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Sample records for a2 co2 emission

  1. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  2. Update on CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedingstein, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, Gregg; Hackler, J.; Boden, Thomas A; Conway, T.J.; Canadell, J.G.; Raupach, Mike; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quere, Corrine

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

  3. Commitment accounting for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Socolow, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived energy infrastructure that burns fossil fuels represents a multi-decade 'commitment' to emit CO2. Today's global power sector, alone, represents hundreds of billions of tons of still unrealized 'committed emissions' of CO2. And every year, substantial new commitments to future emissions are made, as new power plants are built. The socioeconomic inertia of these commitments is a major barrier to climate change mitigation. Here, we quantify these annual commitments by a bottom-up analysis of all power plants commissioned between 1950 and 2011; assigning emission commitments to the year when each generator came on line. We find, assuming 40-year commitments, that the global commitment to future emissions from the world's generators in 2011 (the most recent year in our analysis) was 318 Gt CO2, of which 216 Gt CO2 were commitments from the world's coal-fired generators and 134 Gt CO2 were commitments from China's generators. Annual new global commitments exceeded 15 Gt CO2 per year in every year since 2000. Moreover, between 2005-2010 (the latest year of available emissions data), new global commitments were more than twice as large as actual emissions from all power plants. Country-specific ratios of new committed emissions to actual emissions, averaged over 1990-2010 were 4.1 for China, 2.6 for India, 0.9 for the EU, and 0.6 for the US. We urge that the reporting of annual CO2 emissions, already widely institutionalized, be augmented by 'commitment accounting' which makes these future emissions salient. Annual committed emissions and annual emissions of primary power infrastructure. New committed emissions (light green) have grown from approximately 4 Gt CO2 per year in 1960 to roughly 10 Gt CO2 per year between 1970-1995, and then to more than 15 Gt CO2 per year since 2000. Throughout this period, new committed emissions have exceeded annual emissions (blue curve, source: IEA). Although the commitments made 30-40 years ago have largely been realized (dark

  4. The supply chain of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-11-08

    CO(2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO(2) emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO(2) or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO(2) or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO(2) emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage.

  5. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally attributed to the country where the emissions are produced (i.e., where the fuels are burned). However, these production-based accounts represent a single point in the value chain of fossil fuels, which may have been extracted elsewhere and may be used to provide goods or services to consumers elsewhere. We present a consistent set of carbon inventories that spans the full supply chain of global CO2 emissions, finding that 10.2 billion tons CO2 or 37% of global emissions are from fossil fuels traded internationally and an additional 6.4 billion tons CO2 or 23% of global emissions are embodied in traded goods. Our results reveal vulnerabilities and benefits related to current patterns of energy use that are relevant to climate and energy policy. In particular, if a consistent and unavoidable price were imposed on CO2 emissions somewhere along the supply chain, then all of the parties along the supply chain would seek to impose that price to generate revenue from taxes collected or permits sold. The geographical concentration of carbon-based fuels and relatively small number of parties involved in extracting and refining those fuels suggest that regulation at the wellhead, mine mouth, or refinery might minimize transaction costs as well as opportunities for leakage. PMID:22006314

  6. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y-1 for the period 2000 2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y-1) and land use change (240 TgC y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000 2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/, close to the world average of 199 gC/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  7. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J. G.; Raupach, M. R.; Houghton, R. A.

    2009-03-01

    An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 Tg C y-1 for the period 2000-2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 Tg C y-1) and land use change (240 Tg C y-1). Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 Tg C accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000-2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y-1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 t C y-1 compared to the global average of 1.2 t C y-1. The average amount of carbon (C) emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US{} of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Africa was 187 g C/ in 2005, close to the world average of 199 g C/. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  8. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Woodard, Dawn

    2016-05-01

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use of proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. Uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.

  9. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  10. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; ...

    2016-05-19

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use ofmore » proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. In conclusion, uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.« less

  11. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide...

  12. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  13. Will atmospheric CO2 concentration continue to increase if anthropogenic CO2 emissions cease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougall, A. H.; Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    If anthropogenic CO2 emissions were to suddenly cease, the evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration would depend on the magnitude and sign of natural carbon sources and sinks. Experiments using Earth system models indicate that overall carbon sinks would dominate. However, these models have typically neglected the permafrost carbon pool, which has the potential to introduce an additional terrestrial source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, which has recently been expanded to include permafrost carbon stocks and exchanges with the atmosphere. In a scenario of zeroed CO2 and sulphate aerosol emissions, we assess whether the warming induced by specified constant concentrations of non-CO2 greenhouse gases could slow the CO2 decline following zero emissions, or even reverse this trend and cause CO2 to increase over time. We find that a radiative forcing from non-CO2 gases of approximately 0.6 W m-2 results in a near balance of CO2 emissions from the terrestrial biosphere and uptake of CO2 by the oceans, resulting in near-constant atmospheric CO2 concentrations for at least a century after emissions are eliminated. At higher values of non-CO2 radiative forcing, CO2 concentrations increase over time, regardless of when emissions cease during the 21st century. Given that the present-day radiative forcing from non-CO2 greenhouse gases is about 0.95 W m-2, our results suggest that if we were to eliminate all CO2 and aerosols emissions without also decreasing non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 levels would increase over time, resulting in a small increase in climate warming. The sudden and total cessation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is an unlikely future scenario. However, such cessation experiments provide a useful method for evaluating the relative strength of the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle feedbacks in the presence of forcing from non-CO2 greenhouse gasses.

  14. Estimates of CO2 traffic emissions from mobile concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H. L.; Thurlow, M. E.; McDonald, B. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present data from a new mobile system intended to aid in the design of upcoming urban CO2-monitoring networks. Our collected data include GPS probe data, video-derived traffic density, and accurate CO2 concentration measurements. The method described here is economical, scalable, and self-contained, allowing for potential future deployment in locations without existing traffic infrastructure or vehicle fleet information. Using a test data set collected on California Highway 24 over a 2 week period, we observe that on-road CO2 concentrations are elevated by a factor of 2 in congestion compared to free-flow conditions. This result is found to be consistent with a model including vehicle-induced turbulence and standard engine physics. In contrast to surface concentrations, surface emissions are found to be relatively insensitive to congestion. We next use our model for CO2 concentration together with our data to independently derive vehicle emission rate parameters. Parameters scaling the leading four emission rate terms are found to be within 25% of those expected for a typical passenger car fleet, enabling us to derive instantaneous emission rates directly from our data that compare generally favorably to predictive models presented in the literature. The present results highlight the importance of high spatial and temporal resolution traffic data for interpreting on- and near-road concentration measurements. Future work will focus on transport and the integration of mobile platforms into existing stationary network designs.

  15. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  16. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m a.g.l. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14CO2 content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~1 week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14CO2 sampling strategies.

  17. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-02

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2(-1) for GTP, and 2.14·10(-14) ± 0.11·10(-14) °C (kg yr(-1))(-1) for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; van Zelm, Rosalie; van der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-02-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 for GTP, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Steven J.; Caldeira, Ken

    2010-01-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services in each country. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions differs from traditional, production-based inventories because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involve CO2 emissions. Here, using the latest available data, we present a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and calculations of associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 23% of global CO2 emissions, or 6.2 gigatonnes CO2, were traded internationally, primarily as exports from China and other emerging markets to consumers in developed countries. In some wealthy countries, including Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, the United Kingdom, and France, >30% of consumption-based emissions were imported, with net imports to many Europeans of >4 tons CO2 per person in 2004. Net import of emissions to the United States in the same year was somewhat less: 10.8% of total consumption-based emissions and 2.4 tons CO2 per person. In contrast, 22.5% of the emissions produced in China in 2004 were exported, on net, to consumers elsewhere. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions demonstrates the potential for international carbon leakage. Sharing responsibility for emissions among producers and consumers could facilitate international agreement on global climate policy that is now hindered by concerns over the regional and historical inequity of emissions. PMID:20212122

  20. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven J; Caldeira, Ken

    2010-03-23

    CO(2) emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO(2) directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services in each country. Consumption-based accounting of CO(2) emissions differs from traditional, production-based inventories because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involve CO(2) emissions. Here, using the latest available data, we present a global consumption-based CO(2) emissions inventory and calculations of associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 23% of global CO(2) emissions, or 6.2 gigatonnes CO(2), were traded internationally, primarily as exports from China and other emerging markets to consumers in developed countries. In some wealthy countries, including Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, the United Kingdom, and France, >30% of consumption-based emissions were imported, with net imports to many Europeans of >4 tons CO(2) per person in 2004. Net import of emissions to the United States in the same year was somewhat less: 10.8% of total consumption-based emissions and 2.4 tons CO(2) per person. In contrast, 22.5% of the emissions produced in China in 2004 were exported, on net, to consumers elsewhere. Consumption-based accounting of CO(2) emissions demonstrates the potential for international carbon leakage. Sharing responsibility for emissions among producers and consumers could facilitate international agreement on global climate policy that is now hindered by concerns over the regional and historical inequity of emissions.

  1. Atmospheric measurement of point source fossil CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, T.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-05-01

    We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes CO2 from locally extracted natural gas and vents that CO2 to the atmosphere, at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. The plant is located in a rural dairy farming area, with no other significant CO2ff sources nearby, but large, diurnally varying, biospheric CO2 fluxes from the surrounding highly productive agricultural grassland. We made flask measurements of CO2 and 14CO2 (from which we derive the CO2ff component) and in situ measurements of CO2 downwind of the Kapuni plant, using a Helikite to sample transects across the emission plume from the surface up to 100 m above ground level. We also determined the surface CO2ff content averaged over several weeks from the 14C content of grass samples collected from the surrounding area. We use the WindTrax plume dispersion model to compare the atmospheric observations with the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant, and to determine how well atmospheric measurements can constrain the emissions. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the fluctuations and short-term variability in the Helikite samples, but does quite well in representing the observed CO2ff in 15 min averaged surface flask samples and in ~ one week integrated CO2ff averages from grass samples. In this pilot study, we found that using grass samples, the modeled and observed CO2ff emissions averaged over one week agreed to within 30%. The results imply that greater verification accuracy may be achieved by including more detailed meteorological observations and refining 14C sampling strategies.

  2. CO2 emissions from German drinking water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Helmi; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify total emission of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany and to identify major drivers. All reservoirs were a net CO2 source with a median flux of 167gCm(-2)y(-1), which makes gaseous emissions a relevant process for the carbon budget of each reservoir. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 13, 48, and 201gCm(-2)y(-1) in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to varying wind speed had only a minor effect on the annual budgets. High CO2 emissions only occurred in reservoirs with pH<7 and total alkalinity <0.2mEql(-1). Annual CO2 emissions correlated exponentially with pH but not with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). There was significant correlation between land use in the catchment and CO2 emissions. In total, German drinking water reservoirs emit 44000t of CO2 annually, which makes them a negligible CO2 source (<0.005% of national CO2 emissions) in Germany.

  3. Atmospheric Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Keller, E. D.; Norris, M. W.; Wiltshire, R.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) make up roughly one third of all fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. Currently, these emissions are determined from self-reported inventory data, and sometimes from smokestack emissions monitoring, and the uncertainty in emissions from individual power plants is about 20%. We examine the utility of atmospheric 14C measurements combined with atmospheric transport modelling as a tool for independently quantifying point source CO2ff emissions, to both improve the accuracy of the reported emissions and for verification as we move towards a regulatory environment. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Facility as a test case. It is located in rural New Zealand with no other significant fossil fuel CO2 sources nearby, and emits CO2ff at ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We use several different sampling methods to determine the 14C and hence the CO2ff content downwind of the emission source: grab flask samples of whole air; absorption of CO2 into sodium hydroxide integrated over many hours; and plant material which faithfully records the 14C content of assimilated CO2. We use a plume dispersion model to compare the reported emissions with our observed CO2ff mole fractions. We show that the short-term variability in plume dispersion makes it difficult to interpret the grab flask sample results, whereas the variability is averaged out in the integrated samples and we obtain excellent agreement between the reported and observed emissions, indicating that the 14C method can reliably be used to evaluated point source emissions.

  4. Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This revision of the 2011 report, Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, evaluates biogenic CO2 emissions from stationary sources, including a detailed study of the scientific and technical issues associated with assessing biogenic carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources. EPA developed the revised report, Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, to present a methodological framework for assessing the extent to which the production, processing, and use of biogenic material at stationary sources for energy production results in a net atmospheric contribution of biogenic CO2 emissions. Biogenic carbon dioxide emissions are defined as CO2 emissions related to the natural carbon cycle, as well as those resulting from the production, harvest, combustion, digestion, decomposition, and processing of biologically-based materials. The EPA is continuing to refine its technical assessment of biogenic CO2 emissions through another round of targeted peer review of the revised study with the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB). This study was submitted to the SAB's Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel in February 2015. http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3235dac747c16fe985257da90053f252!OpenDocument&TableRow=2.2#2 The revised report will inform efforts by policymakers, academics, and other stakeholders to evaluate the technical aspects related to assessments of biogenic feedstocks used for energy at s

  5. Episodical CO2 emission during shoulder seasons in the arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friborg, T.; Elberling, B.; Hansen, B.; Lund, M.; Mastepanov, M.

    2010-12-01

    In a study during late autumn and winter from high arctic Svalbard we found that episodical emissions of CO2 accounted for a significant part of the total CO2 emission form the site. The emission pattern could be associated with temperature variations at the site and show high emission rates the freeze-in periods, whereas shorter periods with temperatures above freezing point resulted in lower emission rates. We interpret this as emission of CO2 is being decoupled from the biological production during the freeze-in period and is primarily linked to pressure build up in the soil. During the fall freeze more than 50% of the CO2 was emitted as short pulses of high emission, but as the cold period progressed into winter no episodes of this nature was found and CO2 emission maintained a low and constant level. The site was underlain by continuous permafrost and it may be likely that an unfrozen layer between the freezing top soil and permafrost promoted the observed emission pulses. To evaluate this hypothesis we here compare the results from Svalbard with off season CO2 measurements from Greenland and northern Scandinavia.

  6. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics for forest bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbregts, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Stadler, Konstantin; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-01-01

    Emission metrics aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.). Examples include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Despite the importance of biomass as a primary energy supplier in existing and future scenarios, emission metrics for CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis. Here, we produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy and illustrate their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 (mean ± standard deviation) for GWP, 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2−1 for GTP, and 2.14·10−14 ± 0.11·10−14 °C (kg yr−1)−1 for aSET. We explore metric dependencies on temperature, precipitation, biomass turnover times and extraction rates of forest residues. We find relatively high emission metrics with low precipitation, long rotation times and low residue extraction rates. Our results provide a basis for assessing CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy under different indicators and across various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26830755

  7. CO2 emission estimation in the urban environment: Measurement of the CO2 storage term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkegren, A. B.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Kotthaus, S.; Malamud, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Eddy covariance has been used in urban areas to evaluate the net exchange of CO2 between the surface and the atmosphere. Typically, only the vertical flux is measured at a height 2-3 times that of the local roughness elements; however, under conditions of relatively low instability, CO2 may accumulate in the airspace below the measurement height. This can result in inaccurate emissions estimates if the accumulated CO2 drains away or is flushed upwards during thermal expansion of the boundary layer. Some studies apply a single height storage correction; however, this requires the assumption that the response of the CO2 concentration profile to forcing is constant with height. Here a full seasonal cycle (7th June 2012 to 3rd June 2013) of single height CO2 storage data calculated from concentrations measured at 10 Hz by open path gas analyser are compared to a data set calculated from a concurrent switched vertical profile measured (2 Hz, closed path gas analyser) at 10 heights within and above a street canyon in central London. The assumption required for the former storage determination is shown to be invalid. For approximately regular street canyons at least one other measurement is required. Continuous measurements at fewer locations are shown to be preferable to a spatially dense, switched profile, as temporal interpolation is ineffective. The majority of the spectral energy of the CO2 storage time series was found to be between 0.001 and 0.2 Hz (500 and 5 s respectively); however, sampling frequencies of 2 Hz and below still result in significantly lower CO2 storage values. An empirical method of correcting CO2 storage values from under-sampled time series is proposed.

  8. Dynamic of diffuse CO2 emission from Decepcion volcano, Antartica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Christian, F.; Kusakabe, M.; Wakita, H.

    2010-12-01

    Deception Island is a volcanic island located at the South Shetland Island off the Antartic Peninsula. It constitutes a back-arc stratovolcano with a basal diameter of ~ 30 Km, the volcano rises ~ 1400 m from the seafloor to the maximum height, Mt. Pond of 540 m above sea level and over half the island is covered by glaciers. This island has a horse-shoe shape with a large flooded caldera with a diameter of about 6x10 km and a maximum depth of 190 m. This caldera is open to the sea through a narrow channel of 500 m at Neptunes Bellows. Deception Island shows the most recent active volcanism, evidence of several eruptions since the late 18th century, and well-known eruptions in 1967, 1969 and 1970 caused serious damage to local scientific stations. The aim of this study is to estimate the CO2 emissions from the Deception volcano bay. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of Deception Bay were performed by means of a portable Non Dispersive Infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800, following the accumulation chamber method coupled with a floating device. A total of 244 CO2 efflux measurements were performed in Deception bay in November and December, 2009. CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 119,9 g m-2 d-1. To quantify the total CO2 emission from Deception Bay, a CO2 efflux map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). Most of the studied area showed background levels of CO2 efflux (~4 g m-2 d-1), while peak levels (>20 g m-2 d-1) were mainly identified inside the Fumarole Bay, Telefon Bay and Pendulum Cove areas. The total CO2 emission from Deception Bay was estimated about 191 ± 9 t/d To study the temporal evolution of the CO2 efflux values at Fumarole bay, a two month time series of CO2 diffuse emission values was recorded by an automatic geochemical station, which was installed on December 8, 2009, which measured also soil temperature and humidity and meteorological parameters. CO2 values

  9. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Iran, 2025.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Bekri, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO2 emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO2 emission trends for Iran over 2000-2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO2 emissions in 2025 will reach 985million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO2 emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO2 emission outlines.

  10. Projecting Human Development and CO2 emissions employing correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybski, D.; Costa, L.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    We find positive and time dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Based on this empirical relation, extrapolated HDI, and three population scenarios extracted from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report, we estimate future cumulative CO2 emissions. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) as defined in the United Nations Human Development Report 2009. In particular, we estimate that at least 300Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are necessary for the development of developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents 30% of a previously calculated CO2 budget yielding a 75% probability of limiting global warming to 2°C. Since human development has been proved to be time and country dependent, we plead for future climate negotiations to consider a differentiated CO2 emissions reduction scheme for developing countries based on the achievement of concrete development goals.

  11. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  12. Effects of population and affluence on CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Dietz, T; Rosa, E A

    1997-01-07

    We developed a stochastic version of the Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology (IPAT) model to estimate the effects of population, affluence, and technology on national CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that, for population, there are diseconomies of scale for the largest nations that are not consistent with the assumption of direct proportionality (log-linear effects) common to most previous research. In contrast, the effects of affluence on CO2 emissions appear to reach a maximum at about $10,000 in per- capita gross domestic product and to decline at higher levels of affluence. These results confirm the general value of the IPAT model as a starting point for understanding the anthropogenic driving forces of global change and suggest that population and economic growth anticipated over the next decade will exacerbate greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Technology limits for reducing EU transport sector CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Dray, Lynnette M; Schäfer, Andreas; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E

    2012-05-01

    Using a new data set describing the techno-economic characteristics of current and projected future transport technologies and a synthesis of existing transport demand models, lifecycle CO(2) emissions from 27 EU countries (EU27) were estimated in the absence and presence of new policy interventions to 2050. Future CO(2) emissions are strongly dependent on geographical scope and economic growth assumptions, and to a lesser extent on uncertainties in technology characteristics, but in the absence of new policy intervention they continue to rise from present-day values in all three scenarios examined. Consequently, EU27 emissions goals, which may require a 60% decrease in transport sector greenhouse gas emissions from year-1990 values by 2050, will be difficult to meet. This is even the case under widespread adoption of the most promising technologies for all modes, due primarily to limitations in biofuel production capacity and a lack of technologies that would drastically reduce CO(2) emissions from heavy trucks and intercontinental aviation.

  14. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    PubMed

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare.

  15. A "carbonizing dragon": China's fast growing CO2 emissions revisited.

    PubMed

    Minx, Jan C; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    China's annual CO(2) emissions grew by around 4 billion tonnes between 1992 and 2007. More than 70% of this increase occurred between 2002 and 2007. While growing export demand contributed more than 50% to the CO(2) emission growth between 2002 and 2005, capital investments have been responsible for 61% of emission growth in China between 2005 and 2007. We use structural decomposition analysis to identify the drivers for China's emission growth between 1992 and 2007, with special focus on the period 2002 to 2007 when growth was most rapid. In contrast to previous analysis, we find that efficiency improvements have largely offset additional CO(2) emissions from increased final consumption between 2002 and 2007. The strong increases in emissions growth between 2002 and 2007 are instead explained by structural change in China's economy, which has newly emerged as the third major emission driver. This structural change is mainly the result of capital investments, in particular, the growing prominence of construction services and their carbon intensive supply chain. By closing the model for capital investment, we can now show that the majority of emissions embodied in capital investment are utilized for domestic household and government consumption (35-49% and 19-36%, respectively) with smaller amounts for the production of exports (21-31%). Urbanization and the associated changes in lifestyle are shown to be more important than other socio-demographic drivers like the decreasing household size or growing population. We argue that mitigation efforts will depend on the future development of these key drivers, particularly capital investments which dictate future mitigation costs.

  16. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States decreased by ~11% between 2007 and 2013, from 6,023 to 5,377 Mt. This decline has been widely attributed to a shift from the use of coal to natural gas in US electricity production. However, the factors driving the decline have not been quantitatively evaluated; the role of natural gas in the decline therefore remains speculative. Here we analyse the factors affecting US emissions from 1997 to 2013. Before 2007, rising emissions were primarily driven by economic growth. After 2007, decreasing emissions were largely a result of economic recession with changes in fuel mix (for example, substitution of natural gas for coal) playing a comparatively minor role. Energy-climate policies may, therefore, be necessary to lock-in the recent emissions reductions and drive further decarbonization of the energy system as the US economy recovers and grows.

  17. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States decreased by ∼11% between 2007 and 2013, from 6,023 to 5,377 Mt. This decline has been widely attributed to a shift from the use of coal to natural gas in US electricity production. However, the factors driving the decline have not been quantitatively evaluated; the role of natural gas in the decline therefore remains speculative. Here we analyse the factors affecting US emissions from 1997 to 2013. Before 2007, rising emissions were primarily driven by economic growth. After 2007, decreasing emissions were largely a result of economic recession with changes in fuel mix (for example, substitution of natural gas for coal) playing a comparatively minor role. Energy–climate policies may, therefore, be necessary to lock-in the recent emissions reductions and drive further decarbonization of the energy system as the US economy recovers and grows. PMID:26197104

  18. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Hubacek, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States decreased by ∼11% between 2007 and 2013, from 6,023 to 5,377 Mt. This decline has been widely attributed to a shift from the use of coal to natural gas in US electricity production. However, the factors driving the decline have not been quantitatively evaluated; the role of natural gas in the decline therefore remains speculative. Here we analyse the factors affecting US emissions from 1997 to 2013. Before 2007, rising emissions were primarily driven by economic growth. After 2007, decreasing emissions were largely a result of economic recession with changes in fuel mix (for example, substitution of natural gas for coal) playing a comparatively minor role. Energy-climate policies may, therefore, be necessary to lock-in the recent emissions reductions and drive further decarbonization of the energy system as the US economy recovers and grows.

  19. CO2 emission of Indonesian fires in 2015 estimated from satellite-derived atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Massart, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Crisp, D.

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia experienced an exceptional number of fires in 2015 as a result of droughts related to the recent El Niño event and human activities. These fires released large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Emission databases such as the Global Fire Assimilation System version 1.2 and the Global Fire Emission Database version 4s estimated the CO2 emission to be approximately 1100 MtCO2 in the time period from July to November 2015. This emission was indirectly estimated by using parameters like burned area, fire radiative power, and emission factors. In the study presented in this paper, we estimate the Indonesian fire CO2 emission by using the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2, XCO2, derived from measurements of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite mission. The estimated CO2 emission is 748 ± 209 MtCO2, which is about 30% lower than provided by the emission databases.

  20. Large CO2 effluxes at night and during synoptic weather events significantly contribute to CO2 emissions from a reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heping; Zhang, Qianyu; Katul, Gabriel G.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; MacIntyre, Sally

    2016-06-01

    CO2 emissions from inland waters are commonly determined by indirect methods that are based on the product of a gas transfer coefficient and the concentration gradient at the air water interface (e.g., wind-based gas transfer models). The measurements of concentration gradient are typically collected during the day in fair weather throughout the course of a year. Direct measurements of eddy covariance CO2 fluxes from a large inland water body (Ross Barnett reservoir, Mississippi, USA) show that CO2 effluxes at night are approximately 70% greater than those during the day. At longer time scales, frequent synoptic weather events associated with extratropical cyclones induce CO2 flux pulses, resulting in further increase in annual CO2 effluxes by 16%. Therefore, CO2 emission rates from this reservoir, if these diel and synoptic processes are under-sampled, are likely to be underestimated by approximately 40%. Our results also indicate that the CO2 emission rates from global inland waters reported in the literature, when based on indirect methods, are likely underestimated. Field samplings and indirect modeling frameworks that estimate CO2 emissions should account for both daytime-nighttime efflux difference and enhanced emissions during synoptic weather events. The analysis here can guide carbon emission sampling to improve regional carbon estimates.

  1. Large CO2 effluxes at night and during synoptic weather events significantly contribute to CO2 emissions from a reservoir

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Heping; Zhang, Qianyu; Katul, Gabriel G.; ...

    2016-05-24

    CO2 emissions from inland waters are commonly determined by indirect methods that are based on the product of a gas transfer coefficient and the concentration gradient at the air water interface (e.g., wind-based gas transfer models). The measurements of concentration gradient are typically collected during the day in fair weather throughout the course of a year. Direct measurements of eddy covariance CO2 fluxes from a large inland water body (Ross Barnett reservoir, Mississippi, USA) show that CO2 effluxes at night are approximately 70% greater than those during the day. At longer time scales, frequent synoptic weather events associated with extratropicalmore » cyclones induce CO2 flux pulses, resulting in further increase in annual CO2 effluxes by 16%. Therefore, CO2 emission rates from this reservoir, if these diel and synoptic processes are under-sampled, are likely to be underestimated by approximately 40%. Our results also indicate that the CO2 emission rates from global inland waters reported in the literature, when based on indirect methods, are likely underestimated. Field samplings and indirect modeling frameworks that estimate CO2 emissions should account for both daytime-nighttime efflux difference and enhanced emissions during synoptic weather events. Furthermore, the analysis here can guide carbon emission sampling to improve regional carbon estimates.« less

  2. Multiscale observations of CO2, 13CO2, and pollutants at Four Corners for emission verification and attribution.

    PubMed

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Dubey, Manvendra K; Henderson, Bradley G; Butterfield, Zachary T; Herman, Jay R; Rahn, Thom; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2014-06-10

    There is a pressing need to verify air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic fossil energy sources to enforce current and future regulations. We demonstrate the feasibility of using simultaneous remote sensing observations of column abundances of CO2, CO, and NO2 to inform and verify emission inventories. We report, to our knowledge, the first ever simultaneous column enhancements in CO2 (3-10 ppm) and NO2 (1-3 Dobson Units), and evidence of δ(13)CO2 depletion in an urban region with two large coal-fired power plants with distinct scrubbing technologies that have resulted in ∆NOx/∆CO2 emission ratios that differ by a factor of two. Ground-based total atmospheric column trace gas abundances change synchronously and correlate well with simultaneous in situ point measurements during plume interceptions. Emission ratios of ∆NOx/∆CO2 and ∆SO2/∆CO2 derived from in situ atmospheric observations agree with those reported by in-stack monitors. Forward simulations using in-stack emissions agree with remote column CO2 and NO2 plume observations after fine scale adjustments. Both observed and simulated column ∆NO2/∆CO2 ratios indicate that a large fraction (70-75%) of the region is polluted. We demonstrate that the column emission ratios of ∆NO2/∆CO2 can resolve changes from day-to-day variation in sources with distinct emission factors (clean and dirty power plants, urban, and fires). We apportion these sources by using NO2, SO2, and CO as signatures. Our high-frequency remote sensing observations of CO2 and coemitted pollutants offer promise for the verification of power plant emission factors and abatement technologies from ground and space.

  3. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Baker, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the impact of sub-annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration using a global tracer transport model. Four sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of three cyclic components (diurnal, weekly and monthly) and a complete cyclic component (the combination of the three) by comparing with a temporally "flat" fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory. A complete exploration of these impacts is quantified at annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal time scales of the CO2concentration for the surface, vertical profile and column-integral structure. Result shows an annual mean surface concentration difference varying from -1.35 ppm to 0.13 ppm at grid scale for the complete cyclic fossil fuel emissions, which is mainly driven by a large negative diurnal rectification and less positive seasonal rectification. The negative diurnal rectification is up to 1.45 ppm at grid scale and primarily due to the covariation of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions and diurnal variations of vertical mixing. The positive seasonal rectification is up to 0.23 ppm at grid scale which is mainly driven by the monthly fossil fuel CO2emissions coupling with atmospheric transport. Both the diurnal and seasonal rectifier effects are indicated at local-to-regional scales with center at large source regions and extend to neighboring regions in mainly Northern Hemisphere. The diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions is found to significantly affect the simulated diurnal CO2 amplitude (up to 9.12 ppm at grid scale), which is primarily contributed by the minima concentration differences around local sunset time. Similarly, large impact on the seasonal CO2 amplitude (up to 6.11 ppm) is found at regional scale for the monthly fossil fuel emissions. An impact of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated afternoon CO2 concentration is also identified by up to 1.13 ppm at local scales. The study demonstrates a large cyclic fossil fuel

  4. Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Winton, M.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. These studies suggest that the cooling effect of reduction in radiative forcing due to the decrease in atmospheric CO2 is roughly balanced by the warming effect of reduction in ocean heat uptake. Here we use Earth system model simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. For example, global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.6°C after carbon emissions are stopped at 2°C above preindustrial. Surprisingly, the temperature increase occurs in spite of a decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake—a circumstance that would otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on multi-century timescales in these models. We show that ocean heat uptake, which occurs preferentially at subpolar latitudes, has a larger temperature impact per watt per square meter than the CO2 radiative forcing. In other words, the cooling effect of a high-latitude heat sink is larger than that of an equivalent tropical heat sink. The implications of our results for estimates of allowable carbon emissions required to remain below a specific global warming target will be discussed.

  5. Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael R; Marland, Gregg; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quéré, Corinne; Canadell, Josep G; Klepper, Gernot; Field, Christopher B

    2007-06-12

    CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning and industrial processes have been accelerating at a global scale, with their growth rate increasing from 1.1% y(-1) for 1990-1999 to >3% y(-1) for 2000-2004. The emissions growth rate since 2000 was greater than for the most fossil-fuel intensive of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenarios developed in the late 1990s. Global emissions growth since 2000 was driven by a cessation or reversal of earlier declining trends in the energy intensity of gross domestic product (GDP) (energy/GDP) and the carbon intensity of energy (emissions/energy), coupled with continuing increases in population and per-capita GDP. Nearly constant or slightly increasing trends in the carbon intensity of energy have been recently observed in both developed and developing regions. No region is decarbonizing its energy supply. The growth rate in emissions is strongest in rapidly developing economies, particularly China. Together, the developing and least-developed economies (forming 80% of the world's population) accounted for 73% of global emissions growth in 2004 but only 41% of global emissions and only 23% of global cumulative emissions since the mid-18th century. The results have implications for global equity.

  6. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  7. CO2 Emissions Generated by a Fall AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    osborn, G.; Malowany, K. S.; Samolczyk, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The process of reporting on and discussing geophysical phenomena, including emissions of greenhouse gases, generates more greenhouse gases. At the 2010 fall meeting of the AGU, 19,175 delegates from 81 countries, including, for example, Eritrea, Nepal, and Tanzania, traveled a total of 156,000,000 km to congregate in San Francisco for five days. With data on home bases of participants provided by AGU, we estimated the CO2 emissions generated by travel and hotel stays of those participants. The majority of the emissions from the meeting resulted from air travel . In order to estimate the footprint of such travel, (a) distances from the largest airport in each country and American state (except Canada and California) to San Francisco were tabulated , (b) basic distances were converted to emissions using the TerraPass (TRX Travel Analytics) carbon calculator, (c) it was assumed that half the California participants would fly and half would drive, (d) it was assumed that half of Canadians would fly out of Toronto and half out of Vancouver, and (e) a fudge factor of 10% was added to air travel emissions to account for connecting flights made by some participants to the main airports in the respective countries (connecting flights are disproportionately significant because of high output during takeoff acceleration). Driving impacts were estimated with a Transport Direct/RAC Motoring Services calculator using a 2006 Toyota Corolla as a standard car. An average driving distance of 50 km to the departure airport, and from the airport upon return, was assumed. Train impacts were estimated using the assumption that all flying participants would take BART from SFO. Accomodation impacts were estimated using an Environmental Protection Agency calculator, an assumed average stay of 3 nights, and the assumption that 500 participants commuted from local residences or stayed with friends. The above assumptions lead to an estimate, which we consider conservative, of 19 million kg of

  8. Climate, CO2, and demographic impacts on global wildfire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, W.; Jiang, L.; Arneth, A.

    2015-09-01

    Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather events that promote wildfire will become more common. However, even though a few studies have found that the inclusion of CO2 fertilization of photosynthesis and changes in human population patterns will tend to somewhat lower predictions of future wildfire emissions, no such study has included full ensemble ranges of both climate predictions and population projections, including the effect of different degrees of urbanisation. Here, we present a series of 124 simulations with the LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE global dynamic vegetation - wildfire model, including a semi-empirical formulation for the prediction of burned area based on fire weather, fuel continuity and human population density. The simulations comprise Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate predictions from eight Earth system models using two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and five scenarios of future human population density based on the series of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), sensitivity tests for the effect of climate and CO2, as well as a sensitivity analysis using two alternative parameterisations of the semi-empirical burned-area model. Contrary to previous work, we find no clear future trend of global wildfire emissions for the moderate emissions and climate change scenario based on the RCP 4.5. Only historical population change introduces a decline by around 15 % since 1900. Future emissions could either increase for low population growth and fast urbanisation, or

  9. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh.

  10. Urban CO2 emissions metabolism: The Hestia Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A central expression of urban metabolism is the consumption of energy and the resulting environmental impact, particularly the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Quantification of energy and emissions has been performed for numerous cities but rarely has this been done in explicit space/time detail. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing for the city of Los Angeles (Figure 1). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model which we constrain through lidar data, county assessor parcel data and GIS layers. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. Finally, all pointwise data in the Vulcan Project are transferred to our urban landscape and additional time distribution is performed. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban environment. Next steps in this research from the metabolism perspective is to consider the carbon footprint of material goods and their lateral transfer in addition to the connection between electricity consumption and production.

  11. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO... provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or...” shall apply rather than “SO2 mass emissions.” (b) Determination of CO 2 emissions using appendix G...

  12. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO... provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or...” shall apply rather than “SO2 mass emissions.” (b) Determination of CO 2 emissions using appendix G...

  13. Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frölicher, Thomas; Winton, Michael; Sarmiento, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. Here we use Earth system model simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. For example, global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.6°C after a carbon emissions stoppage at 2-degree. This increase occurs in spite of a decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake—a circumstance that would otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on multi-century timescales. Our study also reveals that equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates based on a widely used method of regressing the Earth's energy imbalance against surface temperature change are biased. Uncertainty in the magnitude of the feedback effects associated with the magnitude and geographic distribution of ocean heat uptake therefore contributes substantially to the uncertainty in allowable carbon emissions for a given multi-century warming target.

  14. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  15. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  16. Reducing CO2-Emission by using Eco-Cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, K.; Bergmeister, K.; Janotka, I.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 concentration in the air is rising constantly. Globally, cement companies are emitting nearly two billion tonnes/year of CO2 (or around 6 to 7 % of the planet's total CO2 emissions) by producing portland cement clinker. At this pace, by 2025 the cement industry will be emitting CO2 at a rate of 3.5 billion tones/year causing enormous environmental damage (Shi et al., 2011; Janotka et al., 2012). At the dawn of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century the concentration of CO2 was at a level of ca. 280 ppm. 200 years later at the time of World War II the CO2 level had risen to 310 ppm what results in a rate of increase of 0,15 ppm per year for that period (Shi et al., 2011). In November 2011 the CO2 concentration reached a value of 391 ppm (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2011), a rise of ca. 81 ppm in 66 years and an increased rate of around 1,2 ppm/year respectively. In the same period cement production in tons of cement has multiplied by a factor of ca. 62 (Kelly & Oss, US Geological Survey, 2010). Thus new CO2-saving eco-cement types are gaining in importance. In these cement types the energy-consuming portland cement clinker is partially replaced by latent hydraulic additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or zeolite. These hydraulic additives do not need to be fired in the rotary furnace. They ony need to be pulverized to the required grain size and added to the ground portland cement clinker. Hence energy is saved by skipping the engery-consuming firing process, in addition there is no CO2-degassing as there is in the case of lime burning. Therefore a research project between Austria and Slovakia, funded by the EU (Project ENVIZEO), was initiated in 2010. The main goal of this project is to develop new CEM V eco-types of cements and certificate them for common usage. CEM V is a portland clinker saving cement kind that allows the reduction of clinker to a proportion of 40-64% for CEM V/A and 20-39% for CEM V/B respectively by the

  17. Enhancement of farmland greenhouse gas emissions from leakage of stored CO2: simulation of leaked CO2 from CCS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2015-06-15

    The effects of leaked CO2 on plant and soil constitute a key objective of carbon capture and storage (CCS) safety. The effects of leaked CO2 on trace soil gas (e.g., methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in farmlands are not well-understood. This study simulated the effects of elevated soil CO2 on CH4 and N2O through pot experiments. The results revealed that significant increases of CH4 and N2O emissions were induced by the simulated CO2 leakages; the emission rates of CH4 and N2O were substantial, reaching about 222 and 48 times than that of the control, respectively. The absolute global warming potentials (GWPs) of the additional CH4 and N2O are considerable, but the cumulative GWPs of the additional CH4 and N2O only accounted for 0.03% and 0.06%, respectively, of the cumulative amount of leaked CO2 under high leakage conditions. The results demonstrate that leakage from CCS projects may lead to additional greenhouse gas emissions from soil; however, in general, the amount of additional CH4 and N2O emissions is negligible when compared with the amount of leaked CO2.

  18. Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frölicher, Thomas Lukas; Winton, Michael; Sarmiento, Jorge Louis

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. Here we use Earth system model simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. This occurs in spite of a decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake--a circumstance that would otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on multi-century timescales. Our study also reveals that equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates based on a widely used method of regressing the Earth's energy imbalance against surface temperature change are biased. Uncertainty in the magnitude of the feedback effects associated with the magnitude and geographic distribution of ocean heat uptake therefore contributes substantially to the uncertainty in allowable carbon emissions for a given multi-century warming target.

  19. The TEA CO2-Lasers with High Output Emission Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.; Puchikin, А. V.; Jun, Yao

    2014-03-01

    TEA CO2-lasers generating short pulse radiation and operating in a pulse-periodic mode with the repetition rate up to 10 Hz have been developed. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen up to 8% in the mixture of molecular gases СО2:H2 = 500:50 at a total pressure of P = 0.6 bar enhances the peak emission power maintaining the temporary pulse shape. An output beam intensity of 12.3 MW/cm2 was obtained for the 30 ns pulse at a laser efficiency of 2.8%. In a compact TEA СО2-laser with an active medium volume of 6 cm3, a beam with an output intensity of 24 MW/cm2 at pulse duration of 70 ns was obtained.

  20. Links between phytoplankton, CO2 emissions and water properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. P.; Cabeçadas, L.

    2009-04-01

    estimated an amount of ~5 tons of CaCO3 produced in the upper 30 m of water resulting in a emission of CO2 of 7.4 mmol m-2 d-1, which indicates that the calcification process constitutes an additional source of CO2 to the water and, eventually, to the atmosphere. Our findings illustrate the sensitivity of the phytoplankton species composition in the shelf system under study to climate variations and also its importance in the carbon cycle. Thus, if phytoplankton community is vulnerable to this type of perturbations, one may expect impacts on higher trophic levels that involve specific trophic links.Please fill in your abstract text.

  1. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  2. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  3. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Common.... 98, Subpt. U, Table U-1 Table U-1 to Subpart U of Part 98—CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971...

  4. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... engines certified under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given in Table 1 to...

  5. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... engines certified under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given in Table 1 to...

  6. 40 CFR 1037.105 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... and Related Requirements § 1037.105 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for vocational vehicles. (a... engines certified under § 1037.150(m). (b) The CO2 standards of this section are given in Table 1 to...

  7. Elevated [CO2] magnifies isoprene emissions under heat and improves thermal resistance in hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihong; Hüve, Katja; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2013-12-01

    Isoprene emissions importantly protect plants from heat stress, but the emissions become inhibited by instantaneous increase of [CO2], and it is currently unclear how isoprene-emitting plants cope with future more frequent and severe heat episodes under high [CO2]. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) saplings grown under ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) and elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1) were used to test the hypothesis that acclimation to elevated [CO2] reduces the inhibitory effect of high [CO2] on emissions. Elevated-[CO2]-grown plants had greater isoprene emission capacity and a stronger increase of isoprene emissions with increasing temperature. High temperatures abolished the instantaneous [CO2] sensitivity of isoprene emission, possibly due to removing the substrate limitation resulting from curbed cycling of inorganic phosphate. As a result, isoprene emissions were highest in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants under high measurement [CO2]. Overall, elevated growth [CO2] improved heat resistance of photosynthesis, in particular, when assessed under high ambient [CO2] and the improved heat resistance was associated with greater cellular sugar and isoprene concentrations. Thus, contrary to expectations, these results suggest that isoprene emissions might increase in the future.

  8. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  9. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  10. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  11. 12CO2 emission from different metabolic pathways measured in illuminated and darkened C3 and C4 leaves at low, atmospheric and elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Paola; Loreto, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The detection of 12CO2 emission from leaves in air containing 13CO2 allows simple and fast determination of the CO2 emitted by different sources, which are separated on the basis of their labelling velocity. This technique was exploited to investigate the controversial effect of CO2 concentration on mitochondrial respiration. The 12CO2 emission was measured in illuminated and darkened leaves of one C4 plant and three C3 plants maintained at low (30-50 ppm), atmospheric (350-400 ppm) and elevated (700-800 ppm) CO2 concentration. In C3 leaves, the 12CO2 emission in the light (Rd) was low at ambient CO2 and was further quenched in elevated CO2, when it was often only 20-30% of the 12CO2 emission in the dark, interpreted as the mitochondrial respiration in the dark (Rn). Rn was also reduced in elevated CO2. At low CO2, Rd was often 70-80% of Rn, and a burst of 12CO2 was observed on darkening leaves of Mentha sativa and Phragmites australis after exposure for 4 min to 13CO2 in the light. The burst was partially removed at low oxygen and was never observed in C4 leaves, suggesting that it may be caused by incomplete labelling of the photorespiratory pool at low CO2. This pool may be low in sclerophyllous leaves, as in Quercus ilex where no burst was observed. Rd was inversely associated with photosynthesis, suggesting that the Rd/Rn ratio reflects the refixation of respiratory CO2 by photosynthesizing leaves rather than the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in the light, and that CO2 produced by mitochondrial respiration in the light is mostly emitted at low CO2, and mostly refixed at elevated CO2. In the leaves of the C4 species Zea mays, the 12CO2 emission in the light also remained low at low CO2, suggesting efficient CO2 refixation associated with sustained photosynthesis in non-photorespiratory conditions. However, Rn was inhibited in CO2-free air, and the velocity of 12CO2 emission after darkening was inversely associated with the CO2 concentration. The

  12. Large CO2 and CH4 emissions from polygonal tundra during spring thaw in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz-Yaseef, Naama; Torn, Margaret S.; Wu, Yuxin; Billesbach, Dave P.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Cook, David R.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2017-01-01

    The few prethaw observations of tundra carbon fluxes suggest that there may be large spring releases, but little is known about the scale and underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon. To address these questions, we combined ecosystem eddy flux measurements from two towers near Barrow, Alaska, with mechanistic soil-core thawing experiment. During a 2 week period prior to snowmelt in 2014, large fluxes were measured, reducing net summer uptake of CO2 by 46% and adding 6% to cumulative CH4 emissions. Emission pulses were linked to unique rain-on-snow events enhancing soil cracking. Controlled laboratory experiment revealed that as surface ice thaws, an immediate, large pulse of trapped gases is emitted. These results suggest that the Arctic CO2 and CH4 spring pulse is a delayed release of biogenic gas production from the previous fall and that the pulse can be large enough to offset a significant fraction of the moderate Arctic tundra carbon sink.

  13. CO2 absorption/emission and aerodynamic effects of trees on the concentrations in a street canyon in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhan, Jie-Min; Li, Y S; Wai, Onyx W H

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of trees on CO2 concentrations in a street canyon in Guangzhou, China are examined by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the concentration distribution, taking into account both the CO2 absorption/emission and aerodynamic effects of trees. Simulation results show that, under a 2 m/s southerly prevailing wind condition, CO2 absorption by trees will reduce the CO2 concentration by around 2.5% in the daytime and at the same time the trees' resistance will increase the difference of CO2 concentrations in the street and at the inflow by 43%. As the traffic density increases to 50 vehicles/min, the effect of trees on the ambient CO2 concentration will change from positive to negative. At night, trees have a negative effect on the concentration in the street canyon mainly because of their resistance to airflow. When environmental wind changes, the effect of trees will be different.

  14. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  15. Estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions using satellite measurements of "proxy" species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Berezin, Evgeny V.; Ciais, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Zhuravlev, Ruslan V.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2016-11-01

    Fossil-fuel (FF) burning releases carbon dioxide (CO2) together with many other chemical species, some of which, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are routinely monitored from space. This study examines the feasibility of estimation of FF CO2 emissions from large industrial regions by using NO2 and CO column retrievals from satellite measurements in combination with simulations by a mesoscale chemistry transport model (CTM). To this end, an inverse modeling method is developed that allows estimating FF CO2 emissions from different sectors of the economy, as well as the total CO2 emissions, in a given region. The key steps of the method are (1) inferring "top-down" estimates of the regional budget of anthropogenic NOx and CO emissions from satellite measurements of proxy species (NO2 and CO in the case considered) without using formal a priori constraints on these budgets, (2) the application of emission factors (the NOx-to-CO2 and CO-to-CO2 emission ratios in each sector) that relate FF CO2 emissions to the proxy species emissions and are evaluated by using data of "bottom-up" emission inventories, and (3) cross-validation and optimal combination of the estimates of CO2 emission budgets derived from measurements of the different proxy species. Uncertainties in the top-down estimates of the NOx and CO emissions are evaluated and systematic differences between the measured and simulated data are taken into account by using original robust techniques validated with synthetic data. To examine the potential of the method, it was applied to the budget of emissions for a western European region including 12 countries by using NO2 and CO column amounts retrieved from, respectively, the OMI and IASI satellite measurements and simulated by the CHIMERE mesoscale CTM, along with the emission conversion factors based on the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory. The analysis was focused on evaluation of the uncertainty levels for the top-down NOx and CO emission

  16. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  17. Isoprene leaf emission under CO2 free atmosphere: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is a reactive hydrocarbon gas emitted at high rates by tropical vegetation, which affects atmospheric chemistry and climate and, in the leaf level, is a very important agent against environmental stress. Under optimal conditions for photosynthesis, the majority of carbon used for isoprene biosynthesis is a direct product from recently assimilated atmospheric CO2. However, the contribution of 'alternate' carbon sources, that increase with leaf temperature, have been demonstrated and emissions of isoprene from 'alternate' carbon sources under ambient CO2 below the compensation point for photosynthesis have been observed. In this study, we investigated the response of leaf isoprene emissions under 450 ppm CO2 and CO2 free atmosphere as a function of light and leaf temperature. At constant leaf temperature (30 °C) and CO2 free atmospheres, leaves of the tropical species Inga edulis showed net emissions of CO2 and light-dependent isoprene emissions which stagnated at low light levels (75 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and account for 25% of that observed with 450 ppm CO2. Under constant light (1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and CO2 free atmospheres, a increase of leaf temperatures from 25 to 40 °C resulted in net emissions of CO2 and temperature-dependent isoprene emissions which reached values up to 17% of those under 450 ppm CO2. Our observations suggest that, under environmental stress, as high light/temperature and drought (when the stomata close and the amount of internal CO2 decreases), the 'alternate' carbon can maintain photosynthesis rates resulting in the production of isoprene, independent of atmospheric CO2, through the re-assimilation of internal released CO2 as an 'alternate' carbon sources for isoprene.

  18. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10%

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Norris, Margaret W.; Wiltshire, Rachael M.

    2016-01-01

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 (14CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric 14CO2. These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions. PMID:27573818

  19. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D; Norris, Margaret W; Wiltshire, Rachael M

    2016-09-13

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 ((14)CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric (14)CO2 These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions.

  20. Quantification of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in a tropical urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Kishore; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Indian cities are the hotspots of human population with population densities as high as 66,135 persons/sq km and are hence emerging as one of the significant CO2 emitters on par with cities of the developed nations. In this regard, quantification of Indian urban CO2 emissions at a finer resolution of space and time is becoming a crucial prerequisite for the implementation of India's National Action Plan on Climate Change. This paper presents the quantification of CO2 emissions of Chennai city at a fine spatial (1 km × 1 km) and temporal (diurnal, weekday-weekend, seasonal) resolution. In the present study, data sets of residential, industrial, commercial, traffic and waste management sectors were considered and bottom up approach was used for quantifying the CO2 emissions. Results indicated that the total annual CO2 emission of Chennai city was 2.12 Mt. Domestic (45.7%) and transportation (29.7%) sectors were identified as the larger CO2 emitters followed by power generation sector (17.4%). The average grid wise anthropogenic CO2 emission was found to be 0.01 ± 0.02 Mt/yr with peak CO2 emissions observed from the grids with point sources and minimal CO2 emissions from the grids overlaying on the urban forest of the city. The average per capita CO2 emission of Chennai was found to be 0.45 tons/yr which is less than the national per capita CO2 emission of 1.6 tons/year. The estimated CO2 fluxes due to anthropogenic emissions were in the range of 0-8.5 × 10-6 kg/m2/s with an average flux of 0.36 × 10-6 kg/m2/s. CO2 emissions during weekdays and weekends in summer season (5862.6 and 6235.58 tons/day) were slightly higher than in winter season (5540.8 and 5929.6 tons/day). Grids overlaying on commercial and residential zones showed higher CO2 emissions during morning (07:00-10:00 AM) and evening rush hours (07:00-09:00 PM) of a day.

  1. Biofuels from crop residue can reduce soil carbon and increase CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, Adam J.; Yang, Haishun; Milner, Maribeth; Goddard, Steve; Blanco-Canqui, Humberto; Pelton, Matthew P.; Fang, Xiao X.; Zhu, Haitao; Suyker, Andrew E.

    2014-05-01

    Removal of corn residue for biofuels can decrease soil organic carbon (SOC; refs , ) and increase CO2 emissions because residue C in biofuels is oxidized to CO2 at a faster rate than when added to soil. Net CO2 emissions from residue removal are not adequately characterized in biofuel life cycle assessment (LCA; refs , , ). Here we used a model to estimate CO2 emissions from corn residue removal across the US Corn Belt at 580 million geospatial cells. To test the SOC model, we compared estimated daily CO2 emissions from corn residue and soil with CO2 emissions measured using eddy covariance, with 12% average error over nine years. The model estimated residue removal of 6 Mg per ha-1 yr-1 over five to ten years could decrease regional net SOC by an average of 0.47-0.66 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. These emissions add an average of 50-70 g CO2 per megajoule of biofuel (range 30-90) and are insensitive to the fraction of residue removed. Unless lost C is replaced, life cycle emissions will probably exceed the US legislative mandate of 60% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared with gasoline.

  2. Spatiotemporal Characteristics, Determinants and Scenario Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China Using Provincial Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojian

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigated the spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and future emission trends of China’s CO2 emissions based on a provincial panel data set. A series of panel econometric models were used taking the period 1995–2011 into consideration. The results indicated that CO2 emissions in China increased over time, and were characterized by noticeable regional discrepancies; in addition, CO2 emissions also exhibited properties of spatial dependence and convergence. Factors such as population scale, economic level and urbanization level exerted a positive influence on CO2 emissions. Conversely, energy intensity was identified as having a negative influence on CO2 emissions. In addition, the significance of the relationship between CO2 emissions and the four variables varied across the provinces based on their scale of economic development. Scenario simulations further showed that the scenario of middle economic growth, middle population increase, low urbanization growth, and high technology improvement (here referred to as Scenario BTU), constitutes the best development model for China to realize the future sustainable development. Based on these empirical findings, we also provide a number of policy recommendations with respect to the future mitigation of CO2 emissions. PMID:26397373

  3. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    PubMed

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  4. CO2 emissions from organic soils under agricultural use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The organic soils of peatlands represent a major global sink for terrestrial carbon. Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage, changing conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, the organic carbon that had been accumulated often over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils then are no longer a sink but become a source of CO2. The aim of our study is to analyse the amount and origin of CO2 emitted from organic soils under three land-use types (forest, arable cropland and grassland). Our study area is located in the Bernese Lakeland (CH). The peatlands of this region were drained in the 1870ies, and the site as well as the surrounding area are now managed by a state prison. Since decades our study site is under the same land-use. In Oktober 2013 we took 4 replicate soil cores of all land-uses with respect to a certain distance from a major drainage ditch. Each core was analysed for its bulk density and carbon content. 9 soil samples from a depth of 20-30 cm were analysed for their F14C and δ13C values and later divided into 18 subsamples. Half of them were mixed with 0.2-0.4 g of labelled corn stalk enriched in δ13C (δ13C=2000) in order to mimic plant residue inputs in the field. The moisture content of these samples was equilibrated at a pF-value of 2 before incubating the samples in a Respicond VII analyser for several weeks at 20° C. By trapping the respired CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3 we were able to analyse its F14C and δ13C value. This enabled us to determine to what extent the CO2 originated from old peat, young plant residues or the added maize stalk. Generally the cropland samples showed the highest respiration rates, lowest F14C values and highest carbon stocks. The organic soils under the forest were degraded the most and showed low respiration rates. Analyzing the F14C values of the CO2 revealed that peat contributes most to the respiration and its degradation is fastest in the cropland

  5. Reduction of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 emission trading principles be applied to debris reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit

    In the past years global pollution and the specific situation of global warming changes have been strongly influencing public opinion and thus obliged politicians to initiate/ negotiate in-ternational agreements to control, avoid or at least reduce the impact of CO2 emissions e.g. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the International Copenhagen conference on Climate Change (2009). In the orbital debris area the collision between the Iridium33 and Cosmos 2251 satel-lites in 2009 has again pushed to the forefront the discussion of the space pollution by space debris and the increasing risk of critical and catastrophic events during the nominal life time of space objects. It is shown by simulations that for Low Earth Orbits the critical debris situation is already achieved and the existing space objects will probably produce sufficient space debris elements -big enough -to support the cascade effect (Kessler Syndrome). In anal-ogy with CO2 emissions, potential recommendations / regulations to reduce the production of Space Debris or its permanence in orbit, are likely to open new markets involving Miti-gation and Removal of Space Debris. The principle approach for the CO2 emission trading model will be investigated and the applicability for the global space debris handling will be analysed. The major differences of the two markets will be derived and the consequences in-dicated. Potential alternative solutions will be proposed and discussed. For the example of the CO2 emission trading principles within EU and worldwide legal conditions for space debris (national / international laws and recommendations) will be considered as well as the commer-cial approach from the controlled situation of dedicated orders to a free / competitive market in steps. It is of interest to consider forms of potential industrial organisations and interna-tional co-operations to react on a similar architecture for the debris removal trading including incentives and penalties for the different

  6. Tracking and verifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the Swiss Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Henne, Stephan; Leuenberger, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Plateau is the densely populated and industrialized part of Switzerland producing more than 90% of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions. Verification of the efficacy of emission mitigation measures in a post Kyoto Protocol era will require several levels of scrutiny at local and regional scales. We present a measurement and modeling system, which quantifies anthropogenic CO2 emissions at a regional scale using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART driven by output from a high-resolution regional scale atmospheric model (COSMO) and observations from two tall tower sites. These rural measurement sites are situated between the largest cities of Switzerland (Zürich, Geneva, Basel and Bern). We present methods used to discretize the anthropogenic CO2 signal from atmospheric CO2 measurements. First, we perform high resolution, time-inverted simulations of air transport combined with a new high quality Swiss CO2 emissions inventory to determine a model-estimated anthropogenic portion of the measured CO2. Second, we assess the utility of CO measurements and the relationship between CO2 and CO in combustion processes as a proxy to quantify the anthropogenic CO2 fraction directly from the measurements. We then compare these two methods in their ability to determine the anthropogenic portion of CO2 measurements at a high temporal resolution (hours). Finally, we assess the quality of the simulated atmospheric transport by comparing CO concentrations obtained with the same atmospheric transport model and a high resolution CO emission inventory with the measured CO concentrations. This comparison of methods for determining anthropogenic CO2 emissions provides information on how to independently certify reported CO2 emissions. This study is a first step towards a prototype GHG monitoring and verification system for the regional scale in a complex topographic setting, which constitutes a necessary component of emissions reporting.

  7. Direct space-based observations of anthropogenic CO2 emission areas from OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkarainen, J.; Ialongo, I.; Tamminen, J.

    2016-11-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have large impacts on climate. In order to monitor the increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, accurate spaceborne observations—as available from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)—are needed. This work provides the first direct observation of anthropogenic CO2 from OCO-2 over the main pollution regions: eastern USA, central Europe, and East Asia. This is achieved by deseasonalizing and detrending OCO-2 CO2 observations to derive CO2 anomalies. Several small isolated emission areas (such as large cities) are detectable from the anomaly maps. The spatial distribution of the CO2 anomaly matches the features observed in the maps of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 tropospheric columns, used as an indicator of atmospheric pollution. The results of a cluster analysis confirm the spatial correlation between CO2 and NO2 data over areas with different amounts of pollution. We found positive correlation between CO2 anomalies and emission inventories. The results demonstrate the power of spaceborne data for monitoring anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  8. Spatiotemporal assessment of CO2 emissions and its satellite remote sensing over Pakistan and neighboring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, anthropogenic CO2 emissions and spatiotemporal variability of mid-tropospheric CO2 has been discussed using EDGAR database and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite observations. The EDGAR data indicate an increase of 147% in anthropogenic CO2 emissions from 66,101 to 163,737 Gg for Pakistan during the period of 1990-2008. Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan) is found with the highest increase of 260% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions followed by Delhi (India) 153%, Karachi (Pakistan) 66% and Lahore (Pakistan) 59% whereas a decreasing trend of -53% is observed for Kabul (Afghanistan) during 1990-2008. Industrial activities, road transportation, open field crop-waste burning, and energy production have been identified as major anthropogenic emission sources of CO2 in the studied region. AIRS CO2 retrievals over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India and Afghanistan show an averaged CO2 to be 383±5 ppm with a positive trend of 5.05% during December 2002 to February 2012. An elevated value of CO2 has been observed over northern mountainous and high human settlement regions. The seasonal analysis shows a spring maximum 385±5 ppm with a secondary peak in late autumn, and the highest increasing trend of 5.5% associated with winter. May and August showed maximum and minimum mean monthly values of 385±5 ppm and 382±5 ppm respectively. HYSPLIT trajectories of air masses movement have been drawn to track CO2 transport.

  9. Exploring the impact of determining factors behind CO2 emissions in China: A CGE appraisal.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bowen; Niu, Dongxiao; Wu, Han

    2017-03-01

    Along with the arrival of the post-Kyoto Protocol era, the Chinese government faces ever greater pressure to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Hence, this paper aims to discuss the drivers of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their impact on society as a whole. First, we analyzed the background and overall situations of CO2 emissions in China. Then, we reviewed previous studies to explore the determinants behind China's CO2 emissions. It is widely acknowledged that energy efficiency, energy mix, and economy structure are three key factors contributing to CO2 emissions. To explore the impacts of those three factors on the economy and CO2 emissions, we established a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The following results were found: (1) The decline of a secondary industry can cause an emission reduction effect, but this is at the expense of the gross domestic product (GDP), whereas the development of a tertiary industry can boost the economy and help to reduce CO2 emissions. (2) Cutting coal consumption can contribute significantly to emission reduction, which is accompanied by a great loss in the whole economy. (3) Although the energy efficiency improvement plays a positive role in promoting economic development, a backfire effect can weaken the effects of emission reduction and energy savings.

  10. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-09-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO(2) emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO(2) emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO(2) emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO(2) emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO(2) emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO(2) emissions control and mitigation.

  11. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-12-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO2 emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO2 emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO2 emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO2 emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO2 emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO2 emissions control and mitigation.

  12. Monoterpene and herbivore-induced emissions from cabbage plants grown at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Terhi; Reddy, G. V. P.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The warming of the lower atmosphere due to elevating CO 2 concentration may increase volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from plants. Also, direct effects of elevated CO 2 on plant secondary metabolism are expected to lead to increased VOC emissions due to allocation of excess carbon on secondary metabolites, of which many are volatile. We investigated how growing at doubled ambient CO 2 concentration affects emissions from cabbage plants ( Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) damaged by either the leaf-chewing larvae of crucifer specialist diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella L.) or generalist Egyptian cotton leafworm ( Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)). The emission from cabbage cv. Lennox grown in both CO 2 concentrations, consisted mainly of monoterpenes (sabinene, limonene, α-thujene, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, myrcene, α-pinene and γ-terpinene). ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, sesquiterpene ( E, E)- α-farnesene and homoterpene ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted mainly from herbivore-damaged plants. Plants grown at 720 μmol mol -1 of CO 2 had significantly lower total monoterpene emissions per shoot dry weight than plants grown at 360 μmol mol -1 of CO 2, while damage by both herbivores significantly increased the total monoterpene emissions compared to intact plants. ( Z)-3-Hexenyl acetate, ( E, E)- α-farnesene and DMNT emissions per shoot dry weight were not affected by the growth at elevated CO 2. The emission of DMNT was significantly enhanced from plants damaged by the specialist P. xylostella compared to the plants damaged by the generalist S. littoralis. The relative proportions of total monoterpenes and total herbivore-induced compounds of total VOCs did not change due to the growth at elevated CO 2, while insect damage increased significantly the proportion of induced compounds. The results suggest that VOC emissions that are induced by the leaf-chewing herbivores will not be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentration.

  13. Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gary D; Menzies, Robert T; Jacob, Joseph; Christensen, Lance E; Phillips, Mark W; Choi, Yonghoon; Browell, Edward V

    2011-05-10

    We report airborne measurements of CO(2) column abundance conducted during two 2009 campaigns using a 2.05 μm laser absorption spectrometer. The two flight campaigns took place in the California Mojave desert and in Oklahoma. The integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) method is used for the CO(2) column mixing ratio retrievals. This instrument and the data analysis methodology provide insight into the capabilities of the IPDA method for both airborne measurements and future global-scale CO(2) measurements from low Earth orbit pertinent to the NASA Active Sensing of CO(2) Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons mission. The use of a favorable absorption line in the CO(2) 2 μm band allows the on-line frequency to be displaced two (surface pressure) half-widths from line center, providing high sensitivity to the lower tropospheric CO(2). The measurement repeatability and measurement precision are in good agreement with predicted estimates. We also report comparisons with airborne in situ measurements conducted during the Oklahoma campaign.

  14. Does Size Matter? Scaling of CO2 Emissions and U.S. Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Fragkias, Michail; Lobo, José; Strumsky, Deborah; Seto, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas consume more than 66% of the world’s energy and generate more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With the world’s population expected to reach 10 billion by 2100, nearly 90% of whom will live in urban areas, a critical question for planetary sustainability is how the size of cities affects energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Are larger cities more energy and emissions efficient than smaller ones? Do larger cities exhibit gains from economies of scale with regard to emissions? Here we examine the relationship between city size and CO2 emissions for U.S. metropolitan areas using a production accounting allocation of emissions. We find that for the time period of 1999–2008, CO2 emissions scale proportionally with urban population size. Contrary to theoretical expectations, larger cities are not more emissions efficient than smaller ones. PMID:23750213

  15. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” shall apply rather than “SO2 continuous emission monitoring system,” the phrase “CO2 concentration” shall apply rather than “SO2 concentration,” the term “maximum potential concentration of CO2” shall apply rather than “maximum potential concentration of SO2,” and the phrase “CO2 mass emissions”...

  16. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...” shall apply rather than “SO2 continuous emission monitoring system,” the phrase “CO2 concentration” shall apply rather than “SO2 concentration,” the term “maximum potential concentration of CO2” shall apply rather than “maximum potential concentration of SO2,” and the phrase “CO2 mass emissions”...

  17. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...” shall apply rather than “SO2 continuous emission monitoring system,” the phrase “CO2 concentration” shall apply rather than “SO2 concentration,” the term “maximum potential concentration of CO2” shall apply rather than “maximum potential concentration of SO2,” and the phrase “CO2 mass emissions”...

  18. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andy J.; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.

  19. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sonia I; Donat, Markus G; Pitman, Andy J; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L

    2016-01-28

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.

  20. Pruning removal from orchards for energetic use: impacts on SOC and CO2-emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja; Lanza, Giacomo; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Nogues, Fernando Sebastian; Kern, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Prunings of orchards are usually burnt or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to remove prunings for energetic use. Effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics are expected rather in the long term. Under certain circumstances, however, soil characteristics as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might change on the short term as our literature review revealed. The main objective of this research was to determine if pruning removal from orchards changes soil organic carbon content and CO2-emission from soils in the short-term. We compared six different study sites in Spain, France and Germany in terms of impacts on soil chemistry (total and organic carbon) and four sites for impacts on CO2-emissions during 2 years. A block design was set up over two rows each with two parcels where we removed prunings and two parcels where prunings were chipped and left on the soil (n=4). As soil characteristics may vary between tree rows and interrows of orchards, we sampled both positions separately. To assess the relative contribution of CO2 emissions from carbonate and organic material, the isotopic signature of CO2 (δ 13CO_2) was analyzed for one orchard. Our results show that pruning removal could significantly decrease soil organic carbon in the tree row after 2 years of pruning removal, as found for one German orchard. No treatment effects were detected on CO2-emissions. We found, however, differences in CO2 emissions according to the sampling position in tree rows and interrows. More CO2 emission was found for that row position per orchard with higher soil organic carbon. Isotopic CO2 signature indicated that elevated CO2 emissions were rather linked to higher microbial decomposition or root respiration than to the release from carbonates. As no pruning wood decomposition effect on CO2 emissions were apparent, but soil with higher organic carbon released more CO2, it is expected

  1. How Uncertain Are Estimates of CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg; Hamal, Khrystyna; Jonas, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Can satellite or other remotely sensed data provide independent estimates - or even confirmation of existing estimates - for emissions from power plants, highways, projects, cities, countries, or groups of countries? The answer for now is no; estimates of emissions from fossil fuels are actually one of the best constrained pieces of data in analyzing the global carbon cycle.

  2. Partitioning of Urban CO2ff Emissions By Source Sector: Results from the Influx Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Newberger, T.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban areas contribute ~75% of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions, and city governments are often leading the way in emission reduction efforts. As emissions are regulated and assigned a price, there is an increasing need to independently evaluate the reported bottom-up emissions and to attribute them to specific source sectors (e.g. electricity production, industry, vehicles). We demonstrate how multispecies atmospheric observations can be used to achieve this. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop and evaluate methods for detection and attribution of urban GHG fluxes. The INFLUX observation network includes twelve towers measuring in situ CO2 and CO and flask measurements of another 50 species. 14CO2 measurements have shown that in winter, the total CO2 enhancement over Indianapolis approximates the CO2ff added. This somewhat surprising result allows us to use the wintertime in situ total CO2 and CO measurements to determine the observed CO:CO2ff ratio (RCO) at high resolution. First, we demonstrate that the USEPA CO inventory for Indianapolis overestimates CO emissions by a factor of about 2.5. Then we use the Hestia bottom-up CO2ff data product and revised characteristic RCO values for each CO2ff source sector to predict the diurnal cycle in RCO for Indianapolis. The tower observations and bottom-up RCO estimates are consistent during the daytime, but the observed RCO is significantly higher than the bottom-up estimate during the night. We show how the bottom-up and top-down methods can be used together to determine the cause of this discrepancy and improve CO2ff estimates from both methods.

  3. Carbon-14 based determination of the biogenic fraction of industrial CO(2) emissions - application and validation.

    PubMed

    Palstra, S W L; Meijer, H A J

    2010-05-01

    The (14)C method is a very reliable and sensitive method for industrial plants, emission authorities and emission inventories to verify data estimations of biogenic fractions of CO(2) emissions. The applicability of the method is shown for flue gas CO(2) samples that have been sampled in 1-h intervals at a coal- and wood-fired power plant and a waste incineration plant. Biogenic flue gas CO(2) fractions of 5-10% and 48-50% have been measured at the power plant and the waste incineration plant, respectively. The reliability of the method has been proven by comparison of the power plant results with those based on carbon mass input and output data of the power plant. At industrial plants with relatively low biogenic CO(2) fraction (<10%) the results need to be corrected for sampled (14)CO(2) from atmospheric air.

  4. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel

  5. Estimation of CO2 emission from water treatment plant--model development and application.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Daeseung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Nosuk; Lee, Woojin

    2013-12-15

    A comprehensive mathematical model developed for this study was used to compare estimates of on-site and off-site CO2 emissions, from conventional and advanced water treatment plants (WTPs). When 200,000 m(3) of raw water at 10 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit) was treated by a conventional WTP to 0.1 NTU using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant, the total CO2 emissions were estimated to be 790 ± 228 (on-site) and 69,596 ± 3950 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The emissions from an advanced WTP containing micro-filtration (MF) membrane and ozone disinfection processes; treating the same raw water to 0.005 NTU, were estimated to be 395 ± 115 (on-site) and 38,197 ± 2922 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The on-site CO2 emissions from the advanced WTP were half that from the conventional WTP due to much lower use of coagulant. On the other hand, off-site CO2 emissions due to consumption of electricity were 2.14 times higher for the advanced WTP, due to the demands for operation of the MF membrane and ozone disinfection processes. However, the lower use of chemicals in the advanced WTP decreased off-site CO2 emissions related to chemical production and transportation. Overall, total CO2 emissions from the conventional WTP were 1.82 times higher than that from the advanced WTP. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the advanced WTP to suggest tactics for simultaneously reducing CO2 emissions further and enhancing water quality.

  6. Tillage, mulch and N fertilizer affect emissions of CO2 under the rain fed condition.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010-2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010-11 relative to the year 2011-12. During cropping year 2010-11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011-12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options.

  7. Tillage, Mulch and N Fertilizer Affect Emissions of CO2 under the Rain Fed Condition

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Sikander Khan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Lu, Xing Li; Zhang, Junli; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    A two year (2010–2012) study was conducted to assess the effects of different agronomic management practices on the emissions of CO2 from a field of non-irrigated wheat planted on China's Loess Plateau. Management practices included four tillage methods i.e. T1: (chisel plow tillage), T2: (zero-tillage), T3: (rotary tillage) and T4: (mold board plow tillage), 2 mulch levels i.e., M0 (no corn residue mulch) and M1 (application of corn residue mulch) and 5 levels of N fertilizer (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 kg N/ha). A factorial experiment having a strip split-split arrangement, with tillage methods in the main plots, mulch levels in the sub plots and N-fertilizer levels in the sub-sub plots with three replicates, was used for this study. The CO2 data were recorded three times per week using a portable GXH-3010E1 gas analyzer. The highest CO2 emissions were recorded following rotary tillage, compared to the lowest emissions from the zero tillage planting method. The lowest emissions were recorded at the 160 kg N/ha, fertilizer level. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded during the cropping year 2010–11 relative to the year 2011–12. During cropping year 2010–11, applications of corn residue mulch significantly increased CO2 emissions in comparison to the non-mulched treatments, and during the year 2011–12, equal emissions were recorded for both types of mulch treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were recorded immediately after the tillage operations. Different environmental factors, i.e., rain, air temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures, had significant effects on the CO2 emissions. We conclude that conservation tillage practices, i.e., zero tillage, the use of corn residue mulch and optimum N fertilizer use, can reduce CO2 emissions, give better yields and provide environmentally friendly options. PMID:24086256

  8. Estimating the Reduction of Generating System CO2 Emissions Resulting from Significant Wind Energy Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Pineda, Ivan; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. The paper discusses pitfalls in methodology and proposes appropriate methods to perform the calculations. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. This paper is an international collaboration of IEA Wind Task 25 on wind integration.

  9. 40 CFR Table U-1 to Subpart U of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Common Carbonates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral name—carbonate CO2 emission factor(tons CO2/ton carbonate) Limestone—CaCO3 0.43971 Magnesite—MgCO3 0.52197 Dolomite—CaMg(CO3)2 0.47732 Siderite—FeCO3 0.37987 Ankerite—Ca(Fe, Mg, Mn)(CO3)2...

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of onroad CO2 emissions at the Urban spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Mendoza, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Hestia Project is a multi-disciplinary effort to help better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emission at urban scale. Onroad transportation is an essential source of CO2 emissions. This study examines two urban domains: Marion County (Indianapolis) and Los Angeles County and explores the methods and results associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of local urban onroad CO2 emissions. We utilize a bottom-up approach and spatially distribute county emissions based on the Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts provided by local Department of Transportation. The total amount of CO2 emissions is calculated by the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) for Marion County and the EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model for Los Angeles County. The NMIM model provides CO2 emissions based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data at the county-level from the national county database (NCD). The EMFAC model provides CO2 emissions for California State based on vehicle activities, including VMT, vehicle population and fuel types. A GIS road atlas is retrieved from the US Census Bureau. Further spatial analysis and integration are performed by GIS software to distribute onroad CO2 emission according to the traffic volume. The temporal allocation of onroad CO2 emission is based on the hourly traffic data obtained from the Metropolitan Planning Orgnizations (MPO) for Marion County and Department of Transportation for Los Angeles County. The annual CO2 emissions are distributed according to each hourly fraction of traffic counts. Due to the fact that ATR stations are unevenly distributed in space, we create Thiessen polygons such that each road segment is linked to the nearest neighboring ATR station. The hourly profile for each individual station is then combined to create a "climatology" of CO2 emissions in time on each road segment. We find that for Marion County in the year 2002, urban interstate and arterial roads have

  11. Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-09-01

    One of the primary indicators of volcanic unrest at Mammoth Mountain is diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, which can effectively track this unrest if its variability in space and time and relationship to near-surface meteorological and hydrologic phenomena versus those occurring at depth beneath the mountain are understood. In June-October 2013, we conducted accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys and made half-hourly CO2 flux measurements with automated eddy covariance and accumulation chamber (auto-chamber) instrumentation at the largest area of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain (Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). Estimated CO2 emission rates for HLTK based on 20 June, 30 July, and 24-25 October soil CO2 flux surveys were 165, 172, and 231 t d- 1, respectively. The average (June-October) CO2 emission rate estimated for this area was 123 t d- 1 based on an inversion of 4527 eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements and corresponding modeled source weight functions. Average daily eddy covariance and auto-chamber CO2 fluxes consistently declined over the four-month observation time. Wavelet analysis of auto-chamber CO2 flux and environmental parameter time series was used to evaluate the periodicity of, and local correlation between these variables in time-frequency space. Overall, CO2 emissions at HLTK were highly dynamic, displaying short-term (hourly to weekly) temporal variability related to meteorological and hydrologic changes, as well as long-term (monthly to multi-year) variations related to migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids beneath the volcano. Accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys were also conducted in the four additional areas of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain in July-August 2013. Summing CO2 emission rates for all five areas yielded a total for the mountain of 311 t d- 1, which may suggest that emissions returned to 1998-2009 levels, following an increase from 2009 to 2011.

  12. Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hilley, George E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary indicators of volcanic unrest at Mammoth Mountain is diffuse emission of magmatic CO2, which can effectively track this unrest if its variability in space and time and relationship to near-surface meteorological and hydrologic phenomena versus those occurring at depth beneath the mountain are understood. In June–October 2013, we conducted accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys and made half-hourly CO2 flux measurements with automated eddy covariance and accumulation chamber (auto-chamber) instrumentation at the largest area of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain (Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). Estimated CO2 emission rates for HLTK based on 20 June, 30 July, and 24–25 October soil CO2 flux surveys were 165, 172, and 231 t d− 1, respectively. The average (June–October) CO2 emission rate estimated for this area was 123 t d− 1 based on an inversion of 4527 eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements and corresponding modeled source weight functions. Average daily eddy covariance and auto-chamber CO2 fluxes consistently declined over the four-month observation time. Wavelet analysis of auto-chamber CO2 flux and environmental parameter time series was used to evaluate the periodicity of, and local correlation between these variables in time–frequency space. Overall, CO2 emissions at HLTK were highly dynamic, displaying short-term (hourly to weekly) temporal variability related to meteorological and hydrologic changes, as well as long-term (monthly to multi-year) variations related to migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids beneath the volcano. Accumulation chamber soil CO2 flux surveys were also conducted in the four additional areas of diffuse CO2 degassing on Mammoth Mountain in July–August 2013. Summing CO2 emission rates for all five areas yielded a total for the mountain of 311 t d− 1, which may suggest that emissions returned to 1998–2009 levels, following an increase from 2009 to 2011.

  13. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  14. Correlations between Human Development and CO2 emissions: projections and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybski, D.; Costa, L.; Kropp, J.

    2011-12-01

    Although developing countries are called to participate on the efforts of reducing CO2 emissions in order to avoid dangerous climate change, the implications of CO2 reduction targets in human development standards of developing countries remain a matter of debate. We find positive and time dependent correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Based on this empirical relation, extrapolated HDI, and three population scenarios extracted from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report, we estimate future cumulative CO2 emissions. If current demographic and development trends are maintained, we estimate that by 2050 around 85% of the world's population will live in countries with high HDI (above 0.8) as defined in the United Nations Human Development Report 2009. In particular, we estimate that at least 300Gt of cumulative CO2 emissions between 2000 and 2050 are necessary for the development of developing countries in the year 2000. This value represents 30% of a previously calculated CO2 budget yielding a 75% probability of limiting global warming to 2°C. Since human development has been proved to be time and country dependent, we plead for future climate negotiations to consider a differentiated CO2 emissions reduction scheme for developing countries based on the achievement of concrete development goals.

  15. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  16. Draft Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2030

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View draft report and appendices providing historical and projected estimates of global non-CO2 GHG emissions for 1990 to 2030 from sources in the energy, industrial processes, waste, and agriculture sectors.

  17. Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2030

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the full report, summary report, and appendices for an EPA analysis of historical and projected emissions of non-CO2 GHGs for 1990-2030, covering more than 20 individual sources and 92 countries.

  18. A 2-Micron Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development For Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Reithmaier, Karl; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo C.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  19. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  20. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from hybrid poplar depend on CO2 concentration and genotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Hybrid poplar is a fast-growing tree species that is likely to be an important source of biomass for the production of cellulose-based biofuels and may influence regional atmospheric chemistry through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry to measure VOC emissions from the leaves of four different hybrid poplar genotypes grown under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (650 ppm) carbon dioxide concentration (CO2). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether VOC emissions are different among genotypes and whether these emissions are likely to change as atmospheric CO2 rises. Methanol and isoprene made up over 90% of the VOC emissions and were strongly dependent on leaf age, with young leaves producing primarily methanol and switching to isoprene production as they matured. Monoterpene emissions were small, but tended to be higher in young leaves. Plants grown under elevated CO2 emitted smaller quantities of both methanol and isoprene, but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on genotype. Isoprene emission rates from mature leaves dropped from ~35 to ~28 nmol m-2 s-1 when plants were grown under elevated CO2. Emissions from individuals grown under ambient CO2 varied more based on genotype than those grown under elevated CO2, which means that we might expect smaller differences between genotypes in the future. Genotype and CO2 also affected how much carbon (C) individuals allocated to the production of VOCs. The emission rate of C from VOCs was 0.5 - 2% of the rate at which C was assimilated via net photosynthesis. The % C emitted was strongly related to genotype; clones from crosses between Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa (T x D) allocated a greater % of their C to VOC emissions than clones from crosses of P. deltoids and P. nigra (D x N). Individuals from all four genotypes allocated a smaller % of their C to the emission of VOCs when they were grown under elevated CO2. These results

  1. Quantification and modelling of on-road CO2 emissions and its impacts on ambient CO2 concentrations in an Indian coastal city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhipatla, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of CO2 emission inventory, monitoring of CO2 concentrations and modelling of on road CO2 emissions in an Indian coastal city. Bottom up approach was adopted for quantifying the grid wise on road CO2 emissions of Chennai city at a finer resolution of 1Km x 1Km using the real time traffic data of 56 major roads. In addition, monitoring of ground level CO2 concentrations and vehicular traffic were carried out at a residential site in Chennai to understand the impact of vehicular emissions on the ambient CO2 levels. Further, AERMOD, a US EPA regulatory model, was deployed to find the spatial variation of CO2 concentrations due to the emissions from 38 major corridors of Chennai. Results indicated that a total emission of 0.65 Tg/year of CO2 was emitted by the vehicular traffic from the major roads of Chennai. Cars were identified as the larger emitters of CO2 with a contribution of 25% of the total emissions followed by three wheelers (21%), trucks (16%), buses (15%), two wheelers (13%) and Light Commercial Vehicles (9%). Ground level CO2 concentrations at the study area were in the range 391.52 to 666.37 ppm, with a mean hourly concentration of 448 ± 33.45 ppm. It was observed that the CO2 concentrations were high during the morning and evening peak hours and low during the afternoons and further vehicular emissions were found to have a significant effect on the ambient CO2 concentrations during the morning peak hours (R2=0.78) and afternoons (R2=0.50). But, contrastingly, a weak correlation was observed between the vehicular emissions and CO2 concentrations during the evening peak hours (R2=0.02). In addition, night time CO2 concentrations were observed higher in the weekends corresponding to high vehicular traffic during the late evenings. From the modelling results, it was found that the considered 38 major corridors contribute 0.12 ppm of CO2 per year to the ambient atmosphere.

  2. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

    2011-07-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil

  3. Adaptive Engine Technologies for Aviation CO2 Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive turbine engine technologies are assessed for their potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from commercial air transports.Technologies including inlet, fan, and compressor flow control, compressor stall control, blade clearance control, combustion control, active bearings and enabling technologies such as active materials and wireless sensors are discussed. The method of systems assessment is described, including strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Performance benefit estimates are presented for each technology, with a summary of potential emissions reduction possible from the development of new, adaptively controlled engine components.

  4. Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Pete; Davis, Steven J.; Creutzig, Felix; Fuss, Sabine; Minx, Jan; Gabrielle, Benoit; Kato, Etsushi; Jackson, Robert B.; Cowie, Annette; Kriegler, Elmar; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Rogelj, Joeri; Ciais, Philippe; Milne, Jennifer; Canadell, Josep G.; McCollum, David; Peters, Glen; Andrew, Robbie; Krey, Volker; Shrestha, Gyami; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gasser, Thomas; Grübler, Arnulf; Heidug, Wolfgang K.; Jonas, Matthias; Jones, Chris D.; Kraxner, Florian; Littleton, Emma; Lowe, Jason; Moreira, José Roberto; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Obersteiner, Michael; Patwardhan, Anand; Rogner, Mathis; Rubin, Ed; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Edmonds, Jae; Yongsung, Cho

    2016-01-01

    To have a >50% chance of limiting warming below 2 °C, most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models (IAMs) require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs). These are technologies that result in the net removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. We quantify potential global impacts of the different NETs on various factors (such as land, greenhouse gas emissions, water, albedo, nutrients and energy) to determine the biophysical limits to, and economic costs of, their widespread application. Resource implications vary between technologies and need to be satisfactorily addressed if NETs are to have a significant role in achieving climate goals.

  5. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chengkang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Shan; Qin, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China's steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%-45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

  6. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  7. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  8. Decomposition of China's CO2 emissions from agriculture utilizing an improved Kaya identity.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ou, Qingxiang; Chen, Yulu

    2014-11-01

    In recent decades, China's agriculture has been experiencing flourishing growth accompanied by rising pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. and increasing CO2 emissions. Analyzing the driving forces of agricultural CO2 emissions is key requirements for low-carbon agricultural policy formulation and decomposition analysis is widely used for this purpose. This study estimates the agricultural CO2 emissions in China from 1994 to 2011 and applies the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) as the decomposition technique. Change in agricultural CO2 emissions is decomposed from 1994 to 2011 and includes a measure of the effect of agricultural subsidy. Results illustrate that economic development acts to increase CO2 emissions significantly. Agricultural subsidy acts to reduce CO2 emissions effectively and has increased in recent years. Policy is needed to significantly optimize agricultural subsidy structure and change agricultural development pathway, if China's low-carbon agriculture target is to be achieved. This requires not only decreasing pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. but also transformation of China's agricultural development path for optimal outcomes.

  9. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  10. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu; Li, Rongfu

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  11. Remote estimation of net CO2 emission from boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Strachan, I. B.

    2010-12-01

    Hydroelectricity is the main source of power in the province of Quebec, Canada. While hydroelectricity is considered to be a relatively green source of energy, reservoir creation is a land use change that involves flooding terrestrial ecosystems and thus a loss of greenhouse gas (GHG) uptake as well as direct GHG emission from decomposing vegetation. Both the lost sink for GHGs and direct emission from the reservoir surface must be included in estimating the net GHG emission attributable to the reservoir’s construction. These emissions can be determined using techniques such as eddy covariance, however, such methods are often costly and time consuming, and require frequent access to remote locations. Remote sensing is able to provide spatially continuous data over large areas, minimizing the need for ground based measurements. We tested the ability of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to predict fluxes of carbon dioxide in areas representative of boreal forests and peatlands flooded by the Eastmain 1 hydroelectric reservoir in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. We collected spectral measurements from hand-held and helicopter-based platforms, as well as continuously monitored the indices PRI and NDVI from tower-mounted sensors at a forest and peatland site. We then compared the vegetation indices to net fluxes of carbon dioxide measured by eddy covariance at each site. PRI was related to fluxes at both the forest and peatland sites, suggesting it is possible to remotely estimate carbon dioxide uptake by vegetation in boreal forests and peatlands and thus greenhouse gas emissions resulting from land use changes in boreal regions, such as reservoir inundation.

  12. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  13. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  14. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Stephen M.; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott; Breidt, F. Jay; Smith, James E.; McCarty, Jessica L.; Gurney, Kevin R.; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A. Scott

    2015-03-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO2 emissions. The biogenic CO2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of -408 ± 136 Tg CO2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of -478 ± 146 Tg CO2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC.

  15. Simulation Analysis of CO2 Emission for Different Land Use Development Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szarata, Andrzej

    2012-12-01

    This study demonstrates possibility of simulation software application to modeling level of CO2 emission as a result of different land use development scenarios as well as different level of private and public transport investments in the city. Application of simulation software Visum and four stage approach for transportation model of Krakow agglomeration gives detailed information about influence of different policy directions onto CO2 emission in the city. This paper is focused rather on estimation of the vehicle kilometer travelled (VKT) then on modeling emission procedure and shows effects of different assumptions in planned transportation policy on emission level.

  16. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  17. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  18. 40 CFR 1037.106 - Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for... Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1037.106 Exhaust emission standards for CO2 for tractors above 26,000 pounds GVWR. (a) The CO2 standards of this section apply for tractors above 26,000...

  19. Regulated deficit irrigation can decrease soil CO2 emissions in fruit orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raul; Acosta, José Alberto; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Faz, Angel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area have created a growing interest in water conservation. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils, by decreasing microbial and root activity in response to decreased soil moisture levels. An experiment was established in four orchards (peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape) to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on soil CO2 emissions. Two irrigation treatments were assayed: full irrigation (FI), and RDI, irrigated as FI except for postharvest period (peach, apricot, Saturn peach) or post-veraison period (grape) were 50% of FI was applied. The application of deficit caused a significant decrease in CO2 emission rates, with rates in average of 90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 120 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 and 60 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 lower than FI during the period when deficit was applied for peach, apricot, Saturn peach and grape. This confirms the high effectiveness of the RDI strategies not only to save water consumption but also to decrease soil CO2 emissions. However, monitoring during longer periods is needed to verify that this trend is long-term maintained, and assess if soil carbon stocks are increase or most CO2 emissions derive from root respiration. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  20. Spatial relationships of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin Robert

    2011-09-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multistate spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multistate perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements.

  1. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency

  2. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  3. Impact of warming on CO2 emissions from streams countered by aquatic photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, Benoît O. L.; Gíslason, Gísli M.; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Manson, J. Russell; Friberg, Nikolai; Hood, James M.; Thompson, Joshua J. D.; Freitag, Thomas E.

    2016-10-01

    Streams and rivers are an important source of CO2 emissions. One important control of these emissions is the metabolic balance between photosynthesis, which converts CO2 to organic carbon, and respiration, which converts organic carbon into CO2 (refs ,). Carbon emissions from rivers could increase with warming, independently of organic carbon inputs, because the apparent activation energy is predicted to be higher for respiration than photosynthesis. However, physiological CO2-concentrating mechanisms may prevent the increase in photorespiration, limiting photosynthesis with warming. Here we report the thermal response of aquatic photosynthesis from streams located in geothermal areas of North America, Iceland and Kamchatka with water temperatures ranging between 4 and 70 °C. Based on a thermodynamic theory of enzyme kinetics, we show that the apparent activation energy of aquatic ecosystem photosynthesis is approximately 0.57 electron volts (eV) for temperatures ranging from 4 to 45 °C, which is similar to that of respiration. This result and a global synthesis of 222 streams suggest that warming will not create increased stream and river CO2 emissions from a warming-induced imbalance between photosynthesis and respiration. However, temperature could affect annual CO2 emissions from streams if ecosystem respiration is independent of gross primary production, and may be amplified by increasing organic carbon supply.

  4. Regional estimates of the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Martin; Matthews, H. Damon; de Elía, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts.

  5. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  6. High resolution mapping of combustion processes and implications for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Tao, S.; Ciais, P.; Shen, H. Z.; Huang, Y.; Chen, H.; Shen, G. F.; Wang, B.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, X. P.; Wang, W. T.; Wang, X. L.; Liu, W. X.; Li, B. G.; Piao, S. L.

    2012-08-01

    High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion and CO2 emission provides valuable information for inferring terrestrial carbon balance, modeling pollutant transport, and developing mitigation strategies. Previous inventories included only a limited number of fuel types and anthropogenic emissions were mapped using national population proxies which may distort the geographical distribution within countries. In this study, a sub-national disaggregation method (SDM) was applied to establish a global 0.1°×0.1° geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL) and a corresponding CO2 emission inventory (PKU-CO2) based upon 64 fuel sub-types for the year 2007. Uncertainties of the new inventories were evaluated using a Monte Carlo method. The total combustion CO2 emission in 2007 was 11.2 (9.11 and 13.3 as 5th and 95th percentiles) Pg C yr-1. By replacing national disaggregation with sub-national disaggregation in this study, the average 95th minus 5th percentile ranges of CO2 emission for all grids can be reduced from 417 to 68.2 Mg km-2 yr-1, indicating a significant reduction in uncertainty, because the uneven distribution of per-capita fuel consumptions within countries has been taken into account by using the sub-national fuel consumption data directly. Significant difference in per-capita CO2 emissions between urban and rural areas was found in developing nations (2.09 vs. 0.600 Mg C cap-1 yr-1), but not in developed ones (3.57 vs. 3.42 Mg C cap-1 yr-1), suggesting strong influence of the rapid urbanization of these countries on the carbon emission. By using the CO2 emission product, a new spatial pattern of terrestrial carbon sink was derived and the impact of sub-national disaggregation is discussed.

  7. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  8. First regional vertical profiles of CO2: Can we verify reported emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, R.; Hase, F.; Dubey, M.; Lee, S.; Costigan, K. R.; Henderson, B. G.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 is known as the most important greenhouse gas (GHG), its rising levels in the Earth's atmosphere resulting in global warming. Both atmospheric CO2 and climate change are accelerating, urging scientists to find solutions to stabilize CO2 and other GHGs. Power plants are the largest contributors to the manmade CO2 emissions. Remote observations of CO2 provide a method to verify CO2 emissions for an enforceable climate treaty. Column CO2 measurements are made routinely by the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and satellites. The column CO2 signals of power plants are typically small 1-10 ppm that are much smaller than the signals in the boundary layer (20-100 ppm). We resolve the vertical profile of CO2 in a power plant dominated area for the first time. We directly interrogate the power plant plume and see large signals in the lower troposphere. We demonstrate that in addition to the total columns, CO2 vertical profiles determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra can be used to detect the enhancement of CO2 in the boundary layer. Measurements were made at the Four Corners site, in the San Juan Basin, an arid region with two large coal-fired power plants that emit approximately 30 Mton CO2/year. We used the PROFFIT profile retrieval software to show that the power plants' signatures are visible in our CO2 profiles. We also compare the results with the World Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model driven with real time emissions monitored in the stack of the power plants. The measured profiles indicate the presence of the power plant plume within the first 7 km, and are in good agreement with the modeled profiles. We show that the model simulations are found to be within 4% of the measurements, demonstrating that we can verify emissions to better than 5%. Results from a preliminary exploration of the compact low-resolution mini FTS will be also presented. This new robust off-the shelf instrument permits the study

  9. Soil CO2 emissions from Northern Andean páramo ecosystems: effects of fallow agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cabaneiro, Ana; Fernandez, Irene; Pérez-Ventura, Luis; Carballas, Tarsy

    2008-03-01

    The effects of fallow agriculture on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and CO2 emissions were assessed in the tropical Andean páramo ecosystem. Possible changes during the cultivation-fallow cycle were monitored in four areas of the Quebrada Piñuelas valley (Venezuela). Uncultivated soils and plots at different stages of a complete cultivation--fallow cycle were incubated, and SOM mineralization kinetics was determined. Soils exhibited a low SOM mineralization activity, total CO2 evolved never reaching 3% of soil carbon, pointing to a stabilized SOM. Potential soil CO2 effluxes differed significantly according to their plot aspect: northeast (NE)-aspect soils presented higher CO2 effluxes than southwest (SW)-aspect soils. Soil CO2 emissions decreased after ploughing as compared to virgin páramo; low CO2 effluxes were still observed during cropping periods, increasing progressively to reach the highest values after 4-5 y of fallow. In all cases, experimental C mineralization data was fitted to a double exponential kinetic model. High soil labile C pool variability was observed, and two different trends were identified: NE-oriented soils showed more labile C and a wider range of values than SW-facing soils. Labile C positively correlated with CO2 effluxes and negatively with its instantaneous mineralization rate. The instantaneous mineralization rate of the recalcitrant C pool positively correlated with %C evolved as CO2 and negatively with soil C and Al2O3 contents, suggesting the importance of aluminum on SOM stability. The CO2 effluxes from these ecosystems, as well as the proportion of soil C released to the atmosphere, seem to depend not only on the size of the labile C pool but also on the accessibility of the more stabilized SOM. Therefore, fallow agriculture produces moderate changes in SOM quality and temporarily alters the CO2 emission capacity of these soils.

  10. Atmospheric inversion for cost effective quantification of city CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.; Bellassen, V.; Vogel, F.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Wang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Cities, currently covering only a very small portion (< 3 %) of the world's land surface, directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, and are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we propose a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. We examine the cost-effectiveness and the performance of such a tool. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive. However, cheaper sensors are currently developed and should be useable for the monitoring of CO2 emissions from a megacity in the near-term. Our assessment of the inversion method is thus based on the use of several types of hypothetical networks, with a range of numbers of sensors sampling at 25 m a.g.l. The study case for this assessment is the monitoring of the emissions of the Paris metropolitan area (~ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 Tg C emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. The performance of the inversion is evaluated in terms of uncertainties in the estimates of total and sectoral CO2 emissions. These uncertainties are compared to a notional ambitious target to diagnose annual total city emissions with an uncertainty of 5 % (2-sigma). We find that, with 10 stations only, which is the typical size of current pilot networks that are deployed in some cities, the uncertainty for the 1-month total city CO2 emissions is significantly reduced by the inversion by ~ 42 % but still corresponds to an annual

  11. Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Greg H.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Langer, William H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The use and impacts of accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL; reaction: CO2+H2O+CaCO3→Ca2++2(HCO3-) is explored as a CO2 capture and sequestration method. It is shown that significant limestone resources are relatively close to a majority of CO2-emitting power plants along the coastal US, a favored siting location for AWL. Waste fines, representing more than 20% of current US crushed limestone production (>109 tonnes/yr), could provide an inexpensive or free source of AWL carbonate. With limestone transportation then as the dominant cost variable, CO2 mitigation costs of $3-$4/tonne appear to be possible in certain locations. Perhaps 10–20% of US point–source CO2 emissions could be mitigated in this fashion. It is experimentally shown that CO2 sequestration rates of 10-6 to 10-5 moles/sec per m2 of limestone surface area are achievable, with reaction densities on the order of 10-2 tonnes CO2 m-3day-1, highly dependent on limestone particle size, solution turbulence and flow, and CO2 concentration. Modeling shows that AWL would allow carbon storage in the ocean with significantly reduced impacts to seawater pH relative to direct CO2 disposal into the atmosphere or sea. The addition of AWL-derived alkalinity to the ocean may itself be beneficial for marine biota.

  12. Potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO(2) reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO(2) emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO(2) with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China's greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  13. Potential CO2 Emission Reduction by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  14. Improving the temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 emissions from global fossil fuel emission data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Ray; Napier-Linton, Louis; Gurney, Kevin R.; Andres, Robert J.; Oda, Tomohiro; Vogel, Felix R.; Deng, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of multiple global fossil fuel CO2 emission data sets, Vulcan emission data for the United States, Canada's National Inventory Report, and NO2 variability based on satellite observations, we derive scale factors that can be applied to global emission data sets to represent weekly and diurnal CO2 emission variability. This is important for inverse modeling and data assimilation of CO2, which use in situ or satellite measurements subject to variability on these time scales. Model simulations applying the weekly and diurnal scaling show that, although the impacts are minor far away from sources, surface atmospheric CO2 is perturbed by up to 1.5-8 ppm and column-averaged CO2 is perturbed by 0.1-0.5 ppm over some major cities, suggesting the magnitude of model biases for urban areas when these modes of temporal variability are not represented. In addition, we also derive scale factors to account for the large per capita differences in CO2 emissions between Canadian provinces that arise from differences in per capita energy use and the proportion of energy generated by methods that do not emit CO2, which are not accounted for in population-based global emission data sets. The resulting products of these analyses are global 0.25° × 0.25° gridded scale factor maps that can be applied to global fossil fuel CO2 emission data sets to represent weekly and diurnal variability and 1° × 1° scale factor maps to redistribute spatially emissions from two common global data sets to account for differences in per capita emissions within Canada.

  15. A Climactic Feedback? Variations in Mid-Ocean Ridge CO2 Emissions Driven by Glacial Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. M.; Katz, R. F.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in sea level associated with glacial cycles affect the pressure beneath a mid-ocean ridge (MOR) [1,2,3]. Pressure controls the depth of first melting, and therefore the rate of change of pressure controls the rate of change of the depth of first melting. The changing depth of first melting alters the effective rate at which mantle, and thus CO2, enters the melting region. Melt then transports CO2 to the ridge axis, where it enters the climate system. We calculate that the lag between sea level change and consequent variation in MOR CO2 emissions is 40-120 kyrs[4], similar to the timescale of glacial cycles. Could these variations in MOR CO2 emissions feed back on climate and lead to ice-age pacing at a small multiple of the obliquity period? [5]To test this hypothesis we begin with a climate model comprised of a global energy balance and a 1D ice sheet. The ice sheet flows under its own weight, accumulates due to precipitation, and melts in response to the local energy balance[6]. This model broadly replicates Early Pleistocene 40 kyr glacial cycles. We extend the model to include a variable greenhouse effect, according to atmospheric CO2, and variable MOR CO2 emissions driven by sea level. The lag between sea level change and MOR CO2 emissions is controlled by mantle permeability. If this model does not demonstrate MOR CO2 emissions altering glacial cycles, it would suggest this hypothesised feedback mechanism can be rejected. References[1] Huybers & Langmuir 2009; 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.07.014[2] Lund & Asimow 2011; 10.1029/2011GC003693[3] Crowley et al 2015; 10.1126/science.1261508[4] Burley & Katz 2015; 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.06.031[5] Huybers (in prep.)[6] Huybers & Tziperman 2008; 10.1029/2007PA001463

  16. Influence of Fossil Fuel Emissions on CO2 Flux Estimation by Atmospheric Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeki, T.; Patra, P. K.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; Peters, W.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches (or atmospheric inversions) using atmospheric transport models with CO2 observations are an effective way to estimate carbon fluxes at global and regional scales. CO2 flux estimation by Bayesian inversions require a priori knowledge of terrestrial biosphere and oceanic fluxes and fossil fuel (FF) CO2 emissions. In most inversion frameworks, FF CO2 is assumed to be a known quantity because FF CO2 based on world statistics are thought to be more reliable than natural CO2 fluxes. However different databases of FF CO2 emissions may have different temporal and spatial variations especially at locations where statistics are not so accurate. In this study, we use 3 datasets of fossil fuel emissions in inversion estimations and evaluate the sensitivity of the optimized CO2 fluxes to FF emissions with two different inverse models, JAMSTEC's ACTM and CarbonTracker Europe (CTE). Interannually varying a priori FF CO2 emissions were based on 1) CDIAC database, 2) EDGARv4.2 database, and 3) IEA database, with some modifications. Biosphere and oceanic fluxes were optimized. Except for FF emissions, other conditions were kept the same in our inverse experiments. The three a priori FF emissions showed ~5% (~0.3GtC/yr) differences in their global total emissions in the early 2000's and the differences reached ~9% (~0.9 GtC/yr) in 2010. This resulted in 0.5-1 GtC/yr (2001-2011) and 0.3-0.6 GtC/yr (2007-2011) differences in the estimated global total emissions for the ACTM and CTE inversions, respectively. Regional differences in the FF emissions were relatively large in East Asia (~0.5 GtC/yr for ACTM and ~0.3 GtC/yr for CTE) and Europe (~0.3 GtC/yr for ACTM). These a priori flux differences caused differences in the estimated biosphere fluxes for ACTM in East Asia and Europe and also their neighboring regions such as West Asia, Boreal Eurasia, and North Africa. The main differences in the biosphere fluxes for CTE were found in Asia and the Americas.

  17. Valuing Non-CO2 GHG Emission Changes in Benefit-Cost Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The climate impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impose social costs on society. To date, EPA has not had an approach to estimate the economic benefits of reducing emissions of non-CO2 GHGs (or the costs of increasing them) that is consistent with the methodology underlying...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of CO2 Emissions G Appendix G to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. G Appendix G to Part 75—Determination of...

  19. Negative CO2 emissions via subsurface mineral carbonation in fractured peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Uptake of CO2 from surface water via mineral carbonation in peridotite can be engineered to achieve negative CO2 emissions. Reaction with peridotite, e.g., CO2 + olivine (A), serpentine (B) and brucite (C), forms inert, non-toxic, solid carbonates such as magnesite. Experimental studies show that A can be 80% complete in a few hours with 30 micron powders and elevated P(CO2) [1,2,3]. B is slower, but in natural systems the rate of B+C is significant [4]. Methods for capture of dilute CO2 via mineral carbonation [4,5,6,7] are not well known, though CO2 storage via mineral carbonation has been discussed for decades [8,9]. Where crushed peridotite is available, as in mine tailings, increased air or water flow could enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost [4,5]. Here we focus on enhancing subsurface CO2 uptake from surface water flowing in fractured peridotite, in systems driven by thermal convection such as geothermal power plants. Return of depleted water to the surface would draw down CO2 from the air [6,7]. CO2 uptake from water, rate limited by flow in input and output wells, could exceed 1000 tons CO2/yr [7]. If well costs minus power sales were 0.1M to 1M and each system lasts 10 years this costs < 10 to 100 per ton CO2. As for other CCS methods, upscaling requires infrastructure resembling the oil industry. Uptake of 1 Gt CO2/yr at 1000 t/well/yr requires 1M wells, comparable to the number of producing oil and gas wells in the USA. Subsurface CO2 uptake could first be applied in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling. Sub-seafloor peridotite is extensive off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, with smaller amounts off Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. This would be a regional contribution, used in parallel with other methods elsewhere. To achieve larger scale is conceivable. There is a giant mass of seafloor peridotite along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Could robotic drills enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost, while fabric chimneys

  20. Plant acclimation impacts carbon allocation to isoprene emissions: evidence from past to future CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; van der Laan, Annick; Dekker, Stefan C.; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-04-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is produced in plant leaves as a side product of photosynthesis, whereby approximately 0.1-2.0% of the photosynthetic carbon uptake is released back into the atmosphere via isoprene emissions. Isoprene biosynthesis is thought to alleviate oxidative stress, specifically in warm, dry and high-light environments. Moreover, isoprene biosynthesis is influenced by atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the short term (CO2 concentration (Ci), and in the long term (>weeks) via acclimation in photosynthetic biochemistry. In order to understand the effects of CO2-induced climate change on carbon allocation in plants it is therefore important to quantify how isoprene biosynthesis and emissions are effected by both short-term responses and long-term acclimation to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. A promising development for modelling CO2-induced changes in isoprene emissions is the Leaf-Energetic-Status model (referred to as LES-model hereafter, see Harrison et al., 2013 and Morfopoulos et al., 2014). This model simulates isoprene emissions based on the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis depends on the imbalance between the photosynthetic electron supply of reducing power and the electron demands of carbon fixation. In addition to environmental conditions, this imbalance is determined by the photosynthetic electron transport capacity (Jmax) and the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (V cmax). Here we compare predictions of the LES-model with observed isoprene emission responses of Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) specimen that acclimated to CO2 levels representative of the last glacial, the present and the end of this century (200, 400 and 800 ppm, respectively) for two growing seasons. Plants were grown in walk-in growth chambers with tight control of light, temperature, humidity and CO2 concentrations. Photosynthetic biochemical parameters V cmax and Jmax were determined with a Licor LI-6400XT photosynthesis system

  1. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  2. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE PAGES

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; ...

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore » conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  3. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Notz, Dirk; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-11-11

    Arctic sea ice is retreating rapidly, raising prospects of a future ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer. Because climate-model simulations of the sea-ice loss differ substantially, we used a robust linear relationship between monthly-mean September sea-ice area and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to infer the future evolution of Arctic summer sea ice directly from the observational record. The observed linear relationship implies a sustained loss of 3 ± 0.3 square meters of September sea-ice area per metric ton of CO2 emission. On the basis of this sensitivity, Arctic sea ice will be lost throughout September for an additional 1000 gigatons of CO2 emissions. Most models show a lower sensitivity, which is possibly linked to an underestimation of the modeled increase in incoming longwave radiation and of the modeled transient climate response.

  4. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notz, Dirk; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-11-01

    Arctic sea ice is retreating rapidly, raising prospects of a future ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer. Because climate-model simulations of the sea-ice loss differ substantially, we used a robust linear relationship between monthly-mean September sea-ice area and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to infer the future evolution of Arctic summer sea ice directly from the observational record. The observed linear relationship implies a sustained loss of 3 ± 0.3 square meters of September sea-ice area per metric ton of CO2 emission. On the basis of this sensitivity, Arctic sea ice will be lost throughout September for an additional 1000 gigatons of CO2 emissions. Most models show a lower sensitivity, which is possibly linked to an underestimation of the modeled increase in incoming longwave radiation and of the modeled transient climate response.

  5. Basin scale controls on CO2 and CH4 emissions from the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stets, Edward G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-03-01

    The Upper Mississippi River, engineered for river navigation in the 1930s, includes a series of low-head dams and navigation pools receiving elevated sediment and nutrient loads from the mostly agricultural basin. Using high-resolution, spatially resolved water quality sensor measurements along 1385 river kilometers, we show that primary productivity and organic matter accumulation affect river carbon dioxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. Phytoplankton drive CO2 to near or below atmospheric equilibrium during the growing season, while anaerobic carbon oxidation supports a large proportion of the CO2 and CH4 production. Reductions of suspended sediment load, absent of dramatic reductions in nutrients, will likely further reduce net CO2 emissions from the river. Large river pools, like Lake Pepin, which removes the majority of upstream sediments, and large agricultural tributaries downstream that deliver significant quantities of sediments and nutrients, are likely to persist as major geographical drivers of greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Future CO2 emissions and climate change from existing energy infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Davis, Steven J; Caldeira, Ken; Matthews, H Damon

    2010-09-10

    Slowing climate change requires overcoming inertia in political, technological, and geophysical systems. Of these, only geophysical warming commitment has been quantified. We estimated the commitment to future emissions and warming represented by existing carbon dioxide-emitting devices. We calculated cumulative future emissions of 496 (282 to 701 in lower- and upper-bounding scenarios) gigatonnes of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels by existing infrastructure between 2010 and 2060, forcing mean warming of 1.3 degrees C (1.1 degrees to 1.4 degrees C) above the pre-industrial era and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 less than 430 parts per million. Because these conditions would likely avoid many key impacts of climate change, we conclude that sources of the most threatening emissions have yet to be built. However, CO2-emitting infrastructure will expand unless extraordinary efforts are undertaken to develop alternatives.

  7. Basin scale controls on CO2 and CH4 emissions from the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke C.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stets, Edward G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River, engineered for river navigation in the 1930s, includes a series of low-head dams and navigation pools receiving elevated sediment and nutrient loads from the mostly agricultural basin. Using high-resolution, spatially resolved water quality sensor measurements along 1385 river kilometers, we show that primary productivity and organic matter accumulation affect river carbon dioxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. Phytoplankton drive CO2to near or below atmospheric equilibrium during the growing season, while anaerobic carbon oxidation supports a large proportion of the CO2 and CH4 production. Reductions of suspended sediment load, absent of dramatic reductions in nutrients, will likely further reduce net CO2emissions from the river. Large river pools, like Lake Pepin, which removes the majority of upstream sediments, and large agricultural tributaries downstream that deliver significant quantities of sediments and nutrients, are likely to persist as major geographical drivers of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Sectoral output, energy use, and CO2 emission in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sohag, Kazi; Al Mamun, Md; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Ahmed, Ali M

    2017-03-01

    Middle-income countries are currently undergoing massive structural changes towards more industrialized economies. In this paper, we carefully examine the impact of these transformations on the environmental quality of middle-income countries. Specifically, we examine the role of sector value addition to GDP on CO2 emission nexus for middle-income economies controlling for the effects of population growth, energy use, and trade openness. Using recently developed panel methods that consider cross-sectional dependence and allow for heterogeneous slope coefficients, we show that energy use and growth of industrial and service sectors positively explain CO2 emissions in middle-income economies. We also find that population growth is insignificantly associated with CO2 emission. Hence, our paper provides a solid ground for developing a sustainable and pro-growth policy for middle-income countries.

  9. GOSAT/TANSO-FTS Measurement of Volcanic and Geothermal CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    2010-05-01

    Approximately one tenth of the Earth's human population lives in direct reach of volcanic hazards. Being able to provide sufficiently early and scientifically sound warning is a key to volcanic hazard mitigation. Quantitative time-series monitoring of volcanic CO2 emissions will likely play a key role in such early warning activities in the future. Impending volcanic eruptions or any potentially disastrous activity that involves movement of magma in the subsurface, is often preceded by an early increase of CO2 emissions. Conventionally, volcanic CO2 monitoring is done either in campaigns of soil emission measurements (grid of one-time measuring points) that are labor intensive and slow, or by ground-based remote FTIR measurements in emission plumes. These methods are not easily available at all sites of potential activity and prohibitively costly to employ on a large number of volcanoes. In addition, both of these ground-based approaches pose a significant risk to the workers conducting these measurements. Some aircraft-based measurements have been conducted as well in the past, however these are limited by the usually meager funding situation of individual observatories, the hazard such flights pose to equipment and crew, and by the inaccessibility of parts of the plume due to ash hazards. The core motivation for this study is therefore to develop a method for volcanic CO2 monitoring from space that will provide sufficient coverage, resolution, and data quality for an application to quantitative time series monitoring and correlation with other available datasets, from a safe distance and with potentially global reach. In summary, the purpose of the proposed research is to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions using satellite-borne observations. Quantitative estimates will be useful for warning of impending volcanic eruptions, and assessing the contribution of volcanic CO2 to global GHG. Our approach encompasses method development and testing for the detection of

  10. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy... information is based on tailpipe emissions only, so CO2 emissions from fuel cell vehicles are assumed to be...) Specific alternate fuel economy and CO 2 emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine...

  11. CO2 emissions from the 2010 Russian wildfires using GOSAT data.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Xiufeng; He, Hongshi; Wu, Li

    2017-04-10

    In the summer of 2010, more than 6 hundred wildfires broke out in western Russia because of an unprecedented intense heat wave that resulted from strong atmospheric blocking. The present study evaluated the CO2 emissions using GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) data from July 23 to August 18, 2010 for western Russia. The results demonstrated that the GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) was well-suited for the identification of smoke plumes and that the GOSAT FTS (Fourier-Transform Spectrometer) TIR (Thermal InfraRed) could be used to calculate the height of the plumes at approximately 800 hPa (1.58 km). Using GOSAT data, we estimated that the 2010 fires in western Russia emitted 255.76 Tg CO2. We also calculated the CO2 emissions by employing the Biomass Burning Model (BBM) for the same study site and obtained a similar result of 261.82-302.48 Tg CO2. The present study proposes a new method for the evaluation of CO2 emissions from a wildfire using remote sensing data, which could be used to improve the knowledge of the burning of biomass at a regional or a continental scale, to reduce the uncertainties in modeling greenhouse gases emissions, and to further understand how wildfires impact the atmospheric carbon cycle and global warming.

  12. China's growing CO2 emissions--a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Weber, Christopher L; Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    China's rapidly growing economy and energy consumption are creating serious environmental problems on both local and global scales. Understanding the key drivers behind China's growing energy consumption and the associated CO2 emissions is critical for the development of global climate policies and provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a low emissions future. Using recently released Chinese economic input-output data and structural decomposition analysis we analyze how changes in China's technology, economic structure, urbanization, and lifestyles affect CO2 emissions. We find that infrastructure construction and urban household consumption, both in turn driven by urbanization and lifestyle changes, have outpaced efficiency improvements in the growth of CO2 emissions. Net trade had a small effect on total emissions due to equal, but significant, growth in emissions from the production of exports and emissions avoided by imports. Technology and efficiency improvements have only partially offset consumption growth, but there remains considerable untapped potential to reduce emissions by improving both production and consumption systems. As China continues to rapidly develop there is an opportunity to further implement and extend policies, such as the Circular Economy, that will help China avoid the high emissions path taken by today's developed countries.

  13. High-resolution mapping of combustion processes and implications for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Tao, S.; Ciais, P.; Shen, H. Z.; Huang, Y.; Chen, H.; Shen, G. F.; Wang, B.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, X. P.; Wang, W. T.; Wang, X. L.; Liu, W. X.; Li, B. G.; Piao, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion and CO2 emission provides valuable information for modeling pollutant transport, developing mitigation policy, and for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. Previous global emission maps included only few fuel types, and emissions were estimated on a grid by distributing national fuel data on an equal per capita basis, using population density maps. This process distorts the geographical distribution of emissions within countries. In this study, a sub-national disaggregation method (SDM) of fuel data is applied to establish a global 0.1° × 0.1° geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL) and corresponding CO2 emissions (PKU-CO2) based upon 64 fuel sub-types for the year 2007. Uncertainties of the emission maps are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method. It is estimated that CO2 emission from combustion sources including fossil fuel, biomass, and solid wastes in 2007 was 11.2 Pg C yr-1 (9.1 Pg C yr-1 and 13.3 Pg C yr-1 as 5th and 95th percentiles). Of this, emission from fossil fuel combustion is 7.83 Pg C yr-1, which is very close to the estimate of the International Energy Agency (7.87 Pg C yr-1). By replacing national data disaggregation with sub-national data in this study, the average 95th minus 5th percentile ranges of CO2 emission for all grid points can be reduced from 417 to 68.2 Mg km-2 yr-1. The spread is reduced because the uneven distribution of per capita fuel consumptions within countries is better taken into account by using sub-national fuel consumption data directly. Significant difference in per capita CO2 emissions between urban and rural areas was found in developing countries (2.08 vs. 0.598 Mg C/(cap. × yr)), but not in developed countries (3.55 vs. 3.41 Mg C/(cap. × yr)). This implies that rapid urbanization of developing countries is very likely to drive up their emissions in the future.

  14. Detecting fossil fuel emissions patterns from subcontinental regions using North American in situ CO2 measurements.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yoichi P; Michalak, Anna M; Gourdji, Sharon M; Mueller, Kim L; Yadav, Vineet

    2014-06-28

    The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales.

  15. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  16. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions. PMID:27329934

  17. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-06-22

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  18. Plastic-film mulching and urea types affect soil CO2 emissions and grain yield in spring maize on the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Chen, Yu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Yang; Han, Juan; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2016-06-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) to explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emissions and increase grain yield. Treatments established were: (1) no mulching with urea, (2) no mulching with controlled release fertiliser (CRF), (3) transparent plastic-film mulching (PMt) with urea, (4) PMt with CRF, (5) black plastic-film mulching (PMb) with urea, and (6) PMb with CRF. During the early growth stages, soil CO2 emissions were noted as PMt > PMb > no mulching, and this order was reversed in the late growth stages. This trend was the result of topsoil temperature dynamics. There were no significant correlations noted between soil CO2 emissions and soil temperature and moisture. Cumulative soil CO2 emissions were higher for the PMt than for the PMb, and grain yield was higher for the PMb treatments than for the PMt or no mulching treatments. The CRF produced higher grain yield and inhibited soil CO2 emissions. Soil CO2 emissions per unit grain yield were lower for the BC treatment than for the other treatments. In conclusion, the use of black plastic-film mulching and controlled release fertiliser not only increased maize yield, but also reduced soil CO2 emissions.

  19. CO2BOLD assessment of moyamoya syndrome: Validation with single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pellaton, Alain; Bijlenga, Philippe; Bouchez, Laurie; Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure, Isabelle; Garibotto, Valentina; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) using CO2BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) vs positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as reference standard. METHODS Ten consecutive patients (8 women, mean age of 41 ± 26 years) with moyamoya syndrome underwent 14 pre-surgical evaluations for external-internal carotid artery bypass surgery. CVR was assessed using CO2BOLD and PET (4)/SPECT (11) with a maximum interval of 36 d, and evaluated by two experienced neuroradiologists. RESULTS The inter-rater agreement was 0.81 for SPECT (excellent), 0.43 for PET (fair) and 0.7 for CO2BOLD (good). In 9/14 cases, there was a correspondence between CO2BOLD and PET/SPECT. In 4/14 cases, CVR was over-estimated in CO2BOLD, while in 1/14 case, CVR was underestimated in CO2BOLD. The sensitivity of CO2BOLD was 86% and a specificity of 43%. CONCLUSION CO2BOLD can be used for pre-surgical assessment of CVR in patients with moyamoya syndrome and combines the advantages of absent irradiation, high availability of MRI and assessment of brain parenchyma, cerebral vessels and surrogate CVR in one stop. PMID:27928470

  20. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  1. Mapping man-made CO2 emissions using satellite-observed nighttime lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Andres, R. J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.; Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Open-Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (ODIAC) is a global high spatial resolution (1x1km) emission dataset for CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The original version of ODIAC was developed at the Japanese Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT) project to prescribe their inverse model. ODIAC first introduced the combined use of satellite-observed nighttime light data and individual power plant emission/geolocation information to estimate the spatial extent of fossil fuel CO2. The ODIAC emission data has been widely used by the international carbon cycle research community and appeared in a number of publications in the literature. Since its original publication in 2011, we have made numerous modifications to the ODIAC emission model and the emission data have been updated on annual basis. We are switching from BP statistical data based emission estimates to estimates made by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In recent versions of ODIAC data, the emission seasonality has been adopted from the CDIAC monthly emission dataset. The emissions from international bunkers, which are not included in the CDIAC gridded emission data, are estimated using the UN Energy Database and included with the spatial distributions. In the next version of ODIAC emission model, we will explore the use of satellite data collected by the NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. We will estimate emission spatial distributions using global 500x500m nighttime lights data created from VIIRS data. We will also utilize a combustion detection algorithm Nightfire developed at NOAA National Geophysical Data Center to map gas flaring emissions. We also plan to expand our two emission sector emission distributing approach (power plant emission and non-point source emissions) by introducing a transportation emission sector which should improve emission distributions in urban and rural areas.

  2. Trophic-level dependent effects on CO2 emissions from experimental stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Trisha B; Hammill, Edd; Richardson, John S

    2014-11-01

    Concern over accelerating rates of species invasions and losses have initiated investigations into how local and global changes to predator abundance mediate trophic cascades that influence CO2 fluxes of aquatic ecosystems. However, to date, no studies have investigated how species additions or losses at other consumer trophic levels influence the CO2 flux of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we added a large predatory stonefly, detritivorous stonefly, or grazer tadpole to experimental stream food webs and over a 70-day period quantified their effects on community composition, leaf litter decomposition, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and stream CO2 emissions. In general, streams where the large grazer or large detritivore were added showed no change in total invertebrate biomass, leaf litter loss, chlorophyll-a concentrations, or stream CO2 emissions compared with controls; although we did observe a spike in CO2 emissions in the large grazer treatment following a substantial reduction in chlorophyll-a concentrations on day 28. However, the large grazer and large detritivore altered the community composition of streams by reducing the densities of other grazer and detritivore taxa, respectively, compared with controls. Conversely, the addition of the large predator created trophic cascades that reduced total invertebrate biomass and increased primary producer biomass. The cascading effects of the predator additions on the food web ultimately led to decreased CO2 emissions from stream channels by up to 95%. Our results suggest that stream ecosystem processes were more influenced by changes in large predator abundance than large grazer or detritivore abundance, because of a lack of functionally similar large predators. Our study demonstrates that the presence/absence of species with unique functional roles may have consequences for the exchange of CO2 between the ecosystem and the atmosphere.

  3. Monitoring CO2 emissions to gain a dynamic view of carbon allocation to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Slavíková, Renata; Püschel, David; Janoušková, Martina; Hujslová, Martina; Konvalinková, Tereza; Gryndlerová, Hana; Gryndler, Milan; Weiser, Martin; Jansa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of carbon (C) fluxes in mycorrhizal plants is one of the important yet little explored tasks of mycorrhizal physiology and ecology. (13)CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiments are increasingly being used to track the fate of C in these plant-microbial symbioses. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring of both the below- and aboveground CO2 emissions remains a challenge, although it is necessary to establish the full C budget of mycorrhizal plants. Here, a novel CO2 collection system is presented which allows assessment of gaseous CO2 emissions (including isotopic composition of their C) from both belowground and shoot compartments. This system then is used to quantify the allocation of recently fixed C in mycorrhizal versus nonmycorrhizal Medicago truncatula plants with comparable biomass and mineral nutrition. Using this system, we confirmed substantially greater belowground C drain in mycorrhizal versus nonmycorrhizal plants, with the belowground CO2 emissions showing large variation because of fluctuating environmental conditions in the glasshouse. Based on the assembled (13)C budget, the C allocation to the mycorrhizal fungus was between 2.3% (increased (13)C allocation to mycorrhizal substrate) and 2.9% (reduction of (13)C allocation to mycorrhizal shoots) of the plant gross photosynthetic production. Although the C allocation to shoot respiration (measured during one night only) did not differ between the mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants under our experimental conditions, it presented a substantial part (∼10%) of the plant C budget, comparable to the amount of CO2 released belowground. These results advocate quantification of both above- and belowground CO2 emissions in future studies.

  4. Emission of plasma produced by a CO2 laser pulse incident on a target in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskii, Iu. M.; Golovin, A. F.; Golub', A. P.; Zemtsov, S. S.; Korenev, A. S.

    1990-10-01

    The emission spectrum of an aluminum plasma produced by a moderate-power CO2 laser is calculated. The calculated results and experimental data indicate that photons with energies higher than 11 eV are responsible for the main contribution to the thermal emission of the plasma. It is shown that, during target irradiation by a CO2 laser, the laser-to-thermal energy conversion efficiency, which reaches 30-50 percent, is higher than in the case of a neodymium laser under the same conditions.

  5. Dynamics of diffuse CO2 emission and eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Melian, G.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Diaz, M.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Perez, N.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Ibarra, M.; Strauch, W.; Muñoz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cerro Negro volcano is the youngest of a group of cinder cones NW of Las Pilas at 25 km from León (Nicaragua) with 685 meters above sea level and one of the most active volcanoes of Nicaragua. It has erupted 21 times since its birth in 1850, with an eruptive cycle about 7-8 years. Since the last eruption, occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a research collaboration program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro. Since then, ten CO2 surface efflux surveys have been undertaken covering an area of 0,6 km2, in order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation with the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed always by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1869 t d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the 2002 and 2003 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 84 t d-1, respectively. However, during the 2004 a slightly increase on the total diffuse CO2 emission was observed, reaching up to 256 t d-1. The observed relatively increase was addressed to the occurrence of a seismic swarm at Cerro Negro during the survey. The yearly surveys performed at Cerro Negro from 2005 until present, have always shown background levels of CO2 emission, with 68, 38, 45, 10 and 12 t d-1, respectively. The temporal evolution of the diffuse CO2 emissions from Cerro Negro will allow us to determine the typical range of seasonal or other transient departures from its normal or “baseline” behaviour and its relation with the eruptive cycle.

  6. Characterization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) CO2 for carbon cycle science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawik, S. S.; Jones, D. B. A.; Nassar, R.; Irion, F. W.; Worden, J. R.; Bowman, K. W.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Biraud, S. C.; Fischer, M.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    We present carbon dioxide (CO2) estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS-Aura satellite launched in 2004. For observations between 40° S and 45° N, we find about 1 degree of freedom with peak sensitivity at 511 hPa. The estimated error is ~10 ppm for a single target and about 1.3 ppm for monthly averages on spatial scales of 20°×30°. Monthly spatially-averaged TES results from 2005-2008 processed with a uniform initial guess and prior are compared to CONTRAIL aircraft data over the Pacific ocean, aircraft data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site in the southern US, and the Mauna Loa and Samoa surface stations. Comparisons to Mauna Loa observatory show a correlation of 0.92, a standard deviation of 1.3 ppm, a predicted error of 1.2 ppm, and a ~2% low bias, which is subsequently corrected, and comparisons to SGP aircraft data over land show a correlation of 0.67 and a standard deviation of 2.3 ppm. TES data between 40° S and 45° N for 2006-2007 are compared to surface flask data, GLOBALVIEW, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and CarbonTracker. Comparison to GLOBALVIEW-CO2 ocean surface sites shows a correlation of 0.60 which drops when TES is offset in latitude, longitude, or time. At these same locations, TES shows a 0.62 and 0.67 correlation to CarbonTracker with TES observation operator at the surface and 5 km, respectively. We also conducted an observing system simulation experiment to assess the potential utility of the TES data for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. We find that if biases in the data and model are well characterized, the averaged data have the potential to provide sufficient information to significantly reduce uncertainty on annual estimates of regional CO2 sources and sinks. Averaged pseudo-data at 10°×10° reduced uncertainty in flux estimates by as much as 70% for some tropical regions.

  7. Characterization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) CO2 for carbon cycle science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawik, S. S.; Jones, D. B. A.; Nassar, R.; Irion, F. W.; Worden, J. R.; Bowman, K. W.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Biraud, S. C.; Fischer, M. L.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2010-06-01

    We present carbon dioxide (CO2) estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS-Aura satellite launched in 2004. For observations between 40° S and 45° N, we find about 1 degree of freedom with peak sensitivity at 511 hPa. The estimated error is ~10 ppm for a single target and 1.3-2.3 ppm for monthly averages on spatial scales of 20°×30°. Monthly spatially-averaged TES data from 2005-2008 processed with a uniform initial guess and prior are compared to CONTRAIL aircraft data over the Pacific ocean, aircraft data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site in the southern US, and the Mauna Loa and Samoa surface stations. Comparisons to Mauna Loa data show a correlation of 0.92, a standard deviation of 1.3 ppm, a predicted error of 1.2 ppm, and a ~2% low bias, which is subsequently corrected. Comparisons to SGP aircraft data over land show a correlation of 0.67 and a standard deviation of 2.3 ppm. TES data between 40° S and 45° N for 2006-2007 are compared to surface flask data, GLOBALVIEW, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and CarbonTracker. Comparison to GLOBALVIEW-CO2 ocean surface sites shows a correlation of 0.60 which drops when TES is offset in latitude, longitude, or time. At these same locations, TES shows a 0.62 and 0.67 correlation to CarbonTracker at the surface and 5 km, respectively. We also conducted an observing system simulation experiment to assess the potential utility of the TES data for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. We find that if biases in the data and model are well characterized, the averaged data have the potential to provide sufficient information to significantly reduce uncertainty on annual estimates of regional CO2 sources and sinks. Averaged pseudo-data at 10°×10° reduced uncertainty in flux estimates by as much as 70% for some tropical regions.

  8. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  9. A multiyear, global gridded fossil fuel CO2 emission data product: Evaluation and analysis of results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Gurney, K. R.; McRobert, A.; Song, Y.; Coltin, K.; Huang, J.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution, global quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle science and climate policy. We build upon a previously developed fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS) for estimating global high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions. We have improved the underlying observationally based data sources, expanded the approach through treatment of separate emitting sectors including a new pointwise database of global power plants, and extended the results to cover a 1997 to 2010 time series at a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Long-term trend analysis of the resulting global emissions shows subnational spatial structure in large active economies such as the United States, China, and India. These three countries, in particular, show different long-term trends and exploration of the trends in nighttime lights, and population reveal a decoupling of population and emissions at the subnational level. Analysis of shorter-term variations reveals the impact of the 2008-2009 global financial crisis with widespread negative emission anomalies across the U.S. and Europe. We have used a center of mass (CM) calculation as a compact metric to express the time evolution of spatial patterns in fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The global emission CM has moved toward the east and somewhat south between 1997 and 2010, driven by the increase in emissions in China and South Asia over this time period. Analysis at the level of individual countries reveals per capita CO2 emission migration in both Russia and India. The per capita emission CM holds potential as a way to succinctly analyze subnational shifts in carbon intensity over time. Uncertainties are generally lower than the previous version of FFDAS due mainly to an improved nightlight data set.

  10. Tree-core records of CO2 emissions at three western USA volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W.; McGeehin, J. P.; King, J.; Mangan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of magmatic CO2 at quiescent volcanoes are often large enough to cause local 14C depletion in atmospheric CO2 relative to normal ambient values. This 14C-depleted CO2 is fixed by vegetation, including trees, which preserve a record of the depletion in the cellulose of their annual growth rings. We have examined this record by analyzing tree cores collected at Mammoth Mountain, Yellowstone, and Lassen volcanoes as a way to reconstruct the history of gas emission strength. At Mammoth Mountain, tree-core records from an area of cold, diffuse degassing near Horseshoe Lake show 14C depletions up to 16% and indicate peaks in emission strength in the early 1990s and in the last two years. Both peaks closely follow notable seismic swarms thought to reflect intrusion of magmatic fluids at depth. At Yellowstone, 14C depletions spiked in the 1970s at two thermal areas, Mud Volcano and Terrace, reaching 26% and 8.4%, respectively. These spikes correlate with seismic events, but the relation is more complex than at Mammoth Mountain, with some major seismic swarms not obviously linked to increased emissions. Depletions in 14C are detectable at a number of other thermal sites at Yellowstone, offering the possibility to study areal variability in CO2 emissions. Tree cores from two thermal sites (Devil's Kitchen and Bumpass Hell) and a non-thermal feature at Lassen show little or no 14C depletion (3.9% maximum), even though tree locations appear to be favorable for capturing emitted CO2. Emission strength at these sites is apparently too low to affect the 14C of CO2 at canopy height, a critical limitation to the use of the tree-core method. Other drawbacks to the method include sizeable sample processing costs and the need for precise dendrochronology to ensure that the growth rings analyzed correspond to specific years of known seismic or volcanic unrest. On the positive side, the method affords the opportunity to develop long-term (centuries) records of emission

  11. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K.; Matthews, D.

    2010-12-01

    If current greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations remain constant, the world would be committed to several centuries of increasing global mean temperatures and sea level rise. By contrast, near elimination of anthropogenic CO2 emissions would be required to produce diminishing GHG concentrations consistent with stabilization of mean temperatures. Yet long-lived energy and transportation infrastructure now operating can be expected to contribute substantial CO2 emissions over the next 50 years. Barring widespread retrofitting of existing power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies or the early decommissioning of serviceable infrastructure, these “committed emissions” represent infrastructural inertia which may be the primary contributor to total future warming commitment. With respect to GHG emissions, infrastructural inertia may be thought of as having two important and overlapping components: (i) infrastructure that directly releases GHGs to the atmosphere, and (ii) infrastructure that contributes to the continued production of devices that emit GHGs to the atmosphere. For example, the interstate highway and refueling infrastructure in the United States facilitates continued production of gasoline-powered automobiles. Here, we focus only on the warming commitment from infrastructure that directly releases CO2 to the atmosphere. Essentially, we answer the question: What if no additional CO2-emitting devices (e.g., power plants, motor vehicles) were built, but all the existing CO2-emitting devices were allowed to live out their normal lifetimes? What CO2 levels and global mean temperatures would we attain? Of course, the actual lifetime of devices may be strongly influenced by economic and policy constraints. For instance, a ban on new CO2-emitting devices would create tremendous incentive to prolong the lifetime of existing devices. Thus, our scenarios are not realistic, but offer a means of gauging the threat of climate change from existing

  12. Enhanced electron field emission from NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Kusha Kumar; Khare, Ruchita T.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; More, Mahendra A.; Thapa, Ranjit; Late, Dattatray J.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Electron emission properties of electrodeposited spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays grown on Ni foam have been studied. The work function of NiCo2O4 was calculated by density functional theory using the plane-wave basis set and used to estimate the field enhancement factor. The NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays exhibited a low turn-on field of 1.86 V μm-1 at 1 μA cm-2 and current density of 686 μA cm-2 at 3.2 V μm-1, with field enhancement factor β = 1460 and good field emission current stability. The field emission properties of the NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays showed enhanced performance compared to chemically prepared NiCo2O4 nanosheets. Hence, the nanosheet arrays have great potential as robust high performance vertical structure electron emitters for future flat panel displays and vacuum electronic device applications.

  13. Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Experimental work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. Soil CO2 emission is a key issue because of the potential impacts of this process on the greenhouse effect. The amount of organic carbon stored in soils worldwide is about 1600 gigatons (Gt) compared to 750 Gt in the atmosphere mostly in the form of CO2. Thus, if soil respiration increased slightly so that just 10% of the soil carbon pool was converted to CO2, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere could increase by one-fifth. General circulation model predictions indicate atmosphere warming between 2 and 5°C (IPCC 2007) and precipitation changes ranging from about -15 to +30%. Traditionally, release of CO2 was thought to occur only in an intracellular environment; however, recently CO2 emissions have been in irradiated soil, in the absence of microorganisms (Maire et al., 2013). Moreover, soil plays a role in the stabilization of respiration enzymes promoting CO2 release after microorganism death. Here, we propose to improve CO2 emission experiments commonly used in soil biology to investigate: 1) effects of climatic factors on soil CO2 emissions, and 2) rates of extracellular respiration in soils and how these rates are affected by environmental factors. Experiment designed to assess the effect of climate change can be conducted either in field conditions under different ecosystems (forest, grassland, cropland) or in a greenhouse using simple soil chambers. The interactions of climate change in CO2 emissions are investigated using climate-manipulation experiment that can be adapted to field or greenhouse conditions (e.g. Mc Daniel et al., 2013). The experimental design includes a control plot (without soil temperature and rain manipulation) a warming treatment as well as wetting and/or drying treatments. Plots are warmed to the target temperature by procedures such as infrared heaters (field) or radiant cable (greenhouse). To analyze extracellular respiration, rates of CO2

  14. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-03-01

    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions.

  15. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  16. Development of a 2-micron Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Singh, U. N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA Langley is developing a 2-micron pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurements. The high pulse energy, direct detection lidar operating at CO2 2-micron absorption band provides an alternate approach to measure CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. The objective of this development is to integrate an existing high energy double-pulsed 2-micron laser transmitter with a direct detection receiver and telescope to enable a first proof of principle demonstration of airborne direct detection CO2 measurements at 2-micron wavelength. It is expected to provide high-precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement. The system is scheduled to fly on NASA UC12 or B200 research aircrafts before the end of 2013. This paper will describe the design of the airborne 2-micron pulsed IPDA lidar system; the lidar operation parameters; the wavelength pair selection; laser transmitter energy, pulse rate, beam divergence, double pulse generation and accurate frequency control; detector characterization; telescope design; lidar structure design; and lidar signal to noise ratio estimation.

  17. Mapping CO2 emission in highly urbanized region using standardized microbial respiration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Ananyeva, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is a major recent land-use change pathway. Land conversion to urban has a tremendous and still unclear effect on soil cover and functions. Urban soil can act as a carbon source, although its potential for CO2 emission is also very high. The main challenge in analysis and mapping soil organic carbon (SOC) in urban environment is its high spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics. The urban environment provides a number of specific features and processes that influence soil formation and functioning and results in a unique spatial variability of carbon stocks and fluxes at short distance. Soil sealing, functional zoning, settlement age and size are the predominant factors, distinguishing heterogeneity of urban soil carbon. The combination of these factors creates a great amount of contrast clusters with abrupt borders, which is very difficult to consider in regional assessment and mapping of SOC stocks and soil CO2 emission. Most of the existing approaches to measure CO2 emission in field conditions (eddy-covariance, soil chambers) are very sensitive to soil moisture and temperature conditions. They require long-term sampling set during the season in order to obtain relevant results. This makes them inapplicable for the analysis of CO2 emission spatial variability at the regional scale. Soil respiration (SR) measurement in standardized lab conditions enables to overcome this difficulty. SR is predominant outgoing carbon flux, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic respiration of soil microorganisms. Microbiota is responsible for 50-80% of total soil carbon outflow. Microbial respiration (MR) approach provides an integral CO2 emission results, characterizing microbe CO2 production in optimal conditions and thus independent from initial difference in soil temperature and moisture. The current study aimed to combine digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques with standardized microbial respiration approach in order to analyse and

  18. Fire vs. fossil fuel: all CO2 emissions are not created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, J.-S.; Matthews, H. D.

    2015-09-01

    Fire is arguably the most influential natural disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. Nevertheless, fire has not been the subject of dedicated studies in coupled climate-carbon models with interactive vegetation until very recently. Hence, previous studies resorted to results from simulations of fossil fuel emissions to estimate the effects of fire-induced CO2 emissions. While atmospheric CO2 molecules are all alike, fundamental differences in their origin suggest that the effects from fire emissions on the global carbon cycle and temperature are irreconcilable with the effects from fossil fuel emissions. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and non-deforestation fires (i.e., following which the natural vegetation can recover) using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons involve gross fire emissions. Our results also support the notion that most net emissions occur relatively soon after fire regime shifts and then progressively approach zero, whereas gross emissions stabilize around a new value that is a poor indicator of the cumulative net emissions caused by the fire regime shift. Overall, our study

  19. Atmospheric Modeling and Verification of Point Source Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, E. D.; Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, W. T.; Brailsford, G. W.; Bromley, T.; Norris, M. W.; Zondervan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Emissions from large point sources (electricity generation and large-scale industry) of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are currently determined from self-reported "bottom-up" inventory data, with an uncertainty of about 20% for individual power plants. As the world moves towards a regulatory environment, there is a need for independent, objective measurements of these emissions both to improve the accuracy of and to verify the reported amounts. "Top-down" atmospheric methods have the potential to independently constrain point source emissions, combining observations with atmospheric transport modeling to derive emission estimates. We use the Kapuni Gas Treatment Plant to examine methodologies and model sensitivities for atmospheric monitoring of point source fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions. The Kapuni plant, located in rural New Zealand, removes and vents CO2 from locally extracted natural gas at a rate of ~0.1 Tg carbon per year. We measured the CO2ff content in three different types of observations: air samples collected in flasks over a period of a few minutes, sodium hydroxide solution exposed the atmosphere, and grass samples from the surrounding farmland, the latter two representing ~1 week integrated averages. We use the WindTrax Lagrangian plume dispersion model to compare these atmospheric observations with "expected" values given the emissions reported by the Kapuni plant. The model has difficulty accurately capturing the short-term variability in the flask samples but does well in representing the longer-term averages from grass samples, suggesting that passive integrated-sampling methods have the potential to monitor long-term emissions. Our results indicate that using this method, point source emissions can be verified to within about 30%. Further improvements in atmospheric transport modelling are needed to reduce uncertainties. In view of this, we discuss model strengths and weaknesses and explore model sensitivity to meteorological conditions

  20. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  1. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin R; Mendoza, Daniel L; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L; Miller, Chris C; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-07-15

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO2 measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of approximately 100 km2 and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO2 inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the "Vulcan" inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km2 and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Comparison to the global 1degree x 1 degree fossil fuel CO2 inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

  2. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

  3. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Osenberg, Craig W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-07-13

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) can affect biotic and abiotic conditions in soil, such as microbial activity and water content. In turn, these changes might be expected to alter the production and consumption of the important greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) (refs 2, 3). However, studies on fluxes of N(2)O and CH(4) from soil under increased atmospheric CO(2) have not been quantitatively synthesized. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased CO(2) (ranging from 463 to 780 parts per million by volume) stimulates both N(2)O emissions from upland soils and CH(4) emissions from rice paddies and natural wetlands. Because enhanced greenhouse-gas emissions add to the radiative forcing of terrestrial ecosystems, these emissions are expected to negate at least 16.6 per cent of the climate change mitigation potential previously predicted from an increase in the terrestrial carbon sink under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. Our results therefore suggest that the capacity of land ecosystems to slow climate warming has been overestimated.

  4. Passenger transport and CO 2 emissions: What does the French transport survey tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; David, Damien

    The aim of this article is to analyse CO 2 emissions caused by passenger transport in France: which socio-demographic groups travel, for what kinds of journey (local or long distance), how and why? Research focusing on the analysis of individual travel can improve the understanding of CO 2 emissions by identifying upstream socio-economic factors, and also enable a better assessment of the potential social impact of measures introduced to limit greenhouse gases due to transport. Calculations are based on the latest French national transport survey (1994). Distances covered and CO 2 emissions were estimated for each journey and for each surveyed individual. A socio-demographic characteristic typology was built and results were obtained through this analysis. If equity and accessibility issues are to be taken into account, planned policies cannot be of the same type if linked to mobility segments. An environmental tax system to limit CO 2 emission increases appears appropriate for long-distance trips. Results are more varied for local journeys, which are often more of a necessity. Nevertheless, income brackets, and measures concerning urban planning or the growth of new car fleets, seem more pertinent.

  5. The Impact of CO2 Emission Contraints on U.S. Electric Sector Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. electric power sector’s reliance on water makes it vulnerable to increased water temperature and drought resulting from climate change. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumpti...

  6. Electric Materials in advance of Technologies for CO2 Emission Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuzo

    Electric materials for the CO2 emission reduction and the climate changes mitigation are reviewed for this special issue. In the diversified society and the climate changes in the global environment, the advanced electric materials and their effective application technologies are a significant and argent field. Proceedings of superconducting materials, fuel cell materials, solar cell materials etc. are spectacular.

  7. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  8. CO2 emission from lake-filled Katanuma crater, Narugo volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Mori, T.; Perez, N.

    2010-12-01

    Narugo volcano is composed by four dacitic Holocene age lava domes surrounding the 400 m wide lake-filled Katanuma crater. A large caldera, 5.5 x 7 km NW of the city of Sendai was formed by paroxysmal eruptions 45 ka ago and after this activity, lava flows and lava domes were formed in the inner part of the caldera. The only known eruption at Narugo in historical time occurred in 837 AD. Katanuma is known as one of the most acidic lakes in the world and boiling springs, water vapour and volcanic gases are discharged from the lake botton. As a result of this degassing, a relatively intense volcanic gas emission is observed along the lake surface in the form of gas bubbles. To compute the total CO2 degassing rate through Katanuma water lake surface, a CO2 emission survey was carried out on August 2010. CO2 efflux measurements were performed on the water surface by means of a portable NDIR sensor at 86 sampling sites, following a modified floating device of the accumulation chamber method.CO2 efflux values ranged between 16 and 14300 g m-2 d-1. CO2 efflux map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation. An important CO2 degassing structure was observed at the water surface, located on its west half part, with a N-S trending. An averaged map of 200 equiprobable simulations allowed us to compute 35.2 ± 4.1 t/d of CO2 released to the atmosphere through the water surface on a area of 0.14 km2. These results suggest clearly that monitoring CO2 emission rate from lake-filled Katanuma crater will contribute to improve the Narugo volcano surveillance program as well as our knowledge on the global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes, which is actually estimated about 136 Mt year-1 (Pérez et al., 2010). Reference: Pérez et al., 2010. CVL 7 Workshop Costa Rica, March 2010.

  9. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy label values for fuel cell vehicles using procedures specified by the Administrator. Convert kilograms.... CO2 label information is based on tailpipe emissions only, so CO2 emissions from fuel cell...

  10. What would dense atmospheric observation networks bring to the quantification of city CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Vogel, Felix; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Remy, Irène; Wang, Yilong

    2016-06-01

    Cities currently covering only a very small portion ( < 3 %) of the world's land surface directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, but they are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we analyze the potential of a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. This monitoring tool is configured for the quantification of the total and sectoral CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area (˜ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 TgC emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. Its performances are evaluated in terms of uncertainty reduction based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). They are analyzed as a function of the number of sampling sites (measuring at 25 m a.g.l.) and as a function of the network design. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive (typically ˜ EUR 50 k per sensor), which has limited the few current pilot city networks to around 10 sites. Larger theoretical networks are studied here to assess the potential benefit of hypothetical operational lower-cost sensors. The setup of our inversion system is based on a number of diagnostics and assumptions from previous city-scale inversion experiences with real data. We find that, given our assumptions underlying the configuration of the OSSEs, with 10 stations only the uncertainty for the total city CO2 emission during 1 month is significantly reduced by the inversion by ˜ 42 %. It can be

  11. Responses of CO2 emission and pore water DOC concentration to soil warming and water table drawdown in Zoige Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Wang, Mei; Chen, Huai; Liu, Liangfeng; Wu, Ning; Zhu, Dan; Tian, Jianqing; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; He, Yixin

    2017-03-01

    Peatlands in Zoige Plateau contains more than half of peatland carbon stock in China. This part of carbon is losing with climate change through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, both of which are vulnerable to the environmental changes, especially on the Zoige Plateau with a pace of twice the observed rate of global climate warming. This research aimed to understand how climate change including soil warming, rainfall reduction and water table change affect CO2 emissions and whether the trends of changes in CO2 emission are consistent with those of pore water DOC concentration. A mesocosm experiment was designed to investigate the CO2 emission and pore water DOC during the growing seasons of 2009-2010 under scenarios of passive soil warming, 20% rainfall reduction and changes to the water table levels. The results showed a positive relationship between CO2 emission and DOC concentration. For single factor effect, we found no significant relationship between water table and CO2 emission or DOC concentration. However, temperature at 5 cm depth was found to have positive linear relationship with CO2 emission and DOC concentration. The combined effect of soil warming and rainfall reduction increased CO2 emission by 96.8%. It suggested that the drying and warming could stimulate potential emission of CO2. Extending this result to the entire peatland area in Zoige Plateau translates into 0.45 Tg CO2 emission per year over a growing season. These results suggested that the dryer and warmer Zoige Plateau will increase CO2 emission. We also found the contribution rate of DOC concentration to CO2 emission was increased by 12.1% in the surface layer and decreased by 13.8% in the subsurface layer with combined treatment of soil warming and rainfall reduction, which indicated that the warmer and dryer environmental conditions stimulate surface peat decomposition process.

  12. Geological modelling for investigating CO2 emissions in Florina Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Tasianas, Alexandros; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Vasilatos, Charalampos

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation of naturally occurring CO2 emissions from the Florina natural analogue site in Greece. The main objective was to interpret previously collected depth sounding data, convert them into surfaces, and use them as input to develop, for the first time, 3D geological models of the Florina basin. By also locating the extent of the aquifer, the location of the CO2 source, the location of other natural CO2 accumulations, and the points where CO2 reaches the surface, we were able to assess the potential for CO2 leakage. Geological models provided an estimate of the lithological composition of the Florina Basin and allowed us to determine possible directions of groundwater flow and pathways of CO2 flow throughout the basin. Important modelling parameters included the spatial positions of boundaries, faults, and major stratigraphic units (which were subdivided into layers of cells). We used various functions in Petrel software to first construct a structural model describing the main rock boundaries.We then defined a 3D mesh honouring the structural model, and finally we populated each cell in the mesh with geologic properties, such as rock type and relative permeability. According to the models, the thickest deposits are located around Mesochorion village where we estimate that around 1000 m of sediments were deposited above the basement. Initiation of CO2 flow at Florina Basin could have taken place between 6.5 Ma and 1.8 Ma ago. The NESW oriented faults, which acted as fluid flow pathways, are still functioning today, allowing for localised leakage at the surface. CO2 leakage may be spatially variable and episodic in rate. The episodicity can be linked to the timing of Almopia volcanic activity in the area.

  13. Effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, E.; Farkas, Cs.; Gelybó, Gy.; Lagzi, I.

    2012-04-01

    We examined the effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation planted in 1991. The soil is Ramann type brown forest soil /Mollic Cambisol/ developed on sandy loam. Every second row in the orchard is covered with undisturbed grass, and every other row is disked (depth: 12-15cm) with a two-three-week frequency. The humus content varies from 1,69% to 2,28% in the upper 20 cm layer, where the sand, loam and clay contents are 58%, 21% and 19 %, respectively. The average annual precipitation total is 570 mm (330 mm for the growing season) at the site. During the vegetation period of 2009 soil CO2 emission measurements were carried out with static chamber method in the differently managed rows. Parallel with CO2 measurements soil volumetric water content and soil temperature were also determined. Soil microbiological properties water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and water-extractable nitrogen (WEN) as well as substrate-induced respiration (SIR) were determined from disturbed soil samples collected on the first measurement day. The measured soil physical properties showed that different soil management practices influence soil water content, bulk density and soil temperature as well. Soil water content was higher in the grass covered row on 10 of the 13 measurement days, the difference - which reached 10 v% - was the highest on the warmest days. Soil temperature is also different in case of disked and grass covered rows, found to be lower in the grass covered rows on every measurement days. SIR, WEOC and WEN were all higher in the grass covered row (19.45 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 36.91 μg g-1 soil, 139.36 μg g-1 soil, respectively) than in the disked row (4.88 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 25.43 μg C g-1 soil, 61.25 μg N g-1 soil, respectively) in 2009. Soil CO2 emission also differed between the two rows, grass covered rows produced higher emission in all measurements days without exemption. The difference between CO2 fluxes from the two cultivation

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, III, William R.; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  15. How Well Do We Know the Future of CO2 Emissions? Projecting Fleet Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle Technology Drivers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Niall P D; Bishop, Justin D K; Boies, Adam M

    2017-03-07

    While the UK has committed to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, transport accounts for nearly a fourth of all emissions and the degree to which decarbonization can occur is highly uncertain. We present a new methodology using vehicle and powertrain parameters within a Bayesian framework to determine the impact of engineering vehicle improvements on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Our results show how design changes in vehicle parameters (e.g., mass, engine size, and compression ratio) result in fuel consumption improvements from a fleet-wide mean of 5.6 L/100 km in 2014 to 3.0 L/100 km by 2030. The change in vehicle efficiency coupled with increases in vehicle numbers and fleet-wide activity result in a total fleet-wide reduction of 41 ± 10% in 2030, relative to 2012. Concerted internal combustion engine improvements result in a 48 ± 10% reduction of CO2 emissions, while efforts to increase the number of diesel vehicles within the fleet had little additional effect. Increasing plug-in and all-electric vehicles reduced CO2 emissions by less (42 ± 10% reduction) than concerted internal combustion engines improvements. However, if the grid decarbonizes, electric vehicles reduce emissions by 45 ± 9% with further reduction potential to 2050.

  16. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg

    2008-04-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  17. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  18. Valuing Non-CO2 GHG Emission Changes in Benefit-Cost ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The climate impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impose social costs on society. To date, EPA has not had an approach to estimate the economic benefits of reducing emissions of non-CO2 GHGs (or the costs of increasing them) that is consistent with the methodology underlying the U.S. Government’s current estimates of the social cost of carbon (SCC). A recently published paper presents estimates of the social cost of methane that are consistent with the SCC estimates. The Agency is seeking review of the potential application of these new benefit estimates to benefit cost analysis in relation to current practice in this area. The goal of this project is to improve upon the current treatment of non-CO2 GHG emission impacts in benefit-cost analysis.

  19. Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Seya, H.

    2010-12-01

    The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people’s behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at realizing low-carbon city are progressing on a number of fronts, including city planning and transportation planning. With respect to the low-carbon city, compact city is expected to reduce CO2 emission from transportation sector. Hence many studies have been conducted with scenario analysis considering modal share change, for instance, increase of public transportation use and reduction of trip length by car. On the other hand, it is important that CO2 emission from not only transportation sector but also residential sector can be reduced by a move from a detached house to a condominium, the change of family composition types and so on. In regard to residential sector, it has been founded that CO2 emission units differ among family composition types, for example, the single-person household emit more CO2 in general. From the viewpoint of an urban climate prediction, the possible range of future land use change should be recognized as the input parameters for the climate models. In addition to CO2 emission, the anthropogenic heat emission is also important as an input data of climate models in order to evaluate the social and economic impacts of urban land use change. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a compact city scenario and a dispersion scenario in Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in the world, and to examine future climate change mitigation policies including land use for realization of low-carbon city. We have created two scenarios of population distribution by using an urban economic model. In these scenarios we have assumed extreme cases in order to show the

  20. Understanding changes in the UK's CO2 emissions: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Giovanni; Minx, Jan C

    2010-02-15

    The UK appears to be a leading country in curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Unlike many other developed countries, it has already met its Kyoto obligations and defined ambitious, legally binding targets for the future. Recently this achievement has been called into question as it ignores rapidly changing patterns of production and international trade. We use structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to investigate the drivers behind annual changes in CO(2) emission from consumption in the UK between 1992 and 2004. In contrast with previous SDA-based studies, we apply the decomposition to a global, multiregional input-output model (MRIO), which accounts for UK imports from all regions and uses region-specific production structures and CO(2) intensities. We find that improvements from "domestic" changes in efficiency and production structure led to a 148 Mt reduction in CO(2) emissions, which only partially offsets emission increases of 217 Mt from changes in the global supply chain and from growing consumer demand. Recent emission reductions achieved in the UK are not merely a reflection of a greening of the domestic supply chain, but also of a change in the international division of labor in the global production of goods and services.

  1. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  2. Riverine GHG emissions: one year of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 flux measurements on Vistula river in Krakow, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasek, Alina; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Zimnoch, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial surface waters are generally considered to be sources of carbon dioxide and methane, because respiration of organic matter via aerobic and anaerobic pathways causes supersaturation of surface waters with respect to CO2 and CH4, respectively. In rivers, these processes are influenced by such anthropogenic factors as changes of land-use, wastewater and alteration of river channels. The research object is Vistula, the largest Polish river. It has the length of 1047 km and annual runoff of 6.2x1010m3. The urban section of Vistula in Krakow receives large amounts of organic matter from highly urbanized catchment and point discharges of urban waste waters within the city limits. The river was sampled regularly at three points: the entrance to the city, the center and the point where Vistula leaves the agglomeration. A floating chamber coupled with Picarro G2101-i analyzer was applied to quantify CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 fluxes leaving the surface of the river. A floating chamber was equipped with sensors to measure air pressure, temperature and humidity inside the chamber and the temperature of water. The chamber was equipped with a set of floats and an anchor. The measurements started in October 2011, and were repeated with approximately monthly frequency. Physicochemical properties of water (temperature, conductivity, pH, CO2 partial pressure over the water surface and alkalinity) were also measured during each measurement campaign. In addition, at each site short-term variability of the measured fluxes was also investigated. Additionally, short-term variability of the measured fluxes of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 were performed in all three sites. The results indicate that fluxes of CO2 released from the river are comparable with the soil emissions of this gas measured in Krakow area. The δ13CO2 signature of riverine CO2 flux allowed to identify decomposition of C3 organic matter as the major source of this gas. No distinct seasonal variability of the CO2 emission and

  3. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  4. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Within the transportation sector, the largest component (80%) is made up of onroad emissions. In order to accurately quantify future emissions and evaluate emissions regulation strategies, analysis must account for spatially-explicit fleet distribution, driving patterns, and mitigation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. We compare a high resolution onroad emissions data product (Vulcan) to a national averaging of the Vulcan result. This comparison is performed in four groupings: light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) vehicle classes, and rural and urban road classes. Two different bias metrics are studied: 1) the state-specific, group-specific bias and 2) the same bias when weighted by the state share of the national group-specific emissions. In the first metric, we find a spread of positive and negative biases for the LD and HD vehicle groupings and these biases are driven by states having a greater/lesser proportion of LD/HD vehicles within their total state fleet than found from a national average. The standard deviation of these biases is 2.01% and 0.75% for the LD and HD groupings, respectively. These biases correlate with the road type present in a state, so that biases found in the urban and LD groups are both positive or both negative, with a similar relationship found between biases of the rural and HD groups. Additionally, the road group bias is driven by the distribution of VMT on individual road classes within the road groupings. When normalized by national totals, the state-level group-specific biases reflect states with large amounts of onroad travel that deviate

  5. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of fossil fuel CO2 emissions of the Paris urban area from the prior estimates established by the Airparif local air quality agency. Five atmospheric monitoring sites are available, including one at the top of the Eiffel Tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion adjusts prior knowledge about the anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 fluxes from the Airparif inventory and an ecosystem model, respectively, with corrections at a temporal resolution of 6 h, while keeping the spatial distribution from the emission inventory. These corrections are based on assumptions regarding the temporal autocorrelation of prior emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle, and from day to day. The comparison of the measurements against the atmospheric transport simulation driven by the a priori CO2 surface fluxes shows significant differences upwind of the Paris urban area, which suggests a large and uncertain contribution from distant sources and sinks to the CO2 concentration variability. This contribution advocates that the inversion should aim at minimising model-data misfits in upwind-downwind gradients rather than misfits in mole fractions at individual sites. Another conclusion of the direct model-measurement comparison is that the CO2 variability at the top of the Eiffel Tower is large and poorly represented by the model for most wind speeds and directions. The model's inability to reproduce the CO2 variability at the heart of the city makes such measurements ill-suited for the inversion. This and the need to constrain the budgets for the whole city suggests the assimilation of upwind-downwind mole fraction gradients between sites at the edge of the urban area only. The inversion significantly improves the agreement

  6. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months. Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  7. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  8. Gas Hazard from Natural CO2 Emissions in Central and Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Costa, A.; Avino, R.; Baldini, A.; Caliro, S.; Frondini, F.; Granieri, D.; Minopoli, C.; Morgantini, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies at regional scale showed that the central and southern Italy are affected by an active and intense process of CO2 Earth degassing. Considering the deeply derived carbon dissolved in the groundwater of large regional aquifers, Chiodini et al. (2004) elaborated a regional map of CO2 Earth degassing, pointing out the presence of two large CO2 degassing structures (62000 km2) a northern one, the tuscan roman degassing structure (TRDS) and a southern one, the campanian degassing structure (CDS). The deeply derived CO2 released by these two structures was estimated in ~ 9.2 Mt/y (Chiodini et al., 2004). This amount, which is globally relevant being ~ 10% of the present-day total CO2 discharge from subaerial volcanoes of the Earth, is of low magnitude with respect to the amount of CO2 that is estimated to be injected in the storage sites. TRDS and CDS are characterized by the presence of many vents of cold CO2 rich gases and areas of anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2. The gas manifestations are generally fed by buried carbonate reservoirs, covered by low permeability formations, where the gas produced at depth accumulates before the expulsion at the surface. More than 100 gas emissions are located in the Italian territory and represent a serious hazard for humans and animals. Gas flow rates are very high. For example, the biggest gas emissions daily release into atmosphere hundreds of tons of CO2, amounts similar to those released by diffuse degassing from active volcanoes (CO2 fluxes from 6 t/d to 2800 t/d, mean of 430 t/d, Morner and Etiope, 2002). Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 air concentration can reach high values resulting in lethal effects to humans or animals. The last lethal accident occurred in 2003 in Tuscany, at Mt. Amiata. However, the most dangerous gas emission is Mefite d'Ansanto, located in the Southern Apennine, where three persons were killed during 1990's and historical

  9. Toward Regional Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Verification Using WRF-CHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Monache, L.; Kosoviæ, B.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Grant, K.; Guilderson, T.

    2008-12-01

    As efforts to reduce emissions of green house gases take shape it is becoming obvious that an essential component of a viable solution will involve emission verification. While detailed inventories of green house gas sources will represent important component of the solution additional verification methodologies will be necessary to reduce uncertainties in emission estimates especially for distributed sources and CO2 offsets. We developed tools for solving inverse dispersion problem for distributed emissions of green house gases. For that purpose we combine probabilistic inverse methodology based on Bayesian inversion with stochastic sampling and weather forecasting and air quality model WRF-CHEM. We demonstrate estimation of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel burning in California over two one-week periods in 2006. We use WRF- CHEM in tracer simulation mode to solve forward dispersion problem for emissions over eleven air basins. We first use direct inversion approach to determine optimal location for a limited number of CO2 - C14 isotope sensors. We then use Bayesian inference with stochastic sampling to determine probability distributions for emissions from California air basins. Moreover, we vary the number of sensors and frequency of measurements to study their effect on the accuracy and uncertainty level of the emission estimation. Finally, to take into account uncertainties associated with forward modeling, we combine Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling with ensemble modeling. The ensemble is created by running WRF-CHEM with different initial and boundary conditions as well as different boundary layer and surface model options. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL-ABS-406901-DRAFT). The project 07-ERD- 064 was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL.

  10. Quantification of space/time explicit fossil fuel CO2 emissions in urban domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lehman, S. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to local management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing for the city of Los Angeles. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model which we constrain through lidar data, county assessor parcel data and GIS layers. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. Finally, all pointwise data in the Vulcan Project are transferred to our urban landscape and additional time distribution is performed. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving

  11. CO2 flux emissions from the Holuhraun eruption, Iceland (August 2014- present)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsson, Baldur; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pfeffer, Melissa; Donovan, Amy; Galle, Bo; Ingvarsson, Þorgils; Arngrímsson, Hermann; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Key words: Holuhraun, CO2, SO2, MultiGAS At the time of writing, the gas-rich fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland is still ongoing. This eruption provided a unique opportunity to characterise composition and fluxes of magmatic gases released by a long-lived Iceland eruption. Here, we report on a volcanic gas dataset gathered using a Multi-component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS); giving an evaluation of the CO2 flux from the eruption by combining the measured CO2/SO2 ratios with SO2 fluxes measured by near-source DOAS traverses. This demonstrates work within the FP7 EU-funded project FUTUREVOLC, aimed at making Iceland a supersite for volcanological research. Within this project we developed a field-ready MultiGAS that was deployed to the eruption site as soon as there were surface manifestations of the unrest. Due to difficulties in locating a suitable location at the eruption, a permanent site for the MultiGAS has not yet been found. Campaign measurements were made during the first 2 months of the eruption and will be made as conditions allow. Measurements of plume composition were made both of emissions from the main vent and at the edges of the degassing lava flows. Multi-GAS results show that, after a brief phase of CO2-rich gas being released at the eruption onset (CO2/SO2 up to 30), the ratio between CO2 and SO2 in the plume was around 1. Based on near-source DOAS traverses made in the middle of September, the CO2 flux has been between 20000-40000 tons/day, similar to values typically measured at Mount Etna during eruptive.

  12. Micrometeorological measurements of the urban heat budget and CO2 emissions on a city scale.

    PubMed

    Nemitz, Eiko; Hargreaves, Kenneth J; McDonald, Alan G; Dorsey, James R; Fowler, David

    2002-07-15

    Direct measurements of urban CO2 emissions and heat fluxes are presented, made using the eddy covariance technique. The measurements were made from the top of a tower, approximately 65 m above the street level of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the fluxes are representative of footprint source areas of several square kilometers. The application of a stationarity test and spectral analysis techniques shows that at this height, the stationarity criterion for eddy covariance is fulfilled for wind directions from the city center for 93% of the time, while for other wind directions this declines to 59%, demonstrating that pollutant fluxes from urban areas can be measured. The average CO2 emission from the city center was 26 micromol m(-2) s(-1) (10 kt of C km(-2) yr(-1)), with typical daytime peaks of 50-75 and nighttime values of 10 micromol m(-2) s(-1). The correlation between CO2 emission and traffic flow is highly significant, while residential and institutional heating with natural gas are estimated to contribute about 39% to the emissions during the day and 64% at night. An analysis of the energy budget shows that, during the autumn, fossil fuel combustion within the city contributed one-third of the daily anthropogenic energy input of 3.8 MJ m(-2) d(-1), with the remainder coming from other energy sources, dominated by electricity. Conversely, the total energy input in late spring (May/June) was found to be approximately half this value.

  13. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO 2, NO X, and CO 2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator... methodology must be used to estimate SO2, NOX, and CO2 mass emissions, NOX emission rate, and unit heat input... and less than 100 tons of NOX annually, for Acid Rain Program affected units. If the unit is...

  14. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO 2, NO X, and CO 2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator... methodology must be used to estimate SO2, NOX, and CO2 mass emissions, NOX emission rate, and unit heat input... and less than 100 tons of NOX annually, for Acid Rain Program affected units. If the unit is...

  15. Continuous measurements of CO2 emission from cultivated peat soil - effect of tillage intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands process and transfer significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Most natural water-saturated peatlands sequester large amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere and emit CH4. Drainage and cultivation of peat soils increase soil aeration and reverse the carbon flux into net CO2 emissions, while CH4 emissions decrease and cultivated peat soils may even act as sinks for CH4. Fertile peat soils are potential sources of N2O when drained. In this investigation we used automatic dark chambers (ADC BioScientific Ltd) to measure CO2 emissions from plots with different soil tillage intensities. The field trial is located on the island Gotland east of the Swedish main land (57.584825N 18.47691E) and the soil is a peat soil with high pH (7.5) and organic content of 46.4 % (loss on ignition). The set-up was 4 treatments repeated in 4 blocks. Each plot was 18 by 25 meters and the following treatments were tested: A. Ploughing every year B. Ploughing 1 out of 4 years C. Only stubble cultivation D. Permanent ley One chamber was put in each plot and connected to a master control unit to create a network with 16 chambers. Measurements were made every hour during most of 2012 (17/4- 6/11 with some gaps) and every second hour during 2013 (22/4-27/6). Higher emissions could be observed just after cultivation and that effect lasted for about one day. The average emission was highest from treatment D during 2012 (4.53 μmol m-2 s-1) and treatment C and D during 2013 (3.85 μmol m-2 s-1).

  16. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed.

  17. A new spectral emission source of rotationally cooled molecular ions. Application to supersonic expansions of CO and CO 2 gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossart, Daniel; Cossart-Magos, Claudina

    1996-02-01

    A new emission source for the spectroscopy of rotationally cooled molecular ions has been developed in which a Penning-type electric discharge is established through a supersonic free jet. CO and CO 2 gases were used to test its working conditions. Several previously unobserved emission bands were identified, among them one that probably originates from the CO 2+ ion. Moreover, anomalous rotational intensity distributions in the CO + B-X emission observed from the excitation of rotationally cooled CO 2 suggest the existence of a dissociative bent electronic state in the CO 2+ ion.

  18. Emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from tropical forest soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Michael; Kaplan, Warren A.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1986-01-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide were measured at diverse locations in tropical forests of Brazil, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico using a static open chamber technique. Mean fluxes to the atmosphere were 1.7 x 10 to the 10th, -0.7 x 10 to the 10th, and 1.5 x 10 to the 14th molecules/sq cm per s for N2O, CH4, and CO2, respectively. The data indicate that tropical forests contribute a significant fraction of the global source for atmospheric N2O, about 40 percent of the current source, and possibly 75 percent of the preindustrial source. Methane is consumed by soils on average, but the sink is an insignificant part (less than 5 percent) of the atmospheric cycle for the gas. Emissions of CO2 from forest soils are higher at equatorial sites than at middle or high latitudes, as expected from ecological considerations. Soils emit CO2 at rates more than twice as large as the rate of carbon infall in litter; hence much of the emitted CO2 must arise from root metabolism.

  19. Tracing CO2 fluxes and plant volatile organic compound emissions by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2014-05-01

    Plant metabolic processes exert a large influence on global climate and air quality through the emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. The vegetation exerts a large isotopic imprint on the atmosphere through both, photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and fractionation during respiratory CO2 release (δ13Cres). While the former is well understood, many processes driving carbon isotope fractionation during respiration are unknown1. There are striking differences in variations of δ13Cres between plant functional groups, which have been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate2. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate if carbon isotope fractionation in light and dark respired CO2 is associated with VOC emissions in the atmosphere. Specifically, we hypothesize that a high carbon flux through the pyruvate into various VOC synthesis pathways is associated with a pronounced 13C-enrichment of respired CO2 above the putative substrate, as it involves the decarboxylation of the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate. Based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS) we traced carbon flow into these pathways by pyruvate positional labeling. We demonstrated that in a Mediterranean shrub the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate is released in substantial amounts as

  20. Energy conservation and CO2 emission reductions due to recycling in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenteira, C A P; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, L B; Rosa, L P; Reis, M M; Henriques, R M

    2004-01-01

    The present paper aims to make the energy saving potential provided by waste recycling in Brazil evident by pointing out more specifically the benefits regarding climate change mitigation. In this case, based on the energy saved due to the recycling process of an exogenous amount of waste, we have built two scenarios in order to show the potential for indirectly avoiding CO2 emissions in the country as a result of the recycling process. According to the scenario, 1 Mt and 3.5 Mt of CO2, respectively, would be avoided per year due to solid waste recycling. The international context for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol has been taken into account.

  1. Does winter warming enhance cold CO2 emission from temperate continental soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurganova, Irina; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Khoroshaev, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In subboreal and temperate regions, the cold season generally lasts more than 3 months of the year, influencing the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. The permanent snow pack plays an important role in the functioning of the ecosystem, especially in temperate continental regions, preventing frost penetration into the soil. The extent and duration of the permanent snow pack are predicted to decrease markedly in transitional seasons for many boreal and subboreal regions during the next 50 years. This study focused on: (i) assessment of current winter climate trends in the Moscow region pertaining to the continental temperate region, (ii) comparison of soil temperature regimes at different snow pack depths, (iii) estimation of cold CO2 fluxes from soils under various frozen regime and vegetation cover, and (iv) the contribution of freezing-thawing events to the total cold CO2 emission from soils in the temperate continental region. An experiment with regulated snow cover was established on grassland and bare soil (Luvisols Haplic, Moscow region, 54o50'N, 37o36'E; continental temperate climate). The following winter scenarios were foreseen: (1) reference plot, designated "Ref", with natural depth of snow cover, (2) no-frost, "NoFr" (simulation of deep snow cover using artificial heat insulation material), and (3) no-snow, "NoSn" (without snow cover). We observed inverse trends as the air temperature increased and precipitation decreased, which resulted in a 1-month prolongation of the snow-free period and a decrease in the snow pack over the last 20 years. Soil freezing significantly reduced the cold CO2 fluxes from soils: by 10-70% in the bare areas and by up to double that amount in the grass plots. There were six freezing-thawing cycles (FTC; 1-7 weeks' duration) from October 2014 to early April 2015, which induced CO2 emission pulses of varying intensity. The highest peaks of CO2 emission rate (3-30-fold increase compared to the pre-thawing period) were

  2. Toward observationally constrained high space and time resolution CO2 urban emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maness, H.; Teige, V. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Weichsel, K.; Holstius, D.; Hooker, A.; Fung, I. Y.; Cohen, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial patterns of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and sequestration are currently studied primarily by sensor networks and modeling tools that were designed for global and continental scale investigations of sources and sinks. In urban contexts, by design, there has been very limited investment in observing infrastructure, making it difficult to demonstrate that we have an accurate understanding of the mechanism of emissions or the ability to track processes causing changes in those emissions. Over the last few years, our team has built a new high-resolution observing instrument to address urban CO2 emissions, the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observing Network (BEACON). The 20-node network is constructed on a roughly 2 km grid, permitting direct characterization of the internal structure of emissions within the San Francisco East Bay. Here we present a first assessment of BEACON's promise for evaluating the effectiveness of current and upcoming local emissions policy. Within the next several years, a variety of locally important changes are anticipated--including widespread electrification of the motor vehicle fleet and implementation of a new power standard for ships at the port of Oakland. We describe BEACON's expected performance for detecting these changes, based on results from regional forward modeling driven by a suite of projected inventories. We will further describe the network's current change detection capabilities by focusing on known high temporal frequency changes that have already occurred; examples include a week of significant freeway traffic congestion following the temporary shutdown of the local commuter rail (the Bay Area Rapid Transit system).

  3. What determines the warming commitment after cessation of CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Dana; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that global mean surface air temperature remains elevated after cessation of CO2 emissions. However, studies differ in whether the temperature continues to increase, slowly decreases, or remains constant after cessation of emissions. An understanding of this committed warming is of importance because it has implication for the estimation of carbon budgets compatible with temperature targets. Here, we investigate the effect of the state of thermal and bio-geochemical equilibration at the time emissions are set to zero on the committed warming as the latter is determined by the balance of these two equilibration processes. We find that the effect of thermal equilibration, expressed as fraction of realized warming, dominates over the bio-geochemical equilibration, expressed as ratio of the airborne fraction to the equilibrium airborne fraction. This leads to a positive warming commitment, and a commitment that declines the later emissions are zeroed along a trajectory of constant atmospheric CO2 concentration. We furthermore show that the scenario prior to zeroed emissions has the strongest effect on the warming commitment, compared to the time of zeroed emissions and the time horizon over which the commitment is calculated.

  4. An attempt at estimating Paris area CO2 emissions from atmospheric concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréon, F. M.; Broquet, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Chevallier, F.; Xueref-Rémy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Perrussel, O.; Ciais, P.

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric concentration measurements are used to adjust the daily to monthly budget of CO2 emissions from the AirParif inventory of the Paris agglomeration. We use 5 atmospheric monitoring sites including one at the top of the Eiffel tower. The atmospheric inversion is based on a Bayesian approach, and relies on an atmospheric transport model with a spatial resolution of 2 km with boundary conditions from a global coarse grid transport model. The inversion tool adjusts the CO2 fluxes (anthropogenic and biogenic) with a temporal resolution of 6 h, assuming temporal correlation of emissions uncertainties within the daily cycle and from day to day, while keeping the a priori spatial distribution from the emission inventory. The inversion significantly improves the agreement between measured and modelled concentrations. However, the amplitude of the atmospheric transport errors is often large compared to the CO2 gradients between the sites that are used to estimate the fluxes, in particular for the Eiffel tower station. In addition, we sometime observe large model-measurement differences upwind from the Paris agglomeration, which confirms the large and poorly constrained contribution from distant sources and sinks included in the prescribed CO2 boundary conditions These results suggest that (i) the Eiffel measurements at 300 m above ground cannot be used with the current system and (ii) the inversion shall rely on the measured upwind-downwind gradients rather than the raw mole fraction measurements. With such setup, realistic emissions are retrieved for two 30 day periods. Similar inversions over longer periods are necessary for a proper evaluation of the results.

  5. The growth response of Alternanthera philoxeroides in a simulated post-combustion emission with ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L; Blazier, John C; Craig, Elizabeth C; Gilbert, Dominique S; Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Anderson, O Roger; Castaldi, Marco J; Beaumont, Larry

    2009-07-01

    Although post-combustion emissions from power plants are a major source of air pollution, they contain excess CO2 that could be used to fertilize commercial greenhouses and stimulate plant growth. We addressed the combined effects of ultrahigh [CO2] and acidic pollutants in flue gas on the growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides. When acidic pollutants were excluded, the biomass yield of A. philoxeroides saturated near 2000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2] with doubled biomass accumulation relative to the ambient control. The growth enhancement was maintained at 5000 micromol mol(-1) [CO2], but declined when [CO2] rose above 1%, in association with a strong photosynthetic inhibition. Although acidic components (SO2 and NO2) significantly offset the CO2 enhancement, the aboveground yield increased considerably when the concentration of pollutants was moderate (200 times dilution). Our results indicate that using excess CO2 from the power plant emissions to optimize growth in commercial green house could be viable.

  6. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  7. Towards understanding organic nitrogen species in emissions from post-combustion CO2 capture plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, X.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide using aqueous amine solutions is the most advanced technology for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants. This technology, however, may lead to the emissions of amines and various nitrogen-containing degradation products with serious potential implications for human health and the environment. Understanding the chemistry of emissions from amine-based CO2-capture plants is therefore important and requires analytical methods that are capable of thoroughly characterizing the composition and concentration of organic nitrogen (ON) species in actual or simulated flue gas. In this study, we have developed a suite of methods for analyzing particulate and gaseous samples for the bulk and molecular compositions of these species. Specifically, we have optimized high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) for real-time and offline analyses of the bulk chemistry of ON species. We have also developed methods for quantitatively analyzing up to 12 amino compounds using ion chromatography. In addition, by applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we have studied the molecular masses and empirical formulas of individual ON molecules. This suite of techniques has been applied for characterizing liquid and particulate samples generated from simulated amine-based CO2 capture process. The results from these analyses will be presented.

  8. Costs of solar and wind power variability for reducing CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Lueken, Colleen; Cohen, Gilbert E; Apt, Jay

    2012-09-04

    We compare the power output from a year of electricity generation data from one solar thermal plant, two solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, and twenty Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) wind farms. The analysis shows that solar PV electricity generation is approximately one hundred times more variable at frequencies on the order of 10(-3) Hz than solar thermal electricity generation, and the variability of wind generation lies between that of solar PV and solar thermal. We calculate the cost of variability of the different solar power sources and wind by using the costs of ancillary services and the energy required to compensate for its variability and intermittency, and the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. We show the costs of variability are highly dependent on both technology type and capacity factor. California emissions data were used to calculate the cost of variability per unit of displaced CO(2) emissions. Variability cost is greatest for solar PV generation at $8-11 per MWh. The cost of variability for solar thermal generation is $5 per MWh, while that of wind generation in ERCOT was found to be on average $4 per MWh. Variability adds ~$15/tonne CO(2) to the cost of abatement for solar thermal power, $25 for wind, and $33-$40 for PV.

  9. A hybrid study of multiple contributors to per capita household CO2 emissions (HCEs) in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jiansheng; Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Jingjing; Bian, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Given the large expenditures by households on goods and services that contribute a large proportion of global CO2 emissions, increasing attention has been paid to household CO2 emissions (HCEs). However, compared with industrial CO2 emissions, efforts devoted to mitigating HCEs are relatively small. A good understanding of the effects of some driving factors (i.e., urbanization rate, per capita GDP, per capita income/disposable income, Engel coefficient, new energy ratio, carbon intensity, and household size) is urgently needed prior to considering policies for reducing HCEs. Given this, in the study, the direct and indirect per capita HCEs were quantified in rural and urban areas of China over the period 2000-2012. Correlation analysis and gray correlation analysis were initially used to identify the prime drivers of per capita HCEs. Our results showed that per capita income/disposable income, per capita GDP, urbanization rate, and household size were the most significantly correlated with per capita HCEs in rural areas. Moreover, the conjoint effects of the potential driving factors on per capita HCEs were determined by performing principal component regression analysis for all cases. Based on the combined analysis strategies, alternative polices were also examined for controlling and mitigating HCEs growth in China.

  10. What, Where, When, Who and How: Accounting for Biogenic CO2 Emissions Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohrel, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing a future with a changing climate as well as increasing energy needs. Many countries, including the United States, are therefore considering an increased role of biomass in domestic energy portfolios. Accounting for emissions related to biomass production and use for energy is a complex issue: determining the extent to which biomass utilization can contribute to meeting energy needs while not contributing additional GHG emissions to the atmosphere necessitates further research. Such analysis becomes more challenging when evaluating biogenic feedstocks with long rotations (i.e., woody biomass). Detailed analysis and new accounting methods are needed in order to better assess and understand the potential implications of increased bioenergy utilization in the United States energy portfolio. In response to the EPA's 2011 Draft Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO2 Emissions from Stationary Sources, the Biogenic Carbon Emissions Panel (BCE Panel) appointed by the Science Advisory Board (2013) found that 'Carbon neutrality cannot be assumed for all biomass energy a priori. There are circumstances in which biomass is grown, harvested and combusted in a carbon neutral fashion but carbon neutrality is not an appropriate a priori assumption; it is a conclusion that should be reached only after considering a particular feedstock's production and consumption cycle. There is considerable heterogeneity in feedstock types, sources and production methods and thus net biogenic carbon emissions will vary considerably.' In that light, this study discusses the current policy discussion on biogenic feedstock use for energy in the United States. It then evaluates the question: how can we account for stationary source biogenic CO2 emissions while considering the biological cycling of carbon on the biogenic feedstock production landscape? The analysis discusses current biogenic feedstock usage in the U.S. and potential future impacts of increased biogenic feedstock

  11. Sensitivity of projected long-term CO2 emissions across the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; Bosetti, V.; Borgonovo, E.; Capros, P.; Fricko, O.; Gernaat, D. E. H. J.; Guivarch, C.; Havlik, P.; Huppmann, D.; Johnson, N.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Keppo, I.; Krey, V.; Ó Broin, E.; Price, J.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Scenarios showing future greenhouse gas emissions are needed to estimate climate impacts and the mitigation efforts required for climate stabilization. Recently, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) have been introduced to describe alternative social, economic and technical narratives, spanning a wide range of plausible futures in terms of challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Thus far the key drivers of the uncertainty in emissions projections have not been robustly disentangled. Here we assess the sensitivities of future CO2 emissions to key drivers characterizing the SSPs. We use six state-of-the-art integrated assessment models with different structural characteristics, and study the impact of five families of parameters, related to population, income, energy efficiency, fossil fuel availability, and low-carbon energy technology development. A recently developed sensitivity analysis algorithm allows us to parsimoniously compute both the direct and interaction effects of each of these drivers on cumulative emissions. The study reveals that the SSP assumptions about energy intensity and economic growth are the most important determinants of future CO2 emissions from energy combustion, both with and without a climate policy. Interaction terms between parameters are shown to be important determinants of the total sensitivities.

  12. FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L; Bunch, Dr David S.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

  13. Forest-killing diffuse CO2 emission at Mammoth Mountain as a sign of magmatic unrest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.; Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Howle, J.F.; Kerr, B.D.; Kennedy, B.M.; King, C.-Y.; Southon, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    MAMMOTH Mountain, in the western United States, is a large dacitic volcano with a long history of volcamsm that began 200 kyr ago1 and produced phreatic eruptions as recently as 500 ?? 200 yr BP (ref. 2). Seismicity, ground deformation and changes in fumarole gas composition suggested an episode of shallow dyke intrusion in 1989-90 (refs 3, 4). Areas of dying forest and incidents of near asphyxia in confined spaces, first reported in 1990, prompted us to search for diffuse flank emissions of magmatic CO2, as have been described at Mount Etna5 and Vulcano6. Here we report the results of a soil-gas survey, begun in 1994, that revealed CO2 concentrations of 30-96% in a 30-hectare region of killed trees, from which we estimate a total CO2 flux of ???1,200 tonnes per day. The forest die-off is the most conspicuous surface manifestation of magmatic processes at Mammoth Mountam, which hosts only weak fumarolic vents and no summit activity. Although the onset of tree kill coincided with the episode of shallow dyke intrusion, the magnitude and duration of the CO2 flux indicates that a larger, deeper magma source and/or a large reservoir of high-pressure gas is being tapped.

  14. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Tans, P. P.; Lehman, S.; Davis, K. J.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Shepson, P.; Gurney, K. R.; Song, Y.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) from anthropogenic sources are the primary driver of observed increases in the atmospheric CO2 burden, and hence global warming. Quantification of the magnitude of fossil fuel CO2 emissions is vital to improving our understanding of the global and regional carbon cycle, and independent evaluation of reported emissions is essential to the success of any emission reduction efforts. The urban scale is of particular interest, because ~75% CO2ff is emitted from urban regions, and cities are leading the way in attempts to reduce emissions. Measurements of 14CO2 can be used to determine CO2ff, yet existing 14C measurement techniques require laborious laboratory analysis and measurements are often insufficient for inferring an urban emission flux. This presentation will focus on how 14CO2 measurements can be combined with those of more easily measured ancillary tracers to obtain high resolution CO2ff mixing ratio estimates and then infer the emission flux. A pilot study over Sacramento, California showed strong correlations between CO2ff and carbon monoxide (CO) and demonstrated an ability to quantify the urban flux, albeit with large uncertainties. The Indianapolis Flux Project (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods to quantify urban greenhouse gas emissions. Indianapolis was chosen as an ideal test case because it has relatively straightforward meteorology; a contained, isolated, urban region; and substantial and well-known fossil fuel CO2 emissions. INFLUX incorporates atmospheric measurements of a suite of gases and isotopes including 14C from light aircraft and from a network of existing tall towers surrounding the Indianapolis urban area. The recently added CO2ff content is calculated from measurements of 14C in CO2, and then convolved with atmospheric transport models and ancillary data to estimate the urban CO2ff emission flux. Significant innovations in sample collection include: collection of hourly averaged samples to

  15. Quantification of space/time explicit fossil fuel CO2 emissions in urban domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in development of a carbon monitoring system. A space/time explicit emissions data product can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements and offer practical information to authorities in order to optimize mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and work is ongoing in Los Angeles. The work in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort, INFLUX, aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Los Angeles with JPL colleagues is aimed at building an operational carbon monitoring system with focus on global megacities. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate using Hestia to distribute emissions in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. For the buildings, we utilize an energy building model constrained with multiple local data streams. For onroad emissions, we use a combination of traffic data and GIS road layers maintaining vehicle class information. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In collaboration with our JPL colleagues, we are testing the feasibility of quantifying a megacity domain and how it might integrate with remote sensing and in situ measurement systems. The Hestia effort also holds promise for a useable policy tool at the city scale. With detailed information on energy consumption and emissions with process

  16. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2005-05-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  17. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  18. Reduction of CO(2)-emissions by using biomass in combustion and digestion plants.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schingnitz, Daniel; Schnapke, Antje; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Climate protection is one of the main aims of environmental policy. One way to advance and push the progress is to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy production through an increasing production of renewable and CO(2)-neutral energy for example through application of biomass. This paper sets the focus on biomass streams that can be used both thermal and biological for energy production like grass or energy crops. To calculate the potentials of decrease of CO(2)-emissions for treatment of biomass in either combustion or digestion plants some scenarios were set up with different assumptions regarding degree of efficiency of treatment plants which depends on size of plants and the treatment process itself. The energetic utilisation of the considered biomass streams is divided in different utilisation scenarios: combined heat and power generation (CHP) and heat generation or power generation only. Additionally four groups of plant sizes referring to electrical power (from 0.1 up to 10.0MW) were taken into consideration. The calculations of potential savings of CO(2)-emission in both types of treatment scenarios lead to the result that in comparison to biological technologies thermal processes show a much higher utilisation of the energy content in biomass.

  19. CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport.

    PubMed

    Klapmeyer, Michael E; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-10-16

    The goal of this research was to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particle number, and black carbon (BC) from in-use aircraft and related activity at a regional airport. Pollutant concentrations were measured adjacent to the airfield and passenger terminal at the Roanoke Regional Airport in Virginia. Observed NO(x) emission indices (EIs) for jet-powered, commuter aircraft were generally lower than those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organization databank for both taxi (same as idle) and takeoff engine settings. NO(x) EIs ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 g (kg fuel)(-1) across five types of aircraft during taxiing, whereas EIs were consistently higher, 8.8-20.6 g (kg fuel)(-1), during takeoff. Particle number EIs ranged from 1.4 × 10(16) to 7.1 × 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) and were slightly higher in taxi mode than in takeoff mode for four of the five types of aircraft. Diurnal patterns in CO(2) and NO(x) concentrations were influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions, while patterns in particle number concentrations were attributable mainly to patterns in aircraft activity. CO(2) and NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance were higher at the terminal than at the airfield and were lower than found in urban areas.

  20. A biorefinery from Nannochloropsis sp. microalga - energy and CO2 emission and economic analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ribeiro, Lauro A; Batista, Ana P; Marques, Paula A S S; Nobre, Beatriz P; Palavra, António M F; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira; Gouveia, Luísa; Silva, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Are microalgae a potential energy source for biofuel production? This paper presents the laboratory results from a Nannochloropsis sp. microalga biorefinery for the production of oil, high-value pigments, and biohydrogen (bioH2). The energy consumption and CO2 emissions involved in the whole process (microalgae cultivation, harvest, dewater, mill, extraction and leftover biomass fermentation) were evaluated. An economic evaluation was also performed. Oil was obtained by soxhlet (SE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The bioH2 was produced by fermentation of the leftover biomass. The oil production pathway by SE shows the lowest value of energy consumption, 177-245 MJ/MJ(prod), and CO2 emissions, 13-15 kgCO(2)/MJ(prod). Despite consuming and emitting c.a. 20% more than the SE pathway, the oil obtained by SFE, proved to be more economically viable, with a cost of 365€/kg(oil) produced and simultaneously extracting high-value pigments. The bioH2 as co-product may be advantageous in terms of product yield or profit.

  1. Climate, CO2 and human population impacts on global wildfire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, W.; Jiang, L.; Arneth, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are by far the largest contributor to global biomass burning and constitute a large global source of atmospheric traces gases and aerosols. Such emissions have a considerable impact on air quality and constitute a major health hazard. Biomass burning also influences the radiative balance of the atmosphere and is thus not only of societal, but also of significant scientific interest. There is a common perception that climate change will lead to an increase in emissions as hot and dry weather events that promote wildfire will become more common. However, even though a few studies have found that the inclusion of CO2 fertilisation of photosynthesis and changes in human population patterns will tend to somewhat lower predictions of future wildfire emissions, no such study has included full ensemble ranges of both climate predictions and population projections, including the effect of different degrees of urbanisation.

    Here, we present a series of 124 simulations with the LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE global dynamic vegetation-wildfire model, including a semi-empirical formulation for the prediction of burned area based on fire weather, fuel continuity and human population density. The simulations use Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate predictions from eight Earth system models. These were combined with two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and five scenarios of future human population density based on the series of Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) to assess the sensitivity of emissions to the effect of climate, CO2 and humans. In addition, two alternative parameterisations of the semi-empirical burned-area model were applied. Contrary to previous work, we find no clear future trend of global wildfire emissions for the moderate emissions and climate change scenario based on the RCP 4.5. Only historical population change introduces a decline by around 15 % since 1900. Future emissions could either increase for low population

  2. Towards space/time resolved uncertainty quantification of urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Huang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Quantification of the uncertainty associated with bottom-up emission data products remains a challenging endeavor. There are a number of reasons for this. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made. The Hestia Project is an effort aimed at building high-resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data products at the scale of buildings/street segments for entire urban domains. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Salt Lake City. The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. In the course of this work, we have attempted to quantify uncertainty. In some cases, this is driven by parameter sensitivity, in other cases through the comparison of independent datasets reporting on the same entity. Expert judgment is also deployed where no alternative exists. Here, I will provide a review of some of these techniques with examples from our urban case studies. Total fossil fuel CO2 emissions for Marion County, IN, for the year 2002: (a) top view with numbered zones and (b) blowups of the numbered zones. Color units: log10 kg C

  3. It is premature to include non-CO 2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Piers M. de F.; Shine, Keith P.; Stuber, Nicola

    The recent G8 Gleneagles climate statement signed on 8 July 2005 specifically mentions a determination to lessen the impact of aviation on climate [ Gleneagles, 2005. The Gleneagles communique: climate change, energy and sustainable development. http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/PostG8_Gleneagles_Communique.pdf]. In January 2005 the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) commenced operation as the largest multi-country, multi-sector ETS in the world, albeit currently limited only to CO 2 emissions. At present the scheme makes no provision for aircraft emissions. However, the UK Government would like to see aircraft included in the ETS and plans to use its Presidencies of both the EU and G8 in 2005 to implement these schemes within the EU and perhaps internationally. Non-CO 2 effects have been included in some policy-orientated studies of the impact of aviation but we argue that the inclusion of such effects in any such ETS scheme is premature; we specifically argue that use of the Radiative Forcing Index for comparing emissions from different sources is inappropriate and that there is currently no metric for such a purpose that is likely to enable their inclusion in the near future.

  4. Peatland CO2 emissions: Using 13C to quantify responses to land use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, Helen; Robinson, David; Midwood, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon reservoir and annually soils emit about 98 billion tonnes of CO2which is derived from plant root and rhizosphere respiration (autotrophically fuelled by photosynthesis) and microbial degradation of soil organic carbon (heterotrophic respiration). These two processes are intrinsically linked by complex physical and biochemical interactions. In order to meet its GHG reductions targets the Scottish Government plans to increase woodland cover from 17 to 25% by the second half of this century which will inevitably lead to significant tree planting on peatland soils. Tree roots and associated mycorrhiza will alter physical and biological conditions in the soil which may affect the heterotrophic contribution to CO2 emissions and consequently the long term landscape-scale carbon balance since the difference between net primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration defines the terrestrial CO2 sink. Significant uncertainties surround the response of peatlands to tree planting and predicted climate changes. At a field site in eastern Scotland we used natural abundance stable isotopes of carbon to partition soil CO2 efflux into its heterotrophic and autotrophic components to determine whether young Scots pine plantations affect heterotrophic respiration rates in peatland soil. Rate and isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux was measured in plantation areas and in unforested heather moorland; soil and roots were then excavated and separately incubated to establish the isotopic end members of a simple linear mixing model. Isotopic composition of soil efflux varies temporally and spatially across the site; young Scots pine trees do not increase the heterotrophic flux from soil and therefore do not lead to a net loss of soil carbon from these landscapes.

  5. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Simone J.; Vidal, Luciana O.; Mendonça, Raquel F.; Tranvik, Lars J.; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs. PMID:23641239

  6. Features of CO2 fracturing deduced from acoustic emission and microscopy in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Chen, Youqing; Bennour, Ziad; Yamashita, Hiroto; Inui, Shuhei; Nagaya, Yuya; Naoi, Makoto; Chen, Qu; Nakayama, Yoshiki; Nagano, Yu

    2016-11-01

    We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) experiments on 170 mm cubic granite specimens with a 20 mm diameter central hole to investigate how fluid viscosity affects HF process and crack properties. In experiments using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2), water, and viscous oil with viscosity of 0.051-336.6 mPa · s, we compared the results for breakdown pressure, the distribution and fracturing mechanism of acoustic emission, and the microstructure of induced cracks revealed by using an acrylic resin containing a fluorescent compound. Fracturing with low-viscosity fluid induced three-dimensionally sinuous cracks with many secondary branches, which seem to be desirable pathways for enhanced geothermal system, shale gas recovery, and other processes.

  7. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  8. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  9. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.

  10. The impact of a 2 X CO2 climate on lightning-caused fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Colin; Rind, David

    1994-01-01

    Future climate change could have significant repercussions for lightning-caused wildfires. Two empirical fire models are presented relating the frequency of lightning fires and the area burned by these fires to the effective precipitation and the frequency of thunderstorm activity. One model deals with the seasonal variations in lightning fires, while the second model deals with the interannual variations of lightning fires. These fire models are then used with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model to investigate possible changes in fire frequency and area burned in a 2 X CO2 climate. In the United States, the annual mean number of lightning fires increases by 44%, while the area burned increases by 78%. On a global scale, the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in untouched tropical ecosystems where few natural fires occur today.

  11. A comprehensive carbon dioxide analysis system for estimating CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A.; Parazoo, N.; Lokupitiya, R. S.; Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to combustion of fossil fuel can be estimated from observations of variations in atmospheric trace gases in time and space. Quantitative interpretation of these variations requires accounting for stronger changes due to other processes such as ecosystem metabolism, biomass burning, and air-sea gas exchange that operate on global scales. We have developed and tested an analysis system for assimilation of CO2 variations measured by a combination of sampling, in-situ, and remotely-sensed observations. The system combines existing models of CO2 exchanges due to hourly photosynthesis and respiration, daily air-sea gas exchange, biomass burning, fossil fuel emissions, and atmospheric transport. This comprehensive system allows direct comparison to the observed record of both in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric CO2 at hourly timescales. By design, we decompose surface fluxes of CO2 into the atmosphere into “fast processes” that are well-understood and modeled using mechanistic algorithms, and more slowly-varying fluxes due to land use change, incorrect specification of decomposing carbon pools, and other persistent biases in the forward component models. These slowly varying components are then estimated from atmospheric obervations by the Maximum Likelihood Ensembe Filter, a data assimilation framework. The system is operated on a 0.5° x 0.67° grid, providing global mesoscale coverage, and has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. It is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products.

  12. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  13. Partitioning belowground CO2 emissions for a Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by reducing carbon (C) emissions associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however full greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets must be calculated. Consequently, we monitored emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually to quantify and partition these emissions and better understand the influence of abiotic factors on SOC and GHG dynamics under Miscanthus. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and the treatments were compared to assess their effects on C inputs and outputs to the soil. Both CH4 and N2O emissions were below detection limits, mainly due to a lack of fertiliser additions and limited management of the agricultural site. However

  14. Relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions depends on income level and policy.

    PubMed

    Ponce de Leon Barido, Diego; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate empirically how national-level CO2 emissions are affected by urbanization and environmental policy. We use statistical modeling to explore panel data on annual CO2 emissions from 80 countries for the period 1983-2005. Random- and fixed-effects models indicate that, on the global average, the urbanization-emission elasticity value is 0.95 (i.e., a 1% increase in urbanization correlates with a 0.95% increase in emissions). Several regions display a statistically significant, positive elasticity for fixed- and random-effects models: lower-income Europe, India and the Sub-Continent, Latin America, and Africa. Using two proxies for environmental policy/outcomes (ratification status for the Kyoto Protocol; the Yale Environmental Performance Index), we find that in countries with stronger environmental policy/outcomes, urbanization has a more beneficial (or, a less negative) impact on emissions. Specifically, elasticity values are -1.1 (0.21) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with strong environmental policy, versus 0.65 (1.3) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with weak environmental policies. Our finding that the urbanization-emissions elasticity may depend on the strength of a country's environmental policy, not just marginal increases in income, is in contrast to the idea of universal urban scaling laws that can ignore local context. Most global population growth in the coming decades is expected to occur in urban areas of lower-income countries, which underscores the importance of these findings.

  15. Space-borne detection of small scale CO2 emission structures with OCO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Eldering, A.; Verhulst, K. R.; Miller, C. E.; Nguyen, H.; Oda, T.; O'Dell, C.; Rao, P.; Kahn, B. H.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.; Sanchez, R. M.; Ashok, M.; Birman, L.; Pieri, D. C.; Linick, J. P.; Xing, Z.; Yuen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures covering spatial domains of less than 50km diameter include cities, transportation infrastructure, fossil fuel production, upgrading and consumption sites. Anthropogenic sources upset the natural balance between carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. In 2014, NASA launched its first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). Its observation strategy differs from sparse point-wise measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) instrument. At the expense of GOSAT's fast time series capability (3-day repeat cycle, vs. 16 for OCO-2), its 8-footprint continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width can slice through emission plumes and possibly provide momentary cross sections. While GOSAT measured approximately circular ~10.5 km diameter single-shot footprints, OCO-2 can provide hundreds more soundings per area at single kilometer scale footprint resolution. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban XCO2 enhancements of ~2 ppmv against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban emission spatial structures previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban greenhouse gas tomography. © California Institute of Technology

  16. Soil CO2 emissions in terms of irrigation management in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; María de la Rosa, José; Faz, Ángel; Domingo, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Ángeles Muñoz, María

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area are reaching worrying proportions and represent a serious threat to traditional crops and encourage the movement of people who choose to work in other activities. This situation has created a growing interest in water conservation, particularly among practitioners of irrigated agriculture, the main recipient of water resources (>80%). For these and other reasons, the scientific and technical irrigation scheduling of water use to maintain and even improve harvest yield and quality has been and will remain a major challenge for irrigated agriculture. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, deficit irrigation may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils. The reduction of soil moisture levels decreases microbial activity, with the resulting slowing down of organic matter mineralization. Besides, the application of water by irrigation may increment the precipitation rate of carbonates, favoring the storage of C, but depending on the source of calcium or bicarbonate, the net reaction can be either storage or release of C. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess if deficit irrigation, besides contributing to water savings, can reduce soil CO2 emissions and favor the accumulation of C in soils in stable forms. The experiment was carried out along 2012 in a commercial orchard from southeast Spain cultivated with nectarine trees (Prunus persica cv. 'Viowhite'). The irrigation system was drip localized. Three irrigation treatments were assayed: a control (CT), irrigated to satisfy the total hydric needs of the crop; a first deficit irrigation (DI1), irrigated as CT except for postharvest period (16 June - 28 October) were 50% of CT was applied; and a second deficit irrigation (DI2), irrigated as DI1, except for two periods in which irrigation was suppressed (16 June-6 July and 21 July-17 August). Each treatment was setup in triplicate, randomly

  17. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-03

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13-0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio.

  18. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio.

  19. Analysis of the Global Warming Potential of Biogenic CO2 Emission in Life Cycle Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Zhonghui; Xie, Xinfeng; Yu, Zhen; von Gadow, Klaus; Xu, Junming; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Yuchun

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is generally believed to be carbon neutral. However, recent studies have challenged the carbon neutrality hypothesis by introducing metric indicators to assess the global warming potential of biogenic CO2 (GWPbio). In this study we calculated the GWPbio factors using a forest growth model and radiative forcing effects with a time horizon of 100 years and applied the factors to five life cycle assessment (LCA) case studies of bioproducts. The forest carbon change was also accounted for in the LCA studies. GWPbio factors ranged from 0.13–0.32, indicating that biomass could be an attractive energy resource when compared with fossil fuels. As expected, short rotation and fast-growing biomass plantations produced low GWPbio. Long-lived wood products also allowed more regrowth of biomass to be accounted as absorption of the CO2 emission from biomass combustion. The LCA case studies showed that the total life cycle GHG emissions were closely related to GWPbio and energy conversion efficiency. By considering the GWPbio factors and the forest carbon change, the production of ethanol and bio-power appeared to have higher GHG emissions than petroleum-derived diesel at the highest GWPbio. PMID:28045111

  20. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements: CCS Applications, Principles, Instrumentation and Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rod; Feese, Kristin

    2013-04-01

    The Eddy Covariance method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases, heat, and momentum between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are carefully characterized from single-point in-situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Since the early 1990s, this technique has been widely used by micrometeorologists across the globe for quantifying CO2 emission rates from various natural, urban and agricultural ecosystems [1,2], including areas of agricultural carbon sequestration. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries. In the last 3-5 years, advancements in instrumentation and software have reached the point when they can be effectively used outside the area of micrometeorology, and can prove valuable for geological carbon capture and sequestration, landfill emission measurements, high-precision agriculture and other non-micrometeorological industrial and regulatory applications. In the field of geological carbon capture and sequestration, the magnitude of CO2 seepage fluxes depends on a variety of factors. Emerging projects utilize eddy covariance measurement to monitor large areas where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to detect and quantify CO2 leakage, and to assure the efficiency of CO2 geological storage [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Although Eddy Covariance is one of the most direct and defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup, execution and data processing tailor-fit to a specific site and a project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created to introduce a novice to the conventional Eddy Covariance technique [9], and to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as graduate-level textbooks, flux networks guidelines, journals

  1. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Kline, David I; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-09-17

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century.

  2. Long-term drainage reduces CO2 uptake and increases CO2 emission on a Siberian floodplain due to shifts in vegetation community and soil thermal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Heimann, Martin; Kolle, Olaf; Luus, Kristina A.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey A.; Göckede, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    With increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns forecast for the Arctic over the coming decades, the thawing of ice-rich permafrost is expected to increasingly alter hydrological conditions by creating mosaics of wetter and drier areas. The objective of this study is to investigate how 10 years of lowered water table depths of wet floodplain ecosystems would affect CO2 fluxes measured using a closed chamber system, focusing on the role of long-term changes in soil thermal characteristics and vegetation community structure. Drainage diminishes the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of organic soil, leading to warmer soil temperatures in shallow layers during the daytime and colder soil temperatures in deeper layers, resulting in a reduction in thaw depths. These soil temperature changes can intensify growing-season heterotrophic respiration by up to 95 %. With decreased autotrophic respiration due to reduced gross primary production under these dry conditions, the differences in ecosystem respiration rates in the present study were 25 %. We also found that a decade-long drainage installation significantly increased shrub abundance, while decreasing Eriophorum angustifolium abundance resulted in Carex sp. dominance. These two changes had opposing influences on gross primary production during the growing season: while the increased abundance of shrubs slightly increased gross primary production, the replacement of E. angustifolium by Carex sp. significantly decreased it. With the effects of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production combined, net CO2 uptake rates varied between the two years, which can be attributed to Carex-dominated plots' sensitivity to climate. However, underlying processes showed consistent patterns: 10 years of drainage increased soil temperatures in shallow layers and replaced E. angustifolium by Carex sp., which increased CO2 emission and reduced CO2 uptake rates. During the non-growing season, drainage

  3. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to domestic and international drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Peters, G.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to address extensive deforestation to reduce climate change and save primary forests are taking place on a global scale. Whilst several studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation in large rainforests, few studies have investigated the domestic and international drivers sustaining and increasing the deforestation rates. Brazil, having the largest rainforest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates, is also currently one of the world's largest exporters of soybeans and beef. In this case study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and cattle and soybean production, and further attribute emissions to countries and economic sectors through export and import of Brazilian commodities. The emissions from deforestation can therefore be allocated to the countries and sectors consuming goods and services produced on deforested land in Brazil. A land-use change model and deforestation data is coupled with a carbon cycle model to create yearly emission estimates and different emission allocation schemes, depending on emission amortizations and discounting functions for past deforestation. We use an economic multi-regional input-output model (with 112 regions and 57 sectors) to distribute these emissions along agricultural trade routes, through domestic and international consumption in 2004. With our implementation we find that around 80 % of emissions from deforested land is due to cattle grazing, while agricultural transition effects suggests soy beans are responsible for about 20 % of the emissions occurring in 2004. Nearly tree quarters of the soy beans are consumed outside Brazil, of which China, Germany and France are the biggest consumers. Soy beans are consumed by a variety of sectors in the food industry. Brazil exports about 30 % of the cattle it produces, where Russia, USA and Germany are among the largest consumers. Cattle consumption mainly occurs in the meat sectors. In this study we estimate the CO2

  4. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  5. Atmosphere-based estimates of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions for the U.S. derived from 14CO2 during 2009-2012.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, S. A.; Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Miller, B.; Hu, L.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Wolak, C.; Elkins, J. W.; Tans, P. P.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric measurements of trace gases with 'known' emissions provide a means to derive emission magnitudes of other simultaneously measured trace gases, provided sources are co-located and co-varying. Here we consider atmospheric mixing ratio covariations in the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff; derived from high-precision measurements of the radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2) relative to more than 20 other anthropogenic trace gases including CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and halo- and hydro-carbons over large industrialized land areas. Pairing Cff with boundary-layer concentration enhancements of these gases allows us to determine apparent emission ratios for each gas with respect to Cff. When combined with sample-specific model-derived spatial footprints and the relatively accurate U.S. inventory of fossil fuel emissions (i.e., estimated uncertainty of ±10%), absolute emission rates for the correlate gases are derived. Here we will present U.S. annual emission magnitudes for select gases based on year-round measurements from tall towers and aircraft profiling sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east for the 2009-2012 period. Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in emission ratios and absolute emissions are determined for many gases based on these measurements. For HFC-134a and HCFC-22, results derived with this approach generally agree very well with an independent Bayesian-inversion based analysis of the larger number of samples collected and analyzed in our network, but that are not paired with Cff measurements. We believe this approach provides reliable 'top down', observationally-based emission estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone.

  6. Negative CO2 emissions via enhanced silicate weathering in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Meysman, Filip J R; Montserrat, Francesc

    2017-04-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5-2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to exploit the natural process of mineral weathering for the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Here, we discuss the potential of applying ESW in coastal environments as a climate change mitigation option. By deliberately introducing fast-weathering silicate minerals onto coastal sediments, alkalinity is released into the overlying waters, thus creating a coastal CO2 sink. Compared with other NETs, coastal ESW has the advantage that it counteracts ocean acidification, does not interfere with terrestrial land use and can be directly integrated into existing coastal management programmes with existing (dredging) technology. Yet presently, the concept is still at an early stage, and so two major research challenges relate to the efficiency and environmental impact of ESW. Dedicated experiments are needed (i) to more precisely determine the weathering rate under in situ conditions within the seabed and (ii) to evaluate the ecosystem impacts-both positive and negative-from the released weathering products.

  7. Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongyang; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of carbon in the model nearly eightfold from US$15 per tCO2 to US$116 per tCO2. Furthermore, passing some tipping points increases the likelihood of other tipping points occurring to such an extent that it abruptly increases the social cost of carbon. The corresponding optimal policy involves an immediate, massive effort to control CO2 emissions, which are stopped by mid-century, leading to climate stabilization at <1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

  8. Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D

    2015-10-27

    Rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions are anticipated to drive change to ocean ecosystems, but a conceptualization of biological change derived from quantitative analyses is lacking. Derived from multiple ecosystems and latitudes, our metaanalysis of 632 published experiments quantified the direction and magnitude of ecological change resulting from ocean acidification and warming to conceptualize broadly based change. Primary production by temperate noncalcifying plankton increases with elevated temperature and CO2, whereas tropical plankton decreases productivity because of acidification. Temperature increases consumption by and metabolic rates of herbivores, but this response does not translate into greater secondary production, which instead decreases with acidification in calcifying and noncalcifying species. This effect creates a mismatch with carnivores whose metabolic and foraging costs increase with temperature. Species diversity and abundances of tropical as well as temperate species decline with acidification, with shifts favoring novel community compositions dominated by noncalcifiers and microorganisms. Both warming and acidification instigate reduced calcification in tropical and temperate reef-building species. Acidification leads to a decline in dimethylsulfide production by ocean plankton, which as a climate gas, contributes to cloud formation and maintenance of the Earth's heat budget. Analysis of responses in short- and long-term experiments and of studies at natural CO2 vents reveals little evidence of acclimation to acidification or temperature changes, except for microbes. This conceptualization of change across whole communities and their trophic linkages forecast a reduction in diversity and abundances of various key species that underpin current functioning of marine ecosystems.

  9. Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D.

    2015-01-01

    Rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions are anticipated to drive change to ocean ecosystems, but a conceptualization of biological change derived from quantitative analyses is lacking. Derived from multiple ecosystems and latitudes, our metaanalysis of 632 published experiments quantified the direction and magnitude of ecological change resulting from ocean acidification and warming to conceptualize broadly based change. Primary production by temperate noncalcifying plankton increases with elevated temperature and CO2, whereas tropical plankton decreases productivity because of acidification. Temperature increases consumption by and metabolic rates of herbivores, but this response does not translate into greater secondary production, which instead decreases with acidification in calcifying and noncalcifying species. This effect creates a mismatch with carnivores whose metabolic and foraging costs increase with temperature. Species diversity and abundances of tropical as well as temperate species decline with acidification, with shifts favoring novel community compositions dominated by noncalcifiers and microorganisms. Both warming and acidification instigate reduced calcification in tropical and temperate reef-building species. Acidification leads to a decline in dimethylsulfide production by ocean plankton, which as a climate gas, contributes to cloud formation and maintenance of the Earth’s heat budget. Analysis of responses in short- and long-term experiments and of studies at natural CO2 vents reveals little evidence of acclimation to acidification or temperature changes, except for microbes. This conceptualization of change across whole communities and their trophic linkages forecast a reduction in diversity and abundances of various key species that underpin current functioning of marine ecosystems. PMID:26460052

  10. COCA: deriving urban emissions and the carbon exchange of a forested region using airborne CO2 and CO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, H.; Schmitgen, S.; Ciais, P.; Neininger, B.; Baeumle, M.; Brunet, Y.; Kley, D.

    2002-05-01

    A crucial challenge in measuring the partitioning of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the separation of regional anthropogenic CO2 sources from biogenic activity. The aim of the COCA project is to quantify the fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 fractions using continuous airborne CO2 and CO measurements, where CO acts as a tracer for anthropogenic CO2. At first part of the project COCA an attempt was made to measure daytime biogenic CO2 fluxes over a forest area (about 15 by 30 km size). The campaign took place around the CARBOEUROFLUX site ``Le Bray'' (Pinus pinaster) close to Bordeaux in France end of June 2001 Based on continuous airborne CO2, H2O and CO flux and concentration measurements a Lagrangian budgeting approach was chosen to measure regional CO2 deposition fluxes. The objective is to determine the CO2 uptake of the extended forest area from the CO2/CO gradients up- and downwind of the ecosystem, using CO as air mass tracer and such estimating the influence of anthropogenic CO2 advected into the area First results of the summer flight on June 23rd will be shown, where fair wind speeds (~5 m/s) and a low CBL height led to the observation of a clear decrease in CO2 at the downwind flight stacks with basically constant CO concentrations. For other summer flights with very low wind speeds, local effects dominate the observations leading to a larger variability in the observations. Both, correlations and anti-correlations of CO2 with the anthropogenic tracer CO have been observed. Positive correlations indicate fresh plumes of anthropogenic CO2. Negative correlations are indicative of entrainment of free tropospheric air, that was marked by relatively higher CO2 and lower CO concentrations than the average CBL concentrations. During a second campaign the variance of anthropogenic CO and CO2 emissions of a large city unaffected by biogenic processes has been studied. This campaign was carried out on February 16 and 17, 2002 over the Paris metropolitan area

  11. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.

    2016-06-01

    Increasing human population and the rapid growth of Malaysia's economy are often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been contributing to depletion of natural resources and climate change. The need for more spaces for numerous land development activities has made the existing forests suffer deforestation. The study was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia, which currently has about 5.9 million ha of forests. Phased array type L-band SAR (Palsar) and Palsar-2 images over the years 2010 and 2015, respectively were used to identify forest cover and deforestation occurrences resulted from various conversion of forests to other land uses. Forests have been identified from horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization and then classified into three major categories, which are inland, peat swamp and mangrove. Pixel subtraction technique was used to determine areas that have been changing from forests to other land uses. Forest areas have been found declined from about 6.1 million ha in year 2010 to some 5.9 million ha in 2015 due to conversion of forests to other land uses. Causes of deforestation have been identified and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been emitted due to the deforestation activity has been determined in this study. Oil palm and rubber plantations expansion has been found the most prominent factor that caused deforestation in Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the states of Pahang, Terengganu, Johor and Kelantan. The rate of deforestation in the period was at 0.66% yr-1, which amounted a total of about 200,225 ha over the five years. Carbon loss was estimated at about 30.2 million Mg C, which has resulted in CO2 emission accounted at about 110.6 million Mg CO2. The rate of CO2 emission that has been resulted from deforestation was estimated at 22.1 million Mg CO2 yr-1. The study found that the use of a series of Palsar and Palsar-2 images, with a consistent, cloud-free images, are the most appropriate sensors to be used for

  12. Biogenic emissions and CO 2 gas exchange investigated on four Mediterranean shrubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, U.; van Eijk, J.; Bertin, N.; Staudt, M.; Kotzias, D.; Seufert, G.; Fugit, J.-L.; Torres, L.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Ciccioli, P.; Bomboi, T.

    In order to investigate the impact of plant physiology on emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds monoterpene emission rates from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Pistacia lentiscus (L.) and isoprene emission rates from Erica arborea (L.) and Myrtus communis (L.) were determined. The study, an activity in the framework of BEMA (Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area), was carried out in May 1994 at Castelporziano near Rome in Italy, using a dynamic enclosure technique combined with recording CO 2 gas exchange, temperature and irradiance data. The monoterpenes dominating the emission pattern were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene and β-pinene for rosemary and α-pinene, linalool and β-pinene + sabinene for pistachio. Total monoterpene emission rates standardized to 30°C of 1.84 ± 0.24 and 0.35 ± 0.04 μg Cg -1 dw h -1 were found for rosemary and pistachio, respectively (on a leaf dry weight basis). Myrtle emitted 22.2 ± 4.9 μg C g -1 dw h -1 at standard conditions (30°C, PAR 1000 μmol photons m -2 s -1 as isoprene and erica 5.61 μg C g -1 dw h -1 The carbon loss due to terpenoid emissions per photosynthetically carbon uptake was about 0.01-0.1% for the monoterpene emitters. The isoprene emitting shrubs lost 0-0.9% of the assimilated carbon. The rapid induction of emissions in the sun after temporary shading indicates that isoprene emissions were closely linked to photosynthesis. A higher proportion of the assimilated carbon was lost as isoprene under conditions of high light and temperature compared to the morning and evening hours.

  13. Low-dimensional models for the estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bloemen Waanders, B.; Ray, J.; McKenna, S. A.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The estimation of anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions using atmospheric observations of CO2 has recently attracted increasing interest due to its relevance to monitoring of CO2 mitigation treaties and programs. To date, techniques to perform large-scale inversions had primarily been developed within the context of understanding biospheric and oceanic fluxes. Such fluxes tend to vary relatively smoothly in space and time, making it possible to use multiGaussian models to parameterize and regularize such inversions, predicated on limited measurements of CO2 concentrations. However, the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions is non-stationary and multiscale, and therefore makes the use of multiGaussians models less suitable. Thus, a need exists to identify how anthropogenic emissions may be represented in a low-dimensional manner (i.e., with few parameters), for use in top-down estimation. Certain aspects of the spatial extent of anthropogenic emissions can be represented using easily measurable proxies such as nightlights, population density and GDP; in fact, fossil fuel inventories regularly use them to disaggregate regional emission budgets to finer spatial resolutions. However, such proxies can also be used to construct a priori models for anthropogenic emissions, which can then be updated, with data, through inverse modeling. In this presentation, we compare 3 low-dimensional parameterizations to characterize anthropogenic sources. The models are derived from images of nightlights over the continental USA, but adopt different arguments to achieve their dimensionality reduction. In the first model, we threshold nightlights and fit bivariate Gaussian kernels over clusters to represent emission sources; the emission field is modeled as a weighted sum of the kernels. The second approach models emissions as a weighted superposition of a filtered nightlight-distribution and a multiresolution defect, modeled with Haar wavelet. The nightlight-based methods

  14. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  15. Impacts of Large-scale Penetration of Non-industrial Cogeneration Systems on CO2 Emission in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahito; Nishio, Ken-Ichiro

    This paper presents a quantitative evaluation of CO2 emission from grid power systems and heat source systems including CHP (combined heat and power) in residential and commercial buildings in Japan. We estimated changes in CO2 emission from the utility grid and from CHP using an optimal generation planning model. Through quantitative simulation runs, the authors obtained the following results. First, introduction of CHP at a certain degree brings an increase of CO2 emission until 2020 regardless of the pace of nuclear power development. Second, because CHP will defer highly-efficient AGCC (advanced gas combined cycle generation) due to suppressed demand growth of utilities in the daytime when most of commercial CHP systems operate. CHP can reduce CO2 emission only if generating efficiency of CHP will be improved up to 50% or higher.

  16. CO2 is dominant greenhouse gas emitted from six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States during peak summer emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Stewart, Aurthur J.; Fortner, Allison M.; ...

    2016-01-06

    During August-September 2012, we sampled six hydropower reservoirs in southeastern United States. for CO2 and CH4 emissions via three pathways: diffusive emissions from water surface; ebullition in the water column; and losses from dam tailwaters during power generation. Average total emission rates of CO2 for the six reservoirs ranged from 1,127 to 2,051 mg m-2 d-1, which is low to moderate compared to CO2 emissions rates reported for tropical hydropower reservoirs and boreal ponds and lakes, and similar to rates reported for other temperate reservoirs. Similar average rates for CH4 were also relatively low, ranging from 5 to 83 mgmore » m-2 d-1. On a whole-reservoir basis, total emissions of CO2 ranged nearly 10-fold, from ~51,000 kg per day for Fontana to ~486,000 kg per day for Guntersville, and total emissions of CH4 ranged nearly 20-fold, from ~5 kg per day for Fontana to ~83 kg per day for Allatoona. Emissions through the tailwater pathway varied among reservoirs, comprising from 20 to 50% of total CO2 emissions and 0 to 90% of CH4 emissions, depending on the reservoir. Furthermore, several explanatory factors related to reservoir morphology and water quality were considered for observed differences among reservoirs.« less

  17. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Newman, Sally; Rao, Preeti; Ahmadov, Ravan; Deng, Aijun; Díaz-Isaac, Liza I.; Duren, Riley M.; Fischer, Marc L.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; Jeong, Seongeun; Li, Zhijin; Miller, Charles E.; O'Keeffe, Darragh; Patarasuk, Risa; Sander, Stanley P.; Song, Yang; Wong, Kam W.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-07-01

    Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land-atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA) megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as ˜ 1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May-June 2010). Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km) and high-resolution (1.3 km) simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution) and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution) fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of individual measurement sites when a

  18. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature ‘well below 2°C’ and to ‘aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C’. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international ‘pro-growth’ strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve ‘sustainable development’ goals. PMID:26959977

  19. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  20. Natural gas consumption, income, urbanization, and CO2 emissions in China and India.

    PubMed

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.

  1. A Multiple Period Problem in Distributed Energy Management Systems Considering CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroda, Yuki; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    Consider a special district (group) which is composed of multiple companies (agents), and where each agent responds to an energy demand and has a CO2 emission allowance imposed. A distributed energy management system (DEMS) optimizes energy consumption of a group through energy trading in the group. In this paper, we extended the energy distribution decision and optimal planning problem in DEMSs from a single period problem to a multiple periods one. The extension enabled us to consider more realistic constraints such as demand patterns, the start-up cost, and minimum running/outage times of equipment. At first, we extended the market-oriented programming (MOP) method for deciding energy distribution to the multiple periods problem. The bidding strategy of each agent is formulated by a 0-1 mixed non-linear programming problem. Secondly, we proposed decomposing the problem into a set of single period problems in order to solve it faster. In order to decompose the problem, we proposed a CO2 emission allowance distribution method, called an EP method. We confirmed that the proposed method was able to produce solutions whose group costs were close to lower-bound group costs by computational experiments. In addition, we verified that reduction in computational time was achieved without losing the quality of solutions by using the EP method.

  2. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.

  3. Household electricity access a trivial contributor to CO2 emissions growth in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2014-12-01

    Impetus to expand electricity access in developing nations is urgent. Yet aspirations to provide universal access to electricity are often considered potentially conflicting with efforts to mitigate climate change. How much newly electrified, largely poor, households raise emissions, however, remains uncertain. Results from a first retrospective analysis show that improvements in household electricity access contributed 3-4% of national emissions growth in India over the past three decades. Emissions from both the direct and indirect electricity use of more than 650 million people connected since 1981 accounted for 11-25% of Indian emissions growth or, on average, a rise of 0.008-0.018 tons of CO2 per person per year between 1981 and 2011. Although this is a marginal share of global emissions, it does not detract from the importance for developing countries to start reducing the carbon intensities of their electricity generation to ensure sustainable development and avoid future carbon lock-in. Significant ancillary benefits for air quality, health, energy security and efficiency may also make this attractive for reasons other than climate mitigation alone.

  4. Delayed CO2 emissions from mid-ocean ridge volcanism as a possible cause of late-Pleistocene glacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled 100,000 year variations in ice volume, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 during the late Pleistocene are generally considered to arise from a combination of orbital forcing, ice dynamics, and ocean circulation. Also previously argued is that changes in glaciation influence atmospheric CO2 concentrations through modifying subaerial volcanic eruptions and CO2 emissions. Building on recent evidence that ocean ridge volcanism responds to changes in sea level, here it is suggested that ocean ridges may play an important role in generating late-Pleistocene 100 ky glacial cycles. If all volcanic CO2 emissions responded immediately to changes in pressure, subaerial and ocean-ridge volcanic emissions anomalies would oppose one another. At ocean ridges, however, the egress of CO2 from the mantle is likely to be delayed by tens-of-thousands of years, or longer, owing to ascent time. A simple model involving temperature, ice, and CO2 is presented that oscillates at ∼100 ky time scales when incorporating a delayed CO2 contribution from ocean ridge volcanism, even if the feedback accounts for only a small fraction of total changes in CO2. Oscillations readily become phase-locked with insolation forcing associated with changes in Earth's orbit. Under certain parameterizations, a transition from ∼40 ky to larger ∼100 ky oscillations occurs during the middle Pleistocene in response to modulations in orbital forcing. This novel description of Pleistocene glaciation should be testable through ongoing advances in understanding the circulation of carbon through the solid earth.

  5. Global spatially explicit CO2 emission metrics at 0.25° horizontal resolution for forest bioenergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, F.

    2015-12-01

    Bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option in studies designed to align with future RCP projections, reaching approximately 250 EJ/yr in RCP2.6, 145 EJ/yr in RCP4.5 and 180 EJ/yr in RCP8.5 by the end of the 21st century. However, many questions enveloping the direct carbon cycle and climate response to bioenergy remain partially unexplored. Bioenergy systems are largely assessed under the default climate neutrality assumption and the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation is usually ignored. Emission metrics of CO2 from forest bioenergy are only available on a case-specific basis and their quantification requires processing of a wide spectrum of modelled or observed local climate and forest conditions. On the other hand, emission metrics are widely used to aggregate climate impacts of greenhouse gases to common units such as CO2-equivalents (CO2-eq.), but a spatially explicit analysis of emission metrics with global forest coverage is today lacking. Examples of emission metrics include the global warming potential (GWP), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the absolute sustained emission temperature (aSET). Here, we couple a global forest model, a heterotrophic respiration model, and a global climate model to produce global spatially explicit emission metrics for CO2 emissions from forest bioenergy. We show their applications to global emissions in 2015 and until 2100 under the different RCP scenarios. We obtain global average values of 0.49 ± 0.03 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1 (mean ± standard deviation), 0.05 ± 0.05 kgCO2-eq. kgCO2-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1, and 2.14·10-14 ± 0.11·10-14 °C (kg yr-1)-1 for GWP, GTP and aSET, respectively. We also present results aggregated at a grid, national and continental level. The metrics are found to correlate with the site-specific turnover times and local climate variables like annual mean temperature and precipitation. Simplified

  6. Global sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: regional trends, uncertainties and options for emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, J. G.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Peters, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    An overview will be presented of sources and trends of global emissions of direct non-CO2 greenhouse gases CH4, N2O and the fluorinated gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6, which are addressed in the Kyoto protocol. Special attention will be given to regional source trends, estimated uncertainties and most recent global emission trends. In addition, the most significant options for emission reductions will be discussed in view of medium term emission scenarios that were meant to illustrate future trends without the effects climate policy. For estimating the recent global emission trends a special approach was used to compile fast annual updates of the EDGAR global emission inventories, based on the more detailed previous version. We present an overview of the approaches used for this `Fast Track' for the different source sectors. Results are presented for 1995-2002 for various anthropogenic sources at regional scales including an estimate of the accuracies achieved. A similar overview will be provided for the emissions of the ozone precursors NOx, CO and NMVOC and of black carbon. Tropospheric ozone and black carbon are both greenhouse gases, which are not considered in the Kyoto protocol, but in industrialised countries the emissions that cause them are often part of environmental policy on local and regional air quality.

  7. An inventory of primary air pollutants and CO 2 emissions from cement production in China, 1990-2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Nielsen, Chris; He, Kebin

    2011-01-01

    Direct emissions of air pollutants from the cement industry in China were estimated by developing a technology-based methodology using information on the proportion of cement produced from different types of kilns and the emission standards for the Chinese cement industry. Historical emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO X), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were estimated for the years 1990-2008, and future emissions were projected up to 2020 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Compared with the historical high (4.36 Tg of PM 2.5, 7.16 Tg of PM 10 and 10.44 Tg of TSP in 1997), PM emissions are predicted to drop substantially by 2020, despite the expected tripling of cement production. Certain other air pollutant emissions, such as CO and SO 2, are also predicted to decrease with the progressive closure of shaft kilns. NO X emissions, however, could increase because of the promotion of precalciner kilns and the rapid increase of cement production. CO 2 emissions from the cement industry account for approximately one eighth of China's national CO 2 emissions. Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reduce CO 2 emissions from this industry by approximately 12.8% if advanced energy-related technologies are implemented. These technologies will bring co-benefits in reducing other air pollutants as well.

  8. Investigation into solar drying of potato: effect of sample geometry on drying kinetics and CO2 emissions mitigation.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, P P

    2015-03-01

    Drying experiments have been performed with potato cylinders and slices using a laboratory scale designed natural convection mixed-mode solar dryer. The drying data were fitted to eight different mathematical models to predict the drying kinetics, and the validity of these models were evaluated statistically through coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi-square (χ (2)). The present investigation showed that amongst all the mathematical models studied, the Modified Page model was in good agreement with the experimental drying data for both potato cylinders and slices. A mathematical framework has been proposed to estimate the performance of the food dryer in terms of net CO2 emissions mitigation potential along with unit cost of CO2 mitigation arising because of replacement of different fossil fuels by renewable solar energy. For each fossil fuel replaced, the gross annual amount of CO2 as well as net amount of annual CO2 emissions mitigation potential considering CO2 emissions embodied in the manufacture of mixed-mode solar dryer has been estimated. The CO2 mitigation potential and amount of fossil fuels saved while drying potato samples were found to be the maximum for coal followed by light diesel oil and natural gas. It was inferred from the present study that by the year 2020, 23 % of CO2 emissions can be mitigated by the use of mixed-mode solar dryer for drying of agricultural products.

  9. The first 1-year-long estimate of the Paris region fossil fuel CO2 emissions based on atmospheric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufer, Johannes; Broquet, Grégoire; Bréon, François-Marie; Puygrenier, Vincent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Rémy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Lopez, Morgan; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Perrussel, Olivier; Lac, Christine; Wu, Lin; Ciais, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    The ability of a Bayesian atmospheric inversion to quantify the Paris region's fossil fuel CO2 emissions on a monthly basis, based on a network of three surface stations operated for 1 year as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS experiment (August 2010-July 2011), is analysed. Differences in hourly CO2 atmospheric mole fractions between the near-ground monitoring sites (CO2 gradients), located at the north-eastern and south-western edges of the urban area, are used to estimate the 6 h mean fossil fuel CO2 emission. The inversion relies on the CHIMERE transport model run at 2 km × 2 km horizontal resolution, on the spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 2008 from a local inventory established at 1 km × 1 km horizontal resolution by the AIRPARIF air quality agency, and on the spatial distribution of the biogenic CO2 fluxes from the C-TESSEL land surface model. It corrects a prior estimate of the 6 h mean budgets of the fossil fuel CO2 emissions given by the AIRPARIF 2008 inventory. We found that a stringent selection of CO2 gradients is necessary for reliable inversion results, due to large modelling uncertainties. In particular, the most robust data selection analysed in this study uses only mid-afternoon gradients if wind speeds are larger than 3 m s-1 and if the modelled wind at the upwind site is within ±15° of the transect between downwind and upwind sites. This stringent data selection removes 92 % of the hourly observations. Even though this leaves few remaining data to constrain the emissions, the inversion system diagnoses that their assimilation significantly reduces the uncertainty in monthly emissions: by 9 % in November 2010 to 50 % in October 2010. The inverted monthly mean emissions correlate well with independent monthly mean air temperature. Furthermore, the inverted annual mean emission is consistent with the independent revision of the AIRPARIF inventory for the year 2010, which better corresponds to the measurement period than the 2008

  10. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  11. Ruby Emission in the Range 400-800 nm with Excitation by Continuous-Wave CO2 Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, V. M.; Kiselev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal emission spectra of ruby single crystals in the range 400-800 nm were studied experimentally as functions of the intensity at 10.6 μm of exciting pulses ( 0.5 s) from a continuous-wave electrical-discharge CO2 laser. Spectra at excitation intensity 1-20 kW/cm2 were superpositions of the thermal emission continuum of the sapphire crystal lattice in the range 600-800 nm and selective emission spectra of Cr3+ that were observed for the first time for ruby and consisted of R-lines at 695 nm; N-lines at 715 nm; 2 T 1, 4 T 2 → 4 A 2 transition bands at 672 and 643 nm; and 4 T 1, 2 T 2 → 4 A 2 transition bands at 530 and 490 nm that were not observed in the luminescence spectrum. Time dependences of the shapes of selective emission spectra, quenching and shifts of the R 1 line, and the temperature dependence of ruby luminescence spectra were investigated.

  12. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and... fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy and CO2...

  13. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  14. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  15. Extending the Cumulative Emissions Framework to Non-CO2 Gases: Can This Inform the Allocation of National Emissions Allowances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that global temperature responds approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions, allowing a finite carbon emissions budget to be defined and associated with a given global temperature target. However, it is less obvious how to incorporate into this framework the other greenhouse gases and aerosol emissions, owing largely to their widely varying atmospheric lifetimes and consequent climate effect. In this presentation, I will propose a new way to compare the climate effect of a range of greenhouse gases and aerosols. I will first assess the lifetime of the temperature response to different types of emissions, which depends on the atmospheric lifetime of the gas in question, as well as the timescale of the climate system response to forcing. I will then use this timescale of temperature decay to weight emissions of a given gas over time, generating an estimate of the effective cumulative emissions that produce a given amount of temperature change at a particular time. Finally, I will illustrate the application of this method to the question of quantifying historical national contributions to global warming and determine future emission allowances for a given climate target.

  16. Contribution of different land-cover types to CO2 emissions from streams and rivers, in South-Western Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somlai, Celia; Schaefer, Ralf B.; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings indicate that freshwater ecosystems are significant sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases. While most quantitative estimates of CO2 emissions were obtained for lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, only few studies considered smaller streams and headwater systems. Here, we present estimates of the CO2 emissions from the 16 * 106 km long stream network in South-Western Germany (22272 km2) including streams of Strahler order 1-7. We calculated equilibrium dissolved inorganic carbon speciation and partial pressure of dissolved CO2from governmental water quality monitoring data (pH, temperature and alkalinity) available for 37 years. CO2 partial pressure estimated for 1780 sampled stream segments were linearly extrapolated along the entire stream network consisting of 7890 segments. The mean partial pressure of dissolved CO2 was 2286 ppm with a high spatial variation (SD 2735 ppm). Moreover, the gas exchange velocity for each stream segment was estimated using flow velocity and slope. Our calculations based on dissolved CO2 concentration, gas exchange velocity and water surface area yield a total emission rate of 86 Gg C per year with mean 1240 mg C m-2 d-1arealflux. Stream segments with a Strahler order between 1 and 4 contributed to 48% of the total emissions, highlighting the importance of smaller streams and headwater systems for regional-scale carbon fluxes. Finally, we investigated the contribution of land-cover types to CO2 emissions. Our study area was divided into 6 different land-cover types, forested, cultivated, grassland, urbanized, vineyard and tree nursery. Areal normalized emissions of urbanized, vineyard, tree nursery, grassland, forested and cultivated were 17, 16, 12, 9, 8, 7 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively. The results of our study show clearly, that small streams play a non-negligible role in the carbon emissions from freshwaters. In addition, land cover further impacts the carbon emissions, e.g. urbanized areas showed the highest flux rates.

  17. Can satellite-based monitoring techniques be used to quantify volcanic CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Carn, Simon A.; Kuze, Akihiko; Kataoka, Fumie; Shiomi, Kei; Goto, Naoki; Popp, Christoph; Ajiro, Masataka; Suto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Toru; Kanekon, Sayaka; Sealing, Christine; Flower, Verity

    2014-05-01

    Since 2010, we investigate and improve possible methods to regularly target volcanic centers from space in order to detect volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) point source anomalies, using the Japanese Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Our long-term goals are: (a) better spatial and temporal coverage of volcano monitoring techniques; (b) improvement of the currently highly uncertain global CO2 emission inventory for volcanoes, and (c) use of volcanic CO2 emissions for high altitude, strong point source emission and dispersion studies in atmospheric science. The difficulties posed by strong relief, orogenic clouds, and aerosols are minimized by a small field of view, enhanced spectral resolving power, by employing repeat target mode observation strategies, and by comparison to continuous ground based sensor network validation data. GOSAT is a single-instrument Earth observing greenhouse gas mission aboard JAXA's IBUKI satellite in sun-synchronous polar orbit. GOSAT's Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been producing total column XCO2 data since January 2009, at a repeat cycle of 3 days, offering great opportunities for temporal monitoring of point sources. GOSAT's 10 km field of view can spatially integrate entire volcanic edifices within one 'shot' in precise target mode. While it doesn't have any spatial scanning or mapping capability, it does have strong spectral resolving power and agile pointing capability to focus on several targets of interest per orbit. Sufficient uncertainty reduction is achieved through comprehensive in-flight vicarious calibration, in close collaboration between NASA and JAXA. Challenges with the on-board pointing mirror system have been compensated for employing custom observation planning strategies, including repeat sacrificial upstream reference points to control pointing mirror motion, empirical individualized target offset compensation, observation pattern simulations to minimize view angle azimuth. Since summer 2010

  18. Risk assessment of excessive CO2 emission on diatom heavy metal consumption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjiao; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xuguang

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms are the dominant group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, accounting for approximately 40% of oceanic primary productivity and critical foundation of coastal food web. Rising dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 in seawater may directly/indirectly cause ocean acidification and desalination. However, little is known about dietary diatom-associated changes, especially for diatom heavy metal consumption sensitivity to these processes, which is important for seafood safety and nutrition assessment. Here we show some links between ocean acidification/desalination and heavy metal consumption by Thalassiosira weissflogii. Excitingly, under desalination stress, the relationships between Cu, Zn, and Cd were all positively correlated, especially between Cu and Zn (r=0.989, total intracellular concentration) and between Zn and Cd (r=0.962, single-cell intracellular concentration). Heavy metal consumption activity in decreasing order was acidificationCO2 emission-driven acidification and desalination, which was important for risk assessment of climate change on diatom heavy metal consumption, food web and then seafood safety in future oceans.

  19. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  20. CO2 emissions associated with electric vehicle charging: The impact of electricity generation mix, charging infrastructure availability and vehicle type

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John; O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Wood, Eric; Shapiro, Evan

    2016-06-01

    The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.

  1. Modeling the response of forest isoprene emissions to future increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and changes in climate (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, R. K.; Heald, C. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Wilkinson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from plants to the atmosphere are sensitive to changes in temperature, light and atmospheric CO2 concentration in both the short- (seconds-to-minutes) and long-term (hours-to-months). We now understand that the different time constants for these responses are due to controls by different sets of biochemical and physiological processes n leaves. Progress has been made in the past few years toward converting this process-level understanding into quantitative models. In this talk, we consider this progress with special emphasis on the short- and long-term responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. A new biochemically-based model is presented for describing the CO2 responses, and the model is deployed in a global context to predict interactions between the influences of temperature and CO2 on the global isoprene emission rate. The model is based on the theory of enzyme-substrate kinetics, particularly with regard to those reactions that produce puruvate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the two chloroplastic substrates for isoprene biosynthesis. In the global model, when we accounted for CO2 inhibition of isoprene emission in the long-term response, we observed little impact on present-day global isoprene emission (increase from 508 to 523 Tg C yr-1). However, the large increases in future isoprene emissions predicted from past models which are due to a projected warmer climate, were entirely offset by including the CO2 effects. The isoprene emission response to CO2 was dominated by the long-term growth environment effect, with modulations of 10% or less from the short-term effect. We use this analysis as a framework for grounding future global models of isoprene emission in biochemical and physiological observations.

  2. CO2-C emissions associated to soil tillage, liming and gypsum applications in sugarcane areas under green and burned harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, E. B.; Panosso, A. R.; La Scala, N., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Debate regarding the potential of bioenergy crops to substitute fossil fuel in an efficient way is still opened. New management strategies from agricultural crops should be identified to increase their potential contributing to avoid the climate changes. This study quantified the impact of sugarcane harvest systems and other management practices on CO2-C fluxes following crop replanting. Two agricultural systems were considered: burned and green harvest, in plots where residues were left or removed from soil surface, from no till and after conventional tillage, with or without dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications. Soil CO2 emission, moisture and soil temperature were taken since 24 hours after tillage, totalizing 25 days after tillage with 18 measuring days. NT plots emissions were kept lower than others during the whole period studied, presenting in some cases fluctuations which were mostly related to changes in soil moisture associated to the occurrence of rain precipitations. Changes in CO2-C emission, in each of the harvest systems can be clearly seen when tillage, dolomite or gypsum were applied. The removal of sugarcane residues from soil surface resulted in almost immediate reduction of soil moisture (6% in volume) following an increase in soil NT CO2 emission of + 64%. The additional soil carbon emission due to the simple operation of removing the crop residues from soil surface was 252.4 kg CO2-C ha-1, as higher as the soil CO2 losses induced by tillage operation. Dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications did not always result in higher emissions, especially when applied at the presence of crop residues on soil surface. Reducing tillage frequency in green harvested sugarcane areas could reduce CO2 emissions and probably increasing the soil carbon stock considering long-term period crop system, while maintaining the sugarcane crop residues on soil surface has shown to be also a GHG mitigation option.

  3. Climatic changes: what if the global increase of CO(2) emissions cannot be kept under control?

    PubMed

    Castro, L A Barreto de

    2010-03-01

    Climatic changes threaten the planet. Most articles related to the subject present estimates of the disasters expected to occur, but few have proposed ways to deal with the impending menaces. One such threat is the global warming caused by the continuous increase in CO2 emissions leading to rising ocean levels due to the increasing temperatures of the polar regions. This threat is assumed to eventually cause the death of hundreds of millions of people. We propose to desalinize ocean water as a means to reduce the rise of ocean levels and to use this water for populations that need good quality potable water, precisely in the poorest regions of the planet. Technology is available in many countries to provide desalinated water at a justifiable cost considering the lives threatened both in coastal and desertified areas.

  4. Relationships between CH4 emission, biomass, and CO2 exchange in a subtropical grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Happell, James D.; Bartlett, David S.

    1991-01-01

    Methane flux was linearly correlated with plant biomass (r = 0.97, n = 6 and r = 0.95, n = 8) at two locations in a Florida Everglades Cladium marsh. One location, which had burned 4 months previously, exhibited a greater increase in methane flux as a function of biomass relative to sites at an unburned location. However, methane flux data from both sites fit a single regression (r = 0.94, n = 14) when plotted against net CO2 exchange suggesting that either methanogenesis in Everglades marl sediments is fueled by root exudation below ground, or that factors which enhance photosynthetic production and plant growth are also correlated with methane production and flux in this oligotrophic environment. The data presented are the first to show a direct relationship between spatial variability in plant biomass, net ecosystem production, and methane emission in a natural wetland.

  5. High CO2 emissions through porous media: Transport mechanisms and implications for flux measurement and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Sorey, M.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Rogie, J.D.; Shuster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Diffuse emissions of CO2 are known to be large around some volcanoes and hydrothermal areas. Accumulation-chamber measurements of CO2 flux are increasingly used to estimate the total magmatic or metamorphic CO2 released from such areas. To assess the performance of accumulation chamber systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude higher than normally encountered in soil respiration studies, a test system was constructed in the laboratory where known fluxes could be maintained through dry sand. Steady-state gas concentration profiles and fractionation effects observed in the 30-cm sand column nearly match those predicted by the Stefan-Maxwell equations, indicating that the test system was functioning successfully as a uniform porous medium. Eight groups of investigators tested their accumulation chamber equipment, all configured with continuous infrared gas analyzers (IRGA), in this system. Over a flux range of ~ 200-12,000 g m-2 day-1, 90% of their 203 flux measurements were 0-25% lower than the imposed flux with a mean difference of - 12.5%. Although this difference would seem to be within the range of acceptability for many geologic investigations, some potential sources for larger errors were discovered. A steady-state pressure gradient of -20 Pa/m was measured in the sand column at a flux of 11,200 g m-2 day-1. The derived permeability (50 darcies) was used in the dusty-gas model (DGM) of transport to quantify various diffusive and viscous flux components. These calculations were used to demonstrate that accumulation chambers, in addition to reducing the underlying diffusive gradient, severely disrupt the steady-state pressure gradient. The resultant diversion of the net gas flow is probably responsible for the systematically low flux measurements. It was also shown that the fractionating effects of a viscous CO2 efflux against a diffusive influx of air will have a major impact on some important geochemical indicators, such as N2/Ar, ??15N-N2, and 4He/22

  6. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  7. Origin of the patchy emission pattern at the ZERT CO2 Release Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Pan, L.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-10-15

    A numerical experiment was carried out to test whether the patchy CO{sub 2} emission patterns observed at the ZERT release facility are caused by the presence of packers that divide the horizontal injection well into six CO2-injection zones. A three-dimensional model of the horizontal well and cobble-soil system was developed and simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7CA were carried out. Simulation results show patchy emissions for the seven-packer (six-injection-zone) configuration of the field test. Numerical experiments were then conducted for the cases of 24 packers (23 injection zones) and an effectively infinite number of packers. The time to surface breakthrough and the number of patches increased as the number of packers increased suggesting that packers and associated along pipe flow are the origin of the patchy emissions. In addition, it was observed that early breakthrough occurs at locations where the horizontal well pipe is shallow and installed mostly in soil rather than the deeper cobble. In the cases where the pipe is installed at shallow depths and directly in the soil, higher pipe gas saturations occur than where the pipe is installed slightly deeper in the cobble. It is believed this is an effect mostly relevant to the model rather than the field system and arises through the influence of capillarity, permeability, and pipe elevation of the soil compared to the cobble adjacent to the pipe.

  8. Forest Fires in Mediterranean Countries: CO2 Emissions and Mitigation Possibilities Through Prescribed Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilén, Terhi; Fernandes, Paulo M.

    2011-09-01

    Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification by prescribed burning reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published data to calculate the average annual wildfire CO2 emissions in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain following the IPCC guidelines. The effect of prescribed burning on emissions was calculated for four scenarios of prescribed burning effectiveness based on data from Portugal. Results show that prescribed burning could have a considerable effect on the carbon balance of the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector in Mediterranean countries. However, uncertainty in emission estimates remains large, and more accurate data is needed, especially regarding fuel load and fuel consumption in different vegetation types and fuel layers and the total area protected from wildfire per unit area treated by prescribed burning, i.e. the leverage of prescribed burning.

  9. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  10. A Vulnerability-Benefit Analysis of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delman, E. M.; Stephenson, S. R.; Davis, S. J.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although we can anticipate continued improvements in our understanding of future climate impacts, the central challenge of climate change is not scientific, but rather political and economic. In particular, international climate negotiations center on how to share the burden of uncertain mitigation and adaptation costs. We expose the relative economic interests of different countries by assessing and comparing their vulnerability to climate impacts and the economic benefits they derive from the fossil fuel-based energy system. Vulnerability refers to the propensity of humans and their assets to suffer when impacted by hazards, and we draw upon the results from a number of prior studies that have quantified vulnerability using multivariate indices. As a proxy for benefit, we average CO2 related to each country's extraction of fossil fuels, production of CO2 emissions, and consumption of goods and services (Davis et al., 2011), which should reflect benefits accrued in proportion to national economic dependence on fossil fuels. We define a nondimensional vulnerability-benefit ratio for each nation and find a large range across countries. In general, we confirm that developed and emerging economies such as the U.S., Western Europe, and China rely heavily on fossil fuels and have substantial resources to respond to the impacts of climate change, while smaller, less-developed economies such as Sierra Leone and Vanuatu benefit little from current CO2 emissions and are much more vulnerable to adverse climate impacts. In addition, we identify some countries with a high vulnerability and benefit, such as Iraq and Nigeria; conversely, some nations exhibit both a low vulnerability and benefit, such as New Zealand. In most cases, the ratios reflect the nature of energy-climate policies in each country, although certain nations - such as the United Kingdom and France - assume a level of responsibility incongruous with their ratio and commit to mitigation policy despite

  11. CO2 emission from soils impacted by erosion and deposition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, Miroslav; Kodesova, Radka; Klement, Ales

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to describe an impact of erosion and deposition processes on soil properties and consequently on a microbial activity and CO2 emission. Study was performed on morphologically diverse study site in loess region of Southern Moravia, Czech Republic. The original soil type is Haplic Chernozem, which was due to erosion changed into Regosol (steep parts) and Colluvial soil (base slope and the tributary valley). The grab soil samples were taken from topsoil at 5 positions of the selected elevation transect and also from the parent material (loess). The basic soil properties were measured in the laboratory: bulk density, pH_KCl, pH_H2O, oxidizable organic carbon content, CaCO3 content and salinity. CFU (Colony-forming units) were analyzed to describe microbial activity. The net CO2 exchange rate soil (NCER) was measured in the laboratory on the undisturbed soil samples using LCi-SD portable photosynthesis system with Soil Respiration Chamber. In general, the microbial activity and CO2 emission increased with increasing organic matter content. The largest values were measured on topsoil at the upper part of the transect, which was only slightly impacted by erosion. The lowest values were obtained on topsoil at the steepest and heavily eroded parts of the transect and on the parent material. Results showed close correlation between the microbial activity (CFU) and all soil properties and less close correlation between the maximum value of NCER and soil properties. The positive correlation was found between CFU and the oxidizable carbon content R2=0.92 or salinity R2=0.81. The negative correlation was found between CFU and pH_KCl (R2=0.94), pH_H2O (R2=0.90), CaCO3 (R2=0.78) or bulk density (R2=0.81). The positive correlation was found between NCER and the oxidizable carbon content R2=0.63 or salinity R2=0.43. The negative correlation was found between NCER and pH_KCl (R2=0.66), pH_H2O (R2=0.55), CaCO3 (R2=0.45) or bulk density (R2=0.77). Finally the

  12. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.210-12... by one of two methods. The first is based on vehicle-specific model-type 5-cycle data as determined... method, the derived 5-cycle method, determines fuel economy and CO2 emissions values from the FTP...

  13. Measurement of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO emissions from coal-based thermal power plants in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Mukherjee, I.; Santra, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Chakraborty, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mitra, A. P.; Sharma, C.

    Measurements of CO 2 (direct GHG) and CO, SO 2, NO (indirect GHGs) were conducted on-line at some of the coal-based thermal power plants in India. The objective of the study was three-fold: to quantify the measured emissions in terms of emission coefficient per kg of coal and per kWh of electricity, to calculate the total possible emission from Indian thermal power plants, and subsequently to compare them with some previous studies. Instrument IMR 2800P Flue Gas Analyzer was used on-line to measure the emission rates of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO at 11 numbers of generating units of different ratings. Certain quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) techniques were also adopted to gather the data so as to avoid any ambiguity in subsequent data interpretation. For the betterment of data interpretation, the requisite statistical parameters (standard deviation and arithmetic mean) for the measured emissions have been also calculated. The emission coefficients determined for CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO have been compared with their corresponding values as obtained in the studies conducted by other groups. The total emissions of CO 2, CO, SO 2, and NO calculated on the basis of the emission coefficients for the year 2003-2004 have been found to be 465.667, 1.583, 4.058, and 1.129 Tg, respectively.

  14. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  15. CO(2) and N(2)O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Thomazini, A; Mendonça, E S; Teixeira, D B; Almeida, I C C; La Scala, N; Canellas, L P; Spokas, K A; Milori, D M B P; Turbay, C V G; Fernandes, R B A; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-07-15

    Studies of C cycle alterations are extremely important to identify changes due to climate change, especially in the polar ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine patterns of soil CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, and (ii) evaluate the quantity and quality of soil organic matter across a glacier retreat chronosequence in the Maritime Antarctica. Field measurements were carried out during January and February 2010 (summer season) along a retreating zone of the White Eagle Glacier, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10cm) were collected along a 500-m transect at regular intervals to determine changes in soil organic matter. Field CO2-C emission measurements and soil temperature were carried out at regular intervals. In addition, greenhouse gas production potentials were assessed through 100days laboratory incubations. Soils exposed for a longer time tended to have greater concentrations of soluble salts and possess sandier textures. Total organic C (3.59gkg(-1)), total N (2.31gkg(-1)) and labile C (1.83gkg(-1)) tended to be lower near the glacier front compared with sites away from it, which is correlated with decreasing degree of humification of the soil organic matter with exposure time. Soil CO2-C emissions tended to increase with distance from the glacier front. On average, the presence of vegetation increased CO2-C emissions by 440%, or the equivalent of 0.633g of CO2-C m(-2)h(-1). Results suggest that newly exposed landsurfaces undergo soil formation with increasing labile C input from vegetation, accompanied by increasing soil CO2-C emissions. Despite the importance of exposure time on CO2-C production and emissions, there was no similar trend in soil N2O-N production potentials as a function of glacial retreat. For N2O, instead, the maximum production occurred in sites with the first stages of vegetation growth.

  16. [Impact of Phosphogypsum Wastes on the Wheat Growth and CO2 Emissions and Evaluation of Economic-environmental Benefit].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Shang, Xiao-xia; Zheng, Pei-hui; Yin, Jin; Kakpa, Didier; Ren, Qian-qi; Faustin, Ogou Katchele; Chen, Su-yun; Xu, Ya; Yao, Tong-yan; Ji, Wei; Qian, Jing-shan; Ma, Shi-jie

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum is a phosphorus chemical waste which has not been managed and reused well, resultantly, causing environmental pollution and land-occupation. Phosphogypsum wastes were used as a soil amendment to assess the effect on wheat growth, yield and CO2 emissions from winter wheat fields. Its economic and environmental benefits were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that wheat yield was increased by 37.71% in the treatment of phosphogypsum of 2 100 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control treatment, throughout the wheat growing season, CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 3% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 1050 kg x hm(-2), while reduced by 8% , 10% , and 6% during the jointing stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively; while CO2 emission was accumulatively reduced by 7% in the treatment of phosphogypsum waste of 2 100 kg x hm(-2) throughout the wheat growing season, as reduced by 11% , 4% , and 12% during the reviving wintering stage, heading date and filling period of wheat, respectively. It was better for CO2 emission reduction in the treatment of a larger amount of phosphogypsum waste. In the case of application of phosphogypsum waste residue within a certain range, the emission intensity of CO2 ( CO2 emissions of per unit of fresh weight or CO2 emissions of per unit of yield) , spike length, fresh weight and yield showed a significantly negative correlation--the longer the ear length, the greater fresh weight and yield and the lower the CO2 emissions intensity. As to the carbon trading, phosphogypsum utilization was of high economic and environmental benefits. Compared with the control, the ratio of input to output changed from 1: 8.3 to 1: 10.7, which in the same situation of investment the output could be increased by 28.92% ; phosphogypsum as a greenhouse gas reducing agent in the wheat field, it could decrease the cost and increase the environmental benefit totally about 290 yuan per unit of ton. The

  17. Soil trace gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) offset the CO2 uptake in poplar short rotation coppice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gelfand, Iya; Gielen, Bert; camino serrano, Marta; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The need for renewable energy sources will lead to a considerable expansion in the planting of dedicated fast-growing biomass crops across Europe. Among them poplar (Populus spp) is the most widely planted as short rotation coppice (SRC) and an increase in the surface area of large-scale SRC poplar plantations might thus be expected. In this study we report the greenhouse gas fluxes (GHG) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) measured using the eddy covariance technique in a SRC plantation for bioenergy production during the period 2010-2013. The plantation was established in April 2010 on 18.4 ha of former agricultural land with a density of 8000 plants ha-1; the above-ground biomass was harvested on February 2012 and 2014.The whole GHG balance of the four years of the study was 1.90 (± 1.37) Mg CO2eq ha-1; this indicated that soil trace gas emissions offset the CO2 uptake by the plantation. CH4 and N2O almost equally contributed to offset the CO2 uptake of -5.28 (±0.67) Mg CO2eq ha-1 with an overall emission of 3.56 (± 0.35) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of N2O and of 3.53 (± 0.85) Mg CO2eq ha-1 of CH4. N2O emissions mostly occurred during a single peak a few months after the site was converted into SRC and represented 44% of the entire N2O loss during the entire study. Accurately capturing these emission events proved to be critical for correct estimates of the GHG balance. The self-organizing map (SOM) technique graphically showed the relationship between the CO2 fluxes and the principal environmental variables but failed to explain the variability of the soil trace gas emissions. The nitrogen content in the soil and the water table depth were the two drivers that best explained the variability in N2O and CH4 respectively. This study underlines the importance of the "non-CO2 GHG" on the overall balance as well as the impact of the harvest on the CO2 uptake rate. Further long-term investigations of soil trace gas emissions should also monitor the N

  18. Reducing U.S. residential energy use and CO2 emissions: how much, how soon, and at what cost?

    PubMed

    Lima Azevedo, Inês; Morgan, M Granger; Palmer, Karen; Lave, Lester B

    2013-03-19

    There is growing interest in reducing energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide from the residential sector by deploying cost-effectiveness energy efficiency measures. However, there is still large uncertainty about the magnitude of the reductions that could be achieved by pursuing different energy efficiency measures across the nation. Using detailed estimates of the current inventory and performance of major appliances in U.S. homes, we model the cost, energy, and CO2 emissions reduction if they were replaced with alternatives that consume less energy or emit less CO2. We explore trade-offs between reducing CO2, reducing primary or final energy, or electricity consumption. We explore switching between electricity and direct fuel use, and among fuels. The trade-offs between different energy efficiency policy goals, as well as the environmental metrics used, are important but have been largely unexplored by previous energy modelers and policy-makers. We find that overnight replacement of the full stock of major residential appliances sets an upper bound of just over 710 × 10(6) tonnes/year of CO2 or a 56% reduction from baseline residential emissions. However, a policy designed instead to minimize primary energy consumption instead of CO2 emissions will achieve a 48% reduction in annual carbon dioxide emissions from the nine largest energy consuming residential end-uses. Thus, we explore the uncertainty regarding the main assumptions and different policy goals in a detailed sensitivity analysis.

  19. Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Park, Hyoseon

    2012-07-30

    Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO(2) emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO(2) emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO(2) emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO(2) emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO(2) emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative.

  20. Use of Chia Plant to Monitor Urban Fossil Fuel CO2 Emission: An Example From Irvine, CA in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Stills, A.; Trumbore, S.; Randerson, J. T.; Yi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Δ14CO2 is a unique tracer for quantifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, monitoring 14CO2 change and distribution in an urban environment is challenging because of its large spatial and temporal variations. We have tested the potential use of a chia plant (Salvia hispanica) as an alternative way to collect a time-integrated CO2 sample for radiocarbon analysis. The results show that Δ14C of the new growth of chia sprouts and chia leaves are consistent with the Δ14C of air samples collected during the growing period, indicating the new growth has no inherited C from seeds and thus records atmospheric 14CO2. Time-integrated air samples and chia leaf samples significantly reduced the noises of Δ14CO2 in an urban environment. We report here an example of monitoring 14CO2 change in Irvine, CA from Mar 2010 to Mar 2011 utilizing such a method. The results showed a clear seasonal cycle with high (close to remote air background level) Δ14C in summer and low Δ14C in winter months in this urban area. Excess (above remote air background) fossil fuel CO2 was calculated to be closed to 0 ppm in June to about 16 ppm from November 2010 to February 2011. Monthly mean Δ14CO2 was anti-correlated with monthly mean CO mixing ratio, indicating Δ14CO2 is mainly controlled by fossil fuel CO2 mixing with clean on-shore marine air. In summary, this study has shown encouraging result that chia plant can be potentially used as a convenient and inexpensive sampling method for time-integrated atmospheric 14CO2. Combined with other annual plants this provides the opportunity to map out time-integrated fossil fuel-derived CO2 in major cities at low cost. This in turn can be used to: 1) establish a baseline for fossil fuel emissions reductions in cities in the future; 2) provide invaluable information for validating emission models.

  1. Variabilities in CO2 and CO over an urban site in India: Inter-correlations and emissions characteristics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, N. C.; Lal, S.; Sethuraman, V.; Patra, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    CO2, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere, plays a pivotal role in climate change. The long term increase in its atmospheric abundance after the Industrial Revolution is attributed to the emissions from anthropogenic activities, especially fossil fuel combustion. CO is a product of inefficient combustion and can be used as a surrogate tracer for identifying the anthropogenic and biospheric signal of CO2 from the atmospheric observation. India is the second largest populous country in the world and share significant contribution in the emissions of greenhouse gases mainly CO2. The budget of CO2, estimated from top-down and bottom-up approaches, shows large uncertainties over the South Asian region than other continents. One of the major sources of these large uncertainties is the lack of spatial and temporal observations. An attempt has been made using a year-long period to study the variability of the levels of CO2 and CO at an urban site Ahmedabad (23.03oN, 72.58oE, 55m AMSL), in the western India using a highly sensitive cavity ring down spectroscopy technique. The diurnal cycles of CO2 and CO show distinct features to each other due to their diverse sources and sinks. Two significant peaks during the morning and evening hours have been observed in the diurnal cycle of CO2 while in the case of CO evening peak is significantly higher than the morning peak. The afternoon levels of CO2 are observed lower during monsoon, which shows the significant uptake of CO2 from the biosphere during this season. The diurnal amplitude of CO2 is found largest around 41 ppmv in autumn and lowest around 12 ppmv in monsoon. The seasonal cycles calculated from the afternoon average monthly CO2 show the minimum levels during monsoon and maximum during spring. In case of CO minimum levels are observed in monsoon while maximum are observed in winter. The seasonal amplitude is observed around 15.02 ppmv and 0.27 ppmv for CO2 and CO respectively. Further, the co

  2. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea. PMID:26020941

  3. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Q; Melillo, J M; McGuire, A D; Kicklighter, D W; Prinn, R G; Steudler, P A; Felzer, B S; Hu, S

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are approximately 3 Tg CH4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr).

  4. Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Prinn, R.G.; Steudler, P.A.; Felzer, B.S.; Hu, S.

    2007-01-01

    We used a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to study the net methane (CH4) fluxes between Alaskan ecosystems and the atmosphere. We estimated that the current net emissions of CH4 (emissions minus consumption) from Alaskan soils are ???3 Tg CH 4/yr. Wet tundra ecosystems are responsible for 75% of the region's net emissions, while dry tundra and upland boreal forests are responsible for 50% and 45% of total consumption over the region, respectively. In response to climate change over the 21st century, our simulations indicated that CH 4 emissions from wet soils would be enhanced more than consumption by dry soils of tundra and boreal forests. As a consequence, we projected that net CH4 emissions will almost double by the end of the century in response to high-latitude warming and associated climate changes. When we placed these CH4 emissions in the context of the projected carbon budget (carbon dioxide [CO2] and CH4) for Alaska at the end of the 21st century, we estimated that Alaska will be a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere of 69 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr, that is, a balance between net methane emissions of 131 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr and carbon sequestration of 17 Tg C/yr (62 Tg CO2 equivalents/yr). ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Maize and prairie root contributions to soil CO2 emissions in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: A major hurdle in closing carbon budgets is partitioning soil-surface CO2 fluxes by source. This study aims to estimate CO2 resulting from root growth (RG) in the field. Methods: We used periodic 48-hour shading over two seasons to estimate and compare RG-derived CO2 in one annu...

  6. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emission during the following winter-wheat season].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Hu, Zheng-Hu; Wu, Yang-Zhou; Sun, Yin-Yin; Sheng, Lu; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao

    2014-07-01

    In order to study the effect of conservation tillage on soil CO2 and N2O emissions in the following crop-growing season, field experiments were conducted in the winter wheat-growing season. Four treatments were conventional tillage (T), no-tillage with no straw cover (NT), no-tillage with straw cover (NTS), and conventional tillage with straw incorporation (TS), respectively. The CO2 and N2O fluxes were measured using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that in the following winter wheat-growing season, conservation tillage did not change the seasonal pattern of CO2 and N2O emission fluxes from soil, and had no significant effect on crop biomass. Conservation tillage significantly reduced the accumulative amount of CO2 and N2O. Compared with the T treatment, the accumulative amount of CO2 under TS, NT, and NTS treatments were reduced by 5.95% (P = 0.132), 12.94% (P = 0.007), and 13.91% (P = 0.004), respectively, and the accumulative amount of N2O were significantly reduced by 31.23% (P = 0.000), 61.29% (P = 0.000), and 33.08% (P = 0.000), respectively. Our findings suggest that conservation tillage significantly reduced CO2 and N2O emission from soil in the following winter wheat-growing season.

  7. Long- and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Calvo, D.; Padrón, E.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Barrancos, J.; Rodríguez, F.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    Lanzarote Island is an emergent part of the East Canary Ridge and it is situated approximately 100 km from the NW coast of Morocco, covering an area of about 795km2. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands, Timanfaya, took place during 1730-36 in this island when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego. The last eruption at Lanzarote Island occurred during 1824, Tinguaton volcano, and produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast. At present, one of the most prominent phenomena at Timanfaya volcanic field is the high maintained superficial temperatures occurring in the area since the 1730 volcanic eruption. The maximum temperatures recorded in this zone are 605°C, taken in a slightly inclined well 13 m deep. Since fumarolic activity is absent at the surface environment of Lanzarote, to study the diffuse CO2 emission becomes an ideal geochemical tool for monitoring its volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were conducted throughout Timanfaya volcanic field and surrounding areas during the summer periods of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, fall period of 2010 and winter, spring and summer periods of 2011 to investigate long and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were undertaken at Timanfaya volcanic field always under stable weather conditions to minimize effects of meteorological conditions on the CO2 at the soil atmosphere. Approximately 370-430 sampling sites were selected at the surface environment of Timanfaya to obtain an even distribution of the sampling points over the study area. The accumulation chamber method (Parkinson et al., 1981) was used to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements in-situ by means of a portable non dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 analyzer, which was interfaced to a hand size computer that runs data acquisition software. At each sampling site, soil temperature at 15 and 40cm depth was also measured by

  8. Removing traffic emissions from CO2 time series measured at a tall tower using mobile measurements and transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andres; Rella, Chris W.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Law, Beverly E.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with high precision and accuracy have become increasingly important for climate change research, in particular to inform terrestrial biosphere models. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning have long been recognized to contribute a significant portion of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here, we present an approach to remove the traffic related carbon dioxide emissions from mole fractions measured at a tall tower by using the corresponding carbon monoxide measurements in combination with footprint analyses and transport modeling. This technique improves the suitability of the CO2 data to be used in inverse modeling approaches of atmosphere-biosphere exchange that do not account for non-biotic portions of CO2. In our study region in Oregon, road traffic emissions are the biggest source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. A three-day mobile campaign covering 1700 km of roads in northwestern Oregon was performed during summer of 2012 using a laser-based Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer. The mobile measurements incorporated different roads including main highways, urban streets, and back-roads, largely within the typical footprint of a tall CO/CO2 observation tower in Oregon's Willamette Valley. For the first time, traffic related CO:CO2 emission ratios were measured directly at the sources during an on-road campaign under a variety of different driving conditions. An average emission ratio of 7.43 (±1.80) ppb CO per ppm CO2 was obtained for the study region and applied to separate the traffic related portion of CO2 from the mole fraction time series. The road traffic related portion of the CO2 mole fractions measured at the tower site reached maximum values ranging from 9.8 to 12 ppm, depending on the height above the surface, during summer 2012.

  9. China's CO and CO2 emissions estimated from the bottom up: Recent trends, uncertainties, and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    China's emissions of anthropogenic CO and CO2 from 2005 to 2010 are estimated using a bottom-up emission inventory framework based on a detailed categorization of economic sectors and provincial economic and energy data. It includes a newly compiled database of emission factors employing the latest field study results from China. The CO emission factors for major sectors declined to varying degrees for the past years, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. The national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a greater role in the less developed western provinces. Total CO2 emissions are estimated to have risen from 7126 to 10152 Tg from 2005 to 2010. Recent policies to conserve energy and reduce emissions have been effective in limiting CO2 emissions from power and iron & steel plants, but have had little effect on those from cement production. The uncertainties of China's CO and CO2 emissions are quantified for the first time using Monte Carlo simulation, producing the 95% confidence intervals of -20% to +45% and -9% to +11% for emissions in 2005, respectively. Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. Emission factors are identified as the most important parameters contributing to the uncertainties of CO emissions for all the sectors, while the largest contributors to uncertainties of CO2 are emission factors for most industrial sources and activity levels for power plants, transportation, and residential sources. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes, as shown in Table

  10. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rissmann, C.; Christenson, B.; Werner, C.; Leybourne, M.; Cole, J.; Gravley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow have been determined from the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand following 20a of production (116MW e). Soil CO2 degassing was quantified with 2663 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method, and 2563 soil temperatures were measured and converted to equivalent heat flow (Wm -2) using published soil temperature heat flow functions. Both CO2 flux and heat flow were analysed statistically and then modelled using 500 sequential Gaussian simulations. Forty subsoil CO 2 gas samples were also analysed for stable C isotopes. Following 20a of production, current CO2 emissions equated to 111??6.7T/d. Observed heat flow was 70??6.4MW, compared with a pre-production value of 122MW. This 52MW reduction in surface heat flow is due to production-induced drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows (61.5MW) and steam-heated pools (8.6MW) within the Ohaaki West thermal area (OHW). The drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows at Ohaaki means that the soil zone is now the major natural pathway of heat release from the high-temperature reservoir. On the other hand, a net gain in thermal ground heat flow of 18MW (from 25MW to 43.3??5MW) at OHW is associated with permeability increases resulting from surface unit fracturing by production-induced ground subsidence. The Ohaaki East (OHE) thermal area showed no change in distribution of shallow and deep soil temperature contours despite 20a of production, with an observed heat flow of 26.7??3MW and a CO 2 emission rate of 39??3T/d. The negligible change in the thermal status of the OHE thermal area is attributed to the low permeability of the reservoir beneath this area, which has limited production (mass extraction) and sheltered the area from the pressure decline within the main reservoir. Chemistry suggests that although alkali-Cl outflows once contributed significantly to the natural surface heat flow (~50%) they contributed little (<1%) to pre-production CO 2

  11. A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates: improved spatial accuracy and applications for regional planning.

    PubMed

    Gately, Conor K; Hutyra, Lucy R; Wing, Ian Sue; Brondfield, Max N

    2013-03-05

    On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories use spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state-level data. Such procedures introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual emissions are weakly correlated, and limit analysis of the relationship between emissions and demographic trends at local scales. We develop an on-road emission inventory product for Massachusetts-based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS). We provide annual estimates of on-road CO2 emissions at a 1 × 1 km grid scale for the years 1980 through 2008. We compared our results with on-road emissions estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), with the Vulcan Product, and with estimates derived from state fuel consumption statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Our model differs from FHWA estimates by less than 8.5% on average, and is within 5% of Vulcan estimates. We found that EDGAR estimates systematically exceed FHWA by an average of 22.8%. Panel regression analysis of per-mile CO2 emissions on population density at the town scale shows a statistically significant correlation that varies systematically in sign and magnitude as population density increases. Population density has a positive correlation with per-mile CO2 emissions for densities below 2000 persons km(-2), above which increasing density correlates negatively with per-mile emissions.

  12. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respectively. The 2008 emissions estimated for China in this study falls within the range of other international estimates, and suggests that the EIA methodology can be adopted to estimate China's emissions if the proper adjustments are made. While these results are helpful in understanding China's annual emissions, several key areas of data challenges affect the accuracy of this estimate. Industrial process-based emissions - an important source of emissions given China's industry-intensive economy and size of its cement sector - have not been included in this calculation and could be the focus of further model refinement. The accuracy of the Chinese emissions estimate can be further improved by addressing two unreported international bunker categories and developing China-specific carbon sequestration coefficients for non-fuel use energy products.

  13. Design of non-dispersion Infrared detector's data processor on measurement of automobile emission CO and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohua; Zhang, Yujun; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yibing; He, Chungui; Gao, Yanwei; You, Kun; He, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    For the technical requirements of automobile emission CO and CO2 detector's data processor, the scheme is based on the detection principle of NDIR method and the implementation of the data processor software as well as hardware is discussed. High-speed, high-precision DSP is selected as the core of the detector's data acquisition and processing, while four-channel thermoelectricity sensor TPS4339 as infrared detector, digital-analog data acquisition circuit of NDIR is designed and simulated. Then Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is adopted for signal processing. Automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration can be accurately obtained by appropriately adjusting sampling period and the light source modulation frequencies, the system SNR is improved and the detection limit is reduced. The experimental results show that the detector's data processor has 3% accuracy and stability which can meet the measurement and analysis of automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration.

  14. Acoustic emission monitoring of hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiment with supercritical and liquid CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Niwa, Tomoya; Chen, Youqing; Murata, Sumihiko; Chen, Qu; Nakayama, Yoshiki

    2012-08-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is often used for enhanced oil recovery in depleted petroleum reservoirs, and its behavior in rock is also of interest in CO2 capture and storage projects. CO2 usually becomes supercritical (SC-CO2) at depths greater than 1,000 m, while it is liquid (L-CO2) at low temperatures. The viscosity of L-CO2 is one order lower than that of normal liquid water, and that of SC-CO2 is much lower still. To clarify fracture behavior induced with injection of the low viscosity fluids, we conducted hydraulic fracturing experiments using 17 cm cubic granite blocks. The AE sources with the SC- and L-CO2 injections tend to distribute in a larger area than those with water injection, and furthermore, SC-CO2 tended to generate cracks extending more three dimensionally rather than along a flat plane than L-CO2. It was also found that the breakdown pressures for SC- and L-CO2 injections are expected to be considerably lower than for water.

  15. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

  16. U.S. regional greenhouse gas emissions analysis comparing highly resolved vehicle miles traveled and CO2 emissions: mitigation implications and their effect on atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas and projections of fossil fuel energy demand show CO2 concentrations increasing indefinitely into the future. After electricity production, the transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Over 80% of the transport sector is composed of onroad emissions, with the remainder shared by the nonroad, aircraft, railroad, and commercial marine vessel transportation. In order to construct effective mitigation policy for the onroad transportation sector and more accurately predict CO2 emissions for use in transport models and atmospheric measurements, analysis must incorporate the three components that determine the CO2 onroad transport emissions: vehicle fleet composition, average speed of travel, and emissions regulation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. National-level projections of VMT growth is not sufficient to highlight regional differences in CO2 emissions growth due to the heterogeneity of vehicle fleet and each state’s road network which determines the speed of travel of vehicles. We examine how an analysis based on direct CO2 emissions and an analysis based on VMT differ in terms of their emissions and mitigation implications highlighting potential biases introduced by the VMT-based approach. This analysis is performed at the US state level and results are disaggregated by road and vehicle classification. We utilize the results of the Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory which quantified emissions for the year 2002 across all economic sectors in the US at high resolution. We perform this comparison by fuel type,12 road types, and 12 vehicle types

  17. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  18. CO2 emission of coal spontaneous combustion and its relation with coal microstructure, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Chen Chen; Huang, Tao; Gao, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Coal spontaneous combustion is widely distributed all over the world. CO2 is the main greenhouse gas emitted by coal spontaneous combustion. In the present study characters of CO2 emitted by 10 typical Chinese coal spontaneous combustion and the influence of raw coal functional group on CO2 was studied. CO2 already exists under normal temperature as coal exposed in atmosphere. Under low temperature, the quality of CO2 released by coal spontaneous combustion is relatively small, but tends to increase. And corresponding with it, the oxygen consumption amount is also small. At medium temperature, the oxygen consumption increases rapidly and CO2 mass release rate begins to increase rapidly. Then, CO2 release rate increase rapidly under relatively high temperature (higher than 673 K). Over 873K, concentration of O2 is 6% and release rate of CO2 tends to be steady. It also concluded that mass ratio of CO to CO2 (CO/CO2) during coal spontaneous combustion was lowerthan 0.10 at low temperature. And then, it increased rapidly at medium temperature and reached to top at about 673 K. At 673-873 K, the ratio decreased again, and did not decrease evidently at about 873K. At temperature higher than 873K, the ratio was about 0.13. During the whole testing temperature range, CO/CO2 was not be higher than 0.26, lower than 0.2. This means that release rate of CO2 was much higher than CO during the whole process of coal spontaneous combustion. Moreover, the gas release quantity of CO2 is positively related with carbony content in raw coal. Carbonyl and carboxyl were both material basis of CO2.

  19. Uncertainty in projected climate change caused by methodological discrepancy in estimating CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilcaille, Yann; Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Mohr, Steve; Andres, Robert J.; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    There are different methodologies to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The term "methodology" refers to the way subtypes of fossil fuels are aggregated and their implied emissions factors. This study investigates how the choice of a methodology impacts historical and future CO2 emissions, and ensuing climate change projections. First, we use fossil fuel extraction data from the Geologic Resources Supply-Demand model of Mohr et al. (2015). We compare four different methodologies to transform amounts of fossil fuel extracted into CO2 emissions based on the methodologies used by Mohr et al. (2015), CDIAC, EDGARv4.3, and IPCC 1996. We thus obtain 4 emissions pathways, for the historical period 1750-2012, that we compare to the emissions timeseries from EDGARv4.3 (1970-2012) and CDIACv2015 (1751-2011). Using the 3 scenarios by Mohr et al. (2015) for projections till 2300 under the assumption of an Early (Low emission), Best Guess or Late (High emission) extraction peaking, we obtain 12 different pathways of CO2 emissions over 1750-2300. Second, we extend these CO2-only pathways to all co-emitted and climatically active species. Co-emission ratios for CH4, CO, BC, OC, SO2, VOC, N2O, NH3, NOx are calculated on the basis of the EDGAR v4.3 dataset, and are then used to produce complementary pathways of non-CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion only. Finally, the 12 emissions scenarios are integrated using the compact Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, in order to quantify the impact of the selected driver onto climate change projections. We find historical cumulative fossil fuel CO2 emissions from 1750 to 2012 ranging from 365 GtC to 392 GtC depending upon the methodology used to convert fossil fuel into CO2 emissions. We notice a drastic increase of the impact of the methodology in the projections. For the High emission scenario with Late fuel extraction peaking, cumulated CO2 emissions from 1700 to 2100 range from 1505 GtC to 1685 GtC; this corresponds

  20. [Spatial temporal differentiation of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions and balance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: an economic input- output analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the open economic region is the basis for differentiating the emission responsibility, which is attracting increasing attention of decision-makers'attention. The spatial and temporal characteristics of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, as well as carbon balance, in 1997, 2002 and 2007 of JING- JIN-JI region were analyzed by the Economic Input-Output-Life Cycle Assessment model. The results revealed that both the product- based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the region have been increased by about 4% annually. The percentage of CO2 emissions embodied in trade was 30% -83% , to which the domestic trading added the most. The territorial and consumption-based CO2 emissions in Hebei province were the predominant emission in JING-JIN-JI region, and the increasing speed and emission intensity were stronger than those of Beijing and Tianjin. JING-JIN-JI region was a net inflow region of CO2 emissions, and parts of the emission responsibility were transferred. Beijing and Tianjin were the net importers of CO2 emissions, and Hebei was a net outflow area of CO2 emissions. The key CO2 emission departments in the region were concentrated, and the similarity was great. The inter-regional mechanisms could be set up for joint prevention and control work. - Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water and smelting and pressing of metals had the highest reliability on CO2 emissions, and took on the responsibility of other departments. The EIO-LCA model could be used to analyze the product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, which is helpful for the delicate management of regional CO2 emissions reduction and policies making, and stimulating the reduction cooperation at regional scale.

  1. GOSAT-OCO-2 synergetic CO2 observations over calibration & validation sites and large emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Kataoka, F.; Crisp, D.; Schwandner, F. M.; Bruegge, C. J.; Taylor, T.; Kawakami, S.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT and OCO-2 have different observation strategies. TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT has wide spectral coverage from SWIR to TIR and an agile pointing system at the expense of spatial context, while OCO-2 targets CO2with higher spatial resolution using imaging grating spectrometers. Since the early phase of the two projects, both teams have worked in calibration and validation to demonstrate the effectiveness of satellite greenhouse gases observation. In 2008, the pre-launch cross-calibration agreement between GOSAT and OCO radiometers was better than 2% when measuring the traceable GOSAT calibration sphere (Sakuma et. al, 2010). Since GOSAT's launch in 2009, annual joint vicarious calibration campaigns at the Railroad Valley (RRV) playa have estimated radiometric degradation factors with time at an uncertainty of 7%. (Kuze et al., 2014). After OCO-2 launch, two independent measurements can now be compared to distinguish common forward calculation errors such as molecule absorption line parameters, solar lines and light-path modification by aerosol scattering from instrument-specific errors. On 25 Mach 2015, both GOSAT and OCO-2 targeted RRV simultaneously. The measured radiance spectra at the top of the atmosphere agree within 5% for all common bands. On June 29 and July 1 during the 7th RRV campaign, coincidence observation of GOSAT, OCO-2, AJAX airplane, radiosonde, and FTS and radiometers on the ground, provided surface albedo, BRDF, temperature, humidity CO2 and CH4 density to demonstrate consistency between forward radiative transfer calculation and satellite measured data. Both GOSAT and OCO-2 have been regularly targeting the TCCON site at Lamont and large emission sources such as mega cities and oil fields and glint over the ocean. Retrieved parameters such as surface albedo, pressure, column averaged mole fraction and aerosol related parameters can be compared firstly where aerosol optical thickness is low and topography is flat, and then over aerosol

  2. CO2 and N2O emissions from Lou soils of greenhouse tomato fields under aerated irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Huijing; Chen, Hui; Cai, Huanjie; Yang, Fan; Li, Dan; Wang, Fangtong

    2016-05-01

    The change of O2 content in soil caused by aerated irrigation (AI) must inevitably affect the production and emissions of CO2 and N2O from soils. This paper described in-situ observation of CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils with static chamber-GC technique, in order to reveal the effects of AI on CO2 and N2O emissions from soils of greenhouse tomato fields in autumn-winter season. CO2 and N2O emissions from AI soils mainly concentrated in the blooming and fruit setting period compared to other periods. AI increased cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O by 11.8% (p = 0.394) and 10.0% (p = 0.480), respectively, compared to the control. The integrative global warming potential of CO2 and N2O on a 100-year horizon for the AI treatment was 6430.60 kg ha-1, increased by 11.7% compared with that for the control (p = 0.356). Both the emissions of CO2 and N2O from AI soils had the exponential positive correlation with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS). The highest peak of CO2 and N2O fluxes from AI soils was observed at 46.7% and 47.5% WFPS, with WFPS ranging from 43.3% to 51.5% and from 45.6% to 52.3% during the whole growth stage, respectively. In addition, the average yield for the AI treatment (34.52 t ha-1) was significantly greater (17.4%) compared with that of the control (p = 0.018). These results suggest that AI do not significantly increase the integrative greenhouse effect caused by CO2 and N2O from soils of greenhouse tomato fields, but significantly increase the tomato yield. The research results provide certain theoretical foundation and scientific basis for accurately evaluating the farmland ecological effect of AI technique.

  3. Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Carl P; Gauci, Vincent; Watson, Jonathan S; Blake, Stephen; Beerling, David J

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands were the largest source of atmospheric methane (CH(4) ) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the sensitivity of this source to exceptionally low atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2) ]) at the time has not been examined experimentally. We tested the hypothesis that LGM atmospheric [CO(2) ] reduced CH(4) emissions as a consequence of decreased photosynthate allocation to the rhizosphere. We exposed minerotrophic fen and ombrotrophic bog peatland mesocosms to simulated LGM (c. 200 ppm) or ambient (c. 400 ppm) [CO(2) ] over 21 months (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH(4) flux, pore water dissolved CH(4) and volatile fatty acid (VFA; an indicator of plant carbon supply to the rhizosphere) concentrations. Cumulative CH(4) flux from fen mesocosms was suppressed by 29% (P < 0.05) and rhizosphere pore water [CH(4) ] by c. 50% (P < 0.01) in the LGM [CO(2) ], variables that remained unaffected in bog mesocosms. VFA analysis indicated that changes in plant root exudates were not the driving mechanism behind these results. Our data suggest that the LGM [CO(2) ] suppression of wetland CH(4) emissions is contingent on trophic status. The heterogeneous response may be attributable to differences in species assemblage that influence the dominant CH(4) production pathway, rhizosphere supplemented photosynthesis and CH(4) oxidation.

  4. Experimental study on CO and CO2 emissions from spontaneous heating of coals at varying temperatures and O2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from spontaneous heating of three U.S. coal samples in an isothermal oven at temperatures between 50 and 110 °C. The oxygen (O2) concentration of an oxygen/nitrogen (N2) mixture flowing through the coal sample was 3, 5, 10, 15, and 21%, respectively. The temperature at the center of the coal sample was continuously monitored, while the CO, CO2, and O2 concentrations of the exit gas were continuously measured. The results indicate that the CO and CO2 concentrations and the CO/CO2 ratio increased when the initial temperature was increased. As the inlet O2 concentration increased, the CO and CO2 concentrations increased, while the CO/CO2 ratios tended to converge to the same value. The ratio of CO/CO2 was found to be independent of coal properties, approaching a constant value of 0.2. The maximum CO production rate correlated well with the maximum coal temperature rise. The apparent order of reaction for coal oxidation was estimated to be between 0.52 and 0.72. The experimental results in this study could be used for early detection and evaluation of a spontaneous heating in underground coal mines.

  5. High-resolution atmospheric inversion of urban CO2 emissions during the dormant season of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Deng, Aijun; Richardson, Scott J.; Cambaliza, Maria O.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Gaudet, Brian; Gurney, Kevin R.; Huang, Jianhua; O'Keefe, Darragh; Song, Yang; Karion, Anna; Oda, Tomohiro; Patarasuk, Risa; Razlivanov, Igor; Sarmiento, Daniel; Shepson, Paul; Sweeney, Colm; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Wu, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Based on a uniquely dense network of surface towers measuring continuously the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), we developed the first comprehensive monitoring systems of CO2 emissions at high resolution over the city of Indianapolis. The urban inversion evaluated over the 2012-2013 dormant season showed a statistically significant increase of about 20% (from 4.5 to 5.7 MtC ± 0.23 MtC) compared to the Hestia CO2 emission estimate, a state-of-the-art building-level emission product. Spatial structures in prior emission errors, mostly undetermined, appeared to affect the spatial pattern in the inverse solution and the total carbon budget over the entire area by up to 15%, while the inverse solution remains fairly insensitive to the CO2 boundary inflow and to the different prior emissions (i.e., ODIAC). Preceding the surface emission optimization, we improved the atmospheric simulations using a meteorological data assimilation system also informing our Bayesian inversion system through updated observations error variances. Finally, we estimated the uncertainties associated with undetermined parameters using an ensemble of inversions. The total CO2 emissions based on the ensemble mean and quartiles (5.26-5.91 MtC) were statistically different compared to the prior total emissions (4.1 to 4.5 MtC). Considering the relatively small sensitivity to the different parameters, we conclude that atmospheric inversions are potentially able to constrain the carbon budget of the city, assuming sufficient data to measure the inflow of GHG over the city, but additional information on prior emission error structures are required to determine the spatial structures of urban emissions at high resolution.

  6. Black Carbon, CO2, CO, CH4, and C2-C4 Hydrocarbon Emissions from Agricultural Residue Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. P.; Lincoln, E.; Richardson, M.

    2013-12-01

    The burning of agricultural crop residue represents a significant source of trace gas emissions and particulate matter on a regional and global scale. This study measured black carbon, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2 - C4 hydrocarbon emissions from the burning of agricultural grass residues. The Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducted two agricultural burning experiments at ARS in Greenbelt, MD. The principal objectives were to measure spectral properties of the soil after burning, and to sample and quantify emissions. Smoke samples were collected in canisters and were analyzed by GC/FID. Emissions of black carbon were measured with an aethelometer during the burns. The first burn experiment was in May 2012. Three 10 x 10 m plots of broadcast straw with typical fuel loadings of 2, 3, and 4 T/ha were burned and sampled. The second burn experiment was in September 2012, conducted on four identical 30 x 30 m plots of grass residue, with a fuel loading of 4 T/ha. The emission factors of BC (black carbon), and GHG emissions CO2 and CH4 will be reported for both fire experiments along with other major carbon emissions. Average emission factors for the May fires were 1650 g/kg CO2 and 6.5 g/kg CH4. The September fires were of higher combustion efficiency with emission factors of 1750 g/kg for CO2 and 1.0 g/kg of CH4. BC emissions were highly positively correlated with CO concentration for all of the plots.

  7. Tracing changes of N2O emission pathways in a permanent grassland under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenflo, Andre; Moser, Gerald; Brenzinger, Kristof; Elias, Dafydd; McNamara, Neill; Clough, Tim; Maček, Irena; Vodnik, Dominik; Braker, Gesche; Schimmelpfennig, Sonja; Gerstner, Judith; Müller, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere is of concern due to its effect on global temperatures. Nitrous oxide (N2O) with a Global Warming Potential of 298 over a 100 year period is of particular concern because strong feedback effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on N2O emissions have been observed. However, so far the changes in processes which are responsible for such a feedback effect are only poorly understood. Our study was carried out in situ in a long-term Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) study on permanent grassland at atmospheric CO2 concentrations 20% above ambient which expected at the middle of this century. We performed an in situ 15N tracing with differentially labelled NH4NO3 to trace the main N2O emission pathways. Over a period of more than one year we monitored at least weakly the N2O emissions with the closed chamber technique and analyzed the 15N signature of the N2O. The observed gaseous emissions under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 were associated with the observed gross N transformations and the microbial activities to identify the main emission pathways under ambient and elevated CO2.

  8. Dynamics and controls of CO2 and CH4 emissions in the wetland of a montane permafrost region, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Guo, Yuedong; Hu, Haiqing; Sun, Chengkun; Zhao, Xikuan; Wei, Changlei

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the fluxes and examine the controls on greenhouse gas emissions from the permafrost marshes where the fate of the large quantity of soil organic carbon remains poorly understood, we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions in the northern region of the Great Xing'an Mountains, northeast China, in the thawing seasons of 2011 and 2012. The mean CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the marshes were estimated at 403.47 and 0.14 mg m-2 h-1 on average during the two years. Soil temperature was determined as the primary control on the seasonal greenhouse gas emissions during the growing period. The Q10 values, calculated from the exponential regression between soil temperature and CO2 emissions, suggest that the sensitivity of CO2 flux to climate warming has a high spatially variability in the study area. Absorption of atmospheric CH4 was seasonally detected at the sites with lower water table, which confirms the potential of the natural marshes as CH4 sink when water table goes down due to climate change. When viewed from the ecosystem scale, the mean annual water table level and aboveground primary production were deemed as the dominant influencing factors for the mean annual fluxes, which suggests that there were different controls on the gas emissions at different spatial scales. Therefore, the primary controls of the CO2 and CH4 emissions at different spatial scales need to be surveyed in more detail when focusing on the future alteration of greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost marshes due to climate warming.

  9. Tracing the link between plant volatile organic compound emissions and CO2 fluxes and by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation exerts a large influence on the atmosphere through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the emission and uptake of the greenhouse gas CO2. Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. Moreover, vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange is associated with a large isotopic imprint due to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and 13C-fractionation during respiratory CO2 release1. The latter has been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate the linkage between VOC emissions, CO2 fluxes and associated isotope effects based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS). We utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding experiments in the mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs versus CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. These observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high carbon flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and

  10. In which sectors could new illumination technology strategically reduce CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-07-01

    Illumination is responsible for the consumption of 19% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. Efforts to reduce the consumption of this energy fraction are, therefore, increasingly taking the attention of many governments. Denmark, as one of the leader countries in environmental actions, is engaged in several actions to reduce its CO2 emissions. The problem severity demands a capacity to react quickly and efficiently to better reach the international goals. Traditionally, the efforts have concentrated on the residential sector. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on where the effort shall be strategically directed. We look at the international tendencies with specific focus on Europe and chose Denmark as a representative example to illustrate the way in which the policies focus on the residential sector instead of the commercial and services sectors. This paper conclude that the available statistics so far show that in Europe the commercial and service sector is responsible for the highest electricity consumption due to illumination. The same pattern repeats in Denmark. Therefore, this paper argues that in order to achieve even more optimal solutions, a more detailed differentiation of data shall be pursued by the electricity companies. It is suggested that detecting the right sector will give possibilities to better target actions with higher impact potential.

  11. Is CO2 emission a side effect of financial development? An empirical analysis for China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yu; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Liao, Hua; Wei, Yi-Ming; Wang, Shuo

    2016-10-01

    Based on panel data for 29 Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2012, this paper explores the relationship between financial development and environmental quality in China. A comprehensive framework is utilized to estimate both the direct and indirect effects of financial development on CO2 emissions in China using a carefully designed two-stage regression model. The first-difference and orthogonal-deviation Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) methods are used to control for potential endogeneity and introduce dynamics. To ensure the robustness of the estimations, two indicators measuring financial development-financial depth and financial efficiency-are used. The empirical results indicate that the direct effects of financial depth and financial efficiency on environmental quality are positive and negative, respectively. The indirect effects of both indicators are U shaped and dominate the shape of the total effects. These findings suggest that the influences of the financial development on environment depend on the level of economic development. At the early stage of economic growth, financial development is environmentally friendly. When the economy is highly developed, a higher level of financial development is harmful to the environmental quality.

  12. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled “Mardi Gras: Made in China” provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. It’s workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer — all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of China’s fast rise to the world’s top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  13. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants.

    PubMed

    Akbari, H

    2002-01-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air-conditioning demand and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits vary by climate region and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree-planting programs can be designed to have lower costs so that they offer potential savings to communities that plant trees. Our calculations suggest that urban trees play a major role in sequestering CO2 and thereby delay global warming. We estimate that a tree planted in Los Angeles avoids the combustion of 18 kg of carbon annually, even though it sequesters only 4.5-11 kg (as it would if growing in a forest). In this sense, one shade tree in Los Angeles is equivalent to three to five forest trees. In a recent analysis for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City, we estimated that planting an average of four shade trees per house (each with a top view cross section of 50 m2) would lead to an annual reduction in carbon emissions from power plants of 16,000, 41,000, and 9000 t, respectively (the per-tree reduction in carbon emissions is about 10-11 kg per year). These reductions only account for the direct reduction in the net cooling- and heating-energy use of buildings. Once the impact of the community cooling is included, these savings are increased by at least 25%.

  14. Daytime CO2 urban surface fluxes from airborne measurements, eddy-covariance observations and emissions inventory in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Font, A; Grimmond, C S B; Kotthaus, S; Morguí, J-A; Stockdale, C; O'Connor, E; Priestman, M; Barratt, B

    2015-01-01

    Airborne measurements within the urban mixing layer (360 m) over Greater London are used to quantify CO(2) emissions at the meso-scale. Daytime CO(2) fluxes, calculated by the Integrative Mass Boundary Layer (IMBL) method, ranged from 46 to 104 μmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1) for four days in October 2011. The day-to-day variability of IMBL fluxes is at the same order of magnitude as for surface eddy-covariance fluxes observed in central London. Compared to fluxes derived from emissions inventory, the IMBL method gives both lower (by 37%) and higher (by 19%) estimates. The sources of uncertainty of applying the IMBL method in urban areas are discussed and guidance for future studies is given.

  15. Network design for quantifying urban CO2 emissions: assessing trade-offs between precision and network density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Alexander J.; Shusterman, Alexis A.; McDonald, Brian C.; Teige, Virginia; Harley, Robert A.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2016-11-01

    The majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas. While the emissions from urban electricity generation often occur in locations remote from consumption, many of the other emissions occur within the city limits. Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for controlling these emissions depends on our ability to observe urban CO2 emissions and attribute them to specific activities. Cost-effective strategies for doing so have yet to be described. Here we characterize the ability of a prototype measurement network, modeled after the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) in California's Bay Area, in combination with an inverse model based on the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) to improve our understanding of urban emissions. The pseudo-measurement network includes 34 sites at roughly 2 km spacing covering an area of roughly 400 km2. The model uses an hourly 1 × 1 km2 emission inventory and 1 × 1 km2 meteorological calculations. We perform an ensemble of Bayesian atmospheric inversions to sample the combined effects of uncertainties of the pseudo-measurements and the model. We vary the estimates of the combined uncertainty of the pseudo-observations and model over a range of 20 to 0.005 ppm and vary the number of sites from 1 to 34. We use these inversions to develop statistical models that estimate the efficacy of the combined model-observing system in reducing uncertainty in CO2 emissions. We examine uncertainty in estimated CO2 fluxes on the urban scale, as well as for sources embedded within the city such as a line source (e.g., a highway) or a point source (e.g., emissions from the stacks of small industrial facilities). Using our inversion framework, we find that a dense network with moderate precision is the preferred setup for estimating area, line, and point sources from a combined uncertainty and cost perspective. The dense network considered here

  16. Quantifying Diurnal and Seasonal Variation in On-road CO2 Emissions Across the Northeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.

    2014-12-01

    On-road emissions comprised 29% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions in 2012, with 64% of those emissions occurring in urban areas. Understanding the social, economic and technological factors that influence urban emissions requires the development of emissions inventories that are resolved at fine spatial and temporal scales. As city governments are increasingly at the forefront of developing policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, high-resolution, bottom-up inventories will support local and regional emissions benchmarking, as well as the monitoring, reporting, and verification of trends in emissions across time and space. To that end, we combine a large regional dataset of hourly traffic counts with the 1km gridded estimates of on-road CO2 emissions from the Database of Road Transportation Emissions (DARTE) to develop hourly CO2 emissions estimates for the year 2012 that cover 12 northeastern states. The inventory scope covers several large metropolitan regions as well as many small- and medium-sized urban, suburban and exurban population centers, altogether representing 20% of urban and 17% of total U.S. on-road CO2 emissions in 2012. We identify significant variation in the time structure of vehicle emissions across the urban-suburban gradients of the Boston, New York, and Washington, D.C. metropolitan areas. In particular we note considerable spatial variation between morning and evening peak periods, both within and between cities, as well as variations in the duration of peak periods, depending on time of year and spatial location. We also examine the relationship between the temporal and spatial structure of morning and evening peak period emissions and the spatial distribution of population and employment density across urban to rural gradients. Finally we utilize data on minute-by-minute vehicle speeds to quantify the effect of traffic congestion on vehicle CO2 emission rates across the Boston metro area, and we highlight the

  17. The effects of worms, clay and biochar on CO2 emissions during production and soil application of co-composts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthod, Justine; Rumpel, Cornélia; Paradelo, Remigio; Dignac, Marie-France

    2016-12-01

    In this study we evaluated CO2 emissions during composting of green wastes with clay and/or biochar in the presence and absence of worms (species of the genus Eisenia), as well as the effect of those amendments on carbon mineralization after application to soil. We added two different doses of clay, biochar or their mixture to pre-composted green wastes and monitored carbon mineralization over 21 days in the absence or presence of worms. The resulting co-composts and vermicomposts were then added to a loamy Cambisol and the CO2 emissions were monitored over 30 days in a laboratory incubation. Our results indicated that the addition of clay or clay/biochar mixture reduced carbon mineralization during co-composting without worms by up to 44 %. In the presence of worms, CO2 emissions during composting increased for all treatments except for the low clay dose. The effect of the amendments on carbon mineralization after addition to soil was small in the short term. Overall, composts increased OM mineralization, whereas vermicomposts had no effect. The presence of biochar reduced OM mineralization in soil with respect to compost and vermicompost without additives, whereas clay reduced mineralization only in the composts. Our study indicates a significant role of the conditions of composting on mineralization in soil. Therefore, the production of a low CO2 emission amendment requires optimization of feedstocks, co-composting agents and worm species.

  18. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  19. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  20. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  1. 40 CFR Table N-1 to Subpart N of... - CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CO2 Emission Factors for Carbonate-Based Raw Materials N Table N-1 to Subpart N of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production...

  2. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions on the building/street scale for a large U.S. city.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Kevin R; Razlivanov, Igor; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul-Massih, Michel

    2012-11-06

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system, and contribute to quantitatively based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the "Hestia Project", this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO(2) emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO(2) emissions across the city of Indianapolis, IN. This effort combines a series of data sets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting, and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon-monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare the natural gas component of our fossil fuel CO(2) emissions estimate to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias-adjusted Pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p < 0.001).

  3. CO2 and N2O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polar regions represents a large carbon (C) sequestration reservoir in the world. Studies of alterations in C cycle are extremely important to identify changes due to climate change, especially among polar environments. The objectives of this study were to examine (i) patterns of soil CO2-C emission...

  4. Australian net (1950s-1990) soil organic carbon erosion: implications for CO2 emission and land-atmosphere modelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The debate remains unresolved about soil erosion substantially offsetting fossil fuel emissions and acting as an important source or sink of CO2. There is little historical land use and management context to this debate, which is central to Australia's recent past of European settlement, agricultura...

  5. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  6. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  7. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum...

  8. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Data Sources for Parameters Used for CO2 Emissions F Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Pt. 98, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F of Part 98—Default Data Sources for...

  9. Effects of species composition, land surface cover, CO2 concentration and climate on isoprene emissions from European forests.

    PubMed

    Arneth, A; Schurgers, G; Hickler, T; Miller, P A

    2008-01-01

    Emissions of isoprene from terrestrial vegetation are known to affect atmospheric chemical properties, like its oxidation capacity or the concentration of tropospheric ozone. The latter is of concern, since besides being a potent greenhouse gas, O(3) is toxic for humans, animals, and plants even at relatively low concentrations. Isoprene-emitting forests in the vicinity of NO(x) pollution sources (like cities) can contribute considerably to O(3) formation, and to the peak concentrations observed during hot summer weather. The biogenic contribution to O(3) concentrations is generally thought to increase in a future, warmer climate--pushing values beyond health thresholds possibly even more frequently and over larger areas--given that emissions of isoprene are highly temperature-dependent but also because of the CO(2) fertilisation of forest productivity and leaf growth. Most projections of future emissions, however, do not include the possible CO(2)-inhibition of leaf isoprene metabolism. We explore the regional distribution of emissions from European woody vegetation, using a mechanistic isoprene-dynamic vegetation model framework. We investigate the interactive effects of climate and CO(2) concentration on forest productivity, species composition, and isoprene emissions for the periods 1981-2000 and 2081-2100. Our projection of future emissions includes a direct CO(2)-isoprene inhibition. Across the model domain, we show that this direct effect has the potential to offset the stimulation of emissions that could be expected from warmer temperatures and from the increased productivity and leaf area of emitting vegetation. Changes in forest species composition that may result from climate change can play a substantial additional role in a region's future emissions. Changes in forest area or area planted in woody biofuels in general are not noticeable in the overall European forest isoprene budget, but--as was the case for changes in species composition

  10. Toward quantification and source sector identification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from an urban area: Results from the INFLUX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Newberger, Timothy; Lehman, Scott J.; Tans, Pieter P.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Shepson, Paul B.; Gurney, Kevin; Patarasuk, Risa; Razlivanov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to develop and assess methods for quantifying urban greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use CO2, 14CO2, and CO measurements from tall towers around Indianapolis, USA, to determine urban total CO2, the fossil fuel derived CO2 component (CO2ff), and CO enhancements relative to background measurements. When a local background directly upwind of the urban area is used, the wintertime total CO2 enhancement over Indianapolis can be entirely explained by urban CO2ff emissions. Conversely, when a continental background is used, CO2ff enhancements are larger and account for only half the total CO2 enhancement, effectively representing the combined CO2ff enhancement from Indianapolis and the wider region. In summer, we find that diurnal variability in both background CO2 mole fraction and covarying vertical mixing makes it difficult to use a simple upwind-downwind difference for a reliable determination of total CO2 urban enhancement. We use characteristic CO2ff source sector CO:CO2ff emission ratios to examine the contribution of the CO2ff source sectors to total CO2ff emissions. This method is strongly sensitive to the mobile sector, which produces most CO. We show that the inventory-based emission product ("bottom up") and atmospheric observations ("top down") can be directly compared throughout the diurnal cycle using this ratio method. For Indianapolis, the top-down observations are consistent with the bottom-up Hestia data product emission sector patterns for most of the diurnal cycle but disagree during the nighttime hours. Further examination of both the top-down and bottom-up assumptions is needed to assess the exact cause of the discrepancy.

  11. A simulation study on the abatement of CO2 emissions by de-absorption with monoethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Greer, T; Bedelbayev, A; Igreja, J M; Gomes, J F; Lie, B

    2010-01-01

    Because of the adverse effect of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion on the earth's ecosystems, the most cost-effective method for CO2 capture is an important area of research. The predominant process for CO2 capture currently employed by industry is chemical absorption in amine solutions. A dynamic model for the de-absorption process was developed with monoethanolamine (MEA) solution. Henry's law was used for modelling the vapour phase equilibrium of the CO2, and fugacity ratios calculated by the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) were used for H2O, MEA, N2 and O2. Chemical reactions between CO2 and MEA were included in the model along with the enhancement factor for chemical absorption. Liquid and vapour energy balances were developed to calculate the liquid and vapour temperature, respectively.

  12. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-12 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... vehicle-specific 5-cycle city and highway fuel economy and CO2 emission values for each...

  13. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-12 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... vehicle-specific 5-cycle city and highway fuel economy and CO2 emission values for each...

  14. 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio analysis in human breath using a 2 μm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingguo; Cao, Zhensong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong; Yinbo, Huang; Ruizhong, Rao

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium H. pylori is believed to cause peptic ulcer. H. pylori infection in the human stomach can be diagnosed through a CO2 isotope ratio measure in exhaled breath. A laser spectrometer based on a distributed-feedback semiconductor diode laser at 2 μm is developed to measure the changes of 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio in exhaled breath sample with the CO2 concentration of ~4%. It is characterized by a simplified optical layout, in which a single detector and associated electronics are used to probe CO2 spectrum. A new type multi-passes cell with 12 cm long base length , 29 m optical path length in total and 280 cm3 volume is used in this work. The temperature and pressure are well controlled at 301.15 K and 6.66 kPa with fluctuation amplitude of 25 mK and 6.7 Pa, respectively. The best 13δ precision of 0.06o was achieved by using wavelet denoising and Kalman filter. The application of denoising and Kalman filter not only improved the signal to noise ratio, but also shorten the system response time.

  15. Urban scale atmospheric inversion of CO2 emissions using a high-density surface tower network over Indianapolis area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K. J.; Deng, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Mcgowan, L. E.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Sarmiento, D.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse Gas emissions from urban areas represent a significant fraction of the overall release of fossil fuel CO2 from the surface of the globe into the atmosphere. Several ongoing efforts attempt to quantify these emissions over a few major cities across the world (i.e. Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Paris, London, Salt Lake City,...) and demonstrate the concept of atmospheric monitoring of city emissions. The accuracy of the method will highly depend on the inverse modeling framework. The atmospheric transport model and the probabilities assumed in the a priori will be used to extract the information content of surface emissions at very fine scales. But incorrect assumptions in the background emissions and concentrations or systematic errors in the local dynamics can generate artificial trends and seasonal variability in the local emissions. The construction of unbiased atmospheric modeling systems and well-defined prior errors remains a critical step in atmospheric emissions monitoring over urban areas. We present here the first inverse emission estimates over Indianapolis using a high-density surface tower network of CO2 analyzers. In order to minimize transport model errors, we developed a WRF-Chem-FDDA modeling system ingesting surface and profile measurements of horizontal mean wind, temperature and moisture in addition to the original CO2 emissions and boundary conditions. The systematic improvement of the simulated atmospheric conditions thanks to the nudging system is critical to identify and retrieve source locations at high resolution over the area. We then present an ensemble of inverse fluxes generated from varying the configuration of the inverse system in order to more accurately represent the probability space, exploring the assumptions in the a priori (i.e. the prior local urban emissions and the background atmospheric concentrations). We finally discuss the detection of trends or changes in the spatial distribution of sources at decadal time

  16. Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

  17. Influence of ameliorating soil acidity with dolomite on the priming of soil C content and CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Lei; Peng, Qi-An; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Khalid, Muhammad Salman; Abid, Muhammad; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-02-21

    Lime or dolomite is commonly implemented to ameliorate soil acidity. However, the impact of dolomite on CO2 emissions from acidic soils is largely unknown. A 53-day laboratory study was carried out to investigate CO2 emissions by applying dolomite to an acidic Acrisol (rice-rapeseed rotation [RR soil]) and a Ferralsol (rice-fallow/flooded rotation [RF soil]). Dolomite was dosed at 0, 0.5, and 1.5 g 100 g(-1) soil, herein referred to as CK, L, and H, respectively. The soil pH(H2O) increased from 5.25 to 7.03 and 7.62 in L and H treatments of the RR soil and from 5.52 to 7.27 and 7.77 in L and H treatments of the RF soil, respectively. Dolomite application significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased CO2 emissions in both RR and RF soils, with higher emissions in H as compared to L dose of dolomite. The cumulative CO2 emissions with H dose of dolomite were greater 136% in the RR soil and 149% in the RF soil as compared to CK, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased and reached at 193 and 431 mg kg(-1) in the RR soil and 244 and 481 mg kg(-1) in the RF soil by H treatments. The NH4(-)-N and NO3(-)-N were also increased by dolomite application. The increase in C and N contents stimulated microbial activities and therefore higher respiration in dolomite-treated soil as compared to untreated. The results suggest that CO2 release in dolomite-treated soils was due to the priming of soil C content rather than chemical reactions.

  18. Emissions of CO2 and CH4 from sludge treatment reed beds depend on system management and sludge loading.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Dam Larsen, Julie; Ye, Siyuan; Brix, Hans

    2014-08-01

    Sludge treatment reed beds (STRB) are considered as eco-friendly and sustainable alternatives to conventional sludg