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Sample records for a2 catalyzed acidolysis

  1. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing caproic acid by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Xu, X; Mu, H; Høy, C E; Adler-Nissen, J

    2001-12-01

    Production in a batch reactor with a solvent-free system of structured triacylglycerols containing short-chain fatty acids by Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis between rapeseed oil and caproic acid was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Reaction time (t(r)), substrate ratio (S(r)), enzyme load (E(l), based on substrate), water content (W(c), based on enzyme), and reaction temperature (T(e)), the five most important parameters for the reaction, were chosen for the optimization. The range of each parameter was selected as follows: t(r) = 5-17 h; E(l) = 6-14 wt %; T(e) = 45-65 degrees C; S(r) = 2-6 mol/mol; and W(c) = 2-12 wt %. The biocatalyst was Lipozyme RM IM, in which Rhizomucor miehei lipase is immobilized on a resin. The incorporation of caproic acid into rapeseed oil was the main monitoring response. In addition, the contents of mono-incorporated structured triacylglycerols and di-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were also evaluated. The optimal reaction conditions for the incorporation of caproic acid and the content of di-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were as follows: t(r) = 17 h; S(r) = 5; E(l) = 14 wt %; W(c) = 10 wt %; T(e) = 65 degrees C. At these conditions, products with 55 mol % incorporation of caproic acid and 55 mol % di-incorporated structured triacylglycerols were obtained.

  2. Synthesis of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol-rich structured lipids by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of microbial oil from Mortierella alpina.

    PubMed

    Abed, Sherif M; Zou, Xiaoqiang; Ali, Abdelmoneim H; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2017-11-01

    Microbial oils (MOs) have gained widespread attention due to their functional lipids and health promoting properties. In this study, 1,3-dioleoyl-2-arachidonoylglycerol-rich structured lipids (SLs) were produced from MO and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Under the optimal conditions, the content of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) increased from 60.63 to 84.00%, while the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) content decreased from 39.37 to 16.00% at sn-1,3 positions in SLs. Compared with MO, arachidonic acid (ARA) content at the sn-2 position of SLs accounted for 49.71%, whereas OA was predominantly located at sn-1,3 positions (47.05%). Meanwhile, the most abundant triacylglycerol (TAG) species in SLs were (18:1-20:4-18:1), (20:4-20:4-18:1), (18:1-18:2-18:1), (18:1-18:2-18:0) and (24:0-20:4-18:1) with a relative content of 18.79%, 11.94%, 6.07%, 5.75% and 4.84%, respectively. Such novel SLs with improved functional properties enriched with UFAs are highly desirable and have the potential to be used in infant formula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipozyme RM IM-catalyzed acidolysis of Cinnamomum camphora seed oil with oleic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes enriched in medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xian-Guo; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zhao, Man-Li; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Li, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Rong; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2014-10-29

    In the present study, a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) enriched in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction from Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) with oleic acid in a solvent-free system. A commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme RM IM, from Rhizomucor miehei, was facilitated as a biocatalyst. Effects of different reaction conditions, including substrate molar ratio, enzyme concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain the optimal oleic acid incorporation. After optimization, results showed that the maximal incorporation of oleic acid into HMFS was 59.68%. Compared with CCSO, medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-2 position of HMFS accounted for >70%, whereas oleic acid was occupied predominantly at the sn-1,3 position (78.69%). Meanwhile, triacylglycerol (TAG) components of OCO (23.93%), CCO (14.94%), LaCO (13.58%), OLaO (12.66%), and OOO (11.13%) were determined as the major TAG species in HMFS. The final optimal reaction conditions were carried out as follows: substrate molar ratio (oleic acid/CCSO), 5:1; enzyme concentration, 12.5% (w/w total reactants); reaction temperature, 60 °C; and reaction time, 28 h. The reusability of Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis reaction was also evaluated, and it was found that it could be reused up to 9 times without significant loss of activities. Urea inclusion method was used to separate and purify the synthetic product. As the ratio of HMFS/urea increased to 1:2, the acid value lowered to the minimum. In a scale-up experiment, the contents of TAG and total tocopherols in HMFS (modified CCSO) were 77.28% and 12.27 mg/100 g, respectively. All of the physicochemical indices of purified product were within food standards. Therefore, such a MCFA-enriched HMFS produced by using the acidolysis method might have potential application in the infant formula industry.

  4. Acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with omega-3 oils and antioxidant activity of phenolipid products in in vitro and biological model systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2014-01-15

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of p-coumaric acid with seal blubber oil (SBO) and menhaden oil (MHO) was carried out, followed by identification of major phenolipids in the resultant acidolysis mixture using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Separation of phenolipid components from the resultant acidolysis mixture was achieved using flash column chromatography. The antioxidant activities of the phenolipids were examined in in vitro assays and biological model systems. The major phenolipids identified from acidolysis mixtures with both SBO and MHO included eight phenolic monoacylglycerols and eight phenolic diacylglycerols. Phenolipids derived from SBO and MHO generally showed good antioxidant potential in the systems tested. The prepared phenolipids exhibited high scavenging capacity toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals and displayed reducing power, strong inhibitory effect on bleaching of β-carotene, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol oxidation, as well as radical-induced DNA cleavage, thus suggesting that phenolipids derived from omega-3 oils may be used as potential stable products for health promotion and disease risk reduction.

  5. Acidolysis small molecular phenolic ether used as accelerator in photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihua; Zou, Yingquan

    2006-03-01

    The photosensitive compounds in the photosensitive coatings of positive PS plates are the diazonaphthaquinone derivatives. Some acidolysis small molecular phenolic ethers, which were synthesized by some special polyhydroxyl phenols with vinyl ethyl ether, are added in the positive diazonaphthaquinone photosensitive composition to improve its sensitivity, composed with photo-acid-generators. The effects to the photosensitivity, anti-alkali property, anti-isopropyl alcohol property, dot resolution and line resolution of the coatings are studied with different additive percent of the special phenolic ethers. In the conventional photosensitive diazonaphthaquinone systems for positive PS plates, the photosensitivity is improved without negative effects to resolution, anti-alkali and anti-isopropyl alcohol properties when added about 5% of the special acidolysis phenolic ethers, EAAE or DPHE, composed with photo-acid-generators.

  6. Acidolysis and glyceride synthesis reactions using fatty acids with two Pseudomonas lipases having different substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuzo; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2006-09-01

    Enzymatic acidolysis and glyceride synthesis using polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with lipases from Pseudomonas fluorescens HU380 (HU-lipase), P. fluorescens AK102 (AK-lipase), and Candida rugosa (CR-lipase) were studied. The acidolysis of triolein with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in n-hexane was evaluated with lipases immobilized on Celite 545. HU-lipase showed the highest incorporation rate at a low temperature (10 degrees C) with either EPA or DHA as the acyl donor, and the rate decreased with increasing reaction temperature. At 45 degrees C, the rates for EPA and DHA were 7.1 and 0.5 relative to those at 10 degrees C, respectively. The EPA incorporation rate was even higher at a low temperature (10 degrees C), and the DHA incorporation rate increased with decreasing temperature. Although AK-lipase showed the reverse tendency for incorporation rate, the DHA incorporation rate increased with increasing reaction temperature with both PUFAs. HU-lipase reacted well with PUFAs such as DHA, EPA, arachidonic acid (AA), mead acid (MA), and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) on acidolysis and glyceride synthesis. The reactivities of AK-lipase toward these PUFAs except for DGLA, i.e., MA, AA, EPA, and DHA, were low for both reactions. The unique substrate specificities of the lipases from the Pseudomonas strains will enable us to use these lipases for the modification of fats and oils containing PUFAs such as fish oil.

  7. The last reaction producing brassinolide is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450s, CYP85A3 in tomato and CYP85A2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahito; Kushiro, Tetsuo; Yokota, Takao; Kamiya, Yuji; Bishop, Gerard J; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2005-05-06

    Brassinosteroids are steroidal hormones essential for the growth and development of plants. Brassinolide, the most biologically active brassinosteroid, has a seven-membered lactone ring that is formed by a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of its immediate precursor castasterone. Despite its potential key role in controlling plant development, brassinolide synthase has not been identified. Previous work has shown that the formation of castasterone from 6-deoxocastasterone is catalyzed by members of the CYP85A family of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases. A null mutation in the tomato Dwarf (CYP85A1) gene, extreme dwarf (d(x)), causes severe dwarfism due to brassinosteroid deficiency, but the d(x) mutant still produces fruits. Here, we show that d(x) fruits contain brassinolide at a higher level than wild-type fruits and that a new CYP85A gene, CYP85A3, is preferentially expressed in tomato fruits. Tomato CYP85A3 catalyzed the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to produce brassinolide from castasterone in yeast, in addition to the conversion of 6-deoxocastasterone to castasterone. We also show that Arabidopsis CYP85A2, which was initially characterized as castasterone synthase, also has brassinolide synthase activity. Exogenous application of castasterone and brassinolide to the Arabidopsis cyp85a1/cyp85a2 double mutant suggests that castasterone can function as an active brassinosteroid but that its conversion into brassinolide is necessary for normal vegetative development in Arabidopsis. We postulate that castasterone is the major active brassinosteroid during vegetative growth in tomato, whereas brassinolide may play an organ-specific role in fruit development in this species.

  8. Fast microwave-assisted acidolysis: a new biorefinery approach for the zero-waste utilisation of lignocellulosic biomass to produce high quality lignin and fermentable saccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Santomauro, Fabio; Fan, Jiajun; Macquarrie, Duncan; Clark, James; Chuck, Christopher J; Budarin, Vitaliy

    2017-09-21

    Generally, biorefineries convert lignocellulosic biomass into a range of biofuels and further value added chemicals. However, conventional biorefinery processes focus mainly on the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions and therefore produce only low quality lignin, which is commonly burnt to provide process heat. To make full use of the biomass, more attention needs to be focused on novel separation techniques, where high quality lignin can be isolated that is suitable for further valorisation into aromatic chemicals and fuel components. In this paper, three types of lignocellulosic biomass (softwood, hardwood and herbaceous biomass) were processed by microwave-assisted acidolysis to produce high quality lignin. The lignin from the softwood was isolated largely intact in the solid residue after acidolysis. For example, a 10 min microwave-assisted acidolysis treatment produced lignin with a purity of 93% and in a yield of 82%, which is superior to other conventional separation methods reported. Furthermore, py-GC/MS analysis proved that the isolated lignin retained the original structure of native lignin in the feedstock without severe chemical modification. This is a large advantage, and the purified lignin is suitable for further chemical processing. To assess the suitability of this methodology as part of a biorefinery system, the aqueous phase, produced after acidolysis of the softwood, was characterised and assessed for its suitability for fermentation. The broth contained some mono- and di-saccharides but mainly contained organic acids, oligosaccharides and furans. While this is unsuitable for S. cerevisiae and other common ethanol producing yeasts, two oleaginous yeasts with known inhibitor tolerances were selected: Cryptococcus curvatus and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Both yeasts could grow on the broth, and demonstrated suitable catabolism of the oligosaccharides and inhibitors over 7 days. In addition, both yeasts were shown to be able to produce an oil

  9. Preparation of Chiral Triacylglycerols, sn-POO and sn-OOP, via Lipase-mediated Acidolysis Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Hiroki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Hara, Setsuko

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that lipases are useful tools for preparing various structured triacylglycerols (TAGs). However, the lipase-mediated preparation of chiral TAGs has never been reported. This study aimed to prepare chiral TAGs (viz., 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-POO) or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-OOP)) via lipase mediated acidolysis, using triolein (TO) and palmitic acid (P) as substrates. Three commercially available lipases (viz., Lipozyme RM-IM ® , Lipozyme TL-IM ® , and Lipase OF ® ) were used. Lipozyme RM-IM ® resulted in an increase 1P-2O (sn-POO + sn-OOP + 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol) content with reaction time, which plateaued at 2~24 h (max. yield 47.1% at 4 h). The highest sn-POO/sn-OOP ratio of ca. 9 was obtained at 0.25 h, and the rate got close to 1 with reaction time (sn-POO/sn-OOP = 1.3 at 24 h). Lipozyme TL-IM ® resulted in a lower 1P-2O synthesis rate than Lipozyme RM-IM ® , where its highest sn-POO/sn-OOP ratio of ca. 2 was obtained at 0.25 h and did not vary much further with reaction time. In the case of Lipase OF ® , its reaction rate for 1P-2O synthesis was lower than that of the other two lipases, and the highest sn-POO/sn-OOP ratio of ca. 1.4 was obtained at 0.5 h, reaching closer to 1 with a longer reaction time. Reaction solvents (viz., hexane, acetone, and benzene) also affected the 1P-2O preparation, where the highest 1P-2O content was obtained with the solvent-free system. Furthermore, the solvent-free system showed a higher reaction rate for 1P-2O synthesis than did the hexane system, with no effect on chiral specificity of the lipase for the TAG molecules. These results suggested that among three types of commercial lipase, Lipozyme RM-IM ® is the most useful for the preparation of chiral TAGs by acidolysis reaction.

  10. Theoretical investigations on the mechanism of benzoin condensation catalyzed by pyrido[1,2-a]-2-ethyl[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylidene.

    PubMed

    He, Yunqing; Xue, Ying

    2011-03-03

    A new annulated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), pyrido[1,2-a]-2-ethyl[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylidene, has been synthesized and its good catalytic activity for benzoin condensation has been experimentally determined by You and co-workers recently [ Ma , Y. J. , Wei , S. P. , Lan , J. B. , Wang , J. Z. , Xie , R. G. , and You , J. S. J. Org. Chem. 2008 , 73 , 8256 ]. In this work, the mechanism of the title reaction has been intensively studied computationally by employing the density functional theory (B3LYP) method in conjunction with 6-31+G(d) and 6-311+G(2d,p) basis sets. Our results indicate that path A (in which a sequence of intermolecular proton transfers between two carbene/benzaldehyde coupling intermediates affords enamine) and path B (in which a t-BuOH assisted hydrogen transfer generates enamine) proposed on the basis of the Breslow mechanism are competitive for their similar barriers. In path A, the first intermolecular proton transfer between two N-heterocyclic carbene/benzaldehyde coupled intermediates to form tertiary alcohol and enolate anion is theoretically the rate-determining step with corresponding barrier (30.93 kcal/mol), while the t-BuOH assisted hydrogen transfer generating Breslow enamine is the rate-determining step with corresponding barrier (28.84 kcal/mol) in path B. The coupling of carbene and benzaldehyde, and the coupling of enamine and another benzaldehyde to form a C-C bond are partially rate-determining for their relatively significant barriers (24.06 and 26.95 kcal/mol, respectively), being the same in both paths A and B. Our results are in nice agreement with the experimental result in a kinetic investigation of thiazolium ion-catalyzed benzoin condensation performed by White and Leeper in 2001.

  11. Evaluation of Feruloylated and p-Coumaroylated Arabinosyl Units in Grass Arabinoxylans by Acidolysis in Dioxane/Methanol.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Catherine; Voxeur, Aline; Karlen, Steven D; Helm, Richard F; Ralph, John

    2018-05-30

    The arabinosyl side chains of grass arabinoxylans are partially acylated by p-coumarate ( pCA) and ferulate (FA). These aromatic side chains can cross-couple wall polymers resulting in modulation of cell wall physical properties. The determination of p-coumaroylated and feruloylated arabinose units has been the target of analytical efforts with trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis the standard method to release feruloylated and p-coumaroylated arabinose units from arabinoxylans. Herein, we report on a more robust method to measure these acylated units. Acidolysis of extractive-free grass samples in a dioxane/methanol/aqueous 2 M HCl mixture provided the methyl 5- O- p-coumaroyl- and 5- O-feruloyl-l-arabinofuranoside anomers ( pCA-MeAra and FA-MeAra). These conjugates were readily analyzed by liquid chromatography combined with both UV and MS detection. The method revealed the variability of the relative acylation of arabinose units by pCA or FA in grass cell walls. This methodology will permit delineation of hydroxycinnamate acylation patterns in arabinoxylans.

  12. Medium chain and behenic acid incorporated structured lipids from sal, mango and kokum fats by lipase acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Biranchi; M, Jhansi; Kotasthane, Pranitha; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2013-01-15

    Medium chain (MC) and behenic fatty acids were incorporated into kokum, sal and mango fats using 1,3-specific lipase catalysed acidolysis. The incorporation of fatty acids increased with increase in concentration of fatty acids and duration of reaction. The order of incorporation of fatty acids was C22:0>C10:0>C8:0, to the extent of 53%, 42.5%, 35.8%, respectively, after 16 h, using kokum as substrate. The same trend was observed with sal or mango fats as substrates though the percentages incorporated were different. The modified products with higher contents of MC were liquids with no solid fats, even at 0°C, and which showed low cloud point due to an increase in triacylglycerols containing lower chain fatty acids. The modified products after incorporating both MC and C22:0 showed long melting ranges and were suitable for use in bakery, confectionery, etc. as vanaspati substitutes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes with a 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate (bda) ligand: how ligand environment influences the catalytic behavior.

    PubMed

    Staehle, Robert; Tong, Lianpeng; Wang, Lei; Duan, Lele; Fischer, Andreas; Ahlquist, Mårten S G; Sun, Licheng; Rau, Sven

    2014-02-03

    A new water oxidation catalyst [Ru(III)(bda)(mmi)(OH2)](CF3SO3) (2, H2bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; mmi = 1,3-dimethylimidazolium-2-ylidene) containing an axial N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and one aqua ligand was synthesized and fully characterized. The kinetics of catalytic water oxidation by 2 were measured using stopped-flow technique, and key intermediates in the catalytic cycle were probed by density functional theory calculations. While analogous Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridyl ligands) are supposed to catalyze water oxidation through a bimolecular coupling pathway, our study points out that 2, surprisingly, undergoes a single-site water nucleophilic attack (acid-base) pathway. The diversion of catalytic mechanisms is mainly ascribed to the different ligand environments, from nonaqua ligands to an aqua ligand. Findings in this work provide some critical proof for our previous hypothesis about how alternation of ancillary ligands of water oxidation catalysts influences their catalytic efficiency.

  14. The kinetics of the phospholipase A2-catalyzed hydrolysis of Egg phosphatidylcholine in unilamellar vesicles. Product inhibition and its relief by serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, J P; Yokoyama, S; Kézdy, F J

    1981-06-25

    Only the lecithin in the outer leaflet (representing 70% of the total) of egg lecithin unilamellar vesicles is hydrolyzed by Crotalus atrox phospholipase A2. Hydrolyzed vesicles remain intact and impermeable to ionic solutes. The fatty acids produced in the hydrolysis remain on the vesicle and are only partially ionized at neutral pH due to electrostatic repulsions. About 40% of the lysolecithin product is desorbed from the vesicle. In the presence of a large excess of bovine serum albumin, the reaction is first order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate. At 21 degrees C, pH 7.2, I = 0.16 M, and [Ca2+] = 7 mM, the second order rate constant is kex(2) = 1.5 X 10(6) M-1 s-1. In the absence of albumin, the reaction is inhibited competitively by both the monomeric (KIm = 4.5 X 10(-8) M) and micellar (nKIa = 3.7 X 10(-7) M) forms of lysolecithin ([critical micelle concentration] = 4.3 X 10(-6) M). Bovine serum albumin complexes two molecules of lysolecithin with a dissociation constant, Kb = 5 X 10(-8) M. With substoichiometric albumin, the reaction is biphasic, and, when the albumin is saturated with lysolecithin, the kinetics become similar to those observed in the absence of albumin. The action of phospholipase A2 shows that in unilamellar vesicles there is only one major lecithin conformation in the outer leaflet, or that all conformations are rapidly interconvertible.

  15. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  16. Catalyzed sodium chlorate candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malich, C. W.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    The catalytic effect of cobalt powder on chlorate decomposition has been confirmed. Catalysis is enhanced by oxidation of the metal during burning. Catalysts other than cobalt compounds should also be effective; the complete elimination of fuel has shown that the oxidation of cobalt during decomposition is not a vital factor in the improved performance of catalyzed candles.

  17. Caffeine-catalyzed gels.

    PubMed

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Glettig, Dean L; Walton, Elizabeth S E; de la Serna, Eva L; Montgomery, Veronica A; Grant, Tyler M; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2018-07-01

    Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients. Using caffeine, a mild base, to catalyze anhydrous carboxylate ring-opening of diglycidyl-ether functionalized monomers with citric acid as a tri-functional crosslinking agent we introduce a novel poly(ester-ether) gel synthesis platform. We demonstrate that biocompatible Caffeine Catalyzed Gels (CCGs) exhibit dynamic physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which can be tailored in shape, surface texture, solvent response, cargo release, shear and tensile strength, among other potential attributes. The demonstrated versatility, low cost and facile synthesis of these CCGs renders them appropriate for a broad range of customized engineering applications including drug delivery constructs, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  19. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L; Klauser, Paul C; Brandsen, Benjamin M; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K

    2016-02-24

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases.

  20. Effects of dietary oxidized konjac glucomannan sulfates (OKGMS) and acidolysis-oxidized konjac glucomannan (A-OKGM) on the immunity and expression of immune-related genes of Schizothorax prenanti.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingrui; Wang, Hongjie; Yan, Qiuping; Zheng, Qiaoran; Yang, Min; Lv, Zhenzhen; He, Mei; Feng, Limei; Zhao, Jiaqi; Tang, Tingting; Wu, Yinglong

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, konjac glucomannan (KGM) was degraded by H2O2, and then used trisulfonated sodium amine and HCl, individually, to obtain two kinds of derivatives: oxidized konjac glucomannan sulfates (OKGMS) and acidolysis-oxidized konjac glucomannan (A-OKGM). The effects of two OKGM modified products on the immune parameters and expressions of toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interferon regulatory factors 7 (IRF7) genes in Schizothorax prenanti were determined. The alternative haemolytic complement (ACH50) activity was found to be significantly increased by the OKGMS diets. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) level was significantly enhanced by the OKGMS diets. The lysozyme activity was significantly increased by both OKGMS and A-OKGM diets. The superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in fish fed with all doses of OKGMS diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed with basal diet. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in fish fed with 0.8% and 1.6% A-OKGM diets was significantly higher than control group. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was significantly decreased by both OKGMS and A-OKGM diets. The 0.8% A-OKGM diet significantly up-regulated TLR22 gene expression in the head kidney and spleen. TLR22 gene expression was significantly promoted by all OKGMS diets in the mesonephros and liver. The MyD88 mRNA level in 1.6% A-OKGM group significantly increased in the head kidney. The low dose of OKGMS significantly induced the MyD88 gene expression in the mesonephros, gut and liver, while 0.8% A-OKGM group also showed a significantly enhanced MyD88 mRNA expression in the gut. High dose of OKGMS significantly increased the IRF7 mRNA expression in the mesonephros and spleen. Fish fed with low dose of A-OKGM showed significantly higher expression of IRF7 in the gut and liver. Present study suggested that OKGMS and A-OKGM can act as immunostimulant to improve the immune indexes and up-regulate the immune-related gene

  1. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  2. Stereoselective isoxazolidine synthesis via copper-catalyzed alkene aminooxygenation.

    PubMed

    Karyakarte, Shuklendu D; Smith, Thomas P; Chemler, Sherry R

    2012-09-07

    Isoxazolidines are useful in organic synthesis, drug discovery, and chemical biology endeavors. A new stereoselective synthesis of methyleneoxy-substituted isoxazolidines is disclosed. The method involves copper-catalyzed aminooxygenation/cyclization of N-sulfonyl-O-butenyl hydroxylamines in the presence of (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl radical (TEMPO) and O(2) and provides substituted isoxazolidines in excellent yields and diastereoselectivities. We also demonstrate selective mono N-O reduction followed by oxidation of the remaining N-O bond to reveal a 2-amino-γ-lactone. Reduction of the γ-lactone reveals the corresponding aminodiol.

  3. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  4. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Hart, Todd R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  5. Metal-catalyzed Decarboxylative Fluoroalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Yang, Ming-Hsiu; Altman, Ryan A

    2016-12-01

    Metal-catalyzed decarboxylative fluoroalkylation reactions enable the conversion of simple O-based substrates into biologically relevant fluorinated analogs. Herein, we present decarboxylative methods that facilitate the synthesis of trifluoromethyl- and difluoroketone-containing products. We highlight key mechanistic aspects that are critical for efficient catalysis, and that inspired our thinking while developing the reactions.

  6. Catalyzing curriculum evolution in graduate science education.

    PubMed

    Gutlerner, Johanna L; Van Vactor, David

    2013-05-09

    Strategies in life science graduate education must evolve in order to train a modern workforce capable of integrative solutions to challenging problems. Our institution has catalyzed such evolution through building a postdoctoral Curriculum Fellows Program that provides a collaborative and scholarly education laboratory for innovation in graduate training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lysophosphatidylcholine synthesis by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guolong; Yang, Ruoxi; Hu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is amphiphilic substance, and possesses excellent physiological functions. In this study, LPC was prepared through ethanolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in n-hexane or solvent free media catalyzed by Novozym 435 (from Candida antarctica), Lipozyme TLIM (from Thermomcyces lanuginosus) and Lipozyme RMIM (from Rhizomucor miehei). The results showed that three immobilized lipases from Candida Antarctica, Thermomcyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei could catalyze ethanolysis of PC efficiently. In n-hexane, the LPC conversions of ethanolysis of PC catalyzed by Novozyme 435, Lipozyme TLIM and Lipozyme RMIM could reach to 98.5 ± 1.6%, 94.6 ± 1.4% and 93.7 ± 1.8%, respectively. In solvent free media, the highest LPC conversions of ethanolysis of PC catalyzed by Novozyme 435, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM were 97.7 ± 1.7%, 93.5 ± 1.2% and 93.8 ± 1.9%, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies of the three lipases were in the order of Novozyme 435 > Lipozyme TLIM > Lipozyme RMIM. Furthermore, their catalytic efficiencies in n-hexane were better than those in solvent free media.

  8. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  9. Microorganisms detected by enzyme-catalyzed reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vango, S. P.; Weetall, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Enzymes detect the presence of microorganisms in soils. The enzyme lysozymi is used to release the enzyme catalase from the microorganisms in a soil sample. The catalase catalyzes the decomposition of added hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen which is detected manometrically. The partial pressure of the oxygen serves as an index of the samples bacteria content.

  10. Dual chemistry catalyzed by human acireductone dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aditi R.; Pochapsky, Thomas C.; Petsko, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca is the only known naturally occurring metalloenzyme that catalyzes different reactions in vivo based solely on the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe2+ or Ni2+) bound in the active site. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, whereas the nickel-containing isozyme uses the same substrates to catalyze an off-pathway shunt to form methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate. This dual chemistry was recently demonstrated in vitro by ARD from Mus musculus (MmARD), providing the first example of a mammalian ARD exhibiting metal-dependent catalysis. We now show that human ARD (HsARD) is also capable of metal-dependent dual chemistry. Recombinant HsARD was expressed and purified to obtain a homogeneous enzyme with a single transition metal ion bound. As with MmARD, the Fe2+-bound HsARD shows the highest activity and catalyzes on-pathway chemistry, whereas Ni2+, Co2+ or Mn2+ forms catalyze off-pathway chemistry. The thermal stability of the HsARD isozymes is a function of the metal ion identity, with Ni2+-bound HsARD being the most stable followed by Co2+ and Fe2+, and Mn2+-bound HsARD being the least stable. As with the bacterial ARD, solution NMR data suggest that HsARD isozymes can have significant structural differences depending upon the metal ion bound. PMID:28062648

  11. Horseradish-Peroxidase-Catalyzed Tyrosine Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-02

    The efficiency of protein chemical modification on tyrosine residues with N-methylluminol derivatives was drastically improved by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the previous method, based on the use of hemin and H 2 O 2 , oxidative side reactions such as cysteine oxidation were problematic for functionalization of proteins selectively on tyrosine residues. Oxidative activation of N-methylluminol derivatives with a minimum amount of H 2 O 2 prevented the occurrence of oxidative side reactions under HRP-catalyzed conditions. As probes for HRP-catalyzed protein modification, N-methylluminol derivatives showed much higher efficiency than tyramide without inducing oligomerization of probe molecules. Tyrosine modification also proceeded in the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, H 2 O 2 -free conditions). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Stop-catalyzed baryogenesis beyond the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2015-11-19

    Nonminimal supersymmetric models that predict a tree-level Higgs mass above the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) bound are well motivated by naturalness considerations. Indirect constraints on the stop sector parameters of such models are significantly relaxed compared to the MSSM; in particular, both stops can have weak-scale masses. We revisit the stop-catalyzed electroweak baryogenesis (EWB) scenario in this context. We find that the LHC measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates already rule out the possibility of stop-catalyzed EWB. Here, we also introduce a gauge-invariant analysis framework that may generalize to other scenarios in which interactions outside themore » gauge sector drive the electroweak phase transition.« less

  13. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  14. Desaturation reactions catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    2001-09-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) is shown to be capable of catalyzing desaturation reactions in addition to the usual hydroxylation and epoxidation reactions. Dehydrogenated products are generated from MMO-catalyzed oxidation of certain substrates including ethylbenzene and cyclohexadienes. In the reaction of ethylbenzene, desaturation of ethyl C-H occurred along with the conventional hydroxvlations of ethyl and phenyl C-Hs. As a result, styrene is formed together with ethylphenols and phenylethanols. Similarly, when 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadienes were used as substrates, benzene was detected as a product in addition to the corresponding alcohols and epoxides. In all cases, reaction conditions were found to significantly affect the distribution among the different products. This new activity of MMO is postulated to be associated with the chemical properties of the substrates rather than fundamental changes in the nature of the oxygen and C-H activation chemistries. The formation of the desaturated products is rationalized by formation of a substrate cationic intermediate, possibly via a radical precursor. The cationic species is then proposed to partition between recombination (alcohol formation) and elimination (alkene production) pathways. This novel function of MMO indicates close mechanistic kinship between the hydroxylation and desaturation reactions catalyzed by the nonheme diiron clusters.

  15. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines

    PubMed Central

    Roemeling, Margo D.; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S.; Hurst, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically-derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated—loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case NAHCl did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl+) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl+). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second order reaction to give 3′-monochloro and 3′,5′-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions: HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants upon [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl+; consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed fluorescein chlorination by HOCl

  16. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, F R = 0.9 to 1.15, ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Z eff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, B m ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    PubMed Central

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  18. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, F R = 0.9 to 1.15, ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Z eff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, B m ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  19. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, Amy E.; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate ( ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form ( ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Densitymore » functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Altogether, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.« less

  20. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate

    DOE PAGES

    Settle, Amy E.; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting; ...

    2018-04-16

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform biobased chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate ( ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form ( ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Densitymore » functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations due to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely due to solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95% were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98%) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Altogether, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for biobased chemicals.« less

  1. Manganese Catalyzed C–H Halogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Groves, John T.

    2015-06-16

    The remarkable aliphatic C–H hydroxylations catalyzed by the heme-containing enzyme, cytochrome P450, have attracted sustained attention for more than four decades. The effectiveness of P450 enzymes as highly selective biocatalysts for a wide range of oxygenation reactions of complex substrates has driven chemists to develop synthetic metalloporphyrin model compounds that mimic P450 reactivity. Among various known metalloporphyrins, manganese derivatives have received considerable attention since they have been shown to be versatile and powerful mediators for alkane hydroxylation and olefin epoxidation. Mechanistic studies have shown that the key intermediates of the manganese porphyrin-catalyzed oxygenation reactions include oxo- and dioxomanganese(V) species thatmore » transfer an oxygen atom to the substrate through a hydrogen abstraction/oxygen recombination pathway known as the oxygen rebound mechanism. Application of manganese porphyrins has been largely restricted to catalysis of oxygenation reactions until recently, however, due to ultrafast oxygen transfer rates. In this Account, we discuss recently developed carbon–halogen bond formation, including fluorination reactions catalyzed by manganese porphyrins and related salen species. We found that biphasic sodium hypochlorite/manganese porphyrin systems can efficiently and selectively convert even unactivated aliphatic C–H bonds to C–Cl bonds. An understanding of this novel reactivity derived from results obtained for the oxidation of the mechanistically diagnostic substrate and radical clock, norcarane. Significantly, the oxygen rebound rate in Mn-mediated hydroxylation is highly correlated with the nature of the trans-axial ligands bound to the manganese center (L–Mn V$=$O). Based on the ability of fluoride ion to decelerate the oxygen rebound step, we envisaged that a relatively long-lived substrate radical could be trapped by a Mn–F fluorine source, effecting carbon–fluorine bond

  2. Synthesis of 1-methyleneindenes via palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengqing; Gao, Ke; Zhou, Haibo; Yang, Xiaodi; Wu, Jie

    2009-09-28

    Palladium-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-alkenylphenyl-acetylenes with CuCl2 or CuBr2 afforded 3-chloro- or 3-bromo-1-methyleneindenes in good yields; these compounds could be further elaborated via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  4. Acid-Catalyzed Isomerization of Carvone to Carvacrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Mattingly, Shawn P.

    2005-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol, first reported by Ritter and Ginsburg, is especially well suited with a permanent-magnet FT instrument. The acid-catalyzed isomerization of carvone to carvacrol produced a 61% yield after a three hour reflux with 30% aqueous sulfuric acid.

  5. Representing Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2011-01-01

    Rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are derived and presented in a way that makes it easier for the nonspecialist to see how the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction depends upon kinetic constants and concentrations. This is done with distribution equations that show how the rate of the reaction depends upon the relative quantities of…

  6. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  7. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  8. Myoglobin-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-02-12

    The olefination of aldehydes constitutes a most valuable and widely adopted strategy for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry. While various synthetic methods have been made available for this purpose, no biocatalysts are known to mediate this transformation. Reported herein is that engineered myoglobin variants can catalyze the olefination of aldehydes in the presence of α-diazoesters with high catalytic efficiency (up to 4,900 turnovers) and excellent E diastereoselectivity (92-99.9 % de). This transformation could be applied to the olefination of a variety of substituted benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes, also in combination with different alkyl α-diazoacetate reagents. This work provides a first example of biocatalytic aldehyde olefination and extends the spectrum of synthetically valuable chemical transformations accessible using metalloprotein-based catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Iodine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Dimethyl Muconate.

    PubMed

    Settle, Amy E; Berstis, Laura; Zhang, Shuting; Rorrer, Nicholas A; Hu, Haiming; Richards, Ryan M; Beckham, Gregg T; Crowley, Michael F; Vardon, Derek R

    2018-06-11

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is a platform bio-based chemical that can be upgraded to drop-in commodity and novel monomers. Among the possible drop-in products, dimethyl terephthalate can be synthesized via esterification, isomerization, Diels-Alder cycloaddition, and dehydrogenation. The isomerization of cis,cis-dimethyl muconate (ccDMM) to the trans,trans-form (ttDMM) can be catalyzed by iodine; however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity ttDMM. To address this gap, we apply a joint computational and experimental approach to investigate iodine-catalyzed isomerization of DMM. Density functional theory calculations identified unique regiochemical considerations owing to the large number of halogen-diene coordination schemes. Both transition state theory and experiments estimate significant barrier reductions with photodissociated iodine. Solvent selection was critical for rapid kinetics, likely because of solvent complexation with iodine. Under select conditions, ttDMM yields of 95 % were achieved in <1 h with methanol, followed by high purity recovery (>98 %) with crystallization. Lastly, post-reaction iodine can be recovered and recycled with minimal loss of activity. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the mechanism and conditions necessary for DMM isomerization with iodine to advance the state-of-the-art for bio-based chemicals. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Structural and stereoelectronic insights into oxygenase-catalyzed formation of ethylene from 2-oxoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Smart, Tristan J; Choi, Hwanho; Hardy, Florence; Lohans, Christopher T; Abboud, Martine I; Richardson, Melodie S W; Paton, Robert S; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2017-05-02

    Ethylene is important in industry and biological signaling. In plants, ethylene is produced by oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, as catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Bacteria catalyze ethylene production, but via the four-electron oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate to give ethylene in an arginine-dependent reaction. Crystallographic and biochemical studies on the Pseudomonas syringae ethylene-forming enzyme reveal a branched mechanism. In one branch, an apparently typical 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase reaction to give succinate, carbon dioxide, and sometimes pyrroline-5-carboxylate occurs. Alternatively, Grob-type oxidative fragmentation of a 2-oxoglutarate-derived intermediate occurs to give ethylene and carbon dioxide. Crystallographic and quantum chemical studies reveal that fragmentation to give ethylene is promoted by binding of l-arginine in a nonoxidized conformation and of 2-oxoglutarate in an unprecedented high-energy conformation that favors ethylene, relative to succinate formation.

  11. Iodine-catalyzed diazo activation to access radical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhao, Jingjing; Shi, Lijun; Wang, Jin; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Fuwei

    2018-05-17

    Transition-metal-catalyzed diazo activation is a classical way to generate metal carbene, which are valuable intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. An alternative iodine-catalyzed diazo activation is disclosed herein under either photo-initiated or thermal-initiated conditions, which represents an approach to enable carbene radical reactivity. This metal-free diazo activation strategy were successfully applied into olefin cyclopropanation and epoxidation, and applying this method to pyrrole synthesis under thermal-initiated conditions further demonstrates the unique reactivity using this method over typical metal-catalyzed conditions.

  12. Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogen Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Ourida; Williams, Jonathan M. J.

    This chapter describes the application of iridium complexes to catalytic hydrogen transfer reactions. Transfer hydrogenation reactions provide an alternative to direct hydrogenation for the reduction of a range of substrates. A hydrogen donor, typically an alcohol or formic acid, can be used as the source of hydrogen for the reduction of carbonyl compounds, imines, and alkenes. Heteroaromatic compounds and even carbon dioxide have also been reduced by transfer hydrogenation reactions. In the reverse process, the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds can be achieved by iridium-catalyzed hydrogen transfer reactions, where a ketone or alkene is used as a suitable hydrogen acceptor. The reversible nature of many hydrogen transfer processes has been exploited for the racemization of alcohols, where temporary removal of hydrogen generates an achiral ketone intermediate. In addition, there is a growing body of work where temporary removal of hydrogen provides an opportunity for using alcohols as alkylating agents. In this chemistry, an iridium catalyst "borrows" hydrogen from an alcohol to give an aldehyde or ketone intermediate, which can be transformed into either an imine or alkene under the reaction conditions. Return of the hydrogen from the catalyst provides methodology for the formation of amines or C-C bonds where the only by-product is typically water.

  13. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes laboratory-scale, pilot-scale, and field performance data on BCD (Base Catalyzed Decomposition) and technology, collected to date by various governmental, academic, and private organizations.

  15. NHC-Catalyzed Asymmetric Benzoin Reaction in Water.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Sun, Rong; Shi, Kuangxi; Li, Kai; Yang, Limin; Zhong, Guofu

    2018-06-11

    A chiral NHC-catalyzed benzoin condensation reaction in water was developed, thereby affording α-hydroxy ketones in good to high yields and high enantioselectivities. Water was proposed as a proton shuttle in the aqueous asymmetric condensation reaction.

  16. Lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin additions.

    PubMed

    Tarr, James C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2009-09-03

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones.

  17. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones. PMID:19655731

  18. Enzyme-catalyzed cationic epoxide rearrangements in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Tang, Mancheng C; Hirayama, Yuichiro; Li, Dehai H; Li, Li; Watanabe, Kenji; Houk, K N; Tang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Epoxides are highly useful synthons and biosynthons for the construction of complex natural products during total synthesis and biosynthesis, respectively. Among enzyme-catalyzed epoxide transformations, a reaction that is notably missing, in regard to the synthetic toolbox, is cationic rearrangement that takes place under strong acid. This is a challenging transformation for enzyme catalysis, as stabilization of the carbocation intermediate upon epoxide cleavage is required. Here, we discovered two Brønsted acid enzymes that can catalyze two unprecedented epoxide transformations in biology. PenF from the penigequinolone pathway catalyzes a cationic epoxide rearrangement under physiological conditions to generate a quaternary carbon center, while AsqO from the aspoquinolone pathway catalyzes a 3-exo-tet cyclization to forge a cyclopropane-tetrahydrofuran ring system. The discovery of these new epoxide-modifying enzymes further highlights the versatility of epoxides in complexity generation during natural product biosynthesis.

  19. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling of Alkenes, Aldehydes, and Silyl Triflates

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    A full account of two recently developed nickel-catalyzed coupling reactions of alkenes, aldehydes and silyl triflates is presented. These reactions provide either allylic alcohol or homoallylic alcohol derivatives selectively, depending on the ligand employed. These processes are believed to be mechanistically distinct from Lewis acid-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reactions, and several lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are discussed. PMID:16939275

  20. Zinc-catalyzed allenylations of aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Fandrick, Daniel R; Saha, Jaideep; Fandrick, Keith R; Sanyal, Sanjit; Ogikubo, Junichi; Lee, Heewon; Roschangar, Frank; Song, Jinhua J; Senanayake, Chris H

    2011-10-21

    The general zinc-catalyzed allenylation of aldehydes and ketones with an allenyl boronate is presented. Preliminary mechanistic studies support a kinetically controlled process wherein, after a site-selective B/Zn exchange to generate a propargyl zinc intermediate, the addition to the electrophile effectively competes with propargyl-allenyl zinc equilibration. The utility of the methodology was demonstrated by application to a rhodium-catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazines: Environmental chamber studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilduff, Jan E.; Davis, Dennis D.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    The surface-catalyzed air oxidation reactions of fuel hydrazines were studied in a 6500-liter fluorocarbon-film chamber at 80 to 100 ppm concentrations. First-order rate constants for the reactions catalyzed by aluminum, water-damaged aluminum (Al/Al2O3), stainless steel 304L, galvanized steel and titanium plates with surface areas of 2 to 24 sq m were determined. With 23.8 sq m of Al/Al2O3 the surface-catalyzed air oxidation of hydrazine had a half-life of 2 hours, diimide (N2H2) was observed as an intermediate and traces of ammonia were present in the final product mixture. The Al/Al2O3 catalyzed oxidation of monomethylhydrazine yielded methyldiazine (HN = NCH3) as an intermediate and traces of methanol. Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine gave no detectable products. The relative reactivities of hydrazine, MMH and UDMH were 130 : 7.3 : 1.0, respectively. The rate constants for Al/Al2O3-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and MMH were proportional to the square of the surface area of the plates. Mechanisms for the surface-catalyzed oxidation of hydrazine and diimide and the formation of ammonia are proposed.

  2. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  3. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignins

    DOE PAGES

    Katahira, Rui; Mittal, Ashutosh; McKinney, Kellene; ...

    2016-01-12

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries will produce a substantial pool of lignin-enriched residues, which are currently slated to be burned for heat and power. Going forward, however, valorization strategies for residual solid lignin will be essential to the economic viability of modern biorefineries. To achieve these strategies, effective lignin depolymerization processes will be required that can convert specific lignin-enriched biorefinery substrates into products of sufficient value and market size. Base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin using sodium hydroxide and other basic media has been shown to be an effective depolymerization approach when using technical and isolated lignins relevant to the pulp and paper industry.more » Moreover, to gain insights in the application of BCD to lignin-rich, biofuels-relevant residues, here we apply BCD with sodium hydroxide at two catalyst loadings and temperatures of 270, 300, and 330 °C for 40 min to residual biomass from typical and emerging biochemical conversion processes. We obtained mass balances for each fraction from BCD, and characterized the resulting aqueous and solid residues using gel permeation chromatography, NMR, and GC–MS. When taken together, these results indicate that a significant fraction (45–78%) of the starting lignin-rich material can be depolymerized to low molecular weight, water-soluble species. The yield of the aqueous soluble fraction depends significantly on biomass processing method used prior to BCD. Namely, dilute acid pretreatment results in lower water-soluble yields compared to biomass processing that involves no acid pretreatment. We also find that the BCD product selectivity can be tuned with temperature to give higher yields of methoxyphenols at lower temperature, and a higher relative content of benzenediols with a greater extent of alkylation on the aromatic rings at higher temperature. Our study shows that residual, lignin-rich biomass produced from conventional and

  4. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Katahira, Rui; Mittal, Ashutosh; McKinney, Kellene

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries will produce a substantial pool of lignin-enriched residues, which are currently slated to be burned for heat and power. Going forward, however, valorization strategies for residual solid lignin will be essential to the economic viability of modern biorefineries. To achieve these strategies, effective lignin depolymerization processes will be required that can convert specific lignin-enriched biorefinery substrates into products of sufficient value and market size. Base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin using sodium hydroxide and other basic media has been shown to be an effective depolymerization approach when using technical and isolated lignins relevant to the pulp and paper industry.more » Moreover, to gain insights in the application of BCD to lignin-rich, biofuels-relevant residues, here we apply BCD with sodium hydroxide at two catalyst loadings and temperatures of 270, 300, and 330 °C for 40 min to residual biomass from typical and emerging biochemical conversion processes. We obtained mass balances for each fraction from BCD, and characterized the resulting aqueous and solid residues using gel permeation chromatography, NMR, and GC–MS. When taken together, these results indicate that a significant fraction (45–78%) of the starting lignin-rich material can be depolymerized to low molecular weight, water-soluble species. The yield of the aqueous soluble fraction depends significantly on biomass processing method used prior to BCD. Namely, dilute acid pretreatment results in lower water-soluble yields compared to biomass processing that involves no acid pretreatment. We also find that the BCD product selectivity can be tuned with temperature to give higher yields of methoxyphenols at lower temperature, and a higher relative content of benzenediols with a greater extent of alkylation on the aromatic rings at higher temperature. Our study shows that residual, lignin-rich biomass produced from conventional and

  5. Phosphine-catalyzed cycloadditions of allenic ketones: new substrates for nucleophilic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Debra J; Sidda, Rachel L; Reamer, Robert A

    2007-02-02

    A range of phosphine-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions of allenic ketones have been studied, extending the scope of these processes from the more widely used 2,3-butadienoates to allow access to a number of synthetically useful products. Reaction of allenyl methyl ketone 4 with exo-enones afforded spirocyclic compounds in good regioselectivity and promising enantioselectivity via a [2 + 3] cycloaddtion. Aromatic allenyl ketones undergo a phosphine-promoted dimerization to afford functionalized pyrans, leading to a formal [2 + 4] Diels-Alder product, but did not react in the [2 + 3] cycloaddition. The results from other reactions that had found utility with 2,3-butadienoates are also reported.

  6. Multigram Synthesis of a Chiral Substituted Indoline Via Copper-Catalyzed Alkene Aminooxygenation.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Fatima C; Bovino, Michael T; Chipre, Anthony J; Chemler, Sherry R

    2012-05-01

    (S)-5-Fluoro-2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxymethyl)-1-tosylindoline, a 2-methyleneoxy-substituted chiral indoline, was synthesized on multigram scale using an efficient copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene aminooxygenation. The synthesis is accomplished in four steps and the indoline is obtained in 89% ee (>98% after one recrystallization). Other highlights include efficient gram-scale synthesis of the (4R,5S)-di-Ph-box ligand and efficient separation of a monoallylaniline from its bis(allyl)aniline by-product by distillation under reduced pressure.

  7. Multigram Synthesis of a Chiral Substituted Indoline Via Copper-Catalyzed Alkene Aminooxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Fatima C.; Bovino, Michael T.; Chipre, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    (S)-5-Fluoro-2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxymethyl)-1-tosylindoline, a 2-methyleneoxy-substituted chiral indoline, was synthesized on multigram scale using an efficient copper-catalyzed enantioselective intramolecular alkene aminooxygenation. The synthesis is accomplished in four steps and the indoline is obtained in 89% ee (>98% after one recrystallization). Other highlights include efficient gram-scale synthesis of the (4R,5S)-di-Ph-box ligand and efficient separation of a monoallylaniline from its bis(allyl)aniline by-product by distillation under reduced pressure. PMID:22639473

  8. Iron Catalyzed Hydroformylation of Alkenes under Mild Conditions: Evidence of an Fe(II) Catalyzed Process.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Swechchha; Raj, K Vipin; Shinde, Dinesh R; Vanka, Kumar; Kashyap, Varchaswal; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Vinod, C P; Chikkali, Samir H

    2018-03-28

    Earth abundant, first row transition metals offer a cheap and sustainable alternative to the rare and precious metals. However, utilization of first row metals in catalysis requires harsh reaction conditions, suffers from limited activity, and fails to tolerate functional groups. Reported here is a highly efficient iron catalyzed hydroformylation of alkenes under mild conditions. This protocol operates at 10-30 bar syngas pressure below 100 °C, utilizes readily available ligands, and applies to an array of olefins. Thus, the iron precursor [HFe(CO) 4 ] - [Ph 3 PNPPh 3 ] + (1) in the presence of triphenyl phosphine catalyzes the hydroformylation of 1-hexene (S2), 1-octene (S1), 1-decene (S3), 1-dodecene (S4), 1-octadecene (S5), trimethoxy(vinyl)silane (S6), trimethyl(vinyl)silane (S7), cardanol (S8), 2,3-dihydrofuran (S9), allyl malonic acid (S10), styrene (S11), 4-methylstyrene (S12), 4- iBu-styrene (S13), 4- tBu-styrene (S14), 4-methoxy styrene (S15), 4-acetoxy styrene (S16), 4-bromo styrene (S17), 4-chloro styrene (S18), 4-vinylbenzonitrile (S19), 4-vinylbenzoic acid (S20), and allyl benzene (S21) to corresponding aldehydes in good to excellent yields. Both electron donating and electron withdrawing substituents could be tolerated and excellent conversions were obtained for S11-S20. Remarkably, the addition of 1 mol % acetic acid promotes the reaction to completion within 16-24 h. Detailed mechanistic investigations revealed in situ formation of an iron-dihydride complex [H 2 Fe(CO) 2 (PPh 3 ) 2 ] (A) as an active catalytic species. This finding was further supported by cyclic voltammetry investigations and intermediacy of an Fe(0)-Fe(II) species was established. Combined experimental and computational investigations support the existence of an iron-dihydride as the catalyst resting state, which then follows a Fe(II) based catalytic cycle to produce aldehyde.

  9. Microbial-Catalyzed Biotransformation of Multifunctional Triterpenoids Derived from Phytonutrients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Tan, Huey Ling; Sultan, Sadia; Mohd Faridz, Muhammad Afifi Bin; Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azlan Bin; Nurfazilah, Sharifah; Hussain, Munawar

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids. PMID:25003642

  10. Recent advances in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Copper-catalyzed (or -mediated) asymmetric coupling reactions have received significant attention over the past few years. Especially the coupling reactions of aryl or alkyl halides with nucleophiles became a very powerful tool for the formation of C–C, C–N, C–O and other carbon–heteroatom bonds as well as for the construction of heteroatom-containing ring systems. This review summarizes the recent progress in copper-catalyzed asymmetric coupling reactions for the formation of C–C and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:26734106

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Carbonylative Coupling of Cycloalkanes and Amides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yahui; Dong, Kaiwu; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Zechao; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-13

    Carbonylation reactions are a most powerful method for the synthesis of carbonyl-containing compounds. However, most known carbonylation procedures still require noble-metal catalysts and the use of activated compounds and good nucleophiles as substrates. Herein, we developed a copper-catalyzed carbonylative transformation of cycloalkanes and amides. Imides were prepared in good yields by carbonylation of a C(sp(3) )-H bond of the cycloalkane with the amides acting as weak nucleophiles. Notably, this is the first report of copper-catalyzed carbonylative C-H activation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qinhua

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I 2, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O 2NC 6H 4SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellentmore » yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement with the idea that these

  13. Transition metal catalyzed borylation of functional π-systems

    PubMed Central

    SHINOKUBO, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Borylated functional π-systems are useful building blocks to enable efficient synthesis of novel molecular architectures with beautiful structures, intriguing properties and unique functions. Introduction of boronic ester substituents to a variety of extended π-systems can be achieved through either iridium-catalyzed direct C–H borylation or the two-step procedure via electrophilic halogenation followed by palladium-catalyzed borylation. This review article focuses on our recent progress on borylation of large π-conjugated systems such as porphyrins, perylene bisimides, hexabenzocoronenes and dipyrrins. PMID:24492644

  14. Gold(I)-catalyzed tandem cyclization approach to tetracyclic indolines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxiang; Xu, Wenqing; Wang, Xiang

    2010-04-02

    Two highly stereoselective cationic gold(I)-catalyzed tandem cyclization reactions of alkynylindoles are described. These reactions demonstrated a novel and general strategy to rapidly construct highly functionalized polycyclic indolines. This approach was successfully employed for a formal synthesis of the akuammiline alkaloid minfiensine.

  15. Copper(II)-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of N-aryl imines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Dan; Xu, Hao

    2013-10-07

    Methods for imine trifluoromethylation are of great importance because amines with trifluoromethylated stereogenic centers are useful building blocks for synthetic chemistry and drug discovery. Herein, we describe a new copper(II)-catalyzed imine trifluoromethylation method without the use of Lewis base activators, presumably through cooperative activation.

  16. Synthesis of benzimidazoles via iridium-catalyzed acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang; Lv, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Lin-Miao; Hu, Yu; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Jing; Yan, Ming

    2015-07-21

    Iridium-catalyzed acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of tertiary amines and arylamines has been developed. A number of benzimidazoles were prepared in good yields. An iridium-mediated C-H activation mechanism is suggested. This finding represents a novel strategy for the synthesis of benzimidazoles.

  17. Methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shigekazu

    2012-11-02

    Homoallylic alcohols were efficiently converted to the corresponding 3,4-epoxy alcohols in excellent yields by methyltrioxorhenium (MTO)-catalyzed epoxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant and 3-methylpyrazole (10 mol %) as an additive. The epoxidations of homoallylic alcohols proceeded under organic solvent-free conditions faster than those in dichloromethane.

  18. Rhodium-Catalyzed Boron Arylation of 1,2-Azaborines**

    PubMed Central

    Rudebusch, Gabriel E.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A Sn-phony in B! BN isosteres of biphenyl compounds are prepared through Rh-catalyzed cross-coupling between 2-chloro-1,2-azaborines and arylstannanes (see scheme). The synthetic method should enable investigations of structure–activity relationships (SARs) by expanding the chemical space of the pharmaceutically relevant biphenyl structure through BN/CC isosterism. PMID:23832871

  19. Nickel-Catalyzed Molybdenum-Promoted Carbonylative Synthesis of Benzophenones.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin-Bao; Wu, Fu-Peng; Li, Da; Qi, Xinxin; Ying, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2018-06-01

    A nickel-catalyzed molybdenum-promoted carbonylative coupling reaction for the synthesis of benzophenones from aryl iodides has been developed. Various substituted diaryl ketones were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields under CO-gas-free conditions. A synergetic effect of both nickel and molybdenum has been observed, which is also responsible for the success of this transformation.

  20. Catalyzing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Laboratory Teaching through Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond-Robinson, Janet; Rodriques, Romola A. Bernard

    2006-01-01

    We report on a study of a laboratory teaching apprenticeship program designed to improve graduate teaching assistant (GTA) performance. To catalyze GTAs as laboratory teachers we constructed learning goals, synthesized previous literature into a design model and a developmental path, and built two instruments to measure 12 strategic pedagogical…

  1. Nature's Strategy for Catalyzing Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Hideaki

    2016-04-21

    The enzymes catalyzing a Diels-Alder-type reaction have been attractive targets for organic chemists for years. Recently, Zheng et al. (2016) reported the structure of a formal monofunctional Diels-Alderase PyrI4 complexed with the product and unveiled a detailed catalytic mechanism of a highly important enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Lewis Base Catalyzed Selenocyclization Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Lewis base activation of selenium Lewis acids has been effectively reduced to practice in the Lewis base catalyzed selenofunctionalization of unactivated olefins. In this reaction, the weakly acidic species, "N"-phenylselenyl succinimide, is cooperatively activated by the addition of a "soft" Lewis base donor (phosphine sulfides,…

  3. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Frances Helen; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2010-01-12

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  4. Copper-catalyzed α-amination of aliphatic aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jie-Sheng; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2011-05-21

    A highly efficient copper-catalyzed α-amination of aliphatic aldehydes for the synthesis of α-amino acetals using secondary amines with readily removable protecting groups as a nitrogen source was developed. This reaction can be operated under very mild conditions, affording the desired products in moderate to good yields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Iron-catalyzed electrochemical C-H perfluoroalkylation of arenes.

    PubMed

    Khrizanforov, Mikhail; Strekalova, Sofia; Khrizanforova, Vera; Grinenko, Valeriya; Kholin, Kirill; Kadirov, Marsil; Burganov, Timur; Gubaidullin, Aidar; Gryaznova, Tatyana; Sinyashin, Oleg; Xu, Long; Vicic, David A; Budnikova, Yulia

    2015-12-07

    A new iron-catalyzed reaction for the coupling of perfluoroalkyl iodides (RFI) with aromatic substrates is described. The perfluoroalkylated arene products are obtained in good to excellent yields in the presence of a [(bpy)Fe(ii)] catalyst (10%) electrochemically regenerated or generated from [(bpy)Fe(iii)] at room temperature. The development, scope, and preliminary mechanistic studies of these transformations are reported.

  6. Bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) catalyzed aza-benzoin reaction.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Myron M D; Gravel, Michel

    2014-10-17

    A bis(amino)cyclopropenylidene (BAC) catalyzed aza-benzoin reaction between aldehydes and phosphinoyl imines has been developed. The reaction is general with a wide range of aromatic aldehydes and aromatic imines. The reaction displays excellent chemoselectivity favoring aza-benzoin products over homobenzoin products.

  7. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  8. Metal-Catalyzed Cleavage of tRNA[superscript Phe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This laboratory project is one component of a semester-long advanced biochemistry laboratory course that uses several complementary techniques to study tRNA[superscript Phe] conformational changes induced by ligand binding. In this article we describe a set of experiments in which students assay metal-catalyzed hydrolysis of tRNA[superscript Phe]…

  9. Photoinduced, copper-catalyzed alkylation of amides with unactivated secondary alkyl halides at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Do, Hien-Quang; Bachman, Shoshana; Bissember, Alex C; Peters, Jonas C; Fu, Gregory C

    2014-02-05

    The development of a mild and general method for the alkylation of amides with relatively unreactive alkyl halides (i.e., poor substrates for SN2 reactions) is an ongoing challenge in organic synthesis. We describe herein a versatile transition-metal-catalyzed approach: in particular, a photoinduced, copper-catalyzed monoalkylation of primary amides. A broad array of alkyl and aryl amides (as well as a lactam and a 2-oxazolidinone) couple with unactivated secondary (and hindered primary) alkyl bromides and iodides using a single set of comparatively simple and mild conditions: inexpensive CuI as the catalyst, no separate added ligand, and C-N bond formation at room temperature. The method is compatible with a variety of functional groups, such as an olefin, a carbamate, a thiophene, and a pyridine, and it has been applied to the synthesis of an opioid receptor antagonist. A range of mechanistic observations, including reactivity and stereochemical studies, are consistent with a coupling pathway that includes photoexcitation of a copper-amidate complex, followed by electron transfer to form an alkyl radical.

  10. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  11. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade C—H Functionalization of Phenylacetophenones**

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav P; García-López, José-Antonio; Greaney, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Three orthogonal cascade C—H functionalization processes are described, based on ruthenium-catalyzed C—H alkenylation. 1-Indanones, indeno indenes, and indeno furanones were accessed through cascade pathways by using arylacetophenones as substrates under conditions of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2] and stoichiometric Cu(OAc)2. Each transformation uses C—H functionalization methods to form C—C bonds sequentially, with the indeno furanone synthesis featuring a C—O bond formation as the terminating step. This work demonstrates the power of ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation as a platform reaction to develop more complex transformations, with multiple C—H functionalization steps taking place in a single operation to access novel carbocyclic structures. PMID:24453063

  12. Copper-Catalyzed Alkoxycarbonylation of Alkanes with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Yahui; Wang, Changsheng; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Zechao; Dixneuf, Pierre H; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2017-04-10

    Esters are important chemicals widely used in various areas, and alkoxycarbonylation represents one of the most powerful tools for their synthesis. In this communication, a new copper-catalyzed carbonylative procedure for the synthesis of aliphatic esters from cycloalkanes and alcohols was developed. Through direct activation of the Csp3 -H bond of alkanes and with alcohols as the nucleophiles, the desired esters were prepared in moderate-to-good yields. Paraformaldehyde could also be applied for in situ alcohol generation by radical trapping, and moderate yields of the corresponding esters could be produced. Notably, this is the first report on copper-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of alkanes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Copper-catalyzed radical carbooxygenation: alkylation and alkoxylation of styrenes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhixiong; Yi, Hong; Li, Zheng; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Deng, Zixin; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    A simple copper-catalyzed direct radical carbooxygenation of styrenes is developed utilizing alkyl bromides as radical resources. This catalytic radical difunctionalization accomplishes both alkylation and alkoxylation of styrenes in one pot. A broad range of styrenes and alcohols are well tolerated in this transformation. The EPR experiment shows that alkyl halides could oxidize Cu(I) to Cu(II) in this transformation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Trifluoroethylarenes from Benzylic Bromodifluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Zhu, Lingui; Altman, Ryan A

    2015-08-21

    Trifluoroethylarenes are found in a variety of biologically active molecules, and strategies for accessing this substructure are important for developing therapeutic candidates and biological probes. Trifluoroethylarenes can be directly accessed via nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of benzylic electrophiles; however, current catalytic methods do not effectively transform electron-deficient substrates and heterocycles. To address this gap, we report a Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of benzylic bromodifluoroacetates. To account for the tolerance of sensitive functional groups, we propose an inner-sphere mechanism of decarboxylation.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed cocyclotrimerization of arynes with a pyramidalized alkene.

    PubMed

    Alonso, José M; Quiroga, Sabela; Codony, Sandra; Turcu, Andreea L; Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Pérez, Dolores; Guitián, Enrique; Vázquez, Santiago; Peña, Diego

    2018-05-23

    The metal-catalyzed [2+2+2] cocycloaddition of arynes with pyramidalized alkenes is presented. The generation of a highly reactive pyramidalized alkene in the presence of a large excess of in situ-produced arynes led to the corresponding cocyclotrimerization (1 : 2)-adducts in good yields, establishing the first example of a palladium-based reaction of a pyramidalized alkene.

  16. Synthesis of Graphite Encapsulated Metal Nanoparticles and Metal Catalyzed Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWal, R. L.; Dravid, V. P.

    1999-01-01

    This work focuses on the growth and inception of graphite encapsulated metal nanoparticles and metal catalyzed nanotubes using combustion chemistry. Deciphering the inception and growth mechanism(s) for these unique nanostructures is essential for purposeful synthesis. Detailed knowledge of these mechanism(s) may yield insights into alternative synthesis pathways or provide data on unfavorable conditions. Production of these materials is highly desirable given many promising technological applications.

  17. Rhodium(II)-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of troponoids.

    PubMed

    Murarka, Sandip; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Merten, Christian; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Antonchick, Andrey P; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-06-22

    We report a rhodium(II)-catalyzed highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the carbonyl moiety of tropone and carbonyl ylides to afford troponoids in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivity. We demonstrate that α-diazoketone-derived carbonyl ylides, in contrast to carbonyl ylides derived from diazodiketoesters, undergo [6+3] cycloaddition reactions with tropone to yield the corresponding bridged heterocycles with excellent stereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Biaryl Phosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has undergone rapid development in the last 12 years. This has been largely driven by implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphines have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This review discusses the applications that these catalysts have found in C-N cross-coupling in heterocycle synthesis, pharmaceuticals, materials science and natural product synthesis. PMID:18663711

  19. Identification of the enzymes catalyzing metabolism of methoxyflurane.

    PubMed

    Waskell, L; Canova-Davis, E; Philpot, R; Parandoush, Z; Chiang, J Y

    1986-01-01

    The hepatic microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane in rabbits is markedly stimulated by treatment with phenobarbital. However, the increased rate of metabolism cannot be completely accounted for by the activity of the purified phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme 2, even in the presence of cytochrome b5. The discovery of a second hepatic phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450, isozyme 5, led us to undertake experiments to determine in hepatic and pulmonary preparations the portion of microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 isozymes 2 and 5. We report herein that isozyme 2 accounts for 25% and 29%, respectively, of the O-demethylation of methoxyflurane in hepatic microsomes from untreated and phenobarbital-treated rabbits, and for 25% of the methoxyflurane metabolism in pulmonary microsomes. Results for isozyme 5 indicate that it catalyzes 19% and 27% of methoxyflurane metabolism in control and phenobarbital-induced liver, and 47% of O-demethylation in the lung. In summary, we demonstrate that methoxyflurane O-demethylation in lung, phenobarbital-induced liver, and control liver microsomes is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 isozymes 2 and 5. Results with purified cytochrome P-450 isozyme 5 are consistent with those obtained using microsomal preparations. Furthermore, metabolism of methoxyflurane by purified isozyme 5 is markedly stimulated by cytochrome b5. A role for cytochrome b5 in cytochrome P-450 isozyme 5-catalyzed metabolism of methoxyflurane was also demonstrated in microsomes. Antibody to isozyme 5 was unable to inhibit methoxyflurane metabolism in the presence of maximally inhibiting concentrations of cytochrome b5 antibody.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Protection of Wood from Microorganisms by Laccase-Catalyzed Iodination

    PubMed Central

    Engel, J.; Thöny-Meyer, L.; Schwarze, F. W. M. R.; Ihssen, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I−) to iodine (I2) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection. PMID:22865075

  1. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis onmore » methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.« less

  2. Asymmetric Stetter reactions catalyzed by thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, Elena; Richter, Michael; Dresen, Carola; Walter, Lydia S; Fuchs, Georg; Leeper, Finian J; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kolter, Geraldine; Pohl, Martina; Müller, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The intermolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction is an almost unexplored transformation for biocatalysts. Previously reported thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent PigD from Serratia marcescens is the first enzyme identified to catalyze the Stetter reaction of α,β-unsaturated ketones (Michael acceptor substrates) and α-keto acids. PigD is involved in the biosynthesis of the potent cytotoxic agent prodigiosin. Here, we describe the investigation of two new ThDP-dependent enzymes, SeAAS from Saccharopolyspora erythraea and HapD from Hahella chejuensis. Both show a high degree of homology to the amino acid sequence of PigD (39 and 51 %, respectively). The new enzymes were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli, and the yield of soluble protein was enhanced by co-expression of the chaperone genes groEL/ES. SeAAS and HapD catalyze intermolecular Stetter reactions in vitro with high enantioselectivity. The enzymes possess a characteristic substrate range with respect to Michael acceptor substrates. This provides support for a new type of ThDP-dependent enzymatic activity, which is abundant in various species and not restricted to prodigiosin biosynthesis in different strains. Moreover, PigD, SeAAS, and HapD are also able to catalyze asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation reactions of aldehydes and α-keto acids, resulting in 2-hydroxy ketones.

  3. Asymmetric Additions to Dienes Catalyzed by a Dithiophosphoric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Nathan D.; Rauniyar, Vivek; Hamilton, Gregory L.; Wu, Jeffrey; Toste, F. Dean

    2011-01-01

    Chiral Brønsted acids have become an invaluable tool for achieving a variety of asymmetric chemical transformations under catalytic conditions while avoiding the use of toxic and expensive metals1–8. While the catalysts developed so far are remarkably effective at activating polarized functional groups, chemists have not yet been able to use organic Brønsted acids to catalyze highly enantioselective transformations of unactivated carbon-carbon multiple bonds. This deficiency persists despite the fact that racemic acid-catalyzed “Markovnikov” additions to olefins are a well-established part of the chemist’s toolbox. Here we show that chiral dithiophosphoric acids catalyze the intramolecular hydroamination and hydroarylation of dienes and allenes to generate heterocyclic products in exceptional yield and enantiomeric excess. To help rationalize the unique success of this catalytic system, we present a mechanistic hypothesis that involves the addition of the acid catalyst to the diene followed by SN2′ displacement of the resulting dithiophosphate intermediate. Mass spectrometry and deuterium labelling studies are presented in support of the proposed mechanism. The catalysts and concepts revealed in this study should prove applicable to other asymmetric functionalizations of unsaturated systems. PMID:21307938

  4. Susceptibility of Goethite to Fe2+-Catalyzed Recrystallization over Time.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prachi; Fantle, Matthew S; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Gorski, Christopher A

    2017-10-17

    Recent work has shown that iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite, may recrystallize in the presence of aqueous Fe 2+ under anoxic conditions. This process, referred to as Fe 2+ -catalyzed recrystallization, can influence water quality by causing the incorporation/release of environmental contaminants and biological nutrients. Accounting for the effects of Fe 2+ -catalyzed recrystallization on water quality requires knowing the time scale over which recrystallization occurs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticulate goethite becomes less susceptible to Fe 2+ -catalyzed recrystallization over time. We set up two batches of reactors in which 55 Fe 2+ tracer was added at two different time points and tracked the 55 Fe partitioning in the aqueous and goethite phases over 60 days. Less 55 Fe uptake occurred between 30 and 60 days than between 0 and 30 days, suggesting goethite recrystallization slowed with time. Fitting the data with a box model indicated that 17% of the goethite recrystallized after 30 days of reaction, and an additional 2% recrystallized between 30 and 60 days. The decreasing susceptibility of goethite to recrystallize as it reacted with aqueous Fe 2+ suggested that recrystallization is likely only an important process over short time scales.

  5. Anisotropic Morphological Changes in Goethite during Fe(2+)-Catalyzed Recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prachi; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-07-19

    When goethite is exposed to aqueous Fe(2+), rapid and extensive Fe atom exchange can occur between solid-phase Fe(3+) and aqueous Fe(2+) in a process referred to as Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. This process can lead to the structural incorporation or release of trace elements, which has important implications for contaminant remediation and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Prior work found that the process did not cause major changes to the goethite structure or morphology. Here, we further investigated if and how goethite morphology and aggregation behavior changed temporally during Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization. On the basis of existing literature, we hypothesized that Fe(2+)-catalyzed recrystallization of goethite would not result in changes to individual particle morphology or interparticle interactions. To test this, we reacted nanoparticulate goethite with aqueous Fe(2+) at pH 7.5 over 30 days and used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM, and (55)Fe as an isotope tracer to observe changes in particle dimensions, aggregation, and isotopic composition over time. Over the course of 30 days, the goethite particles substantially recrystallized, and the particle dimensions changed anisotropically, resulting in a preferential increase in the mean particle width. The temporal changes in goethite morphology could not be completely explained by a single mineral-transformation mechanism but rather indicated that multiple transformation mechanisms occurred concurrently. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the morphology of goethite nanoparticles does change during recrystallization, which is an important step toward identifying the driving force(s) of recrystallization.

  6. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  7. Ammonia and hydrazine. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydroamination and metal-free catalyzed functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy

    2012-06-29

    this issue, we have developed several new families of carbon- and boron-based ligands, which are even better donors. The corresponding metal complexes (particularly gold, rhodium, iridium, and ruthenium) of all these species will be tested in the Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov hydroamination of alkynes, allenes, and also alkenes with ammonia and hydrazine. We will also develop metal-free catalytic processes for the functionalization of ammonia and hydrazine. By possessing both a lone pair of electrons and an accessible vacant orbital, singlet carbenes resemble and can mimic the chemical behavior of transition metals. Our preliminary results demonstrate that specially designed carbenes can split the N–H bond of ammonia by an initial nucleophilic activation that prevents the formation of Lewis acid-base adducts, which is the major hurdle for the transition metal catalyzed functionalization of NH 3. The use of purely organic compounds as catalysts will eliminate the major drawbacks of transition-metal-catalysis technology, which are the excessive cost of metal complexes (metal + ligands) and in many cases the toxicity of the metal.« less

  8. Energy harvesting by implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzenmacher, S.; Ducrée, J.; Zengerle, R.; von Stetten, F.

    Implantable glucose fuel cells are a promising approach to realize an autonomous energy supply for medical implants that solely relies on the electrochemical reaction of oxygen and glucose. Key advantage over conventional batteries is the abundant availability of both reactants in body fluids, rendering the need for regular replacement or external recharging mechanisms obsolete. Implantable glucose fuel cells, based on abiotic catalysts such as noble metals and activated carbon, have already been developed as power supply for cardiac pacemakers in the late-1960s. Whereas, in vitro and preliminary in vivo studies demonstrated their long-term stability, the performance of these fuel cells is limited to the μW-range. Consequently, no further developments have been reported since high-capacity lithium iodine batteries for cardiac pacemakers became available in the mid-1970s. In recent years research has been focused on enzymatically catalyzed glucose fuel cells. They offer higher power densities than their abiotically catalyzed counterparts, but the limited enzyme stability impedes long-term application. In this context, the trend towards increasingly energy-efficient low power MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) implants has revived the interest in abiotic catalysts as a long-term stable alternative. This review covers the state-of-the-art in implantable abiotically catalyzed glucose fuel cells and their development since the 1960s. Different embodiment concepts are presented and the historical achievements of academic and industrial research groups are critically reviewed. Special regard is given to the applicability of the concept as sustainable micro-power generator for implantable devices.

  9. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems.

  10. A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Moon, Hong S

    2012-01-01

    Known SABATH methyltransferases, all of which were identified from seed plants, catalyze methylation of either the carboxyl group of a variety of low molecular weight metabolites or the nitrogen moiety of precursors of caffeine. In this study, the SABATH family from the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens was identified and characterized. Four SABATH-like sequences (PpSABATH1, PpSABATH2, PpSABATH3, and PpSABATH4) were identified from the P. patens genome. Only PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 showed expression in the leafy gametophyte of P. patens. Full-length cDNAs of PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were cloned and expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. Recombinant PpSABATH1 and PpSABATH2 were tested formore » methyltransferase activity with a total of 75 compounds. While showing no activity with carboxylic acids or nitrogen-containing compounds, PpSABATH1 displayed methyltransferase activity with a number of thiols. PpSABATH2 did not show activity with any of the compounds tested. Among the thiols analyzed, PpSABATH1 showed the highest level of activity with thiobenzoic acid with an apparent Km value of 95.5 lM, which is comparable to those of known SABATHs. Using thiobenzoic acid as substrate, GC MS analysis indicated that the methylation catalyzed by PpSABATH1 is on the sulfur atom. The mechanism for S-methylation of thiols catalyzed by PpSABATH1 was partially revealed by homology-based structural modeling. The expression of PpSABATH1 was induced by the treatment of thiobenzoic acid. Further transgenic studies showed that tobacco plants overexpressing PpSABATH1 exhibited enhanced tolerance to thiobenzoic acid, suggesting that PpSABATH1 have a role in the detoxification of xenobiotic thiols.« less

  11. Fe(II)/Fe(III)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Didehydro-Diels-Alder Reaction of Styrene-ynes.

    PubMed

    Mun, Hyeon Jin; Seong, Eun Young; Ahn, Kwang-Hyun; Kang, Eun Joo

    2018-02-02

    The intramolecular didehydro-Diels-Alder reaction of styrene-ynes was catalyzed by Fe(II) and Fe(III) to produce various naphthalene derivatives under microwave heating conditions. Mechanistic calculations found that the Fe(II) catalyst activates the styrenyl diene in an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction, and the consecutive dehydrogenation reaction can be promoted by either Fe(II)-catalyzed direct dehydrogenation or an Fe(III)-catalyzed rearomatization/dehydrogenation pathway.

  12. Iron-catalyzed intermolecular cycloaddition of diazo surrogates with hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Zhu, Chenghao; Xu, Guangyang; Sun, Jiangtao

    2017-09-26

    We report here an unprecedented iron-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction of diazo surrogates with hexahydro-1,3,5-triazines, providing five-membered heterocycles in moderate to high yields under mild reaction conditions. This cycloaddition features C-N and C-C bond formation using a cheap iron catalyst. Importantly, different to our former report on a gold-catalyzed system, both donor/donor and donor/acceptor diazo substrates are tolerated in this iron-catalyzed protocol.

  13. Copper-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of allylic bromodifluoroacetates.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Altman, Ryan A

    2013-11-01

    The development of new synthetic fluorination reactions has important implications in medicinal, agricultural, and materials chemistries. Given the prevalence and accessibility of alcohols, methods to convert alcohols to trifluoromethanes are desirable. However, this transformation typically requires four-step processes, specialty chemicals, and/or stoichiometric metals to access the trifluoromethyl-containing product. A two-step copper-catalyzed decarboxylative protocol for converting allylic alcohols to trifluoromethanes is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies distinguish this reaction from previously reported Cu-mediated reactions.

  14. Can Chlorine Anion Catalyze the Reaction fo HOCl with HCl?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, S. L.; Francisco, J. S.; Mebel, A. M.; Morokuma, K.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of HOCl + HCl -> Cl2 + H20 in the presence of Cl has been studied using ab initio methods. This reaction has been shown to have a high activation barrier of 46.5 kcal/mol. The chlorine anion, Cl- is found to catalyze the reaction, viz. two mechanisms. The first involves Cl- interacting through the concerted four-center transition state of the neutral reaction. The other mechanism involves the formation of a HCl-HOCl-Cl- intermediate which dissociates into Cl2 + Cl- + H20. The steps are found to have no barriers. The overall exothermicity is 15.5 kcal/mol.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Borylation of Primary Alkyl Bromides

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Pangu, Amruta; Ma, Xinghua; Diane, Mohamed; Iqbal, Sidra; Kribs, Robert J.; Huang, Richard; Wang, Chao-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A mild Pd-catalyzed process for the borylation of alkyl bromides has been developed using bis(pinacolato)diboron as a boron source. This process accommodates the use of a wide range of functional groups on the alkyl bromide substrate. Primary bromides react with complete selectivity in the presence of a secondary bromide. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by its extension to the use of alkyl iodides and alkyl tosylates, as well as borylation reactions employing bis(neopentyl glycolato)diboron as the boron source. PMID:22774861

  16. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation of Indole with Propargyl Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Julia; Jäckel, Elisabeth; Haak, Edgar

    2018-05-14

    Cascade transformations forming multiple bonds and one-pot procedures provide rapid access to natural-product-like scaffolds from simple precursors. These atom-economic processes are valuable tools in organic synthesis and drug discovery. Herein, we report on ruthenium-catalyzed cascade annulations of indole with readily available propargyl alcohols. These provide rapid access to diverse carbazoles, cyclohepta[b]indoles, and further fused polycycles with high selectivity. A bifunctional ruthenium complex featuring a redox-coupled cyclopentadienone ligand acts as a common catalyst for the different cascade processes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Complex Biotransformations Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wen

    2011-01-01

    The radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) superfamily currently comprises thousands of proteins that participate in numerous biochemical processes across all kingdoms of life. These proteins share a common mechanism to generate a powerful 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates a highly diverse array of biotransformations. Recent studies are beginning to reveal the role of radical AdoMet proteins in the catalysis of highly complex and chemically unusual transformations, e.g. the ThiC-catalyzed complex rearrangement reaction. The unique features and intriguing chemistries of these proteins thus demonstrate the remarkable versatility and sophistication of radical enzymology. PMID:21771780

  18. Reactivity of bromoselenophenes in palladium-catalyzed direct arylations.

    PubMed

    Skhiri, Aymen; Ben Salem, Ridha; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of 2-bromo- and 2,5-dibromoselenophenes in Pd-catalyzed direct heteroarylation was investigated. From 2-bromoselenophene, only the most reactive heteroarenes could be employed to prepare 2-heteroarylated selenophenes; whereas, 2,5-dibromoselenophene generally gave 2,5-di(heteroarylated) selenophenes in high yields using both thiazole and thiophene derivatives. Moreover, sequential catalytic C2 heteroarylation, bromination, catalytic C5 arylation reactions allowed the synthesis of unsymmetrical 2,5-di(hetero)arylated selenophene derivatives in three steps from selenophene.

  19. Sonochemical enzyme-catalyzed regioselective acylation of flavonoid glycosides.

    PubMed

    Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-04-01

    This work compares a highly efficient and alternative method of sonication-assisted lipase catalyzed acylation of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and phloretin-2'-glucoside, using Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozyme 435(®)), with a range of fatty acids. In this study, sonication-assisted irradiation coupled with stirring has been found to be more efficient and economical than conventional reaction conditions. Sonication-assisted acylation accelerated the reactions and reduced the time required by 4-5 folds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Iridium-Catalyzed Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of Racemic Allylic Benzoates

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Levi M.; Bai, Chen; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Versatile methods for iridium-catalyzed, kinetic asymmetric substitution of racemic, branched allylic esters are reported. These reactions occur with a variety of aliphatic, aryl, and heteroaryl allylic benzoates to form the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields (74–96%) with good to excellent enantioselectivity (84–98% ee) with a scope that encompasses a range of anionic carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles. These kinetic asymmetric processes occur with distinct stereochemical courses for racemic aliphatic and aromatic allylic benzoates, and the high reactivity of branched allylic benzoates enables enantioselective allylic substitutions that are slow or poorly selective with linear allylic electrophiles. PMID:20552969

  1. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Alkylation Using Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhe; Ren, Zhi; Thompson, Samuel J; Xu, Yan; Dong, Guangbin

    2017-07-12

    Alkylation reactions represent an important organic transformation to form C-C bonds. In addition to conventional approaches with alkyl halides or sulfonates as alkylating agents, the use of unactivated olefins for alkylations has become attractive from both cost and sustainability viewpoints. This Review summarizes transition-metal-catalyzed alkylations of various carbon-hydrogen bonds (addition of C-H bonds across olefins) using regular olefins or 1,3-dienes up to May 2016. According to the mode of activation, the Review is divided into two sections: alkylation via C-H activation and alkylation via olefin activation.

  2. Muon-catalyzed D-T fusion at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunlich, W. H.; Cargnelli, M.; Kammel, P.; Marton, J.; Naegele, N.; Pawlek, P.; Scrinzi, A.; Werner, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Bistirlich, J.; Crowe, K. M.; Justice, M.; Kurck, J.; Petitjean, C.; Sherman, R. H.; Bossy, H.; Daniel, H.; Hartmann, F. J.; Neumann, W.; Schmidt, G.

    1987-01-01

    Muon-catalyzed deuterium-tritium fusion was investigated within a wide range of mixtures in liquid and gas (23-35 K) by detection of fusion neutrons. Our improved analysis includes hyperfine effects and allows a clear separation of intrinsic dt sticking ωs from kinetic effects. Strongly density-dependent cycle rates with values up to 1.45×108 s-1, yields of 113 fusions per muon, and ωs=(0.45+/-0.05)% are found. In comparison with previous experiments we confirm that ωs in liquid is lower than theoretically predicted, but do not find a strong dependence on either ct or density.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Muon-Catalyzed d-t Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.; Anderson, A. N.; Caffrey, A. J.; Walter, J. B.; Watts, K. D.; Bradbury, J. N.; Gram, P. A. M.; Leon, M.; Maltrud, H. R.; Paciotti, M. A.

    1983-11-01

    Measurements of the absolute neutron yield and the time dependence of the appearance of neutrons resulting from muon-catalyzed fusion have been carried out in high-density deuterium-tritium mixtures. The temperature dependence of the resonant dtμ-molecular formation process has been determined in the range 100 to 540 K. Mesomolecular formation is found to be resonant for DT as well as D2 target molecules. The sticking probability and other fundamental parameters have been measured for the first time.

  4. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric aqueous Pauson-Khand-type reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Fuk Yee; Li, Yue Ming; Lam, Wai Har; Qiu, Liqin; Lee, Hang Wai; Yeung, Chi Hung; Chan, Kin Shing; Chan, Albert S C

    2005-06-20

    An interesting rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric aqueous Pauson-Khand-type reaction was developed. A chiral atropisomeric dipyridyldiphosphane ligand was found to be highly effective in this system. This operationally simple protocol allows both catalyst and reactants to be handled under air without precautions. Various enynes were transformed to the corresponding bicyclic cyclopentenones in good yield and enantiomeric excess (up to 95 % ee). A study of the electronic effects of the enyne substrates revealed a correlation between the electronic properties of the substrates and the ee value obtained in the product of the Pauson-Khand-type reaction. A linear free-energy relationship was observed from a Hammett study.

  5. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Carboetherification of Unactivated Alkenes**

    PubMed Central

    Bovino, Michael T.; Liwosz, Timothy W.; Kendel, Nicole E.; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein is reported a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols that terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. PMID:24798697

  6. Electrochemical Cobalt-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Sauermann, Nicolas; Meyer, Tjark H; Ackermann, Lutz

    2018-06-19

    Carbon-heteroatom bonds represent omnipresent structural motifs of the vast majority of functionalized materials and bioactive compounds. C-H activation has emerged as arguably the most efficient strategy to construct C-Het bonds. Despite of major advances, these C-H transformations were largely dominated by precious transition metal catalysts, in combination with stoichiometric, toxic metal oxidants. Herein, we discuss the recent evolution of cobalt-catalyzed C-H activations that enable C-Het formations with electricity as the sole sustainable oxidant until May 2018. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Electrolyte for Electrochemical Polyaniline Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, A. I.; Im, Hyunsik; Jung, Woong; Kim, Hyungsang; Kim, Byungchul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Sang; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2013-05-01

    The effect of different wt.% of ionic liquid "1,6-bis (trimethylammonium-1-yl) hexane tetrafluoroborate" in 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte on the supercapacitor properties of polyaniline (PANI) thin film are investigated. The PANI film is synthesized using electropolymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfuric acid. The electrochemical properties of the PANI thin film are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The optimum amount of the ionic liquid is found to be 2 wt.% which provides better ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The highest specific capacitance of 259 F/g is obtained using the 2 wt.% electrolyte. This capacitance remains at up to 208 F/g (80% capacity retention) after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA/g. The PANI film in the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed 0.5 M LiClO4+PC electrolyte shows small electrochemical resistance, better rate performance and higher cyclability. The increased ionic conductivity of the 2 wt.% ionic liquid catalyzed electrolyte causes a reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which can be useful in electrochemically-preferred power devices for better applicability.

  8. Stochastic simulation of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with disparate timescales.

    PubMed

    Barik, Debashis; Paul, Mark R; Baumann, William T; Cao, Yang; Tyson, John J

    2008-10-01

    Many physiological characteristics of living cells are regulated by protein interaction networks. Because the total numbers of these protein species can be small, molecular noise can have significant effects on the dynamical properties of a regulatory network. Computing these stochastic effects is made difficult by the large timescale separations typical of protein interactions (e.g., complex formation may occur in fractions of a second, whereas catalytic conversions may take minutes). Exact stochastic simulation may be very inefficient under these circumstances, and methods for speeding up the simulation without sacrificing accuracy have been widely studied. We show that the "total quasi-steady-state approximation" for enzyme-catalyzed reactions provides a useful framework for efficient and accurate stochastic simulations. The method is applied to three examples: a simple enzyme-catalyzed reaction where enzyme and substrate have comparable abundances, a Goldbeter-Koshland switch, where a kinase and phosphatase regulate the phosphorylation state of a common substrate, and coupled Goldbeter-Koshland switches that exhibit bistability. Simulations based on the total quasi-steady-state approximation accurately capture the steady-state probability distributions of all components of these reaction networks. In many respects, the approximation also faithfully reproduces time-dependent aspects of the fluctuations. The method is accurate even under conditions of poor timescale separation.

  9. Titanium-Catalyzed Silicon Nanostructures Grown by APCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammad A. U.; Smith, Brady J.; Jackson, Justin B.; De Long, Matthew C.; Miller, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on growth of Ti-catalyzed silicon nanostructures (SNCs) through atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. An extensive growth study relating the growth condition parameters, including the partial pressure of SiCl4 gas, reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out to obtain insight into the growth regimes for the observed SNCs. Based on phase diagram analysis of Ti-Si alloy and growth rate analysis of the silicon nanowires (SNWs) and silicon nanoplatelets, we believe the growth mechanism to be strongly dependent on the thermodynamics of the system, exhibiting a delicate balance that can easily tip between the growth and etching regimes of the system. Three types of SNCs were observed frequently throughout the study: nanowires, nanoplatelets, and balls. Regimes for highly etched growth were also noted through growth conditions plots. Ti-catalyzed SNWs grown using SiCl4 gas strongly suggest growth occurring through a type of vapor-solid-solid (VSS) mechanism that is limited by diffusion through the solid-catalyst interface. On the other hand, the two-dimensional SNP morphologies suggest growth occurring through the twin-plane mechanism at the edges, at 10 nm to 100 nm scales, also through a similar, VSS mechanism.

  10. Silica metal-oxide vesicles catalyze comprehensive prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Bruno Mattia; Botta, Lorenzo; Pérez-Valverde, Maritza Iveth; Saladino, Raffaele; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2018-03-30

    It has recently been demonstrated that mineral self-assembled structures catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions may form in natural waters derived from serpentinization, a geological process widespread in the early stages of Earth-like planets. We have synthesized self-assembled membranes by mixing microdrops of metal solutions with alkaline silicate solutions in the presence of formamide (NH2CHO), a single carbon molecule, at 80ºC. We found that these bilayer membranes, made of amorphous silica and metal oxide-hydroxide nanocrystals, catalyze the condensation of formamide, yielding the four nucleobases of RNA, three aminoacids and several carboxylic acids in a single pot experiment. Besides manganese, iron and magnesium, two abundant elements in the earliest Earth crust that are key in serpentinization reactions, are enough to produce all these biochemical compounds. These results suggest that the transition from inorganic geochemistry to prebiotic organic chemistry is common on a universal scale and, most probably, earlier than ever thought for our planet. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Porous silicon formation during Au-catalyzed etching

    SciTech Connect

    Algasinger, Michael; Bernt, Maximilian; Koynov, Svetoslav

    2014-04-28

    The formation of “black” nano-textured Si during the Au-catalyzed wet-chemical etch process was investigated with respect to photovoltaic applications. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images recorded at different stages of the etch process exhibit an evolution of a two-layer structure, consisting of cone-like Si hillocks covered with a nano-porous Si (np-Si) layer. Optical measurements confirm the presence of a np-Si phase which appears after the first ∼10 s of the etch process and continuously increases with the etch time. Furthermore, the etch process was investigated on Si substrates with different doping levels (∼0.01–100 Ω cm). SEM images show a transition frommore » the two-layer morphology to a structure consisting entirely of np-Si for higher doping levels (<0.1 Ω cm). The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model of a local electrochemical etch process. A better understanding of the metal-catalyzed etch process facilitates the fabrication of “black” Si on various Si substrates, which is of significant interest for photovoltaic applications.« less

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor modulates esterase-catalyzed degradation of resin-dentin interfaces.

    PubMed

    Serkies, Kyle B; Garcha, Reena; Tam, Laura E; De Souza, Grace M; Finer, Yoav

    2016-12-01

    Assess the modulating effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition on simulated human salivary enzyme (SHSE)-catalyzed degradation of interfacial fracture-toughness (FT) of self-etched and total-etched resin-dentin interfaces. Miniature short-rod FT specimens (N=10/group) containing a resin composite bonded to human dentin, using a self-etch (Easy Bond, EB) or a total-etch (Scotchbond, SB) adhesives, were prepared with and without application of an MMP inhibitor (galardin). Specimens were non-incubated or incubated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or SHSE for 7, 30, 90, or 180-days. FT data were obtained using a universal testing machine. Incubation media were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the presence of a 2,2-bis-[4-2(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bisGMA)-derived degradation product, bis-hydroxy-propoxy-phenyl-propane (bisHPPP). Fractographic analysis was performed by scanning electron microscopy and image processing software (ImageJ). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey's (p<0.05). More bisHPPP was detected in SHSE vs. PBS for both adhesive systems (p<0.05). EB specimens yielded no difference in FT and failed preferentially in the resin after >30-days (p<0.05). SB specimens yielded lower FT values after 180-days with SHSE ±galardin vs. 0-days/no-galardin (p<0.05) and failed preferentially in the hybrid-layer after >30-days (p<0.05). Galardin mildly modulated the change in fracture mode for both systems. Esterase-catalyzed degradation of total-etch interfaces is modulated by MMP-inhibition, however, self-etch interfaces possess greater biostability under simulated intra-oral conditions, regardless of MMP inhibition. This could be related to different chemical compositions and/or mode of adhesion. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytochromes P450 Catalyze the Reduction of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J.; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jan; Conklin, Daniel J.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O2, and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 & rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions, but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in liver. PMID:21766881

  14. Candida rugosa lipase LIP1-catalyzed transesterification to produce human milk fat substitute.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anita; Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2006-07-12

    Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic and oleic acids were synthesized by transesterification of tripalmitin with either oleic acid or methyl oleate as acyl donor. This SL with palmitic acid at the sn-2 position and oleic acid at sn-1,3 positions is similar in structure to human milk fat triacylglycerol. LIP1, an isoform of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), was used as biocatalyst. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, and time on incorporation of oleic acid were investigated. Reaction time and temperature were set at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 35, 45, and 55 degrees C, respectively. Substrate molar ratio was varied from 1:1 to 1:4. The highest incorporation of oleic acid (37.7%) was at 45 degrees C with methyl oleate as acyl donor. Oleic acid resulted in slightly lesser (26.3%) incorporation. Generally, higher percentage incorporation of oleic acid was observed with methyl oleate (transesterification) than with oleic acid (acidolysis). In both cases percentage incorporation increased with reaction time. Incorporation decreased with increase in temperature above 45 degrees C. Initially, oleic acid incorporation increased with increase in substrate molar ratio up to 1:3. LIP1 was also compared with Lipozyme RM IM as biocatalysts. The tested reaction parameters were selected on the basis of maximum incorporation of C18:1 obtained during optimization of LIP1 reaction conditions. Reaction temperature was maintained at 45, 55, and 65 degrees C. Lipozyme RM IM gave highest oleic acid incorporation (49.4%) at 65 degrees C with methyl oleate as acyl donor. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed for both enzymes. SL prepared using Lipozyme RM IM may be more suitable for possible use in human milk fat substitutes.

  15. A comparative study of ozonation, iron coated zeolite catalyzed ozonation and granular activated carbon catalyzed ozonation of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Dilek; Akbal, Feryal

    2017-05-01

    This study compares ozonation (O 3 ), iron coated zeolite catalyzed ozonation (ICZ-O 3 ) and granular activated carbon catalyzed ozonation (GAC-O 3 ) for removal of humic acid from an aqueous solution. The results were evaluated by the removal of DOC that specifies organic matter, UV 254 absorbance, SUVA (Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm) and absorbance at 436 nm. When ozonation was used alone, DOC removal was 21.4% at an ozone concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 6.50 and oxidation time of 60 min. The results showed that the use of ICZ or GAC as a catalyst increased the decomposition of humic acid compared to ozonation alone. DOC removal efficiencies were 62% and 48.1% at pH 6.5, at a catalyst loading of 0.75 g/L, and oxidation time of 60 min for ICZ and GAC, respectively. The oxidation experiments were also carried out using <100 kDa and <50 kDa molecular size fractions of humic acid in the presence of ICZ or GAC. Catalytic ozonation also yielded better DOC and UV 254 reduction in both <50 kDa and <100 kDa fractions of HA compared to ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ROLE OF COPPER,ZINC-SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN CATALYZING NITROTYROSINE FORMATION IN MURINE LIVER

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solely known function of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is to catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide. Our objective was to determine if SOD1 catalyzed murine liver protein nitration induced by acetaminophen (APAP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver and plasma ...

  17. Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Miyakawa, S.; Huang, W.; Joshi, P.

    2005-12-01

    It is proposed that catalysis had a central role in the origins of life. This will be illustrated using the montmorillonite clay-catalyzed synthesis of oligomers of RNA from activated monomers, (Ferris and Ertem, 1993) a possible step in the origin of the RNA world (Ferris, 2005). Structural analysis of oligomers formed in the reaction of the activated monomer of 5'-AMP with that of 5'-CMP demonstrated that the oligomers formed were not produced by random synthesis but rather the sequences observed were directed by the montmorillonite catalyst (Miyakawa and Ferris, 2003). RNA oligomers containing up to 40 mers have been synthesized in reactions performed in water at 25 oC in the presence of montmorillonite (Huang and Ferris, 2003). Analysis of the structure elements in these oligomers from the 7 to 39 mers showed that they did not vary. Reaction of D, L-mixtures of the activated monomers of A and U resulted in the formation of greater amounts of the homochiral amounts of dimers and trimers of A than would be expected if there was no selectivity in the reaction. A limited number of the dimers and trimers of U were also formed but here the selectivity was for the formation of an excess of heterochiral products (Joshi et al., 2000). A postulate that explains why homochiral trimers of U are not formed and the significance of catalysis in prebiotic synthesis will be discussed. Ferris, J.P. (2005) Origins of life, molecular basis of. In R.A. Meyers, Ed. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 10. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany. Ferris, J.P., and Ertem, G. (1993) Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 12270-12275. Huang, W., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Synthesis of 35-40 mers of RNA oligomers from unblocked monomers. A simple approach to the RNA world. Chem. Commun., 1458-1459. Joshi, P.C., Pitsch, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2000) Homochiral selection

  18. Rh(II)-catalyzed Reactions of Diazoesters with Organozinc Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Panish, Robert; Selvaraj, Ramajeyam; Fox, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions of diazoesters with organozinc reagents are described. Diorganozinc reagents participate in reactions with diazo compounds by two distinct, catalyst-dependent mechanisms. With bulky diisopropylethylacetate ligands, the reaction mechanism is proposed to involve initial formation of a Rh-carbene and subsequent carbozincation to give a zinc enolate. With Rh2(OAc)4, it is proposed that initial formation of an azine precedes 1,2-addition by an organozinc reagent. This straightforward route to the hydrazone products provides a useful method for preparing chiral quaternary α-aminoesters or pyrazoles via the Paul-Knorr condensation with 1,3-diketones. Crossover and deuterium labeling experiments provide evidence for the mechanisms proposed. PMID:26241081

  19. Rh(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Diazoesters with Organozinc Reagents.

    PubMed

    Panish, Robert; Selvaraj, Ramajeyam; Fox, Joseph M

    2015-08-21

    Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions of diazoesters with organozinc reagents are described. Diorganozinc reagents participate in reactions with diazo compounds by two distinct, catalyst-dependent mechanisms. With bulky diisopropylethyl acetate ligands, the reaction mechanism is proposed to involve initial formation of a Rh-carbene and subsequent carbozincation to give a zinc enolate. With Rh2(OAc)4, it is proposed that initial formation of an azine precedes 1,2-addition by an organozinc reagent. This straightforward route to the hydrazone products provides a useful method for preparing chiral quaternary α-aminoesters or pyrazoles via the Paul-Knorr condensation with 1,3-diketones. Crossover and deuterium labeling experiments provide evidence for the mechanisms proposed.

  20. Macrocyclic bis-thioureas catalyze stereospecific glycosylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongho; Harper, Kaid C; Kuhl, Nadine; Kwan, Eugene E; Liu, Richard Y; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2017-01-13

    Carbohydrates are involved in nearly all aspects of biochemistry, but their complex chemical structures present long-standing practical challenges to their synthesis. In particular, stereochemical outcomes in glycosylation reactions are highly dependent on the steric and electronic properties of coupling partners; thus, carbohydrate synthesis is not easily predictable. Here we report the discovery of a macrocyclic bis-thiourea derivative that catalyzes stereospecific invertive substitution pathways of glycosyl chlorides. The utility of the catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of trans-1,2-, cis-1,2-, and 2-deoxy-β-glycosides. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a cooperative mechanism in which an electrophile and a nucleophile are simultaneously activated to effect a stereospecific substitution reaction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Pd-Catalyzed Heterocycle Synthesis in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianxiao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    Heterocyclic and fused heterocyclic compounds are ubiquitously found in natural products and biologically interesting molecules, and many currently marketed drugs hold heterocycles as their core structure. In this chapter, recent advances on Pd-catalyzed synthesis of heterocycles in ionic liquids (ILs) are reviewed. In palladium catalysis, ILs with different cations and anions are investigated as an alternative recyclable and environmentally benign reaction medium, and a variety of heterocyclic compounds including cyclic ketals, quinolones, quinolinones, isoindolinones, and lactones are conveniently constructed. Compared to the traditional methods, these new approaches have many advantages, such as environmentally friendly synthetic procedure, easy product and catalyst separation, recyclable medium, which make them have the potential applications in industry.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar

    2011-01-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%.

  3. Recent advances in sortase-catalyzed ligation methodology.

    PubMed

    Antos, John M; Truttmann, Matthias C; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-06-01

    The transpeptidation reaction catalyzed by bacterial sortases continues to see increasing use in the construction of novel protein derivatives. In addition to growth in the number of applications that rely on sortase, this field has also seen methodology improvements that enhance reaction performance and scope. In this opinion, we present an overview of key developments in the practice and implementation of sortase-based strategies, including applications relevant to structural biology. Topics include the use of engineered sortases to increase reaction rates, the use of redesigned acyl donors and acceptors to mitigate reaction reversibility, and strategies for expanding the range of substrates that are compatible with a sortase-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective photochemistry via Lewis acid catalyzed triplet energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Travis R.; Miller, Zachary D.; Bates, Desiree M.; Guzei, Ilia A.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2017-01-01

    Relatively few catalytic systems are able to control the stereochemistry of electronically excited organic intermediates. Here we report the discovery that a chiral Lewis acid complex can catalyze triplet energy transfer from an electronically excited photosensitizer. This strategy is applied to asymmetric [2+2] photocycloadditions of 2′-hydroxychalcones using tris(bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) as a sensitizer. A variety of electrochemical, computational, and spectroscopic data rule out substrate activation via photoinduced electron transfer and instead support a mechanism in which Lewis acid coordination dramatically lowers the triplet energy of the chalcone substrate. We expect that this approach will enable chemists to more broadly apply their detailed understanding of chiral Lewis acid catalysis to stereocontrol in reactions of electronically excited states. PMID:27980203

  5. Quantum Chemical Calculations of Amine-Catalyzed Polymerization of Silanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongyu; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Jinlin; Qi, Zhenyi; Zhang, Tao; Song, Lixin

    2018-03-01

    Because of the technical importance of organosilicon materials, insight into the related synthetic processes is significantly essential. In this paper, the amine-catalyzed polymerization of silanol has been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) method. Our data have shown that amines can catalytically promote the hydrogen transfer process by substantially reducing the energy barrier. The activation barrier via hydrogen transfer with catalysis is 38.32 kJ/mol, much lower than that of catalysis-free process (120.88 kJ/mol). The lower energy barrier is in agreement with the much more intense polymerization of silanols with amine catalysts. Based on the above results, amines and other catalysts capable of assisting hydrogen transfer are expected to be used as catalysts for silanol polymerization.

  6. Mg-catalyzed autoclave synthesis of aligned silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Yankuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Qian, Yitai

    2006-07-27

    In this article, a novel magnesium-catalyzed co-reduction route was developed for the large-scale synthesis of aligned beta-SiC one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures at relative lower temperature (600 degrees C). By carefully controlling the reagent concentrations, we could synthesize beta-SiC rodlike and needlelike nanostructures. The possible growth mechanism of the as-synthesized beta-SiC 1D nanostructures has been investigated. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman and photoluminescence properties are also investigated at room temperature. The as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures exhibit strong shape-dependent field emission properties. Corresponding to their shapes, the as-synthesized nanorods and nanoneedles display the turn-on fields of 12, 8.4, and 1.8 V/microm, respectively.

  7. Synthesis of Rosin Acid Starch Catalyzed by Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rihui; Li, He; Long, Han; Su, Jiating; Huang, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Rosin, an abundant raw material from pine trees, was used as a starting material directly for the synthesis of rosin acid starch. The esterification reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Novozym 435) under mild conditions. Based on single factor experimentation, the optimal esterification conditions were obtained as follows: rosin acid/anhydrous glucose unit in the molar ratio 2 : 1, reaction time 4 h at 45°C, and 15% of lipase dosage. The degree of substitution (DS) reaches 0.098. Product from esterification of cassava starch with rosin acid was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and iodine coloration analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the morphology and crystallinity of the cassava starch were largely destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that thermal stability of rosin acid starch decreased compared with native starch. PMID:24977156

  8. Enantioselective copper-catalyzed carboetherification of unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Bovino, Michael T; Liwosz, Timothy W; Kendel, Nicole E; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina; Zurek, Eva; Chemler, Sherry R

    2014-06-16

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein reported is a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols which terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, thus yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition-state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ballistic Motion of Enzymes that Catalyze Highly Exothermic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Pressé, Steve

    Recently we proposed that the experimentally observed enhanced diffusion of enzymes catalyzing highly exothermic reactions is a consequence of their mechanism for dissipating reaction energy. More specifically, we proposed that reaction energy spreads out from the reaction site in the form of an acoustic wave which causes the enzyme to asymmetrically deform into the solvent. The solvent reaction propels the enzyme. However, it has been noted that in water, high viscosity should reduce enzyme momentum to zero within a few ps, so any diffusion increase should not be observable. Here we provide a model explaining how small volumetric expansions of biomolecules inside water may cause fluid compression that in turn creates regions of low fluid density around the biomolecule. We then investigate the dynamics of the biomolecule in the presence of these perturbations.

  10. Quinone-Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Organic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wendlandt, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Lead In Quinones are common stoichiometric reagents in organic chemistry. High potential para-quinones, such as DDQ and chloranil, are widely used and typically promote hydride abstraction. In recent years, many catalytic applications of these methods have been achieved by using transition metals, electrochemistry or O2 to regenerate the oxidized quinone in situ. Complementary studies have led to the development of a different class of quinones that resemble the ortho-quinone cofactors in Copper Amine Oxidases and mediate efficient and selective aerobic and/or electrochemical dehydrogenation of amines. The latter reactions typically proceed via electrophilic transamination and/or addition-elimination reaction mechanisms, rather than hydride abstraction pathways. The collective observations show that the quinone structure has a significant influence on the reaction mechanism and have important implications for the development of new quinone reagents and quinone-catalyzed transformations. PMID:26530485

  11. Engineering entropy-driven reactions and networks catalyzed by DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, David Yu; Turberfield, Andrew J; Yurke, Bernard; Winfree, Erik

    2007-11-16

    Artificial biochemical circuits are likely to play as large a role in biological engineering as electrical circuits have played in the engineering of electromechanical devices. Toward that end, nucleic acids provide a designable substrate for the regulation of biochemical reactions. However, it has been difficult to incorporate signal amplification components. We introduce a design strategy that allows a specified input oligonucleotide to catalyze the release of a specified output oligonucleotide, which in turn can serve as a catalyst for other reactions. This reaction, which is driven forward by the configurational entropy of the released molecule, provides an amplifying circuit element that is simple, fast, modular, composable, and robust. We have constructed and characterized several circuits that amplify nucleic acid signals, including a feedforward cascade with quadratic kinetics and a positive feedback circuit with exponential growth kinetics.

  12. Paper microfluidic-based enzyme catalyzed double microreactor.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ivonne M; Valadez, Hector; Estala, Lissette; Gomez, Frank A

    2014-08-01

    We describe a paper microfluidic-based enzyme catalyzed double microreactor assay using fluorescent detection. Here, solutions of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and diaphorase (DI) were directly spotted onto the microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD). Samples containing lactic acid, resazurin, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized form (NAD(+) ), potassium chloride (KCl), and BSA, in MES buffer were separately spotted onto the μPAD and MES buffer flowed through the device. A cascade reaction occurs upon the sample spot overlapping with LDH to form pyruvate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH). Subsequently, NADH is used in the conversion of resazurin to fluorescent resorufin by DI. The μPAD avoids the need of surface functionalization or enzyme immobilization steps. These microreactor devices are low cost and easy to fabricate and effect reaction based solely on buffer capillary action. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Oligonucleotide synthesis catalyzed by the Zn/2+/ ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawai, H.; Orgel, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments are reported in which Zn(2+) ion catalyzed the formation of oligonucleotides from nucleoside phosphorimidazolides in aqueous solution, even in the absence of a template. Specifically, the imidazolides (ImpU or ImpA) polymerized to form ImpApA, and pApA, pApApA, and pApApApA, or the analogous uracil compounds. In addition, the expected hydrolysis products of the hydrolysis of ImpA were formed (pA, imidazole). Judging from the ratio of pA(n) over pA (with and without zinc ion), this ion increased the efficiency of phosphodiester-bond formation by up to 10 times. Possible mechanisms for the reaction are tentatively proposed.

  14. Rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration of diols and polyols.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The substitution of platform chemicals of fossil origin by biomass-derived analogues requires the development of chemical transformations capable of reducing the very high oxygen content of biomass. One such reaction, which has received increasing attention within the past five years, is the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of a vicinal diol into an alkene; this is a model system for abundant polyols like glycerol and sugar alcohols. The present contribution includes a review of early investigations of stoichiometric reactions involving rhenium, diols, and alkenes followed by a discussion of the various catalytic systems that have been developed with emphasis on the nature of the reductant, the substrate scope, and mechanistic investigations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Degradation of Akt using protein-catalyzed capture agents.

    PubMed

    Henning, Ryan K; Varghese, Joseph O; Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Tang, Grace; Tang, Kevin; Sutherland, Alexander M; Heath, James R

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal signaling of the protein kinase Akt has been shown to contribute to human diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but Akt has proven to be a challenging target for drugging. Using iterative in situ click chemistry, we recently developed multiple protein-catalyzed capture (PCC) agents that allosterically modulate Akt enzymatic activity in a protein-based assay. Here, we utilize similar PCCs to exploit endogenous protein degradation pathways. We use the modularity of the anti-Akt PCCs to prepare proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules that are shown to promote the rapid degradation of Akt in live cancer cells. These novel proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules demonstrate that the epitope targeting selectivity of PCCs can be coupled with non-traditional drugging moieties to inhibit challenging targets. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Metal-catalyzed protein tyrosine nitration in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Nicolás; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Radi, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is an oxidative postranslational modification that can affect protein structure and function. It is mediated in vivo by the production of nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO₂). Redox-active transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) can actively participate in the processes of tyrosine nitration in biological systems, as they catalyze the production of both reactive oxygen species and RNS, enhance nitration yields and provide site-specificity to this process. Early after the discovery that protein tyrosine nitration can occur under biologically relevant conditions, it was shown that some low molecular weight transition-metal centers and metalloproteins could promote peroxynitrite-dependent nitration. Later studies showed that nitration could be achieved by peroxynitrite-independent routes as well, depending on the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO₂(-)) to (•)NO₂ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Processes like these can be achieved either by hemeperoxidase-dependent reactions or by ferrous and cuprous ions through Fenton-type chemistry. Besides the in vitro evidence, there are now several in vivo studies that support the close relationship between transition metal levels and protein tyrosine nitration. So, the contribution of transition metals to the levels of tyrosine nitrated proteins observed under basal conditions and, specially, in disease states related with high levels of these metal ions, seems to be quite clear. Altogether, current evidence unambiguously supports a central role of transition metals in determining the extent and selectivity of protein tyrosine nitration mediated both by peroxynitrite-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  17. [Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation of recalcitrant organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Hou, Shao-Pei; Zhou, Yun-Rui; Zhu, Wan-Peng; He, Xu-Wen

    2009-09-15

    Ozonation and Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), phenols and disinfection by-products precursors were studied. It shows that Ru/AC catalyst can obviously enhance the mineralization of organic compounds. In the degradation of DMP, TOC removal was 28.84% by ozonation alone while it was 66.13% by catalytic ozonation. In the oxidation of 23 kinds of phenols, TOC removals were 9.57%-56.08% by ozonation alone while they were 41.81%-82.32% by catalytic ozonation. Compared to ozonation alone, Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation was more effective for the reduction of disinfection by-products formation potentials in source water. The reduction of haloacetic acids formation potentials was more obvious than thichlomethane formation potentials. After the treatment by catalytic ozonation, the haloacetic acids formation potentials decreased from 144.02 microg/L to 58.50 microg/L, which was below the standard value of EPA. However ozonation alone could not make it reach the standard. The treatments of source water by BAC, O3 + BAC, O3/AC + BAC and Ru/AC + O3 + BAC were also studied. In the four processes, TOC removal was 3.80%, 20.14%, 27.45% and 48.30% respectively, COD removal was 4.37%, 27.22%, 39.91% and 50.00% respectively, UV254 removal was 8.16%, 62.24%, 67.03% and 84.95% respectively. Ru/AC + O3 + BAC process is more effective than the other processes for the removal of TOC, COD and UV254 and no ruthenium leaching observed in the solution. It is a promising process for the treatment of micro polluted source water.

  18. The General Base in the Thymidylate Synthase Catalyzed Proton Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ananda K.; Islam, Zahidul; Krueger, Jonathan; Abeysinghe, Don Thelma; Kohen, Amnon

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase), an important chemotherapeutic drug target, catalyzes the formation of 2′-deoxythymidine-5′-monophosphate (dTMP), a precursor of one of the DNA building blocks. TSase catalyzes a multi-step mechanism that includes the abstraction of a proton from the C5 of the substrate 2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate (dUMP). Previous studies on ecTSase proposed that an active-site residue, Y94 serves the role of the general base abstracting this proton. However, since Y94 is neither very basic, nor connected to basic residues, nor located close enough to the pyrimidine proton to be abstracted, the actual identity of this base remains enigmatic. Based on crystal structures, an alternative hypothesis is that the nearest potential proton-acceptor of C5 of dUMP is a water molecule that is part of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) network comprised of several water molecules and several protein residues including H147, E58, N177, and Y94. Here, we examine the role of the residue Y94 in the proton abstraction step by removing its hydroxyl group (Y94F mutant). We investigated the effect of the mutation on the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and found that these KIEs are more temperature dependent than those of the wild-type enzyme (WT). These results suggest that the phenolic –OH of Y94 is a component of the transition state for the proton abstraction step. The findings further support the hypothesis that no single functional group is the general base, but a network of bases and hydroxyls (from water molecules and tyrosine) sharing H-bonds across the active site can serve the role of the general base to remove the pyrimidine proton. PMID:25912171

  19. New metal catalyzed syntheses of nanostructured boron nitride and alkenyldecaboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Shahana

    The goals of the research described in this dissertation were two-fold. The first goal was to develop new methods, employing metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition reactions of molecular polyborane precursors, for the production of boron nitride nanostructured materials, including both boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS). The second goal was to develop new systematic metal-catalyzed reactions for polyboranes that would facilitate their functionalization for possible biomedical and/or materials applications. The syntheses of multi- and double-walled BNNTs were achieved with the aid of a floating nickel catalyst via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of borazine (B3N3H6) or decaborane (B10H14) molecular precursors in ammonia atmospheres, with each precursor having its own advantages. While borazine is a single-source precursor containing both boron and nitrogen, the decaborane-based syntheses required the additional step of reaction with ammonia. However, the higher observed BNNT yields and the ease of handling and commercial availability of decaborane are distinct advantages. The BNNTs derived from both precursors were crystalline with highly ordered structures. The BNNTs grown at 1200 ºC from borazine were mainly double walled, with lengths up to 0.2 µm and ˜2 nm diameters. The BNNTs grown at 1200-1300 ºC from decaborane were double- and multi-walled, with the double-walled nanotubes having ˜2 nm inner diameters and the multi-walled nanotubes (˜10 walls) having ˜4-5 nm inner diameters and ˜12-14 nm outer diameters. BNNTs grown from decaborane at 1300 ºC were longer, averaging ˜0.6 µm, whereas those grown at 1200 ºC had average lengths of ˜0.2 µm. The BNNTs were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This floating catalyst method now provides a catalytic and potentially scalable route to BNNTs with low defect density

  20. Study of Silicidation Process of Tungsten Catalyzer during Silicon Film Deposition in Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Kazuhiro; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2008-05-01

    In catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD), often called hot-wire CVD, source gases are decomposed by catalytic cracking reactions with heated catalyzing metal wires. In the case of silicon (Si) film deposition, such metal wires are often converted to silicide, which shortens the lifetime of catalyzing wires. As a catalyzer, tungsten (W) is widely used. Thus, the process of silicidation of a W catalyzer at temperatures over 1650 °C, which is the temperature used in Cat-CVD for Si film deposition, was studied extensively in various experiments. It is found that two phases of tungsten-silicide, WSi2 and W5Si3, are formed at this temperature, and that the radiation emissivity of WSi2 is 1.2 to 1.7 times higher than that of W5Si3 and pure W. The increase of surface emissivity due to the formation of WSi2 decreases the catalyzer surface temperature which induces further growth of the tungsten-silicide layer. It is also found that the suppression of WSi2 formation by elevating catalyzer temperatures over 1750 °C is a key to extending the lifetime of the W catalyzer in Cat-CVD.

  1. In vitro reconstitution of sortase-catalyzed pilus polymerization reveals structural elements involved in pilin cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chungyu; Amer, Brendan R; Osipiuk, Jerzy; McConnell, Scott A; Huang, I-Hsiu; Hsieh, Van; Fu, Janine; Nguyen, Hong H; Muroski, John; Flores, Erika; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Loo, Joseph A; Putkey, John A; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Clubb, Robert T; Ton-That, Hung

    2018-06-12

    Covalently cross-linked pilus polymers displayed on the cell surface of Gram-positive bacteria are assembled by class C sortase enzymes. These pilus-specific transpeptidases located on the bacterial membrane catalyze a two-step protein ligation reaction, first cleaving the LPXTG motif of one pilin protomer to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and then joining the terminal Thr to the nucleophilic Lys residue residing within the pilin motif of another pilin protomer. To date, the determinants of class C enzymes that uniquely enable them to construct pili remain unknown. Here, informed by high-resolution crystal structures of corynebacterial pilus-specific sortase (SrtA) and utilizing a structural variant of the enzyme (SrtA 2M ), whose catalytic pocket has been unmasked by activating mutations, we successfully reconstituted in vitro polymerization of the cognate major pilin (SpaA). Mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical experiments authenticated that SrtA 2M synthesizes pilus fibers with correct Lys-Thr isopeptide bonds linking individual pilins via a thioacyl intermediate. Structural modeling of the SpaA-SrtA-SpaA polymerization intermediate depicts SrtA 2M sandwiched between the N- and C-terminal domains of SpaA harboring the reactive pilin and LPXTG motifs, respectively. Remarkably, the model uncovered a conserved TP(Y/L)XIN(S/T)H signature sequence following the catalytic Cys, in which the alanine substitutions abrogated cross-linking activity but not cleavage of LPXTG. These insights and our evidence that SrtA 2M can terminate pilus polymerization by joining the terminal pilin SpaB to SpaA and catalyze ligation of isolated SpaA domains in vitro provide a facile and versatile platform for protein engineering and bio-conjugation that has major implications for biotechnology.

  2. Human reductive halothane metabolism in vitro is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2A6 and 3A4.

    PubMed

    Spracklin, D K; Thummel, K E; Kharasch, E D

    1996-09-01

    The anesthetic halothane undergoes extensive oxidative and reductive biotransformation, resulting in metabolites that cause hepatotoxicity. Halothane is reduced anaerobically by cytochrome P450 (P450) to the volatile metabolites 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethene (CDE) and 2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (CTE). The purpose of this investigation was to identify the human P450 isoform(s) responsible for reductive halothane metabolism. CDE and CTE formation from halothane metabolism by human liver microsomes was determined by GC/MS analysis. Halothane metabolism to CDE and CTE under reductive conditions was completely inhibited by carbon monoxide, which implicates exclusively P450 in this reaction. Eadie-Hofstee plots of both CDE and CTE formation were nonlinear, suggesting multiple P450 isoform involvement. Microsomal CDE and CTE formation were each inhibited 40-50% by P450 2A6-selective inhibitors (coumarin and 8-methoxypsoralen) and 55-60% by P450 3A4-selective inhibitors (ketoconazole and troleandomycin). P450 1A-, 2B6-, 2C9/10-, and 2D6-selective inhibitors (7,8-benzoflavone, furafylline, orphenadrine, sulfaphenazole, and quinidine) had no significant effect on reductive halothane metabolism. Measurement of product formation catalyzed by a panel of cDNA-expressed P450 isoforms revealed that maximal rates of CDE formation occurred with P450 2A6, followed by P450 3A4. P450 3A4 was the most effective catalyst of CTE formation. Among a panel of 11 different human livers, there were significant linear correlations between the rate of CDE formation and both 2A6 activity (r = 0.64, p < 0.04) and 3A4 activity (r = 0.64, p < 0.03). Similarly, there were significant linear correlations between CTE formation and both 2A6 activity (r = 0.55, p < 0.08) and 3A4 activity (r = 0.77, p < 0.005). The P450 2E1 inhibitors 4-methylpyrazole and diethyldithiocarbamate inhibited CDE and CTE formation by 20-45% and 40-50%, respectively; however, cDNA-expressed P450 2E1 did not catalyze

  3. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  4. Flame Synthesis Used to Create Metal-Catalyzed Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.

    2001-01-01

    Metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are highly ordered carbon structures of nanoscale dimensions. They may be thought of as hollow cylinders whose walls are formed by single atomic layers of graphite. Such cylinders may be composed of many nested, concentric atomic layers of carbon or only a single layer, the latter forming a single-walled carbon nanotube. This article reports unique results using a flame for their synthesis. Only recently were carbon nanotubes discovered within an arc discharge and recognized as fullerene derivatives. Today metal-catalyzed carbon nanotubes are of great interest for many reasons. They can be used as supports for the metal catalysts like those found in catalytic converters. Open-ended nanotubes are highly desirable because they can be filled by other elements, metals or gases, for battery and fuel cell applications. Because of their highly crystalline structure, they are significantly stronger than the commercial carbon fibers that are currently available (10 times as strong as steel but possessing one-sixth of the weight). This property makes them highly desirable for strengthening polymer and ceramic composite materials. Current methods of synthesizing carbon nanotubes include thermal pyrolysis of organometallics, laser ablation of metal targets within hydrocarbon atmospheres at high temperatures, and arc discharges. Each of these methods is costly, and it is unclear if they can be scaled for the commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In contrast, flame synthesis is an economical means of bulk synthesis of a variety of aerosol materials such as carbon black. Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes could potentially realize an economy of scale that would enable their use in common structural materials such as car-body panels. The top figure is a transmission electron micrograph of a multiwalled carbon nanotube. The image shows a cross section of the atomic structure of the nanotube. The dark lines are individual atomic layer planes of

  5. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to

  6. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H 2O 2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H 2O 2 was added batch-wise overmore » the course of 10 h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H 2O 2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H 2O 2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  7. Helium Catalyzed D-D Fusion in a Levitated Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M. E.

    2003-10-01

    Fusion research has focused on the goal of deuterium and tritium (D-T) fusion power because the reaction rate is large compared with the other fusion fuels: D-D or D-He3. Furthermore, the D-D cycle is difficult in traditional confinement devices, such as tokamaks, because good energy confinement is accompanied by good particle confinement which leads to an accumulation of ash. Fusion reactors based on the D-D reaction would be advantageous to D-T based reactors since they do not require the breeding of tritium and can reduce the flux of energetic neutrons that cause material damage. We propose a fusion power source based on the levitated dipole fusion concept that uses a "helium catalyzed D-D" fuel cycle, where rapid circulation of plasma allows the removal of tritium and the re-injection of the He3 decay product, eliminating the need for a massive blanket and shield. Stable dipole confinement derives from plasma compressibility instead of the magnetic shear and average good curvature. As a result, a dipole magnetic field can stabilize plasma at high beta while allowing large-scale adiabatic particle circulation. These properties may make the levitated dipole uniquely capable of achieving good energy confinement with low particle confinement. We find that a dipole based D-D power source can provide better utilization of magnetic field energy with a comparable mass power density to a D-T based tokamak power source.

  8. Zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and ethene.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2008-07-30

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory calculations have been used to study the three-stage zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and the hydrogenation of C2H 4 to ethane, with the aim of designing an effective zeolite catalyst for these reactions. Both Brønsted acid (XH) and alkali metal (XM) sites in model zeolites (-X-Al-XH- or -X-Al-XM-) have been examined. It is found that appropriately designed zeolites can provide excellent catalysis for these reactions, particularly for the hydrogenation of CO2, HCO2H and CH2O, with uncatalyzed barriers of more than 300 kJ mol(-1) being reduced to as little as 17 kJ mol(-1) (in the case of CH2O). The reaction barrier depends on the acidity of the XH moiety or the nature of the metal cation M in the XM moiety, and the basicity of the adjacent X group in the catalyst. For a catalyst based on alkali metal zeolites (XM), the catalytic activity is relatively insensitive to the nature of X in the XM group. As a result, the catalytic activity for these types of zeolites increases as X becomes more basic. We propose that alkali metal zeolites with Ge and N incorporated into the framework could be very effective catalysts for hydrogenation processes.

  9. Investigations Of Surface-Catalyzed Reactions In A Mars Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Max; Owens, W.; Meyers, J.; Fletcher, D. G.

    2011-05-01

    In the design of a thermal protection system (TPS) for a planetary entry vehicle, accurate modeling of the trajectory aero-heating poses a significant challenge owing to large uncertainties in chemical processes taking place at the surface. Even for surface-catalyzed reactions, which have been investigated extensively, there is no consensus on how they should be modeled; or, in some cases, on which reactions are likely to occur. Current TPS designs for Mars missions rely on a super-catalytic boundary condition, which assumes that all dissociated species recombine to the free stream composition.While this is recognized to be the the most conservative approach, discrepancies in aero-heating measurements in ground test facilities preclude less conservative design options, resulting in an increased TPS mass at the expense of scientific pay- load.Using two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence in a 30 kW inductively coupled plasma torch facility, preliminary studies have been performed to obtain spatially-resolved measurements of the dominant species in a plasma boundary layer for a Martian atmosphere mixture over catalytic and non-catalytic surfaces.

  10. MEMS-Based Satellite Micropropulsion Via Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Thomas, Michael A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques offer great potential in satisfying the mission requirements for the next generation of "micro-scale" satellites being designed by NASA and Department of Defense agencies. More commonly referred to as "nanosats", these miniature satellites feature masses in the range of 10-100 kg and therefore have unique propulsion requirements. The propulsion systems must be capable of providing extremely low levels of thrust and impulse while also satisfying stringent demands on size, mass, power consumption and cost. We begin with an overview of micropropulsion requirements and some current MEMS-based strategies being developed to meet these needs. The remainder of the article focuses the progress being made at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center towards the development of a prototype monopropellant MEMS thruster which uses the catalyzed chemical decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide as a propulsion mechanism. The products of decomposition are delivered to a micro-scale converging/diverging supersonic nozzle which produces the thrust vector; the targeted thrust level approximately 500 N with a specific impulse of 140-180 seconds. Macro-scale hydrogen peroxide thrusters have been used for satellite propulsion for decades; however, the implementation of traditional thruster designs on a MEMS scale has uncovered new challenges in fabrication, materials compatibility, and combustion and hydrodynamic modeling. A summary of the achievements of the project to date is given, as is a discussion of remaining challenges and future prospects.

  11. PvdN Enzyme Catalyzes a Periplasmic Pyoverdine Modification*

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Michael T.; Dräger, Gerald; Brüser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pyoverdines are high affinity siderophores produced by a broad range of pseudomonads to enhance growth under iron deficiency. They are especially relevant for pathogenic and mutualistic strains that inhabit iron-limited environments. Pyoverdines are generated from non-ribosomally synthesized highly modified peptides. They all contain an aromatic chromophore that is formed in the periplasm by intramolecular cyclization steps. Although the cytoplasmic peptide synthesis and side-chain modifications are well characterized, the periplasmic maturation steps are far from understood. Out of five periplasmic enzymes, PvdM, PvdN, PvdO, PvdP, and PvdQ, functions have been attributed only to PvdP and PvdQ. The other three enzymes are also regarded as essential for siderophore biosynthesis. The structure of PvdN has been solved recently, but no function could be assigned. Here we present the first in-frame deletion of the PvdN-encoding gene. Unexpectedly, PvdN turned out to be required for a specific modification of pyoverdine, whereas the overall amount of fluorescent pyoverdines was not altered by the mutation. The mutant strain grew normally under iron-limiting conditions. Mass spectrometry identified the PvdN-dependent modification as a transformation of the N-terminal glutamic acid to a succinamide. We postulate a pathway for this transformation catalyzed by the enzyme PvdN, which is most likely functional in the case of all pyoverdines. PMID:27703013

  12. Enzyme-catalyzed crosslinkable hydrogels: emerging strategies for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Liliana S Moreira; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Karperien, Marcel

    2012-02-01

    State-of-the-art bioactive hydrogels can easily and efficiently be formed by enzyme-catalyzed mild-crosslinking reactions in situ. Yet this cell-friendly and substrate-specific method remains under explored. Hydrogels prepared by using enzyme systems like tyrosinases, transferases and lysyl oxidases show interesting characteristics as dynamic scaffolds and as systems for controlled release. Increased attention is currently paid to hydrogels obtained via crosslinking of precursors by transferases or peroxidases as catalysts. Enzyme-mediated crosslinking has proven its efficiency and attention has now shifted to the development of enzymatically crosslinked hydrogels with higher degrees of complexity, mimicking extracellular matrices. Moreover, bottom-up approaches combining biocatalysts and self-assembly are being explored for the development of complex nano-scale architectures. In this review, the use of enzymatic crosslinking for the preparation of hydrogels as an innovative alternative to other crosslinking methods, such as the commonly used UV-mediated photo-crosslinking or physical crosslinking, will be discussed. Photo-initiator-based crosslinking may induce cytotoxicity in the formed gels, whereas physical crosslinking may lead to gels which do not have sufficient mechanical strength and stability. These limitations can be overcome using enzymes to form covalently crosslinked hydrogels. Herewith, we report the mechanisms involved and current applications, focusing on emerging strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzyme-Catalyzed Regioselective Modification of Starch Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Soma; Sahoo, Bishwabhusan; Teraoka, Iwao

    The selective esterification of starch nanoparticles was performed using as catalyst Candida antartica Lipase B (CAL-B) in its immobilized (Novozym 435) and free (SP-525) forms. The starch nanoparticles were made accessible for acylation reactions by formation of Aerosol-OT (AOT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate) stabilized microemulsions. Starch nanoparticles in microemulsions were reacted with vinyl stearate, ε-caprolactone, and maleic anhydride at 40 °C for 48 h to give starch esters with degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively. Substitution occurred regioselectively at the C-6 position of the glucose repeat units. Infrared microspectroscopy (IRMS) revealed that AOT-coated starch nanoparticles diffuse into themore » outer 50 μm shell of catalyst beads. Thus, even though CAL-B is immobilized within a macroporous resin, CAL-B is sufficiently accessible to the starch nanoparticles. When free CAL-B was incorporated along with starch within AOT-coated reversed micelles, CAL-B was also active and catalyzed the acylation with vinyl stearate (24 h, 40 °C) to give DS = 0.5. After removal of surfactant from the modified starch nanoparticles, they were dispersed in DMSO or water and were shown to retain their nanodimensions.« less

  14. Clay-catalyzed reactions of coagulant polymers during water chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-F.; Liao, P.-M.; Lee, C.-K.; Chao, H.-P.; Peng, C.-L.; Chiou, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of suspended clay/solid particles on organic-coagulant reactions during water chlorination was investigated by analyses of total product formation potential (TPFP) and disinfection by-product (DBP) distribution as a function of exchanged clay cation, coagulant organic polymer, and reaction time. Montmorillonite clays appeared to act as a catalytic center where the reaction between adsorbed polymer and disinfectant (chlorine) was mediated closely by the exchanged clay cation. The transition-metal cations in clays catalyzed more effectively than other cations the reactions between a coagulant polymer and chlorine, forming a large number of volatile DBPs. The relative catalytic effects of clays/solids followed the order Ti-Mont > Fe-Mont > Cu-Mont > Mn-Mont > Ca-Mont > Na-Mont > quartz > talc. The effects of coagulant polymers on TPFP follow the order nonionic polymer > anionic polymer > cationic polymer. The catalytic role of the clay cation was further confirmed by the observed inhibition in DBP formation when strong chelating agents (o-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine) were added to the clay suspension. Moreover, in the presence of clays, total DBPs increased appreciably when either the reaction time or the amount of the added clay or coagulant polymer increased. For volatile DBPs, the formation of halogenated methanes was usually time-dependent, with chloroform and dichloromethane showing the greatest dependence. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection of phenols catalyzed by hemin.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lu; Zhu, Jinkun; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2014-09-01

    Based on the catalytic activity of hemin, an efficient biocatalyst, an indirect capillary electrophoresis-chemiluminescence (CE-CL) detection method for phenols using a hemin-luminol-hydrogen peroxide system was developed. Through a series of static injection experiments, hemin was found to perform best in a neutral solution rather than an acidic or alkaline medium. Although halide ions such as Br(-) and F(-) could further enhance the CL signal catalyzed by hemin, it is difficult to apply these conditions to this CE-CL detection system because of the self-polymerization of hemin, as it hinders the CE process. The addition of concentrated ammonium hydroxide to an aqueous/dimethyl sulfoxide solution of hemin-luminol afforded a stable CE-CL baseline. The indirect CE-CL detection of five phenols using this method gave the following limits of detections: 4.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-sec-butylphenol), 4.9 × 10(-8) mol/L (o-cresol), 5.4 × 10(-8) mol/L (m-cresol), 5.3 × 10(-8) mol/L (2,4-dichlorophenol) and 7.1 × 10(-8) mol/L (phenol). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  17. Toward antibody-catalyzed hydrolysis of organophosphorus poisons

    PubMed Central

    Vayron, Philippe; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Taran, Frédéric; Créminon, Christophe; Frobert, Yveline; Grassi, Jacques; Mioskowski, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We report here our preliminary results on the use of catalytic antibodies as an approach to neutralizing organophosphorus chemical weapons. A first-generation hapten, methyl-α-hydroxyphosphinate Ha, was designed to mimic the approach of an incoming water molecule for the hydrolysis of exceedingly toxic methylphosphonothioate VX (1a). A moderate protective activity was first observed on polyclonal antibodies raised against Ha. The results were further confirmed by using a mAb PAR 15 raised against phenyl-α-hydroxyphosphinate Hb, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PhX (1b), a less toxic phenylphosphonothioate analog of VX with a rate constant of 0.36 M−1⋅min−1 at pH 7.4 and 25°C, which corresponds to a catalytic proficiency of 14,400 M−1 toward the rate constant for the uncatalyzed hydrolysis of 1b. This is a demonstration on the organophosphorus poisons themselves that mAbs can catalytically hydrolyze nerve agents, and a significant step toward the production of therapeutically active abzymes to treat poisoning by warfare agents. PMID:10860971

  18. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B.; Holliday, Michael J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Zhang, Fengli; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions. Different families of enzymes, known as “peptidyl-prolyl isomerases” (PPIases), catalyze this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the N-terminal amide bond of the amino acid proline. However, complete descriptions of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function have remained elusive. We show here that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic handle mechanism. In this mechanism, the electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carbonyl group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. We identified this mechanism using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to simultaneously determine the cis-bound and trans-bound conformations of cyclophilin A and its substrate as the enzymatic reaction takes place. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic handle mechanism that we describe here is common to other PPIases and, more generally, in characterizing other enzymatic processes. PMID:24982184

  19. Transition metal-catalyzed carboxylation reactions with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ruben; Tortajada, Andreu; Juliá-Hernández, Francisco; Borjesson, Marino; Moragas, Toni

    2018-05-03

    Driven by the inherent synthetic potential of CO2 as an abundant, inexpensive and renewable C1 chemical feedstock, the recent years have witnessed renewed interest in devising catalytic CO2 fixations into organic matter. Although the formation of C-C bonds via catalytic CO2 fixation remained rather limited for a long period of time, a close look into the recent literature data indicates that catalytic carboxylation reactions have entered a new era of exponential growth, evolving into a mature discipline that allows for streamlining the synthesis of carboxylic acids, building blocks of utmost relevance in industrial endeavours. These strategies have generally proven broadly applicability and convenient to perform. However, substantial challenges still need to be addressed reinforcing the need to cover metal-catalyzed carboxylation arena in a conceptual and concise manner, delineating the underlying new principles that are slowly emerging in this vibrant area of expertise. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Flavin-catalyzed redox tailoring reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Robin

    2017-10-15

    Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e.g., acylations, glycosylations, or redox reactions. This review highlights a selection of tailoring enzymes that employ riboflavin (vitamin B2)-derived cofactors (FAD and FMN) to facilitate unusual redox catalysis and steer the formation of complex natural product pharmacophores. Remarkably, several such recently reported flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes expand the classical paradigms of flavin biochemistry leading, e.g., to the discovery of the flavin-N5-oxide - a novel flavin redox state and oxygenating species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remote catalyzation for direct formation of graphene layers on oxides.

    PubMed

    Teng, Po-Yuan; Lu, Chun-Chieh; Akiyama-Hasegawa, Kotone; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Suenaga, Kazu; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2012-03-14

    Direct deposition of high-quality graphene layers on insulating substrates such as SiO(2) paves the way toward the development of graphene-based high-speed electronics. Here, we describe a novel growth technique that enables the direct deposition of graphene layers on SiO(2) with crystalline quality potentially comparable to graphene grown on Cu foils using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Rather than using Cu foils as substrates, our approach uses them to provide subliming Cu atoms in the CVD process. The prime feature of the proposed technique is remote catalyzation using floating Cu and H atoms for the decomposition of hydrocarbons. This allows for the direct graphitization of carbon radicals on oxide surfaces, forming isolated low-defect graphene layers without the need for postgrowth etching or evaporation of the metal catalyst. The defect density of the resulting graphene layers can be significantly reduced by tuning growth parameters such as the gas ratios, Cu surface areas, and substrate-to-Cu distance. Under optimized conditions, graphene layers with nondiscernible Raman D peaks can be obtained when predeposited graphite flakes are used as seeds for extended growth. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  2. Optimum Particle Size for Gold-Catalyzed CO Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of gold-catalyzed CO oxidation is presented by analyzing in detail the dependence of CO oxidation rate on particle size. Clusters with less than 14 gold atoms adopt a planar structure, whereas larger ones adopt a three-dimensional structure. The CO and O2 adsorption properties depend strongly on particle structure and size. All of the reaction barriers relevant to CO oxidation display linear scaling relationships with CO and O2 binding strengths as main reactivity descriptors. Planar and three-dimensional gold clusters exhibit different linear scaling relationship due to different surface topologies and different coordination numbers of the surface atoms. On the basis of these linear scaling relationships, first-principles microkinetics simulations were conducted to determine CO oxidation rates and possible rate-determining step of Au particles. Planar Au9 and three-dimensional Au79 clusters present the highest CO oxidation rates for planar and three-dimensional clusters, respectively. The planar Au9 cluster is much more active than the optimum Au79 cluster. A common feature of optimum CO oxidation performance is the intermediate binding strengths of CO and O2, resulting in intermediate coverages of CO, O2, and O. Both these optimum particles present lower performance than maximum Sabatier performance, indicating that there is sufficient room for improvement of gold catalysts for CO oxidation. PMID:29707098

  3. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of xylitol monoesters: solvent engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Castillo, E; Pezzotti, F; Navarro, A; López-Munguía, A

    2003-05-08

    A solvent engineering strategy was applied to the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of xylitol-oleic acid monoesters. The different esterification degrees for this polyhydroxylated molecule were examined in different organic solvent mixtures. In this context, conditions for high selectivity towards monooleoyl xylitol synthesis were enhanced from 6 mol% in pure n-hexane to 73 mol% in 2-methyl-2-propanol/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) 80:20 (v/v). On the contrary, the highest production of di- and trioleoyl xylitol, corresponding to 94 mol%, was achieved in n-hexane. Changes in polarity of the reaction medium and in the molecular interactions between solvents and reactants were correlated with the activity coefficients of products. Based on experimental results and calculated thermodynamic activities, the effect of different binary mixtures of solvents on the selective production of xylitol esters is reported. From this analysis, it is concluded that in the more polar conditions (100% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)), the synthesis of xylitol monoesters is favored. However, these conditions are unfavorable in terms of enzyme stability. As an alternative, binary mixtures of solvents were proposed. Each mixture of solvents was characterized in terms of the quantitative polarity parameter E(T)(30) and related with the activity coefficients of xylitol esters. To our knowledge, the characterization of solvent mixtures in terms of this polarity parameter and its relationship with the selectivity of the process has not been previously reported.

  4. Thinking Differently: Catalyzing Innovation in Healthcare and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Samet, Kenneth A; Smith, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Convenience, value, access, and choice have become the new expectations of consumers seeking care. Incorporating these imperatives and navigating an expanded competitive landscape are necessary for the success of healthcare organizations-today and in the future-and require thinking differently than in the past.Innovation must be a central strategy for clinical and business operations to be successful. However, the currently popular concept of innovation is at risk of losing its power and meaning unless deliberate and focused action is taken to define it, adopt it, embrace it, and embed it in an organization's culture. This article details MedStar Health's blueprint for establishing the MedStar Institute for Innovation (MI2), which involved recognizing the sharpened need for innovation, creating a single specific entity to catalyze innovation across the healthcare organization and community, discovering the untapped innovation energy already residing in its employee base, and moving nimbly into the white space of possibility.Drawing on MedStar's experience with MI2, we offer suggestions in the following areas for implementing an innovation institute in a large healthcare system:We offer healthcare and business leaders a playbook for identifying and unleashing innovation in their organizations, at a time when innovation is at an increased risk of being misunderstood or misdirected but remains absolutely necessary for healthcare systems and organizations to flourish in the future.

  5. A review on production of biodiesel using catalyzed transesterification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Santosh Kumar; Lingfa, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    Biodiesel is arguably an important fuel for compression ignition engine as far as sustainability and environmental issues are concerned. It can be produced from both edible and non-edible vegetable oils and animal fats. Owing to higher viscosity, the utilization of crude vegetable oil is not advisable as it results engine failure. For reducing the viscosity and improving the other fuel characteristics comparable to that of diesel fuel, different approaches have been developed. However, transesterification process is very reliable, less costly and easy method compared to other methods. Due to more free fatty acids content in most of the non-edible vegetable oils, a pretreatment is employed to convert the acids to ester, then transesterified with suitable alcohol. Primarily yield of biodiesel depends upon the molar ratio of oil/alcohol, reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of catalyst, stirring speed. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are used for synthesis purposes. Heterogeneous catalysts are less costly, environmental benign and can be derived from natural resources. Enzymatic catalysts are more environmental benign than heterogeneous catalysts but are costly, which hinders its widespread research and utilization. This article reviews the results of prominent works and researches in the field of production of biodiesel via catalyzed transesterification process.

  6. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    PubMed

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Muon reactivation in muon-catalyzed D-T fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafelski, H. E.; Müller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Trautmann, D.; Viollier, R. D.

    We comprehensively reanalyze and search for the density dependence of the effective muon alpha sticking fraction ωsff observed experimentally in muon catalyzed deuterium-tritium fusion. In our work particular emphasis has been put on the density dependent dense hydrogen stopping power. The main technical details and improvements in this work are: The (αμ) + 2s and 2p states are treated independently and are assigned individual reaction rates. The essential muonic excitation rates have been recalculated taking into account finite nuclear mass effects. The stopping power for a charged projectile in liquid heavy hydrogen is modified to account for dynamic screening effects and a density dependent effective ionization potential. It is shown that the medium dependent stopping power for the (αμ) + ion is the crucial factor controlling the density dependence of the effective sticking fraction. It is also pointed out that the muonic helium K α X-ray yield and the sticking fraction at high density can not be simultaneously brought into agreement with the experimental results without invoking novel mechanisms suppressing Stark mixing in the (Heμ) L-shell.

  8. Cyclophilin A catalyzes proline isomerization by an electrostatic handle mechanism.

    PubMed

    Camilloni, Carlo; Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Holliday, Michael J; Isern, Nancy G; Zhang, Fengli; Eisenmesser, Elan Z; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2014-07-15

    Proline isomerization is a ubiquitous process that plays a key role in the folding of proteins and in the regulation of their functions. Different families of enzymes, known as "peptidyl-prolyl isomerases" (PPIases), catalyze this reaction, which involves the interconversion between the cis and trans isomers of the N-terminal amide bond of the amino acid proline. However, complete descriptions of the mechanisms by which these enzymes function have remained elusive. We show here that cyclophilin A, one of the most common PPIases, provides a catalytic environment that acts on the substrate through an electrostatic handle mechanism. In this mechanism, the electrostatic field in the catalytic site turns the electric dipole associated with the carbonyl group of the amino acid preceding the proline in the substrate, thus causing the rotation of the peptide bond between the two residues. We identified this mechanism using a combination of NMR measurements, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to simultaneously determine the cis-bound and trans-bound conformations of cyclophilin A and its substrate as the enzymatic reaction takes place. We anticipate that this approach will be helpful in elucidating whether the electrostatic handle mechanism that we describe here is common to other PPIases and, more generally, in characterizing other enzymatic processes.

  9. Dipeptide derivative synthesis catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed

    Rival, S; Besson, C; Saulnier, J; Wallach, J

    1999-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase was used to synthesize various N-protected dipeptide amides. The identity of the products was confirmed by FAB(+)-MS. After recrystallization, the yield of their synthesis was calculated, their purity was checked by RP-HPLC and their melting point was measured. With regard to the hydrolysis, it is well-established that the enzyme prefers hydrophobic amino acids in P'1 position and it has a wide specificity for the P1 position. This specificity was demonstrated to be quite unchanged when comparing the initial rates of peptide bond formation between different carboxyl donors (Z-aa) and nucleophiles (aa-NH2). The elastase, but not the thermolysin, was notably able to incorporate tyrosine and tryptophan in P'1 position. Furthermore, synthesis initial rates were at least 100 times faster with the elastase. To overcome the problematic condensation of some amino acids during chemical peptide synthesis, it has been previously suggested that enzymatic steps can combine with a chemical strategy. We demonstrated that the elastase readily synthesizes dipeptide derivatives containing various usual N-protecting groups. It was especially able to condense phenylalaninamide to Fmoc- and Boc-alanine. Increasing interest in peptides containing unnatural amino acids led us to try the elastase-catalyzed synthesis of Z-dipeptide amides including those amino acids in the P1 position. A synthesis was demonstrated with alphaAbu, Nle, Nva and Phg.

  10. Nickel-catalyzed cycloadditions of unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones.

    PubMed

    Tekavec, Thomas N; Louie, Janis

    2008-04-04

    The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3,3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon-carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive beta-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No beta-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C-O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon-carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr).

  11. Nickel-Catalyzed Cycloadditions of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Aldehydes, and Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Tekavec, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    The nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of unsaturated hydrocarbons and carbonyls is reported. Diynes and enynes were used as coupling partners. Carbonyl substrates include both aldehdyes and ketones. Reactions of diynes and aldehydes afforded the [3, 3] electrocyclic ring-opened tautomers, rather than pyrans, in high yields. The cycloaddition reaction of enynes and aldehydes afforded two distinct products. A new carbon–carbon bond is formed, prior to a competitive β-hydrogen elimination of a nickel alkoxide, between the carbonyl carbon and either one of the carbons of the olefin or the alkyne. The steric hindrance of the enyne greatly affected the chemoselectivity of the cycloaddition of enynes and aldehydes. In some cases, dihydropyran was also formed. The scope of the cycloaddition reaction was expanded to include the coupling of enynes and ketones. No β-hydrogen elimination was observed in cycloaddition reaction of enynes and ketones. Instead, C–O bond-forming reductive elimination occurred exclusively to afford dihydropyrans in excellent yields. In all cases, complete chemoselectivity was observed; only dihydropyrans where the carbonyl carbon forms a carbon–carbon bond with a carbon of the olefin, rather than of the alkyne, were observed. All cycloaddition reactions occur at room temperature and employ nickel catalysts bearing the hindered 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPr) or its saturated analogue, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolin-2-ylidene (SIPr). PMID:18318544

  12. Synthesis and characterization of branched polymers from lipase-catalyzed trimethylolpropane copolymerizations.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Ankur S; Gao, Wei; Fu, Hongyong; Gross, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    Lipase-catalyzed terpolymerizations were performed with the monomers trimethylolpropane (B3), 1,8-octanediol (B2), and adipic acid (A2). Polymerizations were performed in bulk, at 70 degrees C, for 42 h, using immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica (Novozyme-435) as a catalyst. To determine the substitution pattern of trimethylolpropane (TMP) in copolymers, model compounds with variable degrees of acetylation were synthesized. Inverse-gated 13C NMR spectra were recorded to first determine the chemical shift positions for mono-, di-, and trisubstituted TMP units and, subsequently, to determine substitution of TMP units along chains. Variation of TMP in the monomer feed gave copolymers with degrees of branching (DB) from 20% to 67%. In one example, a hyperbranched copolyester with 53 mol % TMP adipate units was formed in 80% yield, with Mw 14 100 (relative to polystyrene standards), Mw/Mn 5.3, and DB 36%. Thermal and crystalline properties of the copolyesters were studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Existence of efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed and inefficient divalent metal ion-independent channels in reactions catalyzed by a hammerhead ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing-Min; Zhou, De-Min; Takagi, Yasuomi; Kasai, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Atsushi; Baba, Tadashi; Taira, Kazunari

    2002-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme is generally accepted as a well characterized metalloenzyme. However, the precise nature of the interactions of the RNA with metal ions remains to be fully defined. Examination of metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions at limited concentrations of metal ions is useful for evaluation of the role of metal ions, as demonstrated in this study. At concentrations of Mn2+ ions from 0.3 to 3 mM, addition of the ribozyme to the reaction mixture under single-turnover conditions enhances the reaction with the product reaching a fixed maximum level. Further addition of the ribozyme inhibits the reaction, demonstrating that a certain number of divalent metal ions is required for proper folding and also for catalysis. At extremely high concentrations, monovalent ions, such as Na+ ions, can also serve as cofactors in hammerhead ribozyme-catalyzed reactions. However, the catalytic efficiency of monovalent ions is extremely low and, thus, high concentrations are required. Furthermore, addition of monovalent ions to divalent metal ion-catalyzed hammerhead reactions inhibits the divalent metal ion-catalyzed reactions, suggesting that the more desirable divalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes are converted to less desirable monovalent metal ion–ribozyme complexes via removal of divalent metal ions, which serve as a structural support in the ribozyme complex. Even though two channels appear to exist, namely an efficient divalent metal ion-catalyzed channel and an inefficient monovalent metal ion-catalyzed channel, it is clear that, under physiological conditions, hammerhead ribozymes are metalloenzymes that act via the significantly more efficient divalent metal ion-dependent channel. Moreover, the observed kinetic data are consistent with Lilley’s and DeRose’s two-phase folding model that was based on ground state structure analyses. PMID:12034824

  14. Gold-catalyzed and N-iodosuccinimide-mediated cyclization of gamma-substituted allenamides.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Christopher J T; Hegedus, Louis S

    2006-10-27

    Chiral gamma-substituted allenamides have been shown to undergo efficient gold-catalyzed and N-iodosuccinimide-mediated cyclization to highly functionalized dihydrofurans. These reactions proceed rapidly and without loss of stereochemistry.

  15. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  16. Geothermal Energy in Planetary Icy Large Objects via Cosmic Rays Muon–Catalyzed Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, A.

    2018-05-01

    We propose the possibility that muon-catalyzed fusion, produced by cosmic rays, might add energy to the interior of planetary icy large objects of the solar system, and other solar systems, interesting for astrobiological considerations.

  17. Structural basis for Diels-Alder ribozyme-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Serganov, Alexander; Keiper, Sonja; Malinina, Lucy; Tereshko, Valentina; Skripkin, Eugene; Höbartner, Claudia; Polonskaia, Anna; Phan, Anh Tuân; Wombacher, Richard; Micura, Ronald; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jäschke, Andres; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of structural efforts addressing RNA’s catalytic function have focused on natural ribozymes, which catalyze phosphodiester transfer reactions. By contrast, little is known about how RNA catalyzes other types of chemical reactions. We report here the crystal structures of a ribozyme that catalyzes enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation by the Diels-Alder reaction in the unbound state and in complex with a reaction product. The RNA adopts a λ-shaped nested pseudoknot architecture whose preformed hydrophobic pocket is precisely complementary in shape to the reaction product. RNA folding and product binding are dictated by extensive stacking and hydrogen bonding, whereas stereoselection is governed by the shape of the catalytic pocket. Catalysis is apparently achieved by a combination of proximity, complementarity and electronic effects. We observe structural parallels in the independently evolved catalytic pocket architectures for ribozyme- and antibody-catalyzed Diels-Alder carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. PMID:15723077

  18. Synthesis of disulfides and diselenides by copper-catalyzed coupling reactions in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Ke, Fang; Deng, Hang; Xu, Hualong; Xiang, Haifeng; Zhou, Xiangge

    2013-05-14

    A simple and efficient protocol for copper-catalyzed coupling reactions between aryl halides and elemental sulfur or selenium has been developed. A variety of disulfides and diselenides can be obtained in moderate to excellent yields up to 96%.

  19. Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed arylation of azetidines, pyrrolidines, and piperidines with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Barré, Baptiste; Gonnard, Laurine; Campagne, Rémy; Reymond, Sébastien; Marin, Julien; Ciapetti, Paola; Brellier, Marie; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2014-12-05

    Iron- and cobalt-catalyzed cross-couplings between iodo-azetidines, -pyrrolidines, -piperidines, and Grignard reagents are disclosed. The reaction is efficient, cheap, chemoselective and tolerates a large variety of (hetero)aryl Grignard reagents.

  20. 53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS AND ABSORPTION BUILDINGS IN THE BACKGROUND. MAY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  2. Nickel-catalyzed amination of aryl chlorides with ammonia or ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca A; Hartwig, John F

    2015-03-16

    The nickel-catalyzed amination of aryl chlorides to form primary arylamines occurs with ammonia or ammonium sulfate and a well-defined single-component nickel(0) precatalyst containing a Josiphos ligand and an η(2)-bound benzonitrile ligand. This system also catalyzes the coupling of aryl chlorides with gaseous amines in the form of their hydrochloride salts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Theoretical Study of the Effects of Di-Muonic Molecules on Muon-Catalyzed Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    For example, synthetic zeolites could be used to separate molecular isotopes of hydrogen [12; 10] as could thermal diffusion and gas chromatography... thermal muon flux is large (see Chapter 8). Reactions which have the potential of increasing the muon-catalyzed fusion rate and reactions that could...the remainder of this document. Changes to the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle, that are expected to occur when the thermal muon flux is high, are

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Meng; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Camaioni, Donald M.

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Homo- and Cross-Coupling of Grignard Reagents Using Diaziridinone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most powerful synthetic transformations. This paper describes an efficient copper-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions, giving the coupling products in good to excellent yields. The reaction process has a broad substrate scope and is also effective for the C(sp)–C(sp3) coupling. PMID:25420218

  6. Copper-catalyzed oxidative homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents using diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Xiong, Tao; Han, Wenyong; Shi, Yian

    2014-12-05

    Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are among the most powerful synthetic transformations. This paper describes an efficient copper-catalyzed homo- and cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions, giving the coupling products in good to excellent yields. The reaction process has a broad substrate scope and is also effective for the C(sp)-C(sp(3)) coupling.

  7. Coupled Ferredoxin and Crotonyl Coenzyme A (CoA) Reduction with NADH Catalyzed by the Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/Etf Complex from Clostridium kluyveri▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2008-01-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0′ = −410 mV) with NADH (E0′ = −320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0′ = −10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper. PMID:17993531

  8. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuli; Hinderberger, Julia; Seedorf, Henning; Zhang, Jin; Buckel, Wolfgang; Thauer, Rudolf K

    2008-02-01

    Cell extracts of butyrate-forming clostridia have been shown to catalyze acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)- and ferredoxin-dependent formation of H2 from NADH. It has been proposed that these bacteria contain an NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase which is allosterically regulated by acetyl-CoA. We report here that ferredoxin reduction with NADH in cell extracts from Clostridium kluyveri is catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex and that the acetyl-CoA dependence previously observed is due to the fact that the cell extracts catalyze the reduction of acetyl-CoA with NADH via crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. The cytoplasmic butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex was purified and is shown to couple the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin (E0' = -410 mV) with NADH (E0' = -320 mV) to the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA (E0' = -10 mV) with NADH. The stoichiometry of the fully coupled reaction is extrapolated to be as follows: 2 NADH + 1 oxidized ferredoxin + 1 crotonyl-CoA = 2 NAD+ + 1 ferredoxin reduced by two electrons + 1 butyryl-CoA. The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper.

  9. Understanding Self-Catalyzed Epitaxial Growth of III-V Nanowires toward Controlled Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zi, Yunlong; Suslov, Sergey; Yang, Chen

    2017-02-08

    The self-catalyzed growth of III-V nanowires has drawn plenty of attention due to the potential of integration in current Si-based technologies. The homoparticle-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism has been demonstrated for self-catalyzed III-V nanowire growth. However, the understandings of the preferred growth sites of these nanowires are still limited, which obstructs the controlled synthesis and the applications of self-catalyzed nanowire arrays. Here, we experimentally demonstrated that thermally created pits could serve as the preferred sites for self-catalyzed InAs nanowire growth. On that basis, we performed a pregrowth annealing strategy to promote the nanowire density by enhancing the pits formation on the substrate surface and enable the nanowire growth on the substrate that was not capable to facilitate the growth. The discovery of the preferred self-catalyzed nanowire growth sites and the pregrowth annealing strategy have shown great potentials for controlled self-catalyzed III-V nanowire array growth with preferred locations and density.

  10. Determination of Proanthocyanidin A2 Content in Phenolic Polymer Isolates by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article summarizes the development of an analytical method for the determination of proanthocyanidin (PAC) A2 in phenolic polymer isolates following acid-catalyzed degradation in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. Isolates from cranberry juice concentrate (CJC) were extensively characterize...

  11. Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of novel antitubercular benzoxazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Łukowska-Chojnacka, Edyta; Kowalkowska, Anna; Napiórkowska, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    Novel benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized, and their antitubercular activity against sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains (M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv, M. tuberculosis sp. 210, M. tuberculosis sp. 192, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium kansasii) was evaluated. The chemical step included preparation of ketones, alcohols, and esters bearing benzoxazole moiety. All racemic mixtures of alcohols and esters were separated in Novozyme SP 435-catalyzed transesterification and hydrolysis, respectively. The transesterification reactions were carried out in various organic solvents (tert-butyl methyl ether, toluene, diethyl ether, and diisopropyl ether), and depending on the solvent, the enantioselectivity of the reactions ranged from 4 to >100. The enzymatic hydrolysis of esters was performed in 2 phase tert-butyl methyl ether/phosphate buffer (pH = 7.2) system and provided also enantiomerically enriched products (ee 88-99%). The antitubercular activity assay has shown that synthesized compounds exhibit an interesting antitubercular activity. Racemic mixtures of alcohols, (±)-4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-ylsulfanyl)butan-2-ol ((±)-3a), (±)-4-[(5-bromo-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]butan-2-ol ((±)-3b), and (±)-4-[(5,7-dibromo-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]butan-2-ol ((±)-3c), displayed as high activity against M. scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, M. fortuitum, and M. kansasii as commercially available antituberculosis drug-Isoniazid. Moreover, these compounds exhibited twice higher activity toward M. avium (MIC 12.5) compared with Isoniazid (MIC 50). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Metal-Catalyzed Aqueous Oxidation Processes in Merged Microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. D.; Wilson, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Iron-catalyzed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from hydrogen peroxide (Fenton's reaction) is a fundamental process throughout nature, from groundwater to cloud droplets. In recent years, Fenton's chemistry has gained further interest in atmospheric science as a potentially important process in the oxidation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (e.g., Chu et al., Sci. Rep., 2017), with some observations indicating that Fenton's reaction proceeds at a higher rate at aerosol interfaces compared to in the bulk (Enami et al., PNAS, 2014). However, a fundamental-level mechanistic understanding of this process remains elusive and the relative importance of interfacial versus bulk chemistry for aqueous organic processing via Fenton's has yet to be fully established. Here, we present a microreactor experimental approach to studying aqueous-phase Fenton's chemistry in microdroplets by rapidly mixing droplets of different composition. Utilizing two on-demand droplet generators, a stream of microdroplets containing aqueous iron chloride were merged with a separate stream of microdroplets containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide and a range of aromatic organic compounds, initiating ROS production and subsequent aqueous-phase oxidation reactions. Upon merging, mixing of the microdroplets occurred in submillisecond timescales, thus allowing the reaction progress to be monitored with high spatial and temporal resolution. For relatively large microreactor (droplet) sizes (50 µm diameter post-merging), the Fenton-initiated aqueous oxidation of aromatic organic compounds in merged microdroplets was consistent with bulk predictions with hydroxyl radicals as the ROS. The microdroplet-size dependence of this observation, along with the role of other ROS species produced from Fenton and Fenton-like processes, will be discussed in the context of relative importance to aqueous organic processing of atmospheric particles.

  13. Electrochemically Protected Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Vu; Udit, Andrew K.; Evans, Richard A.; Finn, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has found broad application in myriad fields. For the most demanding applications requiring high yields at low substrate concentrations, highly active but air-sensitive copper complexes must be used. We describe here the use of an electrochemical potential to maintain catalysts in the active Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of air. The simple procedure efficiently achieves excellent yields of CuAAC products involving both small molecule and protein substrates without the use of potentially damaging chemical reducing agents. A new water-soluble carboxylated version of the popular tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA) ligand is described. Cyclic voltammetry revealed reversible or quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behavior of copper complexes of the TBTA derivative (2; E1/2 = 60 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), sulfonated bathophenanthroline (3; E1/2 = -60 mV), and sulfonated tris(benzimidazoylmethyl)amine (4; E1/2 ~ -70 mV), and showed catalytic turnover to be rapid relative to the voltammetry time scale. Under the influence of a -200 mV potential established using a reticulated vitreous carbon working electrode, CuSO4 and 3 formed a superior catalyst. Electrochemically-protected bioconjugations in air were performed using bacteriophage Qβ derivatized with azide moieties at surface lysine residues. The complete addressing of more than 600 reactive sites per particle was demonstrated within 12 hours of electrolysis with sub-stoichiometric quantities of Cu•3. PMID:18504727

  14. Electrochemically protected copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Vu; Udit, Andrew K; Evans, Richard A; Finn, M G

    2008-06-16

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has found broad application in myriad fields. For the most demanding applications that require high yields at low substrate concentrations, highly active but air-sensitive copper complexes must be used. We describe here the use of an electrochemical potential to maintain catalysts in the active Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of air. This simple procedure efficiently achieves excellent yields of CuAAC products from both small-molecule and protein substrates without the use of potentially damaging chemical reducing agents. A new water-soluble carboxylated version of the popular tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA) ligand is also described. Cyclic voltammetry revealed reversible or quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behavior of copper complexes of the TBTA derivative (2; E(1/2)=60 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), sulfonated bathophenanthroline (3; E(1/2)=-60 mV), and sulfonated tris(benzimidazoylmethyl)amine (4; E(1/2) approximately -70 mV), and showed catalytic turnover to be rapid relative to the voltammetry time scale. Under the influence of a -200 mV potential that was established by using a reticulated vitreous carbon working electrode, CuSO4 and 3 formed a superior catalyst. Electrochemically protected bioconjugations in air were performed by using bacteriophage Qbeta that was derivatized with azide moieties at surface lysine residues. Complete derivatization of more than 600 reactive sites per particle was demonstrated within 12 h of electrolysis with substoichiometric quantities of Cu3.

  15. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    DOE PAGES

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh; ...

    2015-11-04

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe 2) 4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe 2) 3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me 2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN thatmore » is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpin moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/ 2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D 2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.« less

  16. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Amidozirconium-Catalyzed Carbonyl Hydroboration

    SciTech Connect

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Chaudhary, Umesh

    The hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones using a silica-supported zirconium catalyst is reported. Reaction of Zr(NMe 2) 4 and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) provides the catalytic material Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN. Exhaustive characterization of Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN with solid-state (SS)NMR and infrared spectroscopy, as well as through reactivity studies, suggests its surface structure is primarily ≡SiOZr(NMe 2) 3. The presence of these nitrogen-containing zirconium sites is supported by 15N NMR spectroscopy, including natural abundance 15N NMR measurements using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) SSNMR. The Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN material reacts with pinacolborane (HBpin) to provide Me 2NBpin and the material ZrH/Bpin@MSN thatmore » is composed of interacting surface-bonded zirconium hydride and surface-bonded borane ≡SiOBpin moieties in an approximately 1:1 ratio, as well as zirconium sites coordinated by dimethylamine. The ZrH/Bpin@MSN is characterized by 1H/ 2H and 11B SSNMR and infrared spectroscopy and through its reactivity with D 2. The zirconium hydride material or the zirconium amide precursor Zr(NMe 2) n@MSN catalyzes the selective hydroboration of aldehydes and ketones with HBpin in the presence of functional groups that are often reduced under hydroboration conditions or are sensitive to metal hydrides, including olefins, alkynes, nitro groups, halides, and ethers. Remarkably, this catalytic material may be recycled without loss of activity at least eight times, and air-exposed materials are catalytically active. These supported zirconium centers are robust catalytic sites for carbonyl reduction and that surface-supported, catalytically reactive zirconium hydride may be generated from zirconium-amide or zirconium alkoxide sites.« less

  17. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo

  18. Growth and characterization of gold catalyzed SiGe nanowires and alternative metal-catalyzed Si nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The growth of semiconductor (SC) nanowires (NW) by CVD using Au-catalyzed VLS process has been widely studied over the past few years. Among others SC, it is possible to grow pure Si or SiGe NW thanks to these techniques. Nevertheless, Au could deteriorate the electric properties of SC and the use of other metal catalysts will be mandatory if NW are to be designed for innovating electronic. First, this article's focus will be on SiGe NW's growth using Au catalyst. The authors managed to grow SiGe NW between 350 and 400°C. Ge concentration (x) in Si1-xGex NW has been successfully varied by modifying the gas flow ratio: R = GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4). Characterization (by Raman spectroscopy and XRD) revealed concentrations varying from 0.2 to 0.46 on NW grown at 375°C, with R varying from 0.05 to 0.15. Second, the results of Si NW growths by CVD using alternatives catalysts such as platinum-, palladium- and nickel-silicides are presented. This study, carried out on a LPCVD furnace, aimed at defining Si NW growth conditions when using such catalysts. Since the growth temperatures investigated are lower than the eutectic temperatures of these Si-metal alloys, VSS growth is expected and observed. Different temperatures and HCl flow rates have been tested with the aim of minimizing 2D growth which induces an important tapering of the NW. Finally, mechanical characterization of single NW has been carried out using an AFM method developed at the LTM. It consists in measuring the deflection of an AFM tip while performing approach-retract curves at various positions along the length of a cantilevered NW. This approach allows the measurement of as-grown single NW's Young modulus and spring constant, and alleviates uncertainties inherent in single point measurement. PMID:21711709

  19. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94‰ as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of μg L(-1) level (0.050 μM). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at μg L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Amidation and Imidation of Unactivated Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a set of rare copper-catalyzed reactions of alkanes with simple amides, sulfonamides, and imides (i.e., benzamides, tosylamides, carbamates, and phthalimide) to form the corresponding N-alkyl products. The reactions lead to functionalization at secondary C–H bonds over tertiary C–H bonds and even occur at primary C–H bonds. [(phen)Cu(phth)] (1-phth) and [(phen)Cu(phth)2] (1-phth2), which are potential intermediates in the reaction, have been isolated and fully characterized. The stoichiometric reactions of 1-phth and 1-phth2 with alkanes, alkyl radicals, and radical probes were investigated to elucidate the mechanism of the amidation. The catalytic and stoichiometric reactions require both copper and tBuOOtBu for the generation of N-alkyl product. Neither 1-phth nor 1-phth2 reacted with excess cyclohexane at 100 °C without tBuOOtBu. However, the reactions of 1-phth and 1-phth2 with tBuOOtBu afforded N-cyclohexylphthalimide (Cy-phth), N-methylphthalimide, and tert-butoxycyclohexane (Cy-OtBu) in approximate ratios of 70:20:30, respectively. Reactions with radical traps support the intermediacy of a tert-butoxy radical, which forms an alkyl radical intermediate. The intermediacy of an alkyl radical was evidenced by the catalytic reaction of cyclohexane with benzamide in the presence of CBr4, which formed exclusively bromocyclohexane. Furthermore, stoichiometric reactions of [(phen)Cu(phth)2] with tBuOOtBu and (Ph(Me)2CO)2 at 100 °C without cyclohexane afforded N-methylphthalimide (Me-phth) from β-Me scission of the alkoxy radicals to form a methyl radical. Separate reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane with benzamide showed that the turnover-limiting step in the catalytic reaction is the C–H cleavage of cyclohexane by a tert-butoxy radical. These mechanistic data imply that the tert-butoxy radical reacts with the C–H bonds of alkanes, and the subsequent alkyl radical combines with 1-phth2 to form the corresponding N-alkyl imide product

  1. Modeling the reactions catalyzed by coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sandala, Gregory M; Smith, David M; Radom, Leo

    2010-05-18

    Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions with an exceptional selectivity that makes life itself possible. Understanding the factors responsible for this efficient catalysis is of utmost importance in our quest to harness the tremendous power of enzymes. Computational chemistry has emerged as an important adjunct to experimental chemistry and biochemistry in this regard, because it provides detailed insights into the relationship between structure and function in a systematic and straightforward manner. In this Account, we highlight our recent high-level theoretical investigations toward this end in studying the radical-based reactions catalyzed by enzymes dependent on coenzyme B(12) (or adenosylcobalamin, AdoCbl). In addition to their fundamental position in biology, the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes represent a valuable framework within which to understand Nature's method of efficiently handling high-energy species to execute very specific reactions. The AdoCbl-mediated reactions are characterized by the interchange of a hydrogen atom and a functional group on adjacent carbon atoms. Our calculations are consistent with the conclusion that the main role of AdoCbl is to provide a source of radicals, thus moving the 1,2-rearrangements onto the radical potential energy surface. Our studies also show that the radical rearrangement step is facilitated by partial proton transfer involving the substrate. Specifically, we observe that the energy requirements for radical rearrangement are reduced dramatically with appropriate partial protonation or partial deprotonation or sometimes (synergistically) both. Such interactions are particularly relevant to enzyme catalysis, because it is likely that the local amino acid environment in the active site of an enzyme can function in this capacity through hydrogen bonding. Finally, our calculations indicate that the intervention of a very stable radical along the reaction pathway may inactivate the enzyme, demonstrating that sustained

  2. Human glutathione transferases catalyzing the bioactivation of anticancer thiopurine prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Birgitta I; Gunnarsdottir, Sjofn; Elfarra, Adnan A; Mannervik, Bengt

    2007-06-01

    cis-6-(2-Acetylvinylthio)purine (cAVTP) and trans-6-(2-acetylvinylthio)guanine (tAVTG) are thiopurine prodrugs provisionally inactivated by an alpha,beta-unsaturated substituent on the sulfur of the parental thiopurines 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG). The active thiopurines are liberated intracellularly by glutathione (GSH) in reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EC 2.5.1.18). Catalytic activities of 13 human GSTs representing seven distinct classes of soluble GSTs have been determined. The bioactivation of cAVTP and tAVTG occurs via a transient addition of GSH to the activated double bond of the S-substituent of the prodrug, followed by elimination of the thiopurine. The first of these consecutive reactions is rate-limiting for thiopurine release, but GST-activation of this first addition is shifting the rate limitation to the subsequent elimination. Highly active GSTs reveal the transient intermediate, which is detectable by UV spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. LC/MS analysis of the reaction products demonstrates that the primary GSH conjugate, 4-glutathionylbuten-2-one, can react with a second GSH molecule to form the 4-(bis-glutathionyl)butan-2-one. GST M1-1 and GST A4-4 were the most efficient enzymes with tAVTG, and GST M1-1 and GST M2-2 had highest activity with cAVTP. The highly efficient GST M1-1 is polymorphic and is absent in approximately half of the human population. GST P1-1, which is overexpressed in many cancer cells, had no detectable activity with cAVTP and only minor activity with tAVTG. Other GST-activated prodrugs have targeted GST P1-1-expressing cancer cells. Tumors expressing high levels of GST M1-1 or GST A4-4 can be predicted to be particularly vulnerable to chemotherapy with cAVTP or tAVTG.

  3. Mechanistic Comparison Between Pd-Catalyzed Ligand Directed C-H Chlorination and C-H Acetoxylation

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, Kara J.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2009-01-01

    This communication describes detailed investigations of the mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed C-H chlorination and acetoxylation of 2-ortho-tolylpyridine. Under the conditions examined, both reactions proceed via rate limiting cyclopalladation. However, substrate and catalyst order as well as Hammett data indicate that the intimate mechanism of cyclopalladation differs significantly between PdCl2-catalyzed chlorination and Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed acetoxylation. PMID:19754074

  4. Development of a second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation and its application to bioactive natural product synthesis.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative alkylation of unactivated olefins is described. This protocol was devised to solve one of the drawbacks of the original palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation that we developed. We call this new procedure the 'second generation palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation'. This protocol has been applied to the total syntheses of cis-195A, trans-195A, boonein, scholareins A, C, D, and alpha-skytanthine.

  5. Tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed cross-coupling: a new strategy towards heterocycle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Wan, Jie-Ping

    2011-10-21

    Copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions which lead to the formation of C-N, C-O, C-S and C-C bonds have been recognized as one of the most useful strategies in synthetic organic chemistry. During past decades, important breakthroughs in the study of Cu-catalyzed coupling processes demonstrated that Cu-catalyzed reactions are broadly applicable to a variety of research fields related to organic synthesis. Representatively, employing these coupling transformations as key steps, a large number of tandem reactions have been developed for the construction of various heterocyclic compounds. These tactics share the advantages of high atom economics of tandem reactions as well as the broad tolerance of Cu-catalyst systems. Therefore, Cu-catalyzed C-X (X = N, O, S, C) coupling transformation-initiated tandem reactions were quickly recognized as a strategy with great potential for synthesizing heterocyclic compounds and gained worldwide attention. In this review, recent research progress in heterocycle syntheses using tandem reactions initiated by copper-catalyzed coupling transformations, including C-N, C-O, C-S as well as C-C coupling processes are summarized.

  6. A coumarin-specific prenyltransferase catalyzes the crucial biosynthetic reaction for furanocoumarin formation in parsley.

    PubMed

    Karamat, Fazeelat; Olry, Alexandre; Munakata, Ryosuke; Koeduka, Takao; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Paris, Cedric; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-02-01

    Furanocoumarins constitute a sub-family of coumarin compounds with important defense properties against pathogens and insects, as well as allelopathic functions in plants. Furanocoumarins are divided into two sub-groups according to the alignment of the furan ring with the lactone structure: linear psoralen and angular angelicin derivatives. Determination of furanocoumarin type is based on the prenylation position of the common precursor of all furanocoumarins, umbelliferone, at C6 or C8, which gives rise to the psoralen or angelicin derivatives, respectively. Here, we identified a membrane-bound prenyltransferase PcPT from parsley (Petroselinum crispum), and characterized the properties of the gene product. PcPT expression in various parsley tissues is increased by UV irradiation, with a concomitant increase in furanocoumarin production. This enzyme has strict substrate specificity towards umbelliferone and dimethylallyl diphosphate, and a strong preference for the C6 position of the prenylated product (demethylsuberosin), leading to linear furanocoumarins. The C8-prenylated derivative (osthenol) is also formed, but to a much lesser extent. The PcPT protein is targeted to the plastids in planta. Introduction of this PcPT into the coumarin-producing plant Ruta graveolens showed increased consumption of endogenous umbelliferone. Expression of PcPT and a 4-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hydroxylase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana, which does not produce furanocoumarins, resulted in formation of demethylsuberosin, indicating that furanocoumarin production may be reconstructed by a metabolic engineering approach. The results demonstrate that a single prenyltransferase, such as PcPT, opens the pathway to linear furanocoumarins in parsley, but may also catalyze the synthesis of osthenol, the first intermediate committed to the angular furanocoumarin pathway, in other plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ligand-Controlled Regioselective Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation To Generate (Trifluoromethyl)allenes.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Brett R; Peddi, Santosh; Altman, Ryan A

    2015-05-15

    "Cu-CF3" species have been used historically for a broad spectrum of nucleophilic trifluoromethylation reactions. Although recent advancements have employed ligands to stabilize and harness the reactivity of this key organometallic intermediate, the ability of a ligand to differentiate a regiochemical outcome of a Cu-CF3-mediated or -catalyzed reaction has not been previously reported. Herein, we report the first example of a Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylation reaction in which a ligand controls the regiochemical outcome. More specifically, we demonstrate the ability of bipyridyl-derived ligands to control the regioselectivity of the Cu-catalyzed nucleophilic trifluoromethylation reactions of propargyl electrophiles to generate (trifluoromethyl)allenes. This method provides a variety of di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted (trifluoromethyl)allenes, which can be further modified to generate complex fluorinated substructures.

  8. Catalyzing Transdisciplinarity: A Systems Ethnography of Cancer-Obesity Comorbidity and Risk Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Graham, S Scott; Harley, Amy; Kessler, Molly M; Roberts, Laura; DeVasto, Dannielle; Card, Daniel J; Neuner, Joan M; Kim, Sang-Yeon

    2017-05-01

    Effectively addressing wicked health problems, that is, those arising from complex multifactorial biological and socio-economic causes, requires transdisciplinary action. However, a significant body of research points toward substantial difficulties in cultivating transdisciplinary collaboration. Accordingly, this article presents the results of a study that adapts Systems Ethnography and Qualitative Modeling (SEQM) in response to wicked health problems. SEQM protocols were designed to catalyze transdisciplinary responses to national defense concerns. We adapted these protocols to address cancer-obesity comorbidity and risk coincidence. In so doing, we conducted participant-observations and interviews with a diverse range of health care providers, community health educators, and health advocacy professionals who target either cancer or obesity. We then convened a transdisciplinary conference designed to catalyze a coordinated response. The findings offer productive insights into effective ways of catalyzing transdisciplinarity in addressing wicked health problems action and demonstrate the promise of SEQM for continued use in health care contexts.

  9. Manganese-Catalyzed Aminomethylation of Aromatic Compounds with Methanol as a Sustainable C1 Building Block.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2017-07-05

    This study represents the first example of a manganese-catalyzed environmentally benign, practical three-component aminomethylation of activated aromatic compounds including naphtols, phenols, pyridines, indoles, carbazoles, and thiophenes in combination with amines and MeOH as a C1 source. These reactions proceed with high atom efficiency via a sequence of dehydrogenation and condensation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations, thereby releasing hydrogen and water. A well-defined hydride Mn(I) PNP pincer complex, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyzes this process in a very efficient way, and a total of 28 different aminomethylated products were synthesized and isolated yields of up to 91%. In a preliminary study, a related Fe(II) PNP pincer complex was shown to catalyze the methylation of 2-naphtol rather than its aminomethylation displaying again the divergent behavior of isoelectronic Mn(I) and Fe(II) PNP pincer systems.

  10. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  11. Transesterification of oil mixtures catalyzed by microencapsulated cutinase in reversed micelles.

    PubMed

    Badenes, Sara M; Lemos, Francisco; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was used to catalyze the transesterification reaction between a mixture of triglycerides (oils) and methanol in reversed micelles of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane for the purposes of producing biodiesel. The use of a bi-phase lipase-catalyzed system brings advantages in terms of catalyst re-use and the control of water activity in the medium and around the enzyme micro-environment. Small-scale batch studies were performed to study the influence of the initial enzyme and alcohol concentrations, and the substrates molar ratio. Conversions in excess of 75 were obtained with reaction times under 24 h, which makes this enzymatic process highly competitive when compared to similar lipase catalyzed reactions for biodiesel production using methanol.

  12. First Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in the presence of amides.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xuemei; Zhang, Suoqin; Zheng, Liangyu

    2016-03-01

    The first Novozym 435 lipase-catalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction with amides as co-catalyst was realized. Results showed that neither Novozym 435 nor amide can independently catalyze the reaction. This co-catalytic system that used a catalytic amount of Novozym 435 with a corresponding amount of amide was established and optimized. The MBH reaction strongly depended on the structure of aldehyde substrate, amide co-catalyst, and reaction additives. The optimized reaction yield (43.4%) was achieved in the Novozym 435-catalyzed MBH reaction of 2, 4-dinitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexenone with isonicotinamide as co-catalyst and β-cyclodextrin as additive only in 2 days. Although enantioselectivity of Novozym 435 was not found, the results were still significant because an MBH reaction using lipase as biocatalyst was realized for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DFT study of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration of vicinal diols.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Daniel; Christensen, Niels Johan; Dethlefsen, Johannes R; Fristrup, Peter

    2015-02-16

    The mechanism of the molybdenum-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) of vicinal diols has been investigated using density functional theory. The proposed catalytic cycle involves condensation of the diol with an Mo(VI) oxo complex, oxidative cleavage of the diol resulting in an Mo(IV) complex, and extrusion of the alkene. We have compared the proposed pathway with several alternatives, and the results have been corroborated by comparison with the molybdenum-catalyzed sulfoxide reduction recently published by Sanz et al. and with experimental observations for the DODH itself. Improved understanding of the mechanism should expedite future optimization of molybdenum-catalyzed biomass transformations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reaction pathways and free energy profiles for cholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    As the most active metabolite of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) can penetrate into the brain for the rapid onset of heroin effects. The primary enzymes responsible for the metabolism of 6-MAM to the less potent morphine in humans are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathways for AChE- and BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of 6-MAM to morphine have been explored, for the first time, in the present study by performing first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the two enzymatic reaction processes follow the similar catalytic reaction mechanism, and the whole catalytic reaction pathway for each enzyme consists of four reaction steps. According to the calculated results, the second reaction step associated with the transition state TS2a/TS2b should be rate-determining for the AChE/BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis, and the free energy barrier calculated for the AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis (18.3 kcal/mol) is 2.5 kcal/mol lower than that for the BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis (20.8 kcal/mol). The free energy barriers calculated for the AChE- and BChE-catalyzed reactions are in good agreement with the experimentally derived activation free energies (17.5 and 20.7 kcal/mol for the AChE- and BChE-catalyzed reactions, respectively). Further structural analysis reveals that the aromatic residues Phe295 and Phe297 in the acyl pocket of AChE (corresponding to Leu286 and Val288 in BChE) contribute to the lower energy of TS2a relative to TS2b. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:24595354

  15. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of photoredox-generated radicals: uncovering a general manifold for stereoconvergence in nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Tellis, John C; Primer, David N; Molander, Gary A; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2015-04-22

    The cross-coupling of sp(3)-hybridized organoboron reagents via photoredox/nickel dual catalysis represents a new paradigm of reactivity for engaging alkylmetallic reagents in transition-metal-catalyzed processes. Reported here is an investigation into the mechanistic details of this important transformation using density functional theory. Calculations bring to light a new reaction pathway involving an alkylnickel(I) complex generated by addition of an alkyl radical to Ni(0) that is likely to operate simultaneously with the previously proposed mechanism. Analysis of the enantioselective variant of the transformation reveals an unexpected manifold for stereoinduction involving dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of a Ni(III) intermediate wherein the stereodetermining step is reductive elimination. Furthermore, calculations suggest that the DKR-based stereoinduction manifold may be responsible for stereoselectivity observed in numerous other stereoconvergent Ni-catalyzed cross-couplings and reductive couplings.

  16. Glycerol Dehydration to Acrolein Catalyzed by ZSM-5 Zeolite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bin; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, X Philip

    2016-12-08

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) has been used for the first time as a reaction medium for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein catalyzed by a solid acid. Unprecedented catalyst stability over 528 hours of time-on-stream was achieved and the rate of coke deposition on the zeolite catalyst was the lowest among extensive previous studies, showing potential for industrial application. Coking pathways in SC-CO 2 were also elucidated for future development. The results have potential implications for other dehydration reactions catalyzed by solid acids. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Glycerol Dehydration to Acrolein Catalyzed by ZSM‐5 Zeolite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bin; Ren, Shoujie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC‐CO2) has been used for the first time as a reaction medium for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein catalyzed by a solid acid. Unprecedented catalyst stability over 528 hours of time‐on‐stream was achieved and the rate of coke deposition on the zeolite catalyst was the lowest among extensive previous studies, showing potential for industrial application. Coking pathways in SC‐CO2 were also elucidated for future development. The results have potential implications for other dehydration reactions catalyzed by solid acids. PMID:27796088

  18. Kinetics of the Reaction Between Alcohols and Isocyanates Catalyzed by Ferric Acetylacetonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schieler, Leroy

    1961-01-01

    The rate and temperature dependence of reaction for the ferric acetylacetonate catalyzed reaction between a-naphthyl, ortho-tolyl, and para-tolyl isocyanates and n-butyl alcohol are investigated. The effect of substituents on the reactivity of isocyanate and hydroxyl group are reported and for substituted isocyanates are correlated by means of the Hammett equation. Several metal chelates were studied and their catalytic activity was compared to that of ferric acetylacetonate. All rate data are interpreted in terms of a mechanism involving simultaneous second-order uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions between alcohol and isocyanate.

  19. Probability of twin formation on self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on Si substrate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to control the incorporation of twin boundaries in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs). Self-catalyzed GaAs NWs were grown on a Si substrate under various arsenic pressures using molecular beam epitaxy and the vapor-liquid-solid method. When the arsenic flux is low, wurtzite structures are dominant in the GaAs NWs. On the other hand, zinc blende structures become dominant as the arsenic flux rises. We discussed this phenomenon on the basis of thermodynamics and examined the probability of twin-boundary formation in detail. PMID:23043754

  20. Assessing the Regioselectivity of OleD-Catalyzed Glycosylation with a Diverse Set of Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Maoquan; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the acceptor regioselectivity of OleD-catalyzed glucosylation, the products of OleD-catalyzed reactions with the six structurally diverse acceptors - flavones (daidzein), isoflavones (flavopiridol), stilbenes (resveratrol), indole alkaloids (10-hydroxycamptothecin), and steroids (2-methoxyestradiol) - were determined. This study highlights the first synthesis of flavopiridol and 2-methoxyestradiol glucosides and confirms the ability of OleD to glucosylate both aromatic and aliphatic nucleophiles. In all cases, molecular dynamics simulations were consistent with the determined product distribution and suggest the potential to develop a virtual screening model to identify additional OleD substrates. PMID:23360118

  1. Copper-catalyzed domino reactions for the synthesis of cyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qian; Yang, Xianghua; Xi, Chanjuan

    2014-09-19

    Copper-catalyzed domino reactions are one of the most useful strategies for the construction of various cyclic compounds. In this Synopsis, we mainly focus on the latest advances in copper-catalyzed cross-coupling or addition-initiated domino reactions in the synthesis of cyclic compounds, including double alkenylation of N- or S-nucleophiles, alkenylation or alkynlation followed by cyclization of amides or amines, addition and cyclization of heteroallenes affording heterocycles, and coupling and cyclization of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds toward heterocycles.

  2. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl halides with diverse directing groups.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiabin; Mu, Xin; Chen, Pinhong; Ye, Jinxing; Liu, Guosheng

    2014-08-01

    The expansion of cross-coupling components in Cu-catalyzed C-X bond forming reactions have received much attention recently. A novel Cu-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl bromides and iodides with the assistance of versatile directing groups such as pyridyl, methyl ester, amide, imine and oxime was reported. CuBr was used as the catalyst, and 1,10-phenanthroline as the ligand. By changing the solvent from acetonitrile to DMF, the coupling process could even take place at room temperature.

  3. Recent advances in transition metal-catalyzed N -atom transfer reactions of azides

    PubMed Central

    Driver, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal-catalyzed N-atom transfer reactions of azides provide efficient ways to construct new carbon–nitrogen and sulfur–nitrogen bonds. These reactions are inherently green: no additive besides catalyst is needed to form the nitrenoid reactive intermediate, and the by-product of the reaction is environmentally benign N2 gas. As such, azides can be useful precursors for transition metal-catalyzed N-atom transfer to sulfides, olefins and C–H bonds. These methods offer competitive selectivities and comparable substrate scope as alternative processes to generate metal nitrenoids. PMID:20617243

  4. Nitrous oxide-forming codenitrification catalyzed by cytochrome P450nor.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Takaya, Naoki; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2004-02-01

    Intact cells of the denitrifying fungus Fusarium oxysporum were previously shown to catalyze codenitrification to form a hybrid nitrous oxide (N2O) species from nitrite and other nitrogen compounds such as azide and ammonia. Here we show that cytochrome P450nor can catalyze the codenitrification reaction to form N2O from nitric oxide (NO) but not nitrite, and azide or ammonia. The results show that the direct substrate of the codenitrification by intact cells should not be nitrite but NO, which is formed from nitrite by the reaction of a dissimilatory nitrite reductase.

  5. Silica, Alumina and Clay Catalyzed Peptide Bond Formation: Enhanced Efficiency of Alumina Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujdák, Juraj; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    Catalytic efficiencies of clay (hectorite), silica and alumina were tested in peptide bond formation reactions of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), proline (Pro), valine (Val) and leucine (Leu). The reactions were performed as drying/wetting (hectorite) and temperature fluctuation (silica and alumina) experiments at 85 °C. The reactivity of amino acids decreased in order Gly > Ala > Pro ~ Val ~ Leu. The highest catalytic efficiency was observed for alumina, the only catalyst producing oligopeptides in all investigated reaction systems. The peptide bond formation on alumina is probably catalyzed by the same sites and via similar reaction mechanisms as some alumina-catalyzed dehydration reactions used in industrial chemistry.

  6. Mechanistic insights into the rhenium-catalyzed alcohol-to-olefin dehydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2013-09-23

    Rhenium-based complexes are powerful catalysts for the dehydration of various alcohols to the corresponding olefins. Here, we report on both experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies into the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to olefins in general, and the methyltrioxorhenium-catalyzed dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene in particular. The experimental and theoretical studies are in good agreement, both showing the involvement of several proton transfers, and of a carbenium ion intermediate in the catalytic cycle. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A highly efficient synthesis of the FGH ring of micrandilactone A. Application of thioureas as ligands in the Co-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction and Pd-catalyzed carbonylative annulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yefeng; Zhang, Yandong; Dai, Mingji; Luo, Tuoping; Deng, Lujiang; Chen, Jiahua; Yang, Zhen

    2005-03-03

    The functionalized FGH ring system of micrandilactone A was successfully constructed in high selectivity and good yields. The key reactions in our strategy are the Co-thiourea-catalyzed stereoselective, intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction and Pd-thiourea-catalyzed stereoselective, intramolecular annulation. [structure: see text

  8. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  9. Kinetics of acid-catalyzed cleavage of procyanindins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Gerald W. McGraw

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the rates of cleavage of isomeric procyanidin dimers in the presence of excess phenylmethane thiol and acetic acid showed that compounds with a C(4)-C(8) interflavanoid bond were cleaved more rapidly than their C(4)-C(6) linked isomers, that 2,3-cis isomers with an axial flavan substituent were cleaved more-rapidly than a 2,3-...

  10. Unexpected Reaction Pathway for butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed inactivation of “hunger hormone” ghrelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Yuan, Yaxia; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Extensive computational modeling and simulations have been carried out, in the present study, to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin, demonstrating that the acylation process of BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin follows an unprecedented single-step reaction pathway and the single-step acylation process is rate-determining. The free energy barrier (18.8 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is reasonably close to the experimentally-derived free energy barrier (~19.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the obtained mechanistic insights are reasonable. The single-step reaction pathway for the acylation is remarkably different from the well-known two-step acylation reaction pathway for numerous ester hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by a serine esterase. This is the first time demonstrating that a single-step reaction pathway is possible for an ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a serine esterase and, therefore, one no longer can simply assume that the acylation process must follow the well-known two-step reaction pathway.

  11. The Extension Storyteller: Using Stories to Enhance Meaning and Catalyze Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Many cultures share and pass on norms through storytelling. Extension as a culture also creates and shares stories to pass on history, provide information about Extension work and experiences, and develop the organization. However, Extension as a culture less frequently uses storytelling to enhance meaning and catalyze related change. This article…

  12. Ruthenium-catalyzed regioselective allylic amination of 2,3,3-trifluoroallylic carbonates.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Shin-Ichi; Terasaki, Shou; Hanakawa, Taisyun; Mizuno, Shota; Kawatsura, Motoi

    2017-04-05

    We demonstrated the ruthenium-catalyzed allylic amination of 2,3,3-trifluoroallylic carbonates with several types of amines. The reactions proceeded with several types of amines, and succeeded in obtaining polyfluorinated terminal alkenes possessing branched allylic amines as a single regioisomer.

  13. Kinetic Behavior of Exchange-Driven Growth with Catalyzed-Birth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Kong, Xiang-Mu

    2006-12-01

    Two catalyzed-birth models of n-species (n>=2) aggregates with exchange-driven growth processes are proposed and compared. In the first one, the exchange reaction occurs between any two aggregates Amk and Amj of the same species with the rate kernels Km(k,j) = Kmkj (m = 1,2,...,n, n>=2), and aggregates of An species catalyze a monomer-birth of Al species (l = 1,2,...,n-1) with the catalysis rate kernel Jl(k,j) = Jlkjυ. The kinetic behaviors are investigated by means of the mean-field theory. We find that the evolution behavior of aggregate-size distribution alk(t) of Al species depends crucially on the value of the catalysis rate parameter υ: (i) alk(t) obeys the conventional scaling law in the case of υ<=0, (ii) alk(t) satisfies a modified scaling form in the case of υ>0. In the second model, the mechanism of monomer-birth of An-species catalyzed by Al species is added on the basis of the first model, that is, the aggregates of Al and An species catalyze each other to cause monomer-birth. The kinetic behaviors of Al and An species are found to fall into two categories for the different υ: (i) growth obeying conventional scaling form with υ<=0, (ii) gelling at finite time with υ>0.

  14. Rhodium Catalyzed Annulation of N-Benzoylsulfonamide with Isocyanide via C-H Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Xie, Weiqing; Falck, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanide insertion: the first rhodium-catalyzed annulation of N-benzoylsulfonamide incorporating with isocyanide via C-H activation is described. The transformation is broadly compatible with N-benzoylsulfonamides bearing various electron-properties as well as isocyanides. From practical point of view, this methodology provides the most straightforward approach to a series of 3-(imino)isoindolinones. PMID:21972033

  15. Rhodium-catalyzed kinetic resolution of tertiary homoallyl alcohols via stereoselective carbon-carbon bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ryo; Takatsu, Keishi; Hayashi, Tamio

    2008-03-20

    A nonenzymatic kinetic resolution of tertiary homoallyl alcohols has been developed through a rhodium-catalyzed retro-allylation reaction under simple conditions. Selectivity factors of up to 12 have been achieved by employing (R)-H8-binap as the ligand, and the reaction can be conducted on a preparative scale.

  16. Cationic gold(I) axially chiral biaryl bisphosphine complex-catalyzed atropselective synthesis of heterobiaryls

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Tetsuro; Nakamura, Kyosuke

    2011-01-01

    Summary It has been established that a cationic gold(I)/(R)-DTBM-Segphos or (R)-BINAP complex catalyzes the atropselective intramolecular hydroarylation of alkynes leading to enantioenriched axially chiral 4-aryl-2-quinolinones and 4-arylcoumarins with up to 61% ee. PMID:21915192

  17. Bifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis with Hydrogen Chloride: Enantioselective Ring-Opening of Aziridines Catalyzed by a Phosphinothiourea

    PubMed Central

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2009-01-01

    Ring-opening of aziridines with hydrogen chloride to form β-chloroamine derivatives is catalyzed by a chiral phosphinothiourea derivative in high yields and with high enantioselectivities. On the basis of 31P NMR studies, activation of HCl appears to proceed via quantitative protonation of the catalyst to afford a phosphonium chloride complex. PMID:20161432

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C–H Arylation of Cyclic Enaminones with Aryl Iodides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Yun; Bi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A ligand-free method for the Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of cyclic enaminones using aryl iodides was developed. This method can be applied to a wide range of cyclic enaminones and aryl iodides with excellent C5-regioselectivity. Using widely available aryl iodides, the generality of this transformation provides easy access to a variety of 3-arylpiperidine structural motifs. PMID:23750615

  19. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield. PMID:25316145

  20. Synthesis of nitriles via palladium-catalyzed water shuffling from amides to acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-12-07

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield.

  1. Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Amides and Aryl Mesylates

    PubMed Central

    Dooleweerdt, Karin; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    A catalyst, based on a biarylphosphine ligand, for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of amides and aryl mesylates is described. This system allows an array of aryl and heteroaryl mesylates to be transformed into the corresponding N-arylamides in moderate to excellent yields. PMID:20420379

  2. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  3. Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of acetophenones with alcohols to α-ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuezhao; Ding, Wen; Lin, Yuanguang; Song, Qiuling

    2015-02-06

    Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of acetophenones with alcohols using molecular oxygen has been developed to form a broad range of α-ketoesters in good yields. In addition to reporting scope and limitations of our new method, mechanism studies are reported that reveal that the carbonyl oxygen in the ester mainly originated from dioxygen.

  4. Kinetic Parameters for the Noncatalyzed and Enzyme-Catalyzed Mutarotation of Glucose Using a Blood Glucometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, John R.; Delgado, Bryan; Jones, Wray

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic parameters for the conversion of alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose were measured using a blood glucometer. The reaction order, rate constant, and Arrhenius activation energy are reported for the noncatalyzed reaction and turnover number and Michaelis constant are reported for the reaction catalyzed by porcine kidney mutarotase. The…

  5. MINERALIZATION OF A SORBED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN TWO SOILS USING CATALYZED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. (R826163)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyzed by soluble iron or naturally occurring soil minerals, (i.e., modified Fenton's reagent) was investigated as a basis for mineralizing sorbed and NAPL-phase benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a hydrophobic and toxic polycyclic a...

  6. Conversion of Arylboronic Acids to Tetrazoles Catalyzed by ONO Pincer-Type Palladium Complex.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Arumugam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Dharmaraj, Nallasamy

    2017-01-20

    A convenient synthesis of a library of tetrazoles through a novel and operationally simple protocol effecting the direct conversion of arylboronic acids catalyzed by a new ONO pincer-type Pd(II) complex under mild reaction conditions using the readily available reagents is reported. The palladium complex was reused up to four cycles in an open-flask condition.

  7. Beta-D-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium: thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed and noncatalyzed reactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-D-xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA) is the most active enzyme known for catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylooligosaccharides to D-xylose. Temperature dependence for hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (4NPX), 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabi...

  8. Cu-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of primary and secondary benzyl halides with arylboronates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Yan; Yi, Jun; Lu, Xi; Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2014-09-28

    A copper-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of benzyl halides with arylboronates is described. Varieties of primary benzyl halides as well as more challenging secondary benzyl halides with β hydrogens or steric hindrance could be successfully converted into the corresponding products. Thus it provides access to diarylmethanes, diarylethanes and triarylmethanes.

  9. Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of epoxides with organoboron compounds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Chu-Ting; Liu, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Qi; Lu, Xi; Lou, Xin; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2015-02-11

    A copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of epoxides with arylboronates is described. This reaction is not limited to aromatic epoxides, because aliphatic epoxides are also suitable substrates. In addition, N-sulfonyl aziridines can be successfully converted into the products. This reaction provides convenient access to β-phenethyl alcohols, which are valuable synthetic intermediates.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  11. NHC-catalyzed cleavage of vicinal diketones and triketones followed by insertion of enones and ynones.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Ken; Hino, Makoto; Ohno, Akira; Komeyama, Kimihiro; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Thiazolium carbene-catalyzed reactions of 1,2-diketones and 1,2,3-triketones with enones and ynones have been investigated. The diketones gave α,β-double acylation products via unique Breslow intermediates isolable as acid salts, whereas the triketones formed stable adducts with the NHC instead of the coupling products.

  12. Vanadium-Catalyzed C(sp3)–H Fluorination Reactions†

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ji-Bao; Ma, Yuyong; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium(III) oxide catalyzes the direct fluorination of C(sp3)–H groups with Selectfluor. This reaction is operationally simple. The catalyst and the reaction byproduct can be removed easily by filtration. Using this method, a fluorine atom can be introduced to the tertiary position of 1,4-cineole and L-menthone selectively. PMID:24976971

  13. Combining immunolabeling and catalyzed reporter deposition to detect intracellular saxitoxin in a cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Claudia; Fabre, Amelia; Lacerot, Gissell; Bonilla, Sylvia

    2015-10-01

    We combined the use of polyclonal antibodies against saxitoxin with catalyzed reporter deposition to detect production of saxitoxin by the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. The procedure is simple, allows detection of intracellular saxitoxin in cyanobacteria filaments by confocal laser microscopy and is a promising tool to study toxin production and metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Isomerization of (-)-Menthone to (+)-Isomenthone Catalyzed by an Ion-Exchange Resin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Aurora L.; Baca, Nicholas A.; Hampton, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    A traditional organic chemistry laboratory experiment involves the acid-catalyzed isomerization of (-)-menthone to (+)-isomenthone. This experiment generates large quantities of organic and aqueous waste, and only allows the final ratio of isomers to be determined. A "green" modification has been developed that replaces the mineral acid…

  15. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed redox α-amination of α-aroyloxyaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James E; Daniels, David S B; Smith, Andrew D

    2013-12-06

    Asymmetric α-amination through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed redox reaction of α-aroyloxyaldehydes with N-aryl-N-aroyldiazenes to form α-hydrazino esters with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee) is reported. The hydrazide products are readily converted into enantioenriched N-aryl amino esters through samarium(II) iodide mediated N-N bond cleavage.

  16. Kinetic profiling of prolinate-catalyzed α-amination of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Hein, Jason E; Armstrong, Alan; Blackmond, Donna G

    2011-08-19

    Deconvolution of the role of off-cycle species from the desired catalytic cycle leads to an optimized protocol for the prolinate-catalyzed amination of aldehydes. The scope of complex reaction networks will be greatly broadened by understanding ancillary rate processes that influence the productive catalytic pathway. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Pd-catalyzed intramolecular oxidative C-H amination: synthesis of carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Youn, So Won; Bihn, Joon Hyung; Kim, Byung Seok

    2011-07-15

    A Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H amination of N-Ts-2-arylanilines under ambient temperature using Oxone as an inexpensive, safe, and easy-to-handle oxidant has been developed. This process represents a green and practical method for the facile construction of carbazoles with a broad substrate scope and wide functional group tolerance. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Syntheses of calix[4]pyrroles by amberlyst-15 catalyzed cyclocondensations of pyrrole with selected ketones.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shive Murat Singh; Garg, Bhaskar; Bisht, Tanuja

    2007-11-09

    A facile and efficient protocol is reported for the synthesis of calix[4]pyrroles and N-confused calix[4]pyrroles in moderate to excellent yields by reaction of dialkyl or cycloalkyl ketones with pyrrole catalyzed by reusable Amberlyst(TM)-15 under eco-friendly conditions.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Electron-Deficient Pyrroles with Meso Electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Maksim; Dong, Guangbin

    2012-01-01

    Pyrroles can serve as competent nucleophiles with meso electrophiles in the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation. The products from this transformation were obtained as a single regio- and diastereomer in high yield and enantiopurity. A nitropyrrole-containing nucleoside analogue was synthesized in 7 steps to demonstrate the synthetic utility of this transformation. PMID:22506671

  20. Enantioselective and Regioselective Indium(III)-Catalyzed Addition of Pyrroles to Isatins

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Elisa G.; Wong, Casey J.; Sahin, Aziza H.

    2011-01-01

    The indium(III)-catalyzed enantioselective and regioselective addition of pyrroles to isatins is described. The effects of metal and solvent on the reactivity and selectivity are compared and discussed, demonstrating that the indium(III)-indapybox complex provides the most effective catalyst. A case of divergent reactivity between pyrroles and indoles is presented. PMID:21992567

  1. Pd-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of polysubstituted acrylamidines from isocyanides, diazo compounds, and imines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Liao, Jinxi; Lu, Yongzhi; Liu, Jinsong; Zeng, Youlin; Cai, Qian

    2013-05-17

    A novel and efficient Pd-catalyzed one-pot reaction of ethyl diazoacetate, isocyanides, and imines for the synthesis of acrylamidines was developed. The multicomponent reaction may have occurred through an unpredicted ring-opening process of the ketenimine-imine [2 + 2] intermediate to form the acrylamidine products.

  2. Cobalt-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation-Peroxidation of Unactivated Alkenes with Sodium Trifluoromethanesulfinate and Hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ge, Chao; Zhao, Jiquan; Zhang, Yuecheng

    2017-10-06

    Disclosed herein is an unprecedented cobalt-catalyzed trifluoromethylation-peroxidation of unactivated alkenes. In this process the hydroperoxide acts as a radical initiator as well as a coupling partner. The cheap and readily available sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate serves as the CF 3 source in the reaction. Various alkenes are transformed into vicinal trifluoromethyl-peroxide compounds in moderate to good yields.

  3. Iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of N-heterocyclic chlorides and bromides with arylmagnesium reagents.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Olesya M; Steib, Andreas K; Flubacher, Dietmar; Knochel, Paul

    2012-09-21

    A simple, practical iron salt catalyzed procedure allows fast cross-couplings of N-heterocyclic chlorides and bromides with various electron-rich and -poor arylmagnesium reagents. A solvent mixture of THF and tBuOMe is found to be essential for achieving high yields mainly by avoiding homocoupling side reactions.

  4. Iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of imidoyl chlorides with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Lars K; Ek, Fredrik; Olsson, Roger

    2006-04-27

    [reaction: see text] A general, high yielding rapid iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between Grignard reagents and imidoyl chlorides is described. These reactions are typically completed within 5 min, resulting in high yields of 71-96% using 5% iron catalyst in a THF-NMP solvent mixture. Functionalized imidoyl chlorides (e.g., R = CO(2)Me) gave excellent yields (89%).

  5. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  6. The Lewis-acid-catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched poly(glycerol-diacid)s in toluene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first examples of monomeric glycerol-derived hyperbranched polyesters produced in a non-polar solvent system are reported here. The polymers were made by the Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide)-catalyzed polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutari...

  7. The rhodium catalyzed three-component reaction of diazoacetates, titanium(IV) alkoxides and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chong-Dao; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Wen-Hao; Mi, Ai-Qiao

    2005-05-28

    The rhodium(II)-catalyzed three-component reaction of diazoacetates, titanium alkoxides and aldehydes is shown to give alpha-alkoxyl-beta-hydroxyl acid derivatives; the novel C-C bond formation reaction is proposed to occur through oxonium ylides derived from diazo compounds and titanium alkoxides, and followed by intermolecular trapping by aldehydes.

  8. The effect of Mg/2+/ and Ca/2+/ on urea-catalyzed phosphorylation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuk, G. J.; Lohrmann, R.; Orgel, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by urea is investigated, showing that Mg(2+) improves markedly the yield of products containing pyrophosphate bonds. Yields of up to 25% of uridine diphosphate can be obtained with struvite at temperatures as low as 65 C.

  9. Synthesis of Rhodamines from Fluoresceins Using Pd-Catalyzed C–N Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A unified, convenient, and efficient strategy for the preparation of rhodamines and N,N′-diacylated rhodamines has been developed. Fluorescein ditriflates were found to undergo palladium-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling with amines, amides, carbamates, and other nitrogen nucleophiles to provide direct access to known and novel rhodamine derivatives, including fluorescent dyes, quenchers, and latent fluorophores. PMID:22091952

  10. γ-Alumina Nanoparticle Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Highly Substituted Imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Bandapalli Palakshi; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2015-10-21

    γ-Alumina nano particle catalyzed multi component reaction of benzil, arylaldehyde and aryl amines afforded the highly substituted 1,2,4,5-tetraaryl imidazoles with good to excellent yield in less reaction time under the sonication as well as the conventional methods. Convenient operational simplicity, mild conditions and the reusability of catalyst were the other advantages of this developed protocol.

  11. NHC-catalyzed cleavage of vicinal diketones and triketones followed by insertion of enones and ynones

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Makoto; Ohno, Akira; Komeyama, Kimihiro; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Thiazolium carbene-catalyzed reactions of 1,2-diketones and 1,2,3-triketones with enones and ynones have been investigated. The diketones gave α,β-double acylation products via unique Breslow intermediates isolable as acid salts, whereas the triketones formed stable adducts with the NHC instead of the coupling products. PMID:28904625

  12. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of benzil derivatives and α-keto imides via oxidation of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Fu; Xu, Mei; Jia, Yi-Xia; Li, Chuan-Ying

    2011-03-18

    An efficient process based on the gold-catalyzed redox reaction has been developed to oxidize 1,2-diarylacetylene or ynamide to 1,2-diaryldiketone or α-keto imide respectively. This process can tolerate a variety of functional groups and affords 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions.

  13. Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct "Solar City…

  14. All kinds of reactivity: recent breakthroughs in metal-catalyzed alkyne chemistry.

    PubMed

    Anaya de Parrodi, Cecilia; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Alkynes of reactions: Recent breakthroughs in metal-catalyzed alkyne reactions, which expand the synthetic utility of alkynes, have been achieved. These approaches broaden the range of alkynes that are accessible by C--N and C--C bond-forming reactions and demonstrate that the use of bifunctional heterobimetallic catalysts can lead to new reactivity and excellent enantioselectivity (see scheme).

  15. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui

    2015-03-21

    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  16. Copper-Catalyzed Electrophilic Amination of Organoaluminum Nucleophiles with O-Benzoyl Hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Yang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xu; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu

    2015-06-19

    A copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of aryl and heteroaryl aluminums with N,N-dialkyl-O-benzoyl hydroxylamines that affords the corresponding anilines in good yields has been developed. The catalytic reaction proceeds very smoothly under mild conditions and exhibits good substrate scope. Moreover, the developed catalytic system is also well suited for heteroaryl aluminum nucleophiles, providing facile access to heteroaryl amines.

  17. Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation of dienyl carbonates with nitromethane with high C-5 regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Li, Xiao-Hui; Ding, Chang-Hua; Xu, Chao-Fan; Dai, Li-Xin; Hou, Xue-Long

    2014-01-14

    A highly regioselective palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of dienyl esters with nitromethane has been developed, providing selective access to the C-5 attacked products. The structures of the ligands as well as the steric effect of the substrates are important factors in determining the regiochemical outcome of the reaction.

  18. Iodide-catalyzed synthesis of N-nitrosamines via C-N cleavage of nitromethane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Jiewen; Li, Yuling; Wan, Xiaobing

    2013-11-15

    An iodide-catalyzed process to synthesize N-nitrosamines has been developed using TBHP as the oxidant. The mild catalytic system succeeded in cleaving the carbon-nitrogen bond in nitromethane. This methodology uses commercially available, inexpensive catalysts and oxidants and has a wide substrate scope and operational simplicity.

  19. Mild rhodium(iii)-catalyzed intramolecular annulation of benzamides with allylic alcohols to access azepinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peneau, Augustin; Tricart, Quentin; Guillou, Catherine; Chabaud, Laurent

    2018-05-23

    Azepinone derivatives are important frameworks of several natural products and bioactive compounds. They are synthetized using a Rh(iii)-catalyzed intramolecular annulation of benzamide-tethered allylic alcohols. The reaction requires mild conditions at room temperature and affords diversely substituted azepinones bearing a quaternary carbon.

  20. Thioureas as ligands in the pd-catalyzed intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yefeng; Deng, Lujiang; Zhang, Yangdong; Dong, Guangbin; Chen, Jiahua; Yang, Zhen

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] The thiourea-Pd complex was established as a novel type of catalyst in the PKR of allylpropargylamine, and the demonstrated chemistry may prove to be valuable for developing thiuorea as a ligand for the Pd-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction.

  1. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium‐Catalyzed Arylation

    PubMed Central

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González‐Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a new C 3v‐symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium‐catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn‐trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI‐MS. PMID:27774038

  2. OXIDATION OF CYCLOHEXANE WITH AIR CATALYZED BY A STERICALLY HINDERED IRON (II) COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of Cyclohexane with Air Catalyzed by a Sterically Hindered Iron(II) Complex.


    Thomas M. Becker, Michael A. Gonzalez*

    United States Environmental Protection Agency; National Risk Management Research Laboratory; Sustainable Technology Division; Clean Pr...

  3. Isomerization of 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes into naphthols catalyzed by [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2).

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Melissa; Menard, Michelle L; Tam, William

    2009-10-02

    Ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization of 7-oxanorbornadienes into naphthols was investigated. Among the various ruthenium catalysts tested, [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2) gave the highest yields in the isomerization, and various substituted naphthols were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical 7-oxanorbornadienes were employed in the study, and moderate to excellent regioselectivities were observed.

  4. Molybdenum Nitrogenase Catalyzes the Reduction and Coupling of CO to Form Hydrocarbons*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R.; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2011-01-01

    The molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase catalyzes the multi-electron reduction of protons and N2 to yield H2 and 2NH3. It also catalyzes the reduction of a number of non-physiological doubly and triply bonded small molecules (e.g. C2H2, N2O). Carbon monoxide (CO) is not reduced by the wild-type molybdenum nitrogenase but instead inhibits the reduction of all substrates catalyzed by nitrogenase except protons. Here, we report that when the nitrogenase MoFe protein α-Val70 residue is substituted by alanine or glycine, the resulting variant proteins will catalyze the reduction and coupling of CO to form methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), and propane (C3H8). The rates and ratios of hydrocarbon production from CO can be adjusted by changing the flux of electrons through nitrogenase, by substitution of other amino acids located near the FeMo-cofactor, or by changing the partial pressure of CO. Increasing the partial pressure of CO shifted the product ratio in favor of the longer chain alkanes and alkenes. The implications of these findings in understanding the nitrogenase mechanism and the relationship to Fischer-Tropsch production of hydrocarbons from CO are discussed. PMID:21454640

  5. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  6. A proposed mechanism for Pt/SnO(x)-catalyzed CO oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Sidney, Barry D.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Herz, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    A mechanism for Pt/SnO(x)-catalyzed CO oxidation is proposed, which is consistent with a broad range of experimental observations. CO oxidation catalysts with high activity at or near room temperature are used in closed-cycle CO2 lasers and air purification.

  7. Copper-Catalyzed SN2'-Selective Allylic Substitution Reaction of gem-Diborylalkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Xi; Liu, Jing-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-03-04

    A Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes is reported. Different substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed in this reaction, and various synthetic valuable functional groups can be tolerated. The asymmetric version of this reaction was initially researched with chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands.

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Conversion of Aryl and Vinyl Triflates to Bromides and Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields. PMID:20857936

  9. Palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated arylmethylation of ketones and aldehydes with coumarinyl(methyl) acetates.

    PubMed

    Cattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A

    2012-09-14

    We report the palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated α-benzylation of enamines generated from aldehydes and ketones. The method allows for direct coupling of medicinally relevant coumarin moieties with aldehydes and ketones in good yield under mild conditions. The reaction is believed to proceed via a Pd-π-benzyl complex generated from (coumarinyl)methyl acetates.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated arylmethylation of ketones and aldehydes with coumarinyl(methyl) acetates†

    PubMed Central

    Cattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Recio, Antonio; Tunge, Jon A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the palladium-catalyzed, pyrrolidine-mediated α-benzylation of enamines generated from aldehydes and ketones. The method allows for direct coupling of medicinally relevant coumarin moieties with aldehydes and ketones in good yield under mild conditions. The reaction is believed to proceed via a Pd-π-benzyl complex generated from (coumarinyl)methyl acetates. PMID:22832549

  11. Pd-Catalyzed Carbonylative Conjugate Addition of Dialkylzinc Reagents to Unsaturated Carbonyls

    PubMed Central

    Custar, Daniel W.; Le, Hai; Morken, James P.

    2010-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of organozinc reagents to unsaturated carbonyls in the presence of carbon monoxide provides 1,4-diketones in good yield. The reaction was studied with a number of substituted cyclic and acyclic ketones as well as α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. PMID:20687574

  12. Visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Mukund M D; Rastogi, Namrata

    2016-06-30

    The visible light catalyzed methylsulfoxidation of (het)aryl diazonium salts using DMSO is illustrated. This is the first example of DMSO being used as the source of the methylsulfinyl group. The procedure tolerates a wide range of functional groups on (het)aryl diazonium salts and provides aryl methyl sulfoxides in excellent yields under mild reaction conditions.

  13. Catalyzed Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Oxide at Ultralow Temperature Using Alkylamine.

    PubMed

    Mayangsari, Tirta R; Park, Jae-Min; Yusup, Luchana L; Gu, Jiyeon; Yoo, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Heon-Do; Lee, Won-Jun

    2018-06-12

    We report the catalyzed atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon oxide using Si 2 Cl 6 , H 2 O, and various alkylamines. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the periodic slab model of the SiO 2 surface were performed for the selection of alternative Lewis base catalysts with high catalytic activities. During the first half-reaction, the catalysts with less steric hindrance such as pyridine would be more effective than bulky alkylamines despite lower nucleophilicity. On the other hand, during the second half-reaction, the catalysts with a high nucleophilicity such as triethylamine (Et 3 N) would be more efficient because the steric hindrance is less critical. The in situ process monitoring shows that the calculated atomic charge is a good indicator for expecting the catalyst activity in the ALD reaction. The use of Et 3 N in the second half-reaction was essential to improving the growth rate as well as the step coverage of the film because the Et 3 N-catalyzed process deposited a SiO 2 film with a step coverage of 98% that is better than 93% of the pyridine-catalyzed process. The adsorption of pyridine, ammonia (NH 3 ), or trimethylamine (Me 3 N) salts was more favorable than that of Et 3 N, n-Pr 3 N, or i Pr 3 N salts. Therefore, Et 3 N was expected to incorporate less amine salts in the film as compared to pyridine, and the compositional analyses confirmed that the concentrations of Cl and N by the Et 3 N-catalyzed process were significantly lower than those by the pyridine-catalyzed process.

  14. Mechanistic Insight Facilitates Discovery of a Mild and Efficient Copper-Catalyzed Dehydration of Primary Amides to Nitriles Using Hydrosilanes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Richard Y; Bae, Minwoo; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2018-02-07

    Metal-catalyzed silylative dehydration of primary amides is an economical approach to the synthesis of nitriles. We report a copper-hydride(CuH)-catalyzed process that avoids a typically challenging 1,2-siloxane elimination step, thereby dramatically increasing the rate of the overall transformation relative to alternative metal-catalyzed systems. This new reaction proceeds at ambient temperature, tolerates a variety of metal-, acid-, or base-sensitive functional groups, and can be performed using a simple ligand, inexpensive siloxanes, and low catalyst loading.

  15. A recyclable and reusable supported Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiqiang; Li, Hongkun; Kwok, Ryan T. K.; Zhao, Engui; Sun, Jing Zhi; Qin, Anjun; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-05-01

    The azide-alkyne click polymerization (AACP) has emerged as a powerful tool for the synthesis of functional polytriazoles. While, for the Cu(I)-catalyzed AACP, the removal of the catalytic Cu(I) species from the resulting polytriazoles is difficult, and the research on the recyclability and reusability of the catalyst remains intact. Herein, we reported the first example of using recyclable and reusable supported Cu(I) catalyst of CuI@A-21 for the AACP. CuI@A-21 could not only efficiently catalyze the AACP but also be reused for at least 4 cycles. Moreover, pronounced reduction of copper residues in the products was achieved. Apart from being a green and cost-effective polymer synthesis strategy, this method will also broaden the application of AACP in material and biological sciences and provide guidelines for other polymerizations with metal catalysts.

  16. Flavin-N5 Covalent Intermediate in a Nonredox Dehalogenation Reaction Catalyzed by an Atypical Flavoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yumin; Kizjakina, Karina; Campbell, Ashley C; Korasick, David A; Tanner, John J; Sobrado, Pablo

    2018-01-04

    The flavin-dependent enzyme 2-haloacrylate hydratase (2-HAH) catalyzes the conversion of 2-chloroacrylate, a major component in the manufacture of acrylic polymers, to pyruvate. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 2-HAH was shown to be monomeric in solution and contained a non-covalent, yet tightly bound, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Although the catalyzed reaction was redox-neutral, 2-HAH was active only in the reduced state. A covalent flavin-substrate intermediate, consistent with the flavin-acrylate iminium ion, was trapped with cyanoborohydride and characterized by mass spectrometry. Small-angle X-ray scattering was consistent with 2-HAH belonging to the succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase family of flavoproteins. These studies establish 2-HAH as a novel noncanonical flavoenzyme. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nucleation and growth mechanism of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, U. P.; Ercolani, D.; Zannier, V.; David, J.; Gemmi, M.; Beltram, F.; Sorba, L.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the nucleation and growth mechanism of self-catalyzed InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on Si (111) substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. Careful choices of the growth parameters lead to In-rich conditions such that the InAs NWs nucleate from an In droplet and grow by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism while sustaining an In droplet at the tip. As the growth progresses, new NWs continue to nucleate on the Si (111) surface causing a spread in the NW size distribution. The observed behavior in NW nucleation and growth is described within a suitable existing theoretical model allowing us to extract relevant growth parameters. We argue that these results provide useful guidelines to rationally control the growth of self-catalyzed InAs NWs for various applications.

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Enantio- and Diastereoselective Syntheses of Left Fragments of Azadirachtin/Meliacarpin-Type Limonoids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hang; Tan, Ceheng; Zhang, Weibin; Zhang, Zichun; Long, Rong; Gong, Jianxian; Luo, Tuoping; Yang, Zhen

    2016-02-05

    Meliacarpin-type limonoids are an important class of organic insecticides. Their syntheses are challenging due to their chemical complexity. Here, we report the highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of the left fragments of azadirachtin I and 1-cinnamoylmelianolone, being two important family members of meliacarpin-type limonoids, via pairwise palladium- and gold-catalyzed cascade reactions. Gold-catalyzed reactions of 1,7-diynes were performed as model studies, and the efficient construction of tetracyclic late-stage intermediates was achieved on the basis of this key transformation. Our unique route gave both of the left fragments in 23 steps from the commercially available chiral starting material (-)-carvone. This study significantly advances research on the synthesis of the meliacarpin-type limonoids.

  19. Nucleation and initial radius of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.; Borie, S.; Dagnet, T.; Reynes, L.; André, Y.; Gil, E.

    2017-02-01

    We treat theoretically the initial nucleation step of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires under simultaneously deposited group III and V vapor fluxes and with surface diffusion of a group III element. Our model is capable of describing the droplet size at which the very first nanowire monolayer nucleates depending on the element fluxes and surface temperature. This size determines the initial nanowire radius in growth techniques without pre-deposition of gallium. We show that useful self-catalyzed III-V nanowires can form only under the appropriately balanced V/III flux ratios and temperatures. Such balance is required to obtain nucleation from reasonably sized droplets that are neither too small under excessive arsenic flux nor too large in the arsenic-poor conditions.

  20. Rubber muscle actuation with pressurized CO2 from enzyme-catalyzed urea hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Thomas M.; Dickerson, Matthew B.; Creasy, Terry S.; Justice, Ryan S.

    2013-09-01

    A biologically inspired pneumatic pressure source was designed and sized to supply high pressure CO2(g) to power a rubber muscle actuator. The enzyme urease served to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea, producing CO2(g) that flowed into the actuator. The actuator’s power envelope was quantified by testing actuator response on a custom-built linear-motion rig. Reaction kinetics and available work density were determined by replacing the actuator with a double-action piston and measuring volumetric gas generation against a fixed pressure on the opposing piston. Under the conditions investigated, urease catalyzed the generation of up to 0.81 MPa (117 psi) of CO2(g) in the reactor headspace within 18 min, and the evolved gas produced a maximum work density of 0.65 J ml-1.

  1. Nano or micro? A mechanism on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate catalyzed by cobalt oxalate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Min; Jiang, Xiaohong; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2012-07-30

    Micrometer-sized cobalt oxalates with different morphologies have been prepared in the presence of surfactants. The effect of catalysts morphology on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) was evaluated by differential thermal analysis (DSC). Remarkably, contrary to the well-accepted concepts, no direct relationship between the morphologies of catalysts and their activities has been observed. Based on the structural and morphological variation of the catalysts during the reaction, a catalytic mechanism on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate catalyzed by cobalt oxalate is proposed. We believe that it is the "self-crushing and self-distributed" occurred within the reaction that really works for the improvement of the overall catalytic activities. In this process, both catalysts and reactants have been crashed and distributed uniformly in an automatic way. This work provides an in-depth insight into the thermal decomposition mechanism of AP as catalyzed by oxalates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C-N Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castillo, Paula; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2016-10-12

    Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions that form C-N bonds have become useful methods to synthesize anilines and aniline derivatives, an important class of compounds throughout chemical research. A key factor in the widespread adoption of these methods has been the continued development of reliable and versatile catalysts that function under operationally simple, user-friendly conditions. This review provides an overview of Pd-catalyzed N-arylation reactions found in both basic and applied chemical research from 2008 to the present. Selected examples of C-N cross-coupling reactions between nine classes of nitrogen-based coupling partners and (pseudo)aryl halides are described for the synthesis of heterocycles, medicinally relevant compounds, natural products, organic materials, and catalysts.

  3. Alkanes from Bioderived Furans by using Metal Triflates and Palladium-Catalyzed Hydrodeoxygenation of Cyclic Ethers.

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-Jie; Deng, Jin; Cui, Min-Shu; Li, Xing-Long; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Rui; Wu, Wei-Peng; Fu, Yao

    2015-12-21

    Using a metal triflate and Pd/C as catalysts, alkanes were prepared from bioderived furans in a one-pot hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process. During the reaction, the metal triflate plays a crucial role in the ring-opening HDO of furan compounds. The entire reaction process has goes through two major phases: at low temperatures, saturation of the exocyclic double bond and furan ring are catalyzed by Pd/C; at high temperatures, the HDO of saturated furan compounds is catalyzed by the metal triflate. The reaction mechanism was verified by analyzing the changes of the intermediates during the reaction. In addition, different metal triflates, solvents, and catalyst recycling were also investigated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-H functionalization of substituted pyridines: synthesis of imidazopyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jipan; Jin, Yunhe; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Xiaobo; Fu, Hua

    2013-12-02

    A novel, efficient, and practical method for the synthesis of imidazopyridine derivatives has been developed through the copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-H functionalization of substituted pyridines with N-(alkylidene)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines. The procedure occurs by cleavage of the N-N bond in the N-(alkylidene)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines and activation of an aryl C-H bond in the substituted pyridines. This is the first example of the preparation of imidazopyridine derivatives by using pyridines as the substrates by transition-metal-catalyzed C-H functionalization. This method should provide a novel and efficient strategy for the synthesis of other nitrogen heterocycles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enantioselective Reduction of Ketones Catalyzed by Rare-Earth Metals Complexed with Phenoxy Modified Chiral Prolinols.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Lu, Chengrong; Fei, Zenghui; Zhao, Bei; Yao, Yingming

    2018-06-01

    Enantioselective reduction of ketones and α,β-unsaturated ketones by pinacolborane (HBpin) has been well-established by using chiral rare-earth metal catalysts with phenoxy modified prolinols. A number of highly optically active alcohols were obtained from reduction of simple ketones catalyzed by ytterbium complex 1 [L 4 Yb(L 4 H)] (H 2 L 4 = ( S)-2- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol). Moreover, α,β-unsaturated ketones were selectively reduced to a wide range of chiral allylic alcohols with excellent yields, high enantioselectivity, and complete chemoselectivity, catalyzed by a single component chiral ytterbium complex 2 [L 1 Yb(L 1 H)] (H 2 L 1 = ( S)-2,4-di- tert-butyl-6-((2-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl)phenol).

  6. Lewis base catalyzed aldol additions of chiral trichlorosilyl enolates and silyl enol ethers.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Fujimori, Shinji; Pham, Son M

    2005-12-23

    [structures: see text] The consequences of double diastereodifferentiation in chiral Lewis base catalyzed aldol additions using chiral enoxysilanes derived from lactate, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, and 3-hydroxybutyrate have been investigated. Trichlorosilyl enolates derived from the chiral methyl and ethyl ketones were subjected to aldolization in the presence of phosphoramides, and the intrinsic selectivity of these enolates and the external stereoinduction from chiral catalyst were studied. In the reactions with the lactate derived enolate, the strong internal stereoinduction dominated the stereochemical outcome of the aldol addition. For the 3-hydroxyisobutyrate- and 3-hydroxybutyrate derived enolates, the catalyst-controlled diastereoselectivities were observed, and the resident stereogenic centers exerted marginal influence. The corresponding trimethylsilyl enol ethers were employed in SiCl4/bisphosphoramide catalyzed aldol additions, and the effect of double diastereodifferentiation was also investigated. The overall diastereoselection of the process was again controlled by the strong external influence of the catalyst.

  7. Applications of Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions that form C–N bonds have become useful methods to synthesize anilines and aniline derivatives, an important class of compounds throughout chemical research. A key factor in the widespread adoption of these methods has been the continued development of reliable and versatile catalysts that function under operationally simple, user-friendly conditions. This review provides an overview of Pd-catalyzed N-arylation reactions found in both basic and applied chemical research from 2008 to the present. Selected examples of C–N cross-coupling reactions between nine classes of nitrogen-based coupling partners and (pseudo)aryl halides are described for the synthesis of heterocycles, medicinally relevant compounds, natural products, organic materials, and catalysts. PMID:27689804

  8. Kinetics of non-catalyzed hydrolysis of tannin in high temperature liquid water*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Li-li; Lu, Xiu-yang; Ma, Nan

    2008-01-01

    High temperature liquid water (HTLW) has drawn increasing attention as an environmentally benign medium for organic chemical reactions, especially acid-/base-catalyzed reactions. Non-catalyzed hydrolyses of gallotannin and tara tannin in HTLW for the simultaneous preparation of gallic acid (GA) and pyrogallol (PY) are under investigation in our laboratory. In this study, the hydrolysis kinetics of gallotannin and tara tannin were determined. The reaction is indicated to be a typical consecutive first-order one in which GA has formed as a main intermediate and PY as the final product. Selective decomposition of tannin in HTLW was proved to be possible by adjusting reaction temperature and time. The present results provide an important basic data and reference for the green preparation of GA and PY. PMID:18500780

  9. Kinetic study of the oxidation of 4-hydroxyanisole catalyzed by tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Espín, J C; Varón, R; Tudela, J; García-Cánovas, F

    1997-05-01

    Despite the importance of the substrate 4-hydroxyanisole in melanoma therapy, the kinetics of its oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase has never been properly characterized. This approach is reported here for the first time. The applicability to 4-hydroxyanisole of the reaction mechanism of tyrosinase previously proposed for other monophenols has been corroborated. The Michaelis constant for the oxidation of 4-hydroxyanisole catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase was (62 +/- 1.5) microM at pH 7 and increased when the pH decreased, reaching a value of (195 +/- 5) microM at pH 5.5. However the maximum steady-state rate, whose value was (0.54 +/- 0.01) microM/min, did not change with the pH. The apparent catalytic constant was (184 +/- 5) s-1, around twenty three times higher than that previously described for L-tyrosine (8 s-1).

  10. High Performance Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Batteries: A Self-Catalyzed Strategy toward Facile Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanyan; Liang, Xinmiao; Chai, Jingchao; Cui, Zili; Wang, Qinglei; He, Weisheng; Liu, Xiaochen; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Feng, Jiwen

    2017-11-01

    It is urgent to seek high performance solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) via a facile chemistry and simple process. The lithium salts are composed of complex anions that are stabilized by a Lewis acid agent. This Lewis acid can initiate the ring opening polymerization. Herein, a self-catalyzed strategy toward facile synthesis of crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether-based solid polymer electrolyte (C-PEGDE) is presented. It is manifested that the poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether-based solid polymer electrolyte possesses a superior electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V versus Li/Li + and considerable ionic conductivity of 8.9 × 10 -5 S cm -1 at ambient temperature. Moreover, the LiFePO 4 /C-PEGDE/Li batteries deliver stable charge/discharge profiles and considerable rate capability. It is demonstrated that this self-catalyzed strategy can be a very effective approach for high performance solid polymer electrolytes.

  11. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Amidation of Unactivated C(sp(3) )-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Tang, Guodong; Li, Xingwei

    2015-10-26

    Nitrogenation by direct functionalization of C-H bonds represents an important strategy for constructing C-N bonds. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct amidation of unactivated C(sp(3) )-H bonds is rare, especially under mild reaction conditions. Herein, a broad scope of C(sp(3) )-H bonds are amidated under rhodium catalysis in high efficiency using 3-substituted 1,4,2-dioxazol-5-ones as the amide source. The protocol broadens the scope of rhodium(III)-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-H activation chemistry, and is applicable to the late-stage functionalization of natural products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Stem cells catalyze cartilage formation by neonatal articular chondrocytes in 3D biomimetic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lai, Janice H; Kajiyama, Glen; Smith, Robert Lane; Maloney, William; Yang, Fan

    2013-12-19

    Cartilage loss is a leading cause of disability among adults and effective therapy remains elusive. Neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) are an attractive allogeneic cell source for cartilage repair, but their clinical translation has been hindered by scarce donor availability. Here we examine the potential for catalyzing cartilage tissue formation using a minimal number of NChons by co-culturing them with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in 3D hydrogels. Using three different co-culture models, we demonstrated that the effects of co-culture on cartilage tissue formation are dependent on the intercellular distance and cell distribution in 3D. Unexpectedly, increasing ADSC ratio in mixed co-culture led to increased synergy between NChons and ADSCs, and resulted in the formation of large neocartilage nodules. This work raises the potential of utilizing stem cells to catalyze tissue formation by neonatal chondrocytes via paracrine signaling, and highlights the importance of controlling cell distribution in 3D matrices to achieve optimal synergy.

  13. Intramolecular Benzoin Reaction Catalyzed by Benzaldehyde Lyase from Pseudomonas Fluorescens Biovar I.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Petrillo, Giovanna; Usón, Isabel; Wandtke, Claudia M; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Clapés, Pere

    2017-05-02

    Intramolecular benzoin reactions catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I (BAL) are reported. The structure of the substrates envisaged for this reaction consists of two benzaldehyde derivatives linked by an alkyl chain. The structural requirements needed to achieve the intramolecular carbon-carbon bond reaction catalyzed by BAL were established. Thus, a linker consisting of a linear alkyl chain of three carbon atoms connected through ether-type bonds to the 2 and 2' positions of two benzaldehyde moieties, which could be substituted with either Cl, Br, or OCH 3 at either the 3 and 3' or 5 and 5' positions, were suitable substrates for BAL. Reactions with 61-84 % yields of the intramolecular product and ee values between 64 and 98 %, were achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines.

    PubMed

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan

    2015-05-26

    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mg2+-dependent conformational changes and product release during DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation monitored by Bimane fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Turriani, Elisa; Höbartner, Claudia; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the deoxyribozymes catalyzing the ligation of two RNA substrates, 7S11 generates a branched RNA containing a 2′,5′-linkage. We have attached the small fluorogenic probe Bimane to the triphosphate terminated RNA substrate and utilized emission intensity and anisotropy to follow structural rearrangements leading to a catalytically active complex upon addition of Mg2+. Bimane coupled to synthetic oligonucleotides is quenched by nearby guanines via photoinduced electron transfer. The degree of quenching is sensitive to changes in the base pairing of the residues involved and in their distances to the probe. These phenomena permit the characterization of various sequential processes in the assembly and function of 7S11: binding of Mg2+ to the triphosphate moiety, release of quenching of the probe by the 5′-terminal G residues of R-RNA as they engage in secondary base-pair interactions, local rearrangement into a distinct active conformation, and continuous release of the Bimane-labeled pyrophosphate during the course of reaction at 37°C. It was possible to assign equilibrium and rate constants and structural interpretations to the sequence of conformational transitions and catalysis, information useful for optimizing the design of next generation deoxyribozymes. The fluorescent signatures, thermodynamic equilibria and catalytic function of numerous mutated (base/substituted) molecules were examined. PMID:25505142

  16. Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization Leads to a Bridged Tetracyclic Indolenine that Represses β-Lactam Resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiang

    2015-08-10

    A gold-catalyzed desilylative cyclization was developed for facile synthesis of bridged tetracyclic indolenines, a common motif in many natural indole alkaloids. An antimicrobial screen of the cyclization products identified one compound which selectively potentiates β-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and re-sensitizes a variety of MRSA strains to β-lactams. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioselective Synthesis of Chiral Cyclopent-2-enones by Nickel-Catalyzed Desymmetrization of Malonate Esters.

    PubMed

    Karad, Somnath Narayan; Panchal, Heena; Clarke, Christopher; Lewis, William; Lam, Hon Wai

    2018-05-16

    The enantioselective synthesis of highly functionalized chiral cyclopent-2-enones by the reaction of alkynyl malonate esters with arylboronic acids is described. These desymmetrizing arylative cyclizations are catalyzed by a chiral phosphinooxazoline-nickel complex, and cyclization is enabled by the reversible E/Z isomerization of alkenylnickel species. The general methodology is also applicable to the synthesis of 1,6-dihydropyridin-3(2H)-ones. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Copper-catalyzed formic acid synthesis from CO2 with hydrosilanes and H2O.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Kashiwame, Daiki; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Baba, Toshihide

    2012-05-18

    A copper-catalyzed formic acid synthesis from CO2 with hydrosilanes has been accomplished. The Cu(OAc)2·H2O-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene system is highly effective for the formic acid synthesis under 1 atm of CO2. The TON value approached 8100 in 6 h. The reaction pathway was revealed by in situ NMR analysis and isotopic experiments.

  19. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Becky; Park, Rokjin J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gong, Sunling

    2009-01-01

    We use observations of the oxygen-17 excess (Δ17O) of sulfate in the Arctic to quantify the sulfate source from aqueous SO2 (S(IV)) oxidation by O2 catalyzed by transition metals. Due to the lack of photochemically produced OH and H2O2 in high latitudes during winter, combined with high anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the Northern Hemisphere, oxidation by O3 is predicted to dominate sulfate formation during winter in this region. However, Δ17O measurements of sulfate aerosol collected in Alert, Canada, are not consistent with O3 as the dominant oxidant and indicate that a S(IV) oxidant with near-zero Δ17O values (O2) is important during winter. We use a global chemical transport model to interpret quantitatively the Alert observations and assess the global importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale anthropogenic and natural atmospheric metal concentrations to primary anthropogenic sulfate and dust concentrations, respectively. The solubility and oxidation state of these metals is determined by cloud liquid water content, source, and sunlight. By including metal-catalyzed S(IV) oxidation, the model is consistent with the Δ17O magnitudes in the Alert data during winter. Globally, we find that this mechanism contributes 9-17% to sulfate production. The inclusion of metal-catalyzed oxidation does not resolve model discrepancies with surface SO2 and sulfate observations in Europe. Oxygen isotope measurements of sulfate aerosols collected near anthropogenic and dust sources of metals would help to verify the importance of this sulfur oxidation pathway.

  20. Regioselective Ni-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols with Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Gang; Shuai, Bin; Ma, Cong; Zhang, Xiu-Jie; Fang, Ping; Mei, Tian-Sheng

    2017-06-02

    An efficient Ni-catalyzed reductive carboxylation of allylic alcohols with CO 2 has been successfully developed, providing linear β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids as the sole regioisomer with generally high E/Z stereoselectivity. In addition, the carboxylic acids can be generated from propargylic alcohols via hydrogenation to give allylic alcohol intermediates, followed by carboxylation. A preliminary mechanistic investigation suggests that the hydrogenation step is made possible by a Ni hydride intermediate produced by a hydrogen atom transfer from water.

  1. A combined mechanistic and computational study of the gold(I)-catalyzed formation of substituted indenes.

    PubMed

    Nun, Pierrick; Gaillard, Sylvain; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P

    2011-01-07

    Substituted indenes can be prepared after a sequence [1,3] O-acyl shift-hydroarylation-[1,3] O-acyl shift. Each step is catalyzed by a cationic NHC-Gold(I) species generated in situ after reaction between [(IPr)AuOH] and HBF(4)·OEt(2). This interesting silver-free way is fully supported by a computational study justifying the formation of each intermediate.

  2. Synthesis of substituted isoquinolines utilizing palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of ketones

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Timothy J.; Pilgrim, Ben S.; Jones, Geraint R.; Bassuto, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of sequential palladium-catalyzed α-arylation and cyclization reactions provides a general approach to an array of isoquinolines and their corresponding N-oxides. This methodology allows the convergent combination of readily available precursors in a regioselective manner and in excellent overall yields. This powerful route to polysubstituted isoquinolines, which is not limited to electron rich moieties, also allows rapid access to analogues of biologically active compounds. PMID:22753504

  3. Transfer Hydro-dehalogenation of Organic Halides Catalyzed by Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    You, Tingjie; Wang, Zhenrong; Chen, Jiajia; Xia, Yuanzhi

    2017-02-03

    A simple and efficient Ru(II)-catalyzed transfer hydro-dehalogenation of organic halides using 2-propanol solvent as the hydride source was reported. This methodology is applicable for hydro-dehalogenation of a variety of aromatic halides and α-haloesters and amides without additional ligand, and quantitative yields were achieved in many cases. The potential synthetic application of this method was demonstrated by efficient gram-scale transformation with catalyst loading as low as 0.5 mol %.

  4. Flavins secreted by bacterial cells of Shewanella catalyze cathodic oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Matsuda, Shoichi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2012-06-01

    On Her Majesty's Secrete Service: Oxygen reduction is an important process for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC). We demonstrate that flavins secreted by anode-respiring Shewanella cells can catalyze cathodic oxygen reduction via adsorption on the cathode. The findings will provide new insight for developing methods to improve MFC performance and to prevent MIC. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ligand-controlled, norbornene-mediated, regio- and diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkene hydrosilylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Scaggs, William R; Jeon, Junha

    2013-07-05

    Ligand-controlled, norbornene-mediated, regio- and diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkene hydrosilylation of homoallyl silyl ethers (1) exploiting either BINAP or 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane (dpph) has been developed. This method permits selective access to either trans-oxasilacyclopentanes (trans-2) or oxasilacyclohexanes (3) at will. A substoichiometric amount of norbornene markedly increased both yield and selectivity. A norbornene-mediated hydride shuttle process is discussed.

  6. The first characterization of free radicals formed from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Law, Benedict; Qian, Steven Y

    2013-04-01

    Through free radical-mediated peroxidation, cyclooxygenase (COX) can metabolize dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to form well-known bioactive metabolites, namely, the 1-series of prostaglandins (PGs1) and the 2-series of prostaglandins (PGs2), respectively. Unlike PGs2, which are generally viewed as proinflammatory and procarcinogenic PGs, PGs1 may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Previous studies using ovine COX along with spin trapping and the LC/ESR/MS technique have shown that certain exclusive free radicals are generated from different free radical reactions in DGLA and AA peroxidation. However, it has been unclear whether the differences were associated with the contrasting bioactivity of DGLA vs AA. The aim of this study was to refine the LC/MS and spin trapping technique to make it possible for the association between free radicals and cancer cell growth to be directly tested. Using a colon cancer cell line, HCA-7 colony 29, and LC/MS along with a solid-phase extraction, we were able to characterize the reduced forms of radical adducts (hydroxylamines) as the free radicals generated from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation. For the first time, free radicals formed in the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA vs DGLA and their association with cancer cell growth were assessed (cell proliferation via MTS and cell cycle distribution via propidium iodide staining) in the same experimental setting. The exclusive free radicals formed from the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA and DGLA were shown to be correlated with the cell growth response. Our results indicate that free radicals generated from the distinct radical reactions in COX-catalyzed peroxidation may represent the novel metabolites of AA and DGLA that correspond to their contrasting bioactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The First Characterization of Free Radicals Formed From Cellular COX-Catalyzed Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Law, Benedict; Qian, Steven Y.

    2014-01-01

    Through free radical-mediated peroxidation, cyclooxygenase (COX) can metabolize dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid(AA) to form well-known bioactive metabolites, namely, the 1-series of prostaglandins (PGs1) and 2-series of prostaglandins(PGs2), respectively. Unlike PGs2, which are generally viewed as pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic PGs, PGs1 may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Previous studies using ovine COX along with spin trapping and the LC/ESR/MS technique have shown that certain exclusive free radicals are generated from different free radical reactions in DGLA and AA peroxidation. However, it has been unclear whether the differences were associated with the contrasting bioactivity of DGLA vs. AA. The aim of this study was to refine the LC/MS and spin-trapping technique to make it possible for the association between free radicals and cancer cell growth to be directly tested. Using a colon cancer cell line, HCA-7 colony 29, and LC/MS along with a solid phase extraction, we were able to characterize the reduced forms of radical adducts (hydroxylamines) as the free radicals generated from cellular COX-catalyzed peroxidation. For the first time, free radicals formed in the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA vs. DGLA and their association with cancer cell growth was assessed (cell proliferation via MTS and cell cycle distribution via PI staining) in the same experimental setting. The exclusive free radicals formed from the COX-catalyzed peroxidation of AA and DGLA were shown to be correlated with the cell growth response. Our results indicate that free radicals generated from the distinct radical reactions in COX-catalyzed peroxidation may represent the novel metabolites of AA and DGLA that correspond to their contrasting bioactivity. PMID:23261941

  8. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  9. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by selenium(IV)-containing peroxotungstate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiwen; He, Qihui; Zhang, Zheng; Ding, Naidong; Hu, Baixing

    2011-11-28

    With stoichiometric H(2)O(2) as oxidant, dibenzothiophene (DBT) is oxidized to its corresponding sulfone with high efficiency, catalyzed by a sub-valence heteronuclear peroxotungstate, [C(18)H(37)N(CH(3))(3)](4)[H(2)Se(IV)(3)W(6)O(34)], under mild biphase conditions and the catalyst shows remarkable selectivity of catalytic oxidation towards DBT, cinnamyl alcohol and quinoline.

  10. The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii system with a "clock" behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melicherčík, Milan; Treindl, L̆udovít

    1991-07-01

    The ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii oscillatory system with methyl-, ethyl-, or isopropyl-ester of 3-oxobutanoic acid exhibits a "clock" behaviour and subsequent two-frequency oscillations. The influence of oxygen on the "clock" behaviour is assumed to be caused by an interaction of oxygen as a scavenger with intermediary radicals. A mechanism of the "clock" behaviour together with two-frequency oscillations of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii type will be developed later.

  11. Copper-catalyzed oxidative Heck reactions between alkyltrifluoroborates and vinyl arenes.

    PubMed

    Liwosz, Timothy W; Chemler, Sherry R

    2013-06-21

    We report herein that potassium alkyltrifluoroborates can be utilized in oxidative Heck-type reactions with vinyl arenes. The reaction is catalyzed by a Cu(OTf)2/1,10-phenanthroline with MnO2 as the stoichiometric oxidant. In addition to the alkyl Heck, amination, esterification, and dimerization reactions of alkyltrifluoroborates are demonstrated under analogous reaction conditions. Evidence for an alkyl radical intermediate is presented.

  12. Indole synthesis by palladium-catalyzed tandem allylic isomerization - furan Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Wipf, Peter

    2017-08-30

    A Pd(0)-catalyzed elimination of an allylic acetate generates a π-allyl complex that is postulated to initiate a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition to a tethered furan (IMDAF). Under the reaction conditions, this convergent, microwave-accelerated cascade process provides substituted indoles in moderate to good yields after Pd-hydride elimination, aromatization by dehydration, and in situ N-Boc cleavage.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C-H Allylation of Electron-Deficient Polyfluoroarenes with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Breit, Bernhard

    2018-04-06

    A palladium-catalyzed intermolecular direct C-H allylation of polyfluoroarenes with alkynes is reported. Unlike classic hydroarylation reactions, alkynes are used as allylic electrophile surrogates in this direct aromatic C-H allylation. As an atom-economic and efficient method, various linear allylated fluoroarenes were synthesized from two simple and easy-to-access feedstocks in good to excellent yields, as well as regio- and stereoselectivity.

  14. An enantioselective approach to the preparation of chiral sulfones by Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Byron K; Zhou, Taigang; Rujirawanich, Janjira; Cadu, Alban; Singh, Thishana; Rabten, Wangchuk; Kerdphon, Sutthichat; Andersson, Pher G

    2014-11-26

    Several chiral sulfonyl compounds were prepared using the iridium catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation reaction. Vinylic, allylic and homoallylic sulfone substitutions were investigated, and high enantioselectivity is maintained regardless of the location of the olefin with respect to the sulfone. Impressive stereoselectivity was obtained for dialkyl substitutions, which typically are challenging substrates in the hydrogenation. As expected, the more bulky Z-substrates were hydrogenated slower than the corresponding E isomers, and in slightly lower enantioselectivity.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Fenster, Erik; Grenning, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates is described. The reaction proceeds though a palladium π-benzyl-like complex and allows for many different types of C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles to be regioselectively added to the biologically active coumarin motif. This new method was utilized to prepare a 128-membered library of aminated coumarins for biological screening. PMID:23019448

  16. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration of γ,δ-unsaturated amide derivatives: δ-borylated amides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, G L; Zhang, S; Takacs, J M

    2018-05-08

    γ,δ-Unsaturated amides in which the alkene moiety bears an aryl or heteroaryl substituent undergo regioselective rhodium-catalyzed δ-borylation by pinacolborane to afford chiral secondary benzylic boronic esters. The results contrast the γ-borylation of γ,δ-unsaturated amides in which the disubstituted alkene moiety bears only alkyl substituents; the reversal in regiochemistry is coupled with a reversal in the sense of π-facial selectivity.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboxylation of Unactivated Alkanes to Allylic Esters via Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV–vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C–H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C–H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper–carboxylate, copper–amidate, and copper–imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)–amidate > Cu(II)–imidate > Cu(II)–benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)–amidates and Cu(II)–benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  18. Copper-Catalyzed γ-Selective and Stereospecific Allylic Cross-Coupling with Secondary Alkylboranes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Yuto; Nagao, Kazunori; Shido, Yoshinori; Mori, Seiji; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2015-06-26

    The scope of the copper-catalyzed coupling reactions between organoboron compounds and allylic phosphates is expanded significantly by employing triphenylphosphine as a ligand for copper, allowing the use of secondary alkylboron compounds. The reaction proceeds with complete γ-E-selectivity and preferential 1,3-syn stereoselectivity. The reaction of γ-silicon-substituted allylic phosphates affords enantioenriched α-stereogenic allylsilanes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis of aza-fused polycyclic quinolines through copper-catalyzed cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qian; Li, Zhengqiu; Wei, Jiajia; Fu, Liangbin; Ha, Chengyong; Pei, Duanqing; Ding, Ke

    2010-04-02

    A new and efficient method for the synthesis of aza-fused polycyclic quinolines (e.g., benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines) is described. This protocol includes an intermolecular condensation followed by a copper-catalyzed intramolecular C-N coupling reaction. The method is applied to a wide range of 2-iodo, 2-bromo, and 2-chloro aryl aldehyde substrates to yield the aza-fused polycyclic quinolines in good yields.

  20. Ferrier sulfamidoglycosylation of glycals catalyzed by nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate: towards new carbonic anhydrase glycoinhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ombouma, Joanna; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves

    2014-11-15

    Ferrier sulfamidoglycosylation of glycals catalyzed by nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate allowed the preparation of hydroxysulfamide glycosides in good yields with a good α stereoselectivity. A variety of mono-saccharide derivatives was synthesized using this new methodology leading to selective and powerful glycoinhibitors of the tumor associated carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms CA IX and CA XII. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. C–H bond halogenation catalyzed or mediated by copper: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Carbon–halogen (C–X) bonds are amongst the most fundamental groups in organic synthesis, they are frequently and widely employed in the synthesis of numerous organic products. The generation of a C–X bond, therefore, constitutes an issue of universal interest. Herein, the research advances on the copper-catalyzed and mediated C–X (X = F, Cl, Br, I) bond formation via direct C–H bond transformation is reviewed. PMID:26664634

  2. Enantioselective Cobalt-Catalyzed Sequential Nazarov Cyclization/Electrophilic Fluorination: Access to Chiral α-Fluorocyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heyi; Cheng, Biao; Lu, Zhan

    2018-06-20

    A newly designed thiazoline iminopyridine ligand for enantioselective cobalt-catalyzed sequential Nazarov cyclization/electrophilic fluorination was developed. Various chiral α-fluorocyclopentenones were prepared with good yields and diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Further derivatizations could be easily carried out to provide chiral cyclopentenols with three contiguous stereocenters. Furthermore, a direct deesterification of fluorinated products could afford chiral α-single fluorine-substituted cyclopentenones.

  3. Bimetallic Cobalt-Rhodium Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Reductive Amination of Aldehydes with Nitroarenes Under Atmospheric Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Choi, Isaac; Chun, Supill; Chung, Young Keun

    2017-12-01

    A cobalt-rhodium heterobimetallic nanoparticle (Co 2 Rh 2 /C)-catalyzed tandem reductive amination of aldehydes with nitroaromatics to sec-amines has been developed. The tandem reaction proceeds without any additives under mild conditions (1 atm H 2 and 25 °C). This procedure can be scaled up to the gram scale, and the catalyst can be reused more than six times without loss of activity.

  4. α-Amination of aldehydes catalyzed by in situ generated hypoiodite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jie-Sheng; Ng, Kang Wai Jeffrey; Wong, Jiun-Ru; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2012-09-03

    The metal-free amination of different aldehydes is catalyzed by hypoiodite, which is generated by employing commercially available sodium percarbonate as the co-oxidant. This approach has several advantages: it is a metal-free oxidation that works under mild reaction conditions; furthermore, it has a wide substrate scope and does not give toxic by-products from the co-oxidant that is used. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Indole, Pyrrole, and Furan Arylation by Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Lazareva, Anna; Daugulis, Olafs

    2011-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of indoles, pyrroles, and furans by aryl chlorides has been demonstrated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, 2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)-biphenyl ligand, and an inorganic base. Electron-rich and electron-poor aryl chlorides as well as chloropyridine coupling partners can be used and arylated heterocycles are obtained in moderate to good yields. Optimization of base, ligand, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:21192652

  6. Ti-Catalyzed Multicomponent Oxidative Carboamination of Alkynes with Alkenes and Diazenes

    PubMed Central

    Davis-Gilbert, Zachary W.; Yao, Letitia J.; Tonks, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    The inter- or intramolecular oxidative carboamination of alkynes catalyzed by [py2TiCl2NPh]2 is reported. These multicomponent reactions couple alkenes, alkynes and diazenes to form either α,β-unsaturated imines or α-(iminomethyl)cyclopropanes via a TiII/TiIV redox cycle. Each of these products is formed from a common azatitanacyclohexene intermediate that undergoes either β-H elimination or α,γ-coupling, wherein the selectivity is under substrate control. PMID:27790910

  7. Dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) by combined amine- and transition-metal-catalyzed enantioselective cycloisomerization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Ling; Ullah, Farman; Deiana, Luca; Lin, Shuangzheng; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Junliang; Ibrahem, Ismail; Dziedzic, Pawel; Córdova, Armando

    2010-02-01

    The first examples of one-pot highly chemo- and enantioselective dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformations (DYKATs) involving alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and propargylated carbon acids are presented. These DYKATs, which proceed by a combination of catalytic iminium activation, enamine activation, and Pd(0)-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerization, give access to functionalized cyclopentenes with up to 99 % ee and can be used for the generation of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters.

  8. Reversibility of Noble Metal-Catalyzed Aprotic Li-O₂ Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shunchao; Wu, Yang; Wang, Jiawei; Zhang, Yelong; Zhang, Yantao; Yan, Xinxiu; Wei, Yang; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jiaping; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan; Xu, Ye; Peng, Zhangquan

    2015-12-09

    The aprotic Li-O2 battery has attracted a great deal of interest because, theoretically, it can store far more energy than today's batteries. Toward unlocking the energy capabilities of this neotype energy storage system, noble metal-catalyzed high surface area carbon materials have been widely used as the O2 cathodes, and some of them exhibit excellent electrochemical performances in terms of round-trip efficiency and cycle life. However, whether these outstanding electrochemical performances are backed by the reversible formation/decomposition of Li2O2, i.e., the desired Li-O2 electrochemistry, remains unclear due to a lack of quantitative assays for the Li-O2 cells. Here, noble metal (Ru and Pd)-catalyzed carbon nanotube (CNT) fabrics, prepared by magnetron sputtering, have been used as the O2 cathode in aprotic Li-O2 batteries. The catalyzed Li-O2 cells exhibited considerably high round-trip efficiency and prolonged cycle life, which could match or even surpass some of the best literature results. However, a combined analysis using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, revealed that these catalyzed Li-O2 cells (particularly those based on Pd-CNT cathodes) did not work according to the desired Li-O2 electrochemistry. Instead the presence of noble metal catalysts impaired the cells' reversibility, as evidenced by the decreased O2 recovery efficiency (the ratio of the amount of O2 evolved during recharge/that consumed in the preceding discharge) coupled with increased CO2 evolution during charging. The results reported here provide new insights into the O2 electrochemistry in the aprotic Li-O2 batteries containing noble metal catalysts and exemplified the importance of the quantitative assays for the Li-O2 reactions in the course of pursuing truly rechargeable Li-O2 batteries.

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of 2-Chloroacetates and 2-Chloroacetamides

    PubMed Central

    Traister, Kaitlin M.; Barcellos, Thiago

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for the Pd-catalyzed synthesis of α-(hetero)aryl esters and amides through a Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. This method avoids the use of strong base, does not necessitate inert or low temperature formation of reagents, and does not require the use of a large excess of organometallic reagent. Utilization of organotrifluoroborate salts as nucleophilic partners allows a variety of functional groups and heterocyclic compounds to be tolerated. PMID:23570264

  10. An iron/amine-catalyzed cascade process for the enantioselective functionalization of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Adrien; Constantieux, Thierry; Rodriguez, Jean

    2013-12-02

    Three is a lucky number: An enantioselective transformation of allylic alcohols into β-chiral saturated alcohols has been developed by combining two distinct metal- and organocatalyzed catalytic cycles. This waste-free triple cascade process merges an iron-catalyzed borrowing-hydrogen step with an aminocatalyzed nucleophilic addition reaction. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. One-pot, two-step desymmetrization of symmetrical benzils catalyzed by the methylsulfinyl (dimsyl) anion.

    PubMed

    Ragno, Daniele; Bortolini, Olga; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Massi, Alessandro; Pacifico, Salvatore; Zaghi, Anna

    2014-08-14

    An operationally simple one-pot, two-step procedure for the desymmetrization of benzils is herein described. This consists in the chemoselective cross-benzoin reaction of symmetrical benzils with aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by the methyl sulfinyl (dimsyl) anion, followed by microwave-assisted oxidation of the resulting benzoylated benzoins with nitrate, avoiding the costly isolation procedure. Both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents may be accommodated on the aromatic rings of the final unsymmetrical benzil.

  12. General Synthesis of Alkenyl Sulfides by Palladium-Catalyzed Thioetherification of Alkenyl Halides and Tosylates.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Noelia; Virumbrales, Cintia; Sanz, Roberto; Suárez-Pantiga, Samuel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A

    2018-05-08

    The cross-coupling reaction of alkenyl bromides with thiols catalyzed by palladium complexes derived from inexpensive dppf ligand is reported. These reactions occur under low catalyst loading and in high yields and display wide scope, including the coupling of bulky thiols and trisubstituted bromoolefins, and functional group tolerance. In addition, the thioetherification of less reactive chloroalkenes and, for the first time, alkenyl tosylates was accomplished using a catalyst generated from CyPF tBu alkylbisphosphine ligand.

  13. Base catalyzed synthesis of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Boehringer, Régis; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel

    2015-07-07

    The base-catalyzed reaction of achiral 1,3-cyclopentanediones tethered to activated olefins afforded in high yields bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6,8-dione or bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate derivatives bearing respectively three or five stereogenic centers. The course of the reaction is closely related to the reaction time and to the base involved in the reaction.

  14. Iron(II)-catalyzed intramolecular aminohydroxylation of olefins with functionalized hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guan-Sai; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Yuan, Yong-An; Xu, Hao

    2013-03-06

    A diastereoselective aminohydroxylation of olefins with a functionalized hydroxylamine is catalyzed by new iron(II) complexes. This efficient intramolecular process readily affords synthetically useful amino alcohols with excellent selectivity (dr up to > 20:1). Asymmetric catalysis with chiral iron(II) complexes and preliminary mechanistic studies reveal an iron nitrenoid is a possible intermediate that can undergo either aminohydroxylation or aziridination, and the selectivity can be controlled by careful selection of counteranion/ligand combinations.

  15. Copper(I)-catalyzed aryl bromides to form intermolecular and intramolecular carbon-oxygen bonds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jiajia; Guo, Pengran; Kang, Juntao; Li, Zhigang; Xu, Jingwei; Hu, Shaojing

    2009-07-17

    A highly efficient Cu-catalyzed C-O bond-forming reaction of alcohol and aryl bromides has been developed. This transformation was realized through the use of copper(I) iodide as a catalyst, 8-hydroxyquinoline as a ligand, and K(3)PO(4) as a base. A variety of functionalized substrates were found to react under these reaction conditions to provide products in good to excellent yields.

  16. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines assisted by a thiourea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingyang; Wen, Jialin; Tan, Renchang; Huang, Kexuan; Metola, Pedro; Wang, Rui; Anslyn, Eric V; Zhang, Xumu

    2014-08-04

    Asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines catalyzed by rhodium/bis(phosphine)-thiourea provided chiral amines with up to 97% yield and 95% ee. (1)H NMR studies, coupled with control experiments, implied that catalytic chloride-bound intermediates were involved in the mechanism through a dual hydrogen-bonding interaction. Deuteration experiments proved that the hydrogenation proceeded through a pathway consistent with an imine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective addition of 2-pyridones to terminal allenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Changkun; Kähny, Matthias; Breit, Bernhard

    2014-12-08

    A rhodium-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective addition of 2-pyridones to terminal allenes to give branched N-allyl 2-pyridones is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies support the hypothesis that the reaction was initiated from the more acidic 2-hydroxypyridine form, and the initial kinetic O-allylation product was finally converted into the thermodynamically more stable N-allyl 2-pyridones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rhodium-catalyzed C-H functionalization with N-acylsaccharins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxiang; Liu, Tingting; Cui, Ming; Li, Yue; Jian, Junsheng; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Zhuo

    2017-01-18

    A rhodium-catalyzed C-H functionalization with activated amides by decarbonylation has been developed. Notably, this is the first C-H arylation employing N-acylsaccharins as coupling partners to give biaryls in good to excellent yields. The highlight of the work is the high tolerance of functional groups such as formyl, ester, and vinyl and the use of a removable directing group.

  19. Regioselective syntheses of 1,2-benzothiazines by rhodium-catalyzed annulation reactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Bolm, Carsten

    2015-10-12

    Rhodium-catalyzed directed carbene insertions into aromatic CH bonds of S-aryl sulfoximines lead to intermediates, which upon dehydration provide 1,2-benzothiazines in excellent yields. The domino-type process is regioselective and shows a high functional-group tolerance. It is scalable, and the only by-products are dinitrogen and water. Three illustrative transformations underscore the synthetic value of the products. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lewis acid catalysis and ligand exchange in the asymmetric binaphthol-catalyzed propargylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Matthew N; Goodman, Jonathan M

    2013-09-06

    1,1'-Bi-2-naphthol (BINOL)-derived catalysts catalyze the asymmetric propargylation of ketones. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the reaction proceeds via a closed six-membered transition structure (TS) in which the chiral catalyst undergoes an exchange process with the original cyclic boronate ligand. This leads to a Lewis acid type activation mode, not a Brønsted acid process, which accurately predicts the stereochemical outcome observed experimentally.

  1. Synthesis of oxindole from acetanilide via Ir(iii)-catalyzed C-H carbenoid functionalization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pitambar; Borah, Gongutri

    2016-12-22

    Herein we disclose the first report on the synthesis of oxindole derivatives from acetanilide via Ir(iii)-catalyzed intermolecular C-H functionalization with diazotized Meldrum's acid. A broad range of substituted anilides were found to react smoothly under the Ir(iii)-catalytic system to afford the corresponding N-protected oxindoles. The N-protecting groups, such as Ac, Bz or Piv, can be easily removed to furnish the oxindole. Various synthetic applications of the synthesized oxindole were also demonstrated.

  2. Reverse the diastereoselectivity of the Rh(I)-catalyzed Pauson-Khand cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Turlington, Mark; Pu, Lin

    2011-08-19

    It is discovered that the diastereoselectivity of the Rh(I)-catalyzed Pauson-Khand cycloaddition of chiral enynes can be reversed to generate the trans diastereomer as the major product in the absence of a chelate phosphine ligand when the substrate contains an appropriate functional group capable of chelate coordination to the Rh(I) center. This expands the application of the Rh(I)-based catalytic processes to prepare both the cis and trans stereoisomers. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Computationally designed and experimentally confirmed diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Baik, Mu-Hyun; Mazumder, Shivnath; Ricci, Paolo; Sawyer, James R; Song, Ye-Geun; Wang, Huijun; Evans, P Andrew

    2011-05-25

    The computational analysis of the rhodium-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction indicates that the key transition state is highly charge-polarized, wherein different diastereoisomers have distinctively different charge polarization patterns. Experimental studies demonstrate that chloro-enynes provide the optimal σ-electron-withdrawing group to promote polarization and thereby reduce the activation barrier to provide a highly diastereoselective reaction at room temperature.

  4. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    PubMed

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Step into an eco-Compatible Future: Iron- and Cobalt-catalyzed Borrowing Hydrogen Transformation.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Adrien; Rodriguez, Jean

    2016-01-08

    Living on borrowed hydrogen: Recent developments in iron- and cobalt-catalyzed borrowing hydrogen have shown that economically reliable catalysts can be used in this type of waste-free reactions. By using well-defined inexpensive catalysts, known reactions can now be run efficiently without the necessary use of noble metals; however, in addition new types of reactivity can also be discovered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Iron-Catalyzed C-O Bond Activation: Opportunity for Sustainable Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bisz, Elwira; Szostak, Michal

    2017-10-23

    Oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as some of the most valuable cross-coupling partners in organic synthesis due to several major strategic and environmental benefits, such as abundance and potential to avoid toxic halide waste. In this context, iron-catalyzed C-O activation/cross-coupling holds particular promise to achieve sustainable catalytic protocols due to its natural abundance, inherent low toxicity, and excellent economic and ecological profile. Recently, tremendous progress has been achieved in the development of new methods for functional-group-tolerant iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions by selective C-O cleavage. These methods establish highly attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions by using halides as electrophilic partners. In particular, new easily accessible oxygen-based electrophiles have emerged as substrates in iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, which significantly broaden the scope of this catalysis platform. New mechanistic manifolds involving iron catalysis have been established; thus opening up vistas for the development of a wide range of unprecedented reactions. The synthetic potential of this sustainable mode of reactivity has been highlighted by the development of new strategies in the construction of complex motifs, including in target synthesis. The most recent advances in sustainable iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of C-O-based electrophiles are reviewed, with a focus on both mechanistic aspects and synthetic utility. It should be noted that this catalytic manifold provides access to motifs that are often not easily available by other methods, such as the assembly of stereodefined dienes or C(sp 2 )-C(sp 3 ) cross-couplings, thus emphasizing the synthetic importance of this mode of reactivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Use of Aryl Chlorides as Electrophiles in Pd-Catalyzed Alkene Difunctionalization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Brandon R.; Ney, Joshua E.; Wolfe, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The development of conditions that allow use of inexpensive aryl chlorides as electrophiles in Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination and carboetherification reactions is described. A catalyst composed of Pd(OAc)2 and S-Phos minimizes N-arylation of the substrate and prevents formation of mixtures of regioisomeric products. A number of heterocycles, including pyrrolidines, isoxazolidines, tetrahydrofurans, and pyrazolidines, are efficiently generated with this method. PMID:20297834

  8. Dinuclear Zinc-Prophenol-Catalyzed Enantioselective α-Hydroxyacetate Aldol Reaction with Activated Ester Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Michaelis, David J.; Truica, Mihai I.

    2013-01-01

    An enantioselective α-hydroxyacetate aldol reaction that employs N-acetyl pyrroles as activated ester equivalents and generates syn 1,2-diols in good yield and diastereoselectivity is reported. This dinuclear zinc Prophenol-catalyzed transformation proceeds with high enantioselectivity with a wide variety of substrates including aryl, alyl, and alkenyl aldehydes. The resulting α,β-dihydroxy activated esters are versatile intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic acid derivatives including amides, esters, and unsymmetrical ketones. PMID:23947595

  9. Dual palladium- and proline-catalyzed allylic alkylation of enolizable ketones and aldehydes with allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Usui, Ippei; Schmidt, Stefan; Breit, Bernhard

    2009-03-19

    The dual Pd/proline-catalyzed alpha-allylation reaction of a variety of enolizable ketones and aldehydes with allylic alcohols is described. In this reaction, the choice of a large-bite angle ligand Xantphos and proline as the organocatalyst was essential for generation of the crucial pi-allyl Pd intermediate from allylic alcohol, followed by nucleophilic attack of the enamine formed in situ from the corresponding enolizable carbonyl substrate and proline.

  10. Highly efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols to ketones and aldehydes with diaziridinone.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingguang; Zhao, Baoguo; Shi, Yian

    2013-03-01

    A novel and efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols has been achieved with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as the oxidant under mild conditions. A wide variety of primary and secondary alcohols with various functional groups can be oxidized to aldehydes and ketones in high yields. The reaction proceeds under neutral conditions making it compatible with acid- or base-sensitive substrates, and it is amenable to gram scale.

  11. Efficient palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohu; Liu, Delong; Xie, Fang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Wanbin

    2011-03-21

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ketones, via enamines generated in situ as nucleophiles, were carried out smoothly with chiral metallocene-based P,N-ligands. Under the same conditions, however, reactions of aldehydes could hardly be observed. Subsequently, this obstacle was resolved by using chiral metallocene-based P,P-ligands. Both ketones and aldehydes afforded excellent enantioselectivities with up to 98% ee and 94% ee, respectively.

  12. Highly Efficient Cu(I)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols to Ketones and Aldehydes with Diaziridinone

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingguang; Zhao, Baoguo

    2013-01-01

    A novel and efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidation of alcohols has been achieved with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as oxidant under mild conditions. A wide variety of primary and secondary alcohols with various functional groups can be oxidized to aldehydes and ketones in high yields. The reaction proceeds under neutral conditions making it compatible with acid or base-sensitive substrates, and it is amenable to gram scale. PMID:23413952

  13. N-Triflylthiophosphoramide Catalyzed Enantioselective Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of Aldehydes with Silyl Enol Ethers of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature. PMID:20465277

  14. N-triflylthiophosphoramide catalyzed enantioselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes with silyl enol ethers of ketones.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Cheol Hong; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-04

    The first Brønsted acid catalyzed asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reaction of aldehydes using silyl enol ethers of ketones as nucleophiles has been reported. A variety of aldehydes and silyl enol ethers of ketones afforded the aldol products in excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Mechanistic studies revealed that the actual catalyst may be changed from the silylated Brønsted acid to the Brønsted acid itself depending on the reaction temperature.

  15. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  16. Convenient and General Zinc‐Catalyzed Borylation of Aryl Diazonium Salts and Aryltriazenes under Mild Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xinxin; Jiang, Li‐Bing; Zhou, Chao; Peng, Jin‐Bao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A convenient and general zinc‐catalyzed borylation of aryl diazonium salts and aryltriazenes has been developed. With bis‐ (pinacolato)diboron as the borylation reagent, aryldiazonium tetrafluoroborate salts and aryltriazenes were transformed into the corresponding arylboronates in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. As a convenient and practical methodology, no additional ligands, base, or any other additives are required here. PMID:28638765

  17. Copper-catalyzed aerobic spirocyclization of biaryl-N-H-imines via 1,4-aminooxygenation of benzene rings.

    PubMed

    Tnay, Ya Lin; Chen, Cheng; Chua, Yi Yuan; Zhang, Line; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2012-07-06

    A synthetic method of azaspirocyclohexadienones has been developed through copper-catalyzed aerobic spirocyclization of biaryl-N-H-imines prepared by the reaction of biarylcarbonitriles and Grignard reagents.

  18. Rh-Catalyzed Annulations of N-Methoxybenzamides and Ketenimines: Sterically and Electronically Controlled Synthesis of Isoquinolinones and Isoindolinones.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Zhang, Zhiyin; Zhao, Hongyang; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2017-04-07

    Rhodium-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation reactions of ketenimines with N-methoxybenzamides are reported. The outcome of reactions is dependent on the structure of ketenimines. The β-alkyl-substituted ketenimines furnish 3-iminoisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones in a formal [4 + 2] annulation manner, while the β-ester substituted ketenimines afford 3-aminoisoindolin-1-ones in a formal [4 + 1] annulation manner. The synthesized [4 + 2] products undergo an intramolecular Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling to be converted to benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-b]isoquinolin-11-ones, which can be directly prepared from ketenimines and N-methoxybenzamides by a one-pot Rh-catalyzed annulation/Cu-catalyzed C-N coupling sequence.

  19. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol Mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 Catalyzes a Bamberger Rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Schenzle, Andreas; Lenke, Hiltrud; Spain, Jim C.; Knackmuss, Hans-Joachim

    1999-01-01

    3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 is involved in the degradative pathway of 3-nitrophenol, in which it catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxylaminophenol to aminohydroquinone. To show that the reaction was really catalyzed by a single enzyme without the release of intermediates, the corresponding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from an extract of cells grown on 3-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and succinate as the carbon and energy source. 3-Hydroxylaminophenol mutase appears to be a relatively hydrophobic but soluble and colorless protein consisting of a single 62-kDa polypeptide. The pI was determined to be at pH 4.5. In a database search, the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the undigested protein and of two internal sequences of 3-hydroxylaminophenol mutase were found to be most similar to those of glutamine synthetases from different species. Hydroxylaminobenzene, 4-hydroxylaminotoluene, and 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol, but not 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate, can also serve as substrates for the enzyme. The enzyme requires no oxygen or added cofactors for its reaction, which suggests an enzymatic mechanism analogous to the acid-catalyzed Bamberger rearrangement. PMID:10049374

  20. Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw to improve sugar recovery.

    PubMed

    Ertas, Murat; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan

    2014-10-01

    A comparison study of autohydrolysis and acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis of wheat straw was performed to understand the impact of acid addition on overall sugar recovery. Autohydrolysis combined with refining is capable of achieving sugar recoveries in the mid 70s. If the addition of a small amount of acid is capable of increasing the sugar recovery even higher it may be economically attractive. Acetic, sulfuric, hydrochloric and sulfurous acids were selected for acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis pretreatments. Autohydrolysis with no acid at 190 °C showed the highest total sugar in the prehydrolyzate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 4 and 10 FPU/g for 96 h. Acid-catalyzed autohydrolysis at 190 °C with sulfurous acid showed the highest total sugar recovery of 81.2% at 4 FPU/g enzyme charge compared with 64.3% at 190 °C autohydrolysis without acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ara h 2 cross-linking catalyzed by MTGase decreases its allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-03-22

    Peanuts, whose major allergen is Ara h 2, are included among the eight major food allergens. After reduction using dithiothreitol (DTT), cross-linking of Ara h 2 could be catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), a widely used enzyme in the food industry. In this study, Ara h 2 cross-linking was catalyzed by MTGase after it was reduced by DTT. Using mass spectrometry and PLINK software, five cross-linkers were identified, and five linear allergen epitopes were found to be involved in the reactions. The IgE binding capacity of cross-linked Ara h 2 was found to be significantly lower compared to that of native and reduced Ara h 2. After simulated gastric fluid (SGF) digestion, the digested products of the cross-linked Ara h 2, again, had a significantly lower IgE binding capacity compared to untreated and reduced Ara h 2. Furthermore, reduced and cross-linked Ara h 2 (RC-Ara h 2) induced lower sensitization in mice, indicating its lower allergenicity. Reduction and MTGase-catalyzed cross-linking are effective methods to decrease the allergenicity of Ara h 2. The reactions involved linear allergen epitopes destroying the material basis of the allergenicity, and this might develop a new direction for protein desensitization processes.

  2. Intramolecular Hydroamination of Unbiased and Functionalized Primary Aminoalkenes Catalyzed by a Rhodium Aminophosphine Complex

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Lisa D.; Hartwig, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report a rhodium catalyst that exhibits high reactivity for the hydroamination of primary aminoalkenes that are unbiased toward cyclization and that possess functional groups that would not be tolerated in hydroaminations catalyzed by more electrophilic systems. This catalyst contains an unusual diaminophosphine ligand that binds to rhodium in a κ3-P,O,P mode. The reactions catalyzed by this complex typically proceed at mild temperatures (room temperature to 70 °C), occur with primary aminoalkenes lacking substituents on the alkyl chain that bias the system toward cyclization, occur with primary aminoalkenes containing chloride, ester, ether, enolizable ketone, nitrile, and unprotected alcohol functionality, and occur with primary aminoalkenes containing internal olefins. Mechanistic data imply that these reactions occur with a turnover-limiting step that is different from that of reactions catalyzed by late transition metal complexes of Pd, Pt, and Ir. This change in the turnover-limiting step and resulting high activity of the catalyst stem from favorable relative rates for protonolysis of the M-C bond to release the hydroamination product vs reversion of the aminoalkyl intermediate to regenerate the acyclic precursor. Probes for the origin of the reactivity of the rhodium complex of L1 imply that the aminophosphine groups lead to these favorable rates by effects beyond steric demands and simple electron donation to the metal center. PMID:20839807

  3. A Glutathione S-Transferase Catalyzes the Dehalogenation of Inhibitory Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Pascal D.; Horsman, Geoff P.; Yang, Hao M.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2006-01-01

    BphK is a glutathione S-transferase of unclear physiological function that occurs in some bacterial biphenyl catabolic (bph) pathways. We demonstrated that BphK of Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400 catalyzes the dehalogenation of 3-chloro 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenyl-2,4-dienoates (HOPDAs), compounds that are produced by the cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the bph pathway and that inhibit the pathway's hydrolase. A one-column protocol was developed to purify heterologously produced BphK. The purified enzyme had the greatest specificity for 3-Cl HOPDA (kcat/Km, ∼104 M−1 s−1), which it dechlorinated approximately 3 orders of magnitude more efficiently than 4-chlorobenzoate, a previously proposed substrate of BphK. The enzyme also catalyzed the dechlorination of 5-Cl HOPDA and 3,9,11-triCl HOPDA. By contrast, BphK did not detectably transform HOPDA, 4-Cl HOPDA, or chlorinated 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyls. The BphK-catalyzed dehalogenation proceeded via a ternary-complex mechanism and consumed 2 equivalents of glutathione (GSH) (Km for GSH in the presence of 3-Cl HOPDA, ∼0.1 mM). A reaction mechanism consistent with the enzyme's specificity is proposed. The ability of BphK to dehalogenate inhibitory PCB metabolites supports the hypothesis that this enzyme was recruited to facilitate PCB degradation by the bph pathway. PMID:16740949

  4. H NMR studies of substrate hydrogen exchange reactions catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, N.; Nakayama, T.; Sawada, S.

    Hydrogen exchange reactions of various L-amino acids catalyzed by L-methionine gamma-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11) have been studied. The enzyme catalyzes the rapid exchange of the alpha- and beta-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium from the solvent. The rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange was about 40 times faster than that of the enzymatic elimination reaction of the sulfur-containing amino acids. The enzyme also catalyzes the exchange reaction of alpha- and beta-hydrogens of the straight-chain L-amino acids which are not susceptible to elimination. The exchange rates of the alpha-hydrogen and the total beta-hydrogens of L-alanine and L-alpha-aminobutyrate with deuterium followed first-order kinetics. Formore » L-norvaline, L-norleucine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, and L-methionine, the rate of alpha-hydrogen exchange followed first-order kinetics, but the rate of total beta-hydrogen exchange decreased due to a primary isotope effect at the alpha-position. L-Phenylalanine and L-tryptophan slowly underwent alpha-hydrogen exchange. The pro-R hydrogen of glycine was deuterated stereospecifically.« less

  5. A Mechanistic Investigation of the Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydrofurylation of C-C Multiple Bonds.

    PubMed

    Hossein Bagi, Amin; Khaledi, Yousef; Ghari, Hossein; Arndt, Sebastian; Hashmi, A Stephen K; Yates, Brian F; Ariafard, Alireza

    2016-11-09

    The gold-catalyzed direct functionalization of aromatic C-H bonds has attracted interest for constructing organic compounds which have application in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other important fields. In the literature, two major mechanisms have been proposed for these catalytic reactions: inner-sphere syn-addition and outer-sphere anti-addition (Friedel-Crafts-type mechanism). In this article, the AuCl 3 -catalyzed hydrofurylation of allenyl ketone, vinyl ketone, ketone, and alcohol substrates is investigated with the aid of density functional theory calculations, and it is found that the corresponding functionalizations are best rationalized in terms of a novel mechanism called "concerted electrophilic ipso-substitution" (CEIS) in which the gold(III)-furyl σ-bond produced by furan auration acts as a nucleophile and attacks the protonated substrate via an outer-sphere mechanism. This unprecedented mechanism needs to be considered as an alternative plausible pathway for gold(III)-catalyzed arene functionalization reactions in future studies.

  6. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides. Atmospheric-relevant processes and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.; Eldik, R. van

    1995-01-01

    The transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides has been known for more than 100 years. There is a significant lack of information on the actual role of the transition metal-catalyzed reactions, and much of the earlier work was performed without a detailed knowledge of the chemical system. For this reason attention is focused on the role of transition metal ions in the oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides in terms of the coordination chemistry involved, as well as the stability and chemical behavior of the various participating species. The oxidation process of sulfur(IV) oxides plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry (e.g.more » acid rain formation) as well as industrial processes (e.g. desulfurization of plume gases and ore). The present report deals with the mechanism of the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfur(IV) oxides with the aim to discuss this in terms of atmospheric and chemical processes. In addition, the authors would like to emphasize the key role of oxygen in these processes. 1,076 refs.« less

  7. Self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on silicon by hydride vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhenning; André, Yamina; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Bougerol, Catherine; Leroux, Christine; Ramdani, Mohammed R; Monier, Guillaume; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

    2017-03-24

    Gold-free GaAs nanowires on silicon substrates can pave the way for monolithic integration of photonic nanodevices with silicon electronic platforms. It is extensively documented that the self-catalyzed approach works well in molecular beam epitaxy but is much more difficult to implement in vapor phase epitaxies. Here, we report the first gallium-catalyzed hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of long (more than 10 μm) GaAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates with a high integrated growth rate up to 60 μm h -1 and pure zincblende crystal structure. The growth is achieved by combining a low temperature of 600 °C with high gaseous GaCl/As flow ratios to enable dechlorination and formation of gallium droplets. GaAs nanowires exhibit an interesting bottle-like shape with strongly tapered bases, followed by straight tops with radii as small as 5 nm. We present a model that explains the peculiar growth mechanism in which the gallium droplets nucleate and rapidly swell on the silicon surface but then are gradually consumed to reach a stationary size. Our results unravel the necessary conditions for obtaining gallium-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by vapor phase epitaxy techniques.

  8. Synthesis of Quaternary Carbon Stereogenic Centers through Enantioselective Cu-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions with Vinylaluminum Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fang; McGrath, Kevin P.; Lee, Yunmi; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective allylic substitution (EAS) reactions, which involve the use of alkyl- or aryl-substituted vinylaluminum reagents and afford 1,4-dienes containing a quaternary carbon stereogenic center at their C-3 site, are disclosed. The C–C bond forming transformations are promoted by 0.5–2.5 mol % of sulfonate bearing chiral bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, furnishing the desired products efficiently (66–97% yield of isolated products) and in high site- (>98% SN2′) and enantioselectivity [up to 99:1 enantiomer ratio (er)]. To the best of our knowledge, the present report puts forward the first cases of allylic substitution reactions that result in the generation of all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers through the addition of a vinyl unit. The aryl- and vinyl-substituted vinylaluminum reagents, which cannot be prepared in high efficiency through direct reaction with diisobutylaluminum hydride, are accessed through a recently introduced Ni-catalyzed reaction of the corresponding terminal alkynes with the same inexpensive metal-hydride agent. Sequential Ni-catalyzed hydrometallations and Cu-catalyzed C–C bond forming reactions allow for efficient and selective synthesis of a range of enantiomerically enriched EAS products, which cannot cannot be accessed by previously disclosed strategies (due to inefficient vinylmetal synthesis or low reactivity and/or selectivity with Si-substituted derivatives). The utility of the protocols developed is demonstrated through a concise enantioselective synthesis of natural product bakuchiol. PMID:20860365

  9. Transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking of sodium caseinate improves oxidative stability of flaxseed oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hairan; Forssell, Pirkko; Kylli, Petri; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Buchert, Johanna; Boer, Harry; Partanen, Riitta

    2012-06-20

    Sodium caseinate was modified by transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking reaction prior to the emulsification process in order to study the effect of cross-linking on the oxidative stability of protein stabilized emulsions. The extent of the cross-linking catalyzed by different dosages of transglutaminase was investigated by following the ammonia production during the reaction and using SDS-PAGE gel. O/W emulsions prepared with the cross-linked and non-cross-linked sodium caseinates were stored for 30 days under the same conditions. Peroxide value measurement, oxygen consumption measurement, and headspace gas chromatography analysis were used to study the oxidative stability of the emulsions. The emulsion made of the cross-linked sodium caseinate showed an improved oxidative stability with reduced formation of fatty acid hydroperoxides and volatiles and a longer period of low rate oxygen consumption. The improving effect of transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking could be most likely attributed to the enhanced physical stability of the interfacial protein layer against competitive adsorption by oil oxidation products.

  10. Ga and In modified ceria as supports for cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanamani, Muthu Kumaran; Jacobs, Gary; Shafer, Wilson D.

    Ga- and In-modified ceria (Ce 0.8Ga 0.2O 2, Ce 0.8In 0.2O 2) materials were used as supports for cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The addition of Ga to ceria was found to improve CO conversion for cobalt-catalyzed FTS, while the addition of In tended to decrease it. A similar trend was observed with the Ag-promoted cobalt/ceria catalysts. Doping of ceria with Ga or In decreased methane and increased the selectivity to olefins and alcohols for Ag-promoted cobalt/ceria. The sum of the products of olefins and alcohols for various catalysts exhibited a decreasing trend as follows: Ag-Co/Ce-Ga > Ag-Co/Ce-In > Ag-Co/Ce. Resultsmore » of H 2-TPR-XANES showed that adding of Ga or In to ceria increases the fraction of Ce 3+ in the surface shell for both unpromoted and Ag-promoted catalysts in the range of temperature typical of catalyst activation. In conclusion, this partially reduced ceria plays an important role in controlling the product selectivity of cobalt-catalyzed FT synthesis.« less

  11. Ga and In modified ceria as supports for cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Gnanamani, Muthu Kumaran; Jacobs, Gary; Shafer, Wilson D.; ...

    2017-08-24

    Ga- and In-modified ceria (Ce 0.8Ga 0.2O 2, Ce 0.8In 0.2O 2) materials were used as supports for cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The addition of Ga to ceria was found to improve CO conversion for cobalt-catalyzed FTS, while the addition of In tended to decrease it. A similar trend was observed with the Ag-promoted cobalt/ceria catalysts. Doping of ceria with Ga or In decreased methane and increased the selectivity to olefins and alcohols for Ag-promoted cobalt/ceria. The sum of the products of olefins and alcohols for various catalysts exhibited a decreasing trend as follows: Ag-Co/Ce-Ga > Ag-Co/Ce-In > Ag-Co/Ce. Resultsmore » of H 2-TPR-XANES showed that adding of Ga or In to ceria increases the fraction of Ce 3+ in the surface shell for both unpromoted and Ag-promoted catalysts in the range of temperature typical of catalyst activation. In conclusion, this partially reduced ceria plays an important role in controlling the product selectivity of cobalt-catalyzed FT synthesis.« less

  12. Lewis super-acid catalyzed cyclizations: a new route to fragrance compounds.

    PubMed

    Coulombel, Lydie; Grau, Fanny; Weïwer, Michel; Favier, Isabelle; Chaminade, Xavier; Heumann, Andreas; Bayón, J Carles; Aguirre, Pedro A; Duñach, Elisabet

    2008-06-01

    This review deals with the application of Lewis super acids such as Al(III), In(III), and Sn(IV) triflates and triflimidates as catalysts in the synthesis of fragrance materials. Novel catalytic reactions involving C-C and C-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, as well as cycloisomerization processes are presented. In particular, Sn(IV) and Al(III) triflates were employed as catalysts in the selective cyclization of unsaturated alcohols to cyclic ethers, as well as in the cyclization of unsaturated carboxylic acids to lactones. The addition of thiols and thioacids to non-activated olefins, both in intra- and intermolecular versions, was efficiently catalyzed by In(III) derivatives. Sn(IV) Triflimidates catalyzed the cycloisomerization of highly substituted 1,6-dienes to gem-dimethyl-substituted cyclohexanes bearing an isopropylidene substituent. The hydroformylation of these unsaturated substrates, catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex with a bulky phosphite ligand, selectively afforded the corresponding linear aldehydes. The olfactory evaluation of selected heterocycles, carbocycles, and aldehydes synthesized is also discussed.

  13. Synthesis of Polyheteroaromatic Compounds via Rhodium-Catalyzed Multiple C-H Bond Activation and Oxidative Annulation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiyong; Liu, Suna; Zhang, Sai; Cao, Shengyu; Sun, Jiangtao

    2015-10-16

    Polyheteroaromatic compounds are potential optoelectronic conjugated materials due to their electro- and photochemical properties. Transition-metal-catalyzed multiple C-H activation and sequential oxidative annulation allows rapidly assembling of those compounds from readily available starting materials. A rhodium-catalyzed cascade oxidative annulation of β-enamino esters or 4-aminocoumarins with internal alkynes is described to access those compounds, featuring multiple C-H/N-H bond cleavages and sequential C-C/C-N bond formations in one pot.

  14. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F

    2014-11-12

    We report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from (R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  15. Chemical models and their mechanistic implications for the transformation of 6-cyanouridine 5'-monophosphate catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tun-Cheng; Jen, Cheng-Hung; Wu, Yuen-Jen; Liao, Chen-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes an unprecedented transformation of 6- cyanouridine 5'-monophosphate (6-CN-UMP) into barbiturate nucleoside 5'-monophosphate (6-hydroxyuridine 5'-monophosphate, BMP). The reactions of 6- cyano-1,3-dimethyluracil toward various nucleophilic conditions have been studied as chemical models in order to understand the possible mechanism for the ODCase-catalyzed transformation of 6-CN-UMP.

  16. Copper-catalyzed synthesis of phenanthridine derivatives under an oxygen atmosphere starting from biaryl-2-carbonitriles and Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Line; Ang, Gim Yean; Chiba, Shunsuke

    2010-08-20

    A copper-catalyzed synthesis of phenanthridine derivatives was developed starting from biaryl-2-carbonitriles and Grignard reagents. The present transformation is carried out by a sequence of nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagents to biaryl-2-carbonitriles to form N-H imines and their Cu-catalyzed C-N bond formation on the aromatic C-H bond, where molecular oxygen is a prerequisite to achieve the catalytic process.

  17. Diastereo- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylation of cyclic ketone enolates: Synergetic effect of ligands and barium enolates

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Wenyong; Chen, Ming; Hartwig, John F.

    2014-10-22

    Here, we report asymmetric allylic alkylation of barium enolates of cyclic ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex containing a phosphoramidite ligand derived from ( R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethylamine. The reaction products contain adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. This process demonstrates that unstabilized cyclic ketone enolates can undergo diastereo- and enantioselective Ir-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions with the proper choice of enolate countercation. The products of these reactions can be conveniently transformed to various useful polycarbocyclic structures.

  18. Elucidation of Mechanisms and Selectivities of Metal-Catalyzed Reactions using Quantum Chemical Methodology.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stefano; Kalek, Marcin; Huang, Genping; Himo, Fahmi

    2016-05-17

    Quantum chemical techniques today are indispensable for the detailed mechanistic understanding of catalytic reactions. The development of modern density functional theory approaches combined with the enormous growth in computer power have made it possible to treat quite large systems at a reasonable level of accuracy. Accordingly, quantum chemistry has been applied extensively to a wide variety of catalytic systems. A huge number of problems have been solved successfully, and vast amounts of chemical insights have been gained. In this Account, we summarize some of our recent work in this field. A number of examples concerned with transition metal-catalyzed reactions are selected, with emphasis on reactions with various kinds of selectivities. The discussed cases are (1) copper-catalyzed C-H bond amidation of indoles, (2) iridium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H borylation of chlorosilanes, (3) vanadium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangement and its combination with aldol- and Mannich-type additions, (4) palladium-catalyzed propargylic substitution with phosphorus nucleophiles, (5) rhodium-catalyzed 1:2 coupling of aldehydes and allenes, and finally (6) copper-catalyzed coupling of nitrones and alkynes to produce β-lactams (Kinugasa reaction). First, the methodology adopted in these studies is presented briefly. The electronic structure method in the great majority of these kinds of mechanistic investigations has for the last two decades been based on density functional theory. In the cases discussed here, mainly the B3LYP functional has been employed in conjunction with Grimme's empirical dispersion correction, which has been shown to improve the calculated energies significantly. The effect of the surrounding solvent is described by implicit solvation techniques, and the thermochemical corrections are included using the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation. The reviewed examples are chosen to illustrate the usefulness and versatility of the adopted methodology in

  19. Retinoic acid biosynthesis catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenases relies on a rate-limiting conformational transition associated with substrate recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bchini, Raphaël; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Branlant, Guy; Talfournier, François; Rahuel-Clermont, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, exerts pleiotropic effects throughout life in vertebrate organisms. Thus, RA action must be tightly regulated through the coordinated action of biosynthetic and degradating enzymes. The last step of retinoic acid biosynthesis is irreversibly catalyzed by the NAD-dependent retinal dehydrogenases (RALDH), which are members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Low intracellular retinal concentrations imply efficient substrate molecular recognition to ensure high affinity and specificity of RALDHs for retinal. This study addresses the molecular basis of retinal recognition in human ALDH1A1 (or RALDH1) and rat ALDH1A2 (or RALDH2), through the comparison of the catalytic behavior of retinal analogs and use of the fluorescence properties of retinol. We show that, in contrast to long chain unsaturated substrates, the rate-limiting step of retinal oxidation by RALDHs is associated with acylation. Use of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon retinol interaction with RALDHs provides evidence that retinal recognition occurs in two steps: binding into the substrate access channel, and a slower structural reorganization with a rate constant of the same magnitude as the kcat for retinal oxidation: 0.18 vs. 0.07 s−1 and 0.25 vs. 0.1 s−1 for ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2, respectively. This suggests that the conformational transition of the RALDH-retinal complex significantly contributes to the rate-limiting step that controls the kinetics of retinal oxidation, as a prerequisite for the formation of a catalytically competent Michaelis complex. This conclusion is consistent with the general notion that structural flexibility within the active site of ALDH enzymes has been shown to be an integral component of catalysis. PMID:23220587

  20. A novel and general synthetic pathway to strychnos indole alkaloids: total syntheses of (-)-tubifoline, (-)-dehydrotubifoline, and (-)-strychnine using palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miwako; Nakanishi, Masato; Kajishima, Daisuke; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2003-08-13

    A method of palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution for synthesizing 2-substituted cyclohexenylamine derivatives was established. Treatment of a 2-silyloxymethylcyclohexenol derivative with ortho-bromo-N-tosylaniline in the presence of Pd(2)dba(3).CHCl(3) and (S)-BINAPO in THF afforded a cyclohexenylamine derivative with 84% ee in 80% yield. The Heck reaction was carried out to produce an indolenine derivative in good yield. Using this method, we synthesized indolenine derivative 7, which was recrystallized from EtOH to give an optically pure compound. From this compound, tetracyclic ketone 13, which should be a useful intermediate for the synthesis of indole alkaloids, could be synthesized. The total syntheses of (-)-dehydrotubifoline, (-)-tubifoline, and (-)-strychnine were achieved from 13. All ring constructions for the syntheses of these natural products were achieved using a palladium catalyst.

  1. Resting State and Elementary Steps of the Coupling of Aryl Halides with Thiols Catalyzed by Alkylbisphosphine Complexes of Palladium

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    Detailed mechanistic studies on the coupling of aryl halides with thiols catalyzed by palladium complexes of the alkylbisphosphine ligand CyPF-tBu (1-dicyclohexylphosphino-2-di-tert-butylphosphinoethylferrocene) are reported. The elementary steps that constitute the catalytic cycle, i.e. oxidative addition, transmetalation and reductive elimination, have been studied, and their relative rates are reported. Each of the steps of the catalytic process occurs at temperatures that are much lower than those required for the reactions catalyzed by a combination of palladium precursors and CyPF-tBu. To explain these differences in rates between the catalytic and stoichiometric reactions, studies were conducted to identify the resting state of the catalyst of the reactions catalyzed by a combination of Pd(OAc)2 and CyPF-tBu, a combination of Pd(dba)2 and CyPF-tBu, or the likely intermediate Pd(CyPF-tBu)(Ar)(Br). These show that the major palladium complex in each case lies off of the catalytic cycle. The resting state of the reactions catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2 and CyPF-tBu was the palladium bis-thiolate complex [Pd(CyPF-tBu)(SR)2] (R = alkyl or aryl). The resting state in reactions catalyzed by Pd2(dba)3 and CyPF-tBu was the binuclear complex [Pd(CyPF-tBu)]2(μ2, η2-dba) (9). The resting state of reactions of both aromatic and aliphatic thiols catalyzed by [Pd(CyPF-tBu)(p-tolyl)(Br)] (3a) was the hydridopalladium thiolate complex [Pd(CyPF-tBu)(H)(SR)] (R= alkyl and aryl). All these palladium species have been prepared independently, and the mechanisms by which they enter the catalytic cycle have been examined in detail. These features of the reaction catalyzed by palladium and CyPF-tBu have been compared with those of reactions catalyzed by the alkylbisphosphine DiPPF and Pd(OAc)2 or Pd(dba)2. Our data indicate that the resting states of these reactions are similar to each other and that our mechanistic conclusions about reactions catalyzed by palladium and CyPF-tBu can be

  2. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Krische, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes. PMID:26418572

  3. Highly enantioselective synthesis of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA)–Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiqing; Oda, Akimichi; Kamada, Hirofumi; Negishi, Ei-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances of asymmetric synthesis, the preparation of enantiomerically pure (≥99% ee) compounds remains a challenge in modern organic chemistry. We report here a strategy for a highly enantioselective (≥99% ee) and catalytic synthesis of various γ- and more-remotely chiral alcohols from terminal alkenes via Zr-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of alkenes (ZACA reaction)–Cu- or Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. ZACA–in situ oxidation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS)-protected ω-alkene-1-ols produced both (R)- and (S)-α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates (3) in 80–88% ee, which were readily purified to the ≥99% ee level by lipase-catalyzed acetylation through exploitation of their high selectivity factors. These α,ω-dioxyfunctional intermediates serve as versatile synthons for the construction of various chiral compounds. Their subsequent Cu-catalyzed cross-coupling with various alkyl (primary, secondary, tertiary, cyclic) Grignard reagents and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling with aryl and alkenyl halides proceeded smoothly with essentially complete retention of stereochemical configuration to produce a wide variety of γ-, δ-, and ε-chiral 1-alkanols of ≥99% ee. The MαNP ester analysis has been applied to the determination of the enantiomeric purities of δ- and ε-chiral primary alkanols, which sheds light on the relatively undeveloped area of determination of enantiomeric purity and/or absolute configuration of remotely chiral primary alcohols. PMID:24912191

  4. Mutually catalyzed birth of population and assets in exchange-driven growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenquan; Ke, Jianhong; Ye, Gaoxiang

    2006-10-01

    We propose an exchange-driven aggregation growth model of population and assets with mutually catalyzed birth to study the interaction between the population and assets in their exchange-driven processes. In this model, monomer (or equivalently, individual) exchange occurs between any pair of aggregates of the same species (population or assets). The rate kernels of the exchanges of population and assets are K(k,l)=Kkl and L(k,l)=Lkl , respectively, at which one monomer migrates from an aggregate of size k to another of size l . Meanwhile, an aggregate of one species can yield a new monomer by the catalysis of an arbitrary aggregate of the other species. The rate kernel of asset-catalyzed population birth is I(k,l)=Iklμ [and that of population-catalyzed asset birth is J(k,l)=Jklν ], at which an aggregate of size k gains a monomer birth when it meets a catalyst aggregate of size l . The kinetic behaviors of the population and asset aggregates are solved based on the rate equations. The evolution of the aggregate size distributions of population and assets is found to fall into one of three categories for different parameters μ and ν : (i) population (asset) aggregates evolve according to the conventional scaling form in the case of μ⩽0 (ν⩽0) , (ii) population (asset) aggregates evolve according to a modified scaling form in the case of ν=0 and μ>0 ( μ=0 and ν>0 ), and (iii) both population and asset aggregates undergo gelation transitions at a finite time in the case of μ=ν>0 .

  5. Glutathione-supported arsenate reduction coupled to arsenolysis catalyzed by ornithine carbamoyl transferase

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeti, Balazs; Gregus, Zoltan

    2009-09-01

    Three cytosolic phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes, (purine nucleoside phosphorylase [PNP], glycogen phosphorylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) have been shown to mediate reduction of arsenate (AsV) to the more toxic arsenite (AsIII) in a thiol-dependent manner. With unknown mechanism, hepatic mitochondria also reduce AsV. Mitochondria possess ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT), which catalyzes phosphorolytic or arsenolytic citrulline cleavage; therefore, we examined if mitochondrial OCT facilitated AsV reduction in presence of glutathione. Isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with AsV, and AsIII formed was quantified. Glutathione-supplemented permeabilized or solubilized mitochondria reduced AsV. Citrulline (substrate for OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis) increased AsV reduction. The citrulline-stimulated AsV reduction was abolished bymore » ornithine (OCT substrate inhibiting citrulline cleavage), phosphate (OCT substrate competing with AsV), and the OCT inhibitor norvaline or PALO, indicating that AsV reduction is coupled to OCT-catalyzed arsenolysis of citrulline. Corroborating this conclusion, purified bacterial OCT mediated AsV reduction in presence of citrulline and glutathione with similar responsiveness to these agents. In contrast, AsIII formation by intact mitochondria was unaffected by PALO and slightly stimulated by citrulline, ornithine, and norvaline, suggesting minimal role for OCT in AsV reduction in intact mitochondria. In addition to OCT, mitochondrial PNP can also mediate AsIII formation; however, its role in AsV reduction appears severely limited by purine nucleoside supply. Collectively, mitochondrial and bacterial OCT promote glutathione-dependent AsV reduction with coupled arsenolysis of citrulline, supporting the hypothesis that AsV reduction is mediated by phosphorolytic/arsenolytic enzymes. Nevertheless, because citrulline cleavage is disfavored physiologically, OCT may have little role in AsV reduction in vivo.« less

  6. A natural vanishing act: the enzyme-catalyzed degradation of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kotchey, Gregg P; Hasan, Saad A; Kapralov, Alexander A; Ha, Seung Han; Kim, Kang; Shvedova, Anna A; Kagan, Valerian E; Star, Alexander

    2012-10-16

    Over the past three decades, revolutionary research in nanotechnology by the scientific, medical, and engineering communities has yielded a treasure trove of discoveries with diverse applications that promise to benefit humanity. With their unique electronic and mechanical properties, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) represent a prime example of the promise of nanotechnology with applications in areas that include electronics, fuel cells, composites, and nanomedicine. Because of toxicological issues associated with CNMs, however, their full commercial potential may not be achieved. The ex vitro, in vitro, and in vivo data presented in this Account provide fundamental insights into the biopersistence of CNMs, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, and their oxidation/biodegradation processes as catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes. We also communicate our current understanding of the mechanism for the enzymatic oxidation and biodegradation. Finally, we outline potential future directions that could enhance our mechanistic understanding of the CNM oxidation and biodegradation and could yield benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety. The conclusions presented in this Account may catalyze a rational rethinking of CNM incorporation in diverse applications. For example, armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. In nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. On the other hand, in the construction of aircraft, a CNM composite should be stable to oxidizing conditions in the environment. Therefore, pristine, inert CNMs would be ideal for this application. Finally, the incorporation of CNMs with defect sites in consumer goods could provide a facile mechanism that promotes the

  7. DNA-Catalyzed DNA Cleavage by a Radical Pathway with Well-Defined Products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujeong; Klauser, Paul C; Brandsen, Benjamin M; Zhou, Cong; Li, Xinyi; Silverman, Scott K

    2017-01-11

    We describe an unprecedented DNA-catalyzed DNA cleavage process in which a radical-based reaction pathway cleanly results in excision of most atoms of a specific guanosine nucleoside. Two new deoxyribozymes (DNA enzymes) were identified by in vitro selection from N 40 or N 100 random pools initially seeking amide bond hydrolysis, although they both cleave simple single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. Each deoxyribozyme generates both superoxide (O 2 -• or HOO • ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and leads to the same set of products (3'-phosphoglycolate, 5'-phosphate, and base propenal) as formed by the natural product bleomycin, with product assignments by mass spectrometry and colorimetric assay. We infer the same mechanistic pathway, involving formation of the C4' radical of the guanosine nucleoside that is subsequently excised. Consistent with a radical pathway, glutathione fully suppresses catalysis. Conversely, adding either superoxide or H 2 O 2 from the outset strongly enhances catalysis. The mechanism of generation and involvement of superoxide and H 2 O 2 by the deoxyribozymes is not yet defined. The deoxyribozymes do not require redox-active metal ions and function with a combination of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ , although including Mn 2+ increases the activity, and Mn 2+ alone also supports catalysis. In contrast to all of these observations, unrelated DNA-catalyzed radical DNA cleavage reactions require redox-active metals and lead to mixtures of products. This study reports an intriguing example of a well-defined, DNA-catalyzed, radical reaction process that cleaves single-stranded DNA and requires only redox-inactive metal ions.

  8. Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline at environmentally relevant pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hui; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Ru(III) was employed as catalyst for aniline oxidation by permanganate at environmentally relevant pH for the first time. Ru(III) could significantly improve the oxidation rate of aniline by 5-24 times with its concentration increasing from 2.5 to 15 μmol/L. The reaction of Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline was first-order with respect to aniline, permanganate and Ru(III), respectively. Thus the oxidation kinetics can be described by a third-order rate law. Aniline degradation by Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation was markedly influenced by pH, and the second-order rate constant (ktapp) decreased from 643.20 to 2.67 (mol/L)⁻¹sec⁻¹ with increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0, which was possibly due to the decrease of permanganate oxidation potential with increasing pH. In both the uncatalytic and catalytic permanganate oxidation, six byproducts of aniline were identified in UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ru(III), as an electron shuttle, was oxidized by permanganate to Ru(VI) and Ru(VII), which acted the co-oxidants for decomposition of aniline. Although Ru(III) could catalyze permanganate oxidation of aniline effectively, dosing homogeneous Ru(III) into water would lead to a second pollution. Therefore, efforts would be made to investigate the catalytic performance of supported Ru(III) toward permanganate oxidation in our future study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Kinetic mechanism and structural requirements of the amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Thalji, Nabil K; Crowe, William E; Waldrop, Grover L

    2009-01-02

    The kinetic and chemical mechanism of amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid at pH 8.0 has been reevaluated using a new and versatile assay. Amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid proceeds via the formation of an imine intermediate, followed by decarboxylation of the intermediate and hydrolysis to yield pyruvate. The decrease in oxaloacetic acid was coupled to NADH formation by malate dehydrogenase, which allowed the rates of both initial carbinolamine formation (as part of the imination step) and decarboxylation to be determined. By comparing the rates observed for a variety of amines and, in particular, diamines, the structural and electronic requirements for diamine-catalyzed decarboxylation at pH 8.0 were identified. At pH 8.0, monoamines were found to be very poor catalysts, whereas some diamines, most notably ethylenediamine, were excellent catalysts. The results indicate that the second amino group of diamines enhances the rate of imine formation by acting as a proton shuttle during the carbinolamine formation step, which enables diamines to overcome high levels of solvation that would otherwise inhibit carbinolamine, and thus imine, formation. The presence of the second amino group may also enhance the rate of the carbinolamine dehydration step. In contrast to the findings of previous reports, the second amino group participates in the reaction by enhancing the rate of decarboxylation via hydrogen-bonding to the imine nitrogen to either stabilize the negative charge that develops on the imine during decarboxylation or preferentially stabilize the reactive imine over the unreactive enamine tautomer. These results provide insight into the precise catalytic mechanism of several enzymes whose reactions are known to proceed via an imine intermediate.

  10. A Natural Vanishing Act: The Enzyme-Catalyzed Degradation of Carbon Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Hasan, Saad A.; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Ha, Seung Han; Kim, Kang; Shvedova, Anna A.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Over the past three decades, revolutionary research in nanotechnology by the scientific, medical, and engineering communities has yielded a treasure trove of discoveries with diverse applications that promise to benefit humanity. With their unique electronic and mechanical properties, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) represent a prime example of the promise of nanotechnology with applications in areas that include electronics, fuel cells, composites, and nanomedicine. Because of toxicological issues associated with CNMs, however, their full commercial potential may not be achieved. The ex vitro, in vitro, and in vivo data presented in this Account provide fundamental insights into the biopersistence of CNMs, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, and their oxidation/biodegradation processes as catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes. We also communicate our current understanding of the mechanism for the enzymatic oxidation/biodegradation. Finally, we outline potential future directions that could enhance our mechanistic understanding of the CNM oxidation/biodegradation and could yield benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety. The conclusions presented in this Account may catalyze a rational rethinking of CNM incorporation in diverse applications. For example, armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation/biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. In nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. On the other hand, in the construction of aircraft, a CNM composite material should be stable to oxidizing conditions in the environment. Therefore, pristine, inert CNMs would be ideal for this application. Finally, the incorporation of CNMs with defect sites in consumer goods could provide a facile mechanism that promotes the

  11. Copper(II)-catalyzed hydroxylation of aryl halides using glycolic acid as a ligand.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Xu, Yongnan; Cheon, Hwan-Sung; Chae, Junghyun

    2013-06-07

    Copper(II)-catalyzed hydroxylation of aryl halides has been developed to afford functionalized phenols. The protocol utilizes the reagent combination of Cu(OH)2, glycolic acid, and NaOH in aqueous DMSO, all of which are cheap, readily available, and easily removable after the reaction. A broad range of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides were transformed into the corresponding phenols in excellent yields. Moreover, it has been shown that C-O(alkyl)-coupled product, instead of phenol, can be predominantly formed under similar reaction conditions.

  12. Chiral Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Allylboration of Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pankaj; Antilla, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes is a long-standing problem with considerable interest to the chemical community. We wish to disclose a new high yielding and highly enantioselective chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed allylboration of aldehydes. The reaction is shown to be highly general, with broad substrate scope that covers aryl, heteroaryl, α,β-unsaturated, and aliphatic aldehydes. The reaction conditions were also shown to be effective for the catalytic enantioselective crotylation of aldehydes. We believe that the high reactivity of the allyl boronate is due to protonation of the boronate oxygen by the chiral phosphoric acid catalyst. PMID:20690662

  13. Thiol-catalyzed formation of lactate and glycerate from glyceraldehyde. [significance in molecular evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The rate of lactate formation from glyceraldehyde, catalyzed by N-acetyl-cysteine at ambient temperature in aqueous sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), is more rapid at higher sodium phosphate concentrations and remains essentially the same in the presence and absence of oxygen. The dramatic increase in the rate of glycerate formation that is brought about by this thiol, N-acetylcysteine, is accompanied by commensurate decreases in the rates of glycolate and formate production. It is suggested that the thiol-dependent formation of lactate and glycerate occurs by way of their respective thioesters. Attention is given to the significance of these reactions in the context of molecular evolution.

  14. Effect of L-cysteine on the oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by manganeseporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-You; Tian, Peng; Chen, Yong; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun; Chen, Zai Xin

    2015-06-01

    Effect of L-cysteine as the cocatalyst on the oxidation of cyclohexane by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) catalyzed by manganese tetraphenylporphyrin (MnTPP) has been investigated. The results showed that L-cysteine could moderately improve the catalytic activity of MnTPP and significantly increase the selectivity of cyclohexanol. Different from imidazole and pyridine, the L-cysteine may perform dual roles in the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane. Besides as the axial ligand for MnTPP, the L-cysteine could also react with cyclohexyl peroxide formed as the intermediate to produce alcohol as the main product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergistic Heterobimetallic Manifold for Expedient Manganese(I)-Catalyzed C-H Cyanation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiping; Richter, Sven C; Mei, Ruhuai; Feldt, Milica; Ackermann, Lutz

    2016-12-12

    The manganese-catalyzed cyanation of inert C-H bonds was achieved within a heterobimetallic catalysis regime. The manganese(I) catalysis proved widely applicable and enabled C-H cyanations on indoles, pyrroles and thiophenes by facile C-H manganesation. The robustness of the manganese catalyst set the stage for the racemization-free C-H cyanation of amino acids with excellent levels of positional and chemo selectivity by the new cyanating agent NCFS. Experimental and computational mechanistic studies provided strong support for a synergistic heterobimetallic activation mode, facilitating the key C-C formation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The initial step in the archaeal aspartate biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by a monofunctional aspartokinase

    PubMed Central

    Faehnle, Christopher R.; Liu, Xuying; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Viola, Ronald E.

    2006-01-01

    The activation of the β-carboxyl group of aspartate catalyzed by aspartokinase is the commitment step to amino-acid biosynthesis in the aspartate pathway. The first structure of a microbial aspartokinase, that from Methanococcus jannaschii, has been determined in the presence of the amino-acid substrate l-­aspartic acid and the nucleotide product MgADP. The enzyme assembles into a dimer of dimers, with the interfaces mediated by both the N- and C-terminal domains. The active-site functional groups responsible for substrate binding and specificity have been identified and roles have been proposed for putative catalytic functional groups. PMID:17012784

  17. Tailored Cyclic and Linear Polycarbosilazanes by Barium-Catalyzed N-H/H-Si Dehydrocoupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Clément; Orione, Clément; Carpentier, Jean-François; Sarazin, Yann

    2016-03-07

    Ba[CH(SiMe3 )2 ]2 (THF)3 catalyzes the fast and controlled dehydrogenative polymerization of Ph2 SiH2 and p-xylylenediamine to afford polycarbosilazanes. The structure (cyclic versus linear; end-groups) and molecular weight of the macromolecules can be tuned by adjusting the Ph2 SiH2 /diamine feed ratio. A detailed analysis of the resulting materials (mol. wt up to ca. 10 000 g mol(-1) ) is provided. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On the Brønsted acid-catalyzed homogeneous hydrolysis of furans.

    PubMed

    Nikbin, Nima; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2013-11-01

    Furan affairs: Electronic structure calculations of the homogeneous Brønsted acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,5-dimethylfuran show that proton transfer to the β-position is rate-limiting and provides support that the hydrolysis follows general acid catalysis. By means of projected Fukui indices, we show this to be the case for unsubstituted, 2-, and 2,5-substituted furans with electron-donating groups. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Highly Regioselective Synthesis of Substituted Isoindolinones via Ruthenium-Catalyzed Alkyne Cyclotrimerizations

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Robert W; Tame, Christopher J; Hailes, Helen C; Sheppard, Tom D

    2013-01-01

    (Cyclooctadiene)(pentamethylcyclopentadiene)ruthenium chloride [Cp*RuCl(cod)] has been used to catalyze the regioselective cyclization of amide-tethered diynes with monosubstituted alkynes to give polysubstituted isoindolinones. Notably, the presence of a trimethylsilyl group on the diyne generally led to complete control over the regioselectivity of the alkyne cyclotrimerization. The cyclization reaction worked well in a sustainable non-chlorinated solvent and was tolerant of moisture. The optimized conditions were effective with a diverse range of alkynes and diynes. The 7-silylisoindolinone products could be halogenated, protodesilylated or ring opened to access a range of usefully functionalized products. PMID:24124414

  20. Transition-metal-catalyzed direct arylation of (hetero)arenes by C-H bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Lutz; Vicente, Rubén; Kapdi, Anant R

    2009-01-01

    The area of transition-metal-catalyzed direct arylation through cleavage of C-H bonds has undergone rapid development in recent years, and is becoming an increasingly viable alternative to traditional cross-coupling reactions with organometallic reagents. In particular, palladium and ruthenium catalysts have been described that enable the direct arylation of (hetero)arenes with challenging coupling partners--including electrophilic aryl chlorides and tosylates as well as simple arenes in cross-dehydrogenative arylations. Furthermore, less expensive copper, iron, and nickel complexes were recently shown to be effective for economically attractive direct arylations.

  1. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling: From ketone and diamine to pyrazine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kun; Huang, Zhiliang; Qi, Xiaotian; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Chao; Yi, Hong; Meng, Lingkui; Bunel, Emilio E.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Pao, Chih-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C–H/N–H coupling between simple ketones and diamines was developed toward the synthesis of a variety of pyrazines. Various substituted ketones were compatible for this transformation. Preliminary mechanistic investigations indicated that radical species were involved. X-ray absorption fine structure experiments elucidated that the Cu(II) species 5 coordinated by two N atoms at a distance of 2.04 Å and two O atoms at a shorter distance of 1.98 Å was a reactive one for this aerobic oxidative coupling reaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that the intramolecular coupling of cationic radicals was favorable in this transformation. PMID:26601302

  2. Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tetrasubstituted Enynylboronates via Chemo-, Regio-, and Stereoselective Borylalkynylation.

    PubMed

    Han, Jung Tae; Yun, Jaesook

    2018-04-06

    An efficient, catalytic method for accessing tetrasubstituted enynylboronates has been established via copper-catalyzed chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective borylalkynylation of internal alkynes. In this protocol, a range of symmetrical and unsymmetrical internal alkynes with aryl, heteroaryl, and alkyl substituents afforded fully substituted enynylboron compounds in good yields and with high levels of regio- and stereoselectivity, up to a ratio of >20:1. The enynylboron products could be further utilized in transforming the C-B bond into C-C bonds by coupling reactions.

  3. Intramolecular Hydrogen Transfer Reactions Catalyzed by Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rhodium and Cobalt Olefin Complexes: Mechanistic Studies.

    PubMed

    Bolig, Andrew D; Lyons, Thomas W; DiSalvo, Darren T; Brookhart, Maurice

    2016-01-08

    The mechanism of intramolecular transfer dehydrogenation catalyzed by [Cp * M(VTMS) 2 ] ( 1 , M=Rh, 2 , M=Co, Cp* = C 5 Me 5 , VTMS = vinyltrimethylsilane) complexes has been studied using vinyl silane protected alcohols as substrates. Deuterium-labeled substrates have been synthesized and the regioselectivity of H/D transfers investigated using 1 H and 2 H NMR spectroscopy. The labeling studies establish a regioselective pathway consisting of alkene directed α C-H activation, 2,1 alkene insertion, and finally β-hydride elimination to give silyl enol ether products.

  4. Mild Palladium Catalyzed ortho C-H Bond Functionalizations of Aniline Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Ms Orsolya; Tóth, Mr Balázs; Novák, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    This account collects the developments and transformations which avoid the utilization of harsh reaction conditions in the field of palladium catalyzed, ortho-directed C-H activation of aniline derivatives from the first attempts to up-to-date results, including the results of our research laboratory. The discussed functionalizations performed under mild conditions include acylation, olefination, arylation, alkylation, alkoxylation reactions. Beside the optimization studies and the synthetic applications mechanistic investigations are also presented. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hydrogen transfer reduction of polyketones catalyzed by iridium complexes: a novel route towards more biocompatible materials.

    PubMed

    Milani, Barbara; Crottib, Corrado; Farnetti, Erica

    2008-09-14

    Transfer hydrogenation from 2-propanol to CO/4-methylstyrene and CO/styrene polyketones was catalyzed by [Ir(diene)(N-N)X] (N-N = nitrogen chelating ligand; X = halogen) in the presence of a basic cocatalyst. The reactions were performed using dioxane as cosolvent, in order to overcome problems due to low polyketone solubility. The polyalcohols were obtained in yields up to 95%, the conversions being markedly dependent on the nature of the ligands coordinated to iridium as well as on the experimental conditions.

  6. Copper-Catalyzed, Directing Group-Assisted Fluorination of Arene and Heteroarene C-H Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thanh; Klimovica, Kristine; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method for direct, copper-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted fluorination of β-sp2 C-H bonds of benzoic acid derivatives and γ-sp2 C-H bonds of α,α-disubstituted benzylamine derivatives. The reaction employs CuI catalyst, AgF fluoride source, and DMF, pyridine, or DMPU solvent at moderately elevated temperatures. Selective mono- or difluorination can be achieved by simply changing reaction conditions. The method shows excellent functional group tolerance and provides a straightforward way for the preparation of ortho-fluorinated benzoic acids. PMID:23758609

  7. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sugar alcohols by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.

  8. Modular Total Syntheses of Hyperforin, Papuaforins A, B, and C via Gold(I)-Catalyzed Carbocyclization.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, Gabriel; Barriault, Louis

    2018-05-15

    The remarkable biological activities of polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) combined with their highly oxygenated and densely functionalized frameworks have stimulated the interest of synthetic organic chemists over the past decade. Herein, we report the concise total syntheses of four natural products PPAPs, of which some have antibacterial properties, notably hyperforin and papuaforin A. The salient features of this strategy are the short and gram-scalable synthesis of densely substituted PPAPs scaffolds via a Au(I)-catalyzed carbocyclization and the late-stage functionalization for a unified access to a wide variety of PPAPs.

  9. Ring-opening polymerization of DD-lactide catalyzed by Novozyme 435.

    PubMed

    Hans, Marc; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin

    2009-03-10

    In contrast to LLA, DLA is converted in toluene solution under mild reaction conditions (50-70 degrees C) using Novozyme 435 (immobilized CALB) to form the corresponding polymer. The influence of several parameters, such as enzyme concentration, temperature and monomer concentration, on the polymerization rate and the monomer conversion was studied. In contrast to the Novozyme 435 catalyzed polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone, enzyme deactivation occurs. It is attributed to the deprivation of water from the enzyme. This work points out that by careful selection of the reaction conditions, it is possible to obtain poly(D-lactide) in reasonable molecular weights and in high yields using Novozyme 435 catalysis.

  10. Highly selective rhodium catalyzed domino C-H activation/cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Trans, Duc N; Cramer, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    The direct functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds is an emerging tool to establish more sustainable and efficient synthetic methods. We present its implementation in a cascade reaction that provides a rapid assembly of functionalized indanylamines from simple and readily available starting materials. Careful choice of the ancillary ligand---an electron-rich bidentate phosphine ligand--enables highly diastereoselective rhodium(i)-catalyzed intramolecular allylations of unsubstituted ketimines induced by a directed C-H bond activation and allene carbo-metalation sequence.

  11. Transition metal-catalyzed C-H activation reactions: diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Giri, Ramesh; Shi, Bing-Feng; Engle, Keary M; Maugel, Nathan; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2009-11-01

    This critical review discusses historical and contemporary research in the field of transition metal-catalyzed carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond activation through the lens of stereoselectivity. Research concerning both diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity in C-H activation processes is examined, and the application of concepts in this area for the development of novel carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions is described. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on reactions that are (or may soon become) relevant in the realm of organic synthesis (221 references).

  12. Transition metal catalyzed manipulation of non-polar carbon–hydrogen bonds for synthetic purpose

    PubMed Central

    MURAI, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The direct addition of ortho C–H bonds in various aromatic compounds such as ketones, esters, imines, imidates, nitriles, and aldehydes to olefins and acetylenes can be achieved with the aid of transition metal catalysts. The ruthenium catalyzed reaction is usually highly efficient and useful as a general synthetic method. The coordination to the metal center by a heteroatom in a directing group such as carbonyl and imino groups in aromatic compounds is the key step in this process. Mechanistically, the reductive elimination to form a C–C bond is the rate-determining step, while the C–H bond cleavage step is not. PMID:21558759

  13. Asymmetric synthesis of diacceptor cyclopropylphosphonates catalyzed by chiral Ru(II)-Pheox complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Le Thi Loan; Chanthamath, Soda; Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Iwasa, Seiji

    2018-04-01

    The first Ru(II)-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of diacceptor diazophosphonates with olefins is reported. The Ru(II)-Pheox complex 7e was found to be an efficient catalyst for the asymmetric cyclopropanation of α-cyano diazophosp honate with styrene under mild conditions to give the corresponding chiral diacceptor cyclopropylphosphonate products in high yields (up to 99%) with excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 99/1 dr). However, the enantioselectivity was difficult to control by the C1-symmetric catalyst (up to 68% ee).

  14. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX{sup SM} catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals` fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes.

  15. Understanding the hydrolysis mechanism of ethyl acetate catalyzed by an aqueous molybdocene: a computational chemistry investigation.

    PubMed

    Tílvez, Elkin; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria I; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón

    2015-02-16

    A thoroughly mechanistic investigation on the [Cp2Mo(OH)(OH2)](+)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ethyl acetate has been performed using density functional theory methodology together with continuum and discrete-continuum solvation models. The use of explicit water molecules in the PCM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ-PP for Mo)//PCM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ (aug-cc-pVDZ-PP for Mo) computations is crucial to show that the intramolecular hydroxo ligand attack is the preferred mechanism in agreement with experimental suggestions. Besides, the most stable intermediate located along this mechanism is analogous to that experimentally reported for the norbornenyl acetate hydrolysis catalyzed by molybdocenes. The three most relevant steps are the formation and cleavage of the tetrahedral intermediate immediately formed after the hydroxo ligand attack and the acetic acid formation, with the second one being the rate-determining step with a Gibbs energy barrier of 36.7 kcal/mol. Among several functionals checked, B3LYP-D3 and M06 give the best agreement with experiment as the rate-determining Gibbs energy barrier obtained only differs 0.2 and 0.7 kcal/mol, respectively, from that derived from the experimental kinetic constant measured at 296.15 K. In both cases, the acetic acid elimination becomes now the rate-determining step of the overall process as it is 0.4 kcal/mol less stable than the tetrahedral intermediate cleavage. Apart from clarifying the identity of the cyclic intermediate and discarding the tetrahedral intermediate formation as the rate-determining step for the mechanism of the acetyl acetate hydrolysis catalyzed by molybdocenes, the small difference in the Gibbs energy barrier found between the acetic acid formation and the tetrahedral intermediate cleavage also uncovers that the rate-determining step could change when studying the reactivity of carboxylic esters other than ethyl acetate substrate specific toward molybdocenes or other transition metal complexes. Therefore

  16. Kinetics of the Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Ferric Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Complex

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Cheves; Partch, Richard E.; Weil, Tomas

    1975-01-01

    Added substrates, acetone and t-butyl alcohol, strongly retard the decomposition of H2O2 brought about by ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at pH 8-9.5. Their relative effectiveness and the kinetic form of the retardation are consistent with their interruption of a hydroxyl radical chain that is propagated by HO· attack both upon H2O2 and on complexed and uncomplexed EDTA. Similar retardation is observed with decompositions catalyzed by ferric nitrilotriacetate and hemin, and it is proposed that such redox chains may be quite a general path for transition metal ion catalysis of H2O2 decomposition. PMID:16592209

  17. Mechanistic Study of Nickel-Catalyzed Ynal Reductive Cyclizations Through Kinetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Ryan D.; Montgomery, John

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of nickel-catalyzed, silane-mediated reductive cyclization of ynals has been evaluated. The cyclizations are first-order in [Ni] and [ynal] and zeroth-order in [silane]. These results, in combination with the lack of rapid silane consumption upon reaction initiation are inconsistent with mechanisms involving reaction initiation by oxidative addition of Ni(0) to the silane. Silane consumption occurs only when both the alkyne and aldehyde and are present. Mechanisms involving rate-determining oxidative cyclization to a metallacycle followed by rapid reaction with the silane are consistent with the data obtained. PMID:21438642

  18. Base-catalyzed efficient tandem [3 + 3] and [3 + 2 + 1] annulation-aerobic oxidative benzannulations.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aboubacar; Zhao, Yu-Long; Wang, He; Li, Sha-Sha; Ren, Chuan-Qing; Liu, Qun

    2012-11-16

    An efficient synthesis of substituted benzenes via a base-catalyzed [3 + 3] aerobic oxidative aromatization of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with dimethyl glutaconate was reported. All the reactions were carried out under mild, metal-free conditions to afford the products in high to excellent yields with molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant and water as the sole byproduct. Furthermore, a more convenient tandem [3 + 2 + 1] aerobic oxidative aromatization reaction was developed through the in situ generation of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from aldehydes and ketones.

  19. N,N-Diethylurea-Catalyzed Amidation between Electron-Defficient Aryl Azides and Phenylacetaldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sheng; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-01-01

    Urea structures, of which N,N-diethylurea (DEU) proved to be the most efficient, were discovered to catalyze amidation reactions between electron-defficient aryl azides and phenylacetaldehydes. Experimental data support 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between DEU-activated enols and electrophilic phenyl azides, especially perfluoroaryl azides, followed by rearrangement of the triazoline intermediate. The activation of the aldehyde under near-neutral conditions was of special importance in inhibiting dehydration/aromatization of the triazoline intermediate, thus promoting the rearrangement to form aryl amides. PMID:25616121

  20. Identification of non-heme diiron proteins that catalyze triple bond and epoxy group formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Lenman, M; Banaś, A; Bafor, M; Singh, S; Schweizer, M; Nilsson, R; Liljenberg, C; Dahlqvist, A; Gummeson, P O; Sjödahl, S; Green, A; Stymne, S

    1998-05-08

    Acetylenic bonds are present in more than 600 naturally occurring compounds. Plant enzymes that catalyze the formation of the Delta12 acetylenic bond in 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid and the Delta12 epoxy group in 12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid were characterized, and two genes, similar in sequence, were cloned. When these complementary DNAs were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the content of acetylenic or epoxidated fatty acids in the seeds increased from 0 to 25 or 15 percent, respectively. Both enzymes have characteristics similar to the membrane proteins containing non-heme iron that have histidine-rich motifs.

  1. Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Allylation of Tertiary Alkyl Halides with Allylic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haifeng; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Yingying; Qian, Qun; Gong, Hegui

    2017-10-09

    The construction of all C(sp 3 ) quaternary centers has been successfully achieved under Ni-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of allylic carbonates with unactivated tertiary alkyl halides. For allylic carbonates bearing C1 or C3 substituents, the reaction affords excellent regioselectivity through the addition of alkyl groups to the unsubstituted allylic carbon terminus. The allylic alkylation method also exhibits excellent functional-group compatibility, and delivers the products with high E selectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Redox-Neutral Rhodium-Catalyzed [4+1] Annulation through Formal Dehydrogenative Vinylidene Insertion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Song, Shengjin; Wang, Cheng-Qiang; Feng, Chao; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2017-01-10

    A synthetic protocol for the expedient construction of 5-methylene-1H-pyrrol-2(5H)-one derivatives through rhodium-catalyzed [4+1] annulation with gem-difluoroacrylate as the C 1 component was reported. By taking advantage of the twofold C-F bond cleavage occurring during the annulation, this reaction not only allows the synthesis of these heterocyclic compounds under overall oxidant-free conditions but also renders the transformation stereospecific. The very mild reaction conditions employed ensure compatibility with a wide variety of synthetically useful functional groups. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rhodium-catalyzed redox-neutral coupling of phenidones with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhoulong; Lu, Heng; Li, Wei; Geng, Kaijun; Zhang, Ao

    2017-07-21

    A switchable synthesis of N-substituted indole derivatives from phenidones via rhodium-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation has been achieved. In this protocol, we firstly disclosed that the reactivity of Rh(iii) catalysis could be enhanced through employing palladium acetate as an additive. Some representative features include external oxidant-free, applicable to terminal alkynes, short reaction time and operational simplicity. The utility of this method is further showcased by the economical synthesis of potent anticancer PARP-1 inhibitors.

  4. Rhodium-catalyzed C-H alkynylation of arenes at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2014-03-03

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed ortho C-H alkynylation of non-electronically activated arenes is disclosed. This process features a straightforward and highly effective protocol for the synthesis of functionalized alkynes and represents the first example of merging a hypervalent iodine reagent with rhodium(III) catalysis. Notably, this reaction proceeds at room temperature, tolerates a variety of functional groups, and more importantly, exhibits high selectivity for monoalkynylation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type cross-couplings of unactivated alkyl iodides.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caitlin M; Alexanian, Erik J

    2014-06-02

    A palladium-catalyzed, intermolecular Heck-type coupling of alkyl iodides and alkenes is described. This process is successful with a variety of primary and secondary unactivated alkyl iodides as reaction partners, including those with hydrogen atoms in the β position. The mild catalytic conditions enable intermolecular C-C bond formations with a diverse set of alkyl iodides and alkenes, including substrates containing base- or nucleophile-sensitive functionality. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Gold(I)-catalyzed diazo coupling: strategy towards alkene formation and tandem benzannulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daming; Xu, Guangyang; Ding, Dong; Zhu, Chenghao; Li, Jian; Sun, Jiangtao

    2014-10-06

    A gold(I)-catalyzed cross-coupling of diazo compounds to afford tetrasubstituted alkenes has been developed by taking advantage of a trivial electronic difference between two diazo substrates. A N-heterocyclic-carbene-derived gold complex is the most effective catalyst for this transformation. Based on this new strategy, a gold(I)-initiated benzannulation has been achieved through a tandem reaction involving a diazo cross-coupling, 6π electrocyclization, and oxidative aromatization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Silver-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation of Alkenes Using N-Nosylhydrazones as Diazo Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohong; Zhang, Xinyu; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Bi, Xihe

    2017-12-15

    An efficient silver-catalyzed [2 + 1] cyclopropanation of sterically hindered internal alkenes with diazo compounds in which room-temperature-decomposable N-nosylhydrazones are used as diazo surrogates is reported. The unexpected unique catalytic activity of silver was ascribed to its dual role as a Lewis acid activating alkene substrates and as a transition metal forming silver carbenoids. A wide range of internal alkenes, including challenging diarylethenes, were suitable for this protocol, thereby affording a variety of cyclopropanes with high efficiency in a stereoselective manner under mild conditions.

  8. Co2(CO)8-catalyzed intramolecular hetero-Pauson-Khand reaction of alkynecarbodiimide: synthesis of (+/-)-physostigmine.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Chisato; Yoshida, Tatsunori; Sorimachi, Mao; Odani, Akira

    2006-01-05

    [reaction: see text] Herein we describe a novel Co(2)(CO)(8)-catalyzed intramolecular aza-Pauson-Khand-type reaction of alkynecarbodiimide derivatives affords pyrrolo[2,3-b]indol-2-one ring systems in reasonable yields. This is the first reported Co(2)(CO)(8) successfully applied in the hetero-Pauson-Khand reaction. Significantly, the transformation of one of our pyrrolo[2,3-b]indol-2-one derivatives into the indole alkaloid, (+/-)-physostigmine, was completed in a highly stereoselective manner.

  9. Social Media as Catalyzer for Connected Health: Hype or Hope? Perspectives from IMIA Working Groups.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Vilmarlund, Vivian; Borycki, Elizabeth; Schulz, Stefan; Kuziemsky, Craig; Marschollek, Michael; Kulikowski, Casimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Internet and social media are becoming ubiquitous technologies that are transforming the health sector. Social media has become an avenue for accessing, creating and sharing health information among patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, social media has become a key feature in many eHealth solutions, including wearable technologies, Big Data solutions, eLearning systems, Serious Games, Medical imaging, etc. These hyper-connected technologies are facilitating a paradigm shift towards more connected health. In this panel, representatives of different IMIA Working Groups will explore how both hope and hype contribute to social media's catalyzing role in creating connected health solutions.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Coupling: An Efficient Synthetic Strategy for the Construction of the Quinoline Core

    PubMed Central

    Carral-Menoyo, Asier; Ortiz-de-Elguea, Verónica; Martinez-Nunes, Mikel; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenative coupling is an efficient synthetic strategy for the construction of quinoline scaffolds, a privileged structure and prevalent motif in many natural and biologically active products, in particular in marine alkaloids. Thus, quinolines and 1,2-dihydroquinolines can be selectively obtained in moderate-to-good yields via intramolecular C–H alkenylation reactions, by choosing the reaction conditions. This methodology provides a direct method for the construction of this type of quinoline through an efficient and atom economical procedure, and constitutes significant advance over the existing procedures that require preactivated reaction partners. PMID:28867803

  11. Scope and mechanism in palladium-catalyzed isomerizations of highly substituted allylic, homoallylic, and alkenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Larionov, Evgeny; Lin, Luqing; Guénée, Laure; Mazet, Clément

    2014-12-03

    Herein we report the palladium-catalyzed isomerization of highly substituted allylic alcohols and alkenyl alcohols by means of a single catalytic system. The operationally simple reaction protocol is applicable to a broad range of substrates and displays a wide functional group tolerance, and the products are usually isolated in high chemical yield. Experimental and computational mechanistic investigations provide complementary and converging evidence for a chain-walking process consisting of repeated migratory insertion/β-H elimination sequences. Interestingly, the catalyst does not dissociate from the substrate in the isomerization of allylic alcohols, whereas it disengages during the isomerization of alkenyl alcohols when additional substituents are present on the alkyl chain.

  12. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Laboratory-Scale Carbon–Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions of Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vaneet; Stokes, Benjamin J.; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene, the simplest alkene, is the most abundantly synthesized organic molecule by volume. It is readily incorporated into transitionmetal–catalyzed carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions through migratory insertions into alkylmetal intermediates. Because of its D2h symmetry, only one insertion outcome is possible. This limits byproduct formation and greatly simplifies analysis. As described within this Minireview, many carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions incorporate a molecule (or more) of ethylene at ambient pressure and temperature. In many cases, a useful substituted alkene is incorporated into the product. PMID:24105881

  13. Nickel-Catalyzed Phosphine Free Direct N-Alkylation of Amides with Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Das, Jagadish; Banerjee, Debasis

    2018-03-16

    Herein, we developed an operational simple, practical, and selective Ni-catalyzed synthesis of secondary amides. Application of renewable alcohols, earth-abundant and nonprecious nickel catalyst facilitates the transformations, releasing water as byproduct. The catalytic system is tolerant to a variety of functional groups including nitrile, allylic ether, and alkene and could be extended to the synthesis of bis-amide, antiemetic drug Tigan, and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist Itopride. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed the participation of a benzylic C-H bond in the rate-determining step.

  14. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2016-04-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  15. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Here, are the diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity.

  16. Isotope Effects and Mechanism of the Asymmetric BOROX Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Aziridination Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.; Desai, Aman A.; Wulff, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the chiral VANOL-BOROX Brønsted acid catalyzed aziridination reaction of imines and ethyldiazoacetate has been studied using a combination of experimental kinetic isotope effects and theoretical calculations. A stepwise mechanism where reversible formation of a diazonium ion intermediate precedes rate-limiting ring-closure to form the cis-aziridine is implicated. A revised model for the origin of enantio- and diastereoselectivity is proposed based on relative energies of the ring closing transition structures. PMID:23687986

  17. Evaluation of Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients who Attempted Suicide by Self-Inflicted Burn Using Catalyzer

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Belli, Sedat; Sakallioglu, Ayse Ebru; Tarim, Mehmet Akin; Moray, Gokhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to assess demographic and clinical characteristics of patients treated at our units who attempted suicide by self-incineration, and to compare the results of burns with or without catalyzer use. Twenty patients who attempted suicide by self-incineration were examined in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Average age of the study population was 35 years (range 13−85 years). Average percentage of total body surface area burn was 53% (9%−100%). Six (30%) patients used gasoline and 5 (25%) used paint thinner in order to catalyze burning. Of these 11 patients who used a catalyzer, 5 (45.4%) had inhalation injury and 7 (63.6%) died. Among 9 patients who did not use any catalyzer, 1 (11.1%) had inhalation injury and 4 (44.4%) died. In general, inhalation injury was diagnosed in 6 patients (30%) while 11 (55%) patients died. A high morbidity and mortality rate was found in patients who used a catalyzer. PMID:25692434

  18. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Solvable Catalyzed Birth-Death-Exchange Competition Model of Three Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Feng; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Heng

    2009-10-01

    A competition model of three species in exchange-driven aggregation growth is proposed. In the model, three distinct aggregates grow by exchange of monomers and in parallel, birth of species A is catalyzed by species B and death of species A is catalyzed by species C. The rates for both catalysis processes are proportional to kjν and kjω respectively, where ν(Ω) is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rate of birth (death) on the catalyst aggregate's size. The kinetic evolution behaviors of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A-species ak(t) is found to be dependent crucially on the two catalysis rate kernel parameters. The results show that (i) in case of μ <= 0, the form of ak(t) mainly depends on the competition between self-exchange of species A and species-C-catalyzed death of species A; (ii) in case of ν > 0, the form of ak(t) mainly depends on the competition between species-B-catalyzed birth of species A and species-C-catalyzed death of species A.

  19. Carbon nanotube substrates and catalyzed hot stamp for polishing and patterning the substrates

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yuhuang [Evanston, IL; Hauge, Robert H [Houston, TX; Schmidt, Howard K [Houston, TX; Kim, Myung Jong [Houston, TX; Kittrell, W Carter [Houston, TX

    2009-09-08

    The present invention is generally directed to catalyzed hot stamp methods for polishing and/or patterning carbon nanotube-containing substrates. In some embodiments, the substrate, as a carbon nanotube fiber end, is brought into contact with a hot stamp (typically at 200-800.degree. C.), and is kept in contact with the hot stamp until the morphology/patterns on the hot stamp have been transferred to the substrate. In some embodiments, the hot stamp is made of material comprising one or more transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Ag, Au, etc.), which can catalyze the etching reaction of carbon with H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O, and/or O.sub.2. Such methods can (1) polish the carbon nanotube-containing substrate with a microscopically smooth finish, and/or (2) transfer pre-defined patterns from the hot stamp to the substrate. Such polished or patterned carbon nanotube substrates can find application as carbon nanotube electrodes, field emitters, and field emitter arrays for displays and electron sources.

  20. Reuse performance of granular-activated carbon and activated carbon fiber in catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Li, Lei; Xiao, Tuo; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Xueting

    2017-03-01

    Recently, activated carbon was investigated as an efficient heterogeneous metal-free catalyst to directly activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degradation of organic compounds. In this paper, the reuse performance and the possible deactivation reasons of granular-activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) in PMS activation were investigated. As results indicated, the reusability of GAC, especially in the presence of high PMS dosage, was relatively superior to ACF in catalyzed PMS oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), which is much more easily adsorbed by ACF than by GAC. Pre-oxidation experiments were studied and it was demonstrated that PMS oxidation on ACF would retard ACF's deactivation to a big extent. After pre-adsorption with AO7, the catalytic ability of both GAC and ACF evidently diminished. However, when methanol was employed to extract the AO7-spent ACF, the catalytic ability could recover quite a bit. GAC and ACF could also effectively catalyze PMS to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5), which is very difficult to be adsorbed even by ACF, but both GAC and ACF have poor reuse performance for RB5 degradation. The original organic compounds or intermediate products adsorbed by GAC or ACF would be possibly responsible for the deactivation.

  1. Protein complexes formed during the incision reaction catalyzed by the Escherichia coli UvrABC endonuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A T; Mattes, W B; Grossman, L

    1986-01-01

    An examination has been made into the nature of the nucleoprotein complexes formed during the incision reaction catalyzed by the Escherichia coli UvrABC endonuclease when acting on a pyrimidine dimer-containing fd RF-I DNA species. The complexes of proteins and DNA form in unique stages. The first stage of binding involves an ATP-stimulated interaction of the UvrA protein with duplex DNA containing pyrimidine dimer sites. The UvrB protein significantly stabilizes the UvrA-pyrimidine dimer containing DNA complex which, in turn, provides a foundation for the binding of UvrC to activate the UvrABC endonuclease. The binding of one molecule of UvrC to each UvrAB-damaged DNA complex is needed to catalyze incision in the vicinity of pyrimidine dimer sites. The UvrABC-DNA complex persists after the incision event suggesting that the lack of UvrABC turnover may be linked to other activities in the excision-repair pathway beyond the initial incision reaction. PMID:3960727

  2. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethane and tandem cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Qu, Shuanglin; Zhou, Lei; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Chengpeng; Cheng, Jiajia; Hossain, Mohammad Lokman; Liu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-04-08

    Palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization of acyldiazomethanes with aryl iodides has been developed. This reaction is featured by the retention of the diazo functionality in the transformation, thus constituting a novel method for the introduction of diazo functionality to organic molecules. Consistent with the experimental results, the density functional theory (DFT) calculation indicates that the formation of Pd-carbene species in the catalytic cycle through dinitrogen extrusion from the palladium ethyl diazoacetate (Pd-EDA) complex is less favorable. The reaction instead proceeds through Ag2CO3 assisted deprotonation and subsequently reductive elimination to afford the products with diazo functionality remained. This C-H functionalization transformation can be further combined with the recently evolved palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of diazo compounds with aryl iodides to develop a tandem coupling process for the synthesis of α,α-diaryl esters. DFT calculation supports the involvement of Pd-carbene as reactive intermediate in the catalytic cycle, which goes through facile carbene migratory insertion with a low energy barrier (3.8 kcal/mol).

  5. Human class I alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of glycols in the metabolism of norepinephrine.

    PubMed Central

    Mårdh, G; Luehr, C A; Vallee, B L

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of the function of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in norepinephrine metabolism have revealed that class I ADH catalyzes the oxidation of the intermediary alcohols 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl glycol (HMPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DHPG) in vitro. The kcat/Km values for the individual homogeneous class I isozymes are generally in the range from 2.0 to 10 mM-1 X min-1, slightly lower than those obtained for ethanol oxidation, 16-66 mM-1 X min-1, but considerably higher than those obtained for ethylene glycol oxidation, 0.23-1.5 mM-1 X min-1. Importantly, HMPG and DHPG are not substrates for the class II or class III ADHs. 4-Methylpyrazole and 1,10-phenanthroline inhibit the class I ADH-catalyzed oxidation of HMPG, DHPG, and ethanol with inhibition constants of 75-90 nM and 19-22 microM, respectively, indicating that these substrates interact at the same catalytic site of ADH. Moreover, ethanol inhibits the oxidation of HMPG. The competition of ethanol with HMPG for ADH provides a basis for the in vivo changes observed in norepinephrine metabolism after acute ethanol intake. Any assessment of norepinephrine function through the study of metabolites in peripheral body fluid must include monitoring the oxidation of HMPG by ADH. PMID:3161078

  6. Mild copper-catalyzed vinylation reactions of azoles and phenols with vinyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Marc; Ouali, Armelle; Renard, Brice; Spindler, Jean-Francis

    2006-07-05

    An efficient and straightforward copper-catalyzed method allowing vinylation of N- or O-nucleophiles with di- or trisubstituted vinyl bromides is reported. The procedure is applicable to a broad range of substrates since N-vinylation of mono-, di-, and triazoles as well as O-vinylation of phenol derivatives can be performed with catalytic amounts of copper iodide and inexpensive nitrogen ligands 3 or 8. In the case of more hindered vinyl bromides, the use of the original bidentate chelator 8 was shown to be more efficient to promote the coupling reactions than our key tetradentate ligand 3. The corresponding N-(1-alkenyl)azoles and alkenyl aryl ethers are obtained in high yields and selectivities under very mild temperature conditions (35-110 degrees C for N-vinylation reactions and 50-80 degrees C for O-vinylation reactions). Moreover, to our knowledge, this method is the first example of a copper-catalyzed vinylation of various azoles. Finally, this protocol, practical on a laboratory scale and easily adaptable to an industrial scale, is very competitive compared to the existing methods that allow the synthesis of such compounds.

  7. Iron catalyzed conversion of NO into nitrosonium (NO+) and nitroxyl (HNO/NO-) species.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Srdjan; Stanić, Dragana; Nikolić, Milan; Spasić, Mihailo; Niketić, Vesna

    2004-11-01

    The conversion of NO into its congeners, nitrosonium (NO+) and nitroxyl (HNO/NO-) species, has important consequences in NO metabolism. Dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC) combined with thiol ligands was shown to catalyze the conversion of NO into NO+, resulting in the synthesis of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) both in vitro and in vivo. The formation mechanism of DNIC was proposed to involve the intermediate release of nitroxyl. Since the detection of hydroxylamine (as the product of a rapid reaction of HNO/NO- with thiols) is taken as the evidence for nitroxyl generation, we examined the formation of hydroxylamine, RSNO, and nitrite (the product of a rapid reaction of NO+ with water) in neutral solutions containing iron ions and thiols exposed to NO under anaerobic conditions. Hydroxylamine was detected in NO treated solutions of iron ions in the presence of cysteine, but not glutathione (GSH). The addition of urate, a major "free" iron-binding agent in humans, to solutions of GSH and iron ions, and the subsequent treatment of these solutions with NO increased the synthesis of GSNO and resulted in the formation of hydroxylamine. This caused a loss of urate and yielded a novel nitrosative/nitration product. GSH attenuated the urate decomposition to such a degree that it could be reflected as the function of GSH:urate. Results described here contribute to the understanding of the role of iron ions in catalyzing the conversion of NO into HNO/NO- and point to the role of uric acid not previously described.

  8. Oligomerization of glycine and alanine catalyzed by iron oxides: implications for prebiotic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Uma; Bhushan, Brij; Bhattacharjee, G; Kamaluddin

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide minerals are probable constituents of the sediments present in geothermal regions of the primitive earth. They might have adsorbed different organic monomers (amino acids, nucleotides etc.) and catalyzed polymerization processes leading to the formation of the first living cell. In the present work we tested the catalytic activity of three forms of iron oxides (Goethite, Akaganeite and Hematite) in the intermolecular condensation of each of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine. The effect of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on the oligomerization has also been studied. Oligomerization studies were performed for 35 days at three different temperatures 50, 90 and 120°C without applying drying/wetting cycling. The products formed were characterized by HPLC and ESI-MS techniques. All three forms of iron oxides catalyzed peptide bond formation (23.2% of gly2 and 10.65% of ala2). The reaction was monitored every 7 days. Formation of peptides was observed to start after 7 days at 50°C. Maximum yield of peptides was found after 35 days at 90°C. Reaction at 120°C favors formation of diketopiperazine derivatives. It is also important to note that after 35 days of reaction, goethite produced dimer and trimer with the highest yield among the oxides tested. We suggest that the activity of goethite could probably be due to its high surface area and surface acidity.

  9. Preparation of ortho-para ratio controlled D2 gas for muon-catalyzed fusion.

    PubMed

    Imao, H; Ishida, K; Kawamura, N; Matsuzaki, T; Matsuda, Y; Toyoda, A; Strasser, P; Iwasaki, M; Nagamine, K

    2008-05-01

    A negative muon in hydrogen targets, e.g., D2 or D-T mixture, can catalyze nuclear fusions following a series of atomic processes involving muonic hydrogen molecular formation (muon-catalyzed fusion, muCF). The ortho-para state of D2 is a crucial parameter not only for enhancing the fusion rate but also to precisely investigate various muonic atom processes. We have developed a system for controlling and measuring the ortho-para ratio of D2 gas for muCF experiments. We successfully collected para-enriched D2 without using liquid-hydrogen coolant. Ortho-enriched D2 was also obtained by using a catalytic conversion method with a mixture of chromium oxide and alumina. The ortho-para ratio of D2 gas was measured with a compact Raman spectroscopy system. We produced large volume (5-30 l at STP), high-purity (less than ppm high-Z contaminant) D2 targets with a wide range of ortho-para ratios (ortho 20%-99%). By using the ortho-para controlled D2 in muCF experiments, we observed the dependence of muCF phenomena on the ortho-para ratio.

  10. Aerobic oxidation of cyclic amines to lactams catalyzed by ceria-supported nanogold

    SciTech Connect

    Dairo, Taiwo O.; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    Here, the oxidative transformation of cyclic amines to lactams, which are important chemical feedstocks, is efficiently catalyzed by CeO 2-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/CeO 2) and Aerosil 200 in the presence of an atmosphere of O 2. The complete conversion of pyrrolidine was achieved in 6.5 h at 160 °C, affording a 97 % yield of the lactam product 2-pyrrolidone (γ-butyrolactam), while 2-piperidone (δ-valerolactam) was synthesized from piperidine (83 % yield) in 2.5 h. Caprolactam, the precursor to the commercially important nylon-6, was obtained from hexamethyleneimine in 37 % yield in 3 h. During the oxidation of pyrrolidine, two transient species,more » 5-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (amidine-5) and 4-amino-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)butan-1-one, were observed. Both of these compounds were oxidized to 2-pyrrolidone under catalytic conditions, indicating their role as intermediates in the reaction pathway. In addition to the reactions of cyclic secondary amines, Au/CeO 2 also efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of N-methyl cyclic tertiary amines to the corresponding lactams at 80 and 100 °C.« less

  11. Aerobic oxidation of cyclic amines to lactams catalyzed by ceria-supported nanogold

    DOE PAGES

    Dairo, Taiwo O.; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Here, the oxidative transformation of cyclic amines to lactams, which are important chemical feedstocks, is efficiently catalyzed by CeO 2-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/CeO 2) and Aerosil 200 in the presence of an atmosphere of O 2. The complete conversion of pyrrolidine was achieved in 6.5 h at 160 °C, affording a 97 % yield of the lactam product 2-pyrrolidone (γ-butyrolactam), while 2-piperidone (δ-valerolactam) was synthesized from piperidine (83 % yield) in 2.5 h. Caprolactam, the precursor to the commercially important nylon-6, was obtained from hexamethyleneimine in 37 % yield in 3 h. During the oxidation of pyrrolidine, two transient species,more » 5-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (amidine-5) and 4-amino-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)butan-1-one, were observed. Both of these compounds were oxidized to 2-pyrrolidone under catalytic conditions, indicating their role as intermediates in the reaction pathway. In addition to the reactions of cyclic secondary amines, Au/CeO 2 also efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of N-methyl cyclic tertiary amines to the corresponding lactams at 80 and 100 °C.« less

  12. New ether-functionalized ionic liquids for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Cowins, Janet V

    2010-09-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being explored as solvents for the enzymatic methanolysis of triglycerides. However, most available ILs (especially hydrophobic ones) have poor capability in dissolving lipids, while hydrophilic ILs tend to cause enzyme inactivation. Recently, we synthesized a new type of ether-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) carrying anions of acetate or formate; they are capable of dissolving a variety of substrates and are also lipase-compatible (Green Chem., 2008, 10, 696-705). In the present study, we carried out the lipase-catalyzed transesterifications of Miglyol oil 812 and soybean oil in these novel ILs. These ILs are capable of dissolving oils at the reaction temperature (50 degrees C); meanwhile, lipases maintained high catalytic activities in these media even in high concentrations of methanol (up to 50% v/v). High conversions of Miglyol oil were observed in mixtures of IL and methanol (70/30, v/v) when the reaction was catalyzed by a variety of lipases and different enzyme preparations (free and immobilized), especially with the use of two alkylammonium ILs 2 and 3. The preliminary study on the transesterification of soybean oil in IL/methanol mixtures further confirms the potential of using oil-dissolving and lipase-stabilizing ILs in the efficient production of biodiesels.

  13. Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Lee, Jeung-Hee; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shin, Jung-Ah; Adhikari, Prakash; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2008-11-26

    In the lipase (Novozyme 435)-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 esters, different acyl donors were found to affect not only the degree of conversion but also the regioselectivity. The reaction of acyl donors with short carbon chain was more effective, showing higher conversion than those with long carbon chain. Among the three solvent systems, the reaction in tert-amyl alcohol showed the highest conversion rate, while the reaction in the mixed solvent of t-BuOH and pyridine (1:1) had the lowest conversion rate. To allow the increase of GRb1 lipophilicity, we decided to further study the optimal condition of synthesis of GRb1 with vinyl decanoate with 10 carbon chain fatty acids in tert-amyl alcohol. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the synthesis condition. From the ridge analysis with maximum responses, the maximum GRb1 conversion was predicted to be 61.51% in a combination of factors (40.2 h, 52.95 degrees C, substrate mole ratio 275.57, and enzyme amount 39.81 mg/mL). Further, the adequacy of the predicted model was examined by additional independent experiments at the predicted maximum synthesis conditions. Results showed that the RSM was effective to optimize a combination of factors for lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ginsenoside Rb1 with vinyl decanoate.

  14. Iron-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cross-Coupling Reactions of α-Chloroesters with Aryl Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Masayoshi; Adak, Laksmikanta; Nakamura, Masaharu

    2015-06-10

    The first iron-catalyzed enantioselective cross-coupling reaction between an organometallic compound and an organic electrophile is reported. Synthetically versatile racemic α-chloro- and α-bromoalkanoates were coupled with aryl Grignard reagents in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iron salt and a chiral bisphosphine ligand, giving the products in high yields with acceptable and synthetically useful enantioselectivities (er up to 91:9). The produced α-arylalkanoates were readily converted to the corresponding α-arylalkanoic acids with high optical enrichment (er up to >99:1) via simple deprotections/recrystallizations. The results of radical probe experiments are consistent with a mechanism that involves the formation of an alkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes subsequent enantioconvergent arylation in an intermolecular manner. The developed asymmetric coupling offers not only facile and practical access to various chiral α-arylalkanoic acid derivatives, which are of significant pharmaceutical importance, but also a basis of controlling enantioselectivity in an iron-catalyzed organometallic transformation.

  15. Nitrous Oxide-dependent Iron-catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Döhlert, Peter; Weidauer, Maik; Enthaler, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The formation of carbon-carbon bonds is one of the fundamental transformations in chemistry. In this regard the application of palladium-based catalysts has been extensively investigated during recent years, but nowadays research focuses on iron catalysis, due to sustainability, costs and toxicity issues; hence numerous examples for iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions have been established, based on the coupling of electrophiles (R(1)-X, X = halide) with nucleophiles (R(2)-MgX). Only a small number of protocols deals with the iron-catalyzed oxidative coupling of nucleophiles (R(1)-MgX + R(2)-MgX) with the aid of oxidants (1,2-dihaloethanes). However, some issues arise with these oxidants; hence more recently the potential of the industrial waste product nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was investigated, because the unproblematic side product N(2) is formed. Based on that, we demonstrate the catalytic potential of easily accessible iron complexes in the oxidative coupling of Grignard reagents. Importantly, nitrous oxide was essential to obtain yields up to >99% at mild conditions (e.g. 1 atm, ambient temperature) and low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol%) Excellent catalyst performance is realized with turnover numbers of up to 1000 and turnover frequencies of up to 12000 h(-1). Moreover, a good functional group tolerance is observed (e.g. amide, ester, nitrile, alkene, alkyne). Afterwards the reaction of different Grignard reagents revealed interesting results with respect to the selectivity of cross-coupling product formation.

  16. Stability of Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride Nanocrystalline During Hydrogen Cycling. Part II: Microstructure Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chengshang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Bowman, Robert C.

    2015-10-01

    In Part I, the cyclic stabilities of the kinetics of catalyzed MgH2 systems including MgH2–TiH2, MgH2–TiMn2, and MgH2–VTiCr were investigated, showing stable kinetics at 300 °C but deteriorations of the hydrogenation kinetics at temperatures below 150 °C. The present Part II describes the characterization of uncycled and cycled catalyzed MgH2 by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis shows the crystallite sizes of the Mg and MgH2 significantly increased after the cycling. The mean crystallite sizes of the catalysts (TiH2 and VTiCr) increased moderately after the cycling. SEMmore » and TEM imaging were used to compare the microstructures of uncycled (as-milled) and cycled materials, revealing a drastic change of the microstructure after 100 cycles. In particular, results from energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping show that a change of distribution of the catalyst particles in the Mg and MgH2 phase occurred during the cycling.« less

  17. Remote C-H Activation of Quinolines through Copper-Catalyzed Radical Cross-Coupling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Shen, Chao; Zhu, Xiaolei; Zhang, Pengfei; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Huang, Kuo-Wei; An, Zhongfu; Liu, Xiaogang

    2016-03-18

    Achieving site selectivity in carbon-hydrogen (C-H) functionalization reactions is a formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Herein, we report a novel approach to activating remote C-H bonds at the C5 position of 8-aminoquinoline through copper-catalyzed sulfonylation under mild conditions. Our strategy shows high conversion efficiency, a broad substrate scope, and good toleration with different functional groups. Furthermore, our mechanistic investigations suggest that a single-electron-transfer process plays a vital role in generating sulfonyl radicals and subsequently initiating C-S cross-coupling. Importantly, our copper-catalyzed remote functionalization protocol can be expanded for the construction of a variety of chemical bonds, including C-O, C-Br, C-N, C-C, and C-I. These findings provide a fundamental insight into the activation of remote C-H bonds, while offering new possibilities for rational design of drug molecules and optoelectronic materials requiring specific modification of functional groups. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. High Performance Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Batteries: A Self‐Catalyzed Strategy toward Facile Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanyan; Liang, Xinmiao; Chai, Jingchao; Cui, Zili; Wang, Qinglei; He, Weisheng; Liu, Xiaochen; Feng, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract It is urgent to seek high performance solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) via a facile chemistry and simple process. The lithium salts are composed of complex anions that are stabilized by a Lewis acid agent. This Lewis acid can initiate the ring opening polymerization. Herein, a self‐catalyzed strategy toward facile synthesis of crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether‐based solid polymer electrolyte (C‐PEGDE) is presented. It is manifested that the poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether‐based solid polymer electrolyte possesses a superior electrochemical stability window up to 4.5 V versus Li/Li+ and considerable ionic conductivity of 8.9 × 10−5 S cm−1 at ambient temperature. Moreover, the LiFePO4/C‐PEGDE/Li batteries deliver stable charge/discharge profiles and considerable rate capability. It is demonstrated that this self‐catalyzed strategy can be a very effective approach for high performance solid polymer electrolytes. PMID:29201612

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanbo; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Liu, Fangjie; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin is the popular protease to digest proteins into peptides in shotgun proteomics, but few studies have attempted to systematically investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion in proteome samples. In this study, we applied quantitative proteomics via triplex stable isotope dimethyl labeling to investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed cleavage. It was found that trypsin cleaves the C-terminal to lysine (K) and arginine (R) residues with higher rates for R. And the cleavage sites surrounded by neutral residues could be quickly cut, while those with neighboring charged residues (D/E/K/R) or proline residue (P) could be slowly cut. In a proteome sample, a huge number of proteins with different physical chemical properties coexists. If any type of protein could be preferably digested, then limited digestion could be applied to reduce the sample complexity. However, we found that protein abundance and other physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (Mw), grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), aliphatic index, and isoelectric point (pI) have no notable correlation with digestion priority of proteins.