-1 subsets, whereas PS only increased B-1c. Moreover, the bacterium increased the number of B-1b cells that were positive for MHC II, TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-12, in addition to up-regulating TLR9, CD80 and CD86 expression. PS increased B-1b cell expression of TLR4, TLR9, CD40 and CD86, as well as IL-10 and IL-12 synthesis. Both of the treatments decreased the absolute number of B-1b cells in vitro, suggesting their early differentiation into B-1 cell-derived phagocytes (B-1CDP). We also observed a higher phagocytic activity from the phagocytes that were derived from B-1b cells after P. acnes and PS treatment. The adjuvant effect that P. acnes has on B-1 cells, mainly the B-1b subtype, reinforces the importance of B-1 cells in the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. A Simulation Based Methodology to Examine the B-1B’s AN/ALQ-161 Maintenance Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Paper, 2001). “The Air Force does not think of, or advertise , bombers as interchangeable. The B-1, B-2 and B-52 all have a specific mission area and...Path Modeling ( CPM ), Goal Programming, EOQ, Nonlinear Programming Predictive Models unknown, ill-defined known or under the decision-maker’s

  14. A Simulation Based Methodology to Examine the B-1B’s AN/ALQ-161 Maintenance Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    2001). “The Air Force does not think of, or advertise , bombers as interchangeable. The B-1, B-2 and B-52 all have a specific mission area and 2...Modeling ( CPM ), Goal Programming, EOQ, Nonlinear Programming Predictive Models unknown, ill-defined known or under the decision-maker’s control

  15. 77 FR 53182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...: Navy (AKL) [[Page 53184

  16. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-04-15

    B cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL(+)MHC class-I(Hi)CD86(Hi)B cells of unknown origin. In this article, we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. They induce expression and activation of 4-1BBL and IFN-γR1 on B1a cells to subsequently upregulate membrane TNF-α and CD86. As a result, activated B1a/4BL cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8(+)T cells by targeting TNFR2 via membrane TNF-α and providing costimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, to our knowledge, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8(+)T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A.; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-01-01

    B-cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL+ MHC class-IHi CD86Hi B cells of unknown origin. Here we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. The 4BL cells induce expression of 4-1BBL and IFNγR1 on B1a cells resulting in subsequent up regulation of membrane TNFα (mTNFα) and CD86. As a result, B1a cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8+T cells by targeting TNFR2 via mTNFα while providing co-stimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8+T cells. PMID:26983789

  18. Demonstration of GTG as an alternative initiation codon for the serpin endopin 2B-2.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin-Rong; Garza, Christina Z; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Hook, Vivian Y H

    2005-02-18

    This study demonstrates GTG as a novel, alternative initiation codon for translation of bovine endopin 2B-2, a serpin protease inhibitor. Molecular cDNA cloning revealed the endopin 2B-1 and endopin 2B-2 isoforms that are predicted to inhibit papain and elastase. Notably, GTG was demonstrated as the initiation codon for endopin 2B-2, whereas endopin 2B-1 possesses ATG as its initiation codon. GTG mediated in vitro translation of 46kDa endopin 2B-2. GTG also mediated translation of EGFP by in vitro translation and by expression in mammalian cells. Notably, mutagenesis of GTG to GTC resulted in the absence of EGFP expression in cells. GTG produced a lower level of protein expression compared to ATG. The use of GTG as an initiation codon to direct translation of endopin 2B, as well as the heterologous protein EGFP, demonstrates the role of GTG in the regulation of mRNA translation in mammalian cells. Significantly, further analyses of mammalian genomes based on GTG as an alternative initiation codon may predict new candidate gene products expressed by mammalian and human genomes.

  19. 26 CFR 1.681(b)-1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cross reference. 1.681(b)-1 Section 1.681(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.681(b)-1 Cross reference. For disallowance of certain charitable, etc...

  20. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  1. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  2. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B of...

  3. Neuroradiological findings in GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1.

    PubMed

    Bano, Shahina; Prasad, Akhila; Yadav, Sachchida Nand; Chaudhary, Vikas; Garga, Umesh Chandra

    2011-07-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is a very rare lysosomal disorder. As per our knowledge, to date, only one article depicting the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1 is available in the literature. We are the first to describe the neuroradiological findings in an Indian patient diagnosed with GM2 gangliosidosis variant B1.

  4. 26 CFR 31.6302(b)-1 - Method of collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of collection. 31.6302(b)-1 Section 31.6302(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT... Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6302(b)-1 Method of collection. For provisions relating to collection by means...

  5. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  6. 26 CFR 1.267(b)-1 - Relationships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationships. 1.267(b)-1 Section 1.267(b)-1...) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(b)-1 Relationships. (a) In general. (1) The persons referred to... partnership separately. Therefore, if the other person and a partner are within any one of the relationships...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-1 - Resident alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resident alien. 301.7701(b)-1 Section 301.7701... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-1 Resident alien. (a) Scope. Section 301.7701(b)-1(b) provides rules for determining whether an alien individual is a lawful permanent resident...

  12. 12 CFR 261b.1 - Basis and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis and scope. 261b.1 Section 261b.1 Banks... REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.1 Basis and scope. This part is issued by the Board of... public is entitled to the fullest practicable information regarding the decision making processes of the...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 31.3306(b)-1 Section 31.3306(b)-1... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1 Wages. (a) Applicable law and... after 1938 constitutes wages is determined under section 3306(b). Accordingly, only remuneration paid...

  14. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-21] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... Pursuant to Section 36(b) (1) Of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Iraq...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7702B-1 - Consumer protection provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer protection provisions. 1.7702B-1 Section 1.7702B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702B-1 Consumer protection...

  16. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b) [Reserved] [74 FR 2268, Jan...

  17. 49 CFR 178.33b-1 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 178.33b-1 Section 178.33b-1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings § 178.33b-1 Compliance. (a) Required in all details. (b...

  18. Human umbilical vein: involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in bradykinin B1 receptor-sensitized responses.

    PubMed

    Errasti, A E; Rey-Ares, V; Daray, F M; Rogines-Velo, M P; Sardi, S P; Paz, C; Podestá, E J; Rothlin, R P

    2001-08-01

    In isolated human umbilical vein (HUV), the contractile response to des-Arg9-bradykinin (des-Arg9-BK), selective BK B1 receptor agonist, increases as a function of the incubation time. Here, we evaluated whether cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is involved in BK B1-sensitized response obtained in 5-h incubated HUV rings. The effect of different concentrations of indomethacin, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, meloxicam, lysine clonixinate or NS-398 administrated 30 min before concentration-response curves (CRC) was studied. All treatments produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to des-Arg9-BK in a concentration-dependent manner, which provides pharmacological evidence that COX pathway is involved in the BK B1 responses. Moreover, in this tissue, the NS-398 pKb (5.2) observed suggests that COX-2 pathway is the most relevant. The strong correlation between published pIC50 for COX-2 and the NSAIDs' pKbs estimated further supports the hypothesis that COX-2 metabolites are involved in BK B1 receptor-mediated responses. In other rings, indomethacin (30, 100 micromol/l) or NS-398 (10, 30 micromol/l) produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to BK, selective BK B2 agonist, and its pKbs were similar to the values to inhibit BK B1 receptor responses, suggesting that COX-2 pathway also is involved in BK B2 receptor responses. Western blot analysis shows that COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes are present before and after 5-h in vitro incubation and apparently COX-2 does not suffer additional induction.

  19. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Eliana N. C.; Kobashigawa, Estela; Cardoso, Ana Lúcia S. P.; Ledoux, David R.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Oliveira, Carlos A. F.

    2010-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on liver pathology, serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and plasma total protein (TP) of broilers were evaluated from 8 to 41 days of age. Dietary treatments included a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of AFB1 (0, 50 and 200 μg AFB1/kg), and three levels of FB1 (0, 50 and 200 mg FB1/kg). At 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed 50 mg FB1 only, concentrations of AST were higher (p < 0.05) in all other treatment groups when compared with controls. Plasma TP was lower (p < 0.05) at six days post feeding in groups fed 200 μg AFB1/kg alone or in combination with FB1. At day 33 days post feeding, with the exception of birds fed the highest combination of AFB1 and FB1 which had higher plasma TP than control birds, plasma TP of birds fed other dietary treatments were similar to controls. Broilers receiving the highest levels of AFB1 and FB1 had bile duct proliferation and trabecular disorder in liver samples. AFB1 singly or in combination with FB at the levels studied, caused liver damage and an increase in serum levels of AST. PMID:22069595

  20. Bax Activates Endophilin B1 Oligomerization and Lipid Membrane Vesiculation*

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, Tatiana K.; Boukari, Hacène; Antignani, Antonella; Shiu, Brian; Banerjee, Soojay; Neutzner, Albert; Youle, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Endophilins participate in membrane scission events that occur during endocytosis and intracellular organelle biogenesis through the combined activity of an N-terminal BAR domain that interacts with membranes and a C-terminal SH3 domain that mediates protein binding. Endophilin B1 (Endo B1) was identified to bind Bax, a Bcl-2 family member that promotes apoptosis, through yeast two-hybrid protein screens. Although Endo B1 does not bind Bax in healthy cells, during apoptosis, Endo B1 interacts transiently with Bax and promotes cytochrome c release from mitochondria. To explore the molecular mechanism of action of Endo B1, we have analyzed its interaction with Bax in cell-free systems. Purified recombinant Endo B1 in solution displays a Stokes radius indicating a tetrameric quarternary structure. However, when incubated with purified Bax, it assembles into oligomers more than 4-fold greater in molecular weight. Although Endo B1 oligomerization is induced by Bax, Bax does not stably associate with the high molecular weight Endo B1 complex. Endo B1 oligomerization requires its C-terminal Src homology 3 domain and is not induced by Bcl-xL. Endo B1 combined with Bax reduces the size and changes the morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles by inducing massive vesiculation of liposomes. This activity of purified Bax protein to induce cell-free assembly of Endo B1 may reflect its activity in cells that regulates apoptosis and/or mitochondrial fusion. PMID:19805544

  1. Antihyperalgesic activity of a novel nonpeptide bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Alyson; Kaur, Satbir; Li, Bifang; Panesar, Moh; Saha, Uma; Davis, Clare; Dragoni, Ilaria; Colley, Sian; Ritchie, Tim; Bevan, Stuart; Burgess, Gillian; McIntyre, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We describe the properties of a novel nonpeptide kinin B1 receptor antagonist, NVP-SAA164, and demonstrate its in vivo activity in models of inflammatory pain in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor. NVP-SAA164 showed high affinity for the human B1 receptor expressed in HEK293 cells (Ki 8 nM), and inhibited increases in intracellular calcium induced by desArg10kallidin (desArg10KD) (IC50 33 nM). While a similar high affinity was observed in monkey fibroblasts (Ki 7.7 nM), NVP-SAA164 showed no affinity for the rat B1 receptor expressed in Cos-7 cells. In transgenic mice in which the native B1 receptor was deleted and the gene encoding the human B1 receptor was inserted (hB1 knockin, hB1-KI), hB1 receptor mRNA was induced in tissues following LPS treatment. No mRNA encoding the mouse or human B1 receptor was detected in mouse B1 receptor knockout (mB1-KO) mice following LPS treatment. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was significantly reduced in mB1-KO animals. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by injection of the B1 agonist desArg10KD into the contralateral paw 24 h following FCA injection was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was absent in mB1-KO animals. Oral administration of NVP-SAA164 produced a dose-related reversal of FCA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and desArg10KD-induced hyperalgesia in hB1-KI mice, but was inactive against inflammatory pain in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate the use of transgenic technology to investigate the in vivo efficacy of species selective agents and show that NVP-SAA164 is a novel orally active B1 receptor antagonist, providing further support for the utility of B1 receptor antagonists in inflammatory pain conditions in man. PMID:15685199

  2. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    2012 FEB 2012 FEB 2012 FEB 2012 Final DIOT&E flight JUL 2012 JUL 2012 JUL 2012 JUL 2012 RAA MAR 2015 MAR 2015 MAR 2016 MAR 2015 Change Explanations...None Memo RAA is defined as eight assigned aircraft modified, sufficient aircrews and maintenance personnel trained, sufficient aircrew and...incremental upgrade. Acronyms and Abbreviations DIOT&E - Dedicated Initial Operational Test and Evaluation RAA - Required Assets Available B-2 EHF Inc 1

  3. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  4. Gestational Protein Restriction Reduces Expression of Hsd17b2 in Rat Placental Labyrinth1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haijun; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence strongly supports the premise that testosterone may be a key player in fetal programming on hypertension. Studies have shown that gestational protein restriction doubles the plasma testosterone levels in pregnant rats. In this study, we hypothesized that elevated testosterone levels in response to gestational protein restriction were caused by enhanced expression of steroidogenic enzymes or impaired expression of Hsd17b2, a known testosterone inactivator that converts testosterone to androstenedione in placenta. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal (20% protein, control; n = 10) or a low-protein diet (6% protein, PR; n = 10) from Day 1 of pregnancy until killed at Days 14, 18, or 21. Junctional (JZ) and labyrinth (LZ) zones of placenta were collected for expression assay on steroidogenic genes (Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b2, and Srd5a1) by real-time PCR. The main findings include the following: 1) expressions of Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, and Cyp17a1 in JZ were not affected by diet but were affected by day of pregnancy; 2) expression of Hsd17b2 in both female and male JZs was remarkably increased by PR at Days 18 and 21 of pregnancy; 3) expressions of Hsd17b2 were reduced by PR in both female and male LZ at Day 18 of pregnancy and in female LZ at Day 21 of pregnancy; and 4) expression of Srd5a1in LZ was not affected by day of pregnancy, gender, or diet. These results indicate that in response to gestational protein restriction, Hsd17b2 may be a key regulator of testosterone levels and associated activities in placental zones, apparently in a paradoxical manner. PMID:22837477

  5. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2a and Biological Amines.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  6. Role of TonB1 in pyoverdine-mediated signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Lamont, Iain L

    2009-09-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Uptake of ferripyoverdine in P. aeruginosa PAO1 occurs via the FpvA receptor protein and requires the energy-transducing protein TonB1. Interaction of (ferri)pyoverdine with FpvA activates pyoverdine gene expression in a signaling process involving the cytoplasmic-membrane-spanning anti-sigma factor FpvR and the sigma factor PvdS. Here, we show that mutation of a region of FpvA that interacts with TonB1 (the TonB box) prevents this signaling process, as well as inhibiting bacterial growth in the presence of the iron-chelating compound ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Signaling via wild-type FpvA was also eliminated in strains lacking TonB1 but was unaffected in strains lacking either (or both) of two other TonB proteins in P. aeruginosa, TonB2 and TonB3. An absence of pyoverdine-mediated signaling corresponded with proteolysis of PvdS. These data show that interactions between FpvA and TonB1 are required for (ferri)pyoverdine signal transduction, as well as for ferripyoverdine transport, consistent with a mechanistic link between the signaling and transport functions of FpvA.

  7. Role of TonB1 in Pyoverdine-Mediated Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Matt; Lamont, Iain L.

    2009-01-01

    Pyoverdines are siderophores secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Uptake of ferripyoverdine in P. aeruginosa PAO1 occurs via the FpvA receptor protein and requires the energy-transducing protein TonB1. Interaction of (ferri)pyoverdine with FpvA activates pyoverdine gene expression in a signaling process involving the cytoplasmic-membrane-spanning anti-sigma factor FpvR and the sigma factor PvdS. Here, we show that mutation of a region of FpvA that interacts with TonB1 (the TonB box) prevents this signaling process, as well as inhibiting bacterial growth in the presence of the iron-chelating compound ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Signaling via wild-type FpvA was also eliminated in strains lacking TonB1 but was unaffected in strains lacking either (or both) of two other TonB proteins in P. aeruginosa, TonB2 and TonB3. An absence of pyoverdine-mediated signaling corresponded with proteolysis of PvdS. These data show that interactions between FpvA and TonB1 are required for (ferri)pyoverdine signal transduction, as well as for ferripyoverdine transport, consistent with a mechanistic link between the signaling and transport functions of FpvA. PMID:19592589

  8. Slice profile and B1 corrections in 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Coppo, Simone; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra F; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize and improve the accuracy of 2D magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) scans in the presence of slice profile (SP) and B 1 imperfections, which are two main factors that affect quantitative results in MRF. The SP and B 1 imperfections are characterized and corrected separately. The SP effect is corrected by simulating the radiofrequency pulse in the dictionary, and the B 1 is corrected by acquiring a B 1 map using the Bloch-Siegert method before each scan. The accuracy, precision, and repeatability of the proposed method are evaluated in phantom studies. The effects of both SP and B 1 imperfections are also illustrated and corrected in the in vivo studies. The SP and B 1 corrections improve the accuracy of the T 1 and T 2 values, independent of the shape of the radiofrequency pulse. The T 1 and T 2 values obtained from different excitation patterns become more consistent after corrections, which leads to an improvement of the robustness of the MRF design. This study demonstrates that MRF is sensitive to both SP and B 1 effects, and that corrections can be made to improve the accuracy of MRF with only a 2-s increase in acquisition time. Magn Reson Med 78:1781-1789, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required. A...

  10. 8 CFR 343b.2 - Number of applications required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Number of applications required. 343b.2 Section 343b.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION FOR RECOGNITION BY A FOREIGN STATE § 343b.2 Number of applications required. A...

  11. Prediction of B1 to B10 phase transition in LuN under pressure: An ab-initio investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. D., E-mail: bdsahoo@barc.gov.in; Mukherjee, D.; Joshi, K. D.

    2016-05-23

    Ab-initio total energy calculations have been performed in lutetium nitride (LuN) as a function of hydrostatic compression to understand the high pressure behavior of this compound. Our calculations predict a phase transition from ambient rocksalt type structure (B1 phase) to a tetragonal structure (B10 phase) at ~ 240 GPa. The phase transition has been identified as first order in nature with volume discontinuity of ~ 6%. The predicted high pressure phase has been found to be stable up to at least 400 GPa, the maximum pressure up to which calculations have been performed.Further, to substantiate the results of static lattice calculations analysismore » of lattice dynamic stability of B1 and B10 phase has been carried out at different pressures. Apart from this, we have analyzed the lattice dynamic stability CsCl type (B2) phase around the 240 GPa, the pressure reported for B1 to B2 transition in previous all-electron calculations by Gupta et al. 2013. We find that the B2 structure is lattice dynamically unstable at this pressure and remains unstable up to ~ 400 GPa, ruling out the possibility of B1 to B2 phase transition at least up to ~ 400 GPa. Further, the theoretically determined equation of state has been utilized to derive various physical quantities such as zero pressure equilibrium volume, bulk modulus, and pressure derivative of bulk modulus of B1 phase at ambient conditions.« less

  12. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Hudek, L.; Premachandra, D.; Webster, W. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB−) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme. IMPORTANCE Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes

  13. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    PubMed

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  14. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for current APB: 55% This APB reflects cost and funding data based on the B-2 EHF Increment I SCP...This cost estimate was quantified at the Mean (~55%) confidence level . Total Quantity Quantity SAR Baseline Production Estimate Current APB...Production Estimate Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 33.624 -0.350 1.381 0.375 0.000 -6.075 0.000 -0.620 -5.289 28.335 Current SAR Baseline to Current

  15. Antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors in a schizophrenia model established with neonatal hippocampal lesioning.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Iwakura, Yuriko; Shibuya, Masako; Zheng, Yingjun; Eda, Takeyoshi; Kato, Taisuke; Takasu, Yohei; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Hyper-signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB) is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Various quinazoline inhibitors targeting ErbB1 or ErbB2 - 4 have been developed as anti-cancer agents and might be useful for antipsychotic treatment. In the present study, we used an animal model of schizophrenia established by neonatal hippocampal lesioning and evaluated the neurobehavioral consequences of ErbB1-inhibitor treatment. Subchronic administration of the ErbB1 inhibitor ZD1839 to the cerebroventricle of rats receiving neonatal hippocampal lesioning ameliorated deficits in prepulse inhibition as well as those in the latent inhibition of tone-dependent fear learning. There were no apparent adverse effects on basal learning scores or locomotor activity, however. The administration of other ErbB1 inhibitors, PD153035 and OSI-774, similarly attenuated the prepulse inhibition impairment of this animal model. In parallel, there were decreases in ErbB1 phosphorylation in animals treated with ErbB1 inhibitors. These results indicate an antipsychotic potential of quinazoline ErbB1 inhibitors. ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases may be novel therapeutic targets for schizophrenia or its related psychotic symptoms.

  16. 75 FR 107 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 09-67 and 09-72] 36(b)(1) Arms... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following are copies...

  17. 75 FR 114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... and 09-78] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of six section 36(b)(1... 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  18. 75 FR 51445 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B...

  19. 76 FR 35188 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-22] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The following is a copy...

  20. 75 FR 42708 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-09, 10-33, and 10-37] 36(b)(1... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  1. 75 FR 62792 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-20, 10-23, and 10-42] 36(b)(1... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  2. 75 FR 62767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ..., 10-61, and 10-63] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164, dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. B. English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740...

  3. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance is a common feature in diabetes. We recently reported that liver-derived factors participate in this compensatory response in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a model of significant islet hyperplasia. Here we show that serpinB1 is a liver-derived secretory protein that controls β-cell proliferation. SerpinB1 is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice. SerpinB1 and small molecule compounds that partially mimic serpinB1 activity enhanced proliferation of zebrafish, mouse and human β-cells. We report that serpinB1-induced β-cell replication requires protease inhibition activity and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuatedmore » β-cell replication in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1-treatment of islets modulated signaling proteins in growth and survival pathways such as MAPK, PKA and GSK3. Together, these data implicate SerpinB1 as a protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β-cell mass in patients with diabetes.« less

  4. 26 CFR 1.669(b)-1 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information requirements. 1.669(b)-1 Section 1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(b)-1 Information requirements. The election of a beneficiary who is... following information with respect to the operation and accounts of the foreign trust created by a U.S...

  5. 75 FR 23247 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  6. 75 FR 27314 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  7. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  8. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  9. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  10. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  11. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  12. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under title 26 of the Internal...

  13. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under title 26 of the Internal...

  14. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation...

  15. 26 CFR 1.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 1.269B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. (a) Treatment as a domestic corporation—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, if a foreign corporation is a stapled...

  16. 26 CFR 301.269B-1 - Stapled foreign corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stapled foreign corporations. 301.269B-1....269B-1 Stapled foreign corporations. In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under Title 26 of the Internal...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  4. 76 FR 18726 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-08] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published...

  5. 78 FR 699 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... proposed sale of this system will not alter the basic military balance in the region. The principal... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-02] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 26 CFR 1.280B-1 - Demolition of structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Demolition of structures. 1.280B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280B-1 Demolition of structures. (a) In general. Section 280B provides that, in the case of the demolition of any structure, no deduction otherwise allowable...

  7. 78 FR 76110 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-58] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... any: Multiple cases date back to 1997; most recent FMS case is GGT-$100M-08Nov11 (vi) Sales Commission...

  8. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-42] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-53] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement...) and (c)(3) of this section or January 1 of the calendar year in which all the requirements of...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6226(b)-1 - 5-percent group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-percent group. 301.6226(b)-1 Section 301.6226... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6226(b)-1 5-percent group. (a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6223(b)-1 - Notice group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice group. 301.6223(b)-1 Section 301.6223(b... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6223(b)-1 Notice group. (a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a...

  16. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-1 - Employers' identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employers' identification numbers. 31.6011(b)-1... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-1 Employers' identification numbers. (a... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day neither has been assigned an identification number...

  17. 26 CFR 31.6011(b)-1 - Employers' identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employers' identification numbers. 31.6011(b)-1... Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(b)-1 Employers' identification numbers. (a... Insurance Contributions Act, but who prior to such day neither has been assigned an identification number...

  18. 75 FR 69922 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-50] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 75 FR 69938 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-44] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 75 FR 69971 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-58] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-27, 10-31 and 10-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications...

  3. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-28 and 10-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to...

  4. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  5. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-68] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-03] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 75 FR 69931 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-46] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-75] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 75 FR 69957 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-38] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 10-12] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the...

  11. 75 FR 69960 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-43] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-77] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 75 FR 69947 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-45] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 75 FR 69953 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-57] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 75 FR 69926 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-52] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468B-1 Qualified settlement funds. (a) In general. A qualified settlement fund is a fund, account, or trust that satisfies the requirements...

  17. 78 FR 41040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 77 FR 14767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-14] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 78 FR 76823 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-69] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 77 FR 74832 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-65] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 78 FR 36536 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-25] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-71] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 77 FR 68738 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-40] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 78 FR 62592 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-51] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  5. 77 FR 42709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-24] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 77 FR 40028 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-18] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 77 FR 37884 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-19] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-60] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  9. 76 FR 60467 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  10. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-20] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  11. 78 FR 66338 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-55] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  12. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-17] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  13. 76 FR 60457 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-74] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  14. 78 FR 48426 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-33] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  15. 76 FR 60461 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-27] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  16. 76 FR 72184 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-41] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  17. 76 FR 72182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-40] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  18. 78 FR 36534 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-34] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  19. 76 FR 61673 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-30] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  20. 76 FR 60469 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-26] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  1. 76 FR 40701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 10-79] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  2. 76 FR 72684 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-48] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  3. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-35] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  4. 77 FR 71401 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-61] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  5. 76 FR 56181 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 11-14] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  6. 78 FR 66340 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 13-54] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  7. 77 FR 68740 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal Nos. 12-49] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This...

  8. ALDH1B1 links alcohol consumption and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Chen, Ying; Matsumoto, Akiko; Orlicky, David J; Dong, Hongbin; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-08-07

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (ALDH1B1) is a mitochondrial enzyme sharing 65% and 72% sequence identity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 proteins, respectively. Compared to the latter two ALDH isozymes, little is known about the physiological functions of ALDH1B1. Studies in humans indicate that ALDH1B1 may be associated with alcohol sensitivity and stem cells. Our recent in vitro studies using human ALDH1B1 showed that it metabolizes acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde. To investigate the in vivo role of ALDH1B1, we generated and characterized a global Aldh1b1 knockout mouse line. These knockout (KO) mice are fertile and show overtly good health. However, ethanol pharmacokinetic analysis revealed ∼40% increase in blood acetaldehyde levels in KO mice. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited higher fasting blood glucose levels. Collectively, we show for the first time the functional in vivo role of ALDH1B1 in acetaldehyde metabolism and in maintaining glucose homeostasis. This mouse model is a valuable tool to investigate the mechanism by which alcohol may promote the development of diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Peter G.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Perretti, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, we examined the role played by B1 receptors in leukocyte trafficking across mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. B1 receptor blockade attenuated interleukin (IL)-1β–induced (5 ng intraperitoneally, 2 h) leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte emigration (∼50% reduction). The B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9bradykinin (DABK), although inactive in saline- or IL-8–treated mice, caused marked neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and emigration 24 h after challenge with IL-1β (when the cellular response to IL-1β had subsided). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed a temporal association between the DABK-induced response and upregulation of mesenteric B1 receptor mRNA and de novo protein expression after IL-1β treatment. DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking was antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10HOE 140 but not by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. Similarly, DABK effects were maintained in B2 receptor knockout mice. The DABK-induced responses involved the release of neuropeptides from C fibers, as capsaicin treatment inhibited the responses. Treatment with the neurokinin (NK)1 and NK3 receptor antagonists attenuated the responses, whereas NK2, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists had no effect. Substance P caused leukocyte recruitment that, similar to DABK, was inhibited by NK1 and NK3 receptor blockade. Mast cell depletion using compound 48/80 reduced DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking, and DABK treatment was shown histologically to induce mast cell degranulation. DABK-induced trafficking was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Our findings provide clear evidence that B1 receptors play an important role in the mediation of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules, leading to leukocyte recruitment during an inflammatory response. This involves activation of C fibers and mast cells

  10. Cross-talk between Carboxypeptidase M and the Kinin B1 Receptor Mediates a New Mode of G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianming; Tan, Fulong; Brovkovych, Viktor; Zhang, Yongkang; Skidgel, Randal A.

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is affected by formation of GPCR homo- or heterodimers, but GPCR regulation by other cell surface proteins is not well understood. We reported that the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) heterodimerizes with membrane carboxypeptidase M (CPM), facilitating receptor signaling via CPM-mediated conversion of bradykinin or kallidin to des-Arg kinin B1R agonists. Here, we found that a catalytically inactive CPM mutant that still binds substrate (CPM-E264Q) also facilitates efficient B1R signaling by B2 receptor agonists bradykinin or kallidin. This response required co-expression of B1R and CPM-E264Q in the same cell, was disrupted by antibody that dissociates CPM from B1R, and was not found with a CPM-E264Q-B1R fusion protein. An additional mutation that reduced the affinity of CPM for C-terminal Arg and increased the affinity for C-terminal Lys inhibited the B1R response to bradykinin (with C-terminal Arg) but generated a response to Lys9-bradykinin. CPM-E264Q-mediated activation of B1Rs by bradykinin resulted in increased intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a B1R FRET construct, similar to that generated directly by a B1R agonist. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, disruption of B1R-CPM heterodimers inhibited B1R-dependent NO production stimulated by bradykinin and blocked the increased endothelial permeability caused by treatment with bradykinin and pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, CPM and B1Rs on cell membranes form a critical complex that potentiates B1R signaling. Kinin peptide binding to CPM causes a conformational change in the B1R leading to intracellular signaling and reveals a new mode of GPCR activation by a cell surface peptidase. PMID:21454694

  11. SoxB2 in sea urchin development: implications in neurogenesis, ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  12. Crohn's Disease Candidate Gene Alleles Predict Time to Progression from Inflammatory B1 to Stricturing B2, or Penetrating B3 Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pernat Drobež, Cvetka; Ferkolj, Ivan; Potočnik, Uroš; Repnik, Katja

    2018-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) patients are mostly diagnosed with the uncomplicated inflammatory form of disease; however, the majority will progress to complicated stricturing or penetrating disease over time. It is important to identify patients at risk for disease progression at an early stage. The aim of our study was to examine the role of 33 candidate CD genes as possible predictors of disease progression and their influence on time to progression from an inflammatory to a stricturing or penetrating phenotype. Patients with an inflammatory phenotype at diagnosis were followed for 10 years and 33 CD-associated polymorphisms were genotyped. To test for association with CD, 449 healthy individuals were analyzed as the control group. Ten years after diagnosis, 39.1% of patients had not progressed beyond an inflammatory phenotype, but 60.9% had progressed to complicated disease, with average time to progression being 5.91 years. Association analyses of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confirmed associations with CD for 12 SNPs. Furthermore, seven loci were associated with disease progression, out of which SNP rs4263839 in the gene TNFSF15 showed the strongest association with disease progression and the frameshift mutation rs2066847 in the gene NOD2 showed the strongest association with time to progression. The results of our study identified specific genetic biomarkers as useful predictors of both disease progression and speed of disease progression in patients with CD.

  13. 75 FR 63050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... point of the yaw channel ball-type control sheath stop, of a Model AS355N helicopter fitted with the... the non-modified cross- member may cause it to crack. A crack can reduce the yaw control travel. This... discovered in the area of the center cross-member at station X 2325, at the attachment point of the yaw...

  14. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  15. Integrating toxin gene expression, growth and fumonisin B1 and B2 production by a strain of Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Angel; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Cárdenas-Chávez, Diana L.; Parra, Roberto; Geisen, Rolf; Magan, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to integrate data on the effect of water activity (aw; 0.995–0.93) and temperature (20–35°C) on activation of the biosynthetic FUM genes, growth and the mycotoxins fumonisin (FB1, FB2) by Fusarium verticillioides in vitro. The relative expression of nine biosynthetic cluster genes (FUM1, FUM7, FUM10, FUM11, FUM12, FUM13, FUM14, FUM16 and FUM19) in relation to the environmental factors was determined using a microarray analysis. The expression was related to growth and phenotypic FB1 and FB2 production. These data were used to develop a mixed-growth-associated product formation model and link this to a linear combination of the expression data for the nine genes. The model was then validated by examining datasets outside the model fitting conditions used (35°C). The relationship between the key gene (FUM1) and other genes in the cluster (FUM11, FUM13, FUM9, FUM14) were examined in relation to aw, temperature, FB1 and FB2 production by developing ternary diagrams of relative expression. This model is important in developing an integrated systems approach to develop prevention strategies to control fumonisin biosynthesis in staple food commodities and could also be used to predict the potential impact that climate change factors may have on toxin production. PMID:23697716

  16. Ethnomathematics: The use of multiple linier regression Y = b 1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + e in traditional house construction Saka Roras in Songan Village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmayasa, J. B.; Wahyudin; Mulyana, T.

    2018-01-01

    Ethnomathematics may be the connecting bridge between culture and technology and arts. Therefore, the exploration of mathematics values that intersects with cultural anthropology should be significantly conducted. One case containing such issue is the construction of Traditional House of Saka Roras in Bali. Thus, this research aimed to explore the mathematic concept adopted in the construction of such traditional Bale (house) located in Songan Village, Kintamani, Bali. Specifically, this research also aimed to investigate the selection of linear regression coefficient for the saka (pillar) in the Bale. This research applied Embedded Mix-Method Design. Meanwhile, the data collection was conducted by interview, observation and measurement of pillars of 32 Bale Saka Roras. The result of this research revealed that the connection between the width and height of pillars was stated in the formula Y = 26,3 + 18,2X, where X acted as stimulus variable. The coefficient value amounted to 18.2 showed that most preceding architects in Songan Village were more likely to use 19 as the coefficient towards the pillar width than the other coefficients such as 17, 20 and 21 as mentioned in book/palm-leaf manuscript entitled Kosala-Kosali. The last but not least, the researchers also figured out that the pillar width depended on the length of the house-owner candidate’s index finger.

  17. Oral administration of an association of forskolin, rutin and vitamins B1 and B2 potentiates the hypotonising effects of pharmacological treatments in POAG patients.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, N; Librando, A

    2010-01-01

    Control of intraocular pressure is still the main strategy to treat glaucoma patients. Forskolin has already shown an ability to control intraocular pressure after topic administration, whereas rutin is known to improve ocular blood fl ow. Therefore, aim of this pilot study has been to observe whether administration of an association of oral forskolin and rutin to POAG patients under different regimens of medical therapy may contribute to their effects, further decreasing IOP values. Forskolin (a natural compound present in the crude extract of the plant Coleus Forskohlii) and rutin are the main ingredients of a food supplement commercially available in Italy. In an open label pilot study, 16 patients with POAG under treatment with different topical drugs and with stable IOP were given additional treatment with the food supplement for 40 days, and their IOP values measured at enrolment, at the end of treatment and 40 days after treatment interruption. Further addition of forskolin and rutin to topical association treatments resulted in a further decrease of IOP by roughly 20% of the initial value. The effect was reversible upon suspension of the treatment. These data show for the fi rst time that forskolin and rutin given through the oral route appear to reach the ocular district, where they can act in synergy with topical pharmacological treatments, and contribute to the control of intraocular pressure.

  18. Investigating Criterial Discourse Features across Second Language Development: Lexical Bundles in Rated Learner Essays, CEFR B1, B2 and C1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated criterial discourse features in L2 writing through the use of recurrent word combinations, a.k.a. lexical bundles, taking a corpus-driven and expert-judged approach by examining L2 English data across various proficiency levels from L1 Chinese learners. Proficiency was determined by a robust rating procedure which is…

  19. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... user of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water vapor (BTPS) under conditions of varying ambient spirometer temperatures and barometric pressures. (v...

  20. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... user of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water vapor (BTPS) under conditions of varying ambient spirometer temperatures and barometric pressures. (v...

  1. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... user of the instrument must have a means of correcting volumes to body temperature saturated with water vapor (BTPS) under conditions of varying ambient spirometer temperatures and barometric pressures. (v...

  2. Capable Reader Program: Lesson Plan Guide. Units B1; B2; B3; [and] B4. Pilot Year 1979-1980, Final Edition 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Donna; And Others

    Part of a curriculum series for academically gifted elementary students in the area of reading, the four lesson plan guides each fucus on one of the following major objectives: (1) identifying the relationship between the major and minor premise and stating whether the conclusion is a fallacy in reasoning; (2) recognizing the pursuasive use of…

  3. [Evaluation of Livestock Carcasses and Performance.] Student Materials. V.A. III. [II-B-1 through II-B-2; II-D-1].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Part of a series of eight student learning modules in vocational agriculture, this booklet deals with evaluation of livestock. It contains sections on carcass evaluation, the evaluation of performance and production, and the design of livestock production facilities. Each of the first two sections has a glossary, and all three conclude with a…

  4. Drosophila nuclear factor DREF regulates the expression of the mitochondrial DNA helicase and mitochondrial transcription factor B2 but not the mitochondrial translation factor B1

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Miguel A.; Hernández, Rosana; Adán, Cristina; Roberti, Marina; Bruni, Francesco; Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Cantatore, Palmiro; Matsushima, Yuichi; Kaguni, Laurie S.; Garesse, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    DREF [DRE (DNA replication-related element)-binding factor] controls the transcription of numerous genes in Drosophila, many involved in nuclear DNA (nDNA) replication and cell proliferation, three in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and two in mtDNA transcription termination. In this work, we have analysed the involvement of DREF in the expression of the known remaining genes engaged in the minimal mtDNA replication (d-mtDNA helicase) and transcription (the activator d-mtTFB2) machineries and of a gene involved in mitochondrial mRNA translation (d-mtTFB1). We have identified their transcriptional initiation sites and DRE sequences in their promoter regions. Gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that DREF interacts in vitro and in vivo with the d-mtDNA helicase and d-mtTFB2, but not with the d-mtTFB1 promoters. Transient transfection assays in Drosophila S2 cells with mutated DRE motifs and truncated promoter regions show that DREF controls the transcription of d-mtDNA helicase and d-mtTFB2, but not that of d-mtTFB1. RNA interference of DREF in S2 cells reinforces these results showing a decrease in the mRNA levels of d-mtDNA helicase and d-mtTFB2 and no changes in those of the d-mtTFB1. These results link the genetic regulation of nuclear DNA replication with the genetic control of mtDNA replication and transcriptional activation in Drosophila. PMID:23916463

  5. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... greater. (ii) The instrument shall be capable of measuring vital capacity from 0 to 7 liters BTPS. (iii... to airflow at 12 liters per second must be less than 1.5 cm H20/liter/sec. (iv) The instrument or... at flow rates up to 12 liters per second over the volume range. (ix) The spirogram shall be recorded...

  6. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 718 - Standards for Administration and Interpretation of Pulmonary Function Tests. Tables B1, B2, B3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... greater. (ii) The instrument shall be capable of measuring vital capacity from 0 to 7 liters BTPS. (iii... to airflow at 12 liters per second must be less than 1.5 cm H20/liter/sec. (iv) The instrument or... at flow rates up to 12 liters per second over the volume range. (ix) The spirogram shall be recorded...

  7. Effectiveness of pulsed light treatment for degradation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in rough rice and rice bran

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxins primarily accumulate in the hull and bran layers of rough rice making these by-products of rice milling unsuitable for animal feed or human consumption. Contaminated rough rice is also a potential source of aflatoxin exposure to workers handling the grain during post-harvest storage and p...

  8. 75 FR 50874 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, C, D, and D1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...-0782; Directorate Identifier 2010-SW-053-AD; Amendment 39-16396; AD 2010-11-51] RIN 2120-AA64... adopting Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2010-11-51, which was sent previously to all known U.S. owners and... the rework area and dye-penetrant inspecting that area for a crack, and if no crack is found...

  9. The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Stsepetova, Jelena; Pai, Kristiine; Vainumäe, Inga; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, and containment of class 1 integrons in the first attack of pyelonephritis and in subsequent recurrences in young children. Altogether, 89 urine E. coli isolates from 41 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied for prevalence and persistence of phylogenetic groups by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibacterial resistance by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and class 1 integrons by PCR. Phylogenetic group B2 was most common (57%), followed by D (20%), A (18%) and B1 (5%). Overall resistance to betalactams was 61%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 28%, and was not associated with phylogenetic groups. According to PFGE, the same clonal strain persisted in 77% of patients. The persistence was detected most often in phylogenetic group B2 (70%). Phylogenetic group B2 more often contained class 1 integrons than group A. Integron positive strains had higher MIC values of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. In conclusion, phylogenetic group B2 was the most common cause of the first episode of pyelonephritis, as well as in case of the persistence of the same strain and contained frequently class 1 integrons in childhood recurrent UTI. An overall frequent betalactam resistance was equally distributed among phylogenetic groups. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spectral analysis of Cu 2+: B 2O 3-ZnO-PbO glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Buddhudu, S.

    2005-11-01

    A new series of heavy metal oxide (PbO) based zinc borate glasses in the chemical composition of (95 - x)B 2O 3-5ZnO- xPbO ( x = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mol%) have been prepared to verify their UV filtering performance. Both direct and indirect optical band gaps ( Eopt) have been evaluated for these glasses. For a reference glass of 45B 2O 3-5ZnO-50PbO, refractive indices at different wavelengths are measured and found the results satisfactorily correlated with the theoretical data upon the computation of Cauchy's constants of A = 1.766029949, B = 159531.024 nm 2 and C = -1.078 × 10 10 nm 4. Measurements concerning X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) profiles have been carried out for this glass. The FT-IR profile has revealed that the glass has both BO 3 and BO 4 units. From DSC thermogram, glass transition temperature ( Tg), crystallization temperature ( Tc) and melting temperature ( Tm) have been located and from them, other related parameters of the glass have also been calculated. Visible absorption spectra of 45B 2O 3-5ZnO-(50 - x)PbO- xCuO ( x = 0. 1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mol%) have revealed two absorption bands at around 400 nm ( 2B 1g → 2E g) and 780 nm ( 2B 1g → 2B 2g) of Cu 2+ ions, respectively. Emission bands at 422 and 512 nm are found for the 1 mol% CuO doped glass with excitations at 306 and 332 nm.

  11. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 15 January 2008 by Magdi N...TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1 Oct 2006 through 30 Sept 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 5. FUNDING 6. AUTHOR (S...public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words.) A central vision of B2B e-commerce is that

  13. Unusual behaviour of (Np,Pu)B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, Tomasz; Boulet, Pascal; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Bauer, Ernst; Falmbigl, Matthias; Rogl, Peter; Wastin, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Two transuranium metal boron carbides, NpB2C and PuB2C have been synthesized by argon arc melting. The crystal structures of the {Np,Pu}B2C compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray data to be isotypic with the ThB2C-type (space group ?, a = 0.6532(2) nm; c = 1.0769(3) nm for NpB2C and a = 0.6509(2) nm; c = 1.0818(3) nm for PuB2C; Z = 9). Physical properties have been derived from polycrystalline bulk material in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering for NpB2C with a Neel temperature TN = 68 K. PuB2C is a Pauli paramagnet most likely due to a strong hybridization of s(p,d) electrons with the Pu-5f states. A pseudo-gap, as concluded from the Sommerfeld value and the electronic transport, is thought to be a consequence of the hybridization. The magnetic behaviour of {Np,Pu}B2C is consistent with the criterion of Hill.

  14. The physical and chemical structure of Sagittarius B2. II. Continuum millimeter emission of Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S.-L.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Möller, Th.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The two hot molecular cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N), which are located at the center of the giant molecular cloud complex Sagittarius B2, have been the targets of numerous spectral line surveys, revealing a rich and complex chemistry. Aims: We seek to characterize the physical and chemical structure of the two high-mass star-forming sites Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) using high-angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths, reaching spatial scales of about 4000 au. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to perform an unbiased spectral line survey of both regions in the ALMA band 6 with a frequency coverage from 211 GHz to 275 GHz. The achieved angular resolution is 0.̋4, which probes spatial scales of about 4000 au, I.e., able to resolve different cores and fragments. In order to determine the continuum emission in these line-rich sources, we used a new statistical method, STATCONT, which has been applied successfully to this and other ALMA datasets and to synthetic observations. Results: We detect 27 continuum sources in Sgr B2(M) and 20 sources in Sgr B2(N). We study the continuum emission variation across the ALMA band 6 (I.e., spectral index) and compare the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission with previous SMA 345 GHz and VLA 40 GHz observations to study the nature of the sources detected. The brightest sources are dominated by (partially optically thick) dust emission, while there is an important degree of contamination from ionized gas free-free emission in weaker sources. While the total mass in Sgr B2(M) is distributed in many fragments, most of the mass in Sgr B2(N) arises from a single object, with filamentary-like structures converging toward the center. There seems to be a lack of low-mass dense cores in both regions. We determine H2 volume densities for the cores of about 107-109 cm-3 (or 105-107 M⊙ pc-3), I.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the stellar densities of super star clusters. We

  15. 78 FR 30896 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996.

  16. 78 FR 31523 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996.

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  18. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  19. 76 FR 26707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  20. 76 FR 8716 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 78 FR 78941 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  2. 77 FR 46419 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  3. 77 FR 46415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  4. 78 FR 26328 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  5. 76 FR 65701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  6. 77 FR 46423 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  7. 76 FR 77809 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  8. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  9. 78 FR 46579 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  10. 76 FR 18731 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER...

  11. 77 FR 35363 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  12. 76 FR 38371 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  13. 77 FR 35362 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  14. 76 FR 69709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  15. 76 FR 69707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  16. 78 FR 26330 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  17. 77 FR 46413 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  18. 77 FR 46417 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  19. 76 FR 79658 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  20. 76 FR 55651 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  1. 77 FR 781 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  2. 76 FR 28956 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR...

  3. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  4. 77 FR 46421 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996...

  5. 75 FR 9182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the... the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 09-28 with attached transmittal, and policy...

  6. Cell type-specific localization of Ephs pairing with ephrin-B2 in the rat postnatal pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kanno, Naoko; Nishimura, Naoto; Nishihara, Hiroto; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kato, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland form two types of micro-environments (niches): the marginal cell layer and dense cell clusters in the parenchyma. In relation to the mechanism of regulation of niches, juxtacrine signaling via ephrin and its receptor Eph is known to play important roles in various niches. The ephrin and Eph families are divided into two subclasses to create ephrin/Eph signaling in co-operation with confined partners. Recently, we reported that ephrin-B2 localizes specifically to both pituitary niches. However, the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 in these pituitary niches have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 and the cells that produce them in the rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated cell type-specific localization of candidate interacting partners for ephrin-B2, including EphA4 in cells located in the posterior lobe, EphB1 in gonadotropes, EphB2 in corticotropes, EphB3 in stem/progenitor cells and EphB4 in endothelial cells in the adult pituitary gland. In particular, double-immunohistochemistry showed cis-interactions between EphB3 and ephrin-B2 in the apical cell membranes of stem/progenitor cell niches throughout life and trans-interactions between EphB2 produced by corticotropes and ephrin-B2 located in the basolateral cell membranes of stem/progenitor cells in the early postnatal pituitary gland. These data indicate that ephrin-B2 plays a role in pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches by selective interaction with EphB3 in cis and EphB2 in trans.

  7. 26 CFR 31.3401(b)-1 - Payroll period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll period. 31.3401(b)-1 Section 31.3401(b... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(b)-1 Payroll period. (a) The term payroll period means the... elapsed and receives the remainder at the end of the week, the payroll period is still the calendar week...

  8. 26 CFR 1.677(b)-1 - Trusts for support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trusts for support. 1.677(b)-1 Section 1.677(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.677(b)-1 Trusts for support. (a) Section 677(b) provides that a grantor is not treated as the owner of a trust merely because its...

  9. UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bettina L; Moon, Joanne E; Shu, Jeffrey H; Yuan, Lin; Newman, Zachary R; Schekman, Randy; Barton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    UNC93B1, a multipass transmembrane protein required for TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 function, controls trafficking of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endolysosomes. The mechanisms by which UNC93B1 mediates these regulatory effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that UNC93B1 enters the secretory pathway and directly controls the packaging of TLRs into COPII vesicles that bud from the ER. Unlike other COPII loading factors, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs through post-Golgi sorting steps. Unexpectedly, these steps are different among endosomal TLRs. TLR9 requires UNC93B1-mediated recruitment of adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) for delivery to endolysosomes while TLR7, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13 utilize alternative trafficking pathways. Thus, our study describes a mechanism for differential sorting of endosomal TLRs by UNC93B1, which may explain the distinct roles played by these receptors in certain autoimmune diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00291.001 PMID:23426999

  10. 26 CFR 1.925(b)-1T - Temporary regulations; marginal costing rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rules—(1) In general. Marginal costing is a method under which only direct production costs of producing... combined taxable income of the FSC and its related supplier under section 925(a)(2). The costs to be taken into account are the related supplier's direct material and labor costs (as defined in § 1.471-11(b)(2...

  11. Observation of the Hadronic transitions chi(b1,2)(2P)-->omegaUpsilon(1S).

    PubMed

    Cronin-Hennessy, D; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Pedlar, T K; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Severini, H; Skubic, P; Dytman, S A; Mueller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Danko, I

    2004-06-04

    The CLEO Collaboration has made the first observations of hadronic transitions among bottomonium (bbmacr;) states other than the dipion transitions among Upsilon(nS) states. In our study of Upsilon(3S) decays, we find a significant signal for Upsilon(3S)-->gammaomegaUpsilon(1S) that is consistent with radiative decays Upsilon(3S)-->gammachi(b1,2)(2P), followed by chi(b1,2)(2P)-->omegaUpsilon(1S). The branching ratios we obtain are B[chi(b1)(2P)-->omegaUpsilon(1S)]=(1.63(+0.35+0.16)(-0.31-0.15))% and B[chi(b2)(2P)-->omegaUpsilon(1S)]=(1.10(+0.32+0.11)(-0.28-0.10))%, in which the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  12. Plexin-B2 promotes invasive growth of malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Pingle, Sandeep C.; Kesari, Santosh; Wang, Huaien; Yong, Raymund L.; Zou, Hongyan; Friedel, Roland H.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive growth is a major determinant of the high lethality of malignant gliomas. Plexin-B2, an axon guidance receptor important for mediating neural progenitor cell migration during development, is upregulated in gliomas, but its function therein remains poorly understood. Combining bioinformatic analyses, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry of patient samples, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 is consistently upregulated in all types of human gliomas and that its expression levels correlate with glioma grade and poor survival. Activation of Plexin-B2 by Sema4C ligand in glioblastoma cells induced actin-based cytoskeletal dynamics and invasive migration in vitro. This proinvasive effect was associated with activation of the cell motility mediators RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, costimulation of Plexin-B2 and the receptor tyrosine kinase Met led to synergistic Met phosphorylation. In intracranial glioblastoma transplants, Plexin-B2 knockdown hindered invasive growth and perivascular spreading, and resulted in decreased tumor vascularity. Our results demonstrate that Plexin-B2 promotes glioma invasion and vascularization, and they identify Plexin-B2 as a potential novel prognostic marker for glioma malignancy. Targeting the Plexin-B2 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic approach to curtail invasive growth of glioblastoma. PMID:25762646

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-2 - Closer connection exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (e) of this section, the individual has a closer connection during the current year to a single... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closer connection exception. 301.7701(b)-2...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701(b)-2 Closer connection...

  14. 26 CFR 53.4942(b)-2 - Alternative tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alternative tests. 53.4942(b)-2 Section 53.4942....4942(b)-2 Alternative tests. (a) Assets test—(1) In general. A private foundation will satisfy the assets test under the provisions of this paragraph if substantially more than half of the foundation's...

  15. Characterization of a symbol rate timing recovery technique for a 2B1Q digital receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulnasr, T.; Hage, M.; Sayar, B.; Aly, S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a study of several implementations of the Mueller and Muller symbol rate timing recovery algorithm for ISDN transmission over digital subscriber loops (DSL). Implementations of this algorithm using various estimates of a specified timing function are investigated. It will be shown that despite the fact that all of the estimates considered are derived based on one set of conditions, their performance varies widely in a real system. The intrinsic properties of these estimates are first analyzed, then their performance on real subscriber loops is studied through extensive simulations of a practical digital receiver. The effect of various system parameters such as channel distortion and additive noise are included. Possible sources of convergence problems are also identified and corrective action proposed.

  16. Vasopressor meets vasodepressor: The AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Quitterer, Ursula; AbdAlla, Said

    2014-04-01

    The AT1 receptor for the vasopressor angiotensin II is one of the most important drug targets for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sensitization of the AT1 receptor system is a common feature contributing to the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular disorders but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. More than a decade ago, evidence was provided for control of AT1R activation by heterodimerization with the B2 receptor for the vasodepressor peptide, bradykinin, a physiological counterpart of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. AT1-B2 receptor heterodimerization was shown to enhance AT1R-stimulated signaling under pathophysiological conditions such as experimental and human pregnancy hypertension. Notably, AT1R signal sensitization of patients with preeclampsia hypertension was attributed to AT1R-B2R heterodimerization. Vice versa, transgenic mice lacking the AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer due to targeted deletion of the B2R gene showed a significantly reduced AT1R-stimulated vasopressor response compared to transgenic mice with abundant AT1R-B2R heterodimerization. Biophysical methods such as BRET and FRET confirmed those data by demonstrating efficient AT1-B2 receptor heterodimerization in transfected cells and transgenic mice. Recently, a study on AT1R-specific biased agonism directed the focus to the AT1-B2 receptor heterodimer again. The β-arrestin-biased [Sar1,Ile4,Ile8]-angiotensin II promoted not only the recruitment of β-arrestin to the AT1R but also stimulated the down-regulation of the AT1R-associated B2 receptor by co-internalization. Thereby specific targeting of the AT1R-B2R heterodimer became feasible and could open the way to a new class of drugs, which specifically interfere with pathological angiotensin II-AT1 receptor system activation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescent sensor systems based on nanostructured polymeric membranes for selective recognition of Aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Sergeyeva, Tetyana; Yarynka, Daria; Piletska, Elena; Lynnik, Rostyslav; Zaporozhets, Olga; Brovko, Oleksandr; Piletsky, Sergey; El'skaya, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes for selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were synthesized in situ and used as highly sensitive recognition elements in the developed fluorescent sensor. Artificial binding sites capable of selective recognition of aflatoxin B1 were formed in the structure of the polymeric membranes using the method of molecular imprinting. A composition of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes was optimized using the method of computational modeling. The MIP membranes were synthesized using the non-toxic close structural analogue of aflatoxin B1, ethyl-2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate as a dummy template. The MIP membranes with the optimized composition demonstrated extremely high selectivity towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Negligible binding of close structural analogues of AFB1 - aflatoxins B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin A (OTA) was demonstrated. Binding of AFB1 by the MIP membranes was investigated as a function of both type and concentration of the functional monomer in the initial monomer composition used for the membranes' synthesis, as well as sample composition. The conditions of the solid-phase extraction of the mycotoxin using the MIP membrane as a stationary phase (pH, ionic strength, buffer concentration, volume of the solution, ratio between water and organic solvent, filtration rate) were optimized. The fluorescent sensor system based on the optimized MIP membranes provided a possibility of AFB1 detection within the range 14-500ngmL -1 demonstrating detection limit (3Ϭ) of 14ngmL -1 . The developed technique was successfully applied for the analysis of model solutions and waste waters from bread-making plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ephrin-B2 is differentially expressed in the intestinal epithelium in Crohn’s disease and contributes to accelerated epithelial wound healing in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Meyer, Stefanie; Langmann, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd; Bataille, Frauke; Hagen, Ilja; Becker, Bernd; Roesch, Alexander; Rogler, Gerhard; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane bound receptor-like ligands, the ephrins, represent a bi-directional cell-cell contact signaling system that directs epithelial movements in development. The meaning of this system in the adult human gut is unknown. We investigated the Eph/ephrin mRNA expression in the intestinal epithelium of healthy controls and patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: mRNA expression profiles of all Eph/ephrin family members in normal small intestine and colon were established by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, differential expression in IBD was investigated by cDNA array technology, and validated by both real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Potential effects of enhanced EphB/ephrin-B signaling were analyzed in an in vitro IEC-6 cell scratch wound model. RESULTS: Human adult intestinal mucosa exhibits a complex pattern of Eph receptors and ephrins. Beside the known prominent co-expression of EphA2 and ephrinA1, we found abundantly co-expressed EphB2 and ephrin-B1/2. Interestingly, cDNA array data, validated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, showed upregulation of ephrin-B2 in both perilesional and lesional intestinal epithelial cells of IBD patients, suggesting a role in epithelial homeostasis. Stimulation of ephrin-B signaling in ephrin-B1/2 expressing rat IEC-6-cells with recombinant EphB1-Fc resulted in a significant dose-dependent acceleration of wound closure. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopy showed that EphB1-Fc induced coordinated migration of wound edge cells is associated with enhanced formation of lamellipodial protrusions into the wound, increased actin stress fiber assembly and production of laminin at the wound edge. CONCLUSION: EphB/ephrin-B signaling might represent a novel protective mechanism that promotes intestinal epithelial wound healing, with potential impact on epithelial restitution in IBD. PMID:15996027

  19. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guilherme; Altoé, Aline F.; Gomes, Tatiana C. B.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Morais, Vanessa A. D.; Oliveira, Marize S.; Ferreira, Marli B.; Gomes, Mateus B.; Paschoal, Fabiano N.; von S. Souza, Rafael; Silva, Daniela A.; Cruz Madeira, Jovita E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15), immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1 respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1). The results revealed low aflatoxin B1 contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination. PMID:24031973

  20. B1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline.

    PubMed

    van Meerten, S G J; Tijssen, K C H; van Bentum, P J M; Kentgens, A P M

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed-field gradients are common in modern liquid state NMR pulse sequences. They are often used instead of phase cycles for the selection of coherence pathways, thereby decreasing the time required for the NMR experiment. Soft off-resonance pulses with a B 1 gradient result in a spatial encoding similar to that created by pulsed-field (B 0 ) gradients. In this manuscript we show that pulse sequences with pulsed-field gradients can easily be converted to one which uses off-resonance B 1 field gradient (OFFBEAT) pulses. The advantage of B 1 gradient pulses for coherence selection is that the chemical shift evolution during the pulses is (partially) suppressed. Therefore no refocusing echos are required to correct for evolution during the gradient pulses. A tapered stripline is shown to be a convenient tool for creating a well-defined gradient in the B 1 field strength. B 1 gradient coherence selection using a tapered stripline is a simple and cheap alternative to B 0 pulsed-field gradients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Precipitation behavior of B2-ordered aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Suk

    2006-12-01

    Fine dispersion of disordered phases is obtained in Ni-Al-Cr and Fe-Al-Co temary systems. A transmission electron microscope investigation has been performed on the precipitation of α-Cr in B2-ordered β-NiAl with different stoichiometry and α-Fe in B2-FeAl(Co) compound. Precipitation behavior and hardening were investigated by measuring the hardness variation. The hardness of NiAl and FeAl increases appreciably with the fine precipitation of α-Cr and α-Fe, and over-age softening occurs after prolonged aging. In the case of B2-NiAl(Cr), perfect lattice coherency is maintained at the interfaces between the α-Cr particles and the matrix during the initial stage of aging. After prolonged aging, a loss of coherency occurs by the attraction of matrix dislocations to the particle/matrix interface, followed by climbing around the particles. On the other hand, in the case of B2-FeAl(Co), the disordered α-Fe phase is present as a precipitate in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix and has a cubic-cubic orientation with the matrix. At the early aging periods, prismatic dislocation loops formed in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix. B2-FeAl(Co) matrix is typically hardened by the precipitation of α-Fe.

  2. SMART-on-FHIR implemented over i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Joshua C; Klann, Jeffery G; Wattanasin, Nich; Mendis, Michael; Chute, Christopher G; Mandl, Kenneth D; Murphy, Shawn N

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an interface to serve patient data from Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) repositories in the Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) format, referred to as a SMART-on-FHIR cell. The cell serves FHIR resources on a per-patient basis, and supports the “substitutable” modular third-party applications (SMART) OAuth2 specification for authorization of client applications. It is implemented as an i2b2 server plug-in, consisting of 6 modules: authentication, REST, i2b2-to-FHIR converter, resource enrichment, query engine, and cache. The source code is freely available as open source. We tested the cell by accessing resources from a test i2b2 installation, demonstrating that a SMART app can be launched from the cell that accesses patient data stored in i2b2. We successfully retrieved demographics, medications, labs, and diagnoses for test patients. The SMART-on-FHIR cell will enable i2b2 sites to provide simplified but secure data access in FHIR format, and will spur innovation and interoperability. Further, it transforms i2b2 into an apps platform. PMID:27274012

  3. Metabolism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride in Pseudomonas strain B1.

    PubMed Central

    van Ginkel, C G; van Dijk, J B; Kroon, A G

    1992-01-01

    A bacterium (strain B1) utilizing hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as a carbon and energy source was isolated from activated sludge and tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. This bacterium only grew on alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C12 to C22) and possible intermediates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride breakdown such as hexadecanoate and acetate. Pseudomonas strain B1 did not grow on amines. Simultaneous adaptation studies suggested that the bacterium oxidized only the alkyl chain of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. This was confirmed by the stoichiometric formation of trimethylamine from hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride. The initial hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride oxygenase activity, measured by its ability to form trimethylamine, was NAD(P)H and O2 dependent. Finally, assays of aldehyde dehydrogenase, hexadecanoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in cell extracts revealed the potential of Pseudomonas strain B1 to metabolize the alkyl chain via beta-oxidation. PMID:1444422

  4. Refractive index of B1-xGaxN semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, P. S.; Baria, J. K.; Jivani, A. R.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical procedure is presented for the study of refractive index of ternary alloy B1-xGaxN. The calculations based on the pseudopotential formalism in which local potential coupled with the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) is applied to evaluate energy band gap at point X on the Jones-zone face, refractive index for the entire range of the alloy composition x of the ternary alloy B1-xGaxN. To include exchange and correlation effects, local field correction function due to Nagy is employed. Our results for parent compounds are compared to experiment and other available theoretical findings and showed generally good agreement. During present study it is found that the refractive index of the ternary alloy B1-xGaxN has minimum value at gallium concentration x = 0.4.

  5. Evaluation of particulate air samplers for airborne aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Silas, J.C.; Harrison, M.A.; Carpenter, J.A.

    Five air samplers (Millipore, all-glass impinger, centrifugal, Andersen, and absorbent cotton) were evaluated for their ability to collect airborne grain particles contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Corn dust containing 100 micrograms aflatoxin B1/g was aerosolized within a containment system. Each device sampled 100 I air, thus exchanging the air in the chamber two times. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted from all sampling matrices and was detected and quantitated with thin-layer chromatography and scanning fluorodensitometry. The highest efficiency was obtained with the Millipore sampler, while the efficiencies of the centrifugal and the cotton samplers were almost identical. Efficiency of an Andersen was less,more » with no toxin recovered from an all-glass impinger. Measurement of particle size was accomplished with the Andersen sampler.« less

  6. Vitamin B1 Deficiency Does not Affect the Liver Concentrations of the Other Seven Kinds of B-Group Vitamins in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on vitamin contents of urine, liver, and blood. In the current study, rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 5, each group): the first was freely fed a complete diet (ad lib-fed control group); the second freely fed a vitamin B1-free diet (vitamin B1 deficient group); and the third pair-fed a complete diet with the same amounts of the vitamin B1 deficient group (pair-fed control group). The experimental period was for 15 days. The blood concentrations of vitamin B2, PLP, vitamin B12, folic acid, and biotin were lower in the pair-fed control than in the ad lib-fed control and those of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid were the same. We conclude that Vitamin B1 deficiency did not affect concentrations of the other B-group vitamins. PMID:23935367

  7. B2B Models for DoD Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-30

    Internet, extranets, intranets, or private networks • In 2003 it represented about 11% of total B2B trade estimated at $13.5 trillion • Predicted to... B2B Models for DoD Acquisition 30 July 2007 by Magdi N. Kamel, Associate Professor Graduate School of Operational & Information Sciences...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUL 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE B2B Models for DoD

  8. Microwave surface resistance of MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, A. A.; Purnell, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Bugoslavsky, Y.; Lockman, Z.; Berenov, A.; Zhai, H. Y.; Christen, H. M.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Lowndes, D. H.; Jo, M. H.; Blamire, M. G.; Hao, Ling; Gallop, J.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Cohen, L. F.

    2002-04-01

    The microwave power and frequency dependence of the surface resistance of MgB2 films and powder samples were studied. Sample quality is relatively easy to identify by the breakdown in the ω2 law for poor-quality samples at all temperatures. The performance of MgB2 at 10 GHz and 21 K was compared directly with that of high-quality YBCO films. The surface resistance of MgB2 was found to be approximately three times higher at low microwave power and showed an onset of nonlinearity at microwave surface fields ten times lower than the YBCO film. It is clear that MgB2 films are not yet optimized for microwave applications.

  9. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  10. Rapid On-Site Sensing Aflatoxin B1 in Food and Feed via a Chromatographic Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:25874803

  11. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  12. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  13. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Straight line method. 1.167(b)-1 Section 1.167(b... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... may be reduced to a percentage or fraction. The straight line method may be used in determining a...

  14. 76 FR 46754 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Poland to develop and maintain a strong and ready self-defense capability. The proposed sale will improve... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Transmittal No. 11-32] 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security Cooperation Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  15. 78 FR 26332 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This... type of mission. 2. The AN/ALE-47 Counter-Measures Dispensing System (CMDS) is an integrated, threat... multiple Optical Sensor Converter (OSC) units, a Computer Processor (CP) and a Control Indicator (CI). The...

  16. 75 FR 47275 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-32 and 10-35 with... of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-32 with attached transmittal, policy justification...

  17. 76 FR 30667 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-04 with attached transmittal, and...

  18. 75 FR 61440 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of three section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications... are copies of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-20, 10-23, and... a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-47 with attached transmittal...

  19. 77 FR 60391 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-32 with attached...

  20. 77 FR 60384 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-54 with attached...

  1. 77 FR 60387 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR FURTHER... a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 12-26 with attached...

  2. 75 FR 76415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-72 with...

  3. 75 FR 76418 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-65 with...

  4. 76 FR 40703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of [[Page 40704

  5. 75 FR 29998 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the.... English, DSCA/DBO/CFM, (703) 601-3740. The following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of...

  6. 75 FR 76412 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-69 with...

  7. 76 FR 27022 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-12 with...

  8. 75 FR 76408 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-73 with...

  9. 76 FR 27026 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-13 with...

  10. 76 FR 17111 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated 21 July 1996. FOR... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-10 with...

  11. 76 FR 32958 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-02 with attached...

  12. 76 FR 43659 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated July 21, 1996... of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 11-28 with attached...

  13. 75 FR 20571 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of two section 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to... of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-04 and 10-14 with... copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals 10-04 with attached...

  14. 75 FR 41820 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Defense is publishing the unclassified text of five section 36(b)(1... INFORMATION: The following are copies of letters to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittals... following is a copy of a letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Transmittal 10-05 with...

  15. In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolize...

  16. 17 CFR 240.11b-1 - Regulation of specialists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of specialists. 240... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Regulation on Conduct of Specialists § 240.11b-1 Regulation of specialists. (a)(1) The rules of a national securities exchange may permit a member of such exchange to...

  17. 78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as... Articles or Services under Consideration for Purchase: 14 CH-47D Model Aircraft to include T55-GA-714A Turbine Engines, 2 per aircraft (14 ac x 2 = 28 engines) 5 T55-GA-714A Turbine Engines to be used as...

  18. 76 FR 43662 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... and control systems with modern technology. The new guidance and control system uses a mixture of... Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i... million TOTAL $86 million * as defined in Section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act. (iii) Description...

  19. 77 FR 68742 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Engagement Control Systems, 30 Antenna Mast Groups, 44 M902 Launching Stations, 246 PATRIOT MIM-104E Guidance... Fire Units, 11 AN/MPQ-65 Radar Sets, 11 AN/ MSQ-132 Engagement Control Systems, 30 Antenna Mast Groups... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective...

  20. On the active site of mononuclear B1 metallo β-lactamases: a computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Magistrato, Alessandra; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Vila, Alejandro J.; Carloni, Paolo; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2012-04-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) are Zn(II)-based bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics, hampering their beneficial effects. In the most relevant subclass (B1), X-ray crystallography studies on the enzyme from Bacillus Cereus point to either two zinc ions in two metal sites (the so-called `3H' and `DCH' sites) or a single Zn(II) ion in the 3H site, where the ion is coordinated by Asp120, Cys221 and His263 residues. However, spectroscopic studies on the B1 enzyme from B. Cereus in the mono-zinc form suggested the presence of the Zn(II) ion also in the DCH site, where it is bound to an aspartate, a cysteine, a histidine and a water molecule. A structural model of this enzyme in its DCH mononuclear form, so far lacking, is therefore required for inhibitor design and mechanistic studies. By using force field based and mixed quantum-classical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein in aqueous solution we constructed such structural model. The geometry and the H-bond network at the catalytic site of this model, in the free form and in complex with two common β-lactam drugs, is compared with experimental and theoretical findings of CphA and the recently solved crystal structure of new B2 MβL from Serratia fonticola (Sfh-I). These are MβLs from the B2 subclass, which features an experimentally well established mono-zinc form, in which the Zn(II) is located in the DCH site. From our simulations the ɛɛδ and δɛδ protomers emerge as possible DCH mono-zinc reactive species, giving a novel contribution to the discussion on the MβL reactivity and to the drug design process.